Social model for online learning (SMOL)

Page 1

Table of Contents MOOC4ALL 2023 Story behind 1 Methodology 4 How to “socialize” your online classrooms 6 Part one: About SMOL introduction 8 Part two: From principles to SMOLbased actions and materials 14 Part three: Create and adapt the flexible learning environment 44 Part four: Interactive tools 112

Table of Contents

Part five: What is to learn in a social group 117

Part six: Putting into practice - SMOL model 125

Part seven: Evaluation, review, and reflection 130

References and bibliography 135


Logos Disclaimer

Funded by the European Union Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Education and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA).

Neither the European Union nor EACEA can be held responsible for them


Once upon a time, the world and work are changing fundamentally. Crises (deepening, such as the current one), new technologies, globalization, and an aging population have a profound impact on the type and quality of jobs that are available and the range of skills that are required. Currently, about half of the EU population acquires their first job skills through VET (Vocational Education and Training) In the past, VET was carried out mainly in specialized schools or craft workshops and provided skilled workers for crafts and industry Modern VET takes many different forms and offers qualifications for many other sectors (the most popular of which are the services and IT sectors). Combined forms of education prevail, including general education and vocational training. The current focus of the VET development is on training employees to meet the challenges posed by the transition from the Industrial to the Digital Age. To meet the challenges of the present and the trends of the future in VET, we are developing a flexible innovative social model for learning (SME), which allows successful learning and completion of courses in an online environment through digital technologies The model allows an instructor, teacher, or mentor in VET to lead a group through a social learning process using any online courses available. The model structures the work and strengthens the social ties between the learners, which helps their successful completion of the learning process.

Training in VET field - new realities and dimensions.

Different test variants of the model with students in the last 6 years show up to 98% of graduates of online courses MOOC4ALL meets one of the biggest needs in the development of VET by 2035 for: “orientation to the needs of the labor market”, allowing wider access to opportunities for learning and qualification in the online environment. Based on the report from 2020 of CEDEFOP "Vocational Education and Training in Europe 19952035", it clearly sets out scenarios for the development in 2035: "it is based on lifelong learning, where the distinction between general and vocational education is almost nonexistent" The development of a social model for online learning (SMOL) contributes to lifelong learning and the 'work-specific learning' and learners' needs


Thus, by developing the model, we respond to the current trends, the growing needs and the scenarios for the development of VET over the next decade:

- Mass job losses, changing business and social environment, new realities in the field of VET, education and learning.

- Requirements to accelerate and increase the efficiency of the learning process for effective orientation to the needs of the labour market

- Promote digital literacy through flexible hybrid learning models to increase employability as well as expand knowledge through ICT opportunities.


At MOOC4ALL, we improve and expand the supply of high-quality vocational education and training (VET) opportunities by providing a flexible learning model adapted to the individual learning needs (including project-based learning, inverted classroom learning, blended learning, digital mobile learning apps, and others) contributing to the innovation in vocational education and training. Through the development of MOOC4ALL social model for online learning (SMOL) we provide a flexible and high-quality learning process. It is based on materials and courses from leading educational institutions (Harvard, Cambridge, MTU, Oxford, etc.), business companies (LinkedIn, FB, Microsoft, SAP, etc.) and nongovernmental organizations (Unicef, WWF, Oxfam, etc ) around the world Scientifically proven techniques for successful completion of the courses are integrated into the social model for online learning (SMOL) In this way, we give access to virtually unlimited opportunities for vocational training and qualification for everyone in Europe. We offer high quality content (developed, proven and provided free of charge on the Internet by various organizations - business, NGOs, universities), integrated into an effective learning process based on research, easy and flexible to include and complete successfully. This experience and successful learning process is suitable for the needs of students and adults with low levels of skills, knowledge and competencies Anyone with a smart mobile phone can participate and improve their skills as а part of structured learning or in any free moment of their daily lives In this way we create and provide access to materials and channels for raising the qualification of students and adults with low levels of competence. This will lead to increasing the flexibility of opportunities in vocational education and training students and other learners, in particular in assessing their prior knowledge and skills and motivating them to learn more effectively.


The Social Model for Online Learning (SMOL) is a powerful tool for teachers, facilitators and other professionals in the field of vocational education to motivate and facilitate the improvement of skills and the acquisition of skills and competencies of students. SMOL structures in easy steps the work of a teacher, a mentor or an instructor in VET to work in a social (live) environment and with a group online Going through the individual steps of the model, the group forms a learning team in which they support each other to complete any online-based course Tests of the model in Israel show levels of completion in the groups up to 98%. As part of the partnership, we are developing the model for working in an entirely online environment, which is something completely new and innovative as an approach. By creating SMOLs, we are improving the methods and tools of teaching in vocational education and training (VET), through the effective use of innovative solutions (Successful model for SMOL) and digital technologies - enabling mixed live (social) and online digital learning Through the MOOC4ALL platform and the mobile application, we develop mechanisms to monitor the effectiveness and to improve the quality assurance of policies and the provision of vocational training, as well as to monitor the progress of learners Through the MOOC4ALL platform, each participant's progress can be tracked in real time and learners can be given suggestions and development strategies directly on their mobile phones.


Social learning is defined as learning that takes place by observing the actions of others It is essentially a cognitive process that takes place in the learner's social context through observation or direct instruction.

Social learning blends behavioural and cognitive learning. Behavioural learning is based on the belief that the individual responds to stimuli in the environment. Cognitive learning, on the other hand, is the idea that psychological factors contribute to learning. How to apply the 4 pillars of social learning theory

One of the most influential learning theories is the social learning theory, which was founded and developed by the Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (Bandura,1977) This paradigm, which covers three factors: attention, memory, and motivation, is thought to bridge the gap between behaviourists and cognitive learning theories (Nabavi,2012).

Social learning methods have lately gained popularity as a desirable paradigm for both offline and online learning (Hill et al.,2009).

The primary notion of the SLT, which covers the interconnectedness of learning and interactions, is the reason for its growing popularity In other words, while learners engage in various forms of interaction, knowledge is constantly built and transformed These interactions can be between students, student – teacher, and student – content.



Bandura stressed that effective observational learning requires effective modelling, which should showcase four fundamental elements (Bandura,1977):

● Attention: The model should be able to hold the attention of learners, resulting in observational learning People are considerably more inclined to pay attention to stuff that is engaging, captivating, and stimulating

● Retention: The model should be memorable to the learner, thus allowing them to retrieve and replicate the knowledge later on.

● Reproduction: The model should not only capture learners' attention and encourage memorization, but it should also allow for repetition of the demonstrated activity

● Motivation: Last but not least, without sufficient motivation and encouragement, successful modelling is impossible. This indicates that if learners are given adequate support and incentives, they are more likely to follow the model.

In contrast to behaviourist theory, SLT presents a distinct learning perspective by emphasizing the importance of observation and modelling That is, learning can occur without a behavioral change In addition, learners' mentality is important for knowledge formation, which can be impacted through intrinsic reinforcement Internal rewards such as pride, happiness, or a sense of accomplishment are examples of intrinsic reinforcement. Though intrinsic reinforcement may not directly result in learning, it has an impact on learners' attention and their proclivity to engage in specific behaviours (Nguyen, 2022).




Reduce demotivation and attrition

Any educator’s ultimate goal when planning their curriculum is to create a dynamic, motivational, and interesting classroom The SLT framework, with its emphasis on the significance of relationships and intrinsic reinforcement in the learning process, comes into play here. In fact, frequent interactions in the classroom boost students' interest and engagement, making knowledge acquisition easier (King, 2002). Simultaneously, intrinsic reinforcements, such as emotional support and initiatives, encourage children to remember, copy, and duplicate the patterned conduct.

2 Stimulate peer and collaborative learning

Continuous contact between learners and educators is common in a social learning environment, which is facilitated through peer and collaborative learning practices. Learners could gain considerably from mutual information sharing, emotional support, and interdependent learning while keeping successful connections with group members and instructors in a group project. All of these advantages add up to a good learning experience in which learners actively acquire knowledge and skills without the assistance of educators Rather than closely monitoring learners, educators become advocates who offer guidance and assistance throughout the learning process In short, in an SLT-based classroom (online or offline), learning becomes a continuous process that extends beyond classroom time.

3. Nurture self-efficacy

Increased learning engagement and effective knowledge creation are linked to selfefficacy, which is described as learners' confidence in approaching and handling new activities (Nguyen, 2022) The social learning environment constantly fosters interactions and dialogue with peers and professors, making students feel more at ease and inclined to participate in class. Students' enthusiasm to learn and willingness to apply what they've learned increases as a result of their positive attitudes.


How to “socialize” your online classrooms

As education now switches towards digital environments, both educators and learners may find it difficult to facilitate the social interactions that they had in traditional classrooms. Online learners frequently experience feelings of loneliness, demotivation, and higher attrition Furthermore, asynchronous teaching and learning reduce a sense of belonging, and opportunities to express, compete, and receive support from others, all of which lead to poor performance (King, 2002). These negative feelings may result in a high percentage of drop out in online classrooms.

Indeed, social learning encompasses more than just face-to-face interactions. Educators can always assist good social online learning if they understand how to take use of the limitless possibilities of online pedagogical tools.

Based on evidence from empirical research and in-depth case studies, here are 4 strategies for incorporating social learning features into online classrooms Each of these tactics focuses on distinct sorts of student-student, student-teacher, and student-content interactions in the social online classroom (Hill et al., 2009).


The more opportunities for peer feedback, the better | Student – Student interaction

Researchers have found that forming and sharing in-depth online communications can improve social relationships (Petrides, 2002) Students have noted that peer feedback, particularly in the form of written postings, is an effective source of reference Providing several options for peer and group feedback is an excellent way to encourage student-tostudent engagement and create a social online learning environment. Assignment grading and comments, peer feedback evaluation, synchronous comments, and other ways of peer feedback could be valuable.


2 Let your students contribute to curriculum design | Student – Content

In both offline and online education, one-way classroom engagement, in which teachers offer knowledge and students receive it, has long been criticized as a passive learning style. The user-generated content technique is the finest way to turn online instruction into a social, two-way activity. Along with their educators, learners participate as collaborators in the production and expression of information and meaning in this technique. Within the online context, allowing learners to share their knowledge, skills, and learning assets can effectively foster inclusion, reciprocal engagement, and active learning

Instructors might start a user-generated content lesson by allowing students to design course objectives and curriculum, creating online forums for exchanging study materials, or requesting students to produce learning assets (videos, written assignments, recordings).

3. Communicate frequently with students | Student-Teacher interaction

Teachers frequently place too much emphasis on peer connections while overlooking an equally crucial link that exists between students and teachers Learners' motivation and attitude toward learning are influenced not just by interactions with classmates, but also by their relationship with teachers. This means that if teachers can build personal, good connections with students, they are more likely to engage in the class and appreciate what they are learning. Teachers can use technology affordances to strengthen student-teacher connections in a variety of ways, including building online discussion forums and Facebook groups, providing constant feedback, and introducing synchronous study tools (written texts, videos, presentations, visual aids)

Teachers can, for example, use our Discussion Forums to create a venue for critical debate and in-depth discussion while also providing constant feedback and comments to students.

4. Set a cohesive e-tone for your online class | Student – Teacher interaction

In terms of communication efficiency, online learning can be far more difficult than faceto-face classes In asynchronous classrooms, a lack of visual and aural clues (gestures, postures, or voice tone) frequently leads to errors in communication between professors and students. Using online dialogues and interactive learning platforms, educators can address this issue and maintain a social online classroom. It's also crucial for teachers and instructors to maintain a consistent e-tone, for example, responses that show an acceptable attitude in virtual forums. This can be accomplished by giving learners clear, explicit directions to follow.




Purpose of the model

SMOL is a universally developed model for group learning in an online and live environment, through social and digital learning. The model can be used for learning in all areas of vocational education and for the acquisition of all qualifications, retraining, and further learning and skills acquisition by students and learners in partner countries and across Europe.

Vocational education and training (VET) provides learners with basic skills that enhance their personal development, increase their employability and promote active citizenship

Vocational education and training improve business efficiency, competitiveness, research and innovation.

On average, 50% of young Europeans aged between 15 and 19 participate in I-VET in upper secondary education. However, this EU average masks significant geographical variations in participation, ranging from 15% to over 70%.

European cooperation in vocational education and training traces its roots back to 2002 and the Copenhagen process It has been further developed over the years, for example through the Bruges Communiqué and the Riga Conclusions

Vocational education and training have been identified as a key area for cooperation under the European Education Area initiative for the period 2021-2030. Through the EU Council, Member States have set themselves the target that by 2025 at least 60% of recent vocational education and training graduates will benefit from the exposure to work-based learning during their vocational education and training

On 30 November 2020, Ministers responsible for VET from EU Member States, candidate countries, EEA-EFTA (European Economic Area - European Free Trade Association) countries, the European social partners and the Commission endorsed the "Osnabrück 2020 Declaration on VET as an enabler for recovery and a fair transition to a digital and green economy " .


The Osnabrück Declaration is endorsed by the associations of VET providers at European level (VET4EU2) and by the representatives of VET learners

It sets out new policy actions for the period 2021-2025 to complement the Council Recommendation on VET for sustainable competitiveness, social equity and resilience:

- Promoting sustainability and excellence through quality, inclusive and flexible VET

- Creating a new culture of lifelong learning, highlighting the importance of VET and digitalisation

- promoting the sustainability of VET

- developing a European area for education and training and international VET

The Advisory Committee on Vocational Training endorsed an opinion on the future of VET which will contribute to the Commission's post-2020 policy

As part of the Strategic Framework of the European Education Area 2021-2030, a working group on VET and the Green Transition and a sub-group of the Schools Group focusing on education for environmental sustainability have been established. The groups will promote mutual learning and exchange of information and best practices between Member States.


VET can be completed outside the workplace in educational institutions and private providers, but it also accounts for a significant proportion of apprenticeships and traineeships, where VET qualifications are completed alongside paid employment in a real work environment.

VET courses tend to focus more on providing vocational skills, while university courses are better known for focusing on theory and professional career paths. Of course, there are many exceptions to this simple statement because VET covers such a wide range of courses and qualifications.

VET courses cover the following areas:

- basic life skills such as literacy and numeracy training (pre-vocational training or basic studies, for example)

- basic professional skills for certain professions (floristry or automotive, for example)

- semi-professional vocational training (business advertising or occupational health and safety, for example).

Vocational education and training courses require students to complete off-the-job training with their training provider and assessments by the institution during their studies to demonstrate that they have achieved the required skill levels


Most VET courses are part of national training packages which are regularly updated in consultation with relevant industry bodies. They also follow the same framework wherever the students study them, with all participants required to meet the same 'competences' to gain their qualifications. This standardized competency-based system also makes it easier to move on to higher level qualifications (often for credit) and in some cases gain qualification when the required skill level is achieved rather than after a set number of years

Vocational education and training courses differ from university degrees due to their practical focus, shorter completion time and lower cost, but they also offer a lower level of qualification than a diploma.

Entry requirements vary by institution and course. Some courses have no entry requirements, while others may require completion of Year 10, Year 11 or Year 12. Some require a portfolio submission, others an in-person interview or audition for certain courses

Types of VET courses:

- Certificate I-IV. These courses givesintroductory skills and training, providing industryspecific knowledge and skills in communication, literacy and numeracy and teamwork. Their duration varies from six months to two years.

- Diploma. Degrees prepare students for industrial, entrepreneurial and paraprofessional careers Some diploma courses can be completed at the university level as well as at RTO Diplomas usually require one to two years of full-time study

- Advanced Diploma. It provides a high level of practical skills for advanced skilled or paraprofessional work in areas such as accountancy, building design and engineering. Some Advanced Diploma courses can be completed at the university level. Advanced Diplomas range in length from eighteen months to two years of full-time study.

- Certificate/diploma of completed professional education. The certificate and diploma of completed professional education are equivalent to the certificate and diploma of completed higher education They provide high-level job-related skills and knowledge A Graduate Certificate usually requires six months to one year of full-time study, and a Graduate Diploma usually requires one to two years of full-time study Not many of these courses are offered, but the ones that are available tend to be in areas such as business, education, and technology.

VET 10

A massive open online course (MOOC) is a type of online course aimed at large-scale participation and open access over the Internet. MOOCs are a relatively new development in the field of open distance learning. MOOCs are usually free and do not offer credits that are awarded to paying students at schools.

The term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier of the University of Prince Edward Island and Brian Alexander of the National Institute of Technology in Liberal Education in response to an open online course developed and directed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes at the National Research Council (Canada)

The 2008 course was called "Connectivism and Bridging Knowledge" and was presented to 25 tuition-paying Advanced Studies students at the University of Manitoba, in addition to 2,300 other students from the general public who participated in the free online course. Simen's 2008 course content was available via RSS feeds Learners could participate using tools of their choice: topic discussions in Moodle, blog posts, Second Life, and synchronous online meetings The University of Mary Washington and York College of the City University of New York soon adopted this course structure and successfully organized their own MOOCs at various universities around the world.

Universities are building global student organizations and are trying to create MOOC models that can leverage the power of their massive student enrolments to teach in new ways, applying crowdsourcing technology to discussion forums and assessments, and empowering faculty to use online lectures and reserve classroom time for student interaction Several companies are now offering a variety of courses at a great price or free of charge, accredited (or without) to anyone with an Internet connection. Some are given through colleges, while others are not; some are free, while others need tuition; some include live virtual classroom work, while others do not. The courses listed below are examples of MOOCs.

● Coursera - a social entrepreneurship company that partners with the top universities in the world to offer online courses for anyone to take, for free We envision a future where the top universities are educating not only thousands of students but millions. Our technology enables the best professors to teach tens or hundreds of thousands of students.


● TedX - a not-for-profit enterprise of its founding partners Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that features learning designed specifically for interactive study via the web

● Udacity - Udacity was founded by three roboticists who believed much of the educational value of their university classes could be offered online. A few weeks later, over 160,000 students in more than 190 countries enrolled in their first class, "Introduction to Artificial Intelligence."

● Udemy is an online learning and teaching marketplace with over 185000 courses and 49 million students They offer programming, marketing, data science and more

● IDEO - an online school offering MOOCs mainly for design where readers can unlock their creative potential and build their problem-solving skills.


Another type of course that can be held in a virtual classroom is the bootcamp. Bootcamps for web development, graphic design, and data analytics (among others) are available in both virtual and in-person settings and give students intensive education and training in the sector they want to break into or advance in Providers of bootcamps include the following

Thinkful, General Assembly, Galvanize. Online Degree Programs

Online degree programs are presented by schools and colleges to convey their certificate programs in a virtual climate Utilizing on the web program the executives’ organizations or their own inward assets, schools can enlist online understudies for their certification programs that are conveyed into a webcam rather than an auditorium. A wide range of schools offer web-based degree programs.



SMOL aims:

- To change the potential of learning relevant to the lives of students nowadays which is expressed in aspects such as PBL, cooperative learning and constructive knowledge.

- To expose the students to the active learning experience, meaningful learning where learners realized their strengths and where they are able to express them

- To equip the learners with capabilities of the 21st century (mutual support, selfmanagement, ownership of their study).

Learning and Strategic Objectives

● A social model for online learning (SMOL) providing effective digital, open and innovative education. SMOL is an innovative approach involving digital technologies for teaching and learning, as set out in the Digital Education Action Plan

● Building an effective partnership to implement strategies to improve Vocational Education and Training (VET) and promote work-based learning for young people and adults.

● Improving the quality of VET provision through a model allowing the integration of online content and courses, incl. qualification of the staff in the partner organizations.

● Improving access to education and training for all, incl. low skilled workers, migrants, and refugees through the use of SMOL for continuing VET

Target group:

1. VET Teachers, instructors and mentors in partner organizations and associate partners who teach and work with groups of learners and students.

2. Partner organizations - we create capacity through networking, know-how and training of employees.



1. “Sharing learning model (Brander 2013)”

A short explanation of the proposed method

An ICT-based studying model was developed for continuing education to support foreign language teachers’ professional development in a regional developing project “LinguaMedia” (2008-2009) of Turku University (coordinator) and its partners: Åbo Akademi University, Lingonet Ltd. and Turku University of Applied Sciences. The model is based on flexibility, community building, sharing expertise, and building of personal learning environments by utilizing the opportunities of ICT Important goals are to support multilingualism and to create new possibilities for networking and cooperation for the language teachers, despite of the regional location of their schools. [9]

In 2009, subsequent to the success in the national competitive bidding set by the Finnish National Board of Education, there arose an opportunity for the developed studying model to be adopted on a nationwide level. In the Language Fair project, 2009-2011 [3] organized as part of a national so-called “POP” - a project aiming to improve the quality of Basic Education in Finland, a wide national continuing education program for foreign language teachers was carried out The University of Turku was chosen to coordinate the Language Fair-continuing education program, the partners being Åbo Akademi University, Lingonet Ltd., the University of Oulu, and the University of Eastern Finland. There were nearly 400 foreign language teachers from 88 countries, 14 private basic education organizers, 3 language schools, and 9 university teacher training schools participating in the program, in which the studying model was piloted [9]

The Language Fair-continuing education program ’ s objectives set by the National Board of Education were to support the development of teaching, to strengthen the teachers’ didactical and pedagogical skills, to offer theoretical knowledge based on current research and to promote regional and collegial networking between teachers of foreign languages, especially other than English. ICT was to have a central role in the process, as another aim was to improve the teachers’ capacity to develop modern learning environments for language teaching and learning by utilizing the opportunities of the new media in a pedagogically meaningful way To reach these objectives, the organization of the studying in Language Fair-continuing education program leaned on the main ideas of the developed studying model: community building, sharing expertise and building of personal learning environments by utilizing the opportunities of ICT. [9]


The studying in practice was organized as a process of blended learning, in which online and distance learning had an important role, even though there were face-to-face sessions included During the learning process, the teachers were led to the most current theoretical and practical knowledge in the field by being offered to activate learning environments, instruction, process support, and networking forums based on or enriched with multiple ICT solutions. The central element in the model was the idea of ”sharing” (cf. Fig. 1.), based on openness, community building, and sharing of expertise and practices in the field networks to support and activate individual learning and development as a process. The aim was to create an innovative online community, the idea of which the Finnish expert Pekka Himanen [4], has described as ” the more people there are to connect, to exchange ideas and to communicate, the bigger the potential of the community is” ([5] and [9])


of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

The model incorporates learning in a multilingual environment.

Methodology explained and practical details

The main media used for the online teachers’ community building was the social network Ning [6], where collegial networking and interaction, thematic deepening of the subjects, and expertise sharing among peer groups of teachers took place Also, during the megaconferences, the participants were encouraged to use Ning for sharing reflections, give straight feedback about the conference and write comments on their own blogs

In the center of attention were the participants’ regional developing projects, which they carried out in groups and reported online, using the common online platform Moodle. Supporting the project work was conducted during face-to-face sessions organized by carrying out activating workshops and peer group meetings, where a new stage of the project work was getting started to be continued independently in the regional groups

During the distance periods, the project work was supported by instructive study materials and common process feedback at the end of each reporting period In Moodle, there were stable online forums for support in any matters concerning both the content and the technical questions of studying. Moodle was also used as a material bank, where the studying instructions, assignments and schedules, materials, and recordings of online lectures were situated.


In that program, they actively used not only the chosen media solutions such as Moodle and Ning but also a variety of other ICT-based tools. The main emphasis was on the use of opensource software available for free on the Internet The different tools and solutions, adjustable for networking, learning content production, and expertise sharing, were introduced to the teachers as a resource, in order to encourage experiments in teaching and developing work. The idea was to share experiences and practices of ICT and to find new ways for them to be adjusted in the context of language learning and teaching. It was important that from the very beginning, these tools had a significant role in the learning process. The point was to put the theory into practice by supporting the teachers’” learning by doing” and getting them acquainted with the opportunities of ICT in practice. [9]

The participants experienced that by having supported regional development projects and networking of regional and language groups ’ colleagues, developing teaching, and gaining the perspective of current matters and future visions of language learning. The program had reached the objectives set for it quite well. Additionally, it was experienced that participating in the program had strengthened the teachers’ professional identity and self-confidence and increased the visibility, position, and appraisal of the foreign languages in the participants’ regions The didactical and pedagogical skills were mentioned to have strengthened as well, and among them, the motivation to develop new ideas and practices in teaching had also increased The knowledge of the ICT opportunities and the courage to use them in everyday work was experienced to have аlso grown. ([7] and [9])

How learning is happening in a social context.

The studying model gives priority to the social aspect, comprising community building and the sharing of expertise with each other.

Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

The model grants a possibility to strengthen the teachers’ professional identity and selfconfidence and to increase the visibility, position and appraisal of the foreign languages of the participants, complementing the palette of Moocster practices.


2. Taalcafé - Language coffee

A short explanation of the proposed method

Taalcafé is a meeting place for people who do not speak the Dutch language very well yet and for people who speak it well and want to help others patiently.

Taalcafé is open to everyone just like any other café. No lessons are given but at the start, there is always a topic to discuss, a film to watch, or a game to play. There are also plenty of opportunities to talk to each other in an informal way in a relaxed environment. It is like a “free-style playground'' for students who had completed their language courses to keep up with their Dutch and stay in touch The format is also an effective and respectful method for newcomers ’ integration

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning. Taalcafé offers various formats and a more free structure. The purpose of the material is not only to help the newcomers learn the native language of their new home country but also to provide topics of discussion and help with socializing and getting to know the other participants – who can be both local people and migrants

Methodology explained and practical details.

Taalcafé is a general is format where people who study a foreign language meet in an informal environment and practice. Unlike classes where the focus is on structured language building, the format is more focused on communication skills and allows the learner to take the initiative. It is like a platform where you can use the talents of others Venue: Physical and Online: ● Physical (mostly free of charge) meetings at Bars • Cafes • Libraries • Refugee centres • Cultural centres • Recommendations from personal and business networks • Centrally located venues near public transport • Schools and universities, c


The meetings are informal, based on voluntariness but also systematically organized.

Group structure: Small groups Different ages and backgrounds


There are different ways of organizing the Language coffee:

1. One person conducting the meetings every time, tutoring - there are many ways and many kinds of people who could be tutors. Tutors are needed for different languages, mainly the main languages people wish to learn at the language cafe. Tutors could be university students, language teachers or teacher students who wish to get practice, elderly people with good skills and spare time, or any other native speakers of different languages who have immigrated and wish to share their knowledge in exchange for practising the language of their new home country

2. Without the main facilitator. It is suitable in situations when people come to learn more languages, and everybody pairs with those who speak the desired one. Anytime there is a different person (volunteer) who is rather managing the time, than offering structural content.

Tools and materials:

An icebreaking exercise:

- Stickers with names, the languages each participant speaks, and the ones he/she wants to practice

- Take a seat – make a friend

- A marshmallow Challenge

- A Knock-Knock Icebreaker

- The Toilet Paper Icebreaker

- Speed “Dating” Icebreaker

- Things in Common

- A Good Year

- Don’t Judge Me

- Paper Airplane You

- Four Corners

- Concentric Circles

- A speed-dating quiz night

- Discussion cards - “So ” - collections for questions for deeper discussion

- Role plays

- Pictures, flashcards, and worksheets

- Board games and interactive games

- A short movie with and without subtitles


- Listening to music, reading the lyrics, and singing

- Online games and online chats

- Keeping a diary

- Group and individual discussions

- Reading newspapers, discussing news

- Free conversions

Online meetings:

A lot of universities, language courses and libraries organize language cafés using different applications and online tools. The format is the same but, participants can:

- Zoom Meetings

People attending a (different) language course are invited to participate in Zoom meetings. An online (Bi)trilingual quiz is organised to give students the opportunity to meet and converse in the two or three languages they want to learn while being guided by a language coach or

- Registration on community platforms such as Tandem, CoffeBreak languages where people can meet and talk in several other languages. By creating their profile, the user is matched with someone else who speaks the language they want to learn. Once two people have been contacted, they arrange their meetings independently.

How learning is happening in a social context. People attend the groups for socialization and education Some of them learn several languages. No matter how advanced you are in one language, you always have another to learn. Everyone feels equal in speaking. Because the spectrum of nationalities and ages is wide, it is remarkably easy to feel at home. In addition to perfecting their target language, newcomers receive an enthusiastic welcome in their native tongue - an aspect they had not anticipated. "It has to do with feeling like you belong to something, that your language skills benefit others

Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

The Taalcafés are entrepreneurial structures in themselves, which exist apart from the educational providers.

In the development of SMOL, we can take their business model. Namely, how they manage to reach the target group, how they combine informal learning structure with effective learning How do they manage to combine communication with all the other actors (participants, coaches, coffees, language courses, libraries, universities and other organisations)?


Regarding the methodology that language cafés apply as a supportive learning group, we can integrate all the online icebreakers and tools they use. As well as the mechanism of matching two buddies for independent learning and support

3. Drama Teaching Methodology

A short explanation of the proposed method.

Drama as a teaching methodology is a practice for transferring skills and knowledge to students by interpreting a role linked to characters in the story Playing a range of roles encourages students to be able to rephrase themselves as "the other" and to see life from that point of view, thus creating complexity and allowing us to explore multiple dimensions of the topic. Drama education stimulates the ability to study and understand learning from another perspective: being able to try someone else's role and walk into it for a while. Drama education allows students to explore a problem (O'Neill -1995), situation, theme, or set of related ideas or themes through the artistic medium of unscripted drama. Process drama is a dynamic way of working that requires teachers to reflect during the action, constantly facing unique situations that require new approaches

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning. Drama education stimulates the development of the student's creativity, self-confidence, and social skills. Learning theatre from an early age can lead to an unlimited number of positive benefits for students.

Drama creates trust Drama education is a unique form of creative expression that takes courage to stand on stage and speak in front of an audience Theatre workshops encourage all students to express their creative ideas in an interactive and stimulating environment. Even the shyest of students will be able to build confidence and increase their self-esteem through drama as a creative space. The confidence gained from learning theatre will be applicable in school, at work and in life.


The drama develops creativity:

Drama education workshops allow you to explore new worlds, personify people from different times and places and allow students to learn about different perspectives and ways of thinking Exploring these dimensions can give us the skills needed to be creative and imaginative In an ever-changing world, having a creative and imaginative approach is really important for thinking "outside the box" and finding new and interesting ideas and solutions. In laboratory activities such as improvisation games, students are stimulated to find ideas and respond imaginatively to a series of scenarios.

Drama improves verbal and non-verbal communication skills:

Learning to act can help students develop their speech, communication, and presentation skills, which are vital skills for anyone Drama education interprets different characters: this offers them the context to develop their vocabulary, vocal projection, articulation, and expression. Drama can make children become better communicators and storytellers.

The drama develops empathy

Drama education is a teaching method that allows students to play different characters. A good understanding of the characters, roles, and subtext of plays will allow students to relate better to different situations, contexts, and even cultures As a result, they are encouraged to develop empathy - the ability to see the world from another person ' s perspective without judgment. This will develop the emotional intelligence of our members through the use of imagination.

Drama develops concentration

Drama develops students' ability to be able to focus the mind, to work with the body, and with the voice Drama education must also be designed to develop concentration Trying and executing beats or movements will require concentration and will improve memory, which requires a lot of exercises, just like a muscle Theatre encourages teamwork and collaboration. Teamwork is undoubtedly an essential element of theatre: without it, it is not possible to perform plays and shows.

Methodology explained and practical details.

Teaching theatre is possible through different types of methodologies Each method can ensure different levels of student participation The theatre can be done as a stand-alone activity or as an extension of another thematic area. It is very often used as a source in drama.


Dramatic games

Initially, it is profitable to use games to introduce students to the theatre These activities tend to be less demanding and are highly participatory There is a substantial bibliography that mentions how to use drama games which are excellent resources for anyone wishing to introduce drama education into their work. For example, Augusto Boal's Games for Actors and Non-Actors is perhaps the best known internationally and includes hundreds of games. There are also smaller books, however, which serve as excellent how-to guides. For example, Bernie Warren's Drama Games is an excellent paperback book for those looking for drama games for the first time

Choral drama

Choral dramatization consists of involving students through a reading-aloud exercise and assigning text parts to each member of the group. Choral dramatization can use texts such as rhymes, poems and picture books. Students can experiment with voice, sound gestures and movements.


consists of living paintings, they involve students in creating visual images with their bodies, emphasizing the key details and relationships of a painting Tableaux are static scenes and usually involve at least three levels. Students focus on a focal point, facial expressions and body language. This technique is useful for maturing the presentation skills of the participants of a story enclosed in visual artworks.


is the practice of acting and reacting, of doing and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of one ' s immediate environment Improvisation can be a great introduction to role-playing. Students focus on position, expression, and creativity in their impromptu skits.


allows students to play a character in a real or fictional situation. One of the simplest forms is that in which "the student interprets himself in front of an imaginary situation". Other examples involve students playing real-life or fictional characters in a variety of contexts Role play can be used in many areas of the curriculum, especially history and linguistic arts to support and strengthen understanding of the content


How learning is happening in a social context.

Students and teachers working with drama education are immersed in an imaginary dramatic world that stimulates creativity, but also allows them to explore social problems and issues such as "How do communities cope with change?", "How do we accept other people in our community? " or themes such as betrayal, truth, and other ethical and moral issues Sometimes the work can start in a carefree way, but the teacher adds more and more complexity to the work as it aims at a pedagogical result Students learn to think beyond their own points of view and to consider multiple perspectives on a topic by playing different roles. For example, if the problem under discussion is sea pollution, fishermen, people living in the fishing community, and environmentalists can interpret it.

Implications for the Moocster Facilitation Practice.

Drama education is therefore a cognitive tool that represents a much broader value than the game A facilitator in a Moocster environment may have some keys to effectively use the tools of creative drama:

First of all, it is necessary to be clear about the results. Activities can be used to generate new ideas, teach a concept, define a problem or analyze the root cause of a problem. You need to know your audience. Therefore it is necessary to prepare participants for an approach that balances the level of safety and risk, especially with a more conventional group Prepare to shift gears If your group is overly refractory and you start losing it, you need to be able to adjust quickly The same is true if they get bored because it's not challenging enough Provide clear instructions It is therefore necessary to guide and support your groups so that they can be safe and not confused. So you need to prove every request you make to the students. You have to be specific with your directions

Share specific feedback. It is your responsibility to listen and observe during an exercise or activity. Significant examples and observations will engage the participants in richer reflection. You would summarize the results. Connect the dots. Make real-world applications tangible Link the exercise to valuable results and the next steps to make the drama creative engaging, challenging and even fun

For the adventurous facilitator, inspiration abounds - based on a fact, a historical event, a current story, a memoir, or photography - all can be used in an activity that relates to the desired outcome.

And for the wise facilitator, caution informs - offering a resilient experience that creates no discomfort but provides a safe environment and avoids panic - even with a skeptical end user


4. Art of hosting

A short explanation of the proposed method.

The Art of hosting is a social learning process for facilitators, who coach participants on how to host sessions themselves

The Art of Hosting provides a new approach to engaging people around their most cherished values and working together for the common good.

Its methodology to leadership scales up from the personal to the systemic using personal practice, dialogue, facilitation, and the co-creation of innovation to address complex challenges.

This social learning approach helps facilitators and teachers understand:

- What it means to be a host,

- How to harvest the knowledge in the room,

- How to ask questions that matter

- How to build a stronger sense of community.

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

In an informal learning environment (as is SMOL) it can happen that the students cannot discuss course-related issues in depth

Art of Hosting offers two effective frameworks that SMOL can adopt to consider for structuring constructive group discussions

1. The Technology of Participation (ToP)

This framework describes “the group ” tasks as focusing on the “what” – content, concerns, issues, ideas – to gather and apply knowledge to develop solutions. ToP lists “guiding the group in discussion, problem-solving and planning” as tasks of “facilitators” or hosts, and offers this matrix for reviewing ORID:

The ORID acronym represents four key questions:

● Objective: What are the facts?

● Reflective: How do you feel? What are your emotional responses?

● Interpretation: What does this mean? What is the purpose?

● Decisional: What are your next steps?

In The Art of Focused Conversation, R. Brian Stanfield provides 100 focused conversation templates using the ORID method for a variety of situations, many of which could be adapted for group discussions


2. Compassionate Listening

In this activity, participants are divided into groups of four. Each person has thirty minutes to tell their story – whatever story about themselves they wanted to tell, while the others listened with intention; one for facts, one for values; and one for emotions As Madelyn Burley-Allen notes, “When you listen well, you:

● acknowledge the speaker, ● increase the speaker’s self-esteem and confidence, ● tell the speaker, “You are important” and “I am not judging you, ”

● gain the speaker’s cooperation,

● reduce stress and tension,

● build teamwork,

● gain trust,

● elicit openness,

● gain a sharing of ideas and thoughts, and

● obtain more valid information about the speakers and the subject.”

Compassionate listening is useful in place of a regular icebreaker in a group in which contentious issues would be prominently featured and would help participants to develop deeper bonds

It provides a useful structure that helps to organize personal findings and review particular research.

Methodology explained and practical details. Each of the methodologies used as part of the Art of Hosting has a powerful question at its core. Here are some of the best-known methods that the Art of Hosting uses:


The circle is the basic form underlining all other forms of the participatory process. In every type of organization or group, the participants meet in circles (even if they are around a boardroom table) to plan for the future, handle crises, and listen to each other The Art of Hosting practice often begins and ends meetings in a circle – it helps the process if participants can “check - in” at the beginning about why they are participating, and “check out” at the end by reflecting on what they’ve accomplished. Meeting in the circle can be especially helpful when getting to know each other and the issue at hand, or as a means for deep reflection or consensus-making.



Open Space Technology is the method that helps to harness the power of a groupespecially a diverse one with many interests and skills Whenever needed, we can use the contribution and innovative genius of everyone – because a competitor has just entered the market, or it needed to drastically overhaul its operations, or there is a crisis at the manufacturing plant, or the community needs to create a strategic plan for its future. Convened around a core calling question, the group is made aware of any givens – budget, leadership, etc. – and then the space is open for anyone to pose a session topic. Throughout the meeting, people are free to choose which session(s) they want to attend the most, bringing maximum enthusiasm and commitment to conversation and action Personal buy-in and committed action can be achieved in a remarkably short time More about Open Space Technology here


Instead of taking a problem-solving approach, Appreciative Inquiry offers a possibility focus, a move from “what is” to “what could be”. Based on a powerful, affirmative question, people interview each other to uncover experiences that resemble what we want to create For example, if the challenge is teams not working well together, we might inquire into times when teams have been both collaborative and successful at the same time Such experiences hold the key to how we might bring about the future we ’ re visioning. The Art of Hosting uses Appreciative Inquiry to tap into the latent capabilities of the group to create the success they’re seeking. More info here.


Checking in at the beginning of a meeting or event is designed to allow everyone to connect and focus on the task at hand Check-ins can take many forms; participants can be asked to answer a question, share a personal artefact; or whatever else will meet the purpose of the meeting. Check-outs, at the end of the meeting, can take the same form and serve to close the meeting


Harvesting is the gathering of the wisdom shared at a meeting or event There are many different ways to do a harvest: poetry, word clouds, posters, and reports from table hosts When planning for an Art of Hosting event, it is important to plan for the harvest


Powerful questions are fundamental to the Art of Hosting; many of the other techniques incorporate this concept. A powerful question probes deeply and allows for rich discussion. Questions that begin with “how,” “why,” and “what if” are the most likely to achieve these goals



In a compassionate listening exercise, participants gather in groups of four. As each person tells a story or answers a question, the others in the group each listen for a specific theme; for example, facts, values, and feelings The listeners serve as a mirror to reflect the speaker and what they have heard, using the lens they were given This activity can provide clarity for individuals and commonalities for those in the group


Rather than having a set agenda, with times and topics set in detail, a visual flow sets the path for a meeting to follow. A flow is only limited by the creativity of the person creating it. It reminds us of where we are going and where we have been

Other methods:

● Action learning

● Collective mind-mapping

● ProAction Café

● Graphic Facilitation

How learning is happening in a social context.

The Art of Hosting is a highly effective way of harnessing the collective wisdom and selforganizing capacity of groups of any size. Based on the assumption that people give their energy and lend their resources to what matters most to them – in work as well as in life –the Art of Hosting blends a suite of powerful conversational processes to invite people to step in and take charge of the challenges they are facing.

Groups and organizations using the Art of Hosting as a working practice report better decision-making, more efficient and effective capacity building and greater ability to respond to opportunities, challenges and change quickly People who experience the Art of Hosting typically say that they walk away feeling more empowered and able to help guide the meetings and conversations they are part of d t d ff ti d desirable outcomes.


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

We can apply some of the art of hosting parties in a social model for online learning with great results The approach recognizes that students need to be active learners and encourages teachers to host the learning, rather than to be solely responsible for content The result is a field of learning where everyone is engaged And this is one of the main principles of the Social model for online learning. By learning and implementing the techniques of the Art of hosting, the moocster would manage to engage participants in meaningful conversations that will lead to deeper learning, building of the social capital skills needed to succeed in life's adventures, and developing fearless curiosity. The Moocster can use the Circle to help learners to prepare for current sessions, as Open Space to share knowledge, to inquire into topics together and for structuring the follow-up group discussion

What were the highlights of this video? (Objective: getting the facts)

How did you feel as you were viewing this video? (Reflective, addressing emotional responses)

A concrete example of how we can apply The Technology of Participation (ToP) in the development of SMOL: After the participant has viewed a video of the particular lesson of the course, the facilitator can ask them to complete a “Video Reaction / Review” form, which includes the following four questions 1 2. 3.

Why was it important for you to view this video? (Interpretation: considering the meaning or purpose of this experience).

4. Art of hosting online in education:

What will you tell your colleagues about this videotape? Or What will you do in your practice as a result of viewing this video? (Decisional: next action)

The learners are invited to participate in online discussions using the course management system Moodle. They are broken into four groups to discuss course topics. Each group is assigned a host and a harvester.


5. World café

A short explanation of the proposed method.

The World coffee is a simple, effective, and flexible format for hosting small to large group dialogues It is a creative process for sharing knowledge and creating possibilities for action in groups of all sizes, building on the notion of group intelligence World coffee is an excellent tool to encourage participant interaction, it can foster deeper engagement with complex or challenging issues.

The facilitator usually starts with setting an overall topic: within that topic, 3 – 5 key questions are formulated for discussion; and each question is assigned to a specific table host (an expert or someone with a strong interest in the question)

The format in different contexts has been named in many ways to meet specific goals, for example, “Creative Cafés”, “Strategy Cafés”, “Leadership Cafés”, and “Community Cafés” World Caffee conversations are based on the principles and format developed by World Caffee, a global movement to support conversations that matter in corporate, government, and community settings all over the world.

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

The method consists in having a conversation through dialogue and engagement Each meeting and conversation focus on a specific issue (problem) Here the participants and topics are new each time, which is different from a social learning group The focus is not on the learning process but on the outcomes of the ongoing discussion.


Methodology explained and practical details.

The World Coffee format is flexible and adapts to many different circumstances World Coffee Conversations:

● Sit four (max five) people at small Café-style tables or in conversation clusters.

● Set up progressive (at least three) rounds of conversation, approximately 20 minutes each.

● Engage questions or issues that genuinely matter to your life, work, or community. Encourage participants to write, doodle and draw key ideas on their tablecloths (and/ or note key ideas on large index cards or placemats in the centre of the table)

● Upon completing the initial round of conversation, you may ask one person to remain at the table as a “table host” for the next round, while the others serve as travellers or “ambassadors of meaning.” The travellers carry key ideas, themes and questions into their new conversations, while the table host welcomes the new set of travellers.

● By providing opportunities for people to participate in several rounds of conversation, ideas, questions, and themes begin to link and connect At the end of the second or third round, all of the tables or conversation clusters in the room will be cross-pollinated with insights from prior conversations

● In the last round of conversation, people can return to their first table to synthesize their discoveries, or they may continue moving to new tables.

● You may use the same question for one or more rounds of conversation, or you may pose different questions in each round to build on and help deepen the exploration. After at least three rounds of conversation, initiate a period of sharing discoveries & insights in a whole group conversation It is in these town meeting-style conversations that patterns can be identified, collective knowledge grows, and possibilities for action emerge

How learning is happening in a social context

World Coffee is built on the assumption that people already have within them the wisdom and creativity to confront even the most difficult challenges; that the answers we need are available to us; and that we are Wiser Together than we are alone.

By using guidelines in planning meetings and gatherings, the facilitator can create a unique environment where surprising and useful outcomes are likely to occur A World Caffee is always intimate, even when it scales to very large numbers.


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice

We can adapt the 7 design principles of World coffee to facilitate social learning groups

When these design principles are used together, they foster collaborative dialogue, active engagement, and constructive possibilities for action.

I. Set the Context

Pay attention to the reason you are bringing people together, and what you want to achieve. Knowing the purpose and parameters of your meeting enables you to consider and choose the most important elements to realize your goals: e g who should be part of the conversation, what themes or questions will be most pertinent, what sorts of the harvest will be more useful, etc

II. Create Hospitable Space

Coffee hosts around the world emphasize the power and importance of creating a hospitable space - one that feels safe and inviting. When people feel comfortable being themselves, they do their most creative thinking, speaking, and listening. In particular, consider how your invitation and your physical set-up contribute to creating a welcoming atmosphere

III. Explore Questions that Matter

Knowledge emerges in response to compelling questions. Find questions that are relevant to the real-life concerns of the group. Powerful questions that “travel well” help attract collective energy, insight, and action as they move throughout a system. Depending on the timeframe available and your objectives, your Coffee may explore a single question or use a progressively deeper line of inquiry through several conversational rounds.

IV. Encourage Everyone’s Contribution

As leaders, we are increasingly aware of the importance of participation, but most people don’t only want to participate, they want to actively contribute to making a difference It is important to encourage everyone in your meeting to contribute their ideas and perspectives while allowing anyone who wants to participate by simply listen.

V. Connect Diverse Perspectives

The opportunity to move between tables, meet new people, actively contribute your thinking, and link the essence of your discoveries to ever-widening circles of thought is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Coffee As participants carry key ideas or themes to new tables, they exchange perspectives, greatly enriching the possibility for new insights

VI. Listen Together for Patterns & Insights

Listening is a gift we give to one another. The quality of our listening is perhaps the most important factor determining the success of a Coffee. Through practising shared listening and paying attention to themes, patterns and insights, we begin to sense a connection to the larger whole. Encourage people to listen for what is not being spoken along with what is being shared

362 1

VII. Share Collective Discoveries

Conversations at one table reflect a pattern of wholeness that connects with the conversations at the other The last phase of World Coffee often called the “harvest”, involves making this pattern of wholeness visible to everyone in a large group conversation Invite a few minutes of silent reflection on the patterns, themes and deeper questions experienced in the small group conversations and call them out to share with the large group.

World coffee in the virtual space?

In a virtual World Coffee, more detailed preparation and also trained moderators are very important A virtual event depends a lot on the energy of the participants Through trained moderators who know the method and understand the importance of a high-energy level in the virtual space for creating a meaningful conversation, the virtual World Coffee is going to be a success.

Virtual World Coffes have the potential to be game-changing experiences for live online learning, taking people away from the feeling of Zoom fatigue. To succeed and make this possible the facilitators should:

- Beta test everything

- Provide crystal-clear guidance nothing ruins a great session more than getting lost in the tech.

- Build a powerful debrief in plenary what’s a good World Coffee without a good wrap up There are platforms such as Remo that provide almost the perfect surroundings to create a virtual World Coffee, but it might not always be the perfect option for some purpose Although using platforms such as Zoom, and/or Webex with breakout room functions is slightly more challenging and requires a bit more creativity, with the support of a Miro (or Mural) wall, there will be really excellent experiences in facilitating a virtual World Cafe.

The latest version of ZOOM allows the hosts to set up the option where all participants are able to freely move between rooms, without needing any host help. The ability to name rooms or topics per room makes it a perfect World Coffee solution.

To increase deep listening, have the leader pass off their role to another learner who takes up the new leader mantle, with the old leader joining the existing group as they rotate around


6. Design Thinking


short explanation of the proposed method

Design thinking is a methodology for solving problems using methods taken from the creative industry The starting point is a deep understanding of the user ' s needs The next step is to diagnose the situation and formulate the problem well, generate innovative solutions, prototyping and testing.

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

Design thinking offers an approach to create innovative solutions for developing scenarios in online classes.

Methodology explained and practical details

Design Thinking is an iterative process in which we seek to understand the user, challenge assumptions, and redefine problems in an attempt to identify alternative strategies and solutions that might not be instantly apparent with our initial level of understanding. At the same time, Design Thinking provides a solution-based approach to problem solving. It is a way of thinking and working as well as a collection of hands-on methods. Design Thinking revolves around a deep interest in developing an understanding of the people for whom we ’ re designing the products or services It helps us observe and develop empathy with the target user Design Thinking helps us in the process of questioning: questioning the problem, questioning the assumptions, and questioning the implications. Design Thinking is extremely useful in tackling problems that are ill-defined or unknown, by re-framing the problem in human-centric ways, creating many ideas in brainstorming sessions, and adopting a handson approach in prototyping and testing. Design Thinking also involves ongoing experimentation: sketching, prototyping, testing, and trying out concepts and ideas. (Dam & Siang 2018)

Traditionally, the focus of Design Thinking has been on creating desirable and innovative outcomes, but recently the emphasis has broadened (Liedtka, 2018) and in the HE environment, the social and collaborative aspects of the process are important additional benefits (Vaugh et al., 2018), having the potential to help build, strengthen and take advantage of HE’s a diverse community. (Dam & Siang 2018)

According to Vaugh et al (2018), there is much HE can learn from the successes and failures of Design Thinking in organizations, but to date, little research has been carried out specific to the HE sector


Design Thinking Phases

There are many variants of the Design Thinking process in use today, and they have from three to seven phases, stages, or modes. However, all variants of Design Thinking are very similar. All variants of Design Thinking embody the same principles, which were first described by Nobel Prize laureate Herbert Simon in The Sciences of the Artificial in 1969.

(Dam & Siang 2018)

The Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford (aka the school) describes design thinking as a five-stage follows:

Empathise – with your users

Define – your users ’ needs, their problems, and your insights Ideate – by challenging assumptions and creating ideas for innovative solutions Prototype – to start creating solutions Test – solutions

The phases (or modes) are not always sequential. They do not necessarily follow any specific order and can occur in parallel or repeat iteratively.

An Introduction to Design Thinking PROCESS GUIDE by Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford describes the modes of a Design Thinking process as follows:


Empathize mode

Empathy is the centerpiece of a human-centered design process The Empathize mode is the work you do to understand people, within the context of your design challenge It is your effort to understand the way they do things and why, their physical and emotional needs, how they think about the world, and what is meaningful to them

Define mode

The Define mode of the design process is all about bringing clarity and focus to the design space. It is your chance, and responsibility, as a design thinker to define the challenge you are taking on, based on what you have learned about your user and about the context. After becoming an instant expert on the subject and gaining invaluable empathy for the person you are designing for, this stage is about making sense of the widespread information you have gathered.

The goal of the Define mode is to craft a meaningful and actionable problem statement – this is what we call a point-of-view. This should be a guiding statement that focuses on insights and needs of a particular user, or composite character. Insights don’t often just jump in your lap; rather they emerge from a process of synthesizing information to discover connections and patterns. In a word, the Define mode is sensemaking.

Ideate mode

Ideate is the mode of the design process in which you concentrate on idea generation. Mentally it represents a process of “going wide” in terms of concepts and outcomes. Ideation provides both the fuel and also the source material for building prototypes and getting innovative solutions into the hands of your users.

Prototype mode

The Prototype mode is the iterative generation of artifacts intended to answer questions that get you closer to your final solution. In the early stages of a project that question may be broad – such as “do my users enjoy cooking in a competitive manner?” In these early stages, you should create low-resolution prototypes that are quick and cheap to make (think minutes and cents) but can elicit useful feedback from users and colleagues. In later stages both your prototype and question may get a little more refined. For example, you may create a later-stage prototype for the cooking project that aims to find out: “do my users enjoy cooking with voice commands or visual commands”.


A prototype can be anything that a user can interact with – be it a wall of post-it notes, a gadget you put together, a role-playing activity, or even a storyboard. Ideally you bias toward something a user can experience. Walking someone through a scenario with a storyboard is good, but having them role-play through a physical environment that you have created will likely bring out more emotions and responses from that person

Test mode

The Test mode is when you solicit feedback, about the prototypes you have created, from your users and have another opportunity to gain empathy for the people you are designing for. Testing is another opportunity to understand your user, but unlike your initial empathy mode, you have now likely done more framing of the problem and created prototypes to test Both these things tend to focus the interaction with users, but don’t reduce your “testing” work to asking whether or not people like your solution Instead, continue to ask “Why?”, and focus on what you can learn about the person and the problem as well as your potential solutions.

Ideally, you can test within the real context of the user ’ s life. For a physical object, ask people to take it with them and use it within their normal routines. For an experience, try to create a scenario in a location that would capture the real situation If testing a prototype in situ is not possible, frame a more realistic situation by having users take on a role or task when approaching your prototype A rule of thumb: always prototype as if you know you ’ re right, but test as if you know you ’ re wrong testing is the chance to refine your solutions and make them better.

How learning is happening in a social context.

The social and collaborative aspects are strongly present in the Design thinking methodology

Implications for Moocster facilitation practice

A Moocster plays an important role in coordinating the processes and preparing input, caring about people, engaging participants, and creating atmosphere. .


7. Assign Social Learning Buddies: the COOL methodology

Alike in the case of learners in a “physical” classroom, online learners tend to perform better when they work in pairs with a learning “buddy” or in groups of three or four learners. The main objective of this concept of learning buddies in the online learning environment is to enable collaboration between learners that are not physically connected in the same place, such as in the classroom. Moreover, this practice helps learners to keep each other motivated during the learning process.

Individual learners in online sessions, unlike in-person Instructor-led Training (ILT) or classroom sessions, may be hesitant to reach out and communicate with their peers or trainers, especially if they are unfamiliar with them. Assigning social learning buddies will make it much easier for them to interact and create an online learning community.

Advantages of Social Learning Buddies

● Develops team-building skills, when individuals are assigned tasks to perform alongside their partners.

● Allows students to observe and learn from their partners while also sharing their own knowledge.

● Makes learners more comfortable and confident as they have a person or group to turn to if any issue arises.

● Fosters conflict resolution and negotiation skills, since learners are assigned to perform tasks together during which they may encounter problems or have different viewpoints.

● Increases motivation and attention, since the social learning buddy acts as an accountability partner.

Collaborative learning is characterized by patterns of relationships among learners. Standard practice usually utilizes rating scale data in order to evaluate the collaborative learning environments and ignores the relationship building among learners The advantages of collaborative learning are extended beyond academic performance to individual development In this vein, learning theories, such as the Social Learning Theory – Bandura, postulates that an individual’s cognitive and social development is nurtured by his/her own behavioral or cognitive attributes but also by interaction with significant others or more specifically, by his/her social environment


Consequently, learning through and in collaborative settings is a key method for strengthening students’ academic achievement and pro-social behaviour, and can be considered a fundamental part of learning in general One example of collaborative learning in the form of assigning social learning buddies is the Cooperative Open Learning (COOL) – an innovative model introduced by Neuhauser and Witter to upper secondary vocational schools (BMHS) in Austria in 1996. The core aim of COOL is to foster learners’ capacities to participate in collaborative learning, in order to improve their academic and social competencies (Helm, 2017).


COOL is based on the three theories that have formulated its principles:

● The constructivist theory introduced by Piaget in 1985. According to Piaget (1985), human beings construct knowledge by interpreting experiences of their physical environment, in particular when cognitive conflicts occur. Throughout this process, assimilation and accommodation play a determinant role in solving cognitive conflicts and retrieve cognitive equilibrium. Regarding learning in collaborative settings, cognitive dissonances occur when different perspectives clash to an extent that the individual tries to retrieve equilibrium, constructs new knowledge and modifies prior knowledge (schemata) to interpret the world Thus, collaborative learning facilitates reflection that fosters knowledge construction However, it has to be highlighted that socio-cognitive conflicts can be solved only through reciprocal explanations and negotiation processes.


● The socio-cultural theory, introduced by Vygotsky in 1986, describes the knowledge that is co-constructed by groups when trying to find a common understanding of a specific learning content In this case, learners are asked to externalize through oral or written speech and internalize knowledge by collaborating with other learners This potential fosters learning inside the community, preventing the alienation of an online classroom from the sociocultural context that the traditional (physical) classroom offers.

● The theory of collective information processing is considered to be even more important than the socio-cultural theory. Collective information processing refers to sharing information, ideas and cognitive processes within a group, which in turn strengthens individual and collective learning

How learning occurs in social settings

Addressing the different learning needs of a heterogeneous population of learners requires new ways of teaching and learning. In this framework, COOL is based on the following principles, in order to transmit or create knowledge through collaborative learning (Helm, 2017):

● freedom (an individual’s choice and responsibility for his or her own learning)

● collaboration (working in teams)

● time management (self-determined planning and well-organized learning)

Implications for teaching practice

Teachers must ensure (a) positive interdependence, (b) students’ responsibility for their group ’ s performance, (c) structures and guidance for student interaction and collaborative learning strategies, (d) readily accessible assignments and smooth teamwork and (e) tutoring that forces students to verbalize their knowledge and understanding (Motzo, 2016)


8. Think-Pair-Share (TPS)

Think-Pair-Share (TPS) strategy was developed by Prof. Frank Lyman in 1981 at the University of Maryland and further developed by Spencer Kagan (1991) It is a collaborative discussion strategy offering flexible ways to implement cooperative learning

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning. TPS three-step strategy has many advantages according to Lyman (1981) and other researchers (Rowe, 1987; Ahmed, 2006; Carroll, 2007; Kagan, 2009; Lom, 2012; Emmanuel, 2016; Raba, 2017). They are as follows:

1) The Think-Pair-Share technique is quick and does not take much preparation time

2) The Think-Pair-Share technique makes classroom discussions more productive, as students have already had an opportunity to think about their ideas before sharing with the whole class.

3) Students have the opportunity to increased observations, communication skills and higher-level thinking skills from their peers, and gain self-confidence when reporting ideas to the whole class.

4) The „pair‟ step ensures that no student is left out of the discussion

5) Students are able to rehearse responses mentally and verbally, and all students have an opportunity to talk

6) Both the students and the teacher have increased opportunities to think and become involved in group discussions.

7) The Think-Pair-Share technique is applicable across all grade levels and class sizes.

8) It stimulates students' levels of energy and more critical thinking is retained after a lesson in which students have had an opportunity to discuss and reflect on the topic. (Sharma 2018)


Methodology explained and practical details.

The think-Pair-Share strategy includes three steps:

1. 2 3

Think – The teacher poses an open-ended question or problem, the student thinks analytically on the question Give students a minute or two to think about their answer Pair- The teacher pairs the students to discuss the answer and share ideas Share- The student shares the response with the whole class

TPS can help you to:

Develop problem-solving skills, based on the discussion, enhance critical thinking, improve communication skills, develop an interest in studying, enhance students’ achievement and selfesteem, improve collaboration among students, make the teaching-learning process attractive and fun, develop cognitive ability, and improve speaking skills

TPS is applicable for all grade students in all subjects (Sharma 2018)

The think-Pair-Share technique is one amongst other techniques and methods that are aimed at getting students to think about what they already know or what they have learned during a lesson, similar as, for example, the Venn diagram or KWL (Know, Want-to-know, and Learned). These techniques and methods are able to engage all students online as well as onsite. Dividing students into groups can be done in the classroom or in the virtual breakout room.

Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

Think-Pair-Share strategy works well in an online environment Students can be divided into small groups in virtual breakout rooms.


Case Think-Pair-Share as a Springboard for Study Buddies in a Virtual Environment

When struggling with the sudden shift to online teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Think-Pair-Share technique was taken into use in a co-taught graduate-level teacher education course, Managing Culturally Responsive Classrooms, in the summer of 2020 at Niagara University; two professors infused Think-Pair-Share into their course by pairing graduate students as study buddies, as the course was moved from a traditional implementation to a virtual setting.

Managing Culturally Responsive Classrooms, a co-taught course with thirty-plus students and two instructors was moved online in May 2020. The Culturally Responsive Classrooms course instructors began the process by outlining the course readings and the class activities to determine which activities might work online One teaching and learning strategy both instructors wanted to use was Think-Pair-Share

When the course was run onsite, it involved using of many effective interactive learning experiences, and various forms of Cooperative Learning, including Think-Pair-Share.It was clear to the instructors from the beginning that they wanted the online implementation to involve interactive elements and forms of Cooperative Learning, as well; having candidates listen to them talking for three hours was not feasible Thus, Think-Pair-Share, reflection, and guest speakers needed to be included in order to be able to build community, entice conversation, promote collaboration, spark analysis, and facilitate the transfer of learning The challenges of using the remote technology were acknowledged, however, and they considered breakout rooms as an uneven experience across all members. While still utilizing the breakout rooms for cooperative learning opportunities, the instructors decided to stress the paired structure offered by Frank Lyman’s Think-Pair-Share (l981), since they knew the procedure well.

The onsite course typically had the candidates complete an “All About Me” survey on the first day of class, which gathered information influencing future groupings The timing of the survey was changed, and it was decided to be done as a pre-course survey to gain information about the students. The survey was the first-course homework assignment for the students, and the information received from it allowed the instructors to create purposefully diverse pairs. Once the pairs were created, a study buddy concept was introduced to the students.


An email was sent to each pair or trio requesting that they would decide on a way to communicate during classes and that they would be ready to communicate during the first class meeting Several ways of communication such as apps or texting were suggested for the study buddies to communicate, but the choice was left up to the pairs The candidates were reminded that this was a professional relationship and that professional information (e.g., contact information) needed to be respected. The first class opened with an explanation of Think-Pair-Share and a discussion about its use. The term “study buddies” was introduced as permanent pairings, assigned by the instructors that would engage in Think-Pair-Share, and other conversations, throughout the course

One of the first activities during the first class involved “talking” with their study buddy, and each week at least one activity period involved the candidates' interaction with their study buddies. These activities used Think-Pair-Share as retrieval of course material and connections before an individual assignment and as a reflection, often as an entrance ticket, after completing and submitting an assignment. The study buddies posted a response into the conference platform chat box, and they were asked to share information about their pair working and conversations with the entire class In these frequent, brief conversations during the class, the candidates had:

1 an outlet to gripe about life

2. a chance to talk without the intrusion of the teachers.

3. the experience of practising the dispositions of good professionals, which became the Habits of Mind (Costa and Kallick, 2014);

4. the ability to safely ask questions or seek clarifications that they might not unveil in a larger group

5 the structure to build a stabilizing sense of community with at least one other “stranger”

6 an opportunity to foreshadow the use of “study buddies,” a strategy described in the first text we read (Ladson-Billings, 2009).

7. plenty of chances to receive feedback for their intuitive or developing theories and to feel encouraged to “think out loud”.

8. a chance to develop an empathetic sense of another person ’ s life, perspective, sense of humour, and reaction to school (and world) events.

9 and a chance to “ own ” the technological processes that they needed (Sembert II 2021)

During the course, the study buddies ended up doing all of these things and more It appeared that the successful use of the Think-Pair-Share strategy resulted in building a classroom community, professional relationships, and friendships that continued outside of class and after the course ended.



How to make the content accessible in online learning The shift to online learning has created a tremendous opportunity for learners with impairments, particularly those who have struggled to learn in more traditional settings. While online learning is a fantastic way to make education more accessible, it can only be such if the content is really accessible as well. For many of us, viewing a video, listening to a podcast, or even glancing at a graph is simple, but for students with impairments, any of these activities could be tough As a result, educators should ensure that the content is digitally accessible So, what is the definition of digital accessibility? It's about ensuring that as many individuals as possible can access and use your course content, in the same way that university buildings are required to have wheelchair accessibility (Poste, n.d). When content is not digitally accessible, it affects students with visual, auditory, cognitive, physical, and learning challenges. As a result, it is a legal obligation in the United Kingdom and other countries that course content adheres to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG, Central Digital and Data Office, 2018)

There are also several ways that digitally accessible content might help students who are not disabled. For example, captions on a movie in a noisy environment or the ability to read on mobile devices in strong sunshine due to the colours chosen in the resources indicate that digital accessibility benefits everyone. To paraphrase Steve Krug, author of Don't Make Me Think: A Practical Approach to Web Usability: “The one argument for accessibility that doesn’t get made nearly often enough is how extraordinarily better it makes some people’s lives How many opportunities do we have to dramatically improve people’s lives just by doing our job a little better?”

While there may appear to be a lot of variables to consider when making your work digitally accessible, there are a few simple actions you can take to avoid creating hurdles for certain students (Poste, n.d):


● On charts and graphs, don't merely use colours to highlight contrasts. Symbols or forms might also be useful.

● People with visual impairments who use screen readers can follow the information that the image is helping to transmit by using alternate text on images, graphs, and charts

● For video and audio resources, a transcript is included

● Closed subtitles are provided for pre-recorded video.

● Screen readers will benefit from the use of headers and subheadings since the structure of the information will be clearer and they will be able to skim more readily.

● Clear the contrast between the text colour and the background colour.

● Avoid including activities that require more than a keyboard to execute, such as dragand-drop activities

Additional tips for creating accessible digital content

Here is some information on the design, selection, and use of accessible technology, as well as accessibility checkers that can help you spot accessibility issues in products you use or create (Burgstahler, 2021):

● Use clear, consistent layouts, navigation, and organization schemes to present content

Keep paragraphs short and avoid flashing content

● Use descriptive wording for hyperlink text (e g , “DO-IT website” rather than “click here”)

● Use a text-based format and structure headings, lists, and tables using style and formatting features within your Learning Management System (LMS) and content creation software, such as Microsoft Word, and PowerPoint and Adobe InDesign and Acrobat; use built-in page layouts where applicable.

● Avoid creating PDF documents. Post most instructor-created content within LMS content pages (i e , in HTML) and, if a PDF is desired, link to it only as a secondary source of the information

● Provide succinct text summaries of the photos' substance (text descriptions web resource).

● On clean sites with plain backgrounds, use huge, bold sans serif fonts.

● Use high-cont colour-blind people (colour contrast w ning.


● Use asynchronous tools; make sure IT used to involve the use of the keyboard alone and otherwise applies accessible design practices; don't overload students with learning to operate a big variety of technology products unless they are linked to the course ' s theme. Here are some tips for inclusive pedagogy; many are particularly beneficial for students who are neurodiverse (e g , those on the autism spectrum or who have learning disabilities)

● Students should be directed to videos and written resources where they can learn the technical skills required for course participation

● Allow students to learn in a variety of ways (e.g., use a combination of text, video, audio, and/or image; in synchronous presentations, say aloud all content provided on slides and then record them for subsequent viewing).

● Provide a choice of communication and collaboration options that are accessible to people with various disabilities.

● Allow students to demonstrate what they've learnt in a variety of ways (e g , different types of test items, portfolios, presentations, single-topic discussions)

As educators compose learning materials, they may consider a variety of language talents (e.g., use plain English, spell out acronyms, define terms, avoid or define jargon) (Burgstahler, 2021).

● Make sure that all activities, projects, debates, and readings have clear directions and expectations

● Make examples and assignments that are relevant to a wide range of learners' interests and backgrounds.

● Provide outlines and other scaffolding tools, as well as give learning advice.

● Provide ample practice opportunities.

● Give yourself enough time for activities, projects, and tests (e.g., give details of all project assignments at the beginning of the course).

● Provide input on project components and opportunities for improvement

Resources that can enable collaborative learning in online settings (Brown, 2020)

Padlet ( Padlet is a canvas to create beautiful projects that are easy to share and collaborate on. It offers eight different layouts that the user can choose from, including some very useful ones such as timeline, canvas, and map layout Ideas for collaborative learning with this app are endless The facilitator can try having learners post a note to the wall to stimulate a discussion on a topic, then have other learners reply with their own notes.


Other functions: Portfolios, Opinion forums, Lesson plans, Blogs, Q+A, To-Do list, Inspiration board, Writing prompts, Collecting feedback, Collaborative note-taking, Photo collages, Solo or group presentations.

Popplet (https://www popplet com/ ): Popplet is an online mind mapping tool that allows users to easily add and organise information Popplet also allows you to colour-code content, make connections, add comments, and various forms of media, including, text, images, documents, links, videos and drawings. Popplet can be used to foster discussions, collaborations, problem-based and peer learning for both face-to-face and online learning activities. For example:Brainstorming and mind mapping – Students can collaborate and interact with each other by sharing, creating links between ideas and thoughts in real-time and asynchronously; Collaborative note taking – Students are able to organize ideas and make connections between key concepts collaboratively in real-time and asynchronously

Whiteboard,( A virtual whiteboard is a digital application that functions like a traditional whiteboard but is hosted virtually. Digital whiteboards can integrate with other video conferencing and screen sharing platforms to allow for collaboration even when you are not physically in the same room. A virtual whiteboard has multiple colours, shapes and templates to choose from and allows whiteboards to be saved in shareable files for easy access in the future A digital whiteboard can enhance a virtual or in person meeting by encouraging collaboration A whiteboard can help people visualize a process. Whiteboards increase collaboration by allowing participants to easily add ideas to the whiteboard with sticky notes or coloured markers.

EdApp: EdApp is an easy-to-implement LMS that makes creating online courses easy and device-independent It also incorporates different learning techniques for active learning and interactive learning Educators can log in and immediately turn their course content into eLearning with all sorts of different types of interactive elements, such as quizzes, image maps, surveys, games, and video. Collaborative learning can be realized in several parts of EdApp. One of the most noticeable is in the Discussions and Assignments feature. It allows learners to interact in real-time with each other to discuss topics for team collaboration. This can get them to really dig into a topic because they share their knowledge and opinions directly with others. It also includes a feature called Virtual Classrooms. This leverages communication tools like Zoom and Microsoft Teams to allow for video conferencing in a lesson, which is great for collaboration Furthermore, EdApp allows for team based learning by allowing learners to submit their own content, such as videos and images This makes collaboration on assignments much more engaging.


Slack: Slack is a tool often associated with start-ups and other flexible companies Slack is a tool that improves upon the concept of email It allows users to create conversations based on topics where they can make calls, share files, and connect apps. Collaborating with Slack in a training context has now become more frequent. Courses can easily be sorted into class-sized groups as well as split into small groups, in addition to allowing for spaces for online socializing or trainer office hours. Slack gives you a lot of functionality that you can take advantage of when setting up collaborative tasks, such as the ability to add 3rd party apps Zoom, for example, can be integrated to allow for online meetings where learners can discuss their projects together

Miro ( Miro’s infinite canvas gives the facilitator the freedom to choose how they work with their team. Whether they’re hosting a digital brainstorm, documenting a meeting, teaching a class, the possibilities for using our digital whiteboard are endless. Other functions: Brainstorming, Planning, Designing, Teaching, Meeting

Spiral (https://spiral ac/): Spiral is a platform that can be used to carry out everyday classroom assignments remotely. There are five main activities in Spiral: Quickfire Lite for asking live questions, Quickfire for planned quizzes, discuss for presentations with a discussion element, Team Up for students to make collaborative presentations, and Clip for turning any public video into a live chat with questions.

One of the best ways to get students to collaborate is by using Team Up Team Up not only gives students the benefits of learning with peers, but it also keeps track of each student’s contributions That can make assessing individual performances in a group project easier for the teacher.


9. Gamification

Gamification in eLearning Cognitive and behavioural practice: Motivation

Because student connection is confined behind a screen, online teaching employing the Social Learning Theory may appear to be difficult. However, motivation is a quintessential element of Social Learning. As Bandura himself points out, to have the maximum success with any observational learning, you must be motivated enough to mimic the modelled behaviour (Kurt, 2020) Vallerand and Ratelle have put motivation in education in two categories: Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation (Vansteenkiste, Lens & Deci, 2006) Ryan and Deci have defined intrinsic motivation as “doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence ” (2000) and extrinsic motivation, according to Vansteenkiste et al., is the willingness of individuals to engage in activities in order to acquire something other than the work itself (Vallerand & Ratelle, 2004).

Recent studies and testimonials, however, confirm that during the pandemic and with online learning, student motivation has decreased (Holbrook, 2022) Gamification can offer an answer to the current decrease of the education system in learner motivation and engagement as it provides some solace for many learners who feel alienated by traditional learning methods used in eLearning (Alsawaier, 2018).


Gamified content is something that learners are used to finding online as computer games ’ popularity has not declined over time. It is therefore advisable to use gamified learning experiences for eLearning in order to present the students with a method they are familiar with and that can pique their interest and increase their motivation. Additionally, studies have shown that learners tend to respond well to some mild pressure in competition when it is among members of a community such as a cohort (Sailer & Homner, 2019).


Gamification is a methodology in itself, where “Gamification is the use of game metaphors, game elements and ideas in a context different from that of the games in order to increase motivation and commitment, and to influence user behaviour” (Marczewski, 2022) However, it is widely accepted that combining methodologies can often have a very positive effect on learners’ retention (Sadeghi, Sedaghat & Sha Ahmadi, 2014). A methodology that can be used in combination with gamification is problem-based learning, which is a studentcentred method where groups of learners collaborate to address a real-life problem (Kurt, 2020). Having learners work in teams to solve a problem through gamification not only increases motivation and allows students to exhibit behaviour to be mimicked, it also facilitates a gamification environment that doesn’t only reward the top performers This allows students to challenge themselves within a team with friendly competition

Practical Details

● Avatar

Designing and selecting the right avatar in gamified eLearning programs has the ability to instil a strong emotional connection between the learner and the gamified intervention, significantly increasing engagement (Kota, 2017). There are a number of options for creating avatars in a game

1 The student may construct an avatar by assembling various components While this option gives the student entire flexibility to construct her own avatar, it may divert the learner's focus.

2. The game may provide standard avatar designs that the learner "decorates" with accessories. This method is faster and creates a strong connection with the student.

3. A student may be able to select from a variety of "predefined" avatars. This is best utilized when there is a need for the learner to associate with a person who has a particular perspective which is needed for the course


● Goal orientation

When developing activities, a learner’s goal orientation must be addressed since it will impact how they experience gamification and games through the objectives they establish for themselves. Goal orientation may be classified into two types: performance orientation and mastery orientation. Performance-oriented players are concerned with how other people perceive their competence Players with a mastery orientation are more focused on developing their skills Instil a mastery orientation in challenging activities that need inventiveness or intricate solutions Instil a performance mindset in basic or repeated tasks (Kapp, 2022)

● Learning objective and Timeframe

Before introducing gamification in the classroom, educators should understand why they wish to employ it as a method. Learning outcomes are behaviour or content goals that a learner must attain and demonstrate in order to showcase comprehension Learning outcomes might be based on topic material requirements or behaviours that a student should improve on in class (Uptmor, 2022)

Once the objectives are determined, the educator should ensure that they include the following items:

1. Specific Aim: What is the goal that the learners must achieve? How should they finish it? This is one of the most crucial aspects of a learning result. It should not only be thorough, but also quantifiable.

2. Timeframe: How much time are learners allowed to use to complete their assignments? Daily or weekly learning objectives are excellent for keeping students engaged Monthly learning outcomes should be larger goals that must be developed over time Time is crucial because it both keeps the game going and rewards learners for the effort they put into the outcome.

● Evaluation of the gamification method

Gamification strategies must be evaluated and evolved at a constant pace in order to enhance learner engagement Setting new targets for learners, as well as aiding them along the way, keeps games interesting and enticing There are a number of steps to take in order to evaluate if the gamification method brings the desired effects in class ("6 Simple Steps to Evaluate Your Gamification Cycle", 2022).

1. What to measure: A successful gamification approach begins with specific goals in mind. It is important to know in advance what the objectives that should be achieved are as well as what specific behaviours learners should pay attention to.


2. How to measure: While evaluating each student's performance individually may appear challenging, a Performance Dashboard provides rapid and informative insights into each team and learner, allowing educators to easily gauge their performance and provide guidance and support

3. Who wins: Top achievers are typically the ones rewarded in traditional gamification activities? However, in an educational setting, this can become a drawback, especially given the high turnover rate in online learning, as other learners fail to win and feel constantly defeated, decreasing their motivation. Gamification should allow various teams and learners to set goals according to their skills and limitations, using the zone of proximal development This way they feel challenged but not defeated

4. Repeat: The Evaluation Cycle's final phase is to repeat – and never keep repeating Reevaluating each phase will allow educational institutions to improve even more. The best gamification approach is always evolving.

eLearning Gamification Tools

● Badges

The learners would receive a badge after completing a certain action on the eLearning platform To be deemed the best learner, they would have to acquire as many badges as possible while performing various tasks (Mardinger, 2022).

● Points

Similar to the badges, the learners can earn their points through the successful completion of activities. Assigning different number of points to different activities can provide certain hierarchy to the tasks and create “level” that the learners can unlock with their earned points (or with badges!) These points can also be used on a leader board to showcase accomplishment and friendly rivalry (Mardinger, 2022)

● Contests

Running contests throughout the course life is a terrific method to get learners engaged in the learning programme. One technique to establish contests for is to create goals that must be completed within a certain time frame. The aim should be for the learners to gain badges or points in order to be ranked on leader boards such as "Most Course Completions" and "Highest Score in Course " (Mardinger, 2022)


Case example of gamification in MOOC

The CDTMOOC project (Erasmus+; cdtmooc eu) has developed a gamified online course about creative problem solving methods Gamification is used in order to increase the motivation of the students to finish all modules of the course

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning: The method can further increase the motivation of the students.

Methodology explained and practical details:

During the course, students follow the footsteps of the protagonist, Jane, who is figuring out how to turn her interests into a career as an entrepreneur

How learning is happening in a social context:

Because the course can be taken whenever, the content must be such that students can advance at their own pace, and content should thus be asynchronous. Therefore, the social context comes from the input the students make into the course forum, into which the students are tasked to write in connection with various tasks


10. Videos in e-Learning

Online teaching using the Social Learning Theory may appear as a challenge due to the fact that student interaction is limited behind a screen However, one of the main elements of the Social Learning Theory is learning through observation. Namely, Bandura - the father of the Social Learning Model - highlights the fact that learners acquire knowledge by observing certain behaviours (Bandura, 1977). This particular aspect of the Model can provide a gateway for effective and interactive eLearning courses.

In a physical learning environment, students learn by observing the educator and their peers One could assume that e-learning contravenes this principle as it is targeted at individuals and not a group of learners However, technological developments have allowed educators to provide multiple options for using other media to model the desired behaviour for the students. Educators can use videos to introduce new information to the learners in an online environment. The video types can range from pre-recorded lectures to animated videos depending on the occasion and the desired result (discussed in more detail below).

It is therefore imperative when using online environments for teaching to adopt tools that facilitate Social Learning and stimulate students’ intention to mimic behaviours through media other than their peers and educator



Using videos as a way to teach and exhibit the use and absorption of information can be adapted for a multitude of methodologies. However, a combination of methods can offer the best results as it can cater to a more diverse groups of learners and encourage different ways to engage them (Sadeghi, Sedaghat & Sha Ahmadi, 2014) Specifically, a potentially effective combination of methods is “Self-directed learning” and “Discussion”

This asynchronous blend of approaches would allow learners to watch the video at their own time offering flexibility both in terms of schedule as well as learning pace. Adding an element of interaction with a discussion board or forum, where learners engage with their peers will contribute to the development of a social presence and foster a sense of community In turn, presence and community can develop emotional bonds They also boost student learning and can increase sentiments of course satisfaction (Ringer et al , 2015) Practical Details

There are a lot of steps that go into the creation of a high-quality educational video. This section includes practical details that will enhance the quality and efficiency of videos for online learning.

● Transcript & Subtitles

Using a transcript and/or subtitles for educational videos is of utmost importance Not only does it allow flexibility and adaptability for the place and device where learners can watch the video, but it also provides accessibility to students with hearing impairments. Transcripts and subtitles will offer learners the opportunity to watch the videos with no sound if needed

. This is a learning opportunity not just at home in a silent room but in a variety of locations where a modern day learner could be. It is also important to bear in mind that online accessibility is of utmost importance and is covered by the Web Accessibility Directive of the EU which impacts eLearning as well ("Web Accessibility", 2022) As a result, making videos accessible should be on the forefront when creating them or incorporating existing ones into lessons.


● Interactive elements

Interactive videos offer the opportunity for user-driven decision-making fostering a sense of control This can result in a more personalised learning experience making the students feel more motivated to continue their studies (Sablić, Mirosavljević & Škugor, 2020) Interactive videos also have a higher retention rate, helping learners have a smoother learning experience in terms of knowledge gaining (Kuhail & Aqel, 2020).

● Duration

A benefit of educational videos is the fact that they can be considered micro-learning courses Seeing that the maximum engagement time for a video is 6 minutes (Guo, Kim & Rubin, 2014), it is reasonable that any educational videos used in a course should be approximately 5-6 minutes to captivate attention. It is also important to highlight that in case of longer videos, the most advisable course of action is to split them into thematic segments with an approximate duration of about 5-6 minutes. ''


Types of videos and when to use them

● Storytelling videos

Introducing a new topic through a familiar structure (beginning – middle – end) promotes a better understanding of the concept and builds on knowledge schemata that the learner is already familiar with Neuroscientists have found that when listening to a story, certain areas of the brain produce an overabundance of dopamine, making it simpler to recall information with higher precision.

Storytelling videos are great for topics where learners’ interest is expected to be low. Stories will pique their interest and allow them to develop a better connection with the topic

● Talking head videos

The use of a talking head video aids in visual and social eLearning. It is an easy set-up requiring a camera and an interviewee. For many people, seeing another person learn is more effective than reading the text on a screen or listening to a voice-over. It's also simpler to focus on what's being conveyed due to the simplified visuals A great benefit of the talking head video format is that it supports microlearning which refers to training content that is brief in order to maintain learner interest A talking head


● Voice-over videos

A voice-over video is an adaptable, familiar, and successful technique to eLearning video in which someone that the learner doesn't see adds a story to the images – through PowerPoint for example Voice-over videos engage both visual and auditory learners by using pictures and sound to impart information When captions are included, the video accommodates all of the most prevalent learning styles

This style is ideal for team presentations or introducing new concepts with a lot of data and variables. It is also useful as a screencast video during training to demonstrate how to utilize a certain tool.

● Animated videos

Animated videos convey learning in an informal and engaging way They are excellent at addressing diverse types of learners because they use a familiar, overarching format Although they appear light-hearted and casual, animated videos lend themselves to challenging, often difficult-to-address subjects. They can be used to carefully introduce learners to topics that may be abstract or pertain to specific concerns. Animated videos also overcome language barriers becoming an excellent learning equalizer, good for multilingual learning

● Instructor-led videos, demos, and simulations

eLearning videos that show something being executed (such as a live or recorded simulation) can be as successful as in-person training. The ability to present numerous camera perspectives and the playback capabilities that comes with video are characteristics that enable a broader and reinforced educational experience. This structure is ideal for acquiring procedural information as well as continuous, technically focused eLe i

58 5

● Learner-generated videos

Learner-generated video material promotes a knowledge-sharing culture by empowering subject matter experts or workers inside a business to become informal teachers. Its unstructured method, a type of social learning, can be just as effective as more organized instructions since it comes with the legitimacy of first-hand experience and expertise

Providing opportunities for learners to learn from one another is an excellent method to influence behaviours and foster a culture of optimism, empowerment, and engagement within the cohort.


11. Artificial intelligence in education

A short explanation of the proposed method:

At its most basic level, AI is the process of using computers and machines to mimic human perception, decision-making, and other processes to complete a task Put differently, AI is when machines engage in high-level pattern-matching and learning in the process.

There are a number of different ways to understand the nature of AI. Two types of assessment include rules-based and machine learning-based AI. The former uses decisionmaking rules to produce a recommendation or a solution. In this sense, it is the most basic form An example of this kind of system includes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), which can provide granular and specific feedback to students The potential of using artificial intelligence in education to enhance learning, assist teachers and fuel more effective individualized learning is exciting, but also a bit daunting. To even have an intelligent conversation about AI in education, one must first push past imaginary science-fiction scenarios of computers and robots teaching our children, replacing teachers and reducing the human element from what is a fundamentally human activity.

One of the leading writers on the benefits of artificial intelligence in education, Matthew Lynch (“My Vision for the Future of Artificial Intelligence in Education”), is careful to explore the potential pitfalls along with the benefits, writing that “the use of AI in education is valuable in some ways, but we must be hyper-vigilant in monitoring its development and its overall role in our world.” The ethical considerations are profound, as they are when it comes to using artificial intelligence in any type of setting.


AI lacks a so-called “moral compass ” So, by one way of looking at it, AI programming is “ as ethical as its developer,” according to TowardsDataScience, in an article about AI ethics that prescribes two important recommendations moving forward:

We need to have ethics built into the idea of why a certain piece of technology, equipped with AI, is being developed. We need to monitor/check/police the outcomes of that specific piece of technology in order to fully understand its behaviour and make sure that it’s not violating our (human) moral compass

There is robust debate throughout the technology community and beyond about ethics in artificial intelligence and most university degree programs are integrating courses on AI ethics into their curriculum. Now that we have identified the ethical elephant in the room, let’s talk about the exciting possibilities of AI in education.

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning:

Artificial intelligence can help students learn better and faster when paired with highquality learning materials and instructions. AI systems can also help students get back on track faster by alerting teachers to problems the naked eye cannot see. In some cases, such as automated essay scoring, teachers and students do not directly experience the benefits of the tools Rather, the state grades the exams in a faster, more efficient manner In other cases, teachers are the direct beneficiaries Scholars, such as Scott Crossley at Georgia State University, are experimenting with ways that natural language processing-based assessments can be embedded into writing programs so that teachers can get data reports on their students’ writing quality.

Despite these benefits, there are clear concerns. One major issue is around privacy. How do these tools protect user privacy? How do schools gain consent of both students and parents when introducing them? Should data that has been anonymized be shared with researchers and other external groups? Another issue is the value of social and emotional ties and the very human experience of education Put simply, AI will not replace teachers 15 Experts also point to bias as a drawback of AI. Scores computed by machines will be based on the results of thousands of tests. But as noted in this issue brief, test results can more often reflect a lack of opportunity rather than lack of ability. Machine scoring will not be able to make these distinctions.


Experts agree that bias in testing, AI, and big data will always exist. Therefore, eliminating bias may be the wrong goal. Instead, policymakers who oversee testing systems must ask themselves how much and what type of bias is tolerable, as well as how to ensure that bias does not disproportionately affect students based on race, ethnicity, incomes, disability, or English learner status Defining bias in testing, AI, and big data

Bias occurs when student inputs are misinterpreted and, in turn, misevaluated and scored differently.

Bias in AI and big data comes in four forms:

● The incoming data contains built-in bias. That is, poor outcomes such as low scores may result from fewer opportunities for students to learn, rather than differences in ability

● Poor past performance predicts poor future performance For example, students who performed poorly in the past will repeat it

● The use of AI breeds a lack of confidence that the outcomes are fair. Since the incoming data can have biases, the outcomes may as well.

● The use of AI continues past inequities, and gaps in access to opportunities to achieve at high levels continue.

Given how fast computer programs operate, they can apply biases more quickly and efficiently than humans

Methodology explained and practical details:

Uses of AI in education expanded beyond student assessments and into other tools to support student learning, often using built-in stealth assessments that students do not even recognize as a test.

For example, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University’s Human-Computer Interaction Institute developed new ways to use rules-based AI through intelligent tutoring systems Their method allows students and teachers to create tutors by entering problems and showing the ITS how to solve them. Once learned, the computer applies the solution; if incorrect, the human can fix it. Thereafter, the computer continues to build the rules, making the machine capable of applying solutions to other problems. This feature makes the tool much faster at building the tutoring system because humans no longer need to build the rules in the system For example, a teacher can build a 30-minute lesson in about 30 minutes all through a free tool These systems are much more scalable than human-based tutoring, providing students with one-on-one support


Today, the use of machine-based AI is already fairly widespread in education. For example, several testing companies, such as the Education Testing Service and Pearson, use natural language processing to score essays Massive online open courses allowing unlimited participation through the web, run by companies such as Coursera and Udacity, have also integrated AI scoring to analyse12 essays within their courses Most states also currently use natural language processing to score the essay portion of their yearly assessment.

Such technology can also be used to drive down the cost of assessment. Using a mix of machine learning and natural language processing, several experts such as Neil Heffernan at Worcester Polytechnic Institute are looking at ways to automatically generate new, high-quality test items around a body of knowledge Heffernan calls the items “similar but not the same, ” and he argues that they are key in truly perceiving if a student understands a domain

In some cases, experts believe that machines will soon be able to generate assessment questions that are personalized to a student’s interests. For a student who loves baseball and is learning the concept of 5 plus 3, the machines might generate a problem about baseball (for example, “The batter hit five line drives and three homeruns. How many total hits did they have?”). These efforts on item generation also have the benefit of driving down the costs of assessment

While natural language processing does not “understand” language in any technical sense, it can be used to evaluate the quality of essays in ways that make formative assessment much more powerful. For instance, most word processing and email programs use natural language processing to suggest greetings or specific words. Commercial products such as Grammarly also use natural language processing technology to act as a virtual writing assistant. These approaches are particularly important when it comes to improving formative assessment, and one of the authors of this issue brief has a forthcoming tool that will automatically evaluate a student’s


When it comes to recommender systems, one use case is the credit transfer. Researcher Zachary Pardos has created recommender systems that help students transfer credits from community colleges to four-year colleges Another use case is recommending instructional practices after an assessment For instance, a recommender system would outline a specific instructional path for a student to take after an assessment This is important given the often limited practical utility of many end-of-year state exams.

Such predictive systems, also known as early warning systems, can help track students who are in danger of weak academic performance. About half of the public high schools and 90 percent of the colleges use an early warning system to track students’ grades, attendance, and other factors to identify when students veer off track These systems are powerful because they can rely on other performance data such as attendance to predict student success, allowing counsellors and other faculty to intervene early Vision-based AI systems can also help with assessment and are being rolled out in a number of areas.

Assessment groups such as Pearson have used optical systems to grade students’ work, and some, such as the team at the education technology company Bakpax, envision a world in which teachers use the camera on their cell phones to take a picture of a child’s homework, which is then automatically graded Finally, there are AI systems based on voice These systems are the backbone of tools such as Siri and Alexa, and experts such as John Gabrieli, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Yaacov Petscher, a professor at Florida State University, have been exploring ways for voice-based AI tools to be used to diagnose reading issues.

How learning is happening in a social context: AI for education includes excitement and promising developments for schools It is important to manage new developments by carefully discussing the context and effects Artificial intelligence technologies are an exciting area for humankind; however, as the participants in this research have implied, it is not a cure for everything or an improvement that will bring absolute good. Therefore, the legal, ethical, pedagogical, psychological and sociological harms and benefits are to be considered. Since it is humanity that is most affected by technology, it is important that this entire process is carried out on a legal basis, so as not to harm anyone


The fifth outcome of this study is the generally positive outlook concerning AI. Most of the participants seem to have positive views about AI. While teachers in the study see AI as beneficial for education, academicians seem to agree less with this idea and focus on more negative aspects Experts in the field consider AI systems as beneficial since these systems will likely lead to full performance and remove problems in the systems, easing human labour The general positive and negative outlook seems to stem from media, films, expert knowledge, fear about future teaching professions and actual experience with existing online systems.

Lastly, this study was completed with the participation of different professionals, who presented a comprehensive educational stakeholder perception of artificial intelligence in education and schools The data obtained from the study exhibits four main themes:

a) Products: the emergence of possible products/solid outcomes with the use of artificial intelligence in education.

b) Drawbacks: the possible drawbacks with the use of artificial intelligence in education.

c) Benefits: the anticipated benefits with the use of artificial intelligence in education.

d) Suggestions: the suggestions on the use of artificial intelligence in education. Surely, there will be associated benefits, drawbacks and risks for schools with the arrival of AI into schools Most of the participants believe AI will open up new opportunities for students and learners, which normal classrooms or educational tools may not deliver But there could also be problems. Schools need a proactive approach for their roles before the next industrial revolution. Policymakers should follow the suggestions in the literature for incurring the b


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

Three steps will get educators and students closer to reaping the benefits of AI and its uses in student assessments

First, Congress must invest in research to better understand where and how bias occurs in testing Test results should be fair and accurate reflections of what students know and can do against a common and fair measuring stick. But when test results consistently exhibit racial patterns and do not reflect true differences among the groups they are biased. Bias could occur in what is being measured or in how it is being measured and scored. Research can point to where in the testing process bias is occurring and help discover remedies.

Second, Congress should invest in the development of new kinds of technology-driven assessments Given the size and scale of investment needed, this can only come from the federal government Thus, Congress should provide additional funding to states for testing and related research and development on cutting-edge technology such as AI-based tools, learning games, and virtual reality. This could take the form of increased funding for the Grants for State Assessments and Related Activities program in the Every Student Succeeds Act. Congress should also increase the funding of a little-known program called the Small Business Innovation Research program, which provides up to $1 1 million in individual grant awards to develop education-related learning technologies Congress should also orient this program to have more of a focus on assessment strategies rather than general education technology.

Third, the federal government should invest in teacher professional development on the effective use of assessments. Teachers should be experts in creating their own assessments as well as in using the results of any assessments to customize learning supports for students Countries such as Finland and Australia invest heavily in supporting teachers to effectively use assessments and could be a model to follow

Well-designed formative assessments that take advantage of the latest advancements in technology can help students learn faster and better. These mechanisms are also a critical part of the teaching and learning process. From intelligent tutoring, stealth assessments, games, and virtual reality, mini-tests built by artificial intelligence can provide a wide variety of ways to use this technology to build engaging tools To get there, the education system needs stronger investments in the research and development of new testing technologies that can provide teachers and students with the tools they need


12. Virtual Classrooms

A virtual classroom is a web-based educating and learning climate where educators and understudies can introduce course materials, draw in and cooperate with different individuals from the virtual class to work together. The critical differentiation of a virtual study hall is that it happens in a live, simultaneous setting. Online coursework can include the review of pre-recorded, nonconcurrent materials, however virtual classroom settings include live communication among teachers and members A virtual classroom is a video conferencing device where teachers and members draw in with one another and with the learning material The distinction with other video conferencing instruments is that virtual study halls offer an additional arrangement of highlights that are fundamental for the learning climate.

Virtual study hall programming empowers educators to:

• moderate understudy support

• show learning materials as reports, slide decks, or interactive media records

• enhance the opportunity for growth with screen-sharing and virtual whiteboard highlights

• partition of the members into breakout rooms, which the educator can join

• draw in the members with surveys and tests

• record the meetings (and deal with those accounts)

A virtual classroom stage assists make the learning with encountering intuitive and drawing in while giving a controlled climate Yet, virtual study halls additionally offer elements that arrive past the in-class insight Educators can get to the study hall before the illustration to set up the material. This material, as well as the meeting recording, is accessible after class, for reference for the teachers and members too.


Members can interface with virtual study hall stages from any gadget that can connect to the Internet. This kind of adaptability empowers members to consume content, no matter what their area across the globe. Another significant advantage of virtual classroom programming is that it works with understudy progress following Teachers can counsel information like class participation and understudy movement They can follow a member's advancement by means of online surveys and examinations, distinguish areas of trouble, and assist the member with getting the hang of testing topics with visual devices.

Ultimately, numerous virtual studies can be incorporated inside the schedule of the Learning Management Systems (LMS). High-level stages support Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) so the virtual classroom framework and the LMS can speak with one another, making the entire process more prominent.


of this

method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning:

Simple access it is critical to assist the flowing members with the course materials At the point when members are expected to introduce programming or download modules, they can encounter challenges The outcome is an unfortunate growth opportunity Members ought to have the option to effortlessly interface with computerized devices, ideally utilizing only a connection and their qualifications.

An easy-to-understand interface it is basic to assist learners to use and explore through digital learning instruments. At the point when the interaction is straightforward and instinctive, members can rapidly appreciate classes and the important learning materials, speak with educators and team up with cohorts

Proficient learning teachers and content makers ought to have the option to include one more layer of association top of the connection point Since each course is extraordinary and gives various materials, the design of the course ought to be like that of the whole centre point, however adaptable enough to give interesting elements as indicated by topic.


Content security it is an urgent component for content makers, custodians, and buyers A virtual classroom arrangement ought to assist associations and instruction establishments with overseeing their substance. The stage ought to likewise give work in safety efforts, for example, validation and access control, which assist with forestalling unapproved access, use, and download of instructive and delicate information.

Open to learning space: Virtual study halls cause learning on the web to feel substantially less automated Human communication is basic to the progress of a school system; virtual study halls guarantee students can connect and visit them with companions and educators without settling.

Methodology explained and practical details:

An internet-based classroom will in general have the significant elements of a videoconferencing device however with extra highlights significant for educators

The key highlights that change the educating and opportunity for growth are:

• Intuitive online whiteboard

• Library of learning materials

• Educator instruments and controls

Intuitive online whiteboard:

An electronic whiteboard is significant in light of the fact that it gives a common centre point and empowers educators and understudies to team up on learning projects Educators can structure their examples by inserting learning materials (pdf, video, sound documents) straightforwardly on the whiteboard. A whiteboard assists educators and understudies with getting "in total agreement".


As opposed to commenting on (like the composition on an intuitive overlay), understudies can compose/type/draw on the genuine page and ordinarily put something aside for future audit. Inserting saved materials on the whiteboard advances the opportunity for growth, energizes understudy support, makes it more effective for educators to switch between related ideas, and connects a greater amount of the student's faculties. These are exceedingly significant parts of an "understudy-focused" learning approach, shown to be more successful than the outdated "educator drove” instructional method Interestingly, most web-conferencing programming empowers "screen-sharing" or the condition usually alluded to as "death by PowerPoint". In the event that understudies needed a talk, they would watch the video whenever the timing is ideal. To be able to work teachers need a more complex perspective of the web-based schooling.

Library of learning materials:

In an actual study hall, you can glance around and track down reading material, games, works out, layouts, worksheets, and sight and sound assets (print, video, sound) An expert educator needs these in their virtual study hall as well The instructor should have the option to transfer their computerized learning materials to the cloud and save them for future classes. This assists educators with planning for a class significantly quicker and provides a more organized, compelling class. In particular, a web-based classroom will empower an understudy and an educator to get in total agreement. For instance, the educator can explore a specific page in a specific report or even open a video asset. The virtual classroom programming will guarantee the understudy is in total agreement with that pdf or can adjust the video playback


How learning is happening in a social context:

Creating a virtual classroom doesn't need to be an errand. As a matter of fact, when you know each of the means engaged with the cycle, you can make expectations that successfully further develop representative abilities and occupation execution, no matter what the topic is Indeed, even consistence preparation can turn into a connecting and energizing experience for your crowd.

• Decide your objectives and targets.

The main thing you should do prior to jumping into the real plan cycle of your virtual classroom preparation is to characterize your presentation objectives and learning targets This will assist with directing you through the plan and improvement of your virtual study hall preparation technique, as you will actually want to choose the learning materials, instruments, and strategies that will serve these objectives and targets. For instance, on the off chance that you are attempting to upgrade the client support abilities of the representatives. Then you might need to pick situations and recreations over virtual slide shows, as these learning exercises can assist workers with getting important hands on experience Notwithstanding the objectives and targets, you may likewise need to decide on the abilities, centre philosophies, and significant information that will be the highlights of your virtual classroom preparing To do this, you might need to talk with an educated authority or the office heads, so they can tell you about the key focus points that you'll have to remember for your virtual classroom preparing procedure.

• Pick the best technique for conveyance.

To accumulate the apparatuses, you should create your virtual study hall preparing, you should initially conclude how you will convey your substance Consider how the workers will get to the virtual preparation Will the substance be conveyed to them in an actual classroom climate as a feature of a conventional mixed learning methodology? Likewise, you will need to pick the legitimate sight and sound that upholds the educational plan models and hypotheses that you have as a top priority. This will empower you to choose the best learning exercises that you should coordinate into your virtual preparation study hall.


• Match visuals with clarifications that speed the work conversations.

Matching visuals with definite clarifications that are provocative is consistently smart, particularly if you need to help worker commitment This is because of the way а conversation begins, as representatives will be urged to connect with the topic and with their partners from a distance, etc. To set off a work conversation, you might need to coordinate some type of online joint effort, for example, Google Chat.

• Make intuitive learning exercises that energize dynamic support.

Dynamic representative interest is critical to a fruitful virtual classroom preparation experience The best method for accomplishing this is to make learning exercises that draw in workers and brief them to contemplate how the topic connects with their personal and professional life. In this way, consider making exercises that submerge them, like situations, games, or rich eLearning introductions. This will forestall weariness and trigger worker commitment all through the length of the virtual preparation. You can likewise split the class up into little groups. This should be possible for all intents and purposes by requesting that they use Google applications like Google Hangouts or venture into the board stages and complete group cooperation tasks


• Foster an aide for facilitators and educators.

Assuming you will include facilitators or teachers, you might need to make an aide that they can use to direct the virtual study hall preparing experience Be basically as definite as it could really be expected, so they have a bit by bit manual for how to lead each virtual instructional meeting, their job, and what the workers ought to eventually slip out of the general preparation experience. Assuming you choose a successful and intensive aide, they can lead virtual instructional meetings without the guidance of the eLearning proficient. Make certain to incorporate assumptions for the facilitators, for example, the timetable they should follow, as well as a diagram of the preparation exercises, educational program, and the objectives of each virtual instructional meeting

• Give it a trial

Regardless of whether you feel that you ' ve culminated and cleaned each part of your virtual preparation study hall, you ought to constantly give it no less than one trial in a practical climate to ensure that everything will run as expected after sending it off. Direct a center gathering or have the facilitator lead a "false" meeting, where you can figure out any issues and guarantee that there aren't any errors that can thwart the general progress of the virtual preparation classroom. Ensure that everybody can sign in to the stage, and that the substance is all precisely shown, so there aren't any unpleasant surprises when you hold the principal instructional meeting


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice:

The absolute first thing educators and overseers need to settle on is the stage they use for facilitating the virtual study hall

Google Classroom, in the meantime, is nearer to learning the board programming, where educators can set tasks and make declarations for their understudies, using the numerous different apparatuses of Google (for example, Google Drive for tasks and Google Meet for live meetings).

Microsoft Teams has likewise been an exceptionally famous approach to facilitating a virtual study hall. Educators may have live meetings with Teams while utilizing Microsoft programming like Word, Excel, and Powerpoint to augment learning all through class Anything you settle on, whether it's Zoom, Teams, Google Classroom, or another virtual learning program, a few widespread tips will assist fresh out of the plastic new educators and prepared VETs new to virtual learning.

Setting Up the Space:

There are critical mental contrasts that rise out of the distinction of medium between the virtual and the encapsulated space Educators who are new to virtual learning can neglect this reality and hope to treat the space similarly to a live study hall One critical variable to recall is the way an understudy will in general feel in a virtual study hall. In the live classroom, understudies can properly feel that they are essential for a gathering.

In this gathering (in some measure in customary classrooms), everyone ' s eyes point in one course and, thusly, there is minimal reluctant strain as the understudy cooperates with their learning In a virtual classroom, the understudy is distant from everyone else in their room or parlour, confronting the near-sighted camcorder This can emphatically influence the manner in which an understudy communicates with their learning


For the vast majority in the virtual classroom, there is an inclination that everyone is focused on them, consistently; these understudies can be minutely noticed even when the educator is giving guidance or addressing, and they wouldn't have the option to be aware when they're being watched or not This is all to say that instructors should do their best to make a space that feels fun, low-pressure, and profoundly coordinated While setting up a virtual learning space, the instructor ought to impart everything plainly: login subtleties, and the time at which the class starts. The educator ought to likewise consider "showing up " in the virtual classroom 5 to 10 minutes ahead of schedule to invite understudies as they sign in. Making some little discussion before the class starts can make a lot of for creating compatibility, an issue that is especially delicate in the virtual classroom.

13. Flipping classrooms

Flipped classroom, a part of the larger ideology of flipped learning, means going for a student-centred model of learning. The core idea is that students get acquainted with selfstudy materials prior to contact teaching sessions. During contact teaching, students and teacher(s) get to focus on discussing and applying the studied information. The role of the teacher entails shifting away from the traditional way of merely distributing knowledge and assessing learning towards giving room for students to support each other and assess their learning themselves Adopting the flipped classroom method can act as a pathway to adopting the wider learning-centred ideology of flipped learning.


Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

The method optimises the usage of learning resources, reserving contact sessions with a teacher and fellow students for topics that are hardest to grasp. Having acquainted themselves with the study materials through e.g., videos, the students are prepared to have the greatest benefit from contact sessions When experiences of university teachers were examined in an Erasmus Plus project InCompEdu on the sudden shift to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, flipped classroom appeared as one of the most common teaching techniques used by teachers in the European universities examined (Croatia, Finland, Italy, Poland, Romania and Slovenia). According to the teachers, this method can improve student engagement but relies on student preparation. All students must complete the assignments before the class. To use this method properly, it is necessary to give clear instructions and take extra time to create collaborative workspaces and activities

Other methods as well as tools and applications can be connected with flipped learning

Typical of flipped learning is that teaching materials are available online in the platform used in a particular course. Learning can be supported in various ways, for example, questionnaires to be filled in before the class or short recordings of presentations to be studied before the lecture. This requires the teacher or Moocster to prepare or have available a variety of appropriate materials. Collaborative applications allow using of various tools (mind maps, quizzes, a decision tree, word clouds, etc ) in advance as well as during the class

According to the teachers who provided their views in the In CompEdu project, the use of flipped classroom technique requires preparing plenty of materials in advance, but once the students attend the (virtual) class, they already have studied the introduction to the topic, allowing a deeper analysis of the topic in the joint session The teachers highlighted that it is of the utmost importance to be aware of the background and skills of the students in order to be able to prepare materials that they can understand and take use of Regarding the assessment of the course, when using flipped classroom, it is possible to link the final grade also with the activities done before the lecture, since the platform allows tracking of students. This would serve as an incentive to use and be active on the platform.


Methodology explained and practical details

The need for flipped learning has risen from the desire to have students be in a more active role rather than merely in a passive role in order to improve learning results. Furthermore, the needs stemming from the knowledge society and the working life dictate that e g group working skills, technological expertise along with different kinds of thinking and creative problem solving methods are needed Also, students have different qualities, and they are in different situations in their lives, not necessarily being able to participate in IRL learning sessions consistently, thus requiring flexibility in learning. The flipped classroom and flipped learning are a means to accomplish this change in learning and teaching. (Sointu 2020)

Assessment methods alternative to the traditional exam grading are needed, as last-minute studying for the exam may not result in long-term learning, and the aspect of being able to apply the learning may not be optimally accomplished Also, the one-time nature of receiving the evaluation and receiving a mere grade do not provide the learner with information about why they were graded in that way. The assessment in flipped classroom may consist of an assortment of ways. For example, essay writing, portfolios and learning diaries are rather familiar to many, but self-assessment, peer assessment, dynamic assessment in groups, and authentic assessment in many cases offer potential to improve assessment aspects in learning and are relevant when striving to move towards flipped learning It is also important to notice that different means of assessment make it possible for different kinds of knowhow to come forward, and it is also possible to learn during the assessment situation. While traditional evaluation is more teacher-focused, judging, looking back and grade-focused, the assessment in flipped learning is more process-oriented and pointed towards guiding the students forward, and it is more communal, qualitative in its nature, and increases more the responsibility of the student. (Atjonen 2020)


For the sake of consistency, it is advisable that the whole study period be flipped By acting that way, it will be easy for the students to comprehend what they are always supposed to do In a similar manner as in other types of learning, the objectives, activities and assessment of the study period should be in line and support each other. (Uef 2020) Planning of flipping is recommended to start from the study plan, and checking the requirements and objectives. The recommended way of realisation is blended teaching. Second, core content analysis shall take place. It forms the core of the flipped learning process and shall be done carefully

It encompasses the content, objectives and schedule of the study period, and the teacher should carefully reflect what students are expected to learn and master. Planning of assessment forms the third step: the assessment plan should reflect the study plan and objectives established in the core content analysis. It should be considered how the exercises support learning and how know-how is measured. Fourth, the scheduling of the study period shall be planned, and its advancing shall be paced into pre, in and post class stages It also encompasses estimating the personal time usage of the teacher, as well as the number of self-studies for students to carry out

Fifth, the technological side is assessed: what are the tools and software that are necessary for producing the needed study materials, what online platform to use, and what applications and devices are required during the study period Sixth, the pre-study materials are planned It means that a preliminary plan of the materials is developed, and it is considered what to teach, what ready materials there are, what to do myself and how, what to pay special attention to, taking into account a purposeful way of presenting the materials, so that e.g. videos are suitable in terms of length. Lastly, the in-class learning is planned, encompassing a preliminary plan of working methods and deepening of the study content. (Uef 2020)


Core content analysis is a fundamental resource in the flipping process, where the teacher shall make a distinction between knowledge, skills, core study materials, and complementing materials The teacher shall define what are the prior knowledge requirements for the study period and what is the knowhow that is strived for (what kind of questions students should be able to answer, and what kind of skills they are equipped with after the studies). In conclusion, the teacher should identify the most demanding part of the study period, on which the in-class contact time with the teacher should be used, and what is the part of the knowledge that students could grasp by themselves through self-studies before in-class learning

Applying the Bloom’s taxonomy, flipped classroom applies self-studies in the form of teacher-produced materials to the responsibility of the students on the lower levels of basic knowledge (remember [student can recognise, list, define, name, combine]-understand [explain, reformulate thoughts and concepts]-apply [utilise in another context]), while the in-class meeting of student group and teacher takes place with regard to the most demanding questions in the upper levels of comprehension (analyse [discern what is essential, compare, point contradictions]-evaluate [make an evaluation or decision, assess, draw the conclusion, explain]-create [new thoughts, views, generalise, expand upon])


Core content analysis is a fundamental resource in the flipping process, where the teacher shall make a distinction between knowledge, skills, core study materials, and complementing materials. The teacher shall define what are the prior knowledge requirements for the study period and what is the knowhow that is strived for (what kind of questions students should be able to answer, and what kind of skills they are equipped with after the studies). In conclusion, the teacher should identify the most demanding part of the study period, on which the in-class contact time with the teacher should be used, and what is the part of the knowledge that students could grasp by themselves through self-studies before in-class learning

Applying the Bloom’s taxonomy, flipped classroom applies self-studies in the form of teacher-produced materials to the responsibility of the students on the lower levels of basic knowledge (remember [student can recognise, list, define, name, combine]-understand [explain, reformulate thoughts and concepts]-apply [utilise in another context]), while the in-class meeting of student group and teacher takes place with regard to the most demanding questions in the upper levels of comprehension (analyse [discern what is essential, compare, point contradictions]-evaluate [make an evaluation or decision, assess, draw the conclusion, explain]-create [new thoughts, views, generalise, expand upon]).


14. Mobile Learning

As of late, the world has become reliant upon mobiles. The ascent of cell phones and handheld gadgets has introduced a ton of valuable and progressive applications and elements, and one pattern that has sprung from the ascent of handheld tech has been portable learning Versatile learning is the new standard

There are new versatile learning applications acquainted with the market each day, which convey quality substance to understudies and representatives hoping to improve or take on new abilities. The interest for versatile schooling is high to such an extent that specialists anticipate the market to extend by $46.9 billion (with a CAGR of around 26%) by 2024.

Since it's the eventual fate of instruction, it's the ideal opportunity for the versatile first methodology, which centers around conveying your answer for portable clients first. You need to make a versatile learning application that gets clients drawn in with your substance and spurs them to find out more

Distance education is brought into the users ' hands through mobile learning. Learners access content through their devices, giving them constant access to information, materials, and resources. It can deliver the best visual learning information as well as traditional textbased stuff. Microlearning is at the forefront of mobile learning.

The most 21st-century approach to education is microlearning It breaks down the educational process into manageable chunks for pupils, forcing them to spend no more than 10 minutes on certain material that is easily digested. Microlearning can assist enhance course completion rates and user engagement, as well as attract a larger audience of


Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning:

Portable learning is extremely well known and in the last couple of years, its utilization has expanded broadly. Referenced underneath are the benefits of portable learning and why it ought to be utilized:

Whenever and Anywhere Learning

One of the prompt benefits of versatile learning is that understudies are not restricted to a study hall or a set timetable to have the option to learn Nor are educators! Versatile learning implies that understudies can sign into classrooms whenever the timing is ideal to go through course materials or step through an examination.

Essentially, instructors can impart instantaneously to understudies to clear their questions, control tests, or even speak with an understudy's folks about their kid's advancement. This inside and out, whenever and anyplace openness implies that learning isn't restricted to an actual area or a particular time All things being equal, understudies can learn in a hurry at a speed that works for them

This outcomes in understudies connecting willfully in their own particular manner - and that implies that they feel engaged in the educational experience rather than in simply being one more day in school.


Advanced First Thinking

The ongoing labor force involves an enormous wrap of Millennials These are workers who have grown up around innovation and are accustomed to involving it in their regular daily existence. They are OK with drawing in with computerized gadgets, mediums, and stages to make their work more straightforward and better. For what reason should this not start at school? Portable learning is custom fitted to the manner Millennials work and think. It makes learning more open for them and sets them up to enter the labour force prepared for this present reality Portable learning is at the core of embracing a groundbreaking, computerized first way to deal with life It guarantees that understudies who participate in versatile learning are prepared for this present reality and can adapt to it better compared to Luddites who are terrified of innovation.

Dynamic Teaching Methodologies

Portable learning is incredibly agreeable to fresher and present-day instructing procedures. It is very amicable towards visual learning, since it upholds sound, video, and pictures with great ease This implies that content developed for portable learning is innately powerful These quick moving, outwardly captivating illustrations have been viewed as more captivating for understudies in a classroom - it keeps their consideration and conveys course material in a successful style. Versatile advancing additionally considers more current showing philosophies like the utilization of dynamic substance and experiential figuring out how to be carried out more effectively in the classroom. This implies that classrooms are encountering state of the art educating as opposed to depending on old and outdated instructing techniques that probably won't be as powerful - all on account of portable learning

Personalisation of Learning

Perhaps one of the best things about versatile learning is its adaptability. Educators and understudies can learn in a hurry and at their own speed. Various kinds of showing strategies and dynamic material can be utilized for extraordinary impact. This adaptability implies that portable learning is ideally suited for customizing learning Customized learning implies that understudies can utilize their own portable learning gadgets to get access to course materials, tests, content, and so on that have been custom-made For what reason do we want customized learning, in the first place? As we concentrate on instruction more, we comprehend that it isn't useful to generalize understudies or classify them into bunches that are excessively expansive. Understudies are different in nature, with assorted capacities and necessities - portable learning, because of its inborn adaptability, is better ready to address this variety in thinking


Methodology explained and practical details:

Make it easy to get started - Students will conclude in 4-5 ticks whether the versatile learning stage merits the work. Decrease grinding in all phases of the onboarding excursion and make it simple to continue advancing once signed in - we do this with consistent awareness, which gives students direct admittance to the learning content without the need to sign in

Plan your versatile learning for portable - Portable learning isn't just contracting existing work areas e-figuring out how to fit a cell phone screen. Contemplate how you and your students utilize a cell phone and afterward expand on that to make an intelligent and drawing in portable growth opportunity. Imitating natural activities from their most utilized applications will assist you with making a simple to utilize, instinctive connection point.

Use microlearning to help maintenance - Joining microlearning with your portable system is the ideal recipe for expanded commitment and long-haul information maintenance Gather long sections of the message into short, smart courses that contain just the data individuals truly need to prevail in their positions. The perfect balance is 2 brief sessions.

Use video content - There's a motivation behind the question why we depend on YouTube instructional exercises as opposed to course books nowadays: we ' re 95% bound to hold data introduced in video design, as it's essentially simpler for our minds to comprehend

Explore different avenues regarding gamification - Applying game instruments like focuses, lists of competitors and valuable chances to 'step up ' makes for a more pleasant encounter for end clients and empowers rehash use - it's the reason we get dependent on game applications on our telephones, and it will help fruition rates for your preparation. As a matter of fact, organizations which carry out gamification components in their preparation see a 60% expansion in commitment and a 50% improvement in efficiency

Utilize a cheerful, conversational tone - The words 'corporate preparation' set off alerts for a great many people. Make a point to challenge this discernment by utilizing a carefree, conversational tone in your portable learning program - it's seriously captivating, it causes preparing to feel like to a lesser extent an 'undertaking' and it's a superior fit for a more casual stage.


Empower ceaseless learning - The magnificence of versatile learning is that it gives all day, everyday admittance to preparing for the end clients who can finish at a general setting that suits them, and it doesn't need to stop at onboarding. Support consistent advancing by proposing new ways for them to upskill and help execution.

How learning is happening in a social context:

Numerous associations are empowering adaptability in their working environment, and versatile learning is essential for that. Cell phones have totally changed the corporate preparation scene by becoming one of the most incredible expert advancement mediums existing. Research led by the Brandon Hall Group has uncovered that conducting portable learning is one of the main three preparation needs for organizations. They are embracing versatile learning since it gives a superior growth opportunity to representatives A considerable lot of the obstacles related with conventional classroom preparation, similar to the absence of time, data over-burden, low student commitment, and less openness, can be forestalled with versatile learning. The following are 6 justifications explaining why representatives ought to approach versatile learning.

1. Gives A Flexible Learning Experience

Before the coming of portable learning, workers needed to assemble in an actual spot to take up an instructional class Only one out of every odd worker will be alright with this arrangement in light of the fact that not every person learns at a similar speed With portable learning, worker training isn't limited to four walls It permits your representatives to study at their own speed, and that implies your telecommuters can take part with their inoffice peers. With a steady web association, your workers can get to learning content like recordings, reports, digital broadcasts, URLs, and more whenever it might suit them. This permits them to pick the sort of satisfaction that is generally appropriate for them.

2. Saves A Substantial Amount Of Time

A few elements including time, scene, and representative accessibility should be considered while sorting out the study and hall preparing for workers. These viewpoints don't affect portable learning similarly, so even an enormous labor force can be prepared without a moment's delay. Research directed by Merril Lynch has likewise found that portable learning permitted workers to follow through with a course 45% quicker, giving them additional opportunity for their typical work liabilities. With versatile learning, more workers can be prepared in a more limited timeframe without forfeiting information maintenance


3. Shows Relevant Skills to Employees

Dissimilar to study hall preparing, your workers can take any course that they feel is important to upgrade their abilities. This enables them to assume responsibility for their expert turn of events and propels them to accomplish their learning objectives. Likewise, as innovation is embraced more in the working environment, your representatives can figure out how to utilize it effectively with versatile learning. Having how-to guides on their cell phones permits your representatives to allude to them at whatever point they feel a little uncertain

4. Prompts Better Business Outcomes

Versatile learning is quite possibly of the most vigorous advancement that can possibly work on your business. As it is effectively available, your association can answer well to changing economic situations. Prepared workers are more effective and will generally utilize authoritative assets. Additionally, as portable learning offers representatives a few chances to progress in their vocation, and worker maintenance increments Thus, this is a mutually beneficial arrangement for your association and your workers


5. Upgrades Employee Engagement

Dissimilar to the one-size-fits-all model, portable learning can give a customized preparing experience to your workers, and this goes quite far toward keeping them locked in. It permits them to get to the course satisfied at whatever point they need it the most. Versatile advancing likewise upholds speedy, ongoing input, working on the student's commitment and the general effectiveness of the course. It is the most ideal for recent college grads and Gen Z, who have grown up with innovation.

6. Further develops Employee Performance

One of the critical elements of versatile learning is that it doesn't upset your representative's standard work. Likewise, versatile learning content is really intriguing and draws in, permitting your representatives to hold information better. They can then apply this information all the more actually at work. At the point when they need an explanation, they can continuously get to the substance with their cell phones By and large, when representatives realize that their association puts resources into creative learning methods to work on their exhibition, they will generally work harder toward accomplishing authoritative objectives.

As the utilization of cell phones has expanded dramatically, it's profoundly fundamental to perceive the worth of portable learning and foster a compelling versatile learning program for your association. It's one of the best expansions of eLearning, which can move forward your association's preparation and improvement With a legitimate Learning Management System (LMS), fostering a versatile learning program is simple Learning materials including recordings, eBooks, works out, test structures, and more are open, breaking time imperatives and geolo


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice

Versatile Learning is principally known for the adaptability it offers to students, in having the option to get to the preparation, at the exact time when they need it. Likewise, introducing data in a configuration that students can comprehend, incorporate, and apply at work without much of a stretch is essential to additionally improving the benefit of preparing to both, the students as well as the association Representative execution improvement is straightforwardly associated with simple admittance to the preparation (at the period of scarcity) and introducing the preparation in a drawing in design that is not difficult to connect with, learn, and apply in these 2 ways:

• Utilizing procedures that increment the learnability (or learning viability) of the preparation.

• Utilizing methodologies that support essential preparation and assist students with applying the learning at work When this large number of angles are set up, the learning wouldn't be procured rapidly however would be incorporated for powerful hands-on application It would be profoundly valuable for the students and will bring the expected effect the business looks for. Assuming we take a gander at retail industry elements, the requirement for adaptability in learning and having the option to learn progressing (counting inside work premises) are basic factors that make portable learning the ideal preparation conveyance design. You can involve portable learning or versatile figuring out how to prepare workers in the retail industry through the accompanying 3 methodologies:

I. For formal preparation

Try not to restrict your way to deal with customary, organized preparing conveyance designs. Make a stride further and offer the students adaptability through learning ways. Rather than holding discrete meetings, encourage a culture that is advancing as a continuum. This would urge the students to contribute to learning over a drawn-out timeframe, be side by side with the most recent updates, and apply the figuring out how to achieve a verifiable increase You can likewise assess learning entries that coordinate microlearning, portable applications, gamification, and social learning components to double the effect of


II. As Performance Support Tools (PSTs)

Extending employment opportunities helps (or in the nick of time learning helps) students' entrance into their work process; this is an extraordinary method for setting off the ideal conduct change You can likewise utilize PSTs to draw in the student’s post conventional preparation and work with the support of learning

III. To digitize ILT

Mixing mobile learning parts with the customary ILT preparing design is another powerful means to accomplishing the effect you are looking for. This can incorporate pre-studio securities, as well as recreations, activities, and pretends in the studio, and studio appraisals This approach allows you to lay out and keep up serious areas of strength among students as well asbetween students and educators to give learning chunks post the studio The mix of this large number of components will undoubtedly lastingly affect learning and application and will assist you with achieving the ideal conduct change in learners.

1.Induction Compliance Program for Apparel Retail Employees, Integrating Gamification

Elements And Supplemented By Performance Support Tools (PSTs)

The course consists of six interactive eLearning courses supported by Performance Support Tools (PSTs) in the form of interactive PDFs that encourage all (new and existing) employees to engage in deep, exploratory learning Each module includes interactive information as well as a crucial challenge that learners have to complete before going on to the next. It also features gamification aspects such as points, challenges, and levels to keep learners engaged and motivated to study properly.

2.Gamified Product Training for Cosmetics Retail Employees

To make learning more persistent and engaging, this normal product training has been transformed into a highly interactive, gamified solution The entire learning journey is broken into two pieces – learn and practice – and is multi-device compatible. Learners are placed in client situations to address questions and are given store-like experiences to grasp the important components of the products. The exercises and activities are timed and provide extra points f l ti th i l ti t k th more motivational and demandin hem to progress to the next level


3.Induction Program for An eCommerce Fashion Company – Designed Using Millennial-Centric Strategies

This training has been created to familiarize newcomers to an eCommerce fashion company with the organization, its business drivers, and leadership capabilities. It offers a vibrant and responsive user experience with a fashion theme to reflect the organization's major purpose – to "democratize fashion" – because the audience is primarily Millennials The course is divided into three sections, each of which can be completed alone but are linked by a visual menu depicting a journey through a gallery, a retail space, and an office. Learners are given a fun game at the end of each module to test their understanding of the concepts taught.

4. Retailer Engagement Platform For Product Training – Featuring Gamification And Social Learning Elements

This course has been created as a trade partner engagement platform for retailers It is an engaging and motivating learning trip on items and categories that entice retailers to use it again and even share it with their friends. The course content is turned into a gamified learning adventure that takes place throughout several product facilities across the world, and it is dubbed the "Open Tour." Real stories from existing content are told through animations and movies, as well as through user-created and shared stories. Gamification and social learning features have been incorporated to encourage active collaboration with peers on social media and to instill a sense of social recognition since users earn prizes and feedback for tasks completed

5.Interactive Food Safety Compliance Course For Food Retail Employees

This training has been created to raise awareness of the finest food safety measures for a large food retail company. To make the training interesting and engaging, it incorporates rich, bright images, interactivities when appropriate, and animations for processes linked to food safety and compliance protocols At appropriate intervals, questions and exercises are utilized to assess the learners' grasp for the essential processes and best practices


14. Simulations

Online learners can test their practical skills and knowledge via simulations offered in a realistic digital environment. Simulators are often used by major colleges and universities to educate online students for experimentation that is normally done in a face-to-face situation These virtual encounters can be used in a variety of subjects and specialties Students can utilize simulations for dissection in online biology classes, while some education systems use managerial simulations that allow students to make decisions and see the results. Simulations, according to Harvard Business Publishing, reinforce fundamental concepts while allowing learners to explore them in a real-world setting.

Simulations in a realistic digital environment allow online learners to put their practical skills and knowledge to the test. Prominent schools and universities occasionally employ simulators to prepare online students for fieldwork that is typically done in a face-to-face setting. These digital interactions can be applied to a wide range of topics and disciplines. In online biology lectures, students can use simulations for exams, and the University of Southern California employs administrative simulations that allow students to make decisions and observe the effects


According to Harvard Business Publishing, simulations help students learn essential concepts while also allowing them to explore them in a real-world situation. Simulator preparation used to be a time-consuming procedure, but today's best LMS platforms make it easier by allowing teachers to choose from a range of instances that match course content Professors might also look for similar simulations in open access educational resources (OERs) like Merlot, which are made freely available by their producers.

The following are some of the competencies that can be improved by simulation:

● Technical and functional expertise training

● Problem-solving and decision-making skills

● Interpersonal and communication skills or team-based competencies

Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning Simulation-based training has the following advantages:

• Greater employee morale

• Learning and improving

• Customized learning

• A safer environment

Methodology explained and practical details

Setting up a simulation training centre: A medical training simulation centre would be a long-term investment. It can be used for undergraduate training (e.g., anatomy, physiological functions, and familiarization with medical examination techniques), residency training (e.g., modifying and perfecting regulatory skills and knowledge or organizing for practical examinations, training programs, and revalidation tests, etc ), enduring medical or nursing education (e g , practical skills training), or competency testing before employment

To commence, there must be a suitable place, which is frequently on the hospital or university campus for ease of access. The architecture plan and infrastructure must be decided upon in consultation with the trainers/end-users of the center. It must feature, among other things, enough workspace for small group instructions, rooms with one-way mirrors, and enough space for instrument installation. There must be space for video recording equipment as well


• Human patient simulators: A full-sized patient simulator that blinks, breathes, and has a heartbeat, and breathing sounds are usually the focal point. This wax figure could be cutting-edge in terms of technology. It might, for instance, "interact" with students via computer-assisted learning programs Vital signs can be displayed on associated screens, providing a virtual simulation of practically every important body function This simulator can be used for a variety of scenarios, ranging from a simple physical examination to transdisciplinary catastrophic trauma management. Some simulators can even use a laser bar-code scanner to recognize injected drugs and respond with appropriate vital sign changes.

• Simulated clinical environment: All of the equipment and the wrecked wagon are ready in an intensive care, emergency room cell, or operating room. The design is as authentic as the genuine one. The setup and settings might be familiarized by the trainees.

• Virtual procedure stations: Based on the scope, different installations can be established These stations will be equipped with all of the necessary equipment and preparation for the procedure, such as bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, and intubation The simulators can display a wide range of scenarios and diseases, allowing the trainee to practice until he or she has mastered the method (s).


Electronic medical records: This can also be a station set up in the center as more health care organizations use medical data to control and trace patients. There will be imaginary patients with their histories, notes, and lab results in the system. System integration may also be present, such as a link between databases and the laboratory, as well as radiological data (digitalized radiographs)

How learning is happening in a social context

There are many e-learning content types These are determined only by examining your needs and learning style Think of e-learning as an opportunity and start with the type of content we produce The following types of learning content are the most common:


1. Learner-centric content:

The e-learning curriculum should be relevant and specific to the learner's needs, roles, and responsibilities in the workplace. This type of content, such as skills, knowledge, and learning media of all kinds, is provided to keep the learner's purpose in focus

2. Engaging content:

Teaching methods and techniques that need to be used creatively to develop compelling and motivational learning experiences It relies on the development of storyboards that need to be based on a very attractive type of tutorial

3. Interactive content:

Frequent interaction with the learner is required to maintain attention and facilitate learning Scenario-based learning is a good example of this type of learning media

4. Personalization:

Courses that are self-paced need to be customized to reflect the learner's interests and needs In teacher-led courses, tutors and facilitators need to be able to monitor learner progress and performance individually.


5. Learning pyramid:

A learning pyramid was researched and created by the National Training Institute in Betel, Maine, USA. It shows the percentage of learners associated with different approaches. The first four levels of lectures, reading comprehension, audio-visual and practical skills are passive learning methods. In contrast, lower three level discussion groups, hands-on practice, and other instructions are participatory (active) learning methods The Learning Pyramid is a great help in identifying the right method when choosing an e-learning method We recommend that you refer to this pyramid during the analysis phase when choosing the appropriate e-learning method.

Many types of e-learning can be created using advanced development tools that meet the needs of today's learners in the workplace. There are many different types of e-learning solutions that can be used to train learners. Choose the type that best suits your learner's needs, considering the available technologies that facilitate access to e-learning techniques. Most e-learning methods are synchronous and asynchronous in nature This depends on the learner's needs and the learning goals selected


6. Synchronous learning

Synchronous events occur in real-time. Synchronous communication between two people requires that both be present at a particular time. Examples of synchronous learning include chat and IM, video and audio conferencing, live webcasting, application sharing, whiteboarding, polling, and virtual classrooms These are the basic methods that most organizations are already familiar with, so we won't go into detail about them.

15. Asynchronous learning

Asynchronous events are time-independent. Self-study courses are an example of asynchronous learning, as online learning is always done Email or discussion forums are examples of asynchronous means of communication In such cases, students ideally use a learning platform such as LMS to complete the course at their own pace Examples of asynchronous learning include Self-paced Learning (SCORM), audio/video, email, discussion forums, wikis/blogs, CBT and WBT, Simulations, Gamebased learning and webcasts/meetings.


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice

Simulation-Based Training Samples: There are countless simulation-based training solutions out there. Here are some highly effective products that can help you make the best out of eLearning simulations:

Tax Game

Learning Goals: - After finishing this movement, understudies ought to have the option to:

• Make sense of the connection between a duty framework and pay dissemination.

• Recognize the different distributional impacts of various charges.

• Legitimize the picked charge occurrence.

Setting for Use - The model is generally fitted for a microeconomics standards course. The model will commonly be utilized in the final part of the course

Description and Teaching Materials- The re-enactment is accessible on the web at The Tax Game. It tends to be utilized as an intuitive talk exhibit. The understudy guidance screen is displayed underneath.

Time requirements:

Teacher readiness: 60 minutes.

Class readiness: One brief class period

Class reproduction: One brief class period

Teaching Notes and Tips - Preceding running the re-enactment, understudies need to know the accompanying about charges:

• Negligible versus normal duty rates as applied to annual charges

• Rough current US government personal assessment rates

• Effect of assessment allowances for home loan interest and forwards

• Effect of the cap on federal retirement aide piece of the finance charge (about $100,000)


Contrast between payment and abundance

While the particular conditions driving the re-enactment are a "black box" to understudies, the educator ought to go over the income versatility suppositions of each duty to the point that understudies have some feeling why expense rates have different income impacts.

For little classes, the recreation can be utilized to structure a gathering or as a helpful learning exercise The choice which duty rates to pick and why subsequently becomes cooperative and not personal

Appraisal: The re-enactment can be the hotspot for understudy composing tasks. Expect understudies to present the synopsis printout with replies to questions, for example.

For each of the assessments, make sense of your decision for the duty rates. Make sense of any decisions you made for allowances or covers As such, for what reason did you select each number you entered in the reproduction? In legitimizing your decisions, if it's not too much trouble, allude to the moderate or backward effect of each of these duties.

For one expense decision, justify why you transformed it during the game. Contingent upon the teacher and course structure, the recreation can likewise be utilized to explain why financial specialists differ about the impacts of various charges

Zero-Intelligence Trading in Markets

Learning Goals: The principal objective of reproduction is to have understudies defy the inquiry initially presented by Gode and Sunder (1993): Is it the construction of the market or is it the sanity of people that impacts productivity in business sectors? An optional objective of the re-enactment is to acquaint understudies with the essentials of setting by conducting a mechanized financial matters try.


Setting for Use: The reproduction can be utilized in the standards of a microeconomics course or an upper-division microeconomics course of any class size

The understudies just need an internet browser fit for running Java Understudies figure out how to utilize reproduction through a lab practice which directs the understudies through a basic exploratory plan. The reproduction and lab are intended to be utilized after the understudies have taken in the fundamentals of interest and supply. The effect of the bits of knowledge are more prominent on the off chance that the understudies have likewise partaken in a twofold closeout market study hall try before running the reproduction.

Description and Teaching Materials: The recreation, test lab, and test schoolwork are accessible at the Zero-Intelligence Trading site. A lab work out (pdf design) is accessible for download by the understudies. The reenactment runs inside a program window. There is a possibility for the understudy to download the Netlogo model and run the reenactment from inside Netlogo straightforwardly. The depiction of the reproduction is incorporated with this choice: what it is, the way it works, how to utilize it, things to notice, and things to attempt Understudies total a lab report and schoolwork practice in view of their discoveries in anticipation of class conversation

Time requirements: Teacher arrangement: 4 hours

Class readiness: One brief class period. Class reproduction: One brief class period. Teaching Notes and Tips: The recreation has its most noteworthy effect in the event that the understudies initially take part in a twofold sale classroom sample. The twofold closeout sample outlines that a serious level of market effectiveness can be accomplished by users

Microeconomic standards understudies are a little confused by the reproduction at first since the recreation simply expects them to squeeze arrangement, then, at that point, run, and record the re-enactment information. In this manner, it becomes critical to set the stage beforehand and to have them talk about the outcomes in class.


For an upper-division microeconomics course, the teacher might need to have the understudies download the Netlogo model. The ZI-Trader Netlogo model incorporates an example try that can be run utilizing Netlogo's BehaviorSpace instrument.

Appraisal: Evaluation should be possible through an everyday criticism component in the Principles of Microeconomics course Class conversation uncovers whether the understudies are facing the principal objective of reproduction What's more, all customary appraisal devices can be utilized. For more data about appraisal, see the SERC evaluation module.

Doctor / Hospital Simulation Game

Hand Doctor is an instructive internet-based movement for kids who fantasize about becoming specialists, attendants, or other clinical experts one day or only for now Today, you are important for the hand unit in the emergency clinic, and you have various patients that direly need your consideration. Issues going from cuts, scratches, diseases,and boils - they all need fixing. Fortunately, you are furnished with each of the devices you want to make all the difference. Best of luck.

The point of the game is to fix the patient’s various hand issues. Whenever you are done they will thank you and afterwards, you can move on to the following patient Presently, unless you are a genuine specialist, the odds are you won’t understand what to do when confronted with these issues Utilize your drive to tackle the issues, using the devices given. Utilize the logical information as a beginning base, for instance profound cuts need sanitizing before you apply the mortar. Have some good times. Instructions to Play: Left Click utilizing your PC mouse or touchpad to pick a thing. Drag it over to the particular injury you might want to mend, and in some cases it requires somewhat this way and that movement with the cursor. For instance applying ice to a cut finger, you should rub the ice all around the finger This HTML5 puts together game works with respect to PC/Mac programs


Science and Math games made for school

Legends of Learning assists educators with making their classrooms fun, drawing in, and useful learning conditions through research-driven, educational plan-based science games. Instructors can get to a huge number of games for centers and primary schools (grades K-8) The games range practically all the most famous state norms for Math and Science

Notwithstanding the games, educators can track down a huge number of evaluation things, and select PhET reproductions for rudimentary and center school understudies. Both Elementary and Middle School contributions are broken out across three essential sciences: Earth and Space Science, Games Life Science Games, Physical Science Games, as well as math!


16. 3D Printing in Education

Using 3D printing in education is now applied to a wide variety of context: in primary and secondary schools, universities, libraries, technical colleges and other educational competitions. 3D printing has a very important role in the manufacturing sector, this is one of the reasons why this practice has entered the world of education In fact, 3D printing technologies facilitate the development of skills and greater involvement of students and teachers on different types of topics Additionally, 3D printing stimulates greater creativity and collaboration in problem solving.


Advantages of this method in connection with the Social Model for Online Learning.

3D printing in the context of online learning can be useful to a variety of professionals such as future designers, engineers and artists from whom they can benefit from numerous advantages Consider these top 5 benefits of 3D printing impact on online education: Creates excitement: the educational use of 3D printing gives portunity to experiment with their projects from e to the actual creation of the model. This nthusiasm and a better understanding of the as they gain hands-on experience from anufacturing. In this way it is possible to clearly onstruction phases of the project step by step er. The excitement also comes from the ability to tails in reality, not only on a screen or in a isely because the experimental model e methodology of 3D printing makes it possible eory to practice, to the physical world, whereby ouch the final result, they can correct it and se their learning possibilities and generate new ies.

urriculum: 3D printing in education allows te self-production practices which means more aware of the products on the market them more attentive and less passive onventional classrooms where students get become active and engaged participants tion, design, and execution of their projects ith the 3D printer and the teacher.


- Gives access to previously unavailable knowledge: since most 3D printers are preassembled and plug-and-play, it's a fun cutting-edge technology that students can learn. 3D printing in education also generates in students the awareness that in the training process it is acceptable to make mistakes and accept failure in order to always improve. As students begin to understand that failure is a part of the process, they become less afraid of trying and implementing new and different ideas in life This increases student confidence and teachers appreciate the results of having motivated and confident students

- Opens up new learning possibilities: one of the elements that characterize print and education is the fact that it opens up new opportunities to present information to young learners in a cost-effective and efficient way, generates unlimited learning opportunities for students, and grows their own creativity.

- Promotes problem-solving skills: setting up an educational methodology with 3D printing offers a variety of learning experiences for students The first level of learning consists of learning how to use the 3D printer and solve any problems. This is an art that many students fail to try their hand at in the course of their normal studies. Students learn to practice persistence in overcoming difficulties. This can also translate into helping students solve their own problems in life.

- Nurturing students' creative abilities can help develop a passion for original thinking and creativity that can later be applied in the business world 3D printing allows students a preparation that can also be useful in higher education, in particular in the context of STEAM contexts. As students explore and grow their imagination, nurture innovation where the student creates their own unique 3D designs.


Methodology explained and practical details

3D printing is a tool that helps students conceptualize and visualize their designs while developing their work from the development stages.

3D printing starts by working from the design and design work of a digital model in a 3D CAD (Computer Aided Design) file and then creates a three-dimensional physical object. The slicer converts the model into a series of thin, two-dimensional layers and produces a file with instructions (G code) tailored to the specific type of 3D printer

The type of 3D printer found most often in classrooms is called FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) machine, such as the MakerBot Replicator +. The 3D printer applies the raw material (plastic, metal, rubber and the like) and then builds the object by adding one layer at a time, 2D layer by 2D layer, until it is completely the design criteria from the starting CAD file. The use of 3D printing in education helps students to prototype an analogy object and allows them to manipulate it, creating greater learning benefits.

Here are some examples of how schools and students can use a 3D printer in the classroom:

- Biology students can print cells, viruses, organs, and other biological artifacts

- Math students can print 3D models of problems to solve

- Students can print historical artifacts to examine

- Graphic Design students can print the 3D version of their artwork

- Geography students can print topographical demographic maps

- Chemistry students can print 3D models of molecules

These are some of the ways 3D printing technology is bridging the gap between the physical and dology has e aching and l


How learning is happening in a social context.

There are several ways of using 3D printers 1) Support and improvement of

learning during STEM education processes

STEM education is a teaching method that involves the acquisition of concepts through the application of skills and knowledge to real-life situations. In particular, STEM is an acronym whose letters correspond to science, technology, engineering, and math (respectively, science, technology, design, mathematics). The speed and low costs that characterize the use of 3D printers offer the possibility of improving learning by making it faster and more engaging Students practice by designing prototypes and models, acquiring knowledge and skills without realizing it In Pasadena, California, a school bought a printer, thus experimenting with the processes of collaboration and creativity that are created between students and teachers, also thanks to the characteristics of 3D printing.

2) New dimensions of repair and customization

The technology in question is not only a low-cost solution in the case of learning, it is also very useful when it is necessary to repair objects or customize them In fact, for a large part of the world, the possibility of reaching, for example, a hardware store within 200 miles is considered a luxury Currently, there is no idea how and to what extent 3D printers can implement people's ability to adapt to reality or to find different solutions to face it. However, it is possible to observe how they can provide significant help in cases of difficulty.


3) A new sector within the medical field and prosthetics

As you can imagine, one of the most common areas of 3D printers is medicine, with the creation of objects such as medical devices and specific prostheses The latter is particularly enhanced by the use of these devices.

4) A turning point for the manufacturing industry

With the support of 3D printers, the manufacturing industry - especially on a small scale - is moving, and becoming more competitive In fact, adding to the flexibility and quality typical of small industries, the reduction of costs, and the numerical increase in quality raw materials, an industry model emerges that competes significantly with the large-scale one.

Every day new 3D printers and new materials are conceived, analyzed, studied, and, finally, created. Change is continuous and challenging, but the possibilities are endless. Like the Internet or CNC production, 3D printing is a socio-technical invention, which involves not only technological interventions but also requires and manifests itself with organizational and business innovations In recent years, new manufacturing spaces have emerged, the so-called fables, which are opening up new opportunities for the empowerment of citizens.


Implications for Moocster facilitation practice Teaching and learning strategies

When writing the curricula the facilitator should evaluate and plan how and when the printer will be used to improve learning outcomes. In the teacher-led lessons, the focus is on the "logic of doing" and therefore it is not necessary to have constant access to the printer. However, during pupil-led learning, the one managed by students, experimentation, and refinement are fundamental learning strategies that require easy and continuous access to the printer. Despite all the publicity in the recent media, which seems to put no limits on possibilities, 3D printers, like any other technology, have limits and constraints that need attention in all phases of a project Through trial and error, monitoring events, and errors, and recording process information, the learners will become more informed and will be able to develop and refine their results much faster than in a situation where technology is not accessible.


Technical support

It is clear that, despite the improved usability of 3D printers, these devices require maintenance, constant software updates, and a lot of troubleshooting for their effective and reliable operation. It is useful for the teacher to start learning simple problem-solving techniques, but during the actual lesson they should not be sidetracked by the teaching and learning objectives (this is a scenario often observed and recorded during technology-based lessons, in particular in the IT branch). Having a reliable technology that is able to work without resorting to continuous settings, leveling of the print bed, and loading and unloading of the filament is very important in an educational context where failure to meet deadlines leads to disadvantages and the facilitator must give instructions on how to set up the printer Reliable and durable printers will cost less in the long run, as less attention will be paid to maintenance and settings.

Online Community

Online support can be a great way to get solutions to technical problems. Some of the largest manufacturers very often encourage the existence of forums to promote and support their products Having a large network of forums specifically dedicated to your printer could be another important criterion for choosing a manufacturer 3D Hub is one example


The most common file type for a print-ready 3D model is the STL file (they are readable by most printers). Printer manufacturers often have open-source websites where templates can be downloaded. Again as an STL file.


Think of industry and universities

Working and forging links with the world of work provides a huge motivational factor for pupils who do not look favorably on school or do not perceive the relevance of scientific content. Finding a foothold in companies can be difficult for more than one reason: 1) 3D printing can be a manufacturing process not present in the local industrial fabric. 2) 3D printing companies will have limited time to work with schools. Universities and educational institutions may be able to provide more support. Many universities will already have the mandate to organize courses and work with other institutions and businesses These will be easier to approach and may offer a different type of support

Ultimately the facilitators will have to research which local companies universities and institutions will be available and make contact to see what kind of support they can offer. Projects could be designed to include links to the local manufacturer's products and processes, so even a simple visit to observe manufacturing or processing could help students see the application and relevance of what they are learning and building.



1.QANDR - Activate participants via pointers, moodboards, word clouds and much more. Remote or face-to-face, through clever use of mobile devices Kahoot - Create a fun learning game in minutes made from a series of multiple-choice questions No video streaming

2. Slido - Interaction app for hybrid meetings. Features: live polls, Q&A, quizzes and word clouds.

3 Miro - Collaborative online whiteboard platform designed for remote and distributed teams.

4.Mural - A digital workspace for visual collaboration.

5 Mentimeter - Real-time input from remote teams and online students with live polls, quizzes, word clouds, Q&As and more

6.Conceptboard - Give your distributed team collaboration superpowers. Discover the power of visual collaboration.

7 Primoforum - A powerful, innovative tool to quickly and easily facilitate group sessions of any size. Participants actively contribute using a tablet or smartphone. Primoforum allows you to brainstorm, share knowledge, set priorities and define actions. Everyone is equal, everyone gets a chance to speak. Best of all: Primoforum requires no special software installation.



8.Poll Everywhere -USA - Poll Everywhere provides stylish real-time interactions with audiences via mobile devices.

9 Glisser - Glisser makes presentations interactive It takes regular slide decks and pushes them out live to audience mobile devices, slide-by-slide, as they are presented. It then enables the audience to interact with the presenter or with each other, through polls, live Q&A and Twitter.

10 Crowdpurr - Crowdpurr is an Audience Engagement Platform that helps you create amazing interactive mobile-driven experiences for your live event.

11.OMBEA - OMBEA is an audience response system that displays live feedback on people's opinions and knowledge, easy to use with Microsoft PowerPoint slides for voting, engagement and assessment No video streaming

12.Vevox- Vevox brings out the best in presenters and audiences, giving everyone an equal chance to be heard. Honest uninhibited feedback is received through intuitive live polling, text Q&A and self-paced surveys on any mobile device No video streaming

13.Conferences - Web-based Audience Response System.

14.Meeting puls - A fast, easy-to-use full-featured meeting app for audience polling, Q&A, surveys and more.



15.Pigeonhole - Live is an interactive Q&A and polling. No video streaming platform for engaging audiences at conferences, town halls and other events No video streaming

16 Top hat- Top Hat’s active learning app helps professors engage and motivate students in online, blended and face-to-face courses. No video streaming.

17.I clicker - А hardware for students.

18 Turning Technology- Enhance the learning experience with instructional tools Connect audiences to the presentations via mobile, web or clickers, using either our web or desktop applications.

19.Sendsteps - Use Sendsteps to vote and ask questions during your interactive presentation. Participate using a laptop, tablet or smartphone via a website, Twitter or SMS

20 AhaSlides - AhaSlides is interactive presentation software for your class, meetings and events. We make it easy to add polls, live charts, fun quizzes, and engaging Q&A sessions to your presentation. So you can be a real star on stage.

21 Wisembly - Wisembly allows you to keep in touch with your teams by organizing engaging virtual events

22.Crowd Mics - Crowd Mics turns the audience's phones into wireless microphones for live events.



23.Thoughtexchange - Engagement solutions for leaders who put people first. Easy to use, very intuitive.

24 Gnowbe - Gnowbe is a multimedia mobile-first and desktopfriendly communications, training and engagement platform with rapid authoring, all in a microlearning format. A curated course library and marketplace are also available along with a selection of templates, enabling turnkey course and content creation.

25 SurveyLab - Online survey software builds for Customer Experience, Marketing, Human Resources, and Digital teams. It is used by over 85,000 customers in 40 countries. It provides real-time feedback, multi-user, and multi-language support, advanced analytical tools, branding, integration, and more.

26 Remo - Remo is an interactive virtual event platform that empowers you to recreate natural interactions in any type of gathering; from global events to remote work meetings. Video streaming.

27 Jitsi Meet - App for interactive online meetings Video streaming

28.Webex - Video conferencing, cloud calling screen sharing. The all-in-one app to call, meet, message, and get work done. Video streaming.



29.Jamboards - Bring learning to live. Encourage students to learn, collaborate, and actively participate in new ways with the Jamboard mobile app or the 55-inch cloud whiteboard display

30.Sizle - Sizle is a virtual device that is available to utilize, by which educators can impart reports to their understudies Understudies can utilize Sizle to see and clarify address slides and order and coordinate their reports In the meantime, instructors, mentors, guides, and different teachers can send notes, talks, introductions, and that's just the beginning. Sizle permits you to blend PDF records, consolidate reports, convert PDF and MS Office documents, safeguard PDF and PPT archives with passwords, and significantly more. This device has made a ton of progress in schooling in the event that you ' re intrigued, you can see the Sizle site for more data



People are social animals and learn socially They come together in diverse groups - large and small, to share what we already know, gain new knowledge, and create something new to resolve an issue. People learn the best of each other.

Two widely accepted principles of learning support the use of group learning - participants construct their own knowledge, and learning is an inherently social phenomenon.

Small group work provides opportunities for learners to express ideas and understandings, to expose assumptions and misconceptions, and to negotiate with others to create products or reach consensus. The group activities enable students to discover deeper meaning in the content and improve their thinking skills. The most efficient use of group work is the one that involves students in higher-level content that is thought-provoking, difficult to understand, or has multiple interpretations.


SMOL steps on those patterns and consists of three parts

1. The education team model - learning together in a group. Every member has a meaningful role and therefore everyone is committed to the common goals of the group. In addition, another principal is that every student in the group is a teacher as well So, he/she also teaches and shares with the other group members what he knows and learns This forms a mutual commitment and team spirit.

Every student has a role and responsibilities for the success of the group as a whole. In the end of the course, every participant feels that he/she was meaningful to the learning process.

2 The flipped classroom refers to setting up an environment in which we learn the material at home. The learners interconnect via social media where the learning materials are shared. At later stages at their weekly meetings, they have space to engage in indeep discussion and brain storm the content they learned and make progress.

3. Extensive use of social media


Activating methods and brainstorming techniques

A short explanation of the proposed method.

a) Activating questions

- A teacher/Moocster as a facilitator presents questions in order to activate the learners’/group members’ thinking Questions can be presented by the learners/group members as well The aim is to get into the topic of the course

b) Polls

- A teacher/Moocster as a facilitator presents polls in order to activate the learners’/group members’ thinking, and/or to find out the level of knowledge of the learners or the status of the course work and the challenges faced in it

c) 3 + and how

- Individual ideas are examined from various perspectives in a group. The aim is to find the most useful ideas.

a) Activating questions

In the beginning of a course, a teacher/Moocster presents questions in order to activate the learners’/group members’ thinking. The aim is to get into the topic of the course.



Questions can be presented by the learners/group members as well. The teacher/Moocster can answer any spontaneous questions presented by the learner, or leave the questions to be answered by other members of the group.

When the learners/group members answer the questions presented by others, this will further enhance the learners’ active thinking, and reveal their knowledge and experiences Not all questions need to be answered; questions themselves can stimulate thinking.

Instead of asking closed questions such as do you have any questions, a more efficient way to facilitate a learning process is to use open questions starting with what, how, or what kind of, such as How would you act in this situation? Or What kind of thoughts do you have on this matter? These kinds of questions have the potential to reveal ideas and perspectives that would not have been thought of by the person who raised the question.

Activating questions can serve several purposes. Questions can be useful in finding out the level of knowledge, and the questions also serve for expanding one ’ s knowledge base

In addition, activating questions can be combined with group presentation methods. The group members can present their background as well as their expectations of the course and previous knowledge and experiences of the course topic. Depending on the course, group size and (virtual) learning environment, presentations can be done in pairs, small groups or within the entire group Tools such as breakout rooms, virtual profiles or pictures can be used when presenting. Group members can reflect their expectations about the course by choosing a suitable picture, a collection of which is presented by a teacher/Moocster, or picture or item chosen by themselves.


b) Polls

- A teacher/Moocster launches polls in order to activate discussion, find out the group ’ s level of knowledge or their expectations about the course, as well as to quickly assess student progress or get real-time feedback, or to recall what has already been learned

Polls can also help the facilitator to focus on the most helpful topics for the group.

Polls can be used in different phases of the course as well as in different phases of an individual lecture All participants can be involved, and it is fruitful to go through the answers with the group.

Discussions followed by polls can involve explanations, useful remarks, or expression of personal attitude.

Polls are useful for even larger groups Several IT applications and tools can be used such as Mentimeter, Kahoot or MS Forms

Additionally, awarding points can be given in seminars for poll winners.


c) 3 + and how

- Individual ideas are examined from various perspectives

The aim is to detect the most useful ideas.

Once an idea has been presented by a group member, at least three positive aspects of the idea will be presented by other group members

Only after this, the group members are allowed to raise questions with how as a critique towards its usability.

Once all the ideas presented have been discussed and examined by the group, the presented ideas can be compared, based on their positive aspects and usability.

The most useful ideas can then be selected to be put into practice, if that is the case


d) Six Thinking Hats

- Each of the Six Thinking Hats represents one lens/perspective/style of thinking. In order to facilitate decision-making in a group, you can assign the hats to everyone to get a balanced discussion Or you can go through different perspectives as a whole group The colours and features of the hats are described as follows:

● Yellow hat is about positivity Try seeing the benefits of this decision and what opportunities it opens.

● Green hat represents creativity. Let your mind run free and generate ideas without censoring them. Try coming up with creative options and solutions.

● Red hat is about emotions. How do you feel about this? Use your intuition and gut feelings. Try to see how others might react emotionally. It is a great way to bring emotions into an otherwise rational process

● White hat makes you focus on the data Analyze the available data and trends This represents a very rational approach

● Black hat represents looking at the downside. What are the worst-case scenarios? Take a defensive approach, imagine any potentially negative outcomes, see what might not work.

● Blue hat is for controlling the process. Especially in meetings, it is good to be able to step in when there is no progress and enable the group to move forward (e.g. by shifting the thinking or discussion to a different hat/perspective)


Six Thinking Hats is a tool that allows a decision or problem to be considered from different angles. It enables a group to deliberately see aspects that might otherwise be overlooked. Better and more resilient decisions or conclusions can be reached in the end

How learning is happening in a social context.

The use of activating methods and brainstorming techniques helps to enhance building of a team spirit for successful learning. Questions (possibly combined with presentations), polls and discussions serve for expanding one ’ s knowledge in a social context.

A virtual whiteboard (such as Miro or MURAL) is a useful tool for easy and engaging remote working withmany people simultaneously It is a very good tool for creative teamwork By sharing and manipulating whiteboard content live, the teacher of Moocster can engage the groups, demand their attention, and answer questions in real-time. (Borodo et al 2022, p. 102)

Implications for Moocster facilitation practice.

A Moocster presents and initiates activating questions, polls and brainstorming tasks, facilitates and directs discussions as well as shares and manipulates whiteboard content live.



up secure learning environment:
communication channels with the learners – Facebook closed group Create a short text about the benefits of learning Moocster in this course:
to know each other: Everybody introduces him/herself with pictures and a short message
a Moocster profile where participants can see more about him/her, his/her personality, and his/her work. Arrangement and creation of a positive environment.
Phases: 1st phase – Before the MOOC 2nd phase – During the learning process 3rd phase – After the learning process
1 - Before the MOOC Step 1 - Preliminary activities
o Welcome message o Present the concept “Moocster” (what it is/what it means in practice) o Setting rules in the Facebook group o Publish self-study materials 125
phase and
before the course.


PHASE 2 – During the learning

Step 2 - Learners come together: Meeting with all participants online build good and pleasant relations with each other

At the course opening, Moocster is presented in a few words.

Introducing the participants - icebreakers Energy buster activities that help participants to get acquainted and to

Find a team name

Step 3 - Opening the learning process – Selection of MOOC

The group chooses a MOOC course to study Summarize the content for learners - using mind maps

Step 4 - Forming the learning team

the material, and the learners to each other

Step 5 - Setting up a common goal:

A creative, energy-boosting activity that connects the Moocster, Map the knowledge and expectations:

Work with a whiteboard and sticky notes:

Q1 - What I already know personally about the study area?

Q2 - What would I like to learn?

Sum up the personal expectations in a common goal The goal is related to:

- the common academic achievement of the whole group

- the lifestyle aspects of learning such as having fun, being comfortable, having candies, etc.

- the learning skills development

- social skills development, etc.

Group manifesto – the creation of the Manifesto –

a common statement that all agree with - Participants agree to participate in a parallel process during or after the meeting




6 - Defining roles and rules:

Use a whiteboard to map the willingness of involvement

Q1 - I want to get involved in

Q2 - I can be useful with Roles are kept throughout the learning process

Students define themselves and what roles are necessary for the specific needs of the course.

Students choose a role that supports learning based on their passion, and selfevaluation of their strengths.

Roles - Roles can be flexible: if a student decides that in the process of learning he or she will feel more comfortable with a different role, they can switch

Identifying responsibilities and tasks which are specific to the concrete MOOC.

Rulers - A good practice is to appoint one group member from the team to be responsible for studying each week. It could be challenging, in the beginning, the groups need to be reminded they are in charge for the respective week

The group sets up a timeline, and frequencies of the meetings (based on dates, or % of passing the learning materials)

Set up communication challenges - email, WhatsApp group, Zoom




Both learners and Moocster exchange ideas and information

Source mapping - Everyone states the resources that can share

PRexpert mediation - skills mapped approach where experts meet the students in the learning process to inspire and motivate them

Development and activation of the learning process

Primary development - The moocsters provide the information

Secondary development - It requests the moocsters act as a trainer. Student-led reading activities. Role-play games, writing or painting exercises, a card with pictures or questions, group discussions, games and puzzles, quizzes

Tertiary development - Dividing people into groups. Green assists the reds and yellow group (cards)

“Think - Pair - Share” method of learning Creative presentations allow students to take the role of the Moocster and repeat the behaviours and competencies demonstrated by the Moocsters. During the presentation the students are allowed to use all learning materials in the real working environment. Create a progress map - a visual representation of the education team progress toward the common goal. How to present that should be a team decision.

Step 9 - Review: The review activities are Moocster’s last opportunity to provide additional information about the “big picture”, to clarify or passively fix the content presented in the course.

7 - Active learning. Introduction of the learning material. Follow the MOOC content Replies for each unit of the MOOC course Identifying MOOC-related resources and knowledge: acquaintances, venues, cars, books, and other material resources Moocster supports the learning team (weekly meetings).
Step 8- Creative presentation:

Celebration of success (after the MOOC) - celebrate the accomplishment, appreciate their efforts, party to celebrate Course drawing - individual task. What is the most valuable and useful thing you take from the course. Make a gallery with the drawing. Song of the course - make or choose a common song for the course Exercises for joy-type yoga or laughter (appropriate methods for creating joy during online meetings)

Evaluation and feedback What is next: PART SIX: PUTTING INTO PRACTICE - SMOL MODEL Step 10 - Closing rituals 3rd phase - After the learning Step 11 - Application: - Self-discovery - each student reflects on their personal experience during the course, analyzing what they have learned and gained - Group evaluation - what worked well, what were the individual and common challenges, what can be improved - Moocster’s conclusions and insight - Recommendations for themselves and for other prospectivestudents Step 12 - Follow up: - How are we going to study from now on? - How do we apply and transfer the knowledge and skills acquired? - Offering mentorship to future students - Which is our next MOOC? 129


In the process of developing the SMOL methodology In Bulgaria, an experimental group was formed with which the different steps of the model were tested Along with the observations, the research team conducted in-depth interviews with the group members Their experiences, group dynamics, and insights helped the project partners to develop one useful and efficient model.

Test MOOC group following a one-year paid course “Shared learning and mindful parenting”. Members attend a one-year (paid) course in 'mindful parenting ´ . The course is split into 6 models. The classes are every Friday. The students have specific assignments and have to pass tests to move to the next level.

The MOOC group meetings are held every Thursday evening (before the course itself)

· Venue - closed Facebook group - 14 members

· Communication Tool: Zoom video, chat, for note taking -

· Duration - 40-60 min

· The group only discusses the course material and does not generate new (online) learning content.

Each time there is a facilitator (a different person) who in this case is more of an organizer than a "Moocster" He/she organizes the interaction in the group, takes notes and leads the discussions. Conversations are rather free and not necessarily follow the learning material. Most people are experienced in online learning environments. They have followed various courses related to their profession and interests.



The reasons why people have decided to follow this particular course and group are: "the topic” "the opportunity to meet new people" "the format" "the fact that some of them are more productive in group learning".


While some participants enter the group with high expectations, others have none

Starting this group, in parallel with the "shared parenting" course, students expected to:

● Build a supportive community with which to share experiences, doubts and insights.

● Contribute to the process of building a sustainable model for online learning.

● Have an extra incentive to keep up with the rhythm of the training course

● To be motivated by others and to better understand the learning materials


Although students generally felt that their expectations were met to some extent, it was interesting to observe how each participant experienced the group process differently.

Some felt that there was a moment for setting recommended goals (through individual reflection and discussion), others could not recall this moment It is the same situation with dynamics when people split into small groups For a few participants this was a time of quality learning where people listened and found commonalities. On the contrary, another felt that during this session there was a tendency to get carried away and talk off topic.

This shows how everything is so individual. It depends on the character of the user, on the specific situations and conditions.



Along these lines, there are people who described themselves as very active, supportive and valuable to the group. These are the people who always take the initiative. They are responsible for organising the meetings. Although their role was more of an organiser, later on they can be perfect 'mockers'. Other participants prefer to stay on the sidelines and just listen and learn There is another type who wants to facilitate the process but feels unprepared and insecure With more training and practice, these people can be consummate "moocsters " One person said that she felt she had the qualities and desire to be a facilitator, but at the beginning, the communication in the group was not clear and she gave up on this ambition.

Personal experience also influences group dynamics. Most of the people were super enthusiastic and interested at the beginning. Later, due to a lack of time and "interesting modules," they stopped following the course This, of course, also has an impact on group meetings

The dynamics and structure of the training get lost, which affects the group badly. Irregular meetings and lack of clear communication between the organisers also affect the group in a bad way. It is very important to note that most people want to stop the course but want to continue with the group meetings. It is a good challenge for the group to work through the problems that have arisen and continue to finish them People who want to continue to keep in touch plan together with the Facebook page to use Viber as a communication channel and continue to meet with each other only once a month



The personal output:

People think that this format helps them

“To keep being motivated”

“To see other perspectives”

“To see that I am able to share my fears and strengths with others”

” To check how capable am I to lead a group ”

“To see that I'm not the only one who feels unsupported


References and bibliography

Kainotomia, Video practises

Resources used

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall. Guo, P , Kim, J , & Rubin, R (2014) How video production affects student engagement Proceedings Of The First ACM Conference On Learning @ Scale Conference doi: 10 1145/2556325 2566239

Kuhail, A., & Aqel, M. (2020). Interactive Digital Videos and Their Impact on Sixth Graders' English Reading and Vocabulary Skills and Retention. International Journal Of Information And Communication Technology Eduction, 16(3), 42-56. doi: 10.4018/ijicte.2020070104

Ringer, I., Schubert, C., Friestad-Tate, J., Deem, J., Lockwood, R., & Flores, J. (2015). Improving the asynchronous online learning environment using discussion boards Journal Of Educational Technology, 12(1), 15-27. Retrieved from http://hdl handle net/20 500 12264/106 Sablić, M., Mirosavljević, A., & Škugor, A. (2020). Video-Based Learning (VBL) Past, Present and Future: an Overview of the Research Published from 2008 to 2019. Technology, Knowledge And Learning, 26(4), 1061-1077. doi: 10.1007/s10758-020-09455-


Sadeghi, R , Sedaghat, M , & Sha Ahmadi, F (2014) Comparison of the effect of lecture and blended teaching methods on students’ learning and satisfaction Journal Of Advances In Medical Education & Professionalism, 2(4), 146-150 Retrieved from ffn sectitle Web Accessibility. (2022). Retrieved 26 May 2022, from

Gamification Resources used

6 Simple Steps to Evaluate Your Gamification Cycle (2022) Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://www callcentrehelper com/simple-steps-evaluate-gamification-cycle195997 htm

Alsawaier, R. (2018). The effect of gamification on motivation and engagement. The International Journal Of Information And Learning Technology, 35(1), 56-79. doi: 10.1108/ijilt-02-2017-0009


Holbrook, K (2022) BYU students say their academic motivation declined in 2020 - The Daily Universe Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://universe byu edu/2021/01/15/byustudents-say-their-academic-motivation-declined-in-2020/ Kapp, K. (2022). Goal Orientation in Gamification - Karl Kapp. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from Kota, A. (2017). What's Your Avatar In Gamified eLearning? [Blog]. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry com/what-avatar-in-gamified-elearning Kurt, S (2020) Albert Bandura’s “Social Learning Theory” and Its Impact on Teachers and Learning [Blog] Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology net/social-learningtheory-albert-bandura/ Kurt, S. (2020). Problem-Based Learning (PBL) [Blog]. Retrieved from Marczewski, A. (2022). What’s the difference between Gamification and Serious Games?. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://www gamedeveloper com/business/what-s-the-difference-betweengamification-and-serious-gamesMardinger, R (2022) Why You Absolutely Need Gamification in E-Learning (LMS) Retrieved 26 May 2022, from Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi: 10 1006/ceps 1999 1020

Sadeghi, R , Sedaghat, M , & Sha Ahmadi, F (2014) Comparison of the effect of lecture and blended teaching methods on students’ learning and satisfaction Journal Of Advances In Medical Education & Professionalism, 2(4), 146-150. Retrieved from ffn sectitle

Sailer, M., & Homner, L. (2019). The Gamification of Learning: a Meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(1), 77-112. doi: 10.1007/s10648-019-09498-w

Uptmor, K. (2022). Learning Outcomes for Classroom Gamification. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://study com/academy/lesson/learning-outcomes-for-classroomgamification html

Vallerand, R , & Ratelle, C (2004) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: A Hierarchical Model. In E. Deci & R. Ryan, Handbook of Self-determination Research (1st ed.). Rochester: University of Rochester Press.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E. (2006). Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Contents in Self-Determination Theory: Another Look at the Quality of Academic Motivation. Educational Psychologist, 41(1), 19-31 doi: 10 1207/s15326985ep4101 4


References and bibliography Krasse Research

Juanita Brown 2005, The World Café: Shaping Our Futures Through Conversations That Matter

Jay Cross. 2007, Informal Learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways That Inspire Innovation and Performance 1st Edition

Priya Parker 2018, The Art of Gathering: How We Meet and Why It Matters Fritjof Capra 1097, The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems Resources used

World Café Guides & Resources: Simon (2013): The World Cafe: Workshop Facilitation Method, Principles and Etiquette: World Café:

Art of hosting methods: https://artofhosting org/what-is-aoh/methods/ Wiser together Principles-and-Practices

The table podcast:

Online platform for virtual meetings: https://remo co/ http://www miro com/


REFERENCES Best Practise Kainotomia

1st practice 2nd practice

Brown, D. (2020). 10 Collaborative Learning Platforms. Microlearning Blog. Available at: Helm, C. (2017). Effects of social learning networks on student academic achievement and pro-social behavior in accounting. Journal for educational research online, 9(1), 5276

Motzo, A (2016) Evaluating the effects of a ‘student buddy’ initiative on student engagement and motivation Innovative language teaching and learning at university: enhancing participation and collaboration, 19-28.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press. Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social learning theory and web-based learning environments: A review of research and discussion of implications. American Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 88-103

King, K P (2002) Identifying success in online teacher education and professional development Internet and Higher Education 5 (3), 231–246

Nabavi, R. T. (2012). Bandura's Social Learning Theory & Social Cognitive Learning Theory.

Nguyen, N. (2022). How to cultivate a social online classroom: Socialize while social distancing. Available at:

Petrides, L A 2002 Web-based technologies for distributed (or distance) learning: Creating learning-centered educational experiences in the higher education classroom International Journal of Instructional Media, 29 (1), 69–77.

3rd practice

Burgstahler, S. (2021). 20 Tips for Teaching an Accessible Online Course. DO.IT. Available at:

Poste, C (n d) How to make your online learning content accessible to everyone THE WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS

Available at: https://www timeshighereducation com/hub/pearson/p/how-make-your-onlinelearning-content-accessible-everyone


Resources used Taalcafe in Netherlands: https://www taaldoetmeer nl/wat-doen-we/activiteitenvolwassenen/taalcafe/ page/fotoreportage-taalcafe/ Take a sit - make a friend Marshmallow Challenge Fun Speaking Games https://www edutopia org/discussion/12-fun-speaking-games-language-learner

Best icebreakers for small groups CoffeBreak languages Tandem https://www tandem net/ Unibz Tandem https://unibz matorixmatch de

Resources used Creative Lab Video: https://youtu be/NYPlavWOyto

Resources used Art of Hosting

Art of hosting companion:

The Art of Hosting and Convening Conversations as leadership practice as well as a teaching tool: http://www artofhosting org/home/

Facilitator Tool Kit, University of Wisconsin-Madison – from the role of facilitator to the measurement of impact;


Open-source learning platform: https://moodle org/ Appreciative Inquiry

An open space world:

The circle way: http://thecircleway net/ Video courses: Art of Hosting – introduction:

Four-fold Practice – the core practice of Art of Hosting:

Collective Story Harvest:

Chaordic Path:

Circle Process:

Open Space Technology: https://vimeo com/69798729

Pro-Action Cafe: https://vimeo com/69798730

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Structuring The Learning Journey

STANDO References

Arun, T (2020) Top Reasons Why Mobile Learning Is Essential For Your Organization eLearning Industry https://elearningindustry com/reasons-why-mobile-learning-isessential-organization

Barron, S. (2020). What Is a Virtual Classroom? Owl Labs Blog | Supporting remote work and stellar video conferencing. Brew, M. (2017). What is mobile learning?: Definition, benefits & top tips for success. Mobile Training for your Deskless Workforce | eduMe.

Chernikova, O , Heitzmann, N , Stadler, M , Holzberger, D , Seidel, T , & Fischer, F (2020) Simulation-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis Review Of Educational Research, 90(4), 499-541

Cujba, S. (2018). Virtual reality in eLearning and 9 real life examples. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from Gautam, P. (2018). What The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mobile Learning Are. eLearning Industry https://elearningindustry com/advantages-and-disadvantages-ofmobile-learning


Gode, D K , and S Sunder (1993) Allocative Efficiency of Markets with ZeroIntelligence Traders: Market as a Partial Substitute for Individual Rationality. Journal of Political Economy, 101(Feb.), 119-137.

Lateef F. (2010). Simulation-based learning: Just like the real thing. Journal of emergencies, trauma, and shock, 3(4), 348–352. 70743

Maier, M (2019) Tax Game Retrieved 7 June 2022, from https://serc carleton edu/sp/library/simulations/examples/example4 html

McBride, M. (2022). Zero-Intelligence Trading in Markets. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from

Mishra, I. (2018). Online Learning Methods You Can Use In Your Virtual Classroom. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from Movchan, S (2021) 6 Reasons to Choose Custom eLearning Development Retrieved 7 June 2022, from https://raccoongang com/blog/6-reasons-choose-custom-elearningdevelopment-2021/ Muravlov, D. (2020). Applications of Simulation-Based Learning. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from Pandey, A. (2017). 5 examples how to use mobile learning in retail to maximize your training impact. eLearning Industry.

Pandey, A (2019) How to enhance induction and onboarding training with mobile learning eLearning Industry https://elearningindustry com/induction-and-onboardingtraining-with-mobile-learning

Roush, M. (2011). Ten Free Online Simulation Games for Education. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from Sam, A. (2020). What Is A Virtual Classroom And Why Is It The Future Of Online Learning? eLearning Industry https://elearningindustry com/virtual-classroom-whyfuture-online-learning

Schaaf, R (2014) 10 Free Online Educational Game Sites | KQED Retrieved 7 June 2022, from

Soni, A. (2015). Choosing The Right eLearning Methods: Factors And Elements. Retrieved 7 June 2022, from

Vinikas, I (2021) Virtual Classroom: What it is and How it Works Kaltura https://corp kaltura com/blog/what-is-a-virtual-classroom/


sHARING MODEL, UTU References and bibliography

[1] Tuokko, E., Takala, S., Koikkalainen, P. & Mustaparta, A-K. 2012. KIELITIVOLI! Perusopetuksen vieraiden kielten opetuksen kehittämishankkeessa 2009-2011 koettua: tuloksia ja toimintatapoja. Raportit ja selvitykset 2012:1. Opetushallitus. ( Kielitivoli .pdf)

[2] Koulutus ja tutkimus vuosina 2007-2012 Kehittämissuunnitelma Opetusministeriö (http://www minedu fi/OPM/Koulutus/koulutuspolitiikka/asiakirjat/kesu 2012 fi pdf)

[3] Perusopetuksen vieraiden kielten opetuksen kehittäminen KIELITIVOLI 1 ja KIELITIVOLI 2: kieltenopetus

[4] Pekka Himanen:

[5] Brander, H. 2009. Perusopetuksen vieraiden kielten opetuksen kehittäminen 2009-2010. OSALLISTUJAN OPAS. Koulutus- ja kehittämiskeskus Brahea, Turun yliopisto.

[6] Language Fair program ’ s social network Ning:

[7] Brander, H 2011 Kielitivoli - perusopetuksen vieraiden kielten opetuksen kehittäminen 2009-2011 Kielten opetuksen kehittämistoimintaa tukevan Kielitivoli-täydennyskoulutuksen loppuraportti Koulutus- ja kehittämiskeskus Brahea, Turun yliopisto

[9] Brander, Heli (2013). ICT-Based Studying Model Supporting Foreign Language Teachers’ Professional Development in Continuing Education. International Conference “ICT for Language Learning” 6th edition. 2013.

Flipped classroom, References and bibliography, UTU

Atjonen, Päivi (2020) Muuttuvat käsitykset arvioinnista Available online at: (accessed on 14.6.2022)

Saarelainen, Markku (2020). Ydinainesanalyysi ja osaamistavoitteet. Available online at: (accessed on 15.6.2022)

Sointu, Erkko (2020). Johdantoa flippaukseen. Available online at: (accessed on 14.6.2022)

Uef (2020) Flippauksen suunnittelu Available online at: https://sites uef fi/flippaus/opintojakson-suunnittelu/ (accessed on 15 6 2022)

Resources used.

Erasmus Plus project InCompEdu IO2 deliverable, available online in autumn 2022


Design thinking, References and bibliography, UTU

Dam, Rikke, Siang, Teo (2018). What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So Popular?

Vaugh, Trevor, Finnegan-Kessie, Threase, Donnellan, Peter, Oswald Teghan (2020). The potential of design thinking to enable change in higher education. All Ireland journal of higher education, Vol. 12, No. 3.

Resources used

Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford An Introduction to Design Thinking PROCESS GUIDE (accessed on 31 8 2022) (accessed on 31.8.2022) (accessed on 31 8 2022)

Erasmus Plus project InCompEdu materials by University of Gdańsk

Case example of gamification in MOOC, References and bibliography, UTU Website at: Course at: open learning platform Resources used

Moodle-based open learning platform Open-access guides Youtube videos

References and bibliography.

Borodo, Adam, Dębicka, Olga, Galik, Anna, Markiewicz, Magdalena, Reszka, Leszek, Reszka, Magdalena (2022) Technical Platform Booklet Review of available IT solutions for on-line education Available online at: https://incompedu ug edu pl/deliverables/

Activating methods and brainstorming techniques, Resources used, UTU (accessed on 22.8.2022)

https://untools co/six-thinking-hats (accessed on 22 8 2022)

Erasmus Plus project InCompEdu IO2 deliverable, available online in autumn 2022


References and bibliography, EURO NET

Abdelsalam, U. M. (2014, March). A proposal model of developing intelligent tutoring systems based on mastery learning. Paper presented the Third International Conference on E-Learning in Education (pp. 106–118). Retrieved from http://paper researchbib com/view/paper/14102 Asimov, I (2004) I, Robot New York: Bantam Books Buyukozturk, S , Cakmak, E K , Akgun, O E , Karadeniz, S , & Demirel, F (2018) Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods]. Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık. Canbek, M. (2020). Artificial Intelligence Leadership: Imitating Mintzberg's Managerial Roles. In Business Management and Communication Perspectives in Industry 4.0 (pp. 173–187). IGI Global. Chang, J , & Lu, X (2019, August) The study on students' participation in personalized learning under the background of artificial intelligence In 10th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME) (pp. 555-558). IEEE. Choliz, M. (2010). Mobile phone addiction: a point of issue. Addiction, 105(2), pp. 373–374. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, SAGE publications Felix, C V (2020) The Role of the Teacher and AI in Education Sengupta, E , Blessinger, P and Makhanya, M S (Ed ) International Perspectives on the Role of Technology in Humanizing Higher Education (Innovations in Higher Education Teaching and Learning, Vol. 33), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 33–48.

Goksel, N , & Bozkurt, A (2019) Artificial intelligence in education: current insights and future perspectives In S Sisman-Ugur & G Kurubacak (Eds ), Handbook of Research on Learning in the Age of Transhumanism (pp. 224–236). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Grosz, B. J., & Stone, P. (2018). A century-long commitment to assessing artificial intelligence and its impact on society Communications of the ACM, 61(12), pp 68–73


Golic, Z (2019) Finance and artificial intelligence: The fifth industrial revolution and its impact on the financial sector. Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Istočnom Sarajevu, (19), pp. 67–81. Haseski. H.I. (2019). What do Turkish pre-service teachers think about artificial intelligence? International Journal of Computer Science Education in Schools, 3(2), Doi: 10.21585/ijcses.v3i2.55

Humble, N , & Mozelius, P (2019, October) Artificial Intelligence in Education-a Promise, a Threat or a Hype?

In European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 2019 (ECIAIR 2019), Oxford, UK (pp. 149–156). Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited. Karsenti, T. (2019). Artificial intelligence in education: the urgent need to prepare teachers for tomorrow’s schools. Formation et profession, 27(1), pp. 112–116. Doi:10.18162/fp.2019.a166.

Long, P , & Siemens, G (2011) Penetrating the fog: Analytics in learning and education EDUCAUSE Review, 46(5), pp 31–40

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Miremadi, M., Bughin, J., George, K., Willmott, P., & Dewhurst, M. (2017). A future that works: Automation, employment, and productivity. Chicago: McKinsey Global Institute. Mohammed P.S., & Watson E. N. (2019). Towards inclusive education in the age of artificial intelligence: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities In: Knox J , Wang Y , Gallagher M (eds) Artificial Intelligence and Inclusive Education. Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education. Singapore: Springer. 2

Mou, X. (2019). Artificial intelligence: investment trends and selected industry uses. EMCompass; No. 71. Washington, D C : World Bank Group Ng, A (2017, January 25) Artificial intelligence is the new electricity Speech presented at Stanford MSx Future Forum in California, Stanford.

Patton, M. Q. (1999). Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis. Health services research, 34(5/2), pp. 1189–1208.

Pedro, F , Subosa, M , Rivas, A , & Valverde, P (2019) Artificial intelligence in education: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development Paris: UNESCO


Picciano, A (2019) Artificial intelligence and the academy's loss of purpose Online Learning, 23(3), Doi:10.24059/olj.v23i3.2023

PwC. (2017). Sizing the prize What’s the real value of AI for your business and how can you capitalise? Retrieved from pdf

Artificial Intelligence in Education and Schools Gocen, Aydemir

Research on Education and Media. Vol. 12, N. 1, Year 2020 - ISSN: 2037-0830 21

Roll, I., & Wylie, R. (2016). Evolution and revolution in artificial intelligence in education. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), pp. 582–599. Sekeroglu, B , Dimililer, K , & Tuncal, K (2019) Artificial intelligence in education: application in student performance evaluation Dilemas Contemporáneos: Educación, Política y Valores, 7(1), pp 1–21 Streubert, H. J., & Carpenter, D. R. (2011). Qualitative research in nursing. (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Subrahmanyam, V. V., & Swathi, K. (2018). Artificial intelligence and its implications in education In Int Conf Improv Access to Distance High Educ Focus Underserved Communities Uncovered Reg Kakatiya University (pp 1–11)

Timms, M. J. (2016). Letting artificial intelligence in education out of the box: educational cobots and smart classrooms. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26(2), pp. 701–712, Doi: 10.1007/s40593016-0095-y

Wartman, S A , & Combs, C D (2018) Medical education must move from the information age to the age of artificial intelligence Academic Medicine, 93(8), pp 1107–1109

Wogu, I. A. P., Misra, S., Olu-Owolabi, E. F., Assibong, P. A.. & Udoh, O. D. (2018). Artificial intelligence, artificial teachers and the fate of learners in the 21st century education sector: Implications for theory and practice. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 119(16), pp 2245–2259


Resources used

In terms of AI-infused specific technologies now being used in education, the list grows longer every day. Here are just a few:

Thinkster Math: described by its creators as a “math tutoring program leverages human interaction and groundbreaking artificial intelligence to create personalized learning programs ”

Jill Watson: an AI-enabled virtual teaching assistant introduced by the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2016

Brainly: a social media site for classroom questions

Nuance: speech recognition software used by students and faculty; capable of transcribing up to 160 words per minute; especially helpful for students who struggle with writing or have accessibility needs

Cognii: AI-based products, including a virtual learning assistant, for K-12 and higher education institutions, as well as corporate training organizations

KidSense: AI educational solutions designed for children, including a voice-to-text tool with algorithms built to recognize the sometimes harder-to-translate speech of young learners

Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.