Pride - Spring 2024 | Student-led magazine

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Srettha Srettha Thavisin Thavisin

Following a tumultuous national election on May 14 2023 and the equally chaotic months that followed after, Thailand emerged from its trial of democracy with Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin at its helm; A controversial result to say the least, as his party did not receive the most vote in the general election but holds a majority in parliament due to a coalition.

Name: Srettha Thavisin

Born: 15 February 1962

Nationality: Thailand


Businessman, Politician


Thai Minister of finance

Political Party: Pheu Thai Party


Thavisin, who only became leader of the For Thai party last year, has relatively been out of the spotlight before becoming Prime Minister. The significance of his premiership, however, provides substantial cause for a closer inspection into his background


Srinakharinwirot University Prasarnmit Demonstration School

Chulalongkorn University (BS)

University of Massachusetts (B.Econ)

Claremont Graduate University (MBA)

Work Experience

Assistant Product Manager, P&G Thailand (Co., Ltd.)

Chairman and President of Sansiri Public Company Limited

Campaign & Policy

Digital wallet 10,000 Baht (16 years old and above)

Debt resolution

Reduce the price of electricity, cooking gas, fuel

Generate revenue from tourism

Draft of a new and fair constitution

Mid-Term, Long-Term Framework Policy

Remodel 30 baht healthcare

End conscription

One Family One Soft Power & Thailand Creative Content Agency

ready to face conflict that may make our political path narrower.”
W R I T T E N B Y P A V I S S O 1 0


Susoku’s history is rather intriguing: it made its way to Japan via America, where it became popular after being rediscovered in 1997 in a Japanese bookstore by a retired Hong Kong judge called Wayne Gould. Number puzzles were quite popular in Japan, so it came as no real surprise that that was where it was first noticed. The game only went viral in the rest of the world after 2004.

It’s believed that Sudoku is based on Leonhard Euler’s (a Swiss Mathematician) invention called “Latin Squares” in 1783; which was later changed and adapted by Howard Garns in 1979 to what is now known as Sudoku.

This game has its roots in ancient number puzzles. However, many wrongly believe that Sudoku originates from Japan. While the name is made up of Japanese characters ‘Su’ (meaning Number) and ‘Doku’ (meaning Single), the game is actually of Swiss origin.


Leonhard is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of the 18th century and is responsible for making some of the most important mathematical discoveries of all time. He invented Latin Squares to be used for statistical analysis and nothing more.

Latin Squares was a concept where a grid of numbers (or symbols) could only appear once in each column or row. This shows that while Latin Squares provided the first concept of Sudoku, the game itself was not actually created by Leonhard Euler, but was merely conceptualised by him. Sudoku is based on Latin Squares but is not Latin Squares itself.

Sudoku is actually derived from Latin Squares; Leonhard Euler was not a puzzler, but a mathematician, engineer, astronomer, physicist, and logician. Latin Squares was never a game but an analytical concept and tool.



As it turns out, an architect called Howard Garns is thought to have used the concept of Latin Squares to create the game, which first appeared as a puzzle game in Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games publication in New York. At the time, he contributed to the game under the name “Number Place”. The very first time the game was published was in The Dell in 1979. To this day, it is still published under the name of “Number Place.” Howard Garns changed Latin Squares to become his version of Number Place by adding a rule. The rule is that each region can only have the numbers or symbols occurring once. Howard Garns applied the concept of Latin Squares to a 9×9 grid and 3×3 sub grids and came up with Number Place.

People might wonder how a game that was published in a USA games and puzzles magazine became a worldwide phenomenon that many believe actually originates from Japan.

The Japanese language is quite complex, which makes crosswords and word searches almost impossible to translate without losing the entire meaning of the game/puzzle. Word-based puzzles were then never as popular as numbers games in Japan. As a result, the Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games magazine was more popular in Japan than it was in most other areas of publication.

It was Nikoli, a Japanese puzzle manufacturing company that was responsible for the further development and promotion of Sudoku in Japan. The game in Japanese is called ‘Suuji wa dokushin ni kagiru‘ (the numbers must occur once only) which is shortened to just ‘Sudoku’.


Wayne Gould was the key to Sudoku becoming a game that millions would enjoy all over the world today. That is because it had been Wayne Gould who took the game back overseas and spurred it on to major international success. Wayne Gould actually found a half-completed puzzle in a bookstore and, after scrutinising it, became utterly obsessed with it.

At the time, he began creating his own puzzles and sent various versions of them to high-profile newspapers with big readerships such as The Times. His persistent efforts to promote his puzzles would pay off; various publications began featuring them not too long after his promotion began. The first of these features started in November 2004. Wayne Gould did not simply ponder over a few versions of potential Sudoku games to share with others. He actually spent 6 years developing and creating a computer program that designs Sudoku puzzles of different difficulty levels, which he intended for worldwide enjoyment. His puzzle-generating computer program is called Pappocom Sudoku and is able to supply countless random, unique puzzles.

As a result, his puzzles gained popularity in United Kingdom publications; such as The London Times, The Guardian, The Sun, The Daily Mirror, and The Daily Telegraph. He also played an integral part in the growth of Sudoku’s popularity within the United States by providing national newspapers with free puzzles to include in their publications –something that was warmly welcomed by leading publications at the time.

After that, it was difficult to slow the spread of popularity of Sudoku – especially as it was being featured in just about every leading newspaper and magazine in the United Kingdom, USA, Australia and the rest of the world. While Leonhard Euler may never have intended it, his concept of Latin Squares is the very first origins of a game that has proven to be a worldwide phenomenon.


Sudoku does not require general knowledge, linguistic ability or even mathematical skill. It consists of a grid of 81 squares, divided into nine blocks of nine squares each. Some of the squares contain a figure. The goal is to fill in the empty squares so that the figures 1 to 9 appear just once in every row, column and individual block. The rules for sudoku are simple. A 9×9 square must be filled in with numbers from 1-9 with no repeated numbers in each line, horizontally or vertically. The puzzles will help you get started by providing some correct numbers – the fewer numbers provided, the more difficult the puzzle.


There are many benefits to playing Sudoku. It improves your concentration, as the game calls for strategic thinking and solving problems creatively. It actually helps you to develop your concentration power and re-focussing skills. It works on your memory because when you play Sudoku, your memory works alongside logic and it enhances your memory skills as you memorise the numbers and use your logic to figure out the next blank. Sudoku keeps your brain active and reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s, a most common cause of dementia that affects a person’s thinking and behavioural skil ls. It stimulates your mind, as the game works on your logical thinking process as you are absorbed in solving a puzzle and eventually improve your number skills. Playing Sudoku can not only improve concentration and memory for children, but for elderly it can keep Alzheimer's away. The excitement of working on the game can also raise your happiness quotient plus prevent boredom.

Written by Autumn (B11)


Grace K12 Review

One of the most memorable and fascinating trips I’ve ever been on was to Hong Kong.I’ll have to admit I’d always imagined Hong Kong to be an expensive destination, kind where dining and entertaining yourself would come with a hefty price tag I was so pleasantly relieved to find this wasn’t the case The entertainment there is truly amazing, especially when traveling with kids Disneyland and Ocean Park are an absolute must-go; they cater to both kids and adults alike Disneyland offers a plethora of fun and exciting rides suitable for all ages. And, if you find yourself hungry, you can indulge in Disney-themed snacks and drinks. Additionally, if you’re in the mood for souvenirs or gifts for friends, family, or even yourself, there are shops scattered all around the park, offering a delightful shopping experience.

Ocean Park is another indispensable destination, boasting an ocean animal-themed park with various roller coasters and enjoyable water activities, including thrilling dolphin shows. So if you’re seeking a place that seamlessly combines water attractions with exhilarating roller coasters, Ocean Park is the place to be. However, for those who lean towards enjoying nightlife, the Victoria Harbour Night or The Symphony of Lights Cruise promises to be a spectacular experience. Witnessing the cityscape illuminated at night provides a completely different and enchanting perspective compared to daytime exploration Even if you’re not a nightlife enthusiast and simply wish to oversee the city, the Ngong Ping 360 cable car experience stands out as the perfect choice

The Symphony of Lights Cruise

Message to you

These were just a few of the remarkable places I had the opportunity to explore; Hong Kong offers many attractions, including The Big Buddha and the Avenue of Stars. If you decide to embark on a journey to Hong Kong, make sure to carve out time for these incredible destinations, and I sincerely hope you have an absolutely fantastic time!



Toilet Po


Feeling the heat flow to your face while you vigorously strain and pray on the toilet is not the ideal situation for anyone Constipation is tiring but preventable To be classified as constipated, you must have bowel movements less than three times in a week and your stool is hard and tricky to push out

You’ve probably gone your whole life sitting the wrong way on the toilet Sitting at a 90 degree angle on the toilet doesn’t allow your rectum to align with the colon so you’ll have to fight to egest faeces Researchers at Ohio State University found that 90% of people who used a stool while pooping strained less than those who pooped with their feet on the floor They also found that 71% of toilet stool users had faster bowel movements So, next time you’re in a battle with your bodily products on the toilet, try leaning forward to encourage ejection

If you are currently experiencing constipation, then the first question you need to answer is have you been drinking enough water? The large intestine soaks up water from our food waste so if you are lacking water, your stool becomes even more dry It is also more helpful to drink warm water as it breaks down food faster than cold water.

An even better option may be to have some hot coffee as caffeine stimulates the muscles in the digestive system to contract and has soluble fibres that can promote growth of ‘good’ bacteria in your gut. However, if you have an irritable bowel or are sensitive to caffeine, you should drink coffee with consideration as you may cause yourself to have diarrhoea - another end of the digestive struggle spectrum

It may sound quite idiotic but you should try putting into a place a consistent poop routine. Choosing a time when you don’t feel rushed can help you feel more comfortable on the toilet, increasing your chances of success Pooping after a small breakfast stimulates the gastro lid reflex and moves waste through the colon so you can poop around 15-45 minutes after breakfast A big breakfast can do the opposite and actually slow down your digestion


Imagine this: You’re sitting in a brightly lit exam hall, taking the most important exam of your life. The weight of expectations, the culmination of years of hard work, and your future dreams all converged on this singular moment Just as you began to scrutinise the first question, your stomach churned ominously, and a cold sweat broke out on your forehead Panic wells up within you as you begin to realise with a sinking feeling that you were not facing a typical case of exam anxiety. The feeling grows stronger, and you find yourself locked in a fierce internal battle, trying to convince your wayward bowels to hold off just a little longer But in the end, nature's call proved too insistent, and you knew that your mission to ace this exam was about to take an unforeseen detour to the restroom

Now, if any of you have ever actually experienced that, one, I am so sorry for that (and maybe for making you relive that trauma) and two, welcome to the club. You probably experienced diarrhoea at least once in your life and I can guarantee that you most likely hated it If I had a top ten list of the worst things in the world, diarrhoea would be up there in the top 3 along with probably being beheaded but that’s just my opinion. To defeat this monster, we must first learn what it is.

Poop Chart

Diarrhoea can be classified as an illness in which a body’s solid waste is more liquid than usual in a 24-hour time period. Unsurprisingly, it is one of the most common health complaints in the world Being determined by how long an individual experiences diarrhoea, it can be either chronic or acute Acute diarrhoea is infectious and usually lasts for less than 2 weeks Chronic diarrhoea, however, can last more than 2-4 weeks.

A huge cause of diarrhoea (that I experience daily) is anxiety. Experiencing diarrhoea when you are stressed is directly related to your body's programmed stress response This response is called the "fight-or-flight" reaction. When you experience this reaction, your body is responding to a perceived threat. The body reacts with a cascade of physical changes that result from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in an increased heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and decreased digestion When you come across something that you perceive as threatening, your body reacts with various physical changes, including digestive changes. For example, when your stress response is activated, your digestion slows so that your body can redirect resources elsewhere During this reaction, the gut and small intestine slow, but the colon's activity increases, and as a result, you might experience gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea. I’d also like to clarify that if stress-related diarrhoea only happens once in a while, you are likely having a natural stress reaction. However, if it happens pretty frequently, you should make an appointment with your healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis, as other health conditions can cause you to experience diarrhoea when under stress.

The treatment of diarrhoea typically depends on its underlying cause In cases of infectious diarrhoea, often caused by bacteria or viruses, oral rehydration therapy is crucial This involves drinking fluids with electrolytes to replace lost fluids and minerals. Antidiarrheal medications like loperamide can also help alleviate symptoms, but they should be used cautiously and under medical guidance For chronic diarrhoea, identifying and addressing the root cause is essential, which may involve dietary changes, medications, or lifestyle adjustments Additionally, practising good hygiene, such as thorough handwashing and food safety measures, can prevent many cases of diarrhoea. Always consult a healthcare professional for severe or persistent cases of diarrhoea to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment Good luck, soldier!

Jean N12 and Claire C12

How does multitasking affect your life?

What is multitasking?

Multitasking is the art of performing two or more tasks simultaneously, switching back and forth from one thing to another.

They can be beneficial but also harmful if incorrectly done Some examples of multitasking might include; starting two homework assignments at the same time, listening to music while working, watching movie while chatting with friends, or taking notes during a lecture.

How our brain multitasks:

It is important to understand how our brain handles multiple simultaneous tasks The brain’s prefrontal cortex begins working anytime you need to pay attention This area of your brain helps keep your attention on a single goal and carry out the task, working on a single task means both sides of the prefrontal cortex are working together in harmony.

Adding another task, however, forces the left and right sides of the brain to function independently from one another Multitasking therefore can actually hinder productivity and increase the likelihood of mistakes

Drawbacks of Multitasking

People tend to overestimate their ability to multitask, and people who engage in this habit a lot often lack the skills needed to be effective Not only that, multitaskers may feel more distracted as they constantly need to refocus on new tasks We also tend to work slower and less efficiently since when we are switching from task to task, we are skipping the process of ‘autopilot’ that allows us to free up our mind for mental resources.

Moreover, multitasking may lower your performance and make you more prone to mistakes;

Multitasking can lead to divided attention, reducing the quality of work in each task For instance, texting while driving can result in accidents due to little focus on the road

Juggling too many tasks can lead to elevated stress levels. People who habitually multitask may find it difficult to relax and unwind, negatively impacting their mental health.

Multitasking might hinder memory retention: Research suggests that students who study while watching TV or using social media may not retain information as effectively as those who focus solely on studying.

Y : Y E A N S A N Y A W U T

The Tapirus:

Endangered animals are species of animals that are at risk of becoming extinct, which means they could disappear from the Earth forever.

Healthy ecosystems depend on plant and animal species as their foundations When a species becomes endangered, it is a sign that the ecosystem is slowly falling apart Each species that is lost triggers the loss of other species within its ecosystem These animals are in danger because their populations have become very small, and they face threats that make it difficult for them to survive and reproduce

There are various reasons why animals become endangered, including habitat loss since many animals lose their homes because forests, wetlands, or other places where they live are destroyed by things like deforestation, urban development, or pollution. Pollution of air, water, or soil can harm animals and their habitats Chemicals and toxins can make animals sick or kill them

Furthermore, some animals are hunted for their fur, feathers, ivory, or other body parts. Poaching, which is illegal hunting, can greatly reduce animal populations. Plus, climate change can affect an animal's habitat, food sources, and breeding patterns, making it harder for them to survive

Endangered animals are protected by laws and conservation efforts to try to prevent them from disappearing forever Conservationists work to save these species by preserving their habitats, breeding them in captivity, and raising awareness about their plight. The goal is to help these animals recover and thrive so that they are no longer at risk of extinction.

One of the endangered animals is the ‘Malayan Tapir’. Scientists estimate that there are only 3,000 left in the wild. Due to their large size, slow rate of reproduction and sensitivity to habitat destruction, tapirs are often among the first species to decline when humans disturb an ecosystem.

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Zionism and the foundation of Israel

Zionism is a political ideology consisting of the belief that Jews are a nation and a race that deserve their own state that emerged from late 19thcentury Eastern Europe. Thousands of Eastern European and Russian Jews began settling in Palestine from 1882 and onwards, due to the anti-Semetic persecution and massacres they faced in the Russian Empire. As with most extremist political orientations, Zionism blossomed during the anxiety-inducing times.

In 1896, a Viennese journalist Theodor Herzl took advantage of the social unrest and published a pamphlet titled Der Judenstaat, meaning “The Jewish State”, that many now regard as the ideological basis for political Zionism. In his pamphlet, Herzl asserted that the solution to centuries-old antiSemitic oppression in Europe was the establishment of a Jewish state. Pioneers of the Zionist movement contemplated on where the state would be located before eventually agreeing on Palestine due to the biblical concept that the Holy Land was promised to the Jews by God.

T H E C O N F L I C T B E T W E E N I S R A E L A N D P A L E S T I N E H A S H A D I T S P R E S E N C E E N L A R G E D W I T H I N P U B L I C C O N S C I O U S N E S S I N T H E P A S T F E W M O N T H S D U E T O T H E O C T O B E R 7 A T T A C K T H A T C A P T I V A T E D I N T E R N A T I O N A L M E D I A T H E A T T A C K W A S L A U N C H E D B Y A P A L E S T I N I A N T E R R O R I S T O R G A N I S A T I O N K N O W N A S H A M A S F O L L O W I N G D E C A D E S O F O P P R E S S I O N A N D K I L L I N G B Y T H E Z I O N I S T - C O N T R O L L E D I S R A E L I S T A T E , I N I T I A T I N G M I L I T A R Y AC T I O N S B Y I S R A E L W I T H I N T H E P A L E S T I N I A N T E R R I T O R Y O F T H E G A Z A B A N K D U E T O T H E G R A V I T Y O F T H E S I T U A T I O N , T H I S I S A V E R Y C O N T R O V E R S I A L T O P I C A N D T H U S I S S U R R O U N D E D W I T H C O V E R A G E T H A T I S E I T H E R T O O V A G U E O R O V E R E X A G G E R A T E D I T I S T H E N V E R Y I M P O R T A N T T O U N D E R S T A N D T H E C O N T E X T O F T H I S C O N F L I C T A N D W H A T H A S L E D T O T H E O N G O I N G B L O O D S H E D
The Israel - Palestine Conflict

Crucially, they believe that this state should only consist of the Jewish people as - as Herzl would arguewherever the Jewish people are made to coexist with another race, the oppression of the Jewish people will never end. This then reinforces why the state of Israel is adamant on the removal of Palestinian people.

Palestine had a pre-existing community of native Palestinian Jews known as the Yishuv that, unlike Zionists, had no intention of creating a Jewish state. Some could argue that the Zionist belief in entitlement of a Jewish state in Palestine is entirely antithetic to Judaism due to some possible interpretations of Jewish holy books. The Torah - the holy book of Judaismand the Talmud - the body of Jewish civil and ceremonial law - could be arguably read to mean that Jews are prohibited from having their own sovereign state since the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE and are only to be reunited after the arrival of the Messiah.

Palestine Before the Establishment of Israel

The resilience of Palestinians during the seemingly everlasting conflict with Israel is astonishing. However, this strength becomes much more conceivable after examining their history. Occupation is not at all unfamiliar to Palestine; in fact, the state of Palestine has been denied true autonomy for a staggering five centuries now, by an array of oppressors. The Ottoman Empire, which began in 1517, ruled over Palestine up until near the end the first world war, wherein they lost their possessions to the victors, namely France and Britain. The Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916 was a mutual agreement between the two imperial powers to distribute the Middle East for imperial interests. During WW1, the British-backed Arab revolt played a decisive role in the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Following the war, however, the “complete and final liberation” of Arabs from Ottoman control promised by Britain would almost immediately be contradicted by the British's 1917 Balfour Declaration.

...I will scatter you among the nations… ”

-Leviticus 26:33 “

I call to witness today, heaven and earth that you will perish quickly from the land that you are crossing over the Jordan to possess; you will not stay long on it… And God will scatter you among the peoples, and you will be left few in number in the nations where God will lead you ”

-Deuteronomy 4:25

The Balfour Declaration was a letter written by Arthur Balfour, the Foreign Secretary of Britain at the time, to the leader of the British Zionist movement, Baron Rothschild. In the letter, Balfour stated that the British government approved of “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”, and that it would use its “best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object”. Two years later, Balfour reiterated his opinion in his 1919 memorandum in which he proclaimed that “In Palestine we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country… Zionism, be it right or wrong, is more important than the wishes of 700,000 Arabs,” despite Arabs being indigenous to Palestine and amounting to more than 94% of the population, the Balfour Declaration was implemented by the British mandate in 1920, resulting in the violent creation of Israel in 1948.

The 1948 Nakba

In the early 1940s, the tension between Arab Palestinians and Zionists increased to a degree that worried Britain In attempts to alleviate the agitation, Britain decided to inhibit Jewish immigration to Palestine Consequently, in 1944, several Zionist armed groups declared war on Britain for limiting Jewish immigration whilst many Jews were fleeing the Holocaust Zionist paramilitary groups launched numerous attacks resulting in hundreds of casualties, ultimately leading to the British government terminating its colonial project in Palestine in early 1947, transferring authority to the United Nations

The UN then adopted Resolution 181 on November 29th 1947, recommending the partition of Palestine into three parts: a Jewish state, an Arab state and the City of Jerusalem

Under this partition plan, Jews, who only amassed to around 30% of the population, were allocated 55% of the land, including many main cities of majority Arab population as well as the lucrative coastline from Haifa to Jaffa whereas the Arab state would be deprived of key agricultural lands and seaports Therefore, Palestinians opted to reject the proposal which erupted a war between Palestinian Arabs and Zionist armed groups However, dissimilar to Palestinians, Zionist armed groups had received extensive training and arms from fighting alongside Britain in World War II, providing them with a significant advantage On May 15th 1948, during what is termed the Nakba - meaning ‘catastrophe’ - Zionist forces caused a civilian death toll of an estimated 15,000 and displaced thousands more from their homes

The Creation of Hamas

Israeli forces justify its current airstrikes on Palestine as an attempt to rid Gaza of Hamas - the terrorist organisation responsible for the October 7th attacks and many other killings of Israeliscondemning Gazans for electing a Hamas representative whilst omitting Israel’s involvement in Hamas’ creation. Hamas was founded in 1987 at the start of the first Palestinian uprising by Sheik Ahmed Yassin, a cleric and leader of the Muslim brotherhood At the time, the dominant political figure in Gaza was the secular nationalist Palestine Liberation Organisation, PLO, led by Yasser Arafat Israeli leaders believed that empowering Sheik Yassin would divide Gazans, leaving them vulnerable to Israeli rule In 1978 Yassin began an islamist association - a precursor of Hamas - and built a network of organisations such as schools and clubs that Israel funded Brigadier General Yitzhak Segev, an Israeli military governor in Gaza reported to the New York Times that he assisted in the finance of Yassin’s movement and that “the Israeli government provided a budget while the military government funded mosques”. Israeli official Avner Cohen who was responsible for religious affairs in Gaza for more than 20 years, affirmed “Hamas, to my great regret, is Israel’s creation”, Cohen had attempted to dismantle Hamas in the mid 1980s when he wrote an official report to his superiors urging them to “break up this monster before reality jumps in our face” His efforts proved futile as Hamas has reigned over Gaza ever since

State of Gaza and West Bank

The current conflict between Israel and Palestine is very imbalanced in terms of power, as well as being questionable in its justifications Israel is a nuclear superpower, possessing between 80 and 400 nuclear weapons; as of 2021, Israel reportedly has a military budget of $24 3billion dollars Israel is also the largest cumulative recipient of U S foreign aid Contrastingly, around 80% of Palestinians live in poverty. 2.2 million people live in the Gaza strip, which is only 365 km^2 of land, making Gaza one of the world's most densely populated regions; dropping hundreds of thousands of bombs on the area then does unimaginable harm, evident with the death toll in Gaza reaching up to 25,000

Zionists attempt to condone inhumane conditions Palestinian civilians are subjected to by claiming it is the result of them voting for Hamas In reality, some areas such as the West Bank is not run by Hamas yet still is the victim of Israeli offensives Additionally, around 50% of Gazans are under the age of eighteen and the last elections were held in 2006, indicating that the majority of Gazans did not even vote for Hamas Along with these questionable justifications, Israel has also been committing war crimes, defined by the international humanitarian law as it prohibits the forced displacement of civilians except temporarily; 1 9million people - 85% of Gaza’s population - has now been displaced, by Israeli offensives Furthermore, Israeli authorities cut off basic services and most aid supplies to Gaza, not letting them through the border since October 7th; Electricity, internet access are capricious whilst food and water insecurity levels are dangerously low - so much so that the World Food Programme (WFP) reports there is risk of famine Medical practitioners in Gaza, such as UNFPA Executive Director Dr Natalia Kanem, are begging for more medical aid as it is “urgently needed”

Despite 153 countries voting for a ceasefire, the US exercised its rights to veto the vote and disregarded the pleas of hundreds of other countries - So, for now, The infinite atrocities that the people of The Holy Land suffer continues on, daily.

Written by Kezia (N12)



“She’s everything. He’s just Ken.” This is the phrase written on the poster of the Barbie movie, released on July 30, 2023. Barbie can be said to be a paradox in feminism; On the one hand, many young girls have been influenced by Barbie dolls, hoping to be women with slim bodies and beautiful faces. However, the world of Barbie dolls is mostly dominated by women. Ken, Barbie’s boyfriend, is presented as a peripheral character,which shows an aspect of women-focused movies.

Before we talk about the movie, we need to consider that Greta Gerwig, the director of the Barbie movie, is known as a feminist filmmaker who won Oscar prizes for her two previous films: Ladybird (2017) and Little Women (2019) Most of her films are a repertoire of women-focused movies, and characters in her movies are mostly curious, transgressive and rebel against their restrictive circumstances Barbie perfectly fits these characteristics which is shown by the scenes that Barbie can be anything in the Barbie world, and when Barbie gets to the real world, she is against the patriarchy. So, how is feminism shown in Barbie movie and how does Greta Gerwig criticise the patriarchy?

The Barbie movie seems like it’s made to satisfy little girls with Barbie world decorated by pink and glitters all over, but the ideology in it is by no means light The ordinary Barbie (played by Margot Robbie), who lived a perfect life in Barbie world, where numerous Barbie

and Ken live, has an abnormality after thinking about death. Barbie and her partner Ken (played by Ryan Gosling) went to Los Angeles in real life to solve this problem, and they have different realisations from this experience.

Moving the plot from the Barbie world to the real world, the status of men and women is completely reversed. In the Barbie world, Barbie is superior and Ken is inferior. Barbie is a president and receives the Nobel prize for literature, but Ken is ‘useless’ alone without Barbie.

On the contrary, in the real world, men have the upper hand. The first thing Babie, dressed in colorful clothes, encountered in the real world was the eyes of men. But Ken cheers when a woman asks if he has time to spend time with her on the street. “I’m recognised here, too!”

The executives of Mattel, the toy company that made Barbie, are also all male. Then the film briefly concludes Barbie and Ken’s real world experience, and immediately moves on to the next chapter. Ken spreads patriarchy to Barbie world, and Barbie and Ken’s status quickly reverses. President Barbie serves Ken’s beer, and doctor Barbie cheers for Ken as he works out.

with these sce the director th can do it, too women, but a my mother’s s both men and women.

Lights flash, blindin ongst the crowd in harmony along the flow of the gentle music. Commencing the night ever so gracefully, the guitarist daintily strums his strikingly red guitar; the singer delicately operates her vocal cords to reach her most heightened potential. The two distinct sounds accompany one another melodiously like the strands of DNA.

All the while, the drummer utilizes utmost precision, similar to a surgeon, as he meticulously strikes the drums with impeccably adequate force, creating a steady hythm on which the DNA-like vibrations from the guitar and the vocal cords settle The fascinating trifecta oscillates towards the ears and hearts of every single being in the audience, whether it be a human or a mere mosquito passing by, capturing those who hear it into a bubble. Hypnotising them. Leaving them unaware of their surroundings.

Initiating with such a heartwarming song was an audacious move. Nonetheless, the audience was affixed by the melodies wrapping themselves around their hearts in the softest, most cuddle-like way, offering them the seldom opportunity to appreciate the warmth of being loved in a way that only sincere music, sung passionately by those who feel the most robust of attractions towards it, could offer In this moment, they are one with the music; the music is one with them The music strings them like marionettes, in a twisted tale, upon detaining them The ability to conduct self-well-being and decipher events one effortlessly could in daily life has been forsaken.

Stadiums lined thoroughly with bodies cramped, resembling the molecules of a solid vibrating amongst one another. Analogous to militants in 'at attention' to display deep respect towards their superiors. Their minds are in a haze, mimicking the feeling caused by alcohol by virtue of the overdose of serotonin; they feel as if they are snugly lying on cloud-like bedding, embracing them from all directions, encaging them into a burrito-like state At this moment is when circumstances proceed to go south Heads bopping Arms cruising to the beat of the music Hands grasping phones Everyone attempting to make the most of the night Everyone attempting to make this night last forever Everyone attempting to save this night. Limbs begin to tangle, imitating spider webs. Shoving of elbows into one another's guts becomes a prevalent occurrence. Cocooning them like ribbon. Gradually constricting them. Enclosing their tracheas. Unable to breathe. Unable to scream. Unable to send a cry for help. They remain as swaying bodies.

The stench of barf and body odour lazily diffuses throughout the atmosphere. Purely appalling. Souls fastened within their bodies like mimes. No one utters a phrase. Silently suffering by themselves. Deteriorating within. A disease moving from the tip of their toes towards their heads, slithering like a snake, covering every square inch of skin On the verge of turning into a pile of mush, having lost the ability to respire Their powerless brains are incapable of transmitting instructions through nerves to other essential organs Yet every being continues to jump Shifting their weight between feet Unknowingly injuring those around them Every being continues to live in the moment. Pure joy streamed through their veins. with glee.

All negativity exits their bodies for a few hours. Another day, another concert. Every being leaves the hall rushed. Attempting to get home through different modes of transport, having had the time of their lives Wishing to receive the opportunity again, despite the dreadful side None repeat the experience In a merely negative way It equates to the most praiseworthy experience of their lifetime An experience which should only be recited


Jane Austen is renowned for her literary contributions, “The Little Women” and “Pride and Prejudice." Meanwhile, Charlotte Bronte, one of the Bronte sisters, etched her legacy with the masterful creation of “Jane Eyre " These distinguished authors were confused in readers’ recollections, not only as they shared the 19thcentury authorship but also the influence from their fathers, who value education, fostering their writing pursuits

Yet comparing their literary styles is akin to comparing apples to oranges Austen’s genteel upbringing stands in contrast to Bronte's middleclass background, leading to a disparity in their writing Their writing focus varies as Austen delves into the romantic lives of the English landed gentry, while Bronte’s responsibility in her sister's education and the need for economic independence had given her more experiences that stimulated the creation of the book

In pride and prejudice, the biggest takeaway after reading the book is perhaps the patriarchal society where women could not be the direct heir to inherit father’s wealth, as well as the lesson that the heroine, Elizabeth Bennet, learned to not make hasty judgements on people by the first impression

The Bronte’s kids read voraciously; Charlotte became the eldest of the family after the consequent deaths of her big sisters. The immense responsibility she carried conflicts with her initial streaks of rebellious and self ambition, those character traits were half-carried into the book, “Jane Eyre " The Brontë family regularly received Blackwood’s magazine and Fraser’s magazine for town and country Charlotte Bronte’s many descriptions of natural landscapes are indebted to the 18th-century topographical poems by James Thomson, William Wordsworth and other nature poets

In contrast, Jane Eyre takes on a bigger volume, where it is written autobiographically in a retrospective tone The book has an homage in the Gothic literature genre, it is also a bildungsroman and feminist piece of work.

To me personally, while I enjoy reading them both, there is a stronger affinity towards Jane Eyre over pride and prejudice due to its greater analyzability First and foremost, the three volumes include the protagonist’s life stages, from childhood living in the mansion of Mrs. Reeds to finishing her education in the charity school Romance only appears for less than one third of the whole length, where the heroine was in love with Mr Rochester, a man 20 years older, not handsome but delighted her in every accompaniment and conversation Bronte’s character development is more ample and entertaining Like the other Gothic novels, the book hooks the reader with the characteristic superstitions element, plot of betrayal, witchcraft, entrapment and ruined buildings.

Secondly, there is greater attraction from this piece due to the enthralling language In particular, Bronte portrays the oppositional fire and ice imagery while first describing the red room in which she was locked, which symbiotically represents the extreme of temperament between which Jane swings as she turns from being angered towards the injustice back to the timid child who was alone and been humiliated The growth of the character in counteracting her habitual mood of inferiority and self-doubt is motivational; it satisfied my insatiable appetite for bildungsromans in particular This juxtaposition of fire and ice is further extended to the comparison between John Rivers and Rochester, two men that are important to her. John is an evangelical clergyman, who possessed fanatical enthusiasm for God and PUAs Jane into being his missionary’s wife On the contrary, Rochester, in my opinion, stands on the other extreme, unlike John who ignores the protagonist’s feelings, Rochester ignores conventional morality and was a bit manipulative from the fact that he kept the secret of his ex-wife’s entrapment and wanted to marry Jane

I was joyful to see Jane keeping her ground and never compromise to choose paths that would have been wrong for her I also like the author’s depiction of Jane and Mr Rochester's unbalanced position as part of the reason for her not accepting Rochester’s hand of marriage. The independence of the heroine led the book to be perceived as a feminist fiction

Thirdly, I also enjoy the amount of symbolism in Bronte’s depiction of natural imagery Woolf praises Bronte’s ability to use imagery drawn from the natural world as a powerful symbol of the vast and sublime passions in human nature The chance to read messages that may not have been realised by the protagonist or to catch a clue for future development generates prodigious joy for me. For example, in the scene where Jane describes herself as "tossed on a buoyant but unquiet sea," Brontë warns the reader that Jane's romantic interlude with Rochester is not entirely a positive turn of events.

“Pride and Prejudice” and “Jane Eyre” are both books that I have read since I was little The polyphonic and multi-layered storytelling raised my expectations for the book that I read consequently Another book analysis that I wish to embark upon is perhaps the Dune series written by Frank Herbert In this writing, I haven't managed to provide a decent presentation of Charlotte Bronte and Jane Austen literary contributions, but that would be something achievable as I open up the pages of the other renowned works



T h e g i l t o f w a t e r a g a i n s t a u r i c r a y s

C a n n o t b e f e l t t h r o u g h s c r e e n d i s p l a y s .

N o t t h e d a n d e l i o n p o w d e r

F r e c k l i n g s h i r t s l e e v e s i n t h e p a r k

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O r j e s t i n g d o g b a r k s .

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I s n o s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e b u z z o f h o n e y

b e e s ,

A n d j u b i l e e s

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R e n d e r e d ,

F i l t e r e d -

A n d c o n d i t i o n e d f o r t h e y o u n g a n d

v u l n e r a b l e

T o b e f a c t i t i o u s l y h i n d e r e d .

I t r e c i p r o c a t e s a n d m a n i f o l d s ,

I n t o v a l i d a t i o n t o b e w i t h h o l d ,

W e c r a v e ,

R e j e c t -

But have no choice

But to chase crowds in manifolds.

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Is no equation to Few, Fierce few that, Find our tear streaked face

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Without numbing insipid fixtures, Bursti ng blithest laughter, Spinning in life’s elixir because-

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Eldridge Eldridge

f Eldridge, nestled between rolling hills and flowing streams, lived a ity of her surroundings, Lily felt an unspoken calling – a beckoning from beyond the horizon. Her vivid d with dreams of distant lands and untold adventures. One day, she decided to heed the whispers of curiosity and embark on a journey that would change her life forever.

As the morning sun cast its warm glow over Eldridge, Lily packed a small backpack with essentials – a notebook, a sturdy water bottle, and a handful of snacks She wore a worn but cherished hat, a gift from her grandmother, which gives her luck as she always believed, and set out on a path that led beyond the familiar fields and meadows.

The journey began with the familiar sights of Eldridge slowly fading away Lily walked through the vibrant wildflowers that adorned the roadside and the rhythmic chirping of crickets that accompanied her steps The air seemed charged with anticipation as she crossed the bridge over Crystal Creek, where the water whispered stories of distant places to anyone who cared to listen.

As Lily ventured further, the landscape transformed into an ever-changing tapestry. Forests of ancient trees, their branches reaching toward the sky like wise elders, enveloped her in a comforting embrace She marvelled at the play of sunlight filtering through the leaves, casting dappled patterns on the forest floor Each step felt like a verse in a song, and the rustle of leaves beneath her feet provided the melody.

In the trees, Lily encountered a clearing bathed in golden sunlight. In the center stood an old stone well, its we th d surface telling tales of ages past Drawn by an unavoidable force, Lily approached the well and peered into its said that wells held the secrets of the earth, and as she gazed into the darkness, a reflection of her own dream

ey, Lily soon reached the edge of the forest, where the landscape opened up to a va ched as far as the eye could see, adorned with colorful butterflies and the occasiona adow seemed to sing with the symphony of nature, and Lily found herself twirling w wind

In the distance, a quaint village beckoned, its rustic charm promising stories untold. Lily decided to explore its cobbled streets and narrow aisles, where each corner revealed a new story of the village's history. The aroma of freshly baked bread wafted from a local bakery, and the laughter of children playing echoed through the market square

In the heart of the village, Lily discovered an old bookstore, its shelves lined with books that seemed to whisper secrets and adventures. The shopkeeper, a wise elderly woman with twinkling eyes, noticed Lily's gaze and handed her a leather-bound book. "This is for you, my dear. May it guide you on your journey," she said with a knowing smile.

With the book in hand, Lily continued her exploration, crossing meadows and traversing hills The sun began its descent, casting a warm glow on the horizon It was then that she stumbled upon a meandering river, its waters reflecting the hues of the setting sun. Mesmerized, Lily sat by the riverbank, her thoughts flowing like the gentle stream of water before her.

As twilight embraced the landscape, the stars emerged, dotting the velvety sky. Lily, lying on a bed of soft grass, pondered the constellations above Each twinkling star seemed to hold a story, a fragment of the vast cosmos waiting to be discovered With the night sky as her canvas, Lily opened the leather-bound book from the bookstore She began to write – tales of the forest, the meadow, the village, and the celestial wonders above The ink on the pages became a testament to her journey, capturing the essence of the places she visited and the lessons she learned.

As the night deepened, Lily felt a profound sense of gratitude for the journey she had undertaken The world beyond Eldridge had unfolded like a grand tapestry, revealing the interconnected threads of nature, community, and self-discovery With a heart full of memories and a soul enriched by the experiences of the day, she closed the book and drifted into a peaceful sleep under the sky filled with eyes blinking.

And so, in the quiet of the night, Lily's journey continued – a journey fueled by curiosity, guided by the wisdom of the earth, and inscribed on the pages of her own storybook The path ahead remained uncertain, but with each step, she embraced the magic of the unknow ies that awaited in the future

Written by: Sarah N9 Sarah N9

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