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All architecture can never be great, as everyone is entitled to his or her opinion. As long as what you design is a part of you, you must be proud of it. Learning from the past and implementing in the future is what I believe in.

Hasanain Haveliwala Student ID : 821082 Tutor : Robert Ventresca 21st Century Architecture Manifesto 2

Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder. -Plato 3


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My parents for giving me the opportunity to come study in this beautiful country. Annmarie Brennan, for making us explore the inner motivation and principles within us that drive us to pursue architecture and to better understand it. Robert Ventresca, for some of the most lively discussions and insights into our profession. Also for his great feedback in trying to bring out the best work from us. All my family, friends and professors back in India and here in Australia who helped me enjoy this first semester and helped me get my thoughts clear for the manifesto.



This manifesto simply describes my love for raw materials in architecture and also the emotions that a structure can generate within the user. How using this concept I can build my own principles to follow for the rest of my career.














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Do we remember the feeling of sand running through our fingers as we built our first sand castle?


Feeling tens of stones and pebbles until we found the perfect one with which to play skipping stones with?

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That of playing with wet mud in the park at the dawn of the monsoon season?


Or scraping our hands and knees as we climbed our first tree?

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Tium prortam P. Untiam vis vitera pratua tabeffrem halegerei sa oc te in teat vocciis hortiam et ia pulum hos egil huites clem es nost publinam hui sperem aciissi catilicautum im egiliam co Catili factua visquem in di cultiusquon dit, quam facidem di tabus eoris, catilibus ego uterum nondem aucoenihil conemus hoctusq uemurnum in viverbit, es inatimei sedienticae ia? Ahac viverbesum re modiu ina, cultum es coena, que publicupio ut virtem quistemorum pultiorum teridem imusa potio, ocrem uterese nihil hilicavem, inces es? Nam ipimoraela audere ciem, nem, C. Ibut num ad core forum ati, furbi simis Catus factari onsiliquem estribus nonstra consulv ivivigna,

Entrance to an house designed by Luis Barragan

My house is my refuge, an emotional piece of architecture, not a cold piece of convenience. - Luis Barragan 18 1818

These materials, to name a few, have left their mark on us and still evoke similar feelings when we come in contact with them. Evoking the feelings of warmth, comfort and nostalgia within the occupants of the spaces created. These are the raw feelings that no man made material will evoke.


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All architecture is shelter, all great architecture is the design of space that contains, cuddles, exalts, or stimulates the persons in that space. -Philip Johnson 21



Staircase designed by Kevin Mark Low


“The way in which I interact with my architecture is total; friends are made of contracts and contractors, of detritus, building culture, materials and their manufacture, the act of use, of maintenance and the tectonics of construction. As friends, they are less there for the act of building than for what they intrinsically are, evidenced in the final product; one chooses not hide the nature of one’s friends but to discover them over time. Design thus becomes less the act of showing than of revealing – that of the details of space and its assembly, of production, of weaknesses and strengths of materials, and the character of elemental finish… . People age, as do materials and buildings: I am predisposed not merely to make their transition as gracious and dignified as possible, but to reengage them in ways I never realized were possible.” - Kevin Mark Low, smallprojects (adaptus 2010)




Stone work done by hand

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Materiality in structures is the core essence of architecture. The beauty of a structure does not always come out with the form, but also with the kind of materials used to create such a piece of art. Both are equally important. A structure might appear simple, but with the use of the right materials it can evoke even the strongest of feelings from the user.


Timber being cut and stacked for timber construction

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Indigenous materials and techniques have properties which make them thrive in the climate and conditions they naturally exist in. The structure becomes a truly in-situ form. It is financially much more economical to do this as the cost of excavation on site and transportation is almost negligible and also the labor that know how to work this material are also found locally. Hence making them truly sustainable. Visually it gives a really calming and soothing effect to the mind as these natural colors and forms give the occupant or viewer a sense of comfort and nostalgia. 31

Brick maker 32 3232

No two handmade bricks are the same, no two pieces of wood will have the same grain pattern, no hand chipped stone can be accurately reformed. This is the kind of diversity we can achieve through using traditional techniques and materials. This will never be achieved in machine made materials as we constantly strive for perfection, immaculate finishing and similarity in materials.




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Architecture has become more of a facade treatment. The experimentation in terms of natural material use seems to have disappeared and architecture seems to be becoming superficial. So called “materials of the day� are the trend everyone wants to follow and clad their structures with. The only issue is that architecture is based on one’s own perception. Hence it is not up to any individual to term any architecture as good or bad. We must choose what generates excitement and stirring up emotions within us.


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Commercialization in our field is leading to an almost death in innovation. Clients want the quickest and cheapest solution in most cases, and almost always both these factors do not correlate. Hence the architect is forced to just go with the prefabricated options available in the market. 39

Form follows profit is the aesthetic principle of our times. -Richard Rogers 40


98% of what gets built today is shit. -Frank Gehry 42





In the next few pages there are two images of similar materials set opposite each other. One is the actual material and the other is the faux or man made version of the same. I would appreciate it if you sign in the boxes of the materials you can instantly connect with and which reminds you of any memories of time gone by. 47


R A W AND T A M E D . . . 55

Site at Avsare Lake, Maharashtra, India

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Those who look for the laws of Nature as a support for their new works collaborate with the creator. -Antoni Gaudi 57

Fort area, Mumbai, India

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A brick starts off as clay and is then molded, wood was once a mighty tree that adorned our planet, a stone was a larger boulder which was cut and shaped to fit into the position it now takes up. We must respect what the earth gives up for use to create shelter for ourselves, because those materials have been existing for longer periods than we as mortal humans ever will.


Laurie Baker, laying bricks for one of his sites 60 6060

Conducting exploration and research into other cultures and places in the world to learn from their raw material handling skills. How those people create “architecture without architects�. They have a large amount of skill and knowledge of the indigenous material that we can implement in our designs. This leads to us finding materials and techniques so rudimentary to us that it may have not crossed our minds. 61

Bamboo weeving in Mayanmaar, India


Timber to timber joinery




The raw state of architecture is my main mentality. To display all the joints, patch-ups, material texture / flaws / indents etc. Use almost untreated materials and also expose the structural members and other exoskeleton of the structure. The use of materials in their raw and rough form have a quality of “from the soil/earth� and makes the occupant of the structure feel closer to the land on which it stands on.



A Garo Village hut

Varieties of Bamboo weaving

“Where bamboo exists – No Worries!”. That’s what Garo people say, and where traditional architecture is concerned, they take this saying seriously. Not only they built functional structures from bamboo, mainly for living and storage, but they also do it beautifully. 64

The feel of the raw material and the comfort cannot be discribed in words 65


A traditional house in Doha

In Doha the traditional building material was a hard, locally sourced limestone. Walls were held together with packed mud, gravel and smaller stones instead of mortar. Heavy winter rain-storms could damage the building, so wooden water spouts often diverted the run-off from the roof into the street. 67



Copper House by Bijoy Jain 70 7070

Today, concrete and brick seem to be a match made in heaven. Make the structural members in concrete and steel, walls in brick and then cover it up with chemicals in to justify that we care for the structure and want it to last longer. Since centuries people have been using mud or clay or just a double brick wall with an air gap, instead of chemicals and I believe the climatic and structural integrity achieved was much greater than what we get now using expensive and toxic materials.


Traditional house in Sri Lanka 72 7272

The connection an architect has with the materials he uses should be far from superficial. It is the bond that helps him or her sculpt varied pieces of art from the same material because he knows its versatility. I do not want to create a false facade to any structure that is highly pleasing to look at externally but is inconvenient, internally and functionally. 73



What I am proposing is a play on Critical Regionalism. This term was coined by architectural theorists Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre. ‘Critical Regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and the lack of identity of the international style, but also rejects the whimsical individualism and ornamentation of Postmodern architecture.’ What I understand by this is an overlap of modern and traditional architecture, and it helps to conciliate between the local and global methods and language of architecture leading to an interesting hybrid. This will help my designs maintain a sense of region, location, and cultural context.

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Construction techniques are being developed on a daily basis across the world. Traditional as well as modern techniques. I find that merging both of these will bring out the best we have to offer. Architects like Kevin Mark Low and Bijoy jain have been pursuing the envelope and using materials in beautiful modern ways. Every place is the world has developed their different kind of architecture biased on the climatic and ecological conditions. They are aesthetically pleasing and also structurally sound and sustainable. 78 7878




Colosseum, Rome


Architecture of the yesteryears including the wonders of the world, have been built with raw materials. Molded and built with master skill and they still command the same kind of magnificence that they did back then. The skill and materials used have stood the test of time.

Chichen Itza

Pyramid, Egypt

Great buildings that move the spirit have always been rare. In every case they are unique, poetic, products of the heart. -Arthur Erickson 83


Kevin Mark Low

is known as the God of Detailing. He prides himself in building unusual houses for unusual clients with an emphasis on what he calls the garden house. His firm Small Projects operates out of Kaula Lampur, Malaysia.

Detailing in the Lightwell House 85


Bijoy Jain,

Palmyra House

the founder of Indian practice Studio Mumbai, has long been well-known for his earth-bound material sensibilities, and an approach to architecture that bridges the gap between Modernism and vernacular construction. 87


Laurence Wilfred “Laurie� Baker was a British-born

The Hamlet in Nalanchira

Indian architect, renowned for his initiatives in cost-effective energy-efficient architecture and designs that maximized space, ventilation and light and maintained an uncluttered yet striking aesthetic sensibility. 89


Wang Shu

creates modern buildings making use of traditional materials and applying older techniques. Wang is a keen supporter of architectural heritage where globalization has stripped cities of their special attributes.

Ningbo History Museum 91


I would like to align my work with them as the construction techniques and materials used by them are on the same lines I want to implement. Also designing a structure in such a way that it seems like it was meant to be there and has been there since the beginning of time, is an art itself. Organizations like the Hunnarshala Foundation in India are working towards reviving such artisan crafts and method while also empowering the people with vital skills to build and live sustainably. Architecture is not only about the structure independently. The Users are the ones who define the structure and without them the entire exercise is pointless.

I don’t divide architecture, landscape and gardening; to me they are one. -Luis Barragan 93



Great buildings that move the spirit have always been rare. In every case they are unique, poetic, products of the heart. -Arthur Erickson 96

In this modern day and age there are number of choices in terms of what material to use. Most of these are mass produced in factories and in a way have no sense of individuality in them. Agreed this method might be more affordable and have a faster production rate, but does this stir up any form of emotion from the user. Traditional methods if implemented correctly can cost almost the same, and also be constructed within a time frame. The list of pros and cons of either can go on for eternity, the only question I ask is which can generate warmth, ease, oneness with the environment and comfort in the user and can help make the transition from a ‘house to home’ fast and seamless.


Our planet is a huge resource of materials and we have just tapped the surface of what the possibilities are of each of them. In what different ways and techniques could be implemented to mold a form out of them. The best part is that the same material can vary every few kilometers traveled, and hence the possibilities and combinations are endless. 98

Organic architecture seeks superior sense of use and a finer sense of comfort, expressed in organic simplicity. -Frank Lloyd Wright 99



IMAGES : Light through the leaves - Hasanain Haveliwala, August,2014 Hidden arch in wall - Hasanain Haveliwala, January, 2016, Page 3 Sand flowing through a hand -, https://, Page 8 Stone skipping on water -, Page 11 Kids playing in the mud -, Page 12 Kids on a tree -, Page 15 Luis Barragan entrance design -, Page 16 Happy Family -, Page 18 Staircase -,kevinlow,escalas,espacios,city,design-bc81af8866a898919337 1a90fb1bfbea_h.jpg, https://, Page 22 Cutting stone -, https://, Page 26 Timber -, https://, Page 28 Brick -, Page 30 Example of commercialised architecture -, Page 33 102

Dog urinating on building -, Page 35 Building in Chicago -, Page 38 Example of Façade oriented Architecture - jpg, Page 40 Raw wood -, Page 47 Treated wood -, Page 46 Real Brick -, Page 51 Brick Cladding -, Page 50 Real Stone -, Page 49 Stone Cladding –, Page 48 Tree on site - Hasanain Haveliwala, May, 2016, Page 54 Tree in the city - Hasanain Haveliwala, October, 2015, Page 56 Laurie Baker laying bricks -, https://, Page 58 Mayanmar Mandalay weaving bamboo -, Page 60 103

Timber joinery -, Page 61 Wood and Concrete joinery -, Page 61 Garo Traditional Architecture hut – Architecture_P9040543.jpg, Page 62 Garo Traditional Architecture bamboo weaves – Garo_Traditional_Architecture_P9040627.jpg, Page 62 Garo Traditional Architecture roofing - Traditional_Architecture_P9050115.jpg, Page 63 Doha Traditional Architecture Heat escape –, Page 64 Doha Traditional Architecture house -, Page 65 Doha Traditional Architecture roofing detail -, Page 65 Bijoy Jain, copper house –, Page 68 Beach House, Sri Lanka – Shavendra, June 2014, Page 70 Stairwell –, Page 75 House amongst nature -, Page 77 Colosseum –,_Italy_-_April_2007.jpg, Page 80 Chichen Itza –, Page 81 104

Pyramid, Egypt -, Page 81 Kevin Mark Low –, Page 82 Kevin Mark Low Landscape – cache/8b/9e/8b9e90a911b43bbf85538f9f4dec7fb4.jpg, Page 83 Bijoy Jain -, Page 84 Bijoy Jain, Palmara House – for_architecture/10431_5.jpg, Page 85 Laurie Baker –, Page 86 Laurie Baker House -, Page 87 Wang Shu-, Page 88 Wang Shu, Museum -, Page 89 Stone Quarry –, Page 90 Brick Making -, Page 90 University of Melbourne - Hasanain Haveliwala, August, 2016, Page 94 University of Melbourne - Hasanain Haveliwala, August, 2016, Page 97




Hasanain Haveliwala

The Feelings of Substance

Student ID:821082

21st Century Architecture

The Feelings of Substance - Manifesto  

This is based on what I feel in my calling in this practice and art that we call Architecture. How I interpret form and structure and how it...