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T H E B A SSO O N Beginning and Beyond

Practical Application Project Mark D. Wells Director of Bands Laingsburg, Michigan


TABLE OF CONTENTS Forward ………………………………………………………………………….....…3 A Brief History of the Bassoon……………………………………………………..…4 MAKING CHOICES Choosing a Bassoon Student……………………………………………………..……5 Choosing a Bassoon & Bocal…………………………………………………………6 Better Reeds for Bassoonists…………………………………….……………………7 THE REED Reed Tools…………………………………………………………………………….8 Parts of the Reed…………………………………………………………...………….9 Reed Adjustments……………………………………………………………………10 BASSOON BEGINNINGS Bassoon Accessories…………………………………………………………………11 Parts of the Bassoon………………………………………………………………….12 Assembling the Bassoon………………………………………………………….….13 Proper playing position………...………………………………………………….…18 Holding the Bassoon…………………………………………………………………19 Embouchure………………………………………………………………………….20 The Crow…………………………………………………………………………….23 Airstream & Voicings to Control Pitch……………………………………………...24 Pitch Tendencies……………………………………………………………….…….25 FINGERING Fingering: Key Labels………………………………………………………………..26 Fingering Help……………………………………………………………………….27 Alternate Fingerings……………………………………………………………….....28 Fingerings for Control………………………………………………………………..29 Fingering: Flicking…………………………………………………………………...30 Fingering Chart………………………………………………………………………31 Fingering Chart by Daryl Durran……………………………………………….……34 Trill Fingerings by Daryl Durran…………………………………………………….36 EXERCISES Half-Holing…………………………………………………………………………..38 Flicking……………………………………………………………………………....39 Voicing……………………………………………………………………………….41 Key of F………………………………………………………………………….…..42 Major Scales………………………………………………………………………….44 CREDITS References /Sources Used………………………………………………………........45

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FORWARD The bassoon has always been a rather mysterious instrument to me. In this method book, I have attempted to dispel some of these mysteries. It is my intent that the reader of this book, no matter the age or level of experience, can use this book as a tool in obtaining a better understanding of the bassoon. The information presented within will guide teacher and student alike through the process of taking the first steps, proceeding on to lift the shroud of anxiety surrounding the next few years. It is my hope that the reader can use this book well after learning the “basics� as a reference and constant reminder of the many things which must be addressed again and again to achieve better bassoon playing. My personal intentions for this method book are to use this as a reference and guide in my every day teaching. I am also perfectly fine with students purchasing (decent) reeds from a reputable retailer, I do not go into too much detail regarding reed making in this book. More of my personal emphasis will be to get my own bassoon students involved in private lessons, and finding a teacher who may make his/her own reeds to sell to their students.

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BASSOON The bassoon, (or fagot) is an instrument of the woodwind family. More specifically, it can be categorized as a double reed instrument, which also includes the oboe, English Horn and the contra bassoon. The bassoon plays primarily in the tenor and bass ranges, but has the extraordinary capability to play almost 5 octaves. The English name of bassoon comes from the general term referring to the bass register of any instrument. The German word for bassoon is fagot, which literally translated means “bundle of sticks.� What exquisite and expensive sticks they are; with a professional quality, handmade bassoon fetching as much or more than a high quality European luxury car. A renaissance bass woodwind instrument, the dulcian was the most direct precursor to the bassoon. It was in existence from around 1550 to 1700. Like the modern bassoon it was generally made of maple with its bore folded onto itself. It also had a metal bocal that inserted one end into the small bore side and had the reed attached to the other end. This early version was, as one might guess, much less complex than the modern bassoon in that it only had six finger holes and two keys. A far cry from the Heckel fingering system we use today which there are 9 or 10 keys for the left thumb alone. The dulcian was superseded by the baroque bassoon. The increasing size and musical demands of orchestras in the 1800’s spurred further development of the bassoon. Teacher and composer Carl Almenrader can be credited with much of the development of modern bassoon design. In 1823, along with Johann Heckel, he began developing ways to improve intonation, response, and technical efficiency. By 1827 the Heckel key system, also known as the German key system covered four octaves. Because of these numerous improvements the German key system is the most widely used bassoon. Except for a few additional keys, such as the whisper key which was added around 1900, the German bassoon of 1880 is still the model used today. 4


CHOOSING A BASSON STUDENT Who should play bassoon? Choosing the best suited student for the job is easy if you know what to look for. 1. Physical characteristics: a. Can they whistle? b. Are they large enough to play the instrument? He/she should be big enough by 7th grade. c. Helps to have hitchhiker’s thumb (bend back past vertical) d. Can you see a lot of their upper teeth? Watch for upper lips that may be too short. e. Choose student with an overbite. No under bite. If they have under bite, put them on viola or percussion. ☺ 2. Selecting the right student: a. Find a student with good musical skills (be able to match pitch, and has good rhythmic skills) b. Use a stronger player, perhaps a saxophone player. Do not put your last chair clarinet player on bassoon. c. Find a pianist or some other student not in band to try bassoon. d. Find somebody bright, self-motivated, a self-discoverer, self-motivated and persistent. A perfectionist. e. Make sure their family is interested in their children. f. Family with money – bassoons are expensive! i. Money for reeds ii. Money for instrument, maintenance 5


CHOOSING A BASSOON Due to the expense of buying a bassoon, most students use a school bassoon. Most bassoons already owned by schools are not in good playing condition! It is recommended that no matter what condition the instrument is in, find a good repairman and see what he/she can do as far as rendering the bassoon playable. In many cases a $1,500 repair bill can be ba good investment given that even the bottom line student bassoon models go for well over $3,000. Fox-Renard bassoons are the overwhelming choice for student line bassoons. Companies such as Schreiber and Selmer manufacture affordable student models. Takeada is a new company in Japan that sells two different student line instruments through Mmimports. Both models are made of maple. BOCALS • FOX makes good bocals. The higher the number, the longer the bocal. • The C bore bocal is $135 • CVX and the CVC are about $250 – least expensive • Most cost $500 • FOX bocals are the only sizes that don’t mesh with the rest of the bocals in the universe. It is usually a good idea to have a couple bocals for tuning purposes. Different bocals also produce different sounds. Some of the most highly recommended bocals are the Fox CVD and CVX models. The Heckel bocals are very high quality along with being quite expensive. Yamaha “super bocals” are good quality as well. WEB SITES WITH BASSOON AND BOCAL PRICING http://www.foxproducts.com/pages/boc_bass.asp The Fox web page is updated with current prices on their bocals. http://www.heckel.de/ The Heckel Bassoon page has contact information for up-to-date pricing on bocals and products. http://www.bassoon.org/makers.htm Bassoon.org has a great list of bassoon makers! Links to hundreds of companies that sell bassoons and bassoon parts. http://www.yamaha.com/ Navigating the web site is a bit time-consuming, but you can find the “super bocal” that Yamaha makes here.

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BETTER REEDS FOR BASSOONISTS An excellent article titled, “Taking the Mystery Out of Bassoon Reeds” can be found at: http://www.jonesdoublereed.com/wiz_mystery.aspx “Generally, I do not advocate the use of plastic reeds. They have a strong tendency towards flatness, have virtually no upper register, and produce an uncharacteristic metallic tone.” – Dr. Daryl Durran

“The best solution… is for your bassoon player to be studying privately with a competent bassoonist who can keep your players in reeds” – Dr. Daryl Durran

Locating sources for well made reeds The addresses below are for double reed specialty houses. Their reeds are handmade and will represent a better product than “store bought reeds”. Your local music store can order from these sources also. ORDER MEDIUM STRENGTH REEDS. Charles Double Reed Co. P.O. Box 2610 Conway, NH 03818 (603) 447-1110 http://www.charlesmusic.com/

Edmund Nielsen Woodwind Instrument Service 61 East Park Blvd. Villa Park, IL 60181 (703) 833-5676 http://www.nielsen-woodwinds.com/

Forrest’s Music 1849 University Ave. Berkley, CA 94703 (415) 845-7178 http://www.forrestsmusic.com/

Jones Double-Reed Products Box 3888 Spokane, WA 99220-3888 (509) 747-1224 http://www.jonesdoublereed.com/

Arundo Reeds & Cane 18081 NM Dixie Mt. Rd. Hillsboro, OR 97124 (503) 647-0958 http://home.earthlink.net/~arundo/

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REED TOOLS Although the above sources usually produce reeds that play reasonably well, chances are a few adjustments will be needed. Here are some accessories available that most bassoonists need to make necessary adjustments on their reeds.

Reamer

File

Arrow Plaque

Mandrail

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Utility Knife

Cutting Block

Small nose pliars

PARTS OF THE REED

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MAKING REED ADJUSTMENTS Never work on a dry reed. There must be a balance between keeping the reed too wet or not wet enough. Submerging the blade in water for about 30 seconds should be sufficient. Work back from the tip and use wet/dry sandpaper. Avoid taking cane off the spine – take it from the channels. Also, make sure you take and even amount off each side. The tube needs to be perfectly round. This is accomplished by using a mandrel tool. You can adjust the sound of the reed by adjusting the wires. •

The first wire is a little loose on a good playing reed.

The second wire has the most affect on the sound in that it changes the shape of the tube. Adjust it by squeezing on the sides (not on top and bottom) of the reed

The bottom wire is tight to hold the reed in place.

Hold the reed up to a hooded light; if you see any dark spots or chunks of can sticking up, sand them down. The middle of the tip opening should be the thickness of a dime. You can judge the thickness of the cane by looking at the tip opening. Soak the entire reed, but just get it wet. Thirty seconds should be plenty – don’t soak the reeds for a long time. A wider tip reed is better for low tones. A narrower tip reed is better for high notes and would be utilized by first-part players.

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BASSOON ACCESSORIES Before we even begin to assemble the instrument, there are a few items which any good bassoonist should not do without. Here is a brief list of essential accessories: Bassoon Stand Bassoons are delicate, so keep it safe from damage by getting a bassoon stand.

Empty Pill Container / 35mm Plastic Film Container This simple and inexpensive tool is used to keep the reeds wet. Works much better than soaking in the mouth because the mouth does not soak the reed from every angle like this can.

Chromatic Tuner A bassoonists best friend. Unless you have been blessed with perfect pitch, you will need a tuner to make sure your notes are being played to the best standard of excellence. There are many different kinds, sizes and shapes of tuners in many ranges of price.

Reed Case Always keep about 5 good reeds minimum with you at all times in case of emergencies. Reeds are fragile and finicky, so make sure you have a reed case to keep your reeds safe and secure.

Bassoon Case You will need a nice case to transport your bassoon. Cases must be selected carefully to ensure the bassoon is nestled in the case without any parts bumping against each other.

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PARTS OF THE BASSOON - - - Bassoon in Case - - -

- - - Bassoon Fully Assembled - - -

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ASSEMBLING THE BASSOON STEP 1: Before we begin, soak reed as you assemble the instrument. The assembly of the bassoon goes from the bottom up. So begin by removing the Boot Joint from the case. Set the Boot Joint down on the floor, keep the side with the 2 holes facing upwards.

STEP 2:

Keep the boot joint on the ground with the 2 holes facing upwards. Next, take out the Tenor Joint from the case. The Tenor Joint is the sorter of the 2 middle sections, and has a fin shaped protrusion.

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STEP 3: Hold the boot joint with the pancake key facing you. Holding both sections carefully, insert the Tenor Joint into the Boot Joint. Notice the angle of the Tenor Joint. The Tenor Joint lip should be facing so that the inside of the cup shape is facing toward the empty hole.

STEP 4:

Remove the Long Joint from the case. Be very careful of the keys when placing the Long Joint into the Boot Joint. Use your right hand to steady and align the Tenor Joint so the Long Joint fits nicely in the cupped section. Using your left hand, you may gently maneuver the Long Joint into its correct place by using a slight twisting motion.

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STEP 5: Hold the Bell Joint using the left hand thumb on the Bell Joint Key. This will help to safely align the key on the Long Joint with the Bell Joint. Try to avoid twisting the Bell on to the Long Joint. Be aware of the keys on both joints when sliding them together.

The Bocal is a very fragile component of the Bassoon. Before attaching the Bocal to the Tenor Joint, make sure you hold it correctly to avoid damaging. Keep cork grease on the cork so you can put the bocal on without much stress.

CORRECT!

INCORRECT

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STEP 6:

Carefully insert the Bocal into the Tenor Joint. Be very cautious of the key which sticks up from the Tenor Joint that covers the small hole in the Bocal. This key is fragile and can easily bend or become damaged during this step.

STEP 7:

After the bassoon has been assembled, the Seat Strap should be placed on a chair as you see here. The seat strap takes the weight of the instrument off the player’s neck, reduces the effort required by the left arm to hold the bassoon, and provides the bassoon greater stability than when using a neck strap.

STEP 8:

The Seat Strap attaches to the bottom of the Boot Joint via either a hole in the end cap or a split ring through this hole. If there is no hole in your boot cap, a bucket-style seat strap can be used, as seen in this picture.

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STEP 9: The final step to the assembly is to place the Reed on the Bocal..

Be sure to hold the reed at the threads when placing it on the Bocal.

CHECK IT! Perform these simple checks AFTER assembly: TENONS – These should be snug, but easy to insert and remove. If the tenons are too loose, gently add thread to existing thread or cork. To avoid rocking, put a little more thread at edges of cork or existing thread than in the center. Do not pull thread tight when wrapping. WHISPER KEY LINKAGE BETWEEN BOOT AND BOCAL – with the bassoon assembled, check that the bocal vent closes when the low E key (pancake key) is depressed. If the bocal vent is not being closed, a slight rotation of wing joint may correc this. If not, adjust mechanism so both low E and whisper key cover. Check low E with testing paper.

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PROPER PLAYING POSITION In order to achieve proper playing position, make sure to first sit straight in your seat, keep your feet flat on the floor. First, establish good posture before doing anything with the bassoon. When looking at the picture below, notice that the bell should be somewhat to the player’s left. The player should look at his/her music and the conductor over the right side of the instrument. The bocal should enter the center of the mouth slightly from the left. The height and angle of the bassoon relative to the player is important. The player should bring the bocal to his/her mouth by adjusting the height of the instrument via the seat strap. As it leaves the mouth, the line of the bocal should be slightly downward from horizontal. A position where the line of the bocal ascends from the mouth will contribute to sharpness and lack of resonance. A correct angle can be attained by adjusting the position of the seat strap from the front to back on the chair.

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HOLDING THE BASSOON There are three points of the body involved in holding the bassoon.

The outside of the thigh is the most passive contact point. The point of contact on the left hand is the corner of the palm at the base of the index finger. This point is laid against the side of the long joint. The weight of the bassoon is held at this point, not with the ends of the fingers. The heel of the palm should be away from the instrument so the fingers approach the bassoon at about a 45 degree angle relative to the axis of the instrument. Depending on the size of the players hands, some adjustments may be necessary; however, the left hand should be perpendicular to the instrument. There are two versions of the third point of contact. Some bassoonists use a hand rest for the right hand. This is the plastic item pointed out by the arrow above. When using the hand rest, the right palm between the index finger and thumb is set on the hand rest. When not using the hand rest, the point of contact for the right hand is the first segment of the index finger. It rests on the key rod of the C# trill key or preferably on a key guard installed over the C# trill key. This is usually method more suitable for most players since it allows a much more gentle bend with out it.

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EMBOUCHURE “The bassoon embouchure is beautiful in its simplicity” – Daryl Durran One of the most important concepts with the bassoon is to form the correct embouchure. There are many different “formulas” as to the formation of it, but in the end, all agree upon the same thing: the embouchure is a soft embouchure. The embouchure is lip supported and not jaw supported. A lot of young bassoonists tend to use the jaw more than the lips to support the reed, which causes severe pitch problems, which causes difficulties in playing the bassoon. Another thing universal with the formulas to forming an embouchure, there must be an overbite to help balance the reed. These two things are very important when forming the correct embouchure. To help understand the concept of forming the bassoon embouchure, try the following exercise: 1. Take your index finger and place it on your lower lip 2. Roll your bottom lip over your teeth and into your mouth, taking your finger with it. 3. Bring the top lip down onto your finger, trying to keep your top lip in front of your bottom teeth, thus producing the overbite. This is the basic concept of forming the correct embouchure for bassoon. Now with the reed, do the same procedure as above, just using the reed instead of your index finger.

1. Place the tip of the reed on your bottom lip. 2. Bring the reed into your mouth by rolling your bottom lip over your teeth. 3. Bring the top lip down over the top teeth, producing a slight overbite.

The angle of the image on the left, we see the angle of the reed may be out a bit too straight from the mouth. Remember to angle the reed down slightly from horizontal as it leaves the mouth. 20


Notice that the corners are not pushed in, and that the chin is flat. Remember, the embouchure is a soft embouchure, so the lips, and not the jaw support it.

The following is an excerpt from Daryl Duran’s clinic on bassoon embouchure formation: 1. Using only the reed and bocal, sound a sustained “DOU” or “DEW”. While the pitch is sounding, have the student quickly draw the reed out of his/her mouth. The objective is to not have the lips close as the reed is removed, and for the air to continue uninterrupted as the tone stops and the reed leaves the mouth. 2. Again with just the reed and bocal, have the student sound a sustained “dew” while touching the front of his/her chin. The objective here is to maintain the same smoothness of tissue as when saying “ew”. A mirror is the most helpful tool. 3. With the bassoon fully assembled, play a descending F major scale from fourth line F to low F without using the whisper key. Too much top-to-bottom pressure on the reed with cause the pitch to change to the octave above. Here is a diagram to show how the reed should be supported.

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This is what a hard embouchure (jaw supported) looks like.

When you use your jaw to support the reed, the corners of your mouth pull away from the reed, thus leaving the sides unsupported.

INCORRECT EMBOUCHURE EXAMPLES With this embouchure, we see the lips rolled out too far. The corners also go up in a smile. The chin is not flat. Again, the lips are puckered and rolled out way to far. There is too much red of the lip showing, and there isn’t much of an overbite.

In this picture, the lips are tucked too far under the teeth. Make sure to use a mirror when first forming the embouchure. You should still be able to see your lips. There is no over bite, in fact, the bottom jaw is further out than the top.

OVERBITE The primary purpose of the overbite is to support and balance the reed. There is no such thing as a perfect reed, so when they are built, there are two different blades of cane used. Each one is a different thickness. Therefore, the bottom lip is used to “push up” on the thicker side of the reed to help balance the reed. It is important that each player determine that side of their reed allows them to play the best. That side needs to be facing toward the roof of the mouth. Also, make sure that the upper lip is closer to the first wire than the bottom lip. 22


THE CROW “The Crow” is the term for the sound that is produced when you blow only the reed by itself. Listening for the crow can help determine adjustments that need to be made to the reed.

Here are the steps to producing a good “crow”: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Don’t use tongue The pitch of the crow should be “F” Think about whistling Put finger in cleft of chin and whistle Put finger in same place and do a big silly clown smile, then go to a pucker, then back and forth 6. Start high on just reed, then loosen up mouth to get to the crowing sound A low-pitch only crow: this means the reed is too thin and you won’t be able to play high notes. You can stiffen the reed by squeezing the second wire on the sides. Trimming the tip may be another solution. A high-pitch only crow: indicates the reed is too stiff and will be unresponsive. Take

cane off the reed being careful to observe the “points to remember when working with reeds above”.

When you have a good-playing reed, you will be able to hear both high and low pitches on “the crow”.

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AIRSTREAM & VOICINGS TO CONTROL PITCH Once the grip on the reed has been established, the pitch will have dropped dramatically. To compensate for this lowered pitch, it is important to understand voicings and air stream. The double reed instruments all require rapid, intense air stream. The effect on pitch can be observed as air is blown faster through the instrument. When this occurs, you will hear a rise in pitch. A fast air stream is a key element in both pitch and tone. “Voicing� of individual notes uses the mouth, throat, and even the vocal chords to provide a resonator of appropriate size and shape to reinforce the pitch being fingered on the instrument. The following is a chart which shows when to use certain voicings in relation to note ranges.

Remember: The intonation is not controlled by the jaws, but rather by the fast air stream and the modulation of voicings. This, combined with the idea of singing the note, should provide the tools needed to achieve a higher level of performance.

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PITCH TENDENCIES The bassoon has a wide range of notes that it can play. Some of these notes are out of tune, and can present problems to the bassoonist. It is important that the bassoonist uses a sufficient amount of air so that the reed and instrument can work the way they were meant to work. If not enough air is used, the notes will sound flat or very thin. It is also important to hear the pitch of the note before you play it. Since the embouchure controls the pitch, any variance in pressure can cause intonation problems. Beginners are encouraged to work with a tuner to help develop a "feel" for the placement of each note. Use the tuner as a guide, and then after awhile, depend on your ear more to hear if the note is in tune. Here is a chart of the most out of tune notes on the bassoon. Sb = Slightly Flat / S# = Slightly Sharp / M# = Moderately Sharp / V# = Very Sharp

Let’s recall that from the “brief history of the bassoon� section that a fagot is another name for bassoon. Even though most bassoons play similar, some have a different set of notes which play out of tune than other ones, so it is important to spend some time with a tuner on your instrument to determine which notes these are. Using this chart will help the bassoonist overcome most intonation problems in their music. It would be expected that the bassoonist will go through their music and mark these notes in their music so when they come to it, they can make the necessary adjustments in their embouchure or by using an alternate fingering if available. 25


FINGERING: KEY LABELS

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FINGERING HELP This diagram shows when to use certain keys.

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ALTERNATE FINGERINGS Since there are many keys on the bassoon, there are a lot of notes that have alternate fingerings. The use of alternate fingerings can help with control, technical passages, intonation, and response. With these alternate fingerings available to players, the bassoonist has a lot of options to choose from when approaching difficult passages.

Another alternate fingering is that of the D# or Eb. This fingering was covered on the previous page under “Fingering Help�

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FINGERING: FLICKING Flicking is a technique used to aid in producing the following notes, particularly when slurring from the lower register: By opening an appropriate vent key, the response of these notes can be improved dramatically, especially on low quality student instruments. Below is a diagram of the left thumb keys and the notes that are associated with each.

The proper use of this technique is a controversial topic for some bassoonists. Many believe that the "flick" keys should be used at all times with these notes, in effect, making them part of the regular fingering. This has the advantage of insuring that the response for these notes will be consistent and predictable. The disadvantage is an increased burden on the left thumb and a subsequent complication of the technical challenges already present. Many successful bassoonists have found the advantages to far outweigh the disadvantages and therefore, employ these keys at all times when playing these pitches. However, many other bassoonists prefer to use the "flick" keys only in certain situations where the response of these notes is particularly troublesome. Some typical examples are shown below:

Generally all slurs from from open f and below, up to our "flicked" notes, will require the use of the appropriate flick key to aid in response. Additionally, slurs down to these notes from high eb and above will require the same treatment. HOW TO The technique of flicking is a four stage process. From the low register, begin the note with the whisper key on. Then, lift your thumb, but maintain the pitch you are on. This is important! If the pitch jumps to the higher note prior to flicking then the embouchure/air coordination is incorrect. While holding the original pitch, find the desired "flick" key with your left thumb. Once prepared, the thumb (and other fingers) and embouchure/air will be ready to make a coordinated move to the new pitch. At first, it is easiest to put the flick key down with the new pitch and then release after the pitch has been stabilized. With practice, the thumb will briefly tap the flick key to help the new pitch speak.

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BASSOON FINGERING CHART

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Bassoon Fingering Chart Pg. 2

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Bassoon Fingering Chart Pg. 3

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HALF-HOLING EXERCISES The responsiveness of the bassoon at the top of the bass-clef staff can often times be an issue due to poor half holing technique. This section will offer tips and exercises to help with improving half holing.

RANGE:

The following exercises will help you prefect your half-holing technique

Make sure to practice these exercises with a metronome to get the feel for how much of the finger is needed to cover the hole to make the best sound.

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FLICKING EXERCISES

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Flicking Practice

Let’s Review

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VOICING EXERCISES All voicings must be focused forward in the mouth and have a vocal quality. Remember that intonation is not controlled by the jaws, but rather by a fast air stream and the modulation of voicings. This, combined with the idea of singing the note, should provide the skills necessary to achieve a higher level of performance.

Good E’s / Bad E’s Sound Eb using the fingering for E natural

Saggy C’s Sound B using the fingering for C. Regular fingering for the E

Octave A’s, Bb’s and C’s

Whisper key closed for both octaves. No flicking. Sustain the notes. Repeat each measure many times Harmonic Bb Sound the upper Bb using the fingering for Low Bb 41


KEY OF F EXERCISES (with pitch tendencies and voicings)

GUIDE If the note indicated is sharp, its pitch center can be lowered by adjusting your embouchure. Releasing pressure on the reed usually lowers pitch. Now, see what happens when you add pressure to the reed. Make sure to add only slight pressure, and be sure to add even pressure all the way around the reed. Also experiment with the amount of reed that is in the mouth. The pitch of any given note will go sharp or flat depending on how much reed is in the mouth.

F Major Scale with Pitch tendencies and Voicings

1-2-3-1 Patterns

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4 Note Patterns

Mixing It Up

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MAJOR SCALES (with pitch tendencies)

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REFERENCES / SOURCES USED 1. Posture, Breathing, Air Flow, Reeds, Embouchure: Dr. Darryl Durran – Penn State University – The ABC handbook and notes from the 2006 & 2003 Sessions at ABC. 2. Embouchure: Dr. L. Hugh Cooper – University of Michigan – Bassoon Embouchure 1978 3. Technique: Dr. MaryBeth Minnis – Central Michigan University – Bassoon Techniques course pack 1999 and from Dr. Darryl Durran. 4. Guide to Teaching Woodwinds by Frederick Westphal (1990 by Wm. C. Brown Publsihing). Pp. 205 – 242. 5. Richard Polonchak’s article in Embou-Sure Method. ABC study materials. 2003. 6. History: Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bassoon 7. Who to start on bassoon: “Teaching the Beginning Bassoonist”, by Terry B. Ewell. Towson University, Maryland http://www.idrs.org/publications/DR/DR23.2.pdf/Beginning.pdf 8. Fingering Chart: http://www.jonesdoublereed.com/prints/bsn_chart.pdf 9. “Taking the Mystery out of Bassoon Reeds”, by Wendal Jones http://www.jonesdoublereed.com/wiz_mystery.aspx 10. “Better Reeds for your Bassoonists”, by Daryl Durran. Article from the ABC handbook, specifically addresses for double reed specialty houses. 11. Picture of “Parts of the Reed”, taken with permission from Willie Wright’s ABC Practical Application Project 2005. 12. Black and white drawing of bassoon player: weblogs.uni.edu/bassoon/ http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Rivka/Bassoon-Print-C10285717.jpeg 13. Platoon Movie Spoof image: http://www.b3tards.com/uploader.php 14. “Voicings” section notation used with permission from Doug Lull’s ABC Bassoon Practical Application Project. 15. Daryl Durran Fingering Chart used with permission. 16. Flicking section from: http://www.people.vcu.edu/~bhammel/main/bassoon/fingers/flicking.htm http://www.people.vcu.edu/~bhammel/main/flicking.htm

SOFTWARE USED: 1. Finale 2006 – symbolic music notation 2. Jacsoft Paintshop Pro – Image manipulation 3. Adobe Acrobat – Conversion to PDF files and vise versa 4. Microsoft Word – Where most of the project was written 5. Firefox – Internet browser 45


Bassoon - Beginning and Beyond