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From the Editor Page Six Biksas Grow Room Page Eight 25 years of hydro The Ugly Page T en Page Thirteen DIY Hydro Flood n Drain Life Force and the Garden Page Sixteen Cropping Systems Page Eighteen Page Twenty Two WTF R QR Codes Page Twenty Two Crossfire CO2 GiveAWay NPK ABCs Exposed Page Twenty Three Curing Crops Page Twenty Four d n a Five S Twenty Page Harvest Like a Boss K N A H Sprays N Such Page Twenty Six T P r a i s e s y Tw o t r i h HydroScr ipts Page Twenty Eight T Pag e Gear Reviews Page Thirty

Evan Folds has a BS in Biology and a minor in Religion from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. He is the founder and president of Progressive Gardens (, a retail gardening store specializing in hydroponic and organic gardening techniques. And Progress Earth (, the global distributor of the Vortex Brewer® compost tea system, whose focus is growing healthy people, plants & planet! Evan is a contributing writer for reputable international publications, including Maximum Yield, Garden Culture, Urban Farm and many more. He resides with his wife and two children in Wilmington, NC.

Sp Co ec an ve ial th d r M T be e her od han Ca ac BIG D el, ks ad na ht da Du dud , Jad o . nc e Ti e an o m, n B. th C. e ,

Casey Jones Fraser

is an obsessed gardener. He grows veggies, herbs, and flowers with both traditional and hydroponic methods. His years of botanical experiences have taken him everywhere from Jamaica to Northern California on a quest for more knowledge. You can read his articles in various hydroponics magazines, or visit his retail shop: Garden Grove Organics in the Northern Kentucky region of Greater Cincinnati.

nhaus Jordan Garte

Jeff Edwards has been a fixture in the hobby hydroponic industry since 1988. Prior to joining, he was the Assistant Director at NORML. Jeff went on to found and operate Home Harvest Garden Supply as a retail and ecommerce concern for the next 24 years. He is a founding and current board member of the Progressive Gardening Trade Association, formerly known as the Hydroponic Merchants Association. More recently, he has been offering marketing, advertising, and web development services to manufacturers, distributor and retail hydroponic businesses. He also hates typos.


Table of Contents

Evan Folds:

t how or why s to figure ou ie nical tr s ay w al a BS in mecha ple that ed rn eo p ea e he os d th en at spent is one of they do. To th ized his time ay al w re e he th k ng or ti an things w r gradua around him th t shortly afte t everything ou ab s on engineering, bu ti ted more ques in school crea ses just answers. lf now he focu se m hi g in lm ends erwhe possible. He sp vent from ov ly re al p ic to if nt rt ie fo In an ef tful as is sc most of the rdens as frui to make the es ac sp mation ow on making ga gr quality auto timizing op es e at m oc ti v s ad hi lls ngly a lot of designs and se and also stro e, at bl th la y ai an p av m s co terest ns a resource conflict of in nce he co-ow si e th ld e ou it w sp He de but “why” of systems. n equipment, the “how” and io to at m in to t au gh si n their ow cellent in es provide ex he actually do ach him: re you want to gardening. If www.grohaus-a

-Jeff EdwardsContent Advisory & Edits

lb is a hard working member of the hydroponics industry that likes to share his knowledge-and ability for achieving extraordinairy yields with his fellow megawattage minded horticulturalists. He’s always working on improving crops, or if your prefer: taking clones 2 zones!

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-Click- on the Mobile sc reen or this HYPERLINK to have a look at our grow ing Vid Page

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t for doesn't exis imaginary s i h T , h s an thoroug plants! It' phorous from the tends to be ng food for g n i l s s o a h i quir raform of p developed with laws re to list ALL the ope and Aust uale grown and 's hope so, r v u a E h . s e ' w 0 n 0 o w 8 i o 1 let consumpt ready-and h places, act MPLETE well. Gosh, Edition 8 al Amazing stuff, lia, amongst hat the REAL and ents, the CO and i d e r g n i eh? tent have grown! body out there:) ly require t m of phosphorous ritional con t u n y r e ” v k e i Er thanks RELEVANT for law, and that rubbing “Ask my new more. m a I o S is listed by (phosphate). way for hange for e c k a e e m w g u o t h t a h a t t u t o t o c While n form is PO4 er: ever, the fa sure what's there is a d w a o , e H n h o i n t m a u c l i o l c b or ally this pu W as don't know f 's not has creor me person w that BY LA YOU o n k u o y t a d h big change f onally (the two i w D GMO and ufacturer hydronutrient man D TO LIST ALL and professi t all that far urge in home ek to a s a d e t a WE le se really aren' one another, ARE NOT ALLO EDIENTS OR STATE ics, as peop their food; n o p m o R r G f N I in removed OF YOUR OF know what's other great sharper with PERCENTAGES t E e H g T s F g O n y i n L h a after all). L t m A Few olumamongst . ? hydroponic c of the grow at home ya H o ; t a EACH ELEMENT e m s e i n n t o o s d a e e r v e a n h o I s i 9 9 e 9 u d Since 1 er nist's tong ns. I also sincolumn calle even ng laws diff In d i n l a l o ( e i b t s a p b l e w c e e x n droponics Q&A h e T f pec few A lot o to the USA. that my pers don't know “Ask Erik”. from Canada ets really incerely hope wn with knowlo veterans) lizer labelr d y h i the USA it g lmost every tive has gro ted and that the h about fert o happens I c I have anu m e m i t t a h t a During teresting: a different set of edge cultiv g, it just s garbage. inforn ed literi s g l s n e i r w d o d r a g r o l swered state has a d you may be redelivery of ips will be more . It's tota growing o d f o s d e r d n t u ally h criteria, an manufacturer to mation and with the times. cerns from y n t o e c i r d a n v a a s n h o questi quired as a each one as a current and ic world has e worked wit ics manufacv e-the col' b I o l g e h t r n e all ov pay a fee to . The hydropo ce 1999, and so BIG hydropon the years and n my faf e o e b n e t f o n s i umn ha manufacturer grown up s ime for the colrers through rst hand the he quiver. u t t n i w o r r a t fi vorite the it is also ave always loved experienced d archaic ideappeared in t the tip of s u j h s I i t n s a a i h Ask Erik has ations, before I h t s T d n um backwar yone who mingly other public up Grozine to eliver to an that are see ucrats iceberg. d s o e t i g o l o t . a r n e a e r t t u s s b i ve drohelped ycares to l there to ser stream ag compaivate the hy ple choose h own o e p f o n s i t a further cult o m L kople and big grow their sumers or pe -RIP Ask Eri ponic word. droponics to for concerns nies not con mprove home food food, often and then they p” oking to i cially in l o e e l p h s e o , t o s d e g i n r In doi “he t of health... ed to know exoduction. et, it can r n p r e t n i f o e the ag aren't allow hey are feeding h me ontrol who t c i % w o d t g e n e t i t l r n u a a c e r i b a f u be dif actly what t hey are going to Thanks for that little emome of the “g the State o l and what S a i r e t a m r u d o r has y the plants t share with othwhile I di der check-let's alysis” that ds (and even n a with it afte g n i o d e l r u a r they eat, or even ven nuttier when tional sho at throttle and abelling boa nada) request ial publica l t i n i s ' t i h t d it ha ers? It's e that manufacwind open deral in Ca ence-fictionre.... e things were e F h f i g n , i e l r l u o S r ci tion. you consider to share this really get there were are purely s e are going to d n a l a m r o f more turers WANT e gardener/conit could ics l values. W ut this over n a c o t p e o r , d s y m h a e f t o legal info with th The state North lk lots abo ditions, so I a cussion n t s i i d g n g i n l o l l e b a a e r avoid sumer. nutrient l eriously fucked. the next few all the candy in n do what fo s s i a l c l about who ca for how much. i i r p e e s s u Am won't fucked. Beca , it's going e. However, how long and Yes, I said So sit tight he lobby her example. t de . teresting ri ick d to s n u o i i q o g t n a i a s t ' e s t b u i j o , t y l And ultimate s up. We have us deal horous” g n i ahead... h t e dy a lot of labelling nteed “Phosp for ars, chang a a e e r y r a l u e A g h t e h h T g u o r es in label is all grown th ly and personalwith headach od we eat is n your fert ric anhydride). o l a c i n o o f p o , hydro not? where the P2O5 (phosph “In doing so s it GMO or li : d e n r ly speaking. attitudes and e c n o c ood labe Cheers, some of our ves may rwise, our f e h t O e i l e b ” “core

Biksas Grow Room

Eri k Bi ksa

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Q: Biksas Grow Room

I grow crops for their resin content and am not overly concerned with the plant material itself. We grow healthy plants, but they are processed and separated for their resin content. There doesn't seem to be a lot of in-

Do you have special tips, ideas or maybe anything we should pay extra attention to? We do this year round 24/7 and are pretty seri-

Cool a modern growing question and a very good one at that Yes, I tend to agree that while you are a hydroponics grower in many respects like others, there are some things that make what you are doing a little different; and therefore there are some things that you could tweak in your growing enterprises to “fit” your methods to your particular goals tighter. There are lots of commercial crops grown for the sole purpose of extracting the essential oil contents for a variety of uses, from culinary to spa therapy applications. Indoors in a controlled environment, growers have the opportunity to maximize the resin production via environmental manipulation and other management practices. You can even alter resin profiles in this method. Crops like Coriander and lavender have had significant levels of research performed on resin profiling and in some instances,

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formation in hydroponics circles that recognizes what we do is slightly different versus popular growing styles and plants with indoor gardeners. ous about it. Our separation process does a great job of separating resins from the plant material itself-we have that dialled in.

as related to environment. If you are seeking a “designer” resin profile as it relates to proportions of active compounds from your crop for processing, it is in theory possible to do, with some informal research, attention to detail with a critical and objective eye, and the ability to analyze the results accurately. Far RED wavelengths from special cropping LEDs and other light sources that reach beyond HPS in the spectrum are a natural way to coax and hardier and often heavier resin contents from your crop. Consider a finishing room with highly tailored LED wavelengths for the final ripening phase. It will be easier to control temperatures too versus HID lighting. Temperature is the number one governor of all living reactions, so that's naturally a place worthy of some experimentation for your resinating purposes. Whether you need to flush or not becomes an area of debate also. If your process separates the resins from the plant material; it may just be a waste of

your cropping time in the annual calendar that adds up. On the other hand, a good flush at ripening creates a stress which can often stimulate a higher resin content in the harvest. There is also the role of nutrition and bio-active substances and their influence; these can be significant, for example increasing resin contents by 5 to 10%. You don't need artificial PGRs; there are natural resin simulators that can be isolated from the natural kingdom and that may be available at your hydro shop. Please Check In Again-we'd like to share some of your findings with our fellow Groziners!

Hi g hest Regards Eri k Bi ksa eri k bi ksa @ grozi n e . com

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I I I T R A P O R D Y H F O S 25 YEAR By Jeff s d r a w d E In our Hydroponic History North-American Tour after seeing the GOOD and visiting the BAD, we now finally arrive at:

emish EB Note: Not for the Sque

the UG LY to e r e k H Clic Part I See

e to r e H k Clic t II r a P e Se


he ury t B s ' in Lets iness l g u old e st-th a p e th of hy e r u t fu cs is i n o p dro B t!!-E brigh

It's tough for an industry to grow and gain widespread mainstream acceptance when it's always under a seemingly misguided cloud of suspicion. And thanks to a U.S. Federal law enforcement operation that occurred 24 years ago, that cloud of suspicion has unfortunately for the most part remained.

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Operation Green Merchant was a coordinated and highly publicized drug enforcement effort by the U.S. Federal Government that raided dozens of hydroponic and indoor gardening stores back in 1989. Since that day, whenever I would tell someone that I owned a gardening store specializing in hydroponics, I'd invariably get the “Oh, you mean the stuff for growing pot”, or, worse yet, the person would walk away as if I had just told them I was a wanted criminal. One of the primary reasons the Hydroponic Merchants Association, now known as the Progressive Gardening Trade Association, was formed in 1997 was to fight this misperception. Yes, hydroponics could be used to grow illicit crops, but hey, guess what? It was originally developed as a method to grow food! The HMA's goal was to help educate the public that hydroponics was not just for pot. Underground growers adopted it because they quickly learned that it was a very effective method of space intensive cultivation. But most in the indus-

try at that time also recognized that it was a very effective method of space intensive cultivation for food as well.

the cops TV shows,” Robert Harte said.

As a result of this connection, retail hydroponic stores have occasionally been the target of covert surveillance by law enforcement presuming that everyone who shops at a store that sells hydroponic and indoor gardening supplies is breaking the law.

Of course, as they suspected, cops did find a hydroponic garden, in the basement.

Embaressingly this has led to instances of raids by law enforcement that have yielded nothing but legal plants.

Smash First, Ask Later: There was a recent well publicized event that happened just last year in Kansas, on April 20th, (EB Note-reallyon 4/20?!/ when Johnson County Sheriff deputies raided the home of two former CIA employees, Robert and Adlynn Harte, at 7:30 in the morning. The couple and their two young children were subject to a raid at gunpoint while authorities were looking for an illegal hydroponic garden. “It was just like on html

A hydroponic garden with six plants: three tomato plants, two butternut squash plants, and a melon plant. A hydroponic garden a father had constructed with his 13 year old son as an educational tool to learn about science and botany lighted with two T12 fluorescent shop light fixtures. Long story short, it appears that a drive to a Kansas City Hydroponics outlet put them onto radar-following that, tea leaves retrieved from their trash can were concluded to be an illegal substance-until lab results proved otherwise following. EB Note-We all know that police do raid illegal grow operations; in fact, a lot of the time they are doing so in accordance with the laws they are paid to enforce. However, mistakes can have devastating reuslts-all philosophical debates aside. >>>

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tore roponic s d y h e r a gly anded Just as u rposely h u p e v a h oro tomer inf owners wh s u c r i e h of t rsonover all cement pe r o f n e w a ve l selves ha m mation to e h t y e h use t gal nel, beca g in ille n i g a g n e ht deals been caug ve struck a h d n a s mation in activitie r o f n i h c e su While to provid freedom. r i e h t r ar o f ons are f i exchange t a u t i s es of law these typ lance by l i e v r u s w n that a fe rarer tha t c a f e h nt, t is enforceme ged in th a g n e e v a s h as bad apple s almost i y t i v i t c type of a t gets. i ugly as

NS COMPETITIVE SHENANIGA One of the early side effects of Operation Green Merchant and the associated ugliness that prevailed was the cohesiveness it brought to the hobby hydroponic industry. Since its inception, there has almost always been a collective soul among those in the industry. Even though everyone was competing against each other, the competition was always respectful of their fellow hydroponic industry peers. Each year, at the annual industry trade shows, hydroponic competitors would come together and work with each other to develop ways to expand the industry. The goal was to make sure that everyone would be able to prosper and create new opportunities for hydroponic and indoor gardening applications. This avenue of working together to increase the size of the pie was thought to be a more sustainable path than continuing to fight over an ever shrinking slice as more manufacturers brought their products to market and more retailers were opening their doors.

For many, many years, the hydroponic industry operated with this type of integrity and camaraderie. (EB Notelet's just say “for the most part”, shall we?/ Unfortunately, a select few players in the industry decided that cooperative efforts weren't part of their game plan; they wanted the whole pie and believed they could dominate the hydroponic market by attacking the very companies and people who laid the foundation for the industry they were now trying to conquer. EB Note-fair to say some of the same Founding people didn't want to share it either; especially with a force that had the ability to upstage them. These attacks weren't conducted in private. No, quite the contrary: t-shirts and posters were printed and distributed that attacked their competition in extremely vile depictions. /EB Note-like any WAR this sort of thing goes on ALL sides/


And speaking of ethical business practices, let's finish off The Ugly by calling out the practice of companies that are not completely up front with their customers about the contents of their products. In this day and age of sustainable food production, healthy lifestyles, and consumer awareness, misrepresenting the contents of a product can not only damage the brand in the long run, it damages the trust and reputation of the industry, and in worst case scenarios, can be harmful to the health of consumers. A fascinating article by the Oregon Department of Agriculture highlights the issue thusly with this quote by ODA fertilizer specialist Don Wolf, “There are different sec-

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tors of the marketplace. Some sectors behave very well. With others, it's a little more of the wild, wild west.” Wolf goes on to say, “Some folks have been around for a long time and are used to doing things correctly. Others have no background in agriculture or horticulture, and they think they can represent the product any way they wish. It doesn't work that way.” news/120822fertilizer.aspx

What riled up the ODA was the discovery of significant amounts of the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol in consumer fertilizer products that were marketed without any indication that the ingredient was in the bottle. The problem is, paclobutrazol is a poten-

Videos were produced and publicly promoted that denigrated not only the companies that helped build this industry, but contained completely inappropriate and unnecessary personal attacks as well. Fake user accounts were created on growing boards where company personnel would pretend to be growers, trashing competitor's products and denigrating anyone who had anything bad to say about their products. EB Note-that STILL goes on; AND on ALL Sides now by several the Big Guys, while some DO have more tact than others... Accusations were made that only a select few “good ole boys” somehow controlled an entire industry that had grown to employ several thousand people-seemingly with no real hard evidence to back up this BIG Claim. tially harmful chemical that requires registration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To be fair, the company highlighted in the ODA article is only one of several that have brought adulterated, mislabeled, and/or unsafe products to the consumer hydroponic market. Poorly designed non-certified electrical, ventilation, and lighting equipment; mislabeled pesticides and soil mixes; tubing and tent materials that produce plant toxic off gassing; and products that just don't work as claimed, are just a few examples where greed or a rush to market has ruled over common sense and ethical behavior, and as a result, have created further industry mistrust.

The hobby hydroponic and indoor gardening industry is still in its toddler stage; we have a long way to grow. But it's only with integrity and sound business ethics that we will eventually bring hydroponic trust and practice to the millions of potential hydro homes around the globe. Many thanks to all who contributed ideas for this series of articles, and many thanks to Erik Biksa and Grozine for giving me the opportunity to share. Despite the bad and the ugliness, the hydroponic industry is for the most part populated by caring, ethical members-the GOOD- with whom I enjoy very much interacting with. I very much look forward to being a part of the next 25 years of hydro and hope our paths cross at some point during the journey! Good growing!

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D.I.Y. HYDRO System: you need: 2’ X 4” Lumber

1” X 6” Lumber

6 mil Polyethylene sheeting

1/2” Plywood

Thruhull fittings

Eggcrate (white plastic grid stuff)

Plumbing & Reservoir

Tape measure

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Wood screws

Power saw


Ho-Made Drain Flood & Table ny A r o f y s a E Size YOUR 100% FREE -Original-Paperless Hydroponics Publication

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n u ca em, o y t lly, ur sys u are a e d o o I te y if y bout toma ially us a big” c o e i p r s e w e ly s “gro real ng or i ing. grow garden mple i when s e s, a ammabl c i s ba ogr For ded pr ething n m egrou r so e incr o r t time 5 minu e great b de h wit ill lso w a te s n itia g ment You ca n i n o too. when t nspecti p m i e pu cide le by h t c g a cy lippin ing off f hutt and s d n on a lly. a even manu s i low buck f a y it th Grav ble wi y. i e poss d pull n et a

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s e y e r u o y ll o r e r e th t u ill make some of you o

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Those that call the use of the word “energy” in regards to gardening “nutty” and find solace in believing only what can be “proven” or that which is based on gathering only observable and replicable evidence may not allow themselves to grasp the significance of these concepts. That's ok, one can grow plants without paying attention to this sort of stuff. All that is being asked and considered here is what you may be missing. Know that it can always be better. Consider that human logic is a figment of our imagination. Sort of like, there is no circle or straight line in Nature, those are human inventions. Nature works in chaos and vortexes, life

d In school we spen nplenty of time co gs sidering how thin ific ec fall down at sp calrates using fancy mous or culations and en chilamounts of young but dren’s brain power, em fail to invite th ture to imagine that Na may works in ways that connot fit into our By venient equations. litdefining Nature in rms, eral and rigid te f to of we cut our nose spite our face. s of There are all sort at questions here th if are not answered, first e even asked in th ts place. Why do plan volnot decompose when comunteers grow in a warm post pile? Why do blooded animals re the tain heat against Why forces of entropy? dedoes our body not die? compose until we flowd Why is the bloo

before ing in an embryo ed? the heart is form rry ca How does water fluout homeopathic in on ence or organize of surfaces at orders than magnitude higher rces the measurable fo Why say they should? indo clouds coalesce e? stead of dissipat at we And on and on. Wh ves are telling oursel ppenis not what is ha ing. ese The main reason th concepts go unexoks plained in text bo ifor general scient use ic circles is beca anathey lack an expl atly tion that fits ne ninto the human co ienstructs of the sc tific method. e Because of this th d be research that woul the needed to “prove” rmerits of the supe ual it sensible or spir nted science are discou

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doesn't replicate and it is defined and held together by energy. This is life force, the immaterial component of life that defines life. Consider the authority by which we present the shape of a water molecule or the structure of an atom. Our microscopes are not yet strong enough to actually see a molecule of water, certainly not an atom. We are very good at telling ourselves that we have it all figured out. But we don’t, may never, and that is ok. Think of life force in this way; why does a plant respond to the waxing moon? Why does a plant grow up to begin with considering the force of gravity?

e out of hand becaus ly they are not easi hapreplicated. This ynampens with the BioD o woo ic method. The wo rns of burying cow ho that creates a vacuum es to collectively serv nce ignore the releva of the action. es The subtle energi nance that work in reso are to organize life obnot only mostly un n servable, but ofte . times unmeasurable inan How do you see nal crease in nutritio a value from food on Not supermarket shelf? easy. thod The scientific me aliis not kind to qu ion, tative considerat this and unfortunately hdefines the nouris food r ment value of ou e of and the life forc in. our world we live ualWhat’s the saying…q ity not quantity.

It's a tricky question if fully considered. Most would say that a plant is responding to the extra gravity of the full moon that is pulling the plant up. That's what our text books tell us, like they do the tides. But think about it, a plant resists gravity by growing up and the gravitational force from the moon is not strong enough to influence a plant growing on Earth. In other words, in a tug of war, Earth wins.

e c r o F e f Li

By Evan Folds

& the Garden

The scientific method is not kind to qualitative consideration, and unfortunately this defines the nourishment value of our food and the life force of our world we live in. What's the saying…quality not quantity. The concept of “life force” is hard to define, but most would agree there is a force of life. Our whole is certainly more than the sum of its parts. We can argue all day long trying to define this force, but it shouldn’t prevent us from taking advantage of it. Think of it this way, there is absolutely no explanation as to why worm castings are ten times higher in calcium relative to what they eat, or how a chicken can lay an egg every day without eating enough calcium to produce it, but that doesn't stop us from using worm castings and eating eggs. Right?

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-NEWS I H T WIN rol! t n o C 2 CO ter OSSFIRE

to En y s a E Super


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Developing and following a cropping system that works for YOU and your PLANTS can be your AceIn-The-Hole for bigger growing gains. Agriculture is like gambling;

it's always risky-but there are systems that work. Cropping Systems allow you to repeat your wins again and againlet's get started.’s all about what fits YOU! A good cropping system shouldn't be complicated. Rather, a proven and repeatable recipe for continued growing success. It's like a good fit; hand in glove. And that's essentially what we are talking about here-one thing fitting into the next. For our growing context, it relates to our cropping cycle and style: How big are your plants at harvest, how many of them will occupy a given area, and how long does it take in each phase? These are the basics, which you should be able to answer before continuing along the chain of thought in de-

veloping a system. Next, either through experience or research, can you identify how big the plants are for upper spacing and root space purposes in each of these distincy grow phases: i.Pre-Veg: to about 10 days after cuttings root ii Veg: from just a few days to months. 2 to 3 weeks is average iii.Pre-Flower: to Harvest: when it comes to feeding, there's sub phases like early peak and ripening, but for spacing plants should usually be in the final spot they will be harvested from; crops don't like getting disturbed too much once bloom starts.

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Let's run through an example of a real working hydroponic cropping system model that's relatively easy to replicate or repeat. But lets work backwards, shall we? At harvest, four plants reach maturity in an activecirculation DWC (Deep Water Culture) hydroponics system. This one happens to be a UCXXL by Current Culture. The four plants will finish from 18” to 36” tall, depending on what strain and plant type is grown, amongst other factors. For an efficient garden under lights,

there is little stem or stretch-so a lot of harvestable AAA+ material can be grown from the top of the plant all the way to the bottom. What's the point of growing it bigger, than pruning the bottom off later anyways? Especially true in hydroponics. Just because there is a denser harvest up top; ie more weight in less space doesn't mean there doesn't need to be more space at the bottom-or better yet-more efficient use of root space. With a good depth of travel for roots coupled with more

efficient uptake of water and minerals via super aeration in the UCXXL, the root system is super-charged to support big yields in less space. The entire system occupies about one square meter for a lineal foot print, and about half a meter for root depth, one meter from plant height, than finally an additional meter for lamp clearance and the overhead crop lighting itself. Nothing that you couldn't fit into a decent walk-in sized closet-or replicate to the tune of a warehouse-sized installation. >>>

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In this par ticular cro pping system, the pl ants were f lipped into the bloom p hase just a few days af ter they we re transpla nted in to UCXXL. Does the n't sound l ike much ti does it? me, The plants were alread y well branched an d had a roo t system de veloped tha t was just waiting to plode on tr e xansplant. That happen in the stag ed e before: V EG.

You can grow a plant to a good sized transplant in hydroponics without needing a whole lot of space versus soil gardening methods. In hydroponics, upper green portions can stay tight and compact,

while a substrate like Rockwool can house a strong feeding root system in a relatively small space. The magic of more oxygen and easier nutrient absorption is evident versus soil when you VEG in Hydro.

In this system, the plants are vegged-out in a homebuilt flood and drain system under MH (metal halide) lighting. A high Kelvin (K) rating looks very “blue” to our eyes, but it encourages very tight and squat growthperfect for hydroponics! They come in at 6” tall and leave at about 2-3X that.

Pre-Veg is an importan t and often phase; its overlooked when your p l ants ramp u covery/esta p from reblishment t o full on g propagation rowth. Duri ie cuttings ng or seedling are kept in s, plants a tender en vironment. a transitio Pre-veg is nal environ ment with t feeding and r ansitional spacing to get plants “the big wo ready for rld outside ”. Outside your covere being out f d trays. In or this exampl spend about e the plants 10 days get ting establ pre-treated ished into rockwool cu bes. Spacin square per g plant is about 6” Cutti n Jiffy gs get s t this 7 peat s arted in t g c from ropping arter pel ood 'ol s l h be re igh-tech ystem. W ets in h liabl t ile f hey and u e suall and are have prov ar file en to y che easy f hole its perf ap. The to find e r s this ized roc ctly into ound pro kwool phase large fit s , a l c u b e s nug i o n a s t of pla . In n tanda t rd 10 s can 20 tr ay

The plants spend 2 to 3 weeks growing in larger sized rockwool cubes and grow rock filled pots after transplant from PRE-VEG

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Rock Resinator incorporates cutting edge blending technologies to provide a consistent and reliable product, with the results delivered sure to Rock your grow! Rock Resinator is easy to use and concentrated too! For most applications, just add Rock Resinator beginning the second week of flowering through harvest at a rate of 4mL per gallon of nutrient solution for a mild solution. For a stronger solution, use up to 8mL per gallon. Always shake well before use. Trusted by Growers Rock Resinator is used and trusted by thousands of plant growers, both professional and hobbyist, around the globe. -Suitable for all grow systems and media -Stronger and high quality components -Long shelf life elements -NO PGRs!

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? ? ? E M R O F O D A N N O G T A H T S I WTF If you have been out and about cruising the world at all, over the last few years you are likely seeing an increasing number of QR codes in your line of sight. Most younger or tech tech-saavy folks are already on board with what they are, while some still have not made the discovery.

QR codes can not only save you money (EB Note: Oh man, how “Infomercial” is that: “who here wants to save money?! Lol) but they can help you in a variety of other ways: from improving your garden even to increasing your personal health; straight up. QR Codes or “Quick Response Codes” are accurately named. According to Wiki, Denso, a subsidiary of Toyota, invented the QR in 1994 to track vehicles during manufacture because it allowed for high speed component scanning. And that's just perfect for those of us who accomplish a lot through our mobile devices on the fly. How many times has your interest in something been tickled that invited you to “act” for example, by visiting a website to learn more or to cash-in on a special offer via mail order? You totally were into it, but by the time you could get stationary enough to type in that long domain name on your tiny %$#*'n keyboard or made it back to your desktop it just seemed like workif you even remembered. Consider how many of your “sparks” or inspirations in the modern day get lost this way. These little moments can literally be your opportunity to grow. We aren't talking about fifty cents off your bread crumbs coupon type of thing, no, not at all. With a QR Code App on your mobile, you just use the camera lens from your phone to scan the QR code; the response is QUICK! Instead of taking minutes fumbling around, having to stop what you are doing already, etc to see a website, you will be there on your mobile in a heartbeat-all without even breaking your stride heading down the supermarket aisle way. And if you don’t have time to review what sparked

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your interest immediately, scanning the QR code now will hold the link in memory for when you do have time! Think of it as your own personal Tivo for websites! The label on most of the food items you buy has a QR code-want to know more about what's in that stuff your are thinking about (or have been) putting into your body? QR codes are first class ways to get to know more about the various food products you buy quickly, and yes, they can even save you money by instantly sending your mobile device as special offer coupon that can be used at your point of purchase. Remember that “Quick Response is what we are using here. And it's not complicated to get or use. You can literally be up and running with QR codes from your mobile device in less than one minute. Really, it's true, we promise. There are many 100% FREE Apps that put QR technology right into the palm of your hand in seconds. We tried and like An increasing number of hydroponics manufacturers, vendors and services are tapping into the technology. Think of those times, when you are standing over your reservoir, nutrient product in hand saying “man, I wish I hadn't lost that chart...should I use this right, and how much”? If you have a mobile device with a camera, you can simply scan the jug and BOOM! You should have all of the information you need right at your fingertips-perhaps even live tech support chat. If you haven't tried using QR Codes, we suggest that you do. It's quick, easy, free, and makes your life easier while potentially saving you money. These groovy little squiggle pictures are the perfect bridge from the physical world to the digital plane-go ahead... scan one, and see for yourself!

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In our “From t he Editor” Section this E dition we told you ferti lizer labelling laws in N orth America were largely “ F@#%ed”.

is This isn't “Fertilizers 101”. Th

seems is a hard blast that nobody else rrent to be prepared to take at the cu labelstate of hydroponics fertilizer some ling in the United States, and to extent, Canada.

We are going to be ta lking about an issue that effects anyone who grows at home, es pecially if they grow with more modern hydroponic and organic crop nutrient formulat ions. This journey started quite a while ago-see the original email print out here on right-It's time th at everyone understand s whats goin on here and what it means to you. Because it does mean something.

thing overWe aren't expecting to change any who knows night. This will be part ONE in e. It's how many parts to get the job don to get passed likely that the torch is going ent Fertback and forth from a few differ the truth, Heads as we go along to expose in what we and stimulate meaningful change er gardens. deem a serious problem to whomev

er “P” Lesson One: The Lettthe Right. Look at the orignal email on

ies list Phosphorous P2O5 is what the LAW makes compan problem isn't that as on your fertilizer label. The her they are looking they want an element listed, rat 0s that has little if for a chemical form from the 180 use as fertilizer. anything at all with what plants research you follow, use Your plants, depending on what This is something that Phosphorous as PO4 (phosphate). form that your plants does in fact exist, and in the uld really know? take up. Isn't ths what you sho “P” in the North AmeriThat makes products with a high eptive. Its like being can labelling system rather dec l for your tank-when in sold a high sounding octane fue less “filler” that jacks reality, there is plenty of use any more “Go Power”. up the value but doen't give you d out how wrong this Our guess? After someone figure y then said “oh jeez, idea was -ie, does not exist-the so the game has conour shit sounds weak now”....and track...more to come! tinued. Lets get things back on

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t s e v r a H Post A K A g n i s s e c o e s Pr a h P y e n o M e h T

Vanilla beans are worthless until they take on the “vanillin” aromatics and flavours that we know. To coax them out requires a process. This principal is not exclusive to vanilla-are you getting EVERYTHING out of what you grow and harvest? Find out how...

Image courtesy of Bouba/CC-BYSA-3.0 Uncured vanilla beans

It's human nature to get so immersed in details that sometimes we lose sight of the big picture. Post-harvest processing is a crucial step in producing the highest quality crop possible, but how many times have you seen a new grower invest thousands into the latest and greatest growing equipment only to throw the finished product in a dark closet with a fan blowing on it? Isn't that a bit like investing in the topof-the-line home theater equipment, only to hook it all up to an old Zenith tube television? Ignoring or skimping on curing your crop could be the difference between a satisfactory product, and a really special treat worthy of savoring.

Curing your crop is important because biological activity within a plant doesn't just cease when you harvest it. The sugars, starch, water and chlorophyll within the plant continue to change as the plant material dries. Inhibiting or hastening this natural

So what's the right way to cure your newly harvested crop? Maybe not surprisingly, it really depends on what it is that you're growing. For instance, vanilla doesn't even take on its

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chemical process can lead to unpleasant tastes, odors, and even mold if not done properly. So it's vital that this process is carried out properly, or really, much of the diligent work performed in growing the plant was for naught.

wonderfully aromatic characteristics (mostly due to the production of an organic compound called “vanillin”) until it's been properly cured, which involves a regimented series of heating and drying cycles.

n here is implicatio e h T uits, lows time smaller fr t a h t ause it al c e b will basisportation or flowers n u a s o r e y t i g , e g t h e i t v t for Withou ents to dry tasteless, rable elem less time i a s e e k e d a v n t a u h f y o s call perts ant (e.g. er example x l g E p r a . e l n h a t n e a b n h i t with s odorless “killl) to area l t y s h r p i o f r will. o t l s h c rsugge u f ” , e g b n i n t a a c “swe where they mined ing,” then g n i y r down. d u've deter n o e e y g k a o e t r c s b n O i r t e th “a mul y it's a final crop is dr d n e a h t ” s s e c ng. pro tep for e accomstart curi s b o ” n t g a n c e i m n g i o n t i i Dry ur o be “condit placing yo is meant t tedium is y g s b n i i h d r T e u h C . s a i l l t p m vanil cess, so i ed in sealed roo o r r i a p u q n w e i o r l t s y s l e a harv mwer the absolute onstant te ense to lo the most c s x a s a e o t k c a a m o d t l he order ty, f d raise and humidi avor out o erature an l e p f r m u e d t t n a a r e a p m . 55aro , and stant, but dity a bit n n i a o m e c u b h h a t e l i h l w t i and the van . midity arieties r movement elative hu v i r a t % n e 5 a l 6 l t p n e is r g othe to start degrees F ing in t 5 r e 6 u g c r 5 a 5 m t o d r d n f o a A go oint. benefit starting p s. out 45-55% e b d e a o r o g s g e i d a h g t ng n i w varyi final dryi 5-75*F. 6 , g d n n o a l y s t i i h T humid ample t hard and will give o n s s e e r c y a o n r a e p s b e Th eakdown of thum . As for the br es however Some rules l e t u m s r i u t j t s r a o f f ploy ted you es and sug o h n c r y a l t one can em s s u o f i o m prev l comcrop to i ur particu o flavorfu o t y n i about any d a n s l i r f f a d y n a re's m aroma a slightly though the s l e A k i . l s d prove its p n o u r o p lar c or ow harvest: limit to h emperature t l a t e vor after n r e r o e n f f edi oint to n cure som p a c e h u T o y . y g t n t lo humidi t oint s to firs you'll wan ere is a p h s t i The idea i , e g m n o i h h s t s e tak ckly eturns. move exce r crop qui inishing r u m o i quickly re y d t n y f a r o l d p o ake e t rom th revent the probably m p l o l t ' u s o moisture f a y h o g S enou , n your otherwise on of mold mination o i r t e a t that could r e d e d n f a i a l , o efh pr d growt as to e crop is h h g t u o n n e e h w invite mol w o n ow but sl iing the remain Drying typ y done cur l . e y v l i then allow n t e e c h v e t e f n dry week rror, re withi s about a h trial, e e g k u ing moistu a o t r h f y t i l d l a rite o c f rial t he type o sonal favo t r e n p o y g m plant mate n . i d t d n u n a depe iy througho ling. ty, and in i s n fuse evenl e d g n , part: samp i p y o r r d c w . o t l n s e re cont This final ial moistu tant t r o p m i s i process

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How to

ious screen Cont.'d from prev

d curing of your drying an cy ca fi ef e th at re ushere th the equipment you' of y It's worth noting it al qu e th ly coupled to process is direct ing. gromdity with a $15 hy mi hu d an e ur at er don't be g the temp If you're measurin from Walmart, then ht ug bo u yo r te es pay combo me ble. It really do ra si eter/thermometer de an th ss le ur harresults are ent if you take yo pm surprised if your ui eq t en em ur as orm quality me something you perf is s op off to invest in cr ed sh ni d not d if curing fi process. This woul e vest seriously. An th te ma to au to make sense also make regularly it may ess, but it would oc pr ur yo of n roller io precis A simple HVAC cont . es only improve the ak st mi to e gulating a and less pron llent tool for re curing consistent ce ex an ke ma n ca rdening used for indoor ga well as growing. room for curing as est, but it g step of any harv in sh ni fi ed ok as lo n over the final product to t Curing is an ofte an rt po im as ng is almost ast a little shouldn't be. Curi not to take at le on as re no ly al ere's re being stored growing is, so th uce is drying and od pr ur yo re unsu make of your labor will ts bit of effort to ui fr e th , se ca ually the properly. As is us rded. doubtedly be rewa

Cured Vanilla Beans

for the best q uality possible for your marketing adv antage, stateof-theart post harv est environment al control that allo ws your harve st to ride the necessary environmental p eaks and valleys af ter you pick o r cut to achieve the Ult imate in croppin g perfection can be created via cu stom automation and c ontrols.

Custom autom ation solutions are available for a variety of gro wing related applicat ions-you just need to ask. email



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Like T S A E V R HA

Save a l time a ot of nd lab or by kee ping e xcess f oliage a mini t mum du o ri ripeni ng; gr ng ow ers wh o pluc k leaves during croppi ng, do n' spend as muc t h time t rimmin g later.

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Welcome all whom are joining us in another dope edition of Grozine, the paperless publication turning thumbs from black to green. To those who take the time to read my journals I hope thus far I have proven to be a good source for your cropping needs. After all everything that is written is based off of trial and error, fortunately for you, you're getting the goods without experiencing the errors. I wanted to write today about Foliar Sprays, this article is meant to be tied with my past journals dealing with custom Feed

Schedules, i.e. Bottle Rockets, Short Squats. First off, I like to break up Foliar Sprays into categories as to what they affect during the plant cycle. Roots, shoots, leaves, flowers, stems, pests are all examples.

Roots: Rhizotonic/Heavy 16 Roots Shoots: Bud IGNITOR/ SeaWeed Leaves: HB-101/Heavy 16 Foliar/ Canna Boost Accellerator Stems: Heavy 16 Foliar/APTUS Fasilitor Flowers:APTUS Fasilitor/ Canna Boost Accellerator Pests: Take Down Garden Spray Monterey

Today I am going to focus on the foliar sprays I used with my custom feed schedule. While there are hundreds of different foliar sprays a gardener can use to help boost their crop, I usually stick with only a few to meet all of my goals. Here is a chart to better visualize what sprays I use and for what reason:

THE lb l a n r u o J



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I'm rays as if p S r a i l o F tain necesonsider cer . It's not m a e r C e I like to c c I or it damn girls out f r diet, but i e h t taking the s d r a w sential to sary and es them happy. sure makes ist. ys-see my l a r p s n i a t r th ce is a hat only wi B-101 which H e k i l Now I say t y a r sp ess, Jue a Foliar racts (Cypr t x e For instanc t n a l p n a different be used whe n a c ) e e r grouping of t ine l vitaltain, and P th as a cel l a e h niper, Plan m u m i t ready in op plant is al izer. ee ng as you s i s a e l p y l l visua mornare always ts the next h g i l e h t The results s d Now most fo aying towar r . p e r s o t f n e a b l p t h the the nig as if pplication crop. Where e h t o t l a ing after a i ent ome sort are not ess xperience s e y l l liar sprays a u s u r sprays out, you'll rtain Folia e c you go with t u B . y c , in my deficien plant cycle e h t f o of nutrient e m i tothe right t e, leading v g i n t i c r e u f d f e d e y add e highl ct. proven to b lding produ e i y r e i v a eyes, have e nd h r quality a wards highe wn nd break do a t s i l y m dd to plant t I would a part of the t a h w g So I though n i r u I use and d what sprays them. cycle I use

RHIZOTONIC: This product is used to encourage root growth and help with stress the plants might encounter during the cycle. I use twice a day when cuttings are transplanted out of domes into first containers as they are developing roots. I also use as a weekly spray when plants are in veg. Spray used as stress reliever if plants encounter

shock from light intensity change, Temperature flux, Humidity drop, etc. HEAVY 16 ROOTS: This product is made up of a special Fulvic acid which helps with root development. I use this product primarily in the reservoir when I feed but I also use at half strength as a Foliar spray once a week when plants are immature in vegetative growth.

lthe plant to deve es us ca at -SHOOTSth t uc st week is a SeaWeed prod use this spray la I BUD IGNITOR: This s. te si g in er spray 2-3 tage of flow bloom as a Foliar op a higher percen of s ek we o tw t the firs of Veg and during times a week.

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-text cont.'d from previous screen-LEAVESHB-101: This is a unique product composed of four different plant extracts. I use this product with every grow as a cell vitalizer for the plant. This product helps with nutrient uptake and adds to overall plant health when used as a Foliar. Use 1 ml per liter and spray all throughout plant cycle ending around week 4 of bloom. Heavy 16 Foliar: This is another great product from Heavy, works similar to HB-101 as a plant vitalizer but also contains some nutrition for the plant to help aid during stressful periods

of the plant cycle. Used during transition into flower to provide four forms of calcium along with a dusting of micronutrients to help kick a quality onset for early flower. Canna Boost Accelerator: This is a product I've mentioned in past feed schedules, I really stand by this product and have seen enough results that I won't grow without it. Now Canna Boost is very expensive so I suggest using it as a Foliar at max strength in order to stretch it out to get more for your money. Use as Foliar once a week in Veg and up to week 5 of flower, then incorporate into reservoir in last weeks.

-FLOWERS-STEMSHeavy 16 Foliar: (See description of product above.) APTUS Fasilitor: This is a newer product for the North American market but is well known overseas in the Netherlands. This is a product that contains Silicic acid which is an immediately bio-available silicon which helps add thickness to the caliber of stock and also helps with the nutrient uptake.

APTUS Fasilitor: -See description of product aboveCanna Boost Accelerator -See description of product above-

olce p t n a r insu ide tha y m ic s is i um pest leave a e h T t ctr ey: onc nter oad spe oils tha spray o M y br a 2% Spra lant s a s p i n a e S h s m. d e T t -PES own Gar ant. Thi long wi s. I us nto bloo D a l i ve Take r the p inside our lea I flip o y s f re to rum icy befo ine reth e h y m s p i e t thy has heal one mor e c ni nd eg a V n i

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So a guy walks into a Hydro Store...

Preface -- So a customer walks into the

store excited that summer is ending-for most the fun is ending, but for some it's only beginning; especially when it comes to indoor gardening. It went something like THIS:



Customer: Well I'm glad things are cooling down outside. This makes it easier to run my 1000 watt lights.

Fraser s e n o J y e s a C g in r tu a Fe

CJF: Are you prepared for winter growing conditions?

Customer: Man, I've pulled two harvests in this heat and the central air was running constantly. Running in the winter should be much easier. How would I need to prepare?

CJF: Buying an air conditioner, for starters.

Customer: :O -makes crazy faceCJF: You won't be running your central air, now that the nights are getting cold. You'll be running your central heater! With multiple 1000 watt lights, you'll still need air conditioning inside the garden, even though you need heat in the rest of the house. Shut off the vents to the grow room and add an AC unit. Customer: It is getting too cold in the house. I was going to shut off the central air, but I didn’t think about the effect on the grow room temps. What are some cheap options? CJF: Portable air conditioners are okay. They're cheap and easy to install. Get a unit with dual hoses; one for the intake and one for exhaust. Single hose units can pull stinky grow room air, sending it out the window. Since the dual hose models cool themselves with outside air, the grow room air stays inside. That is also important if you want to use CO2 supplementation. Customer: I don't want to give up the floor space required to add a portable AC. And I don't think that would be enough cooling power for my setup. I just added more lights and a natural gas CO2 generator. CJF: Split AC units are a better option anyway. Basically, you install a small unit outside, on some cinder blocks. Then, drill a hole in your house for a copper line set that connects to the indoor unit, which mounts to a wall inside your grow room. Customer: I've seen those, and I know they work. What else is out there? What's the best possible option? I mean, if I'm willing to get something really nice... opr my me d i s n e tri o m c o s l me I'l show ool. C u o : y r me st? an Custo Now... c or harve do . tions or my out f mers

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CJF: Unless you've got your own professional HVAC installation expert, Excel Air Systems are the top of the line. These are dedicated, large, high-end climate control systems. You can even get them with full heating and UV sterilizers, as well as damper systems to cool multiple gardens. These units are customized specifically for grow ops, and the company will talk you through the entire process.

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g n i t a e h d e l o o c r i a y

r t n a c u o y y l e v i t a altern

-Cont'd from Hydro Scripts, Previous ScreenIf you live in a Northern climate, or if you only have one or two lights, you may not need air conditioning. Regardless of a/c, you can always use air-cooled hoods to heat your living space. Instead of running outside air to cool your lights, vent in-house air through those HID hoods. For example, you could use an inline blower to pull air from your kitchen, through your aircooled lights, and then out into your living room. Of course, the specific rooms would be determined by the layout of your house. If your grow op is in the basement, you might be able to use pre-existing floor vents. Just disconnect them from the HVAC system and cap off the pipes. Once the pipes are capped, connect flex duct to the floor vents, and hook it all up with lights and a high-quality inline fan.

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t r e the straight dope < E x p GH Liquid Ph Test Kit

Hydro Product Reviews

Admittedly, we have always been a big fan of this kit/concept since we first got our mitts on one back around ‘98. pH is worth checking and monitoring because it is important; it has a lot to do with nutrient uptake by crops and can make a difference in your harvest. Digital is nice but it’s expensive to buy-and needs constant calibration. Replacement is inevitable after a year or two of regular use.. A cheap and reliable pH liquid test kit that can be had just about anywhere in the world, even if by mail. puts this important crop management tool into just about any growers hands

What: a liquid pH test kit for crop feeding solu-

tions and sprays. fits in your pocket and just needs 3 drops of the reacting fluid to tell you, by colour, what your pH is.

GZ Rated: Always a good buy. BUT, for as long as

it’s been around we are surprised that they haven’t improved the label quality. The color is bang-on, but they must KNOW hands are wet when handlinglabel disintegrates quickly before bottle is empty. We lose the tiny plastic test sample vial a lot of the time too.

T-103s have become expensive junction boxes.

rock Resinator WOW. Straight up: WOW. We usually don’t get this excited about bloom boosters, given that there are so many that all pretty much have the same ingredients and ultimately perform the same.

and quality, especially in the area of resin production.

GZ Rated-Resinator resonates very strongly in the mind of GZ. Tested-and we love it. We tried it with the whole program (5 bottles), in soil but imagine it would perform just as well in any program for mid to late bloom and budding phases. Did we mention tastes is smoooooooth in harvests?

intermatic T103 Timer The Intermatic “T” Series mechanical electrical timers have been around forever. The T-103 and T-104 being the most popular in the Hydro-Trade with growers looking for simple, affordable and reliable timers; especially for high amperage loads like HID lighting. The T-103 can accept a 110/120V trigger for a 220/240 V load flip whcih some of us find handy.

What-A series of industrial mechanical timers that are rated for handling higher amperage loads like those from grow lighting systems., especially when multiple lights are being operated.

GZ Rated-We used to love these.., and well,

they seem to be garbage within one year of common hydroponic application usage. We aren’t talking about bad connection or anything-just repeating failures, one replacement after the other-almost always within around one year of use. While the T-104 doesn’t handle the 120/110 input, it has proven to be far more reliable for HID lighting applications-well at least to date, but that’s what we thought about the 103 for years.

The results and product appearance suggest something different here from down under. Still packs a nice bump of phosphorous and potassium like the others, but clearly there is some biological magic in there too that really does set this one apart.

What-A liquid bloom booster/fortifier from Rock Nutrients. Product is intended to increase yields

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Growing Catastrophes, we skipped it in this one An Intelligent Look at Lighting

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Gnarly Interactive Original Hydroponics-Inspired Layouts and THE BEST Grow Tips and Articles by only the Finest Hydro Writers. An Erik Biks...

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