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Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

• Recommended length – 1000-1500 words • Questions always asked: 1. which aspects should I include in the lit. review? 2. How should I go about to synthesise information in a lit review? 3. How should I structure a lit review? 4. What writing style should I use when compiling a lit review? Powerpoint Templates

Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

General ď Ž The purpose of lit review is to look again (re + view) at what others have done on the subject ď Ž provides background to the obj/purpose of study

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A good lit review does not merely summarise relevant lit BUT Researcher: ‘digests’ various sources, critically evaluates, reorganises, & synthesises into a concise, logical & reader friendly reading material Powerpoint Templates

Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

Two parts of a lit review • 1 A coherent synthesis of extant research, with definitions of core terms - present knowledge is the benchmark for evaluating the contribution of new research (Varadajan). Sometimes

these parent theories are covered in part 2 of the introduction. So this synthesis is not always explicit in the literature review part but is implicit in the conceptual framework noted next

• 2 A conceptual framework and its hypotheses/issues to guide data collection and analysis, using insights from extant theories - see next slide Powerpoint Templates


That is, the conceptual framework is the ‘destination’ of the review 1/2 • The literature reviewed must be relevant to and builds up to the conceptual framework, and that framework decides the data to be analysed and how it is analysed. All roads must eventually lead to the destination. Be coherent not consecutive ie not historical or article oriented • Consider your conceptual framework as a jewel. Your whole literature review is written with its final structure in mind - ‘your task is to cut and polish it, to select the facets to highlight, and to craft the best setting for it.’ Powerpoint Templates

And the reasoning in the conceptual framework is your final destination • ‘Models and propositions capture relationships between variables, but do not, on their own, represent theory... Rather, the reasoning or justification for these relationships represents the crucial part of the theory-development process.The reasoning for propositions may come from three main sources: theoretical explanations for ‘why’, past empirical findings, and practice or experience. The why or logical reasoning is the most important component of the explanation... It represents the theoretical glue that welds the model together.’ Webster Powerpoint Templates


How /what to do: 1.Identify the article/reference/reading material - journal - books 2. Manage the information 3. Compile the lit review

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Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

Sources of literature • Start with a recent encyclopedia and recent good textbooks for overall structure ideas, but don’t cite them try and its links • Journal articles, starting with target journals 2+ years old, start at abstract, 80/20 rule, follow articles’ references • Internet - use ‘Advanced’ searches, try, and check • Conference proceedings are up-to-date but can you get them from attendees and/or the Internet ? • Government bodies and professional bodies/industry journals - but opposite views are easy to find • Theses - but hard to get and why not 9 published?Powerpoint Templates

A. What to include: 1.Brief discussion of the topic – context of study : bigger picture 2.Conceptual definitions 3.Discussion of relevant previous studies 4.Summary of different approaches to the study 5.Theoretical support of the study Powerpoint Templates

Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

B. How to synthesise? Involves your reading process

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Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

How To Read the Material • Reading for the big picture Read the easier works first Skim the document and identify major concepts After you have a broad understanding of the 10 to 15 papers, you can start to see patterns:

Groups of scientists argue or disagree with other groups.

For example, Some researchers think x causes y, others that x is only a moderating variable

(Carroll, 2006)

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Narrow your focus •

Start from new material to old, general to specific  starting with general topic will provide leads to specific areas of interest and help develop understanding for the interrelationships of research  Note quality of journal, output of author

As you read and become more informed on the topic, you will probably need to go back and do more focused searches

Think, analyze, and weed out

Arrange to spend some review time with an experienced researcher in the field of study to get feedback and to talk through any problems encountered (Mauch & Birch, 1993)

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Read the Material Closer •

Step 1: read the abstract  Decide whether to read the article in detail

Step 2: read introduction  It explains why the study is important  It provides review and evaluation of relevant literature

Step 3: read Method with a close, critical eye  Focus on participants, measures, procedures

Step 4: Evaluate results  Do the conclusions seem logical  Can you detect any bias on the part of the researcher?

Step 5: Take discussion with a grain of salt  Edges are smoothed out  Pay attention to limitations

(Carroll, 2006)

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Analyze the Literature •

Take notes as you read through each paper that will be included in the review

In the notes include:  purpose of study reviewed  synopsis of content  research design or methods used in study  brief review of findings

Once notes complete organize common themes together. Some people do this in a word document, others use index cards so they can shuffle them.

Some people construct a table of info to make it easier to organize their thoughts.

As you organize your review, integrate findings elicited from note taking or table making process. (Green, Johnson, & Adams, 2006)

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Questions To Consider In Your Review •What do we already know in the immediate area concerned? •What are the characteristics of the key concepts or the main factors or variables? •What are the relationships between these key concepts, factors or variables? •What are the existing theories? •Where are the inconsistencies or other shortcomings in our knowledge and understanding? •What views need to be (further) tested? •What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited? •Why study (further) the research problem? •What contribution can the present study be expected to make? •What research designs or methods seem unsatisfactory? (Asian Institute of Technology)

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Write about themes, not about authors 1/2 • Do not write an annotated bibliography or use the historical story as the structure • Instead, use themes

Theme 1 Theme 2 (eg trust) (eg love) Article A Yes


Article B Powerpoint No Templates Yes


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C) How to structure 1.General guideline – headings & sub headings 2.Use of diagrams 3.Define core constructs 4.Provide ‘motivation’ for hypothesis/purpose/RQ Powerpoint Templates

Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities


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D) how to write – what writing style to use? 1.Easy to read 2.Provides overviews and makes connections 3.Short

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Mengilham harapan, mencipta masa depan Inspiring Futrures, Inspiring Possibilities

How do you do all this interlinked ‘chunking’ ? • First, have a table of contents of the sections (with numbers to two decimal points at first, even if not wanted by the journal) for the article • Then have main ideas for each section of the article - these become the core of each section • Then have positions/ideas within each main idea above - these become the run-in headings and the theme sentences in each section • Then and only then - start writing the first draft! Powerpoint Templates


More style matters • • • •

Occasionally use I or we but not for opinions Dr vs Oct. are different US (adjective) vs United States (noun) No adjectives and adverbs (ie eschew mere opinions and value judgements) • nine cf 10, but use numbers when comparing them eg 9 or 10; do not start a sentence with a number • No one-sentence paragraphs, and start about 3 paras per page • Use short sentences - about 1.5 lines normal maximum Powerpoint Templates


More style matters • Use present tense for ideas/schools/concepts but preferably past tense for writers (eg Smith said) because they can change their minds, and for ‘how you conducted your study ("Observers were posted behind...") and specific past behaviors of your participants ("Two of the men talked..."). Use the present tense for results currently in front of the reader ("As Table 2 shows, the negative film is more effective ...") and for conclusions that are more general than the specific results ("Positive emotions, then, are more easily expressed when...")’. Bem

Do a hunt to change ‘,which’ (parenthetical) to ‘that’ (essential part of sentence); use ‘because’ (one meaning) rather than ‘as’ (two meanings); ‘different from’ (not ‘than’), ‘compared with’ (not ‘from’) • No long quotations (eg <30 words) and paraphrase them first Powerpoint Templates


In summary, some words from an expertâ&#x20AC;Ś

â&#x20AC;˘ It's usually a bad sign to see every paragraph beginning with the name of a researcher. Instead, organize the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theory. You are trying to synthesize and evaluate according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question. Group items into sections - this helps you indicate comparisons and relationships. Write a paragraph or so to introduce the focus of each section. Taylor Powerpoint Templates


Again, put author’s names inside brackets •

Citations. The standard journal format permits you to cite authors in the text either by enclosing their last names and the year of publication in parentheses, as in (a) below, or by using their names in the sentence itself, as in (b). – (a) "MAO activity in some patients with schizophrenia is actually higher than normal (Tse & Tung 1949)." – (b) "Tse and Tung (1949) report that MAO activity in some patients with schizophrenia is actually higher than normal."

In general, you should use the form of (a)... Your narrative should be about MAO activity in patients with schizophrenia, not about Tse and Tung. Occasionally, however, you might want to focus specifically on the authors or researchers: "Theophrastus (280 B.C.) implies that persons are consistent across situations, but Montaigne (1580) insists that they are not. Only Mischel (1968), Peterson (1968), and Vernon (1964), however, have actually surveyed the evidence in detail." The point is that you have a deliberate choice to make. Don't just intermix the two formats randomly, paying no attention to your narrative structure. [Exercise 3]

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Typical deficiencies of a literature review • exclusion of landmark studies • out-of-date material (a sign of a previously rejected article!) • not including other countries’ journals and research • not discriminating between material relevant and irrelevant to the project • lacking synthesis ie no structure • not ‘critical’/analytical/comparative, ie, too much ‘Smith said.., Jones27said…’ Powerpoint Templates

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