ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP BUILDING ACROSS SCALES
BUILDING ACROSS SCALES
Design excellence requires thinking across multiple scales. Whether Architect, Urban Designer, Landscape Architect, Engineer or Stakeholder, many design decisionsâ€”from the smallest scale of material such as a brick or a plant to the larger scale of the room, garden, building and surrounding open spacesâ€”combine to yield the desired effect. Issues of efficiency and environmental stewardship must similarly be addressed at multiple scales. The aggregate of public infrastructure, open space, transit, pedestrian and bike facilities can be formed most effectively at the district level to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, waste reduction and mobility. Resource efficiency in providing mobility is a long-standing principle that has proven to work on the scale of the district or city, for example in the form of light rail lines and pedestrian-oriented environments. Until recently, resource efficiency in providing heat, light and water has been addressed exclusively on the building scale, making it difficult or even impossible to meet net-zero consumption goals in many settings. District-, city-, and even regional-scale systems for water and energy can facilitate resource sharing and develop synergies in use patterns, leading to greater efficiency overall. One of the great strengths of ZGF as a firm is the breadth of experience in designing at many scales in the city. Working side-by-side with the community in collaboration with other partners imbues designers with concern for context and attention to impact far beyond a property line. This broad mode of thinking about the larger context as we address the smaller scale contributes to a richer public realm and stronger communities. As district systems are reconnected in new ways in redeveloping urban areas there are tremendous opportunities to achieve new levels of environmental performance in the built environment. The aggregate of projects on the following pages would make a contribution to any measure of sustainable development.
REGION CITY DISTRICT NEIGHBORHOOD CAMPUS BUILDING
SYSTEMS ENERGY Energy spans all scales and touches all systems. It can range from traditional carbon fuels to newer, cleaner renewable sources. District energy can leverage efficiencies of scale in production and distribution, replacing resources pulled across long distances. By combining complimentary uses, district and neighborhood systems can balance resources and help change human behaviors to lighten energy needs.
WATER Precipitation and ground water levels define a communityâ€™s water use and neighborhoods can share water across wetter and drier parts of the city. Design of buildings and open spaces can minimize impervious surfaces and create areas of increased infiltration that mimic regional pre-development conditions. Water should not be a single-use item. Potable water can be reused multiple times, treated naturally and eventually released into the watershed or used to recharge local aquifers.
MOBILITY Efficient connections within a district or across a city or region provide alternates to, and reduce the necessity of, motor vehicle travel for access to jobs, education and amenities. Choices such as transit, biking and walking enhance the urban lifestyle and mitigate the impact of energy costs and increasing commuter burdens.
MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Material use should endorse products and processes that are safe for all species through time. Materials move in a cycle. Natural landscapes can form the base of a regional material system where materials flow in a cyclical nutrient loop between nature and communities. Material demand should focus on reuse in a closed loop of salvage and recycling. A materialâ€™s production, use and disposal should be free of toxic byproducts, creating clean industries and jobs for local residents.
AIR Air, the essential system, is integrally tied to the other systems. For example, decreased energy consumption reduces negative environmental and public health impacts from air pollution, which historically have a disproportionate impact on lowincome and minority communities.
NATURAL AND URBAN ECOSYSTEMS Buildings and public open spaces should provide urban habitat and agriculture for the district and city. When coupled with other systems such as water, they can support plants, animals and microorganisms that enhance overall ecosystem health and livability.
COMMUNITY Livable communities are an outcome of integrated urban development and land use planning that address quality of life, economic development and social equity issues. District planning creates economies of scale for intrinsically-related water, energy, transit resources, links to other districts for improving material flows, air quality and urban ecosystems while yielding livable and culturally vibrant communities. 4
NATURAL AND URBAN ECOSYSTEMS
Outfall to Tualatin River
PROVIDENCE HEALTH & SERVICES, BRIDGEPORT HEALTH CENTER TUALITIN, OREGON
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT The Willamette Valley, home to Portland and the Providence Bridgeport Health Center, is known for its lush growing environment and the rain that makes that environment possible. Yet, while plants thrive in the wet winter and spring months, humans are less tolerant of the rain and urban spaces become less livable. With that in mind, a stormwater fountain, visible from the entry foyer and upper floors of the Bridgeport Health Center, was designed to celebrate the rain and the energy it creates. Consisting of a sculptural “totem,” a run-off capture system and fountain grids set in paving, the fountain uses the
pressure built up in roof drain pipes and the totem to shoot jets of water up to 40 inches into the air. The stormier the weather, the more dramatic the jets of water and the overflowing totem become. During light showers, the fountain is more subtle, bubbling gently. Patients, visitors and staff enjoy the fountain both as a parklike seating area during good weather and as a dynamic sculptural element to be watched from the comfort of the Center’s foyer during inclement weather. On special occasions, jets in the plaza are activated through the irrigation system, draining to the planted areas on site.
PORT OF PORTLAND OFFICE HEADQUARTERS AND LONG-TERM PARKING GARAGEâ€‚ PORTLAND, OREGON
LIVING MACHINE The living machine is an on-site organic wastewater treatment system utilizing an automated tidal wetland process to produce treated water from both gray and black water sources. The system treats 100% of the officeâ€™s gray and blackwater outflows and recycles treated water for toilet flushing, make up water in mechanical systems and site irrigation, reducing impact on regional sewer and treatment infrastructure. It is the first such commercial office installation on the West Coast and coupled with ultra low-flow fixtures, reduces potable water use by 79% as compared to a baseline building of the same size. The living machine is not only functional but also creates a beautiful lobby atmosphere.
This system is viable at a variety of scales and is ideally suited for districts through its contribution towards a net-zero water plan.
Lavender, Historical Glass Tiles Salvaged for Re-Use on Clocktower
Transportation / Commuting Connections Amtrak (Heavy Rail) Commuter Rail Light Rail Streetcar
Lavender, Historical Glass Tiles Salvaged for Re-Use on Clocktower
Bus Bike Pedestrian Ferry
Transportation Models Glass Canopy to Improve Daylighting
Original Structure and Materials Restored/Maintained
Transportation / Commuting Connections Amtrak (Heavy Rail) Commuter Rail Light Rail Streetcar
Bus Bike Pedestrian Ferry
Original Windows Preserved and Repaired
New Public Open Space
Operable Windows Restored Throughout
Performance-based Seismic Upgrade for 500 and 2500 year Events Original Clay Ceramic Roof Tiles Restored Providing Extended Roof Life of 75 Years Roof Insulation with R-30 Value
Original Structure and Materials Restored/Maintained
Future Canopy with Photovoltaics
Performance-based Seismic Upgrade for 500 and 2500 year Events
Wall Insulation with R-25.6 Value Photovoltaics on Restored Canopy
Original Clay Ceramic Roof Tiles Restored Providing Extended Roof Life of 75 Years Roof Insulation with R-30 Value Wall Insulation with R-25.6 Value Photovoltaics on Restored Canopy Water Harvesting for Toilet Flushing Electrical Transformers for Streetcar
Ground-source Heat Pumps for Heating and Cooling Geothermal Well Field
High-efficiency Unit Ventilators Natural Ventilation in Main Waiting Area
KING STREET STATION SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
High-efficiency Unit Ventilators
Natural Ventilation in Main Waiting Area
Bringing together diverse interests such as the City of Seattle, the Seattle Department of Transportation, local businesses and nearby developers, ZGF’s work to rehabilitate the historic King Street Station explored opportunities to incorporate district-wide sustainable design strategies, while also enhancing existing pedestrian and vehicular connections to strengthen the station’s relationship to both existing and future developments. Most notably, the station’s location at the edge of a proposed 3.85 acre mixed-use redevelopment effort offers an opportunity to share water and energy resources. As such, a rainwater harvesting system will capture runoff to be used for toilet flushing in the building
with ability to expand and share excess resources with adjacent future developments. Additionally, mechanical space is provided to accommodate electrical transformers for a planned future streetcar line adjacent to the station.
Reusing and improving function of a historic rail station, reducing its energy use by 90%.
Chilled Water Plant Burnside
TWELVE | WEST MIXED-USE BUILDINGâ€‚ PORTLAND, OREGON
DISTRICT CHILLED WATER ZGF worked with Gerding Edlen on Twelve | West to reduce its energy use by drawing cooling from the Brewery Blocks district chiller plant across Burnside. The state-of-the-art plant is of a scale that can be maintained and managed far more intensively than individual building plants. Further, the diverse load from Twelve | West and the buildings of the Brewery Blocks ensures enough constant demand to run the chillers at peak efficiency. The construction of Twelve | West was the impetus to extend the district cooling line across West Burnside Street. Now that the line exists, future development can tie in as well,
increasing the positive impact of the district system. The site was specifically chosen for the potential to extend the success of the Pearl District across Burnside into the emerging West End neighborhood. Walkable basic services and excellent transit strengthen the whole of the neighborhood and drastically reduce the environmental impact of travel to and from Twelve | West. These amenities are the direct result of Portlandâ€™s strong urban growth boundary, which engenders the required density. Finding economic and energy efficiency with shared systems.
GARDEN TO BUILDING
CENTENNIAL MILLS PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PORTLAND, OREGON
BALANCING BUILT AND NATURAL SYSTEMS ZGF collaborated with Daniels Real Estate on a competition to plan, preserve and design a contemporary waterfront community experience for one of the last significant sites on the Willamette River in downtown Portland: the historic Centennial Mills. The proposed vision is a living community that represents the culture of Portland and the resources of its eco-region. This includes closed resource loops that meet the needs of the buildings and those who inhabit them with local resources. Sustainable strategies include:
• Manage and treat all on-site and adjacent off-site storm water through a combined strategy of collection, storage for reuse and treatment through surface bioswales. • Improve outfall of Tanner Creek by restoring the river bank and cooling and cleaning water that runs through a pipe, providing ideal conditions to reduce heat load in the Willamette River. • Produce a carbon-neutral facility through passive and active strategies for building systems, energy recovery, renewable energy and offsets. • Utilize onsite resources fully including stormwater, existing buildings, salvaged materials, waste and wastewater. • Provide connections to encourage shift to pedestrian, bicycle and transit modes.
DIRECTOR PARK PORTLAND, OREGON
URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Director Park represents the first piece of the vision to connect Portland’s distinct districts by a spine of downtown parks and open spaces. It also sets the benchmark for use of quality materials, complete street design and urban watershed management.
a flow-through planter. The café is topped with an eco-roof consisting of sedums, grasses and sage plants to cleanse run-off before directing it to the storm sewer. In addition, the plaza and the streets use the natural slope of the site to direct run-off to street planters and tree wells for filtration.
At Director Park all stormwater is filtered on-site using natural vegetation to cleanse and reduce the amount of solids entering the river. This process also slows the rate at which the run-off is allowed into the city’s stormwater system. Beginning with the canopy, the low point of the structure supports a continuous stainless steel gutter perforated by a series of cables that act as rain chains directing water to
One of the recommendations of the study is to store filtered stormwater for irrigation of all three parks at O’Bryant Square. Director Park was designed to support this recommendation, should it be implemented in the future.
BUILDING TO CAMPUS
U.S. GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL CENTER SOUTH AND MASTER PLANâ€‚ SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
AN INTEGRATED CAMPUS The General Services Administration set rigorous performance goals for the campus of its new Seattle headquarters for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The master plan creates an integrated and balanced vision by embracing these performance goals along with the rich natural, cultural, historic and built legacy of the Duwamish waterway. A central plant is envisioned to supply an integrated heating and cooling loop for the historic and new buildings on campus. Rainwater will be collected from building rooftops and reused for toilet flushing, irrigation and mechanical systems. Stormwater that falls on the campus landscape will be detained and filtered by surface ponds, raingardens and bioswales and then directed to an estuary mimicking natural 12
pre-development site drainage patterns. Bike and pedestrian pathways wind through the campus providing respite in nature as well as circulation. The newest building on campus integrates active and passive systems and design to optimize performance and workplace goals and set the standard for future developments on the campus. Anticipated to be one of the most aggressively sustainable office buildings of its time, energy models predict the building will use less than 27 KBtu/sf/year, earn an Energy Star Score of 100 (putting it in the top 1% of comparable buildings) and meet the 2030 Challenge benchmarks.
NATURAL RIVER ZONE
FORMAL CAMPUS ZONE
uth E. Marginal Way
An integrated building, by its nature and definition, weaves mutually interdependent systems to achieve a net result greater than the sum of individual systems. All resourcesâ€”energy, water, air and material -are leveraged into a unified whole to achieve the highest quality, efficiency and value.
Bioswales for Stormwater Treatment
Pedestrian/Bike Paths Raingardens
Estuary Campus Energy Loop
na S e a so
Public Open Space and Pedestrian-Friendly Streetscape
PROVIDENCE PORTLAND MEDICAL CENTERâ€‚ PORTLAND, OREGON
TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR STORMWATER Design and planning for a new Cancer Care facility on the Providence Portland Medical Center Campus, initiated a transformative campus upgrade, implementing a stormwater treatment system to enable infiltration of rainwater up to a 100-year storm event, and working with residential neighbors to improve circulation and public open space. With the addition of an improved central utility plant and the energy efficiencies gained with the new Cancer Center tower, the entirety of the campus received an Energy Star rating.
McLane Trail System
Terrascope Interdisciplinary Education Center
Living Machine/Storm Water Education Center
Waste Stream and Renewable Fuels Education Center Combined Maintenance Facilities
Alternative Energy Education Center
Central Plant and Electrical Power Vault Organic Farm
Sustainable Farming Education Center
THE EVERGREEN STATE COLLEGE MASTER PLAN OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON
WHOLE SYSTEMS APPROACH The ‘whole systems’ approach to planning for the development of the 1,000-acre campus in Olympia, Washington incorporates progressive sustainable systems, technologies and planning techniques into the campus framework. A central utility plant provides steam and chilled water to the campus for heating, cooling and domestic hot water; food production, energy generation, storm water management and waste water treatment are accomplished on-site; an integrated pedestrian, bike and transit system connects the community.
‘Education Centers’ throughout campus provide outdoor laboratories and classrooms to support sustainable educational initiatives and programs. They are intended to facilitate interactive learning and student and community participation in the monitoring, measuring and study of the natural environment and its processes.
CAMPUS TO NEIGHBORHOOD
SAN DIEGO CIVIC CENTER COMPLEX SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA
ENHANCING LIVABILITY ZGF worked with Gerding Edlen to develop a plan for the San Diego Civic Center that would replace an aging complex with a new civic destination that is sustainable—both environmentally and fiscally—and that creates a new pedestrian-oriented heart for downtown San Diego. The vision for the four-block site includes a new city hall building and adjacent council chambers, sustainable office and residential towers, a fire station, a theater and a variety of pedestrianoriented public gathering spaces.
With particular focus on light, water and air, the design includes open spaces that optimize access to southern exposure, increasing the number of hours where plazas and open spaces will have access to light and warmth—thereby considerably expanding the range of time in the year when those outdoor spaces are comfortable. Buildings are oriented for optimum solar orientation where possible, enhancing daylight conditions with minimal architectural intervention. These considerations also create a united and socially active urban environment.
District wiDe systems Comprehensive government center to improve civic life and resolve efficiency. PHOTOVOLTAICS + SHADING NATURAL VENTILATION
SOLAR THERMAL HOT WATER OCEAN WIND
A CHILLED BEAMS
ANGLED VERTICAL FINS WEST FACADE SHADING DAYLIGHTING
C B RADIANT HEATING
An integrated set of district systems would allow thermal energy to be shared between the various uses of the development. To further curb energy consumption, the plan calls for utilization of thermal storage, hydronic heating and cooling, solar thermal panels to supply domestic hot water, lighting sensors that operate electric lighting and solar shading, natural ventilation in select buildings and recaptured wastewater for reuse within the development and surrounding sites.
NEIGHBORHOOD TO DISTRICT
CITY OF BEAVERTON STRATEGIC CIVIC PLANâ€‚ BEAVERTON, OREGON
ADJUSTING THE FRAMEWORK The City of Beaverton was one of the first Portland communities to be completely surrounded by suburban development. Continued upstream development has contributed to increased flooding along creeks in the downtown. State highway facilities congest traffic in downtown Beaverton as people move between Portland and developing areas on the edge of the region. As auto dealerships and other auto-oriented uses have moved out of the downtown to more favorable locations, Beaverton has committed itself to building a new environment for improved downtown residential and business opportunities.
As urban design consultants, ZGF worked collaboratively with planners, scientists, traffic engineers, multimedia specialists and economists to fashion a transportation and open space framework to induce sustainable downtown redevelopment. Through a transparent engagement process, the design team identified desired outcomes and strategies to integrate new governance ideas with new physical improvements. The unifying concept was to change the transportation system to provide improved access for pedestrians and bikes, while dramatically changing the open space system to create natural and cultural residences for a new lifestyle in the downtown area. These improvements are intended to align with emerging cultural initiatives and programs for the Central City.
LLOYD DISTRICT ECODISTRICT PORTLAND, OREGON
SYMBIOTIC STRATEGIES The development of a new hotel in Portland adjacent to the City’s convention center recently sparked the exploration of incorporating an EcoDistrict into the surrounding Lloyd District, a mixed-use neighborhood that features a variety of businesses; multi-family housing; two sports stadiums; limited greenways; and a number of public transportation facilities, including light rail and bus, as well as a new streetcar line. With ZGF’s guidance, developers such as Ashforth Pacific, City entities such as the Portland Sustainability Institute and a variety of other stakeholders explored various strategies, while ZGF’s proposed design for the Oregon Convention Center Headquarters Hotel included the means by which the future hotel could take advantage of or contribute to districtwide systems. 20
The design envisions collecting food waste from the Lloyd District’s multiple hotels, the convention center, and the Rose Garden Arena to create electricity in an Anaerobic Digestion facility. Combined with distributed rooftop and building-integrated solar photovoltaic panels, these systems can provide grid-tied renewable energy that exceeds what can be achieved by individual buildings. Add to that the future potential for avoiding peak energy demands through Vehicleto-Grid charging and the District would have the beginnings of a smart grid.
Catalyzing a district system allows individual buildings to achieve higher performing buildings and open space at a district scale.
ON-SITE ENERGY GENERATION
ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT
VEGETATED ROOFS AND WALLS
MAKING DISTRICT SYSTEMS WORK TOGETHER Hoyt Street Properties Master Plan
Residential Townhouses/ Public Gardens/Streetscapes
Portland Mall Revitalization: Lightrail, Bus, Auto, Pedestrian Union Station Pedestrian Bridge Port of Portland Offices Blue Line Light Rail
River District Right of Way Standards Portland Streetcar, Inc
RIVER DISTRICT ILLUSTRATIVE VISION PLANâ€‚ PORTLAND, OREGON
PLANNING PORTLANDâ€™S RIVER DISTRICT ZGF was commissioned to create a vision for the evolving River District on former rail yards at the edge of downtown Portland. The purpose was to recognize projects that were planned, proceeding or recently completed. The plan also defined the magnitude of public and private investments, as well as resulting environmental improvements, in the area. All of this was achieved through cultivation of sometimes improbable partnerships between parties who shared an interest in some part of plan implementation. Funds from one source were used to leverage more from another. Urban design and the vision developed for the area was the pivot upon which this massive enterprise has continued to turn.
Partnerships forged during the design process have strengthened and consolidated during implementation. Today, in what is now known as the Pearl District, over 5,000 new housing units are occupied, 3,500 jobs have been accommodated, specifically designed park streets have been completed, a streetcar system linking the district to downtown is in its tenth year of operation and which is currently being extended, and new centers for higher education and neighborhood services are expanding.
SOUTHWEST ECODISTRICT WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
ECODISTRICT INITIATIVE IN WASHINGTON, D.C. ZGF, in collaboration with Arup, is currently developing urban design and sustainability strategies for the Southwest EcoDistrict in Washington, D.C.
As envisioned, the EcoDistrict will be an active, multi-modal, mixed-use neighborhood of significant cultural attractions and public spaces, offices, residences and amenities. The goals for the project include:
The Southwest Ecodistrict Initiative aims to transform the 10th Street and Maryland Avenue corridors located south of the National Mall in Southwest Washington. Led by the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC), in coordination with the District Office of Planning (OP) and other local and federal agencies, the initiative seeks to create a model sustainability showcase in the nation’s capital. The district includes the U.S. departments of Energy, Housing and Urban Development, Education; the U.S. Postal Service; the Federal Aviation Administration and the General Services Administration.
• Advancing recommendations in the Monumental Core Framework Plan, the Comprehensive Plan, and the Center City Action Agenda to transform this federal employment center into a model 21st Century sustainable community; • Helping the federal government meet the goals and objectives of Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. The order prioritizes the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions throughout the federal government; and • Meeting the federal government’s present and future space needs in this area; improve connections from the National Mall to the Southwest Waterfront; enhance the quality of life for pedestrians; and increase opportunities for mixed-use development.
DISTRICT TO CITY
KA AS AL
DEXTER AV N
EA ST LA KE
Lake Union AURORA AV N
WESTLAKE AV N
11TH AV W
W BLAINE ST
N WY W
ALOHA ST MINOR AV N
8TH AV N
W ROY ST
VALLEY ST 16TH AV E
TERRY AV N
South Lake Union
W MERCER ST MERCER ST
TAYLOR AV N
BOREN AV N
WESTLAKE AV N
AURORA AV N
CE DA R
ST CL AY
BA TT ER Y
HO WE LL
TE RR Y
BL AN CH AR D
E PIKE ST
VIR GIN IA
REN BO AV
DIS E MA
E JEFFERSON ST
N SO FER JEF
CE RA TER
Y ST ERR CH
Air Rights in Pioneer Square
SIT VER UNI
E ST PIK
King Street Station
E ST PIN
AL AS KA
SIT VER UNI
TON YLS BO
RD RVA HA
E UNION ST
EL LIO TT
E PINE ST
ST EW AR T
MINOR AV N
6TH AV N
W at e
E REPUBLICAN ST
PONTIUS AV N
9TH AV N
FAIRVIEW AV N
BR OA D
QUEEN ANNE AV N
4TH AV N
YALE AV N
E ST UC SPR
CE RA TER
N SO FER JEF
6TH AV S
17TH AV S
S WASHINGTON ST
SODO NIE RAI R AV S
DOWNTOWN SUB-DISTRICTS SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
SEATTLE 2030 DISTRICT
MACRO-PLANNING FOR SEATTLE PROJECTS ZGF’s recent experience on projects in Seattle have focused on demonstrating the financial viability of green infrastructure design, investigating innovative energy collection and stormwater treatment solutions and—with the support of local governing authorities—helping devise solutions that overcome barriers to implementation. Each of these independent projects began with a macroapproach to planning considering opportunities to create infrastructure allowing for both the short- and long-term sharing of resources.
Concurrent with the development of these individual projects, ZGF helped initiate an effort to create a business case for sustainability as part of the nation’s first high-performance building district, the Seattle 2030 District. The effort has grown to encompass a diverse stakeholder group that includes local property owners and managers, local utilities, City of Seattle leadership, community stakeholders, and design and engineering professionals. The following projects are a part of these efforts: • North Lot Development • Air Rights in Pioneer Square • Elliott Bay Seawall Project
Linking parcels across an emerging district around a major event and entertainment district; adding office and residential uses.
NORTH LOT Located in a regional transportation hub, the envisioned 500,000 SF mixed-use development weaves the character of the historic Pioneer Square neighborhood into the urban fabric of this modern development to create a unifying streetscape and open spaces that both enliven and connect to the surrounding communities. The planning integrates building infrastructure to allow for future connections with district-wide systems. ZGF and Daniels Real Estate are currently exploring the following district-wide strategies: • District Heating and Colling allowing thermal energy to be transferred between buildings
to energy with clean water and surplus heat as useful byproducts • Solar Thermal Collectors for domestic hot water • Ground-Source Heat Pump central heating and cooling system using the earth as a heat sink • Combined Rainwater/Fire Suppression Tank • Onsite Urban Agriculture to provide fresh, local, sustainable food sources • Seattle’s 2030 District/ 2030 Energy Challenge commitment to meet district-wide goals for energy and water use, and CO2 emissions
• Powerstream Generation new technology converting waste
KING STREET STATION
a series of events
AIR RIGHTS IN PIONEER SQUARE ZGF has master planned a 12-acre air rights development at King Street Station, located at the convergence of inter-city and commuter rail, light rail, bus, ferries and direct freeway access. The ZGF team has developed a master plan which integrates numerous sustainable strategies that contribute amenity and character as well as long-term economic viability to the district.
Concept A: In-kind Replacement DOWNTOWN
This concept will strive to replace the seawall in its existing location (approximate) and configuration to minimize impacts to existing land uses, ownership, operations, and circulation. The seawall replacement will be coordinated with known plans for future transportation projects and waterfront improvements, with minimal relocation of the wall. Habitat enhancement will consist of improvements that can be readily achieved in the current marine environment. These include habitat benches, improved seawall surfaces, and a lighted fish migration corridor.
• Wall in place
• Wall in place • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing piers • Habitat bench improvements • Light wells
• Light wells • Aquatic vegetation and reef • Vertical gardens
October • Wall in place • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing piers • Habitat bench improvements • Light wells
St W ay Ye s
ton ing S
W as h
• Wall in place • Light permeable walkways (limited) • Light wells • Habitat bench • Aquatic vegetation and reef beach
• Wall in place • Light permeable walkways (limited) • Light wells • Habitat bench • Aquatic vegetation and reef
• Wall in place • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing piers • Light wells • Rip rap wtih tide pools
• Wall in place • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing piers • Light wells • Possible rain gardens for
• Wall in place • Historic pavilion • Fine substrate beach with sills • Habitat bench
explore district energy and other solutions.
entities (municipal and utility agencies, business owners, North Pier
Universi ty St
includes the identification and exploration of opportunities With the seawall reconstructed in its existing location, improvements focus on the addition of public amenities and habitat enhancements. A new beach with aquatic habitat is added to the south end of to leverage naturally occurring conveyance systems, the project. Along the length of the seawall, new viewpoints are added. Habitat improvements include minimize environmental impacts, and support the overall the addition of light wells angled through the wall to illuminate the migration corridor in the water. This health ofimproved the Puget Sound Region and Elliott Bay. This where feasible corridor is further by the development of habitat benches with aquatic vegetation between the existing piers. work also includes engaging local public and private Zoneenvironmental 6 Zone and 5 project stakeholders) to organizations
Design of a Seawall system along Elliott Bay in Seattle Physical Description
ed in its existing location, improvements focus on the addition of public • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing cements. A new beach with aquatic habitat is added to the south end of piers of the seawall, new viewpoints are added. Habitat improvements include Habitat bench improvements gled through the wall to illuminate the migration• corridor in the water. This by the development of habitat benches with aquatic vegetation where feasible
The project is restoring critical marine habitat, compromised by decades of development on the shoreline, through construction of artificial reefs and juvenile salmon nurseries.
ELLIOTT BAY SEAWALL PROJECT Bell St
Combined Sewer Outfall
Potential Renovation/ Expansion Vine St
Light Penetrating Surface
Potential Rain Garden
replace the seawall in its existing location (approximate) and mpacts to existing land uses, ownership, operations, and circulation. will be coordinated with known plans for future transportation projects nts, with minimal relocation of the wall. Habitat enhancement will hat can be readily achieved in the current marine environment. These mproved seawall surfaces, and a lighted fish migration corridor.
Potential Renovation/ Expansion
Aquatic Vegetation and Reef
Combined Sewer Outfall
Light Penetrating Surface
Potential Rain Garden
eawall in its current location. This is the fix-it alternative.
BELLTOWN Replace the existing seawall in its current location. This is the fix-it alternative.
Pioneer Square/Washington St.
• Wall in place • Viewing piers/viewpoints on existing piers • Light wells • Rip rap wtih tide pools • Habitat bench • Aquatic vegetation and reef • Vertical gardens
MAKING CITIES WORK
Denver Union Station: Early Studies For Intermodal Transportation Center Airtrain
20th Street Viaduct Replacement: Underpasses, River & Freeway Bridges, H.O.V. Viaduct
EPA Region 8 Headquarters 16th Street Mall Lodo Extension Speer Viaduct Replacement; Platte River Bridge and Cherry Creek Open Space
16th Street Urban Design Plan
DOWNTOWN DENVER TRANSPORTATION AND OPEN SPACE PLAN DENVER, COLORADO
SERIES OF INTERVENTIONS IN DENVER ZGF’s Central Platte Valley Urban Design Plan has profoundly influenced more than two decades of public transportation and open space projects in Denver’s former rail yards, and set the ground plan for numerous transit, private office, residential and retail developments. Land use regulations included in the plan were crafted to encourage vertically mixed commercial, residential and retail uses that are oriented to enhance street and public realm life.
ZGF has designed and planned numerous transit improvement projects and additional long range urban, transit and streetscape plans, in addition to EPA’s Region 8 Headquarters in the historic Lower Downtown District.
Future Multimodal Transportation Center
Main-Idaho Transit Mall
8th St Pedestrian Corridor
The Grove-Public Plaza
CENTRAL BOISE URBAN DESIGN PLANSâ€‚ BOISE, IDAHO
BRINGING TRANSIT TO A CAR-CENTRIC CITY ZGF has assisted the Capital City Development Corporation (CCDC) in developing long range plans for four contiguous areas encompassing all of the greater Downtown Boise Area. Beginning in 1986 and continuing today, these four area plans enabled establishment of urban renewal districts, tax increment financing and other means to stimulate compact, mixed use, transit oriented development. Numerous public and private projects have been implemented under the requirements and design guidelines of these plans including office, residential, retail, hotel, convention center,
entertainment as well as public open space, transit system and streetscape improvements. ZGF continues as a planning and design advisor to CCDC today and is currently contracted to design a new multimodal transit center for city and regional buses, taxis and shuttles and eventually downtown streetcar.
CITY TO REGION
LIVING CITY DESIGN COMPETITION PORTLAND, OREGON
APPLYING THE LIVING BUILDING CHALLENGE As the building blocks of cities, districts are the right scale to accelerate sustainability—small enough to innovate quickly and big enough to have meaningful impact. Yet in a city the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and neighborhoods balance assets like water and energy between each other to meet city-wide needs. The ZGF team’s* approach explores the symbiosis between five EcoDistricts in Portland as well as regional systems and examines how strategies in a single district, Gateway, contribute to the city’s overall performance. *The competition team includes: ZGF, Portland Sustainability Institute, CH2M Hill, David Evans and Associates, Greenworks PC, Newlands and Company, Inc., Portland State University, Institute for Sustainable Solutions and Sparling.
NET-ZERO ENERGY AND WATER
RICH STREET LIFE
Automobiles lose their dominance by shifting rights of way to pedestrians and bikes, allowing Gateway residents and visitors to move easily between homes, services and the regional transit center. This fuels a rich street life for pedestrians, businesses and efficient transport, creating spaces ripe for communication and connection.
Net-zero energy and water become easy targets with infrastructure that is scaled to the neighborhood. Thermal pipes bring geothermal heat to buildings, looping between them to capture efficiencies across the district. Sewer mining and organic waste provide additional firepower. Living machines throughout the district clean water, with distribution to every building through accessible networks laid under streets.
A new green city infrastructure emerges for habitat, food, water and waste. Green streets and a new greenway over the I-205 freeway grow native habitat and food while treating and conveying water. Organic wastes are captured in the neighborhood, cleanly converted to fuels while creating industry for residents.
People grow food on every surface— organic fruits and vegetables are cultivated on the greenway, green spaces, rooftops, terraces and green walls. Small livestock inhabit the city alongside residents, further helping to generate one of Gateway’s most needed fuels—food—right where it is needed. 31
LIVING CITY DESIGN COMPETITION
RE-ENVISIONING MAIN STREET Imagine going from an environment full of asphalt and fast moving traffic to a place for bees, bikes, babies and birds. What would that place be like? It would be an ecologically supportive environment teeming with the most vulnerable residents of our planet. It is filled with pedestrians, bicyclists and public transport replacing autos. Copenhagen reminds us that bicyclists are not part of transport, they are part of public life. We have accommodations for commuter bicyclists and eight-year-olds out with their grandparents. One could imagine that every drop of water that falls on main street stays on main street or leaves cleaner than when it fell. In that sense, it defines an incremental watershed in anticipation of its role in developing a fully functioning EcoDistrict over a period of time. It is, simply, a place you would rather be that is good for you. 32
Renewable energy production (solar and wind) integrates into the urban fabric
Residential buildings use excess heat captured from supermarket refrigeration systems
Geothermal conditioning loops extend across the neighborhood below ground connecting to heat pumps in buildings
Organic wastes are anaerobically digested to produce energy
People, bikes, trains and buses dance in a multi-modal system on streets where cars are prohibited
LIVING INFRASTRUCTURE Bold infrastructure interventions build towards a city living in balance. The redevelopment of a main street at the site of a regional transit station provides a rich street life based on pedestrians, bicycles and public transport. Urban greenways created from abandoned freeways and green streets provide a new green city infrastructure for habitat, food, water and waste. In a net-zero energy and water community, local fuels power nodes of district energy that couple efficient mixed-use structures, and neighborhood water utilities capture, clean and reuse water arriving from the sky. The urban greenways, roof gardens, living walls and use of the in-between green spaces allow agriculture to be embedded into the community.
LIVING CITY DESIGN COMPETITION
TRANSFORMING HIGHWAYS TO GREEN SPACES AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION How would you eat up an eight lane freeway? Six lanes of asphalt are digested into a greenway for biking, walking and urban agriculture. Stormwater flows into tunnels next to the remaining two lanes to be collected, treated and reused as freshwater in the neighborhood. Less pollution from less traffic makes the new natural corridor ideal for a set of plots for growing fruit and vegetables or producing dairy. Vendors serve food sourced from 100 feet away. Have you ever tasted a quarter mile carrot? With regional transit and improved bikeways, all Portland residents can access this greenway sans freeway.
REPURPOSING THE BIG BOX A regional transit station with light rail, and streetcar deserves more than surface lots serving big boxes. Such large expanses of asphalt are ideal for new housing that brings people closer to transit and accommodates new models for small business. Imagine transforming a super block leftover from a Home Depot by transecting it with walkable green streets that serve bikes, people, urban agriculture and treat stormwater while repurposing the building for a school, community center or marketplace. The rooftops alone of this repurposed big box location can produce up to 4,400,000 kWh per year with solar power that would meet the electrical energy needs of 790 households (assuming an average daily use of 15 kWh).
CONCLUSION Working at the smallest scale in the city makes a contribution to the larger scale of the city. The right scale to make the most impact is found at the overlap of the following principles. Principles for district systems and complementary projects
a. Build projects where they will be wanted. b. Build projects that will pay for their presence and enrich the welfare of others. c. Build projects that will attract partners and leverage other projects. d. Build projects where community stewardship will be cultivated. e. Build projects that will capture good ideas. The EcoDistrict concept enables collective development investments to achieve greater performance than an isolated improvement. District systems such as streetcar, open space, waste, water and energy can be transformative. Improvements at the scale of the streetscape can help achieve desired performance for a district with regard to mobility. At a larger scale symbiotic energy, water and mobility systems add to the vitality and efficiency of an entire region. These effects offer competitive advantage for cities which take steps to coordinate their public investments with the aspirations of their community. The opportunity is to leverage greater efficiency through urban redevelopment to make beautiful urban places that add value to living in cities with less resource use. Some district systems may not be more than a new utility. Other systems may be an improvement to the experience of a place formed by new public open space or building. How one supplements, complements or leverages places and infrastructure defines an approach that has been successful for ZGF Architects over its 50-year history of planning and building. This approach seeks an investigation of ideas based on the inclination of the community to meet their aspirations for their places in the city.
PORTLAND 1223 SW Washington Street Suite 200 Portland, Oregon 97205 P 503.224.3860 F 503.224.2482
LOS ANGELES 515 South Flower Street Suite 3700 Los Angeles, California 90071 P 213.617.1901 F 213.617.0047
NEW YORK 419 Park Avenue South 20th Floor New York, New York 10016 P 212.624.4754 F 212.624.4753
SEATTLE 925 Fourth Avenue Suite 2400 Seattle, Washington 98104 P 206.623.9414 F 206.623.7868
WASHINGTON, D.C. 1800 K Street NW Suite 200 Washington, D.C. 20006 P 202.380.3120 F 202.380.3128