Page 1

Beyond Information. Intelligence.

A REPORT ON CHARITABLE GIVING IN HAWAI‘I

Prepared for:

May 2015


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 5 Purpose............................................................................................................................................ 6 Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 6 HOUSEHOLDS THAT GIVE ........................................................................................................ 7 Household Size ....................................................................................................................... 7 Ethnicity .................................................................................................................................. 8 Age ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Marital Status ........................................................................................................................ 11 Household Income ................................................................................................................ 12 Residency in Hawai‘i ............................................................................................................ 14 Home Ownership .................................................................................................................. 15 Education .............................................................................................................................. 17 County of Residence ............................................................................................................. 18 ASPECTS OF CHARITABLE GIVING ...................................................................................... 21 Methods of Giving ................................................................................................................ 21 Mechanisms of Giving .......................................................................................................... 22 Motivations for Giving ......................................................................................................... 25 Planned Giving...................................................................................................................... 26 Volunteering ......................................................................................................................... 27 AMOUNT OF CHARITABLE GIVING ..................................................................................... 28 RECIPIENTS OF CHARITABLE GIFTS ................................................................................... 29 Local Giving ......................................................................................................................... 29 Types of Charitable Organizations ....................................................................................... 29 Appendix A – Survey Methodology ............................................................................................. 32 Appendix B – Classification of Charitable Organizations ............................................................ 35 Appendix C – Survey Instrument ................................................................................................. 38

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4.

Margin of Error by County, 2015 .................................................................................... 6 National and State of Hawai‘i Household Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ................... 7 Average Annual Charitable Contribution, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 .............................. 28 Types of Recipient Organizations, 2014........................................................................ 30

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Average Donation Amount by Household Size, 2014 ................................................... 8 Figure 2. Average Donation Amount by Household Size, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ..................... 8 Figure 3. Average Donation Amount by Ethnicity, 2014 .............................................................. 9 Figure 4. Average Donation Amount by Ethnicity, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ................................ 9 Figure 5. Average Donation Amount by Age, 2014 .................................................................... 10 Figure 6. Average Donation Amount by Age, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ...................................... 11 Figure 7. Average Donation Amount by Marital Status, 2014 .................................................... 12 Figure 8. Average Donation Amount by Household Income, 2014 ............................................ 13 Figure 9. Average Donation Amount by Household Income, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 .............. 13 Figure 10. Average Donation Amount by Length of Residency, 2014 ....................................... 14 Figure 11. Average Donation Amount by Length of Residency, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ......... 15 Figure 12. Average Donation Amount by Housing Tenure, 2014 ............................................... 16 Figure 13. Average Donation Amount by Housing Tenure, 2001, 2009, 2014 ........................... 16 Figure 14. Average Donation Amount by Educational Attainment, 2014 .................................. 17 Figure 15. Average Donation Amount by Educational Attainment, 2001, 2009, 2014 .............. 18 Figure 16. Average Donation Amount by County of Residence, 2014 ....................................... 19 Figure 17. Average Donation Amount by County of Residence, 2001, 2009, 2014 ................... 20 Figure 18. Primary Method of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ................................................. 21 Figure 19. Methods of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014.............................................................. 22 Figure 20. Top Six Mechanisms of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 .......................................... 23 Figure 21. Additional Mechanisms of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ..................................... 24 Figure 22. Top Motivations for Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014................................................ 25 Figure 23. Additional Motivations for Giving, 2009 and 2014 ................................................... 26 Figure 24. Amount of Planned Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014................................................. 27 Figure 25. Percentage of Households that Give and Average Donation, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ....................................................................................................................................................... 28 Figure 26. Percentage of Giving to Hawai‘i Organizations, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 ................. 29 Figure 27. Largest Share of Charitable Giving by Organization Type, 2001, 2009, 2014 .......... 30 Figure 28. Share of Charitable Giving by Organization Type, 2001, 2009, 2014 ....................... 31

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INTRODUCTION This report summarizes the primary findings from the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015. Commissioned by the Hawai‘i Community Foundation (HCF), the Study utilizes both primary and secondary data to provide a comprehensive look at patterns of charitable giving and volunteerism in the State of Hawai‘i. Until the 1999 Hawai‘i Giving Study, no major study on charitable giving had been conducted in Hawai‘i and national surveys tended to exclude Hawai‘i and Alaska. HCF commissioned the Giving Study to provide detailed information about Hawai‘i’s unique charitable giving environment to policy makers and non-profit organizations. Like its predecessors, the 2015 Giving Study examines who gives to charitable organizations, how much they give and to which types of organizations, as well as the motivations behind their giving. Collectively, these elements are referred to as “giving patterns.” The term is applied broadly throughout this document. This report presents the findings of the study as applied to the general population of households in Hawai‘i. The following were key findings of the 2015 Giving Study:  Hawai‘i’s people remain incredibly generous, even more so than households on the Mainland  Hawai‘i households are particularly supportive of local charities and causes  Monetary contributions are larger among households who are actively involved with charitable organizations

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PURPOSE The present study is a follow-up to HCF’s Hawai‘i Giving Study 2009. In 1999, HCF conducted the first ever comprehensive examination of charitable giving in Hawai‘i, which captured a picture of giving patterns in 1998. The study was repeated in 2002 and 2010. The new study was undertaken to:  Understand how giving may have changed since 2009  Inform discussions on how giving may change in the future  Provide information to nonprofit organizations to help them with their funding strategies

METHODOLOGY The 2015 Giving Study was conducted by SMS Hawai‘i, a local research and consulting firm, between February 18 and April 3, 2015. In order to assess charitable giving in Hawai‘i, SMS conducted a telephone survey of 878 tax-defined households throughout the State of Hawai‘i. Survey respondents were asked about the amount and type of charitable giving done by all members of their household during the 2014 calendar year1. The margin of error for each county and the state is presented in Table 1 below. Table 1. Margin of Error by County, 2015

O'ahu Hawai'i Maui Kauai State of Hawai'i

Weighted Margin of Sample Sample Error (±) 460 309,803 4.57 191 64,909 7.09 156 52,623 7.85 71 22,390 11.63 878 449,725 3.31

While the majority of the survey questions were retained to provide comparable results over time, there are slight differences in methodology between the current study and prior iterations of the Giving Study. While the 2010 Study was largely focused on donations of new and used goods, the 2015 Giving Study emphasized households’ monetary donations2. Also, in the current study, the total number of surveys completed was increased, particularly for the counties of Hawai‘i, Maui and Kaua‘i, to allow for meaningful conclusions regarding giving for these islands.

1

A detailed description of the methods used for the current study are provided in Appendix A. All mean donation amounts reported only include monetary donations, defined as donations of currency, stocks, bonds, or real estate. Prior iterations of the Giving Study included the estimated value of donations of goods and/or time. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 6 SMS Research & Marketing Services May 2015 2


HOUSEHOLDS THAT GIVE As shown in Table 2, an overwhelming majority of Hawai‘i’s households (93.3%) made some type of charitable donation in 2014. This number represents a slight increase from the 92 percent of households that gave in 2001 and 2009. The giving done by these households in 2014 was done in the form of cash contributions, new and used goods, volunteered time, contributions to school fundraisers, and a variety of other means. Table 2. National and State of Hawai‘i Household Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

Percent of all households that give Average annual giving amount per household % change 1998-2001 % change 2001-2009 % change 2009-2014

1998

State of Hawai'i 2001 2009

2014

1998

United States 2001 2009

88.0%

92.0%

93.3%

67.0%

69.0%

$1,016

$1,123 $1,467 $2,024 $2,368 $2,248 $2,333 $2,974

92.0%

4.5% 0.0% 1.4%

70.0%

2013 70.1%3

3.0% 1.4% 0.1%

Hawai‘i residents are particularly giving in comparison to Mainland residents. Studies consistently find that a greater percentage of Hawai‘i households give to charity than do households on the Mainland3. The average amount given by households in each segment had increased steadily over the past 15 years. The average annual donation made by Hawai‘i households was $2,024 for 2014, up nearly 38 percent from 2009. Household Size Each household’s composition and life stage often influences its level of contribution to charitable organizations and causes. On average, Hawai‘i’s single-member households contribute significantly larger amounts to charity ($2,544) than do households with three or four members ($1,413). Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between household size and average charitable contribution. Households that included two members gave the second largest average annual donation ($2,238), followed by households with seven or more members (nearly twice as much ($1,435), on average, than single-member households ($795).

3

The Philanthropy Roundtable organization reported 2013 household giving at “just over 70%” (http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/topic/donor_intent/donation), while the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University reports the percentage of households that give to charity as 95.4% (http://www.nptrust.org/philanthropic-resources/charitable-giving-statistics/) Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 7 SMS Research & Marketing Services May 2015


Figure 1. Average Donation Amount by Household Size, 2014 40%

$2,544

35%

% of Giving HH $2,238

$3,000

Ave. Donation

$2,073

30%

$2,184

$2,500 $2,000

25%

$1,413

20% 33.9%

15% 10%

$1,500

29.6%

18.2%

$1,000 14.3%

5%

$500 4.0%

0%

$0 One member

Two Three or four Five or six members members members

Seven or more members

Figure 2. Average Donation Amount by Household Size, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

$2,544 One

$2,238 Two

$1,592

2014

Three

2009 2001

$1,712 Four+

1998

$0

$500

$1,000

$1,500

$2,000

$2,500

$3,000

Ethnicity Households that identify themselves as Caucasian accounted for 31 percent of all giving households and made the largest average annual donation per household ($3,569). Just four percent of all giver households were Chinese and they had the lowest average annual donation amount ($763). Figure 4 indicates that the average annual donation made by all the ethnic groups has consistently increased since 1998 and their relative levels of giving remain essentially unchanged. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Figure 3. Average Donation Amount by Ethnicity, 2014 35%

$4,000 % of Giving HH

Ave. Donation $3,500

30%

$3,000

25%

$2,500 20% $2,000 15% $1,500 10%

$1,000

5%

$500

0%

$0

Figure 4. Average Donation Amount by Ethnicity, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

$3,569

Caucasian $1,283

Japanese $897

Filipino

2014

$1,443

Hawaiian

2009 2001

$1,185

1998

Other $0

$500

$1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000

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Age The Giving Study results displayed in the figure below further support the relationship between each household’s stage of life and its charitable giving. The youngest households (ages 18-24) are primarily composed of students and newcomers to the workforce, two groups that typically have very little disposable income. As these households mature, their average annual donation amount increases to $2,679 among 45 to 54 year olds. Giving amounts drop off after age 55 as many households begin looking toward retirement and diminishing incomes. Interestingly, giving then increases dramatically among the households age 75 and older (which accounts for just 10 percent of all giving households)4. Figure 5. Average Donation Amount by Age, 2014

30%

Ave. Donation $6,305

% of Giving HH

$6,000

24%

25%

23% $5,000

$4,400

20%

$4,000

14%

15% 12%

10%

11% $1,618

5% 5%

$7,000

$478

$2,679

$3,000 $1,731 $1,594

7%

$2,000

$1,107

3%

0%

$1,000 $0

18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 65 to 74 75 to 8485 or older

The average annual donation given by households in the 45 to 54 and 65 and older age ranges increased most significantly between 2009 and 2014.

4

These results were impacted by substantial donations of $50,000 to $100,000 made by several households in the 75 or older age category. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 10 SMS Research & Marketing Services May 2015


Figure 6. Average Donation Amount by Age, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

$478 2014

18 - 24

2009

$1,107

25-34

1998 2001

$1,618

35-44

$2,679

45-54 $1,731

55-64

$2,682

65+ $0

$500

$1,000

$1,500

$2,000

$2,500

$3,000

Marital Status An examination of respondents’ marital status also supports the stage of life hypothesis. Married households gave the largest amounts to charitable organizations and causes in 2014, an average of $2,919 per year. In contrast, single households and those living with a domestic partner contributed $674 and $536, respectively. Divorced, separated, or widowed households made average annual contributions of $1,343 per household. These findings were consistent with the 2009 Giving Study in which the average donation made by married households was highest at $1,758 per year. Similarly, single households gave average annual donations of $873 and separated, widowed, or divorced households gave $1,141.

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Figure 7. Average Donation Amount by Marital Status, 2014 60%

% of Giving HH

Ave. Donation

$2,919

$3,500 $3,000

50%

$2,500

40%

$2,000 30%

54%

$1,343

$1,500

20%

$1,000

$674

$536

21%

10%

20%

$500

4% 0%

$0 Single, never married

Married

Separated, Widowed, or Divorced

Living with a partner

The greater amount of giving by married households may simply be the result of having two adults in the household who are likely to be approached by various charitable organizations seeking support. It may also be due to the level of connectedness married households have with their communities. When these households include children, the number of associations within the community (and, therefore, opportunities for giving) is notably larger. The current Giving Study found that households with children ($2,274) made significantly larger donations, on average, than those who did not have children ($1,496). Household Income Not surprisingly, Hawai‘i’s upper-income households make significantly larger average contributions to charity each year than do the lower-income households. The figure below illustrates the increase in donation amounts as household income increases. Households earning less than $15,000 per year gave, on average, $470 to charity in 2014. During the same period, households earning $100,000 to $150,000 made average annual donations of $4,682. This only holds true, however, for households earning up to $150,000 per year. For households earning between $150,000 and $250,000, the present Study evidenced a slight dip in giving amounts before increasing again among households with annual incomes of more than $250,000. Analyses of various demographic factors and reasons for giving among households earning $150,000 to $250,000 did not provide a clear reason for this decrease. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Figure 8. Average Donation Amount by Household Income, 2014 25%

% of Giving HH

$10,996 $12,000

Ave. Donation

21%

$10,000

20%

$8,190

16%

15% 12%

10% 10%

10% 5%

$8,000

14%

$6,000

$4,682 $3,668 $3,202 6%

8%

$4,000

$1,785$1,935

$872 $470 $759 $439

1%

1%

1%

0%

$2,000 $0

As shown in Figure 9, the relationship between higher incomes and larger donation amounts has been observed by the Giving Studies since 1998. Those households who have more to give are consistently inclined to give back to charitable organizations in their communities. Figure 9. Average Donation Amount by Household Income, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

2014

$610 Less than $25k

2009 2001 $697

1998

$25k-$50k

$1,785 $50k-$75k

$3,827 $75k +

$0

$1,000

Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

$2,000

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000 13 May 2015


Residency in Hawai‘i The number of years that household members have lived in the State of Hawai‘i is also strongly related to their average annual giving amount. Greater length of residency, typically indicative of stronger ties to the community, is consistently associated with higher donation amounts. Surprisingly, the highest-volume givers are households that are long-time but not lifetime residents of Hawai‘i.. In the current study, households that have been in Hawai‘i for 6 to 20 years gave an average of $2,099 to charitable organizations and causes. Respondents who were not lifetime residents of Hawai‘i but had lived in the islands for more than 20 years donated an average of $3,944 to charities annually. In contrast, lifetime resident households gave $1,498 per year to charity, and households whose members have been in Hawai‘i for 5 years or less gave $1,308. Figure 10. Average Donation Amount by Length of Residency, 2014 80%

% of Giving HH

70%

Ave. Donation 66.8%

$3,944

$4,500 $4,000

$3,500

60%

$3,000

50%

$2,500

40% 30% 20% 10%

$2,000

$2,099 19.2% $1,308

$1,500 $1,498

10.0%

$1,000 $500

4.0%

0%

$0 Up to 5 years

6 to 20 years

Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

20+, not lifetime

Lifetime

14 May 2015


The average annual contribution increased across all categories between 2009 and 2014. The largest increase was observed among long-time Hawai‘i residents, jumping 68 percent from $2,352 in 2009 to $3,944 at present. Respondents who have lived in Hawai‘i for six to twenty years also significantly increased their average annual donation amount over the past several years. Figure 11. Average Donation Amount by Length of Residency, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

2014

$1,308

2009

5 yrs. or less

2001 1998

$2,099 6 to 20 yrs.

$3,944 20+ yrs, not lifetime

$1,498 Lifetime

$0

$1,000

$2,000

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000

Home Ownership Whether a household rents or owns their current residence is an additional indicator of the level of connectedness between a household and the community. Renter households have often moved to Hawai‘i more recently than home owners and appear to be somewhat less personally invested in the community and charitable organizations. As Figure 12 shows, homeowners tend to give more to charity than do renters or persons who neither own nor rent.5 Both community connectedness and ability to give may factor in to the discrepancy in giving amounts between owners and renters. Since homeowners tend to be older and earn higher incomes than non-homeowners, they may simply be in a better financial position to support various charities. Further, a portion of the households who own their current residence have paid off their mortgage and have notably more disposable income. The tendency for homeowners to donate larger amounts to charity than non-homeowners has been consistent over the last three iterations of the Giving Study (Figure 13). 5

Households that neither own nor rent their home (i.e., occupy without payment) include adults living with their parents, active-duty military households living in military quarters, and other arrangements involving nonpayment for living quarters.

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Figure 12. Average Donation Amount by Housing Tenure, 2014 70% 60%

% of Giving HH

$2,504

$3,000

Ave. Donation

$2,500

50%

$2,000

40% 30%

$1,500

$1,218

65.8%

$1,000

20%

$563 28.0%

10%

$500 6.1%

0%

$0 Own

Rent

Occupy without cash payment

Figure 13. Average Donation Amount by Housing Tenure, 2001, 2009, 2014

$2,504 Own

$1,218 Rent 2014 2009

$563

2001

Occupy w/o Payment

1998 0

500

Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

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Education The overwhelming majority of the research conducted on patterns of charitable giving indicates that education is highly correlated with the level of charitable contributions. Highly educated households in Hawai‘i tend to give more to charity than households with less education (Figure 14). This finding is likely due to the positive relationship between level of education and income. As was found for household income, these results suggest that those households who are financially positioned to give more are likely to be larger donors. Figure 14. Average Donation Amount by Educational Attainment, 2014 35%

% of Giving HH 30.0%

30%

Ave. Donation

$4,640

$5,000 $4,500

27.2%

$4,000

25% 21.8%

21.1% 20%

$3,500 $3,000 $2,500

15%

$1,400

$1,664

$2,000 $1,500

10%

$670

$1,000

5%

$500

0%

$0 High school grad or less

Some college

Bachelors degree

Grad school or degree

It has consistently been found that average donations made by those with graduate school degrees are two to three times higher than donations made by those with a bachelor’s degree or some college education.

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Figure 15. Average Donation Amount by Educational Attainment, 2001, 2009, 2014

$670

2014

High school grad or less

2009 2001 $1,400

1998

Some college

$1,664 Bachelors degree

$4,640 Grad degree

$0

$1,000

$2,000

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000

County of Residence With O‘ahu as the center of population and commerce for the state, it is not surprising to find that the average annual donation made by O‘ahu households is significantly larger than for the other three counties. In 2014, households on O‘ahu gave an average of $2,407 to charities each year. Maui and Kaua‘i residents have similar average annual donation levels at $1,304 and $1,273, respectively. The lowest average annual charitable gift comes from households on the Big Island who donate $1,085 per year.

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Figure 16. Average Donation Amount by County of Residence, 2014 80% 70%

% of Giving HH

Ave. Donation

$2,392

$3,000 $2,500

60% $2,000

50%

$1,294

40% 30%

67.9%

$1,273

$1,500

$1,085 $1,000

20% $500

10%

13.8%

12.6%

5.8%

Hawaii

Maui

Kauai

0%

$0 Oahu

Unlike the relationship between average annual giving and the majority of the other demographic variables, county of residence is less consistent. Although donations on O‘ahu have always been the largest among the counties, the county with the next highest average annual donation has changed with each iteration of the Giving Study. In 2009, Kaua‘i was the second highest ($1,183) and Maui was the lowest ($855). In 2001, however, Maui was only $18 lower than O‘ahu and the County of Hawai‘i was the lowest ($780). With the exception of Maui, which had an unexpectedly high average donation amount in 2001, each of the counties’ has made incremental increases over the three Study periods. O‘ahu had a notably large increase (51%) in average giving between 2009 ($1,593) and 2014 ($2,407).

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Figure 17. Average Donation Amount by County of Residence, 2001, 2009, 2014

$2,392 O'ahu $1,085 Hawai'i

$1,294 Maui

2014 2009

$1,273

2001

Kaua'i

1998 $0

$500

$1,000

Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

$1,500

$2,000

$2,500

$3,000

20 May 2015


ASPECTS OF CHARITABLE GIVING Methods of Giving When households give to charitable organizations, it is most often in the form of cash6 or goods7. As was the case for the previous Giving Studies, the majority of givers in 2014 reported that their primary method of giving is cash (64.3%). A slightly smaller percentage of donors reported their primary method of giving as goods in 2014 (29.2%) than in previous years. Figure 18. Primary Method of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

64.3% Currency

29.2% Goods 2014 2009

6.4%

2001

None

1998 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

The results of the 2014 Giving Study also supported the previous finding that households that give tend to give of their time in addition to monetary and tangible donations. Over 44 percent of current donors reported giving cash, goods, and volunteering their time to charitable organizations. More than one quarter of givers in 2014 donated both cash and goods, but did not volunteer their time. This was notably lower than in prior years.

6

Cash is used to refer to all forms of currency - cash, check, credit card, automatic payments/bank drafts, and online payments. 7 Goods is used to refer to donations of new or used items and canned goods. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 21 SMS Research & Marketing Services May 2015


Figure 19. Methods of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

44.4%

Donated cash, goods, and time

25.9%

Donated cash and goods

9.4%

Donated goods only

7.4%

Donated goods and time

6.2%

Donated cash only

2014

4.9%

Donated cash and time

2009

1.8%

2001

Donated time only

1998

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

Mechanisms of Giving Hawai‘i residents were asked about their mechanisms of giving, or ways in which they most often respond to requests for donations. The six most frequently mentioned mechanisms are listed in Figure 20. Giving Study participants reported giving most often by responding to direct mail (56.6%), giving tithes or offerings at a place of worship (55.2%), and purchasing food products or tickets to fundraising events (55%). Placing money in a collection box (50%) and giving when approached for donations by friends and family members (42%) were also common mechanisms of giving.

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Figure 20. Top Six Mechanisms of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 56.6% Direct Mail 55.2%

Offerings/tithes to a church, temple, etc.

55.0% Support fundraisers 50.0%

Drop $ in a collection box/cup 42.0%

2014

Asked by friends or family

2009 2001

34.7% United Way

1998 0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

While the mechanisms of giving have fluctuated over the past fifteen years, donors’ level of responsiveness to each type of request does not present the whole story. While a greater percentage of present donors reported responding to a mailing, it is often the case that these donors are returning a few dollars in an envelope they received in the mail while giving significantly larger amounts when asked by friends and family, for example. Other mechanisms of giving that are less likely to prompt donors to give are displayed in Figure 21. There has been a steady decline in giving in response to requests made in person by someone with whom the potential donor is not acquainted. In 2001, 42 percent of donor households reported giving in response to a request from a stranger. In 2014, only 18.8 percent responded positively to a stranger’s request for a donation. A similar trend has been observed for donors’ responses to phone requests, and sponsorship of someone else’s participation in an event such as a walk-a-thon.

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Figure 21. Additional Mechanisms of Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 30.2%

Sponsor Someone's Participation in an Event (Walka-thon) 22.1% Regularly Scheduled Giving 18.8% Asked In-Person by a Stranger 15.1% Response to Phone Request

2014 11.3% Response to Telethon/Radiothon

2009 2001

10.8% 1998

Online Giving

0%

Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

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Motivations for Giving In addition to describing their mechanisms of giving, respondents to the current study were also questioned regarding their motivations for giving to charitable organizations. Givers indicated that they are highly motivated to give8 because they believe a particular organization is best suited for the given task (65.3%), in an effort to ease the hardships of others (55.3%), and because their contribution would help someone they cared about (51.1%). Other frequently cited motivations included that giving made donors feel good inside (44.2%) and that they viewed giving back as part of their civic (42.6%) or religious (33.8%) responsibility. Although there were slight fluctuations with regard to how often each of the top motivations was cited by givers, there was no significant change in motivations for giving from 2009 to the present.

Figure 22. Top Motivations for Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 65.3% Organization best suited for the work 55.3% To help ease others' pain and suffering 51.1% To help someone we care about 44.2% Made us feel good inside 42.6% Part of our community responsibility

2014 41.6%

2009

Involvement with an organization or cause 2001 33.8%

1998

Responsibility before God 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

8

Respondents indicated that the motivation was a “big reason� they chose to give. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Figure 23. Additional Motivations for Giving, 2009 and 2014 24.5%

Honoring/Commemorating someone

17.3% Asked by friends/family 16.4%

Presented as an emergency situation

7.7%

To claim on our tax return 3.8%

Name printed on a list/plaque

2014 2.8%

2009

Special benefits for donors

2001 2.0%

Out of guilt 0%

5%

1998

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

Planned Giving As in prior Studies, the extent to which Hawai‘i’s households plan or budget for their charitable giving was evaluated in the 2015 Giving Study. The figure below shows what percentage of households’ charitable giving was planned. As evidenced in Figure 24, 2014 saw a significant increase in the percentage of households that planned three-quarters or more of their charitable giving. The number of households that reported most of their giving was spontaneous has been declining since 2001. This may be a result of the Great Recession which forced households to allocate their giving more carefully and intentionally.

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Figure 24. Amount of Planned Giving, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 39.3% < 10% 7.6% 10-25% 12.9%

26-74% 29.1%

2014

75% or more

2009 2001

11.2%

1998

Not sure 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

Volunteering Charitable organizations require not only donations in the form of money and goods, but also in the form of volunteers’ time. When asked whether they ever volunteered their time to a charitable organization, 56.9 percent of households responded affirmatively in 2014. Among those who volunteered, more than one-quarter gave of their time on a weekly or bi-weekly basis (25.5%). An additional 20 percent of households that volunteered did so on a monthly basis and close to 40 percent said they volunteered once or twice each year (39.7%). Religious organizations were most likely to have volunteers on a weekly basis, whereas human services and philanthropic organizations were most likely to have volunteers who served only one or two times per year. From young singles with little monetary resources to give to wealthy retirees who enjoy being actively involved with the organizations they help fund, volunteers are at all ages and stages of life. In general, households that chose to give of their time and talents to charitable organizations and causes tend to be long-time (18.7%) or lifetime (64.3%) residents of Hawai‘i. Nearly half of all volunteers are age 55 or older (48.6%) and 23 percent are retired. Over half of those who volunteer are employed full-time (52.4%). Households that volunteer tend to make larger monetary contributions to charity than those who do not volunteer. The average annual donation among volunteering households is $2,756, while the average among non-volunteering households is $387. This pattern is consistent with the findings from all the previous Giving Studies. ‘ Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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AMOUNT OF CHARITABLE GIVING Among the 93 percent of Hawai‘i households that made a monetary donation to a charitable organization in 2014, approximately two-thirds provided an estimated amount of their total giving. The average donation amount among these households was $1,825. This represents a 24.4 percent increase over the average annual donation amount in 2009, and a 62.5 percent increase since 2001. Table 3. Average Annual Charitable Contribution, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 1998

Hawai‘i 2001 2009

2015

1998

United States 2001 2009

Percent of all households that give

88.0%

92.0%

92.0%

93.3%

67.0%

69.0%

70.0%

70.1%9

Average annual giving amount per household

$1,016

$1,123

$1,467

$2,024

$2,368

$2,248

$2,333

$2,974

2013

Figure 25. Percentage of Households that Give and Average Donation, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014 95%

$2,500

93.3% 93%

92.0%

92.0%

$2,000

$2,024

91%

$1,500 89% 87%

$1,467

88.0% $1,016

$1,000

$1,123

$500

85%

83%

$0 1998

2001

% of all households that give

9

2009

2014

Average annual donation amount

The Philanthropy Roundtable organization reported 2013 household giving at “just over 70%” (http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/topic/donor_intent/donation), while the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University reports the percentage of households that give to charity as 95.4% (http://www.nptrust.org/philanthropic-resources/charitable-giving-statistics/)

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RECIPIENTS OF CHARITABLE GIFTS Local Giving Among the 93 percent of Hawai‘i’s households that give to charitable causes and organizations, most tend to favor local charities in their giving. As Figure 49 depicts, over 60 percent of contributing households allocated the majority of their total 2014 giving to organizations located in Hawai‘i. This is a decrease from prior years however, as more than 30 percent of households reported that less than one-quarter of their total donations went to local charities in 2014. Figure 26. Percentage of Giving to Hawai‘i Organizations, 1998, 2001, 2009, 2014

30.9%

2014

25% or less

2009 2001 7.7%

1998

26-50%

8.5% 51-75%

52.9% More than 75%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Types of Charitable Organizations Outlined below are the types of organizations and causes that are the most common recipients of charitable giving.10 As shown in Table 3, nearly half of all contributing households gave money to human services organizations in 2014 (49.6%). Over thirty percent of households contributed

10

Respondent households were asked to name the organizations and causes they gave to in 2001. The responses were coded according to the definitions in Appendix B. Coding for each organization was based on its charitable purpose. Thus, a Christian homeless shelter would be classified under human services, not religion, and a scholarship for ethnic Hawai‘ians would be classified under education, not arts and culture.

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to health-related causes (30.4%), and 27.3 percent gave to faith-based organizations. Causes related to education were also a top contender for charitable dollars (16.2%). Two notable changes occurred with regard to the share of monetary contributions given to the various types of organizations. The share of monetary contributions increased among health and human services organizations between 2009 and 2014. During the same period, religious and educational organizations experienced losses in their share of donations. Table 4. Types of Recipient Organizations, 2014 Monetary Donations by Type of Organization Arts, Culture, and Humanities Education and Instruction Environment or Species Protection Health (including mental health) Human Services Philanthropy Community Development Recreation and Athletics Religious Organizations Youth Development Other

Number 36,994 67,848 39,708 127,639 207,879 17,827 28,455 8,094 114,716 41,030 44,642

% of Giving HH 8.8% 16.2% 9.5% 30.4% 49.6% 4.2% 6.8% 1.9% 27.3% 2.8% 10.6%

Average Amount $446 $825 $257 $947 $669 $253 $261 $339 $2,106 $326 $658

2014 Share 2.6% 8.7% 1.6% 18.8% 21.7% 0.7% 1.2% 0.4% 37.7% 2.1% 4.6%

2009 Share 2.0% 14.0% 2.0% 10.0% 15.0% 0.1% 1.0% 0.5% 53.0% 2.0% 1.0%

2001 Share 2.0% 5.0% 2.0% 18.0% 31.0% 1.0% 2.0% 1.0% 33.0% 1.0% 4.0%

Figure 27. Largest Share of Charitable Giving by Organization Type, 2001, 2009, 2014

37.7% Religious Organizations

21.7% Human Services

18.8% Health (including mental health) 2014

2009

8.7%

2001

Education and Instruction

1998 0% Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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20%

30%

40%

50%

60% 30 May 2015


Figure 28. Share of Charitable Giving by Organization Type, 2001, 2009, 2014 2.6%

Arts, Culture, and Humanities

2014 2009

2.1%

2001

Youth Development

1998

1.6%

Environment or Species Protection 1.2% Community Development 0.7%

Philanthropy

0.4%

Recreation and Athletics

4.6% Other 0%

Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

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APPENDIX A – SURVEY METHODOLOGY

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This section describes the methods employed by SMS Research to complete the telephone interviews for the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015. Survey Instrument The survey instrument for the household giving component of the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015 was a questionnaire developed by SMS Research, in consultation with the Hawai‘i Community Foundation. The survey instrument was designed to identify which types of households tend to give or volunteer to charitable causes and organizations. The survey further explored how the giving is done, how much is given, who benefits from the giving, and what motivates households to give. All giving data were captured on a household basis, where households were defined according to tax return practice. That is, each survey respondent was instructed to define his/her household as him-/herself and any others (including dependents) who would be included on the same tax return, when filing taxes for 2014. The tax definition was set for three reasons: (1) to establish a consistent definition of “household” across all respondents; (2) to enable comparison against secondary tax data for validation of survey results; and (3) to use a definition which would be least dependent on survey respondents’ guesses as to the giving behavior of other household members outside of their immediate financial circle. The survey was designed using a software program for computer-aided telephone interviewing (CATI). Special care was taken in the construction of skip patterns and other computer instructions, in order to ensure that the survey would automatically adhere to the rules of logic and consistency during the interviewing process. A copy of the survey instrument, along with its programmed skip patterns, may be found in Appendix B of this report. Prior to the full deployment of the study, the survey was tested to ensure that the CATI software captured all of the data correctly and that all of the skips operated as expected in a live calling situation. Sample Design The target population for the household giving component of the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015 was defined as all tax-defined households in the State of Hawai‘i with a working telephone number. Partial-year residents of Hawai‘i were eligible for participation in this study, as well as full-year residents. The completed sample size consisted of 878 completed telephone interviews with tax-defined households in Hawai‘i. The margin of error associated with the overall results is plus or minus 3.31 percentage points at the 95 percent confidence level. The respondent households were selected using the random digit dialing (RDD) method. The RDD selection method involves simple random sampling, in which all tax households with working telephones have an equal chance of being selected. This form of selection provides the best method of selecting a sample that is representative of the population of interest. Consistent with telephone sampling best practices employed by national research agencies, SMS samples separately from both landline and mobile phone numbers. The number of households that do not Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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have landline service and rely solely on mobile phones for their telecommunication needs continues to increase. Sampling both landline numbers and mobile phone numbers is important to preclude the systematic exclusion of mobile-only households from the final sample. Data Collection All fieldwork was governed by SMS’ rigorous standards of quality control, designed to ensure quality and accuracy in the obtained data. All interviewers assigned to the survey were experienced SMS staff members, highly skilled in conducting telephone interviews. Even with their familiarity with telephone interviewing procedures, each interviewer received specific training for this survey, giving special attention to those sections or questions that might be particularly confusing or difficult to understand. The interviews were conducted from February 18, 2015 to April 3, 2015. All calls were placed from the SMS Honolulu Calling Center. An initial call was made to each randomly generated telephone number. If necessary, that call was followed by one to two additional attempts to contact an eligible respondent in the sample household. Interviewing hours were from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. on weekdays, and from 9:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. on weekends. A Calling Center supervisor was available at all times to monitor calls and assist the interviewers. Data Processing The majority of coding for this survey was done by the interviewers during the course of the interviews. The CATI software allows interviewers to enter respondents’ answers directly into a computer database. Open-ended questions were coded by SMS’ professional editing staff after the completion of fielding. The names of organizations and causes named by respondents as recipients of charitable giving and volunteering were coded into categories by SMS analysts, with assistance from the Hawai‘i Community Foundation. Appendix A contains a list of the categories used in final analyses of the data.

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APPENDIX B – CLASSIFICATION OF CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS

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The following definitions were applied by SMS Research for coding the organizations and causes named by household survey respondents as recipients of charitable giving. These definitions were taken from Appendix B of Giving and Volunteering in the United States, 1996, and modified slightly to better accommodate the needs of the current study.

a. Arts, Culture, and Humanities - Includes architecture, design, performing arts; culture/ethnic awareness groups, other cultural groups; historical preservation; humanistic societies; museums; art exhibits; operas; symphony orchestras; photography; theater; public television and radio. b. Education/Instruction (formal and informal) - Elementary, secondary or higher education (public or private, which may be church-affiliated or nonsectarian); libraries; research at educational institutions; adult education; informal education; educational fund drives for educational associations. c. Environment/Species Protection - Environmental quality protection, beautification; animal-related activities (exhibitions, public education, animal population control); protection and welfare; humane societies, wildlife and animal sanctuaries. d. Health (including mental health) - General and rehabilitation, including institutions and organizations for mental health and mental retardation and developmentally disabled; substance abuse; diseases (research and public education, etc.); hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, clinics, etc., crisis counseling, hotlines, etc.; fund drives of private health associations such as American Cancer Society; American Heart Association. e. Human Services - Day care centers; foster care services; family counseling; consumer protection; legal aid; crime and delinquency prevention; homelessness; employment/jobs; food; housing/shelter; public safety, emergency preparedness and relief; recreation, sports, athletics; United Way, Catholic Charities, Protestant Welfare Agencies, United Jewish Appeal, and other combined multi-purpose charity drives. f. Philanthropy - Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Carnegie Foundation, etc., San Francisco Foundation, New York Community Trust, Boston Foundation, Cleveland Foundation, Fund for the City of New York, etc.

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h. Community Development - Civil rights, community and social action, advocacy (includes minority and womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equity issues); community improvement, community capacity planning; science; technology; technical assistance; voluntarism; philanthropy; charity, between groups, Rotary, Kiwanis, etc.; consumers organizations, advocacy organizations, such as nuclear freeze, antipoverty boards, etc. i. Recreation/Athletics - Membership clubs in such areas as swimming, boating, skiing, aviation, rifle marksmanship, hunting. j. Religious Organizations - Religion-related, spiritual development (includes giving to churches, synagogues, monasteries, convents, seminaries, etc.; but not giving to church-affiliated schools offering broad educational curricula, nursing homes, Catholic Charities, Jewish federations, etc.) k. Youth Development - Boy and Girl Scouts; Camp Fire Groups; 4-H Clubs; YWCA, YMCA, youth groups with religious affiliations, such as Catholic Youth Organizations, Little Leagues, and other athletic groups engaged in youth development. l.

Other - Any areas not covered under the above charitable areas.

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APPENDIX C – SURVEY INSTRUMENT

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HAWAI‘I GIVING SURVEY 2015 Q: INTRO1 Hello, I'm _____ with SMS Research, a Hawai‘i research company. We're doing a confidential survey about local community issues in Hawai‘i. We need your help to get an accurate picture of our State. Q: ISCELL Is this a cellular telephone? 1. Yes 2. No 9. (No, but my cell calls are being forwarded here)

Q: HH_RES3 Now, because this survey is about household giving, I really need to know how many people, including yourself, live in your household. Could you please tell me that number? Q: SWTCHRSP I'll be asking about any charitable giving or volunteering your household may or may not have done in 2014. Are you able to answer these questions? 1 - I can answer 2 - Someone else (PHONE IS TRANSFERRED) 9 - (DO NOT FILE ANY TAXES AT ALL) Q: HCFNAME Have you ever heard of the "Hawai‘i Community Foundation?" 1 - Yes 2 - No or don't know 9 - REFUSED Q: HCFKNW Now, from what you know or have heard, what kind of organization IS the Hawai‘i Community Foundation? -- What does it DO? [DO NOT READ LIST!!!] [PROBE:] What else does the organization do? ... What else? [ENTER ALL THAT APPLY] [DO NOT READ LIST] 01. Gives money / funds to other charities 02. Helps other charities with grant-applications 03. Helps other charities (general) 04. Provides grants 05. Provides scholarships 06. Fundraising - Asks people for money 07. Rich / Wealthy people give to them 08. Trust funds. Estate planning. Wills. 09. Large organization 10. Umbrella organization 11. Bishop Street. Located downtown. 12. Builds community. 13. Encourages people to give to others, help each other. 80. Other [Specify] 99 - DON'T KNOW, REFUSED

Q: HCFKNWX Other (specify):

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Q: OrgBad Warning cannot select '99' with other choices. [Press '1' to change the response code to an appropriate code.] 1. Change response to previous question HCFKNW Q: GIVEPREF In giving to a charitable organization or cause in 2014, did your household like to give... 1 - In money 2 - In time 3 - Or some of both? 4 - (OTHER METHOD) 8 - (WE DON'T GIVE TO ORGANIZATIONS / WE DON'T GIVE AT ALL) 9 - (DON'T KNOW; REFUSED) Q: NOT_GIVE Don't forget -- there's all sorts of ways people might give to charity. Maybe you donated canned goods or old clothes,...or maybe you bought something for a fundraiser,...OR volunteered time,...OR dropped some change into a donation box. ALL these things count. So, would you say your household DOES give to charity, or does NOT? 1. We DO give 2. We do NOT give Q: NJOINT1 If you heard of an opportunity to give to charity, and WANTED to give to it, would you normally... 1. Check with someone in your household first 2. Give, but tell the other person about it later 3. Or give without mentioning it to the other person? 4. (DEPENDS ON THE AMOUNT) 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: NJOINT2 About what dollar amount would make you want to first consult another person? Q: TRNSDEF I'm going to focus on your household's charitable giving for 2014. Please remember as best you can. And remember -- ONLY include what your household gave to CHARITABLE causes and organizations. Do not include political or legal causes. (IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN:) We're defining CHARITABLE giving the same way you would if you were trying to figure out charitable deductions for Federal tax purposes. For example, you COULDN'T count contributions to political issues or candidates, or to legal defense funds or lobbying. But you COULD count anything for charity -- like fighting hunger or crime, protecting the environment, or helping education, youth, art and culture, or things like that. Q: Meth In 2014, did anyone in your household give money to any charitable organizations or causes ... NOTE: Q: METH1 THROUGH Q: METH8 ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: METH1 FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: METH1 By cash, check, or credit card? 1 - YES, WE DID THAT 2 - NO 3 - DK/REF Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Q: METH2 Through automatic payments from a paycheck or bank account? Q: METH3 By giving stocks or bonds? Q: METH4 Giving a gift of real estate? Q: METH5 Giving an interest in a business? Q: METH6 Giving through a charitable trust? Q: METH7 Giving new or used items or canned goods? Q: METH8 Giving by volunteering your time? Q: NMETHX Is there anything else your household gave to charity in 2014 that I might have missed? [IF NO, ENTER [3]] [IF YES, ASK: What was it?] [DO NOT READ LIST; ENTER ALL THAT APPLY] 1. Yes - gave blood 2. Yes - (OTHER) 3. No, nothing else 9. (REFUSED) Q: METHOTHX Other (specify):

Q: Q28 Which of the following giving methods did your household use MOST for your charitable giving in 2014? [READ LIST; ALLOW UP TO 3 RESPONSES IF GIVEN, BUT DO NOT PROBE] 01 - Checks 02 - Cash 03 - Automatic payments 04 - Credit card 05 - Stocks or bonds 06 - Real estate 07 - New or used goods 08 - Canned goods or other food items 09 - ONLINE 88 - (NO METHOD WAS USED "MOST") 99 - (REFUSED) Q: TRNSMECH Now, before I ask you to name some of the charities your household gave to last year, let me first ask a few more general questions -- about some of the different TYPES of giving you might have done.

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NOTE: Q: MCHCHRCH THROUGH Q: MCHONLIN ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: MCHCHRCH FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: MCHCHRCH In 2014, did your household give offerings, tithes, or gifts to a church, temple, or other place of worship? 1 - Yes 2 - No, not sure 9 - (REFUSED) Q: MCHMAIL Did your household give to any charity, in response to receiving a letter or informational material through the mail? Q: MCHPHONE What about in response to receiving a request for donations over the telephone? Q: MCHMEDIA What about in response to a telethon, radio-thon, or other television or radio program? Did your household give that way in 2014? Q: MCHUW Did your household do any giving through the United Way in 2014? Q: MCHMTHLY And in 2014, did your household do any giving to charity in the form of monthly, or other regularlyscheduled giving? Q: MCHASK1 In 2014, did your household give to a charitable organization because you were asked by a friend, family member, or someone else you knew? Q: MCHASK2 What about giving to charity upon being approached, in person, by someone you did NOT know -- like a door-to-door visit, or at a shopping center or public place? Q: MCHATHON Did your household sponsor someone's participation in a charitable event like a run-a-thon, walk-a-thon, or read-a-thon in 2014? Q: MCHDRPIN Did your household give to any charitable organizations by dropping money into a charitable organization's contribution cup or box? [IF NECESSARY: For example, the contribution cups they sometimes pass around at the theatre or a special event OR a donation box like they have at some restaurants, fast food counters, or stores.] Q: MCHFUNDR In 2014, did your household support any charitable fundraisers by buying food products, tickets to a benefit event, or any other products or services? [IF NECESSARY: For example, some common charitable fundraisers include selling chili tickets, huli-huli chicken, or sweet bread, or having a bake sale, or a car wash. Things like that.] Q: MCHONLN T: 3 5 1 And did your household do any giving ONLINE in 2014? [IF NECESSARY: I mean, using the Internet to make a donation -- for example, submitting your donation to a charitable organization through its web-site.] Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Q: trnsmechx In 2014, did your household....? [READ LIST; CHECK ALL THAT APPLY] 01 - Give offerings, tithes, or gifts to a church, temple or other place of worship 02 - Give to any charity in response to receiving a letter or informational material through the mail 03 - Give to any charity in response to a request for donations over the phone 04 - Give to any charity in response to a telethon, radio-thon or other tv or radio program 05 - Give to the United Way 06 - Give to charity in the form of monthly or other regularly-scheduled giving 07 - Give to a charity upon being asked by a friend, family member or someone else you knew 08 - Give to a charity upon being approached by someone you DID NOT know 09 - Sponsor someone's participation in a charitable run-a-thon, walk-a-thon or read-a-thon 10 - Give to any charitable organizations by dropping money in the organization's contribution cup or box 11 - Support any charitable fundraisers by buying food products, tickets to a benefit event, or any other products/services 12 - Do any giving ON-LINE 98 - None of above 99 - (REFUSED) Q: ORGSA So far, we've been talking about HOW your household gave to charity in 2014. Now, I'd like to focus on MONETARY donations -- such as giving money, stocks, bonds, or real estate. Could you tell me WHICH charitable organizations and causes your household gave MONETARY DONATIONS to, in 2014? (PROBE:) Any others? [PROBE UNTIL ALL ORGS HAVE BEEN LISTED -- REMEMBER, ONLY MONETARY DONATIONS] SURVEY PROGRAMMING ALLOWED THE LISTING OF UP TO 30 CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS SURVEY PROGRAMMING PROMPTED INTERVIEWER TO PROBE FOR ADDITIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH DONATIONS WERE MADE. LIST OF ORGANIZATIONS AND CHECKS FOR PROPER ENTRY REPEAT AS LISTED ABOVE VIA Q: ORGSB AND Q: OrgBBad2. Q: TRNSAMTS Again, we're only talking about MONETARY donations for this question -- gifts of money, stocks, bonds, or real estate. I know it may be hard to remember back to 2014. But even just your BEST ESTIMATE of the total monetary amount per organization is helpful. A SERIES OF QUESTIONS FOLLOWS IN WHICH RESPONDENTS WERE ASKED TO INDICATE THE AMOUNT DONATED TO EACH OF THE ORGANIZATIONS LISTED IN THE PREVIOUS ITEMS. Q: AMT01 IS PROVIDES THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE QUESTION ASKED, AND REPEATS FOR EVERY LISTED ORGANZATION. Q: AMT01 What was the total amount your household gave to: [ORGANIZATION NAMED BY RESPONDENT IN PREVIOUS ITEM AUTO-INSERTED HERE] in 2014? [ENTER "BEST ESTIMATE" IN U.S. DOLLARS] [NO MONETARY AMOUNT GIVEN IN 2014 = 0] [REFUSED = 99999999] Q: CHKAMT1 So, just to confirm...It sounds like your household gave about $[AUTO TOTAL FROM PREVIOUS ITEMS APPEARS HERE] in monetary donations to charitable organizations in 2014. Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Does that sound about right? (IF YES, ENTER [1]) (IF NO, ASK:) Did you give MORE or LESS than $ 1. Yes, it's about right 2. No - We actually gave MORE than that 3. No - We actually gave LESS than that 9. (REFUSED) Q: CHKAMT2 What should the correct amount be? [ Q: CHKAMT3 What was missed earlier? [IF ANY AMOUNTS NEED TO BE CORRECTED, SPECIFY ORG NAME & CORRECT AMOUNT] [IF ANY ORGANIZATIONS WERE MISSING, SPECIFY ORG NAME & DONATION AMOUNT] Q: CHKAMT4 What needs to be corrected? [IF ANY AMOUNTS NEED TO BE CORRECTED, SPECIFY ORG NAME & CORRECT AMOUNT] [IF ANY ORGANIZATIONS SHOULD BE DELETED FROM LIST, SPECIFY WHICH ORG NAMES] Q: Q56 Now earlier, you mentioned that your household volunteered time to charity in 2014, right? 1. Yes, volunteered 2. No, did not volunteer 9. (REFUSED)

Q: Q57 Were there any charitable organizations or causes that your household volunteered for in 2014? 1. Yes 2. No, not sure 9. (REFUSED) Q: Q58 Which ones? SURVEY PROGRAMMING ALLOWED THE LISTING OF UP TO 15 CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS

A SERIES OF QUESTIONS FOLLOWS IN WHICH RESPONDENTS WERE ASKED TO INDICATE THE AMOUNT OF TIME DONATED TO EACH OF THE ORGANIZATIONS LISTED IN THE PREVIOUS ITEM. Q: VOLFRQ01 IS PROVIDES THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE QUESTION ASKED, AND REPEATS FOR EVERY LISTED ORGANZATION. Q: VOLFRQ01 Your volunteering at _was that ... 1. Weekly 2. Every other week 3. Monthly 4. Quarterly 5. Once or twice a year 6. As Needed 7. Other (specify) 9. (REFUSED) Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Q: HOWAMT Tell me if your household would agree or disagree with each of these statements about charitable giving: NOTE: Q: HOWAMT1 THROUGH Q: HOWAMT6 ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: HOWAMT1 FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: HOWAMT1 We always give about the same DOLLAR AMOUNT each year. Do you ... 1. Strongly agree 2. Somewhat agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Somewhat disagree 5. Strongly disagree 9. (REFUSED) Q: HOWAMT2 We decide how much to give to charity, based on advice from a FINANCIAL ADVISOR. Do you ... Q: HOWAMT3 We give a fixed PERCENT of our INCOME each year. Do you ... Q: HOWAMT4 We decide how much to give to charity, based on how much NEED is out there. Do you ... Q: HOWAMT5 The amount we give VARIES GREATLY from year to year. Do you ... Q: HOWAMT6 We decide how much to give to charity based on a percent of our total ASSETS. Do you ... Q: PCTINC1 You mentioned that your household tends to give a fixed percentage of your INCOME to charity each year. About what percent is that? Q: PCTINC2 Could you at least tell me if it's about... (READ LIST) 01. 1 or 2 percent 02. 3 to 5 percent 03. 6 to 9 percent 04. 10 to 12 percent 05. 13 to 15 percent 06. 16 to 20 percent 07. 21 to 30 percent 08. OR more than 30 percent? 99. (REFUSED) Q: PCTASST1 You also mentioned that your household tries to give a certain percent of your ASSETS to charity each year. About what percent is that? Q: PCTASST2 Could you at least tell me if it's ... (READ LIST) 1. less than 1 percent 2. about 1 to 2 percent 3. 3 to 5 percent Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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4 or over 5 percent? 9. (REFUSED) Q: GIVEWHO1 How did your household decide WHICH charities to give to in 2014? Was it pre-planned or more spontaneous? For example, would you say that... [READ LIST] 1. Less than 10 percent of the amount you gave was pre-planned, in terms of who you'd give to 2. 10 to 25 percent was pre-planned 3. 26 to 50 percent 4. 51 to 75 (percent) 5. 75 to 90 (percent) 6. or over 90 percent of the amount was pre-planned? 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: GIVEWHO2 And why did you choose those specific charities? [This is critical info...REALLY PROBE AND CLARIFY. TYPE RESPONSE.] Q: GIVELOC About what percent of your household's charitable giving, would you say, went to HAWAI‘I organizations? [READ LIST AS NEEDED] [IF NECESSARY: What percent of the total giving amount went to organizations that are either based in Hawai‘i, or have an office or chapter located in Hawai‘i?] 1. Less than 10 percent 2. 10 to 25 percent 3. 26 to 50 percent 4. 51 to 75 (percent) 5. 75 to 90 (percent) 6. or over 90 percent to Hawai‘i organizations? 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: TRNSMOTV There are all sorts of reasons people have for contributing to charitable causes. I'm going to name some reasons. And I'd like you to tell me what kind of influence it had on your household's charitable giving for 2014. For example, tell me if it was a BIG reason for you, a SMALL reason, NOT a reason in your 2014 giving, or something you're actually OPPOSED to. NOTE: Q: MOTIV01 THROUGH Q: MOTIV14 ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: MOTIV01 FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: MOTIV01 We gave, to help ease other people's pain and suffering. 1. Was it a BIG reason for your household, 2. A SMALL reason, 3. NOT a reason in your 2014 giving, 4. Or something your household is OPPOSED to? 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: MOTIV02 We gave, because we were asked by a friend, family member, or someone else we knew. Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Q: MOTIV03 We gave because we felt it was part of our community responsibility. Q: MOTIV04 We gave, because it made us feel good inside. Q: MOTIV05 We gave, as a way of honoring or commemorating someone we care about. Q: MOTIV06 We gave because we felt our contribution would help someone we care about. Q: MOTIV07 We gave because they were offering a special gift, or some special membership benefits, for their donors. Q: MOTIV08 We gave out of guilt. Q: MOTIV09 We gave so that our name, OR the name of a loved one, would be printed in a list of contributors, or on a plaque, or elsewhere. Q: MOTIV10 We gave so we could claim it on our tax return. Q: MOTIV11 We gave because we felt it was part of our responsibility before God. Q: MOTIV12 We gave because of our relationship or involvement with a particular organization or cause. Q: MOTIV13 We gave because we felt that particular organization was best suited to work for the cause we believe in Q: MOTIV14 We gave because it was presented as an emergency, or urgent situation. Q: FUTR1 I'm going to name a few issues that some people consider when planning for their financial future after retirement. For each one, please tell me if it is a HIGH priority, LOW priority, or NOT a priority for YOUR household. NOTE: Q: FUTR1a THROUGH Q: FUTR2f ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: FUTR1a FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: FUTR1a Having sufficient annual income to support my lifestyle is a: 1. HIGH PRIORITY 2. LOW PRIORITY 3. NOT A PRIORITY 9. (DK/REFUSED) Q: FUTR1b Having monetary reserves for emergencies is a: Q: FUTR1c Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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Leaving an inheritance for my heirs is a: Q: FUTR1d Making charitable contributions is a: Q: FUTR2 As part of planning for your financial future, does anyone in your household have a written... Q: FUTR2a Long range financial plan 1. YES, WE HAVE IT 2. NO 9. (DK/REFUSED) Q: FUTR2b Will Q: FUTR2c Estate plan Q: FUTR2d T: 3 5 1 Charitable Trust Q: FUTR2e Charitable Foundation Q: FUTR2f Donor Advised Charitable Fund Q: FUTR3 Did your household consult any of the following types of professional advisors when making future financial plans? 1. Accountant 2. Banker 3. Financial Planner 4. Lawyer 5. Trust Officer 6. Any other type of advisor? 8. (NONE OF THESE) 9. (REFUSED)

Q: FUTR3X Other (specify): TWO DATA ENTRY CHECKING/CONFIRMATION QUESTIONS WERE INCLUDED HERE TO PROMPT INTERVIEWER TO DOUBLE CHECK ACCURACY OF INFORMATION RELATED TO FUTURE PLANS Q: FUTR4 You mentioned that your household has... A long range financial plan A will An estate plan Is charitable giving a part of that plan? Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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1. Yes (for one or more) 2. No, none 9. (DON'T KNOW, REFUSED) Q: FUTR5 Did an advisor assist you with determining the amount or type of charity to support in that plan? 1. Accountant 2. Banker 3. Financial Planner 4. Lawyer 5. Trust Officer 6. Any other type of advisor? 8. (NONE OF THESE) 9. (REFUSED) Q: FUTR5X Other (specify):

Q: FUTR6 How much did each of the following influence your household's decision to include charitable giving in your financial planning? For each one, tell me if it influenced you a lot, some, or not at all.

NOTE: Q: FUTR6a THROUGH Q: FUTR6e ALL USE THE SAME RESPONSE SET. SEE Q: FUTR6a FOR THE RESPONSE OPTIONS. Q: FUTR6a Recommendations of family members or friends 1. A LOT 2. SOME 3. NOT AT ALL 9. (DK/REFUSED) Q: FUTR6b Stories about giving in the newspaper, TV, or magazine Q: FUTR6c On-line research about charitable giving Q: FUTR6d Having an on-going relationship with an organization or cause Q: FUTR6e It's part of a family tradition Q: FUTR7 Did anything else influence your household's decision to include charitable giving in your financial planning? 1. Yes (SPECIFY) 2. No 9. (REFUSED) Q: INFSRC Other than a financial advisor, where else do you look for information, when deciding what charitable organizations to support? Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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[DO NOT READ LIST; ENTER ALL THAT APPLY IN THE ORDER MENTIONED] 01. Television 02. Radio 03. Newspapers 04. Magazines 05. The Internet 06. Friends and family 07. Direct Mail 70. (OTHER - SPECIFY) 88. (NONE OF THESE) 99. (REFUSED) Q: INFSRCX Other (specify): Q: Gender Now I just have a few questions for classification purposes only. 1 - Male 2 - Female Q: Zipcode What is your zip code? THIS ITEM WAS ACCOMPANIED BY INSTRUCTIONS TO CONFIRM THE ZIPS WERE CONNECTED TO HAWAI‘I. FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS APPEARED IF NECESSARY IF ZIPS WERE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH HAWAI‘I Q: HAWRES Are you a lifetime resident of Hawai‘i? [IF YES, ENTER [6]] [IF NO, ASK: How long have you lived in Hawai‘i?] [READ LIST AS NEEDED] 1. Less than 1 year 2. 1 to 5 years 3. 6 to 10 years 4. 11 to 20 years 5. More than 20 years, but not lifetime 6. Lifetime resident of Hawai‘i 9. (REFUSED) Q: HOMEOWN Do you own or rent the home you live in? 1. Own 2. Rent 3. Occupy without cash payment 9. (REFUSED) Q: SNOWBIRD Do you usually live outside the State of Hawai‘i more than 100 days per year? 1. Yes 2. No 9. (REFUSED) Q: Age What is your age? Are you... 01. 18 to 24 02. 25 to 34 03. 35 to 44 Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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04. 45 to 54 05. 55 to 64 06. 65 to 74 07. 75 to 84 08. OR 85 or older? 88. (UNDER 18) 99. (REFUSED) Q: Ethnic What is your ethnic background? [DO NOT READ LIST] [IF MIXED ASK: Are you part Hawai‘ian?] 01. Caucasian 02. Chinese 03. Filipino 04. Hawai‘ian or part-Hawai‘ian 05. Japanese 06. Korean 07. Samoan 08. Black or African-American 09. Hispanic or Latino 10. Mixed, not Hawai‘ian 80. OTHER (SPECIFY) 99. (REFUSED) Q: Marital And is your marital status ... 1. Single - never been married 2. Married 3. Separated, Widowed, or Divorced 4. Or Living with a partner? 9. (REFUSED) Q: HH_RES Including yourself, how many people live at this residence? [REFUSED=99] Q: HH_RES2 Is that the same number of people who were/will be included on your 2014 Federal tax return? REMINDER: NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN HOUSEHOLD WAS _ [IF NO FEDERAL TAX RETURN, ASK ABOUT STATE TAX RETURN] 1 - Yes (same number) 2 - No (different number) 9 - (DO NOT FILE ANY TAXES AT ALL)

Q: HH_TAX1 Including yourself and any dependents, how many people were/will be included on your 2014 Federal tax return? [ACCEPT VALUES FROM 0-98] [DO NOT ACCEPT "REFUSED"] [IF NO FEDERAL TAX RETURN, ASK ABOUT STATE TAX RETURN] [IF NO TAX-FILING AT ALL FOR 2014, ENTER "0"]

Q: Kids Have you ever had any children - either by birth or adoption? Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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1 - Yes 2 - No 9 - [REFUSED] Q: KIDSnum How many children do you have? Children: _ How many of those children are under age 18 and living with you at home? Under 18: _ Q: Employ1 And for your employment status, are you... 1. Employed full-time (at least 35 hours/week) 2. Employed part-time 3. A full-time student 4. A homemaker 5. Retired 6. OR Currently unemployed? 9. (REFUSED) Q: Employ2 Are you ... 1. Self-employed 2. OR Employed by someone else? 3. (BOTH) 9. (REFUSED)

Q: SEMPLOY1 How about your spouse's employment status? Is your spouse ... 1. Employed full-time (at least 35 hours/week) 2. Employed part-time 3. A full-time student 4. A homemaker 5. Retired 6. OR Currently unemployed? 9. (REFUSED) Q: SEMPLOY2 Is your spouse ... 1. Self-employed 2. OR Employed by someone else? 3. (BOTH) 9. (REFUSED) Q: WHENRET1 About how many years do you think it will be before BOTH you and your spouse are retired? [ENTER NUMBER OF YEARS] : _ [THIS YEAR = 0] [NEVER = 88] [DON'T KNOW, REFUSED = 99] Q: Educ What is the highest level of education you completed? 1. Up to 8th grade 2. Some high school 3. A high school graduate 4. Some college (1 to 3 years) Hawaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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5. College graduate with bachelor's degree 6. Some graduate school 7. OR a graduate or professional degree? 9. (REFUSED) Q: VOTE Did you vote in the 2014 general election? 1 - Yes 2 - No 9 - (DON'T REMEMBER, REFUSED) Q: Income Now, earlier you said you filed your 2014 tax return for _ people. On that tax return, about how much did you report for total gross income? Is it ... [READ LIST] [IF INITIAL REFUSAL, SAY: Approximate income levels are really important for a study on Hawai‘i giving. Could you just tell me the income CATEGORY? Nothing specific, just the category.] [IF RESPONSE FALLS ON BOUNDARY, SELECT THE UPPER CATEGORY] 01. Less than $15,000 02. $15,000 to $25,000 03. $25,000 to $35,000 04. $35,000 to $50,000 05. $50,000 to $75,000 06. $75,000 to $100,000 07. $100,000 to $150,000 08. $150,000 to $200,000 09. $200,000 to $250,000 10. $250,000 to $300,000 11. Or over $300,000 88 (DON'T KNOW) 99. (REFUSED) Q: Income2 Could you at least tell me if it was ... [if $300,000 exactly, then enter 1] 1. Above 2. OR Below $300,000? 9. (REFUSED)

Q: ASSETS Now, think about all of your household's assets. This would include any savings and investments, stocks, bonds, pensions, annuities, real estate OTHER than your primary residence, business holdings, personal property, or any other assets. Altogether, would you estimate your total assets at ... [READ LIST] [IF INITIAL REFUSAL, SAY: Approximate asset levels are really important for a study on Hawai‘i giving. Could you just tell me the broad asset CATEGORY? Nothing specific…just the category.] [IF RESPONSE FALLS ON BOUNDARY, SELECT THE UPPER CATEGORY] 1. Less than $500,000 2. $500,000 to $1 million 3. $1 to $2 million 4. $2 to $3 million 5. $3 to $5 million 6. OR $5 million or more? 8 (DON'T KNOW) Hawai‘i Community Foundation Giving Study 2015 SMS Research & Marketing Services

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9. (REFUSED) Q: ASSETS2 Could you at least tell me if it's... [IF $5-MILLION EXACTLY, THEN ENTER [1]] 1. Above 2. OR Below $5 million? 9. (REFUSED) Q: ITEMIZ1 And for your Federal and State tax returns for 2014, did you/will you itemize your deductions or just take the standard deduction? [READ LIST IF NEEDED] [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN: It's easier for most people to just take the standard deduction when doing their tax return. But some people prefer to itemize -- that is, they use a separate form, Schedule A, to LIST OUT their medical expenses, charitable giving, and other deductible items.] 1. Itemized both Federal & State 2. Itemized Federal, but not State 3. Itemized State, but not Federal 4. Standard deduction for both Federal & State 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: ITEMIZ2 And when you itemized, did you include your CHARITABLE GIVING AMOUNTS? [ANSWER CAN BE FOR FEDERAL OR STATE OR BOTH] 1. Yes (at least part) 2. No, none of them 8. (DON'T KNOW) 9. (REFUSED) Q: DEPENDNT And how many dependents, if any, are you claiming on your 2014 Federal tax return? [IF NO FEDERAL TAX RETURN, ASK ABOUT STATE TAX RETURN.] [NONE = 0] [REFUSED = 99] [WE DON'T FILE ANY TAXES = 88]

Q: MILITARY Are you or anyone in your household in the active duty U.S. military service? 1 - Yes 2 - No 9 - (DON'T REMEMBER, REFUSED)

Q: NAMEX Okay, those are all the questions I have. May I please have your first name, in case my supervisor needs to verify I did this survey? Q: PAU I truly appreciate your time. Thank you so much.

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A Report on Charitable Giving in Hawaii  

This report summarizes the primary findings from the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015. Commissioned by the Hawai‘i Community Foundation (HCF), the...

A Report on Charitable Giving in Hawaii  

This report summarizes the primary findings from the Hawai‘i Giving Study, 2015. Commissioned by the Hawai‘i Community Foundation (HCF), the...