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Programmed for success Pam Burke community@havredailynews.com 
 At a workshop for cattle and hay producers in Chinook Feb. 19, Beef Cattle Specialist Carla Sanford with Montana State University Extension spoke about the importance of fetal programming in developing replacement heifers that will be healthy, efficient and long-time producers in the herd. “Your heifers should be the genetic progress of your herd,” Sanford said, “but environment does play a part in these genetics.” Most commonly, Sanford said, people generally look at a living thing and think of its structure, its phenotype, as a product of its genetics, but epigenetic researchers study how environment, or outside forces, can alter the phenotype on a genetic level. Sanford added, though, that epigenetic research shows that one of the keys to getting the most longevity and productivity out of a replacement heifer’s genetics lies in the proper nutrition of that heifer before

Havre Daily News/ Jack Lambert Cattle eat hay in North-Central Montana. Studies indicate that nutritional gestation can have life-long impacts on cattle.

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www.havredailynews.com insurance option for hemp producers in select counties of 21 states for the 2020 crop year. The program is available for eligible producers in certain counties in Alabama, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Te n n e s s e e, V i rg i n i a a n d W i s c o n s i n . Information on eligible counties is accessible through the USDA Risk Management Agency’s Actuarial Information Browser. Among other requirements, to be eligible for the pilot program, a hemp producer must have at least one year of history producing the crop and have a contract for the sale of the insured hemp. In addition, the minimum

FARM & RANCH acreage requirement is 5 acres for CBD and 20 acres for grain and fiber. Hemp will not qualify for replant payments or prevented plant payments under MPCI. This pilot insurance coverage is available to hemp growers in addition to revenue protection for hemp offered under the WholeFarm Revenue Protection plan of insurance. Also, beginning with the 2021 crop year, hemp will be insurable under the Nursery crop insurance program and the Nursery Value Select pilot crop insurance program. Under both nursery programs, hemp will be insurable if grown in containers and in accordance with federal regulations, any applicable state or tribal laws and terms of the crop insurance policy.

Eligibility Requirements Under a regulation authorized by the 2018 Farm Bill and issued in October 2019, all growers must have a license to grow hemp and must comply with applicable state, tribal or federal regulations or operate under a state or university research pilot, as authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. Producers must report hemp acreage to FSA after planting to comply with federal and state law enforcement. The Farm Bill defines hemp as containing 0.3 percent or less tetrahydrocannabinol — THC — on a dry-weight basis. Hemp having THC above the federal statutory compliance level of 0.3 percent is an uninsurable or ineligible cause of loss and will result in the hemp

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production being ineligible for production history purposes. For more information on USDA risk management programs for hemp producers, visit farmers.gov/hemp to read the frequently asked questions page, available online at https://www.farmers.gov/mana g e / h e m p / F A Q s ? u t m _ medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery . For more information on the U.S. Domestic Hemp Production Program, visit USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Services’ website to read their frequently asked questions, available online at https://www.ams.usda.gov/ rules-regulations/hemp/questions-andanswers?utm_medium=email&utm_ source=govdelivery .

USDA expands market for U.S. wheat in Kenya From U.S. Department of Agriculture WASHINGTON —U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue announced Tuesday that, effective immediately, U.S. wheat may now be shipped to Kenya regardless of state of origin or port of export. This important step will allow U.S. wheat from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to be added to the list of states that can ship wheat to Kenya. “American farmers in the Pacific Northwest now have full access to the Kenyan wheat market,” said Greg Ibach, U.S. Department of Agriculture under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs. “This action proves our commitment to securing fair treatment and greater access for U.S. products in the global marketplace.” For the last 12 years, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has worked closely with Kenyan officials to address plant health concerns that kept U.S. wheat exports from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington out of Kenya. The U.S.-Kenya Trade and Investment Working Group, established after an August 2018 White House meeting between President Donald Trump and Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta, provided the forum for APHIS, USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to finally resolve this longstanding issue with Kenya. Kenya’s national plant protection organization officially signed Jan. 28 the Export Certification Protocol between Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service and APHIS/PPQ on Wheat Grain Consignments to Kenya for immediate implementation. The protocol gives

U.S. exporters full access to Kenya’s wheat market, valued at nearly $500 million annually. “Going forward, the USDA team looks forward to building on this success and further strengthening our relationship with Kenya as we pursue a new bilateral free trade agreement that will create additional market opportunities for U.S. producers and exporters,” said Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs Ted McKinney. After 12 years of discussion and a U.S. technical visit, Kenya agreed to lift its prohibition on U.S. wheat exports from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Kenya will now accept APHIS export phytosanitary inspection and certification for wheat from any U.S. state of origin or

port of export, effective immediately. As part of the technical agreement, APHIS will work with U.S. stakeholders to enhance general surveillance for flag smut of wheat —

Urocystis agropyri — in Idaho, Oregon and Washington and ask industry to support a technical visit from Kenya to examine crop surveillance measures for flag smut.


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USDA Farm Service Agency reminds of upcoming deadlines Producers urged to contact FSA ASAP if they haven’t completed paperwork From USDA Farm Service Agency USDA Farm Service Agency has remind-

ed Montana agricultural producers of important program dates and deadlines: • Feb. 28 was the last day of General Conservation Reserve Program Signup • March 2: Deadline for the 2019 Livestock Indemnity Program Application for Payment and all supporting documentation for timely filed 2019 LIP notices of livestock losses. • March 16: Last day of 2019 Agricultural Risk Coverage — Price Loss Coverage Enrollment and Program Election Period • March 16: 2020 Noninsured Crop

Disaster Assistance Program Coverage Application Closing Date for all Spring Crops except Spring-Seeded Canola, Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Mixed Forage • March 16: First day of 2020 CRP Spring Managed Grazing Period (prior approval required) • March 16: First day of CRP Grasslands Signup • March 31: Last day to apply for a 2019 Crop Marketing Assistance Loan or Loan Deficiency Payment for harvested Barley,

Canola, Crambe, Flaxseed, Honey, Oats, Rapeseed, Wheat and Sesame Seed. Visit https://www.fsa.usda.gov/Assets/ USDA-FSA-Public/usdafiles/State-Offices/ Montana/pdfs/2020_mt_fsa_deadlines_poster. pdf?utm_medium=email&utm_ source=govdelivery online to view or print all upcoming 2020 Montana FSA deadlines. Visit FSA online at www.fsa.usda.gov/mt and/or www.farmers.gov and contact your local FSA office to signup and with any questions.

March 16 is deadline to purchase hemp coverage Details of risk management programs for hemp producers announced From USDA Farm Service Agency USDA announced the availability of two programs that protect hemp producers’ crops from natural disasters. A pilot hemp insurance program through Multi-Peril Crop Insurance provides coverage against loss of yield because of insurable causes of loss for hemp grown for fiber, grain or cannabidiol — CBD — oil and the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program coverage protects

against losses associated with lower yields, destroyed crops or prevented planting where no permanent federal crop insurance program is available. Producers may apply now, and the deadline to sign up for both programs is March 16. Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program NAP provides coverage against loss for hemp grown for fiber, grain, seed or CBD for the 2020 crop year where no permanent federal crop insurance program is available. NAP basic 50/55 coverage is available at 55 percent of the average market price for crop losses that exceed 50 percent of expected production. Buy-up coverage is available in some cases. The 2018 Farm Bill allows for buy-up levels of NAP coverage from 50 to 65

percent of expected production in 5 percent increments, at 100 percent of the average market price. Premiums apply for buy-up coverage. For all coverage levels, the NAP service fee is $325 per crop or $825 per producer per

county, not to exceed $1,950 for a producer with farming interests in multiple counties.

Multi-Peril Crop Insurance Pilot Insurance Program The MPCI pilot insurance is a new crop

FARM & RANCH

www.havredailynews.com it is even born, especially the first and second trimester in utero, a period not always emphasized in feeding programs. Researchers have become more acutely aware of fetal programming from studies of the survivors of what is known as the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45, a period when WWII German troops set up blockades in portions of the Netherlands, Sanford said. About 4.5 million people, many of them women who were pregnant or of child-bearing years, were within the blockaded areas. During this period, the caloric intact for these people was reduced to about 500 calories a day, Sanford said, and what studies found is that

this affected the women’s fertility, weight gain during pregnancy and infant birth weight. While these statistics, seen in the aftermath of the blockade, were not surprising, what subsequent studies have found is that the offspring of women who were pregnant at this time had health problems as adults, she said. Most notably, she said, people who were in the first and second trimester of development had increased occurrence of heart disease as adults and those in the third trimester had increased occurrence of glucose intolerance, all in their adult years. What these and related epigenetic studies have shown is that intrauterine environment for the fetus needs to be an environmental consider-

Gestational Events Day Event – First trimester 0 Ovulation 18-22 Conceptus attachment to uterine wall 21-22 Heart beat apparent 28 Gonadal Ridge forms for female and male reproductive organs 25-30 Limb development 40-50 Formation of rumen 45 Testicular development 50-60 Ovarian development 60 Muscle fiber development, myogenesis, begins

Day Event – Second trimester 70 Rumen differentiation and stomach orientation complete 80 First adipose cells, fat cells, developing 120 Marked increase in vascular growth and blood flow 150 Completion of arterial vascularization Day Event – Third trimester 190 Brown fat is detectable 190-birth Cell differentiation and tissue growth continues

Critical times for key traits

• Muscle fiber and mass — early to mid gestation • Weaning weight — mid gestation nutrient restriction • Carcass weight — mid to late gestation • Birth weight — mid to late gestation • Marbling — mid to late gestation • Fertility — late gestation, but studies ongoing

ation, as well, she said. Studies have shown, for example, that fetal weight gain is pretty stagnant until about four months in utero a n d t h e n ta ke s a n o t h e r s h a r p i n c re a s e s ta r t i n g a t a b o u t s i x months, however, the cells that become muscle fiber start developing at two months in utero, Sanford said. Additionally, she said, placental function, which is a key influence on fetal growth in the last half of gestation, relies on the vascular beds connecting the uterus and placenta —

■ Success continued on page 7 Havre Daily News/ Jack Lambert A cow looks back at the camera. Controlling breeding, body condition and nutrition can improve the lifelong impact on calves.

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Success: Stress influences fetuses that will be next year’s calf crop n Continued from page 5 which were developed in the first half of gestation. What this means, she added, is that a myriad of stresses on the producing females are, from the first days of gestation, influencing the fetuses that will be next year’s calf crop. Common stresses include bred yearling heifers, which are maturing, and first-calf heifers and cows, which are recovering from calving and working on milk production, all developing a new fetus while foraging for pasture — and if the weather conditions are wrong that pasture could have inadequate nutrients. Some management considerations, though, can be controlled by beef producers, she said. Breeding Heifers should be at 50 to 55 percent of their expected mature body weight before breeding, she said, adding that this seemed to be an optimal number, along with the females being on an increasing plane of nutrition. A study Sanford cited showed that heifers at 55 percent of target mature body weight had a 92 percent pregnancy success rate within 45 days. Heifers at 60 percent of target mature body weight, cost significantly more per pound in feed and only had 88 percent breeding success.. She also recommended that heifers be given a prebreeding exam to determine pelvic size and puberty status. She added that heifers with a small pelvic area be eliminated from replacement herd and that breeding and estrus synchronization and artificial insemination not start until half of the heifers reach puberty. Body condition Body condition scoring is simply a visual assessment of fat coverage on an animal that helps determine basic nutritional needs of beef cattle, Sanford said. And whether producers use the U.S. 9-point system, the Canadian 5-point system or descriptions of thin, average or fat, the goal is to maintain a slightly above-average weigh on the cattle — with a score of 5.5, 3.3 or slightly above average fat, respectively. This means the cattle have no signs of weakness, muscle atrophy or the spinal structure; a hint of one or two ribs might show but the hip and pin bones will still be visible; and no to some fat will be visible in the brisket and flanks, but no fat will be built up around the udder or tail head. A study by Oregon State University, Sanford said showed that cows maintained at that optimal weight during the third trimester had an increase of calving rate, better weaning rate, with heavier calves, and better pregnancy rates. Sanford said she is a firm proponent of regular body condition scoring, recommending assessment of a representative sample of the herd at four different times of the year: prior to breeding, at the start of winter, prior to calving and prior to weaning.

Courtesy of Montana State University Extension Weaning time is an easy time to increase body condition, she added, but it’s easier to maintain than to rescue. Maintaining the correct weight on cows not only helps control the nutritional component of fetal programming, but it also shortens the interval from calving to first heat and improves breeding success rate.

Sanford recommended producers have samples of hay, pasture forage and water nutrient tested so they will know if their herd is getting adequate nutrition or if the cows need mineral supplements, which can be tailored to meet the herd’s needs. In the end, she said, this will pay for itself with better calves, healthier replacement heif-

ers that have longevity and productivity not just just bred into them, but programmed into them. Whether the intrauterine environment provides a stimulus or an insult during fetal development, Sanford said, it will have lasting impacts on a calf’s postnatal growth and its adult function.


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Success: Stress influences fetuses that will be next year’s calf crop n Continued from page 5 which were developed in the first half of gestation. What this means, she added, is that a myriad of stresses on the producing females are, from the first days of gestation, influencing the fetuses that will be next year’s calf crop. Common stresses include bred yearling heifers, which are maturing, and first-calf heifers and cows, which are recovering from calving and working on milk production, all developing a new fetus while foraging for pasture — and if the weather conditions are wrong that pasture could have inadequate nutrients. Some management considerations, though, can be controlled by beef producers, she said. Breeding Heifers should be at 50 to 55 percent of their expected mature body weight before breeding, she said, adding that this seemed to be an optimal number, along with the females being on an increasing plane of nutrition. A study Sanford cited showed that heifers at 55 percent of target mature body weight had a 92 percent pregnancy success rate within 45 days. Heifers at 60 percent of target mature body weight, cost significantly more per pound in feed and only had 88 percent breeding success.. She also recommended that heifers be given a prebreeding exam to determine pelvic size and puberty status. She added that heifers with a small pelvic area be eliminated from replacement herd and that breeding and estrus synchronization and artificial insemination not start until half of the heifers reach puberty. Body condition Body condition scoring is simply a visual assessment of fat coverage on an animal that helps determine basic nutritional needs of beef cattle, Sanford said. And whether producers use the U.S. 9-point system, the Canadian 5-point system or descriptions of thin, average or fat, the goal is to maintain a slightly above-average weigh on the cattle — with a score of 5.5, 3.3 or slightly above average fat, respectively. This means the cattle have no signs of weakness, muscle atrophy or the spinal structure; a hint of one or two ribs might show but the hip and pin bones will still be visible; and no to some fat will be visible in the brisket and flanks, but no fat will be built up around the udder or tail head. A study by Oregon State University, Sanford said showed that cows maintained at that optimal weight during the third trimester had an increase of calving rate, better weaning rate, with heavier calves, and better pregnancy rates. Sanford said she is a firm proponent of regular body condition scoring, recommending assessment of a representative sample of the herd at four different times of the year: prior to breeding, at the start of winter, prior to calving and prior to weaning.

Courtesy of Montana State University Extension Weaning time is an easy time to increase body condition, she added, but it’s easier to maintain than to rescue. Maintaining the correct weight on cows not only helps control the nutritional component of fetal programming, but it also shortens the interval from calving to first heat and improves breeding success rate.

Sanford recommended producers have samples of hay, pasture forage and water nutrient tested so they will know if their herd is getting adequate nutrition or if the cows need mineral supplements, which can be tailored to meet the herd’s needs. In the end, she said, this will pay for itself with better calves, healthier replacement heif-

ers that have longevity and productivity not just just bred into them, but programmed into them. Whether the intrauterine environment provides a stimulus or an insult during fetal development, Sanford said, it will have lasting impacts on a calf’s postnatal growth and its adult function.


8

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www.havredailynews.com

USDA Farm Service Agency reminds of upcoming deadlines Producers urged to contact FSA ASAP if they haven’t completed paperwork From USDA Farm Service Agency USDA Farm Service Agency has remind-

ed Montana agricultural producers of important program dates and deadlines: • Feb. 28 was the last day of General Conservation Reserve Program Signup • March 2: Deadline for the 2019 Livestock Indemnity Program Application for Payment and all supporting documentation for timely filed 2019 LIP notices of livestock losses. • March 16: Last day of 2019 Agricultural Risk Coverage — Price Loss Coverage Enrollment and Program Election Period • March 16: 2020 Noninsured Crop

Disaster Assistance Program Coverage Application Closing Date for all Spring Crops except Spring-Seeded Canola, Rye, Speltz, Triticale, Wheat and Mixed Forage • March 16: First day of 2020 CRP Spring Managed Grazing Period (prior approval required) • March 16: First day of CRP Grasslands Signup • March 31: Last day to apply for a 2019 Crop Marketing Assistance Loan or Loan Deficiency Payment for harvested Barley,

Canola, Crambe, Flaxseed, Honey, Oats, Rapeseed, Wheat and Sesame Seed. Visit https://www.fsa.usda.gov/Assets/ USDA-FSA-Public/usdafiles/State-Offices/ Montana/pdfs/2020_mt_fsa_deadlines_poster. pdf?utm_medium=email&utm_ source=govdelivery online to view or print all upcoming 2020 Montana FSA deadlines. Visit FSA online at www.fsa.usda.gov/mt and/or www.farmers.gov and contact your local FSA office to signup and with any questions.

March 16 is deadline to purchase hemp coverage Details of risk management programs for hemp producers announced From USDA Farm Service Agency USDA announced the availability of two programs that protect hemp producers’ crops from natural disasters. A pilot hemp insurance program through Multi-Peril Crop Insurance provides coverage against loss of yield because of insurable causes of loss for hemp grown for fiber, grain or cannabidiol — CBD — oil and the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program coverage protects

against losses associated with lower yields, destroyed crops or prevented planting where no permanent federal crop insurance program is available. Producers may apply now, and the deadline to sign up for both programs is March 16. Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program NAP provides coverage against loss for hemp grown for fiber, grain, seed or CBD for the 2020 crop year where no permanent federal crop insurance program is available. NAP basic 50/55 coverage is available at 55 percent of the average market price for crop losses that exceed 50 percent of expected production. Buy-up coverage is available in some cases. The 2018 Farm Bill allows for buy-up levels of NAP coverage from 50 to 65

percent of expected production in 5 percent increments, at 100 percent of the average market price. Premiums apply for buy-up coverage. For all coverage levels, the NAP service fee is $325 per crop or $825 per producer per

county, not to exceed $1,950 for a producer with farming interests in multiple counties.

Multi-Peril Crop Insurance Pilot Insurance Program The MPCI pilot insurance is a new crop

FARM & RANCH

www.havredailynews.com it is even born, especially the first and second trimester in utero, a period not always emphasized in feeding programs. Researchers have become more acutely aware of fetal programming from studies of the survivors of what is known as the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45, a period when WWII German troops set up blockades in portions of the Netherlands, Sanford said. About 4.5 million people, many of them women who were pregnant or of child-bearing years, were within the blockaded areas. During this period, the caloric intact for these people was reduced to about 500 calories a day, Sanford said, and what studies found is that

this affected the women’s fertility, weight gain during pregnancy and infant birth weight. While these statistics, seen in the aftermath of the blockade, were not surprising, what subsequent studies have found is that the offspring of women who were pregnant at this time had health problems as adults, she said. Most notably, she said, people who were in the first and second trimester of development had increased occurrence of heart disease as adults and those in the third trimester had increased occurrence of glucose intolerance, all in their adult years. What these and related epigenetic studies have shown is that intrauterine environment for the fetus needs to be an environmental consider-

Gestational Events Day Event – First trimester 0 Ovulation 18-22 Conceptus attachment to uterine wall 21-22 Heart beat apparent 28 Gonadal Ridge forms for female and male reproductive organs 25-30 Limb development 40-50 Formation of rumen 45 Testicular development 50-60 Ovarian development 60 Muscle fiber development, myogenesis, begins

Day Event – Second trimester 70 Rumen differentiation and stomach orientation complete 80 First adipose cells, fat cells, developing 120 Marked increase in vascular growth and blood flow 150 Completion of arterial vascularization Day Event – Third trimester 190 Brown fat is detectable 190-birth Cell differentiation and tissue growth continues

Critical times for key traits

• Muscle fiber and mass — early to mid gestation • Weaning weight — mid gestation nutrient restriction • Carcass weight — mid to late gestation • Birth weight — mid to late gestation • Marbling — mid to late gestation • Fertility — late gestation, but studies ongoing

ation, as well, she said. Studies have shown, for example, that fetal weight gain is pretty stagnant until about four months in utero a n d t h e n ta ke s a n o t h e r s h a r p i n c re a s e s ta r t i n g a t a b o u t s i x months, however, the cells that become muscle fiber start developing at two months in utero, Sanford said. Additionally, she said, placental function, which is a key influence on fetal growth in the last half of gestation, relies on the vascular beds connecting the uterus and placenta —

■ Success continued on page 7 Havre Daily News/ Jack Lambert A cow looks back at the camera. Controlling breeding, body condition and nutrition can improve the lifelong impact on calves.

March 2020

5


4

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March 2020

Programmed for success Pam Burke community@havredailynews.com 
 At a workshop for cattle and hay producers in Chinook Feb. 19, Beef Cattle Specialist Carla Sanford with Montana State University Extension spoke about the importance of fetal programming in developing replacement heifers that will be healthy, efficient and long-time producers in the herd. “Your heifers should be the genetic progress of your herd,” Sanford said, “but environment does play a part in these genetics.” Most commonly, Sanford said, people generally look at a living thing and think of its structure, its phenotype, as a product of its genetics, but epigenetic researchers study how environment, or outside forces, can alter the phenotype on a genetic level. Sanford added, though, that epigenetic research shows that one of the keys to getting the most longevity and productivity out of a replacement heifer’s genetics lies in the proper nutrition of that heifer before

Havre Daily News/ Jack Lambert Cattle eat hay in North-Central Montana. Studies indicate that nutritional gestation can have life-long impacts on cattle.

FARM & RANCH

Hi-Line

www.havredailynews.com

www.havredailynews.com insurance option for hemp producers in select counties of 21 states for the 2020 crop year. The program is available for eligible producers in certain counties in Alabama, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Te n n e s s e e, V i rg i n i a a n d W i s c o n s i n . Information on eligible counties is accessible through the USDA Risk Management Agency’s Actuarial Information Browser. Among other requirements, to be eligible for the pilot program, a hemp producer must have at least one year of history producing the crop and have a contract for the sale of the insured hemp. In addition, the minimum

FARM & RANCH acreage requirement is 5 acres for CBD and 20 acres for grain and fiber. Hemp will not qualify for replant payments or prevented plant payments under MPCI. This pilot insurance coverage is available to hemp growers in addition to revenue protection for hemp offered under the WholeFarm Revenue Protection plan of insurance. Also, beginning with the 2021 crop year, hemp will be insurable under the Nursery crop insurance program and the Nursery Value Select pilot crop insurance program. Under both nursery programs, hemp will be insurable if grown in containers and in accordance with federal regulations, any applicable state or tribal laws and terms of the crop insurance policy.

Eligibility Requirements Under a regulation authorized by the 2018 Farm Bill and issued in October 2019, all growers must have a license to grow hemp and must comply with applicable state, tribal or federal regulations or operate under a state or university research pilot, as authorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. Producers must report hemp acreage to FSA after planting to comply with federal and state law enforcement. The Farm Bill defines hemp as containing 0.3 percent or less tetrahydrocannabinol — THC — on a dry-weight basis. Hemp having THC above the federal statutory compliance level of 0.3 percent is an uninsurable or ineligible cause of loss and will result in the hemp

March 2020

9

production being ineligible for production history purposes. For more information on USDA risk management programs for hemp producers, visit farmers.gov/hemp to read the frequently asked questions page, available online at https://www.farmers.gov/mana g e / h e m p / F A Q s ? u t m _ medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery . For more information on the U.S. Domestic Hemp Production Program, visit USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Services’ website to read their frequently asked questions, available online at https://www.ams.usda.gov/ rules-regulations/hemp/questions-andanswers?utm_medium=email&utm_ source=govdelivery .

USDA expands market for U.S. wheat in Kenya From U.S. Department of Agriculture WASHINGTON —U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue announced Tuesday that, effective immediately, U.S. wheat may now be shipped to Kenya regardless of state of origin or port of export. This important step will allow U.S. wheat from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to be added to the list of states that can ship wheat to Kenya. “American farmers in the Pacific Northwest now have full access to the Kenyan wheat market,” said Greg Ibach, U.S. Department of Agriculture under secretary for marketing and regulatory programs. “This action proves our commitment to securing fair treatment and greater access for U.S. products in the global marketplace.” For the last 12 years, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has worked closely with Kenyan officials to address plant health concerns that kept U.S. wheat exports from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington out of Kenya. The U.S.-Kenya Trade and Investment Working Group, established after an August 2018 White House meeting between President Donald Trump and Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta, provided the forum for APHIS, USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to finally resolve this longstanding issue with Kenya. Kenya’s national plant protection organization officially signed Jan. 28 the Export Certification Protocol between Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service and APHIS/PPQ on Wheat Grain Consignments to Kenya for immediate implementation. The protocol gives

U.S. exporters full access to Kenya’s wheat market, valued at nearly $500 million annually. “Going forward, the USDA team looks forward to building on this success and further strengthening our relationship with Kenya as we pursue a new bilateral free trade agreement that will create additional market opportunities for U.S. producers and exporters,” said Under Secretary for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs Ted McKinney. After 12 years of discussion and a U.S. technical visit, Kenya agreed to lift its prohibition on U.S. wheat exports from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Kenya will now accept APHIS export phytosanitary inspection and certification for wheat from any U.S. state of origin or

port of export, effective immediately. As part of the technical agreement, APHIS will work with U.S. stakeholders to enhance general surveillance for flag smut of wheat —

Urocystis agropyri — in Idaho, Oregon and Washington and ask industry to support a technical visit from Kenya to examine crop surveillance measures for flag smut.


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