JMBR Volume 5

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john molson business review VOLUME 5

JANUARY 2019


The John Molson Business Review The John Molson Business Review is a student initative devoted to featuring articles on current business developments. Founded in November 2015, the publication is currently overseen by a team of undergraduate students from Concordia University. JMBR aims to put forward innovative pieces that explore business trends and their links to various sectors, including technology, economics, public policy, and others. Though it is based within the John Molson School of Business, the publication strives to foster a spirit of collaboration and encourages participation from students across all faculties at Concordia.

The Team Patricia Pop

Stephanie Beasse

President & Editor-in-Chief

VP Marketing

Guillaume Troquet

Michelle Lam

VP Sponsorship & VP Technology

Director of Marketing

Ziad Soliman

Lisa Nguyen

Tala Kabra

Megan Ng

VP of Business Development

VP Logistics

Editor

VP Finance

Daphne Jarry Editor

Mariam Qadri

Editor

The Writers Frank-Olivier Berce Major in Supply Chain and Operations Management

Gaby Dickins

Major in Community, Public Affairs and Policy Study

Lyes Mahouche Major in Journalism

Iqra Akhtar

Major in Supply Chain and Operations Management

A Special Collaboration with John Molson Women in Leadership JMWL focuses on allowing JMSB students to graduate with a better understanding of gender equality whilst providing JMSB women with the tools and resources to succeed as business leaders. JMWL works to engage, educate and empower our student body by capturing their attention, initiating insightful discussions in a comfortable setting and by providing tangible skills that can directly impact their leadership. JMWL events provide learning and networking opportunities for all students. #WeEmpower

www.jmwl.ca

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This Issue 2

LEA DE RSH IP

Are Quotas a Means to an End for Discrimination in the Workplace or Simply the End Itself? Frank-Olivier Berce

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HOU SIN G

Condo Conundrum: Housing and the Social Landscape of Cities

Gaby Dickins

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CULTURE

Fanny-Jane: The Unexpected Virtue of Curiosity Lyes Mahouche

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ECON OMICS

Baby Mama Want No Drama - Just Dollars Iqra Akhtar

9

CR OSSWORD PUZZL E



LEADERSHIP

Are Quotas a Means to an End for Discrimination in the Workplace or Simply the End Itself? Frank-Olivier Berce Major in Supply Chain and Operations Management

It is a known fact that power structures have begun changing in the twenty first century. Throughout the business world, forces of diversity and inclusion are now being applied to traditionally male roles and are morphing them into something more just and equitable. Job opportunities, executive positions and important roles in business are now being seized by once marginalized groups. As we dive into new territories and explore the benefits of a new societal lens, it is up to us, as democratic societies, to determine efficient ways to create lasting solutions to the problems of exclusion and discrimination. Short term solutions, such as quotas, have been adopted as a result of this newfound awareness, but are these measures effective in changing our corporate culture for good?

along with acquired diversity which represents diversity in traits gained from experience have a marked advantage over companies that have only one or none of these diversity traits in their corporate culture. In fact, ‘’employees at these companies are 45% likelier to report that their firm’s market share grew over the previous year and 70% likelier to report that the firm captured a new market,” according to the Harvard Business Review. Having a minimum number of minority groups at the center of an industry can prove profitable, however, the productivity of firms participating in this trend is directly correlated with their ability to set policies that encompass short, medium and long-term thinking; it is not simply about meeting a set of pre-established quotas.

Looking at the 2016 Forbes report of Fortune 500 companies’ CEOs, only 5% were women. This massive underrepresentation of women in leadership roles has been an important topic of discussion in recent years. Quotas have now been implemented as a countermeasure to a male-dominated business world. The adoption and application of quotas within companies have been beneficial thus far, as elements of diversity and inclusion have become key factors in a company’s success. A more diverse workforce has given the companies who choose to adopt quotas an ability to think outside the box when innovating. This was supported by 56% of international business leaders who ‘‘strongly agreed that diversity improved innovation in their companies”. Additionally, innovation is fostered by having a constant Also, as companies put diversity and incluinflux of new ideas, which is now possible sion at the forefront of their corporate culas companies have larger and more diverse tures, having a set percentage of minorities talent pools from which to draw inspiration. or women to hire in a meritocracy setting may be problematic. Individuals belonging The challenges of a changing market can to minority groups may be hired for their also be tackled in more creative ways due subjective traits such as skin colour, ethnicity to easier access to more diverse solutions. or sex rather than being evaluated on what This was supported by a research initiative they bring to the company. This is essentialled by the Harvard Business Review who ly putting job qualifications in the backseat, surveyed over 1,800 people and reviewed according to a report written by the Rottover 40 case studies. The research aggrega- man School of Management under the Instition pointed out that companies with inher- tute for Gender + The Economy. A company ent diversity, a leadership style encompass- might also use labels such as “diverse” and ing gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation “inclusive” as a means to an end regardJOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW

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ing change instead of putting those concepts at the center of the company’s goals where change in policy is more likely to take place. Lastly, minorities and women may be viewed solely in terms of their numbers in a company, leading to an identification of that company as a ‘safe bet’ rather than as a good place at which to work. According to the iGE report, this can and does result in a failure to address underlying discrimination. Furthermore, recruitment software such as ‘Smart Recruiters’ or ‘Greenhouse’ that only scan for keywords might also be lacking forward-thinking. Companies using this software should keep in mind that the key metrics that should be at the center of the recruitment process are diversity and inclusiveness. Ultimately, a set of stringent guidelines applied through a software algorithm does discriminate if the screening of employees is not performed properly. It is therefore uncertain whether this software should be used in the future. At the very least, it should not be the only decision-making tool employed in the hiring process. To conclude, as the business world moves toward more just and equitable workplaces, medium to long-term strategies should be replacing short-term solutions such as quotas if lasting changes are desired. Various strategies can be established as viable tools for change; these can include educating employees within a company on the importance of having a diverse workplace, sharing the decision-making process by pairing high-level executives with lower-level employees, implementing software that aid in the hiring process but are supervised by a member of the human resources team, and promoting flexibility in the workplace through options such as working from home or having flexible work hours.


HOUSING

Condo Conundrum:

Housing and the Social Landscape of Cities

GABY dickins Major in Community, Public Affairs, and Policy Study

When I was younger, sitting in the backseat of the car as it trundled down the Champlain bridge, I loved looking at Montreal’s night skyline. My eyes would search for the mesmerizing beam of light coming from the beacon atop Place Ville Marie as it swept across the city’s landmarks. Mount Royal slumped like a great sleeping giant over it all. Today, though, I can’t take my eyes off another element of the skyline – this one far less magical and not at all nostalgic: the eruption of trendy new condos. The sleek, glass-paned buildings with posters announcing their opening date and advertising the amenities offered. The pool. The gym. The spa. The lifestyle. If you are anything like me, the sheer number of these buildings confounds you. Who can afford to live in these places? And more importantly, what is happening to the neighborhoods where they are built? The rise of condo developments in Montreal and cities across Canada is creating serious social problems in the neighborhoods where they are constructed. As neighborhoods gentrify and rental prices skyrocket, middle- and low-income residents are pushed to the fringes of the city. The question is, should developers be responsible for the social outcomes of their projects? Whether or not developers should be compelled to create affordable housing options within condo developments is an issue that pits our desire for diverse, healthy communities against the impetus of the free market.

Pointe-St-Charles, which heralded the decline of the area’s historic Irish Catholic community. Second, developers will erect new, usually expensive housing or commercial projects. In Montreal, these include buildings like the Tour des Canadiens, Le Canal 2, and the new Royalmount mega mall. Overwhelmingly, housing in these developments is exclusive to high-income earners. As the five largest condominium developments currently being built in Montreal expect to price units between $180,000 (for a 565 square-foot unit) and $535,000 (for a 1,200 square-foot unit), all of them evidently cater to the upper-middle class. There is nothing inherently wrong with offering luxury housing to those who can afford it. Developments of this nature are very lucrative. Pre-construction sales on condos reached record levels in Montreal in 2018; in the downtown sector alone, sales rose 188%. When a Montreal condo can sell for $8 million, it would be negligent of developers not to take advantage of the luxury market. Local buyers and – more problematically – outof-province investors, energized by Quebec’s economic optimism, are fueling this real estate boom.

Third… Well, the third point is where we start to see problems. All this expensive housing leads to gentrification. Gentrification is the process by which neighborhoods are renovated and “revitalized” as middle and upper-class residents move in. Developers purchase lots, When Developers Are Left to discard of anything on them, and build luxuThemselves ry condos. Housing prices increase as a result, pushing out lower-income residents. As the When cities allow essentially unfettered private sensibilities of wealthier residents are catered development, a few things are bound to hap- to and poorer residents are ousted, the cultural pen. First, developers will purchase properties distinctiveness, community bonds, and historic and raze old buildings to the ground, mak- character of neighborhoods can be destroyed. ing room for new developments. Sometimes, these buildings are community landmarks. For Let’s take a look at the Ville-Marie neighborexample, in 1970, the city’s pursuit to mod- hood, where over 95% of recent housing deernize and clear out poor neighborhoods led velopments are condos. In areas such as this to the demolition of the Ste. Anne’s Church in JOHN NEWS MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW MAGAZINE 6

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one, average rent prices have more than doubled in the past ten years. Salaries have failed to match skyrocketing rental prices. Residents’ rents now consume upwards of 70% of their salaries, leading some (including retirees) to resort to food banks to cover their very basic needs. Seeing as two-thirds of Montrealers live on rent, gentrification-induced rental price hikes create a real housing issue among both low and middle-income earners. In these gentrified neighborhoods, what does the population look like? Neighborhoods that are economically homogeneous also end up being ethnically and culturally homogeneous as well. American research has shown that neighborhoods experiencing gentrification - leading to investment, improvement in services, and beautification projects - tend to be white neighborhoods. Therefore, minority boroughs are less apt to be ‘revitalised’ and are less likely to reap the benefits of having new affluent neighbors. This observation seems to hold in Montreal. Which neighborhoods are gentrifying most rapidly in the city? Griffintown, Verdun, Mile End – all old industrial districts historically populated by French Canadians or Irish laborers; not Saint-Michel, Montréal-Nord, or Parc-Extension, home largely to Haitian, Arab, and other immigrant communities. Of course, gentrification tends only to aggravate racial homogeneity. Already occurring in white neighborhoods, gentrifiers themselves, by virtue of socioeconomic inequality expressing itself along ethnic lines, are usually white. It is important to note that while “gentrification” often carries a negative connotation, it can be beneficial. Communities become more attractive, experience lower rates of crime and observe an improvement in services such as schooling and daycare. Jobs are created through the service industry when restaurants


Some are defined by absolute price, while others, usually in tandem with a government program, fix rent at 30% of the residents’ monthly income. As a result, these neighborhoods encourage a balanced ratio of renters and buyers, which encourages income diversity and So, we can see that the real estate market, consequently ethnic diversity as well. when unchecked, pushes toward gentrification and homogeneity. Conscientious urban plan- The St. Lawrence borough in Toronto is an ideal ning and some hard-to-swallow regulations are mixed-income neighborhood, as its residents’ average income is just below the city’s overcrucial balancing influences for this issue. all average, and its black population is nearly double the city’s average. Nonetheless, its Mixed-income Neighborhoods and population shows better community pride and economic outcomes than many conventional Affordable Housing neighborhoods. With easily accessible parks, In contrast to homogeneous neighbor- schools, and safe pedestrian zones, these hoods and economically stratified cities ex- neighborhoods are designed to accommodate ist mixed-income neighborhoods. These, children. This improves the quality of life for as opposed to the organic gentrification of families living in subsidized housing, but also neighborhoods, are designed deliberate- attracts higher-income families seeking better ly to include market-priced housing, co-op, amenities for their children than they would and public housing in the same areas. These find in condo-dense areas. communities are curated with great intention: schools, parks, shops, daycares, grocery Of course, mixed-income neighborhoods have stores, and public transit are provisioned when their pitfalls. When improperly developed, the these neighborhoods are conceived. Mixed-in- very opposite of social cohesion is created, come neighborhoods subvert conventional and an “us vs them” narrative can emerge. cityscapes, in which suburbs and well-off urban High-income residents tend to be more anareas are taken care of by developers, while tagonistic towards their low-income neighbors sprawls of public housing create poor, mal- than the other way around and may leverage adaptive neighborhoods. Instead, these di- their political and economic clout to alter comverse neighborhoods help restore balance to munity dynamics. They have also been criticities by creating boroughs that are - on aver- cized for excluding the very lowest-income individuals, who either live on meager salaries age - middle income. or on social security. For these people, comThis new type of urban planning has been tak- pletely subsidized public housing is the only ing place in experimental pockets of Toronto option; “affordable” housing is not that affordand Vancouver for the last few decades and able for some. If the increasing development has led to positive results. Housing is more of mixed-income neighborhoods causes pubaffordable, and these neighborhoods demon- lic housing projects to dry up, this vulnerable strate a high level of community involvement population can be left with no housing, or see and social capital. When these communities their community split apart as old public housare well-designed with input from their resi- ing projects are demolished. dents being considered, they stand not only to become more diverse, but more vibrant, ac- What’s Next? tive, and aesthetically pleasing. Each of these traits motivates residents and businesspeo- Mixed-income communities represent a balple alike to care for their neighbors and their anced alternative to privately-developed and neighborhood. Such improvements in the liv- stratified neighborhoods. If so, why don’t they ability of neighborhoods is more relevant than exist in every city? The reality is that these types of communities are extremely costly. The ever in cities experiencing housing crises. government – and certainly the municipality An excellent indicator of success is that young of Montreal – do not have the cash to underpeople from all income levels are more like- take these enormous affordable-housing projly to attend university, indicating greater op- ects, especially if they want to develop them portunity for social and economic mobility in in middle-income areas. What to do, then? these areas. In fact, even small improvements The answer seems to lie in the hands of those in economic integration have shown to have constructing condominium developments – important effects on the lifetime earning of something must be demanded of private dechildren who grow up in mixed-income neigh- velopers, and doing so requires considerable borhoods versus conventional public housing political will. – even when the average incomes of these neighborhoods are well below national aver- The idea of mandating that condo developers ages. Better educational and economic op- reserve a fixed number of units as either affordportunities help children who would otherwise able or low-income housing is gaining traction. live in concentrated disadvantaged areas to be In cities like Toronto, projects have required that up to 30% of all units in new condos be lifted out of poverty. rent-controlled and inexpensive. Such a policy Various models of “affordable” housing exist. would mean “inclusionary zoning” would have and shops open up. The problem is that this wealth is rarely shared – rather, it grows in the pockets of individuals from the upper-level of the community, where low-income people and racial minorities are generally excluded.

JOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW NEWS MAGAZINE 7

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to be established. Essentially: want to build a fancy new condo in this trendy neighborhood? 100 of your 300 units must be rented out to low-income earners. Since launching its master plan for urban development in 2005, Montreal has been heading in this direction. The city established that any development of over 200 units that requires new public infrastructure (such as water, electricity, or sewage updates) should make at least 30% of its units affordable. However, with the condo projects we have seen in the past decade, it is not surprising to hear that this was merely a guideline, not a law. However, some change has been made thanks to Montreal’s mayor, Valerie Plante, who promised to force condo developers to reserve 40% of their units for social housing. This caused upset among developers who claim such a policy would make new projects fiscally impossible, not only stifling investment in Montreal, but also costing hundreds of construction workers new jobs. Plante has rebutted that that the government has “a responsibility to provide safe, clean, affordable housing to residents”. She believes that developers will continue to flock to Montreal regardless of whether or not such rules are in place. Either way, there is money to be made. Local activists and organizations, such as Projet Montreal, agree. They have on-theground experience with people struggling to pay rent while luxury condos are built in their neighborhoods. For them, when the economic cost is weighed against the social cost, there is no question as to the right policy move. It is difficult to impose serious regulations on businesses as big as condo development. On the surface, it seems like forcing developers to include affordable housing costs everyone money: developers lose out on selling expensive luxury units, and the local government loses out on serious tax dollars those units provide. However, the adverse effects these condominiums have on communities come at a far heavier price. The cost of providing social housing, food banks, and social services to those struggling with rent is enormous. Forget the fact that this is expensive to deal with: we should not be comfortable with seeing our city move towards more segregated neighborhoods. So maybe demanding affordability from real estate developers isn’t such a wild idea. In doing so, when I look at the skyline, I’ll begin not to think of inequality - but integration.


C U LT U R E

Fanny-Jane:

The Unexpected Virtue of Curiosity

LYES MAHOUCHE Major in Journalism

She came in at 4:15, right on time for our meeting. She was wearing a huge blue coat and underneath, overalls, which I later learned are her work uniform. If you saw her on the streets, you probably wouldn’t even notice her. Well, that is until she rolls-up her sleeves, revealing a scatter of small tattoos on her arms, some of them done by her, others by comrades that she met over the years. Fanny-Jane is a tattoo artist. A few years ago, tattoos were pretty much reserved to bad boys riding motorcycles with a beer in one hand and your feelings of masculine inadequacy in the other. Thankfully, that’s not the case anymore. Tattoo culture has become a vibrant scene for artists who choose skin as their canvas. For a very long time, women have been underrepresented in this industry, but they have been making their mark. This makes sense as there are more tattooed women than men in America according to a Harris poll conducted in the US. Some people

even seek a female tattoo artist as they lessons, even if I was really bad at it, and as seem more approachable and less judge- far as I can think I always liked to draw,” says mental says Batty, a female tattoo artist who the young artist. has been in the industry for almost 10 years. As we talked, she explained to me how the Fanny garnered a lot of attention in the creative state is the only place in which she community for her unmistakable style. She can fully focus. “Despite my efforts, I was uses very simple lines and plays with empty never able to perform in school, I had a lot space to create unique pieces, halfway be- of trouble concentrating. That’s not a probtween abstract and figurative. On top of her lem when I’m creating. I can spend 18 hours career in tattooing, she’s also a sculptor and on my work, barely taking any breaks,” she works at Concordia University as a mold- says. ing technician. Getting there however, was quite a long journey. Visual arts started taking more space in her life later as she was preparing for her theatre school auditions. “At that time, I was practicing for my auditions and it was a stressful process. I started painting to relax, that’s when I started getting into it,” she says. As time went by, she spent more and more time painting, and questioning whether those auditions were what she wanted to do.

Before delving into tattoo culture, Fanny-Jane dabbled in every art form you could think of. Art was a way to express herself and deal with stress. “Growing up, I was always interested in arts in the broadest sense of the word. I did a lot of theater in elementary and high school, I loved taking dance JOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW

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At around the same time, she reconnected with a friend of hers who was headed for London. Fanny hopped on a plane and joined her friend on a trip that turned into a life-changing experience. She stayed in London for two years, during which time she focused on her art and managed to put up an expo at the Brick Lane Gallery. The expo was part of the series called Abstract organized by the gallery in 2015. It’s in England that she was also introduced to tattoo art. “While in Portugal I tried to get myself a tattoo to immortalize the mountains that I saw there. It was so difficult for me to get what I wanted that I decided to learn to tattoo myself,” she says. Fanny


also adds, “When I got to London, I went to a tattoo shop with my portfolio in hand and asked the guy there to help me get started. He was so nice! He said yes, and from there I was able to get the tools I needed.”

“In the future, I see myself continuing to No one else can get it,” she says. Even to the uninitiated, this attention to detail is tattoo, because it’s too important for me” clearly visible under the seemingly simplis- says the artist. She adds: “I’d love to teach sculpture someday, it’s really something that tic art style. I’m passionate about. The dream would be Today, Fanny-Jane works at the Studio to have my own space where I can create Désolé Maman in the Mile End. They cele- and expose my art, but also tattoo because brated the gallery’s opening anniversary on it has become an essential part of my life.” October 14th. When walking into the shop, the customer is greeted by a big bold graffiti representing the name of the boutique, and more importantly, by Meli Meli, Fanny’s dog who follows her everywhere. The rest of the décor is very simple, with white walls all around and four tattoo stations spread around the room. Each station feels like its own little space, with plants and small decorations livening-up the place. Fanny is there almost full-time, with her schedule varying depending on her appointments for the day. She splits the rest of her time between her job at Concordia, where she helps students realize their sculpture projects, and sketching daily because a single design can take hours to complete.

For the first year, she only practiced on herself and on courageous friends who lent her their skin. The result: she is covered in tattoos. All over her arms and legs, her skin is sprinkled with small figures, and thoughtfully crafted lines designed to blend seamlessly with her body. She told me that a huge part of her process is customizing the tattoos in function of the person’s skin and body shape. She doesn’t simply replicate designs, she conceives them and adapts them on a case by case basis. “I use each design only once. As soon as someone chooses one of my sketches, it’s off the list.

She also works with Soir Montreal, a non-profit that strives to give a platform to up-and-coming artists. This past year, she notably worked for the Santa-Teresa music festival to integrate visual arts into the event. Her artworks were neon-based sculptures and dresses that expressed her keenness for the medium. Even today, Fanny doesn’t stick to one thing. She’s a multidisciplinary artist with an intoxicating passion for creation. After a simple cup of coffee with Fanny, I’m eager to see what comes next for her.

JOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW

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ECONOMICS

Baby Mamas Want No Drama Just Dollars

(This article has been previously published on JMWL’s blog, and is being reprinted here with express consent from the author, with minor edits)

IQRA AKHTAR Major in Supply Chain and Operations Management

The year 2018 has been a big one for women. From success during the midterm elections, to becoming CFOs of major Fortune 500 companies, Western women have been making huge strides towards gender equality in recent months. Additionally, Canada’s new ten-dollar bill now features a female civil rights icon. Despite these facts, women today still earn only a fraction of every dollar a man does. According to the Canadian Women’s foundation, this fraction is approximately $0.69 per dollar. Similar wage gaps can be observed throughout the world, including in the USA. In order to understand where these wage gaps come from, it is essential to look into the past. The problem can be traced back to the earliest part of the 20th century, which marked the beginning of the women’s suffrage movements throughout many parts of the world including Canada, USA, UK, Austria and Germany. In addition to gaining the right to vote, World War II led many women to take on non-traditional roles due to shortages in the workforce. According to Statistics Canada, female labor force participation rates surged temporarily during this time. In the 1950’s several interconnected factors led to the pay gap: lower education rates for women, lack of anti-discrimination laws concerning hiring practices, grouping of “feminine” industries, misconceptions about female aptitudes, and cultural norms about gender roles and childbearing expectations. Over time, most of these factors seemed to fade into the background with the exception of the ever-present expectation for women to raise children. This tendency to rely on women as primary caregivers has led scholars to coin the term motherhood penalty. Traditional theories have argued that gender discrimination is the reason why this pay gap exists, however, the motherhood penalty sheds light on a different perspective. The motherhood penalty can be thought of as a “per child” pay penalty for women who choose to work while bearing children. According to a study by the National Bureau of Economic

Research, working mothers face additional problems, in comparison to non-mothers and men. Mothers are penalized with an even bigger wage gap simply because they are perceived as less committed to their careers. Studies have shown that mothers are judged as emotional, less reliable and irrational in the workplace. On average, working women with children are burdened with more house chores and childcare duties than their male counterparts. Statistics Canada estimates that women spend 50% more of their time doing unpaid work than men. Interestingly, women have a hard time with the pay gap even in the comfort of their own homes. Specifically, women are more likely to end up taking care of their little ones and they make more career-related sacrifices, while fathers continue to climb the corporate ladder. This discrepancy in expectations following the birth of a child is the underlying cause of the gender pay gap. Moreover, this is reinforced by the fact that single women without children have a smaller pay gap and, at times, end up earning salaries closer to their male counterparts. Now that light has been shed on the wage discrepancy, this question remains: how do we close the wage gap? The answer lies with Rwanda and Iceland from whose experiences important lessons can be noted. Both countries have faced very different challenges yet have managed to achieve similar goals. Tormented by genocide, Rwanda’s population saw an unnatural shift in gender ratios, which ultimately led women to jobs and industries that were once male-dominated. Following the 1994 genocide, Rwanda’s government’s priority was to rebuild the country which opened new doors in the workplace for their female population. According to the World Economic Forum, Rwanda’s female labour force participation rate is 86%, in contrast to USA’s mere 56%. In addition, Rwandan women are paid $0.88 cents on the dollar, while American women are paid only $0.74 cents. The disparity is shocking and counter-intuitive, especially for those who consider America to be the land of opportunity. This year has marked the entry of many female politicians into the American Parliamentary House, however, a closer look reveals that 80% of political positions are occupied by men in the USA. In Rwanda, females form 61.3% of the political makeup. It is important to have a fair representation of women in politics since research has shown that female politicians put JOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW 8

emphasis on neglected issues which tends to benefit other women in society. Female lawmakers provide new opportunities through pro-women laws which help to uplift women out of oppression. Not to mention, women make up half of the population, therefore it is important for there to be equal representation. According to the 2017 Global Gender Gap Index, Iceland has managed to close 70% of its pay gap, making it the global leader of gender equality. In 1980, Iceland elected their first female president which led to a substantial increase in female politicians. Maternity leave policy changes paved the way for a policy that made the greatest difference: established in 2000, an obligational paternity leave policy provided fathers with three months of non-transferable leave. This policy had a great impact on equality in the workforce. According to Slate, long-term effects of this policy also changed the way men engaged tasks within their households. Through this policy, conventional male patterns were altered, and men were able to spend more time with their children. This, in-turn, allowed their female partners the opportunity to thrive in their workspaces instead of having to sacrifice their careers in light of their childcare duties. The changes that come along with being a mother can push women off-balance in other aspects of their lives, especially in work. However, with an equal parent-partner, they can delegate their childcare duties and find balance in their work/home lives more efficiently. The motherhood penalty shows how the gender pay gap has little to do with being a woman and more to do with being a working mother. Two exemplary nations have taken vastly different paths towards decreasing their pay gaps, creating important lessons for the rest of the world to learn from. Though some still argue that irreducible percentages exist, will we ever truly be able to eliminate gender pay gaps? Low female numbers in the c-suite, the tech-industry, and in politics indicate how far we really are from resolving this issue. The ultimate solution begins with men accepting more responsibility at home and with the idea that women should be the primary caregivers must come to an end.


CROSSWORD PUZZLE

Complete the crossword below using knowledge learned from the articles. 1

2

3 4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Across

Down

2. This neighborhood in montreal is gentrifying very quickly.

1. City in Europe where Fanny Jane lived for two years.

4. Genocide in which country led the government to reform the once male-dominated workforce providing more opportunities to women?

3. Recruitment software that picks up keywords in your CV. 6. Minority hiring quotas are not the best ________ - term solution.

5. Gentrification is the process of ________ entire neighborhoods.

7. Which Scandinavian country is the global leader for gender equality?

9. Tattoos used to be reserved for bad boys with _________________.

8. The Female Civil Rights icon is featured on the newest ____ dollar bill.

10. The Motherhood ____________ concept has more or less to do with being a working mother.

JOHN MOLSON BUSINESS REVIEW

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Cover Illustration by Kiana Foote The diversity issue cover of the John Molson Business Review was designed by Kiana Foote, a freelance graphic designer studying at JMSB in Marketing. To view more of her work, visit her profile @designsbykiana on Instagram.

Graphic Illustrations by Chaimae Khouldi The graphics found on pages 2 & 8 were designed by Chaimae Khouldi. To view more of her work, visit her profile at chaimaekhouldi.myportfolio.com.

Become A Contributor Writing for the John Molson Business Review gives students an opportunity to explore topics of interest, refine their writing skills, and get their work published. If you have an article idea you would like to discuss, contact us at contact@jmbr.ca.

This edition of the John Molson Business Review was especially created for the John Molson Women in Leadership conference on diversity


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