Page 1

8.28.09

Dr. Brielmann Dear student and parents/guardians, Welcome to Chemistry! This packet contains 1. A syllabus 2. A student survey to be completed in class 3. A safety contract The safety contract must be signed and returned to me by tomorrow; students cannot begin lab work until it is signed and returned. Homework (5 points): Please have on your desk tomorrow, and each day 1. A 3 ring binder with this packet inserted (please do not use pockets). 2. A scientific calculator 3. A pen or pencil 4. Your completed homework: for tomorrow: this is your signed safety contract and 3 ring binder. 5. Read the story “How I got hooked on chemistry� which is in this packet. More information about this course can be found at the class website: Chemistryadventure.com

Thanks in advance for your cooperation, Dr. Brielmann

1


Chemistry Dr. Brielmann Syllabus Introduction Welcome to chemistry! I look forward to working with you this school year. The purpose of this handout is to summarize the goals, content, grading policy, and class expectations for this school year. What is everything made out of? That is the essential question for this course- the same question that the we all naturally ask as we look at the world around us. For a few of you, opening your mind to the world of chemistry may change the course of your life, as it did for me. For all of you this course will help you to understand the world around you. Content Here are the chapters we will cover. Each chapter will last for 1-2 weeks, and most chapters will be tested individually. 1. Introduction to Chemistry 2. Data 3. Matter 4. The Atom 5. Electrons

6. The Periodic Table 7. Chemical Bonding 8. Chemical Reactions 9. The Mole 10. Gases 11. Solutions.

12. Energy 13. Reaction Rates 14. Equilibrium 15. Acids and Bases

The System At the beginning of each of the 15 chapters shown above, each student will receive a packet to be inserted in your 3-ring binders. It includes everything you need for the chapter- labs, worksheets, and slides. You will also receive a textbook that you may keep at home for evening homework. At the end of the chapter you will be tested, and your notebook will be collected. Class Rules 1. Notebook open at the bell, homework out 2. Listen while others are speaking 3. Respect each other 4. No ipods, cell phones, food, or drink in classroom. These rules are in place to help promote a friendly, hard-working classroom environment.

2


Common Issues 1. Late to class Students who are late to class without a pass will receive a minor point deduction on their next test. for each tardy. Two tardies results in an email to your parents. Three tardies leads to a detention. 2. Arriving unprepared. Students who do not have a binder, calculator, and a pencil will receive a minor point deduction on their next test. Daily homework is worth 5-10 points. 3. Ipods and cellphones visible in class Ipods and cellphones will be confiscated if seen, and delivered to the student affairs center. You will be permitted to use internet capable devices such as iphones only when specifically requested by the teacher. 4. Lab Groups of more than 2 To receive credit for a lab experiment your group must be no more than 2 students. 4. Absences Unexcused absences are treated in accordance with the student handbook. Students are responsible for making up lost work and will still have to take each test. Make-ups are available for students with a score of less than 70%. 5. Homework from other classes Will be confiscated if students work on it in class unless specifically instructed otherwise. 6. Students not seated or not in assigned seats Please remain seated in your assigned seat unless instructed otherwise 7. Unsafe laboratory practices This is a serious offense and will result in immediate removal from class and detention. Grading Policy This class uses a “pure points” system: your grade will be determined by the points accumulated from homework, tests, and lab reports. For, example, you might earn 90 points on a 100 point exam, and 5 points on a 10 point quiz. Your average at that point would be 95 points out of a possible 110 total points for an “average” of 86%. Your grade can be accessed on PowerSchool through the GHS website, also available on the chemistryadventure website. During any type of testing, there will be no communications in any form with any other student(s). Should such communications take place, the student(s) will receive a grade of zero on the test. What to bring to class 1. An up to date 3 ring binder with chapters and homework. 2. A scientific calculator 3. A pen or pencil

3


Homework There will be a moderate amount of homework assigned and posted to the right of the chalkboard, and on the chemistryadventure website most days. Please have it in your open binder on your desk completed at the beginning of class each day for grading. Most assignments will be checked at the beginning of the class the next school day for credit. No credit will be given for late homework. Keep up with the homework and the tests will likely go well. L1, Honors L1, Honors Conceptual Conceptual Read Problems Chemistry Chemistry Read Problems 1. Introduction to 1-11, 46-53, p. 31: 1 Chemistry p. 53: 1,2,4,5,7,11,12 2. Data 12-18, 55p. 14: 1-3 58, 63 p. 31: 6,7,8,9,10, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38 p. 59: 1-3 p. 63: 1, 2,3,4,5,6 3. Matter 22-27 4. The Atom 74-88 p. 89: 234-235 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 p. 236: 1,2 5. Electrons 90-98 p. 99: 1-11 6. The Periodic Table 116-122; p. 122: 1-14 124-131; 1-13 132-141 Optional: 142-147 7. Chemical Bonding 158-165 p. 165: 1-13 166-175 p. 175: 1-10 176-179 p. 180: 1-8 190-198 p. 198: 199-207 1,3,5,6,7,11,12,14 Honors p. 207:1-13 only: p. Honors only: 1-11 208-213 8. Chemical Reactions 9. The Mole 100-101 p. 102:1-4 224-233p. 103: 1-3 236-238 p. 228: 1-4 p. 229: 1-5 p. 230: 1-4 p. 233: 1-13

4


p. 239: 1,2 10. Gases 11. Solutions. 12. Energy

38-45; 60

p. 45: 1,2,3,5,6,12 p. 61: 1-4

13. Reaction Rates 14. Equilibrium 15. Acids and Bases 1. Introduction to Chemistry 2. Data 3. Matter 4. The Atom 5. Electrons 6. The Periodic Table 7. Chemical Bonding 8. Chemical Reactions 9. The Mole 10. Gases 11. Solutions. Textbook The honors and level one classes are based on the textbook Chemistry (Holt Publishers), and the Conceptual Chemistry classes use the book Conceptual Chemistry. They will be handed out on the first day, and students may keep them at home for evening homework assignments. A set of class textbooks will be available. Students are fiscally responsible for the textbooks, which must be returned at the end of the school year in good shape. Absences and Makeup Tests If you are absent from class it is your responsibility to find out what you missed and make up any missing work. Daily and weekly lessons and homework are posted in class, and on the chemistryadventure website; this is where to find out what you missed. Contact me if you have missed class- you will still have to take the test. Note: New for this year are screencasts for each unit. These consist of a series of 5 minute videos explaining the slides for each unit. They will be assigned as homework, and are useful for review and missed classes. To use them, take out your packet, open it to the slides, and watch the screencast, taking notes as you go. By watching the screencast before the lesson, you will be reinforcing what you have learned. The screencasts can be found on the chemistryadventure home page.

5


All students must take each test regardless of the number of absences. A makeup test is available to all students with a score of 70 or less; scores will be averaged. To help invite your best effort on the first attempt, the makeup test is designed to be more challenging than the first test. Fiscal Responsibility Students are fiscally responsible for instructional equipment including laboratory materials and the textbooks. Ipods and Cellphones The school policy will be enforced- cell phones and ipods are not allowed in the classroom. They will be confiscated if they are seen at any time in the classroom. Media Privacy Occasionally there may be photographs or videos taken of us in the classroom. Although these are usually popular for the students and are good for the class morale, it is important for each student to know that their right not to be photographed or videotaped is important and will be respected. Additionally, any photos or videos that are taken in the classroom will never be shared outside the classroom. Each student was mailed a media privacy form at the beginning of the year. Please let me know if you prefer not to be photographed or videotaped. In the News We will begin most days of class with an In The News presentation by a member of the class highlighting any chemical discoveries that were made recently. These are brief presentations that are emailed to me the day before each presentation. For examples see the “In the news” section at chemistryadventure.com. Use the presentations on the site as models for your own presentations. How to submit an “In the News” Presentation Create your in the news presentation and email it to me at brielmannh@guilford.k12.ct.us Final Note to students/Parents/Guardians Please contact me whenever (brielmannh@guilford.k12.ct.us).

you

wish.

I

prefer

to

communicate

by

email

Again, welcome to the world of chemistry. I look forward to working and learning and exploring with you this year. Dr. Brielmann

6


(Dr. B.)

7


Lab Safety Contract You and your parent must read and sign this contract before performing any experiments. Important addition: The internet, and YouTube in particular, may contain extremely hazardous videos that include explosions, fire and even bombs. Parents, please monitor your children carefully to be sure they never attempt to perform any at-home experiments- they can lead to severe injury or death. 1. The science laboratory can provide you with the exciting opportunity to do science. However, remember at all times that the laboratory is a place for serious work. Fooling around or disruptive behavior will result in removal from the laboratory. 2. Always prepare for an experiment by reading the directions for the experiment before you come to the laboratory. Follow the directions carefully and intelligently, noting all precautions. Note the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) precautions for each chemical. Do not add to, omit or change any of the directions unless your teacher instructs you to do so. 3. Know the location of the Chemical Safety Policy and the MSDS. These include handling precautions, disposal techniques and other pertinent information as noted on the MSDS for each chemical. 4. Do only the experiments assigned or approved by your instructor. Unauthorized experiments are prohibited. 5. Read the label to be sure of the contents and information provided by the MSDS. Do not use any chemicals stored in unlabeled bottles. 6. Throw all solids and paper to be discarded into the chemical waste jar or other location directed by the teacher. Discard chemical waste as per MSDS instructions. Follow directions for recycling products of your experiments per directions from your instructor. 7. Never discard matches, filter paper or any other slightly soluble solids in the sink. Please clean the sink at the end of each lab. 8. Know the location of the eye wash, hood, blanket station, and the laboratory evacuation exit procedure. In the rectangle on the other side of this page, diagram the lab area noting the locations of all safety equipment, exits, fire alarms, etc. Note the location of the Chemical Safety Plan and MSDS envelope for experiments. 9. When working with corrosive materials, goggles, gloves and lab aprons must be worn throughout the lab period until ALL your classmates have completed the lab and the chemicals are safely stored. The rule for goggles is simple: If the instructor has them on, you should have them on, even if you have completed your experiment. 10. Do not touch chemicals with your hands.

8


11. If acid or another corrosive chemical is gets in your eyes, wash with water for at least 15 minutes. Notify your instructor immediately. 12. Never taste a chemical solution. 13. No food (including candy or gum) or drink is allowed in the laboratory. 14. Sports cap drink bottles may be allowed (at teacher’s discretion) but may not be used during laboratory activities using chemicals. Never have a water bottle at a lab station. 15. When observing the odor of a substance, do not hold your face directly over the container. Fan a little of the vapor toward you by sweeping your hand over the top of the container. 16. Allow ample time for hot glass to cool. Remember that hot glass looks like cool glass. 17. Report any accident, even a minor injury, to your instructor. 18. Long hair must be tied back securely. 19. Never return unused material to stock bottles. Do not put any object into a reagent bottle except the dropper with which it may be equipped. 20. Keep your apparatus and work area organized. Avoid spillage, but if you do spill something, clean it up immediately using proper technique. Put your own equipment into your drawer and/or return any special apparatus to its proper place at the end of the period. 21. During clean-up time, attend to your assigned area duties. All duties must be completed before leaving the laboratory. Wash hands thoroughly with soap at the conclusion of each lab. 22. Respect your equipment and fellow laboratory workers. 23. Handle all spring-loaded and projectile devices with extreme caution to prevent accidental release or discharge. 24. Back packs and book bags must be stored under your table or on your chair out of the aisles to accommodate proper egress from the lab/classroom. 25. Students are not to work in a laboratory unless an instructor is present. All student experiments are to be done under the direct supervision of an instructor. 26. Open toe shoes/sandals and loose fitting clothing or jewelry are not permitted during specifically designated laboratory activities. Your instructor will notify you in advance of the activity. 27. Science department regulation states that safety goggles (flexible plastic with ventilating ports for chemical splash and glass breakage standard) must be worn by all students, teachers and

9


visitors in the laboratory during work periods including clean-up time in accordance with State Statute. Science Department Policy and State Statute: “Any person who is working, teaching, observing, supervising, assisting or engaging in any work, activity or study in a public or private elementary or secondary school laboratory or workshop where the process used tends to damage the eyes or where protective devices can reduce the risk of injury to the eyes concomitant with such activity shall wear an eye protective device of industrial quality in the manner in which such device was intended to be worn.” In order to maintain a safe working environment, teachers are required to remove from the classroom any student out of compliance. I HAVE READ THE ATTACHED SAFETY RULES AND HAVE BEEN PRESENT WHEN THEY WERE DISCUSSED IN CLASS OR DIRECTLY WITH MY SCIENCE TEACHER. _____ YES, I HAVE ALLERGIES/SENSITIVITIES: Print Name ______________________ Student Signature _____________________Period ______________________ I HAVE READ AND DISCUSSED THE LABORATORY SAFETY RULES WITH MY CHILD. Parent Signature __________________________

Date _______________

10


Name______________________________ Period_________ Chemistry Dr. Brielmann Student survey Parent/guardian names:________________________ ___________________ Your email address (please write neatly):_______________________________ What Science courses have you recently taken? Year____________________ Course ________________Teacher________ Year____________________ Course ________________Teacher________ Please fill out the following table: Definitely not interested

Not interested

neutral

Interested

Very Interested I am concerned about the environment I am concerned about meeting America’s future energy needs I am curious about hydrogen as an energy source I would like to know how a battery works I would like to learn about nuclear power I am considering a career in medicine I would like to learn about the chemistry of steroids I like to watch stuff explode

Do you have internet access at home? Yes / No. Can you access the internet at school? Yes / no Do you have interned access on your cell phone? (It’s ok if you do) What do you plan to do after high school? What colleges or universities are you applying to? Tell me a little about yourself.

11


Notebook Check Throughout the school year your notebook will be checked weekly to help keep you organized, and to keep you from falling behind. This notebook will be a valuable reference in college, and I encourage you to hold on to it. It is critical, however that you do not share it with any students who may be later taking this course. Aside from the fact that it is considered cheating, it means they will not get the opportunity to discover any of the concepts and ideas for themselves. Your notebook will generally be collected on Fridays, and will be returned on Mondays. It will also be randomly collected during the year to help you keep it up to date, and for periodic grading of labs and worksheets. Please do your best to keep everything organized and follow these rules1. Make the front page your notebook check page, always. Reinforce the 3 holes. 2. Insert chapters, tests, and all class handouts chronologically: chapter 1 on top, chapter 15 at the end. 3. Do not use pockets. Everything must be punched and in the binder. 4. Complete all assigned worksheets and slides for credit. 5. Have the notebook opened to your completed homework assignment at the beginning of each class to receive credit. On the following page is your schedule for notebook checks. Please keep it at the front of your notebook so I can find it easily.

12


Notebook Check Schedule: Please make this the first page in your notebook, always. Reinforce each of the 3 holes. Date

Score

Comments

13


Chemistry

Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry How I got Hooked on Chemistry

In 1979 I took a course at the University of Connecticut called Advanced Organic Chemistry. Our Professor was Sam Huang, who gave us instructions on the first day and then we rarely saw him again. We were told we had to complete three experiments: 1. Identify an unknown pure chemical sample 2. Purify and identify 2 unknown chemicals in a mixture 3. Create a new chemical He gave each of us a vial with a liquid or a powder in it. We had three weeks to identify it. Mine was a shiny white solid. Under a magnifying glass it appeared as flat white plates. It melted sharply at 212 degrees Celsius. A big clue was discovered when I placed it under ultraviolet light- it glowed with a bright blue color. With this information I was able to correctly identify the solid as Anthracene, a constituent of coal. Next, he gave each of us another vial. We were told it was a mixture of two chemicals. We had three weeks to separate and identify them. This time the vial had a dull white powder in it. I watched as my lab partners set up complex chromatography and distillation devices and began tedious separations of their mixtures. Ugh. Under a magnifying glass two distinct crystals could Anthracene be identified- needles and plates. It took a couple days, but I was able to separate my mixture using a pair of tweezers and the magnifying glass, and identify each sample. Finally, we had the rest of the semester to make a new chemical. I got so excited about this one that I skipped spring break and spent it at the library. Yes, I had become a science nerd, big time. It was my first time reading real accounts of chemical research and I found it fascinating. Here people were creating chemicals to treat cancer, make bulletproof plastics, all sorts of projects ‌ but what really interested me was the field of natural products- the study of natural, not manmade, chemicals. I found a research paper where the individual chemical that creates the main flavor of pineapples and strawberries was created in the lab. It was called furaneol, and I decided I would make my own version of it with a slight chemical change designed to give it a sweeter taste. The initial experiments were a disaster. There were chemicals I needed that weren’t in the O stockroom. My lab partners were goofing off while I was working with dangerous chemicals. And soon the deadline was approaching, but in the end I managed to make a small amount of a white solid, and the spectroscopic data matched the HO OH chemical structure. I realized that with enough effort any chemical one could imagine could eventually be made, and it seemed to me this was a powerful tool. I furaneol changed my major from biology to chemistry, and two years later I had my first job making chemicals designed to study cancer. In this class each of you will be given a similar opportunity to explore, imagine, and create using the chemical skills and knowledge from this class. In your first hands-on experiment you will be asked to create an artistic design using some safe, simple ingredients. By the time this class is near complete you will be ready to identify unknown samples and safely perform your own initial chemical research in a field of your choice.

14


Our first chapter: Introduction to chemistry, will follow the following tentative schedule: Day 1: Introduction to Chemistry Introductions, hand out packet, water into wine demonstration, whoosh bottle demonstration, class picture, class rules. Homework: Get safety agreement signed by parents. Read “How I got hooked on chemistry�. Bring in 3 ring binder, pencil, and calculator Day 2: Chemical Rainbow Lab Notebook check, Homework check. Homework: Complete chemical rainbow lab. Prepare for notebook check Day 3 :Activity: The Periodic Table of Our Class Notebook check, homework check, distribute class pictures. Homework: Work on Periodic Table of our Class Posters; due date to be assigned in class. Complete Unit 1 Slideshow assignment on Chemistryadventure.com Day 4: Slideshow: Introduction to Chemistry Notebook check, collect Periodic Table of Our Class Posters. Homework: Complete Introduction to chemistry worksheet (WS 1.1) and Introduction to chemistry worksheet (WS 1.2) Day 5: Review Homework: Complete how to ace your first chemistry test worksheet; study for test. Day 6: Test- Introduction to Chemistry

15


Names________________________________________________ Period_________

Identification of Pure Unknown Substances

lab1.1

Score: ____/6

An opportunity to light things on fire Each of you will be given six pure substances: methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, butanol, and water. Their chemical structures are shown on the next page. They are in numbered bottles. Your goal is to identify each one. To assist you, authentic samples of each –labeled- are available for comparison. Work safely and carefully as directed by your instructor: chemistry labs are always potentially dangerous. Wear goggles, tie back your hair, keep flammables well away from the flame. Take notes as your instructor burns each known liquid. As the samples are passed around, try to describe the odor of each: Water Methanol Ethanol Propanol 70% butanol Isopropanol Flame color odor Residue? Now, carefully smell (waft) and burn each unknown to identify them. 1

2

3

4

5

6

Flame color odor Residue? identity Questions: Here are the chemical structures of the six substances:

H-O-H Water

Methanol

ethanol

n-propanol

iso-propanol

butanol

1. Water has a formula of H2O, Ethanol has a formula of C2H6O. Provide the formulas for the others. Methanol:_____________ Propanol____________ butanol______________ isopropanol________ 2. Hydrogen (H) always has one chemical bond, and oxygen (O) always has 2. How many bonds does carbon contain?___________ 3. There is a saying: “HONC if you love chemistry�. How many bonds does nitrogen (N)contain?______

4. L1, honors only: Based on these formulas, provide a hypothesis why all of these substances are water-soluble except butanol. 16


5. Honors only: Draw a reasonable chemical structure for the major component of gasoline: hexane, C6H14. Can it be drawn in more than one way?

17


Name: ___________________________________Period: _____

Lab1.2

The Periodic Table of Our Class 30 Points Introduction: One of the biggest scientific discoveries occurred during the time of our civil war, when it was eventually determined that the universe consists of only about one hundred elements, and that they exhibit highly organized, periodic behavior. For example, elements number 2, 10, and 18 are inert and stable, while elements 3, 11 and 19 ignite when placed in water. Your task is to discover a similar periodicity for the students in this class. As an added challenge, three dimensional tables earn five bonus points. Directions: A form will be passed around in class to gather information about each student, and each of you will get a copy. Use this information to create an informative periodic table or our class. Grading will be based on: 10 points neatness: a superior poster has the same level of neatness as the periodic table in our classroom 10 points clarity: Obvious patterns exist throughout the table. The key is clear and brief, and like the periodic table, all organization is “global”, not “local”. This means that the patterns are throughout all rows and columns , not within each row and column. Ask me if you still aren’t clear. 10 points utility: A great class periodic table quickly shows obvious trends. For rectangular tables, the corners should show extremes. For example, one corner may show the oldest, most quiet student, and the opposite corner is the youngest, loudest student. This assignment must be completed and turned in on the date assigned.

18


1. You are an element. Fill in the information below and copy it on to the board.

Name Dr. B

Element Name Beenium

Element Symbol (Capital ize first letter Be

Age in days (16 years =5840 days; 17 years = 6205 days 18,396

Height in inches 67

Personality: Boring Nerd Interesting fascinating wild child Astrological Sign Taurus

nerd

IQ: Brain dead Not smart Smart Really smart off scale smart

musical style: silence Rock Punk club Rap Hip hop Other rock

3. Based on this information create a periodic table of our class. Note that the periodic table shows patterns for both rows and columns. Be sure to refer to the scoring guide and directions while creating your periodic table of the class.

19


Name ____________________________ Period_____________ lab 1.3 Chemical Rainbow Experiment 14 Points Objective; Use the materials listed below to create a visually stunning display that shows as many layered colors as possible. Be sure to provide a repeatable procedure so that anyone in the class could repeat your experiment. This is our first chemistry laboratory experiment. It is designed to let you discover that 1. Chemistry is fun! 2. A good experimental procedure can be repeated by anyone 3. Understanding physical properties such as solubility, density, and viscosity allow us to predictably manipulate chemicals. You will receive one point for each separate layer of color, and five points for a repeatable procedure. The effort and reproducibility of your lab report (this paper) are also worth 5 points. The group that creates the largest number of separate layers gets 5 bonus points. There may be additional bonus points for creating other solutions- listen to the instructions. Materials (May vary) Corn syrup Shampoo Strawberry syrup Corn oil Mineral oil Here are things we tried, and the results: We tried:

Water Sugar salt graduated cylinders Food coloring

Clear cups Watch glasses

Results:

Here is our final repeatable procedure to create a _____-layer rainbow (create a clear numbered list):

20


Discussion Solubility is the ability of one solution to dissolve in another. Example: Oil is insoluble in water Density is the mass of a substance for a given volume Example: Water has a density of 1 gram per milliliter; air is much less dense (0.001 g/mL) Viscosity is the resistance of a substance to flow. Example: Honey has a greater viscosity than water. Questions 1. Give an example of two substances in your experiment that are form an insoluble mixture (2 layers): ______________ and ____________. The sample with greater density is_________. 2. In this experiment, how does the density of your substance affect the results? _____________________________________________________________________ ____ 3. Is it possible for samples with a big difference is density to be soluble in each other? _______ 4. Two samples that are insoluble in each other can be made to form two layers, at least for a while, if they have a large difference in solubility/density/viscosity (circle one). Score: ____/4 layers + ____/5 for repeatable procedure + ___ bonus points + _____/4 questions= ________/14 points

21


Name_____________________________Period____________

WS1.1

What is Chemistry? Worksheet Introduction: For this school year we will be investigating chemistry together. Perhaps we should start by thinking about the word. chemistry What thoughts does it bring to mind? One place to get a feel for a real world definition is to Google it. One of the first things that comes up is, well, dating sites. Chemistry seems to imply a proper mixing of things, which is nice. Others who have had exposure to it before think of strange topics like the mole, and labs where mixing things creates strange colors and smells. Hopefully by now you have learned by now that chemistry is the study of matter. This means chemists such as yourself want to know not only what everything is made out of (our essential question for the year), but also how to mix things together to create new substances. The mixing part is fun, but finding out what everything is made out of can also be exciting. For example, a natural products chemist in 1962 isolated an extract from a simple pine tree (the pacific yew) that contained the chemical taxol, now used extensively for the treatment of many forms of cancer. The word chemical also seems to have two definitions- the one that scientists use, and the way everyone else thinks about it. We will always use the scientific definitions, but it would be unrealistic not to consider other viewpoints. Scientists consider be a chemical to a pure substance. Any pure substance. Water, for example. But out in the world, most people think of chemicals as substances that are BAD for you.

Please answer these questions to the best of your ability. 1. What is chemistry?

2. What do chemists do?

3. List 10 chemicals: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10

22


23


Name___________________________________Period____________

WS1.2

Introduction to Chemistry Worksheet Xiaozhang Zheng (his American friends call him Zang) is a friend of mine that worked for Neurogen, a small biotech company in Branford, Connecticut. Unfortunately they went out of business in 2008. He is a chemist that was part of a team working to develop a new pill for relieving pain. As of 2008 this medicine is in phase II clinical trials. The medicine is known currently as MK-2295, and it works in a brand new way, by docking into a receptor known at TRPV1. Here is your at-home homework assignment. Use the internet to answer these questions. 1. Describe the purpose of each of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) phases for experimental drug clinical trials: Phase I: Phase II: Phase III: Launch: 2. What is the status of MK-2295? Hint- you may want to try the following websites: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00387140?term=mk+2295&rank=1 and http://clinicaltrialsweb.blogspot.com/2008/03/caution-recommended-following-study-on.html

On a typical day my friend Zang arrives to work in the morning, has a cup of tea, and does a computer search for any important scientific updates that relate to his field. Then he goes into the lab and checks on any chemical reactions that have run overnight to see if they are complete. To do this he will pull out a small sample (an aliquot) and have them analyzed on some instruments in a nearby lab. Then he will start some new chemical reactions to make some more research drugs for testing. Those that are complete he will take over to a nearby building where they will be tested on some animal cell lines to see if they are effective, and safe. As the reactions are cooking he will prepare some stock aqueous solutions that he routinely uses during the day. Before he leaves at the end of the day he will draw some of the molecules he is planning for the next day on his computer and the computer will predict whether those compounds are likely to be safe, effective, and whether anyone else has made them before. Use your class notes to answer the following questions:

24


1. When is Zang acting as A. A computational chemist? B. A medicinal or organic chemist? C. An inorganic chemist? D. A biochemist? E. An analytical chemist? 2. Which data is Zang likely to consider more important, the predictions from his computer, or the results of his animal cell lines? Why? 3. Is there any time during Zang’s research when he is not working with matter? Provide an example. 4. Give an example of a time when Zang is involved in a science that is more applied (less basic) than chemistry. 5. What is an aliquot? 6. Draw the OHEC cycle for the scientific method, and include an example from Zang’s work for each step that shows the scientific method in action.

7. When testing his chemical Zang will compare his reaction mixture to authentic samples of both his starting material and his desired product to be sure things are going according to plan. Which sample acts as a positive control? Which sample acts as a negative control?

25


Name___________________________________ Period___________

howtoaceit1

How to Ace your First Chemistry Test Test 1 Unit 1: Introduction to Chemistry In this our first unit we were introduced to the world of chemistry. We began by asking ourselves what chemistry is, and what chemists do. As an example we showed how small chemicals can make large differences in color during the “water into wine” demonstration. We created a “Periodic Table of Our Class” to show how properties may be categorized. We also performed a solubility lab to introduce ourselves to observing and comparing the physical properties of some liquids. We then explored the branches of chemistry, and how chemistry fits in with the other sciences. We wrapped things up by reviewing a brief version of the scientific method, and the difference between accuracy and precision. In unit 2 we will explore data- how it is collected, and how it is analyzed. I’m sure you would all like to ace your first chemistry exam. Here’s how. 1. Test yourself on the topics below. 2. Review this packet in its entirety. Be familiar with each of the 10 topics that were covered in the powerpoint presentation. 3. Write down what you don’t know yet. If you don’t know something, ask a friend or ask me. 4. If you are missing anything it may be available on the class website: http://www.chemistryadventure.com note that the in-class material may be more recent than the website. This exam is based on in-class material. Topics: 1. What is chemistry? Chemistry is____________________ 2. What is matter? Matter is_____________________ 3. Branches of chemistry: organic, inorganic, analytical, medicinal, forensic, Physical a. organic: Organic chemistry is____________________ b. inorganic: Inorganic chemistry is___________________ c. analytical: Analytical chemistry deals with____________________ d. medicinal: Medicinal chemistry deals with___________________ e. forensic: Forensic chemists are all about__________________ f. physical: A physical chemist is only concerned with_____________________

26


In a physical change, ____________________________________ 4. The Scientific Method (OHEC): 5. Controls- negative and positive Negative controls ________________________. Example:_____________ Positive controls _____________________________ A control is a __________________________________ 6. Pure vs. applied science 1.___________2.___________ 3.__________ 4. ___________ 5.__________ 7. Qualitative and quantitative data Easy: Quantitative data involves_____________ 8. Accuracy and precision Accuracy:___________________ Precision:_______________ 9. Safety in the lab: where is the safety equipment? 10. What are meant by the terms solubility, viscosity, and density, and what how do they influence the mixing of solutions?

11. About how many elements are there, and what sort of periodic behavior do they have?

12. Level 1 only: You are responsible for the material covered in the “in the news� presentations. You should also be familiar with the work of Marie Curie : Irene Curie : Dorothy Hodgkin : Barbara McClintock: and Richard Schrock. Finally, for all students: Consider the positive and negative impact of chemistry on society.

27


Additional topics 2009 13. Use words to complete the following chemical equations Methanol + ____________  ____________ + ______________ Propanol + _____________  ___________ + ______________ Magnesium + __________  _______________________

14. A yellow and a red solution are slowly combined. They form 2 fairly distinct layers with the red layer on the bottom. However when stirred they form one orange layer. What is going on in terms of density, viscosity, and solubility? Density: Viscosity: Solubility: 15. What is wrong with this chemical symbol: HB

Be sure to review the screencasts, in the news presentations, and all textbook assignments. Good luck on the test.

28


Name___________________________________ Period________________

HTAI 1.2: additional topics

Introduction to Chemistry Unit 1 test Review: Additional Topics The core topics for unit 1 were covered in the slideshows, and are reviewed in the Unit 1 How to Ace it Guide. However, we also added several chemical demonstrations, some laboratory experiments, and for some classes, some assigned textbook reading. Here is the additional material you should know. 1. Combustion products (whoosh bottle demonstration) Most flammable liquids including gasoline, wood, and the alcohols we burned in class produce carbon dioxide and water as reaction products Example 1: Write an unbalanced chemical equation for the combustion of methanol, CH 4O: _________ + ___________ ďƒ ____________ + _________________ 2. Bonding based on the HONC mnemonic Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon form 1, 2, 3, and 4 bonds respectively. This can be used to convert a chemical formula, such as H2O into a chemical structure: H-O-H. Example 2: Draw the chemical structure of methanol, CH4O: Example 3: L1, Honors: Draw 2 possible structures for ethanol, C2H6O: Example 4: Honors only: Draw as many structures as possible for C3H6‌note that ring structures, as well as double and triple bonds are possible. 3. Be able to identify a pure sample that is either methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, acetone, or water based on simple tests such as odor, flame color, combustion residue, and solubility. 4. Compare and contrast density, viscosity, and solubility. Example 5: Compare vegetable oil and water using the above 3 terms.

29


5. Periodicity: Imagine a group of 9 people with the following ages and personalities Ages 11,14,17: calm Ages 12,15,18: normal Ages 13, 16,19: wacky Example 6: Create a periodic table that shows periodic trends for both rows and columns based on this data.

Describe as simply as you can the periodic behavior on which this table is based: If someone age 23 joined this group, one would predict their personality to be ___________. 6. L1, Honors only: Review the topics in the textbook reading assignment (1-11. 46-53) including signs of a chemical reaction, the discoveries of Teflon and mauve dye, and the chemicals responsible for ozone depletion. Example 7 (L1, honors only): When a cigarette is burning, what are the signs of a chemical reaction? Example 8 (L1, honors only): Summarize Perkin’s discovery of Mauve dye:

5. Chemical safety is paramount in this class. Common dangers include flames, toxic chemicals, and extremely hot and cold objects. Know how to deal with these real dangers. Example 9: Know the location of safety devices in this room including the Safety shower Eyewash Fire Extinguisher Fire Blanket Fume Hood

30

a. introductio to chemistry  

1. introductio to chemistry