Ground Report India :: January 2012

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GROUND REPORT INDIA January 2012

Volume: 04 Issue: 01

Price: FREE

ISSN 1839-6232

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Editor Vivek Umrao Glendenning Editorial Board (Hon.) John Szemerey P. K. Siddharth Chandra Mishra N. S. Venkataraman Kalindi Kokal Yora Atanasova Sanghmitra Mondal Dr Lenin Raghuvanshi Dr Sheela Daga Dr Surendra Pathak Krishnaraj Rao Vivek Umrao Glendenning Executive Team Sachin Raj Singh Chauhan Harjeet Singh Chahar Kumari Anamika Agrawal Vivek Umrao Glendenning Field Team Vivek Umrao Glendenning Goldy M George Ramnarendra Neeraj Mishra Anokh Kumar Abhay Kushwaha Dr Jagdeeshwar Kumari Anamika Harjeet Singh Chahar Prafull Chandra Ghosh Dr Dheerendra Mira Sinha and others Design Vivek Umrao Glendenning Phone: +61 2 80057581 Email:

Editorial

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An important announcement for journalists of rural, semi urban and non metro city areas 6 Columns CASH CROPS, FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS & THE STATE OF KERALA 9 THIS ONCE AGAIN PROVES THAT UNLIKE DEVELOPED NATIONS INDIANS GO BY MOMENTARY PASSION AND NOT BE HARD LOGIC :: Why Anna Hazare fell ???? 12 FDI IN RETAIL – DANGER SIGNAL FOR THE INDIAN ECONOMY Proportionate Electoral System – An Urgent Need

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The mask is off. Team Anna and his lieutenants are batting for the BJP

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Reports Sikkim Disaster :: “Khushi Punarvaas-2012” on 9th Jan 2012 at Sirifort Auditorium, New Delhi 14 Illegal detention in police custody

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Murderous assault and criminal intimidation to a member of religious minority by the perpetrator BSF jawans 16 Arsenic removal from ground water by Common Rust Method Waste Rust Filter Media 22 International India: Prosecute Security Forces for Torture Recent Abuse Cases Reinforce Need to Enact Prevention of Torture Bill 7 Government Joint Statement by India and Thailand on the State Visit of Prime Minister of Thailand Yingluck Shinawatra to India 31 Research Report

editors@groundreportindia.com

Tribal’s Health In Social Sector Development; An Inter District Comparison

All positions are voluntary.

Palladium : Phoenix Market City

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Editors’ Desk

Activism, Heroism and a Puppy named Bolt - What India needs today Yesterday, I saw a movie about a puppy named Bolt, who is conned into believing that he has super-powers that he uses for protecting the little girl who owns him. Midway through the movie, he realizes that he has no super-powers; he is just an ordinary, helpless puppy. He feels crushed by this realization. So Bolt faces a choice: to quit? Or to believe that he is still a hero, and keep struggling against the forces of evil? The thought that his little girl still needs a hero helps him make the right decision: keep fighting. I think we activists face the same choice. India needs a hero; are you willing to try? Am I willing to try? Yes, we are not cut out to be heroes. Yes, as individuals, we are full of weaknesses and limitations. But India needs heroes now. She cannot wait another 10 years for someone better to emerge. You and I are the only ones currently available. So we will have to say, "My motherland needs a hero. Yes, I shall be that hero, although I am weak, fallible and maybe even helpless." We are trying to improve governance with RTI applications, PILs, advocacy, letter-baazi and other methods. Sometimes we feel that our actions are powerful. We feel confident and courageous. And at other times, we are crushed by the realization that our methods are inadequate, our actions are weak, and we are helpless in the face of a gigantic corrupt system. And then we say to ourselves, “Oh, forget it! Activism doesn’t work. So let’s just return to living our ordinary lives, and forget about the nation.” I have had such moments lately. Overwhelmed by my own limitations -- the many promises that I make to myself and others, but fail to keep – I sometimes think such thoughts. I think about withdrawing into my own private space again and gradually disappearing from the activist space. My re-energizing moment - Picking up shit from the road I want to share with you what happened on Friday morning, about 8.20 am. I was on my way to giving my weekly classes on ‘Creative English & Editing’ for Second Year law students at Vile Parle. In my bag were 4-5 old newspapers -- discussion material. After getting off the suburban train and climbing the skywalk, I had a prayerful thought: “God, take my hand, take my mind, make me serve. Tell me clearly what you want. I’ll do it, I promise.” Minutes later, at the other end of the skywalk near SV Road, I saw a large lump of shit. I saw it and passed by. And then I passed by a fallen piece of paper. I then knew what I must do. I picked up the paper, went back to where the shit was, picked it up neatly and put it into a large empty flower pot by the side – out of everybody’s path. I felt happy. I had prevented the shit from spoiling someone’s day. If the shit had lay there long enough, a few people in the crowd would surely have stepped into it, and then walked, leaving a disgusting trail, for at least half an hour. Maybe they would have gotten into a rickshaw or train and ruined other people’s morning. Maybe they would have walked into their offices, and struggled in the washroom for half an hour to get the

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disgusting stuff out of the treads of his shoes. Or – if it was a businessman with an appointment – he might have cancelled it and just gone home to deal with the mess. I felt energized. I had made my country and my city a bit better. And it was easy. I could do it, alone, quietly. I thought about the previous day -- Republic Day – when I had not done one single patriotic thing. Not one. I had not saluted a flag, not bought a flag from a street kid, not even watched the parade on TV, and not heard any patriotic songs by Lata Mangeshkar and Mohammed Rafi. I hadn’t even thanked anybody who sent me Republic Day SMSes. But today, I had justified my existence to my country and my beloved Mumbai. Shit versus Personal Honour However, as I turned the corner and neared the college gate, happy and self-satisfied, there it was again. More shit, a few metres from the college gates. Three or four large lumps of what looked like dog poop, right where people would walk. Now I was in a quandary. Should I or shouldn’t do a repeat performance? I could easily ignore it and walk around it; after all, that’s what everybody else was doing. And why was it my problem? It was not. It was the job of the municipal cleaners, who may have come in half an hour. Or maybe they had come and gone, and this was fresh poop. Some of the students walking in might be in my class. What would they think or feel, if they saw me bending and picking up poop with newspapers? Would they still respect me? I wondered. I could not just walk away from it. I had no excuse; I was carrying a bagful of old newspapers that I could tear up and use. And so, for the second time that morning, I picked up poop from the road. This time, I threw it into a corner where nobody would walk. My conscience as well as my hands were completely clean when I went up to class. We read 3-4 news items from the papers, and wrote about them. And then, near the end of our twohour class, I told my students about my activities that morning. Going into flashback, I also mentioned how an activist friend – Vinita Singh -- had scolded me over the phone, making me pick up my own dog’s shit from the road many, many months ago. The collegians found the whole thing yucky, inspiring and hilarious… and yucky! After we all had a good laugh together, and all the jokes had subsided, I asked them to write about it in any way that they wanted to. I explicitly gave them permission to make it a joke at my expense, or a fictionalized story or a factual account – anything they felt like doing. Here are the pages from their notebooks: http://tinyurl.com/Students-on-shit-picking I think they were definitely more witty and creative than usual. The headings are priceless!

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Expressing our freedom with small acts of service It’s not only about shit on the road. It’s about a lot of other things as well. There’s a simple way to improve our country, and it does not involve any special knowledge or skills. It’s by being alert and answering the call to action every time we hear it or see it. Every now and then, driving along the highway, I see a rock left by a trucker who drove away after using it while repairing a punctured tyre. Or I see a divider block that has fallen onto the road. Seeing this, I curse the carelessness of others, and drive on. And then I wage an inner battle. Sometimes – and not always -- after driving a kilometer, I tell myself that I too am equally careless. Because of my carelessness in letting that stone just lie there, a motorcyclist may have a bad accident while trying to avoid it in the darkness. I visualize his mother, his wife and his children after the accident. And knowing that I cannot face his family members if I have to, I take a U-turn and return to the spot. I roll up my sleeves and do the job that I wish others would do. I take the stone out of the way of motorists. Sometimes I see drunkards lying with their arms and legs on the road, in the path of traffic. And I realize that it could easily be… God forbid, my father, my son or myself. (No, we don’t have drinks in our family, but that’s only by the grace of God.) And so I lift that person out of harm’s way, and make him lie down in a safer place. Yes, it’s a dirty job because drunkards lie in their puke and piss. But having dirty hands won’t kill me, but a dirty conscience might; I don’t know how to live with the thought that the person I ignored had his foot crushed under a car. So what am I saying here? What I’m trying to say here is: Let’s not get too caught up with the methods of activism. It may be RTI, PILs, letter-baazi and petitioning, agitating on the road, organizing dharnas and morchas, fasting, public meetings or whatever. It may be all of those… Or it may be none of those. I think our power to change the fortunes of India comes from our ability to do a job – not because it will bring us honour and fame, but because it needs doing. Life gives each one of us opportunities to be heroes many times over in our lifetime. It gifts us the opportunity to save many lives by just moving a rock out of the way. Yes, we will ourselves never know how many lives we saved, and how many tears we wiped by preventing the bad news from happening… and maybe that’s for the best. “Ask not for whom the bell tolls, It tolls for thee. Now this bell tolling softly for another, says to me, Thou must die…

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No man is an island, entire of itself; Every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less… Any man's death diminishes me Because I am involved in mankind; and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee. . . . - from Meditation 17 by John Donne There is anonymity and humility in such activism. There’s no reward for our ego, no Padma awards and recognitions, no newspaper reports. Just quiet self-satisfaction for the soul, and the knowledge that when I was called to serve, I served. Isn’t that wonderful? -Krishnaraj Rao, Mumbai, Maharashtra

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An important announcement for journalists of rural, semi urban and non metro city areas Ground Report India wants to motivate young Indian journalists and non-paid ground social activists of rural, semi-urban and non-metro urban areas for thoughtful, visionary and accountable journalism / citizen journalism. If you as a journalist prefer to work on real ground to get sincere reports/articles/photos. You may earn money for your original reports,articles and photos, if reports/articles/photos are selected for publication in the quarterly print journal of Ground Report India group. Good articles in Hindi could be accepted for publication after professional translation in English. The payments for published articles/reports in Ground Report India may vary from 500 INR to 10,000 INR. Coming Special Editions of Ground Report India quarterly print journal:

April 2012 Edition : Indigenous and Tribal Last date of Article submission : 10th March 2012 July 2012 Edition : Electoral Reforms in India Last date of articles submission : 10th June 2012 Ground Report India does not get grants, funds or donations to run its activities for ground and citizen journalism. All expenses are met by the founder of Ground Report India. It is not possible to pay for each article thus payments for articles are limited to print journal publication and for rural, semi-urban and nonmetro urban areas.

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India: Prosecute Security Forces for Torture Recent Abuse Cases Reinforce Need to Enact Prevention of Torture Bill New York, January 31, 2012

The Indian government should prosecute members of the security forces for recent high-profile cases of torture, to send a message that such practices will no longer be tolerated, Human Rights Watch said today. Border Security Force (BSF) soldiers, long implicated in torture and extrajudicial killings near the border with Bangladesh, were captured in a video posted on YouTube brutally beating a Bangladeshi national caught smuggling cattle in West Bengal state. And the Indian government has awarded a medal to a police superintendant alleged to have ordered the torture and sexual assault of a female schoolteacher in Chhattisgarh state, instead of investigating him. “These horrific images of torture on video show what rights groups have long documented: that India’s Border Security Force is out of control,” said Meenakshi Ganguly, South Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “The Indian government is well aware of killings and torture at the border, but has never prosecuted the troops responsible. This video provides a clear test case of whether the security forces are above the law in India.” In December 2010, Human Rights Watch, together with Banglar Manabadhikar Suraksha Mancha (MASUM), a Kolkatta-based nongovernmental organization that posted the video, and Dhaka-based Odhikar, published “‘Trigger Happy’: Excessive Use of Force by Indian Troops at the Bangladesh Border.” This report documented numerous cases of indiscriminate use of force, arbitrary detention, torture, and killings by the BSF, and highlighted the failure of the Indian government to conduct adequate investigations or prosecute troops responsible for abuses. It showed that the BSF routinely abuses both Bangladeshi and Indian nationals residing in the border area. After the report’s release, the Indian government ordered an end to the use of lethal force except in cases of self-defense. While the number of killings decreased, allegations of killings and torture have continued. The video, reportedly filmed by a BSF soldier, shows members of the BSF’s 105th Battalion stripping a man, a Bangladeshi national later identified as Habibur Rahman, tying him up and beating him, while laughing and engaging in verbal abuse. BSF personnel apparently caught when he was engaged in smuggling cattle from India into Bangladesh. Instead of handing him over to the police as required by Indian law, they illegally detained and tortured him and then left him to make his way back home. After MASUM released the video to local news channels, the BSF suspended eight soldiers – Sandip Kumar, Dhananjay Roy, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Suresh Chandra, Anand Kumar, Victor, Amarjyoti, and VirendraTiwari – and ordered an inquiry. However, despite clear evidence of abuse, to date no criminal charges have been filed against any soldiers. “Whenever offenses attributed to the BSF occur, its leadership insists that there will be an internal inquiry and action taken,” said Ganguly. “But secret proceedings and suspensions or transfers won’t end the abuses. Torture is a serious crime that should be prosecuted in the courts.” Many people routinely move back and forth across the Indian-Bangladeshi border to visit relatives, buy supplies, and look for jobs. Some engage in criminal activities, such as smuggling. The BSF is charged with intercepting illegal activities, especially narcotics smuggling, human trafficking for sex work, and transporting fake currency and explosives. It is also charged with protecting against violent attacks by militant groups. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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The failure of the Indian government to prosecute authorities responsible for torture extends to all of the security forces, Human Rights Watch said. In another recent disturbing incident, Soni Sori, a schoolteacher in Chhattisgarh state, alleged that she was tortured and sexually assaulted by Chhattisgarh state police while in custody in October 2011. After her arrest as a suspected Maoist supporter, a criminal court in Chhattisgarh state handed her over to police custody for interrogation despite her pleas that she feared for her safety and life. Sori alleges that Ankit Garg, then-superintendent of police for Dantewada district, ordered the torture and sexual assault. The Indian Supreme Court ordered Sori’s transfer to the Kolkata medical college hospital for an independent medical examination. In November 2011, the examination report corroborated Sori’s allegations of physical abuse. To date, the Indian authorities have not initiated any inquiry or criminal action against the police officers implicated. Instead of investigating the case, on Republic Day, January 26, 2012, the president of India, Pratibha Patil, presented Ankit Garg with a police medal for gallantry. The medal drew widespread condemnation. The Indian government announced, in March 2011, a rape compensation package for all sexual assault victims, but even basic follow-up reproductive and sexual health services have yet to be made available to survivors like Soni Sori. One of her lawyers told Human Rights Watch that Sori, who is detained in Raipur central jail in Chhattisgarh, has not received any follow-up reproductive and sexual health care. Her hemoglobin count has dropped considerably and she has complained of reproductive health problems but her lawyer is concerned that she will not receive adequate medical care without obstruction by the Chhattisgarh police. During her stay at the Raipur medical college hospital for medical examination and treatment in October, the Chhattisgarh police forced the doctors to remove her intravenous drip, refusing to let her stay in the hospital. “Soni Sori’s case epitomizes the callousness with which victims of torture are treated in India,” Ganguly said. “The Indian government shamefully presents a trophy to someone implicated in torture, while doctors cannot even treat a torture survivor without police obstruction.” Human Rights Watch called upon the Indian government to ratify the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and to enact the Prevention of Torture bill, which is currently awaiting cabinet approval before it is voted on by the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of parliament. The law should override all provisions of Indian law that allow government officials immunity from prosecution for human rights violations. It should also ensure that adequate time is given for victims to be able to file complaints, and that all forms of inhuman and degrading treatment are brought under the purview of the law. “The BSF, the police, and other members of the security forces operate with impunity throughout India,” said Ganguly. “When will the government in Delhi wake up and act to end torture and other human rights abuses?” Source: Human Rights Watch (HRW)

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CASH CROPS, FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS & THE STATE OF KERALA A new ruling dispensation has started its tenure in the southern most state of India 8 months ago & it will be not be inappropriate to think about the state of Kerala. In fact, the backdrop of the various talks and deliberations about the Free Trade Agreements only makes it too appropriate a moment to spare some thoughts about India’s most well performing state, in terms of various Human Development Indices. The recent rise in the number of farmer suicides in the cash crop citadel of the state, Wayanad district also makes this issue more relevant & significant. The overwhelming participation of its subjects, cutting across religious differences, in the celebration of the harvest festival of Onam is nothing but a wonder of sorts, to say the least. But, that being said ,to say that, in the present times festivals like Vishu & Onam –for that matter all festivals transcending religious differences-are just marketing carnivals, on the side lines of which consumerism(too often conspicuous consumerism),alcoholism and matrimonial prodigality manifest themselves most blatantly, is nothing but stating the truth. The agricultural significance that these festivals had is lost without a trace. Agriculture in Kerala has now transpired to mean as farming of cash crops like rubber & cashew nut, spices like cardamom and plantations like tea and coffee. The pursuit for larger profits with an eye on the prospective & seemingly ever increasing demands from markets outside the state for the aforesaid cash crops has lead many a people to abandon farming of, staple food crops like rice, nutrient rich pulses, vegetables and diary products. The pressure from big plantations over small land holders only added fire to the fury and many traditional farmers had to half heartedly switch over to cash crops. All these have lead to a situation where in the state of Kerala is at present heavily dependent on its neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka for staple foods, pulses, vegetables & even milk & milk products. Traditional cash crops like coconut-from which the state derives its very name of ‘Kerala’- , areca nut, and betel leaves etc have also suffered severe blows. But not all things are going well for the predominant cash crops as well. Due to their almost complete dependence on global markets any slight wave in the global scenario is able to make its effect felt in cash crop driven economy of Kerala. The fact that besides cash crops the remittance from almost 60 lack people working outside the geographical boundary of the state is the other major driving force of the economy only makes things more complex. It can easily be made out that the economy of Kerala is the most globalised among all states and any surge in the global economic scenario is sure to make its recuperations felt on the state. In the global level the trade and commerce of many of these cash crops are manipulated and stage managed by just a handful of corporations and this makes the fate of such cash crop growers all the more vulnerable. The subsistence and lively hood of such farmers are at perils of the whims and fancies of the games played by big corporations. The years 2005 to 2007 witnessed the highest price for coffee exported from India in markets like London and Maples. But ironically those were the same years when the highest number of coffee farmers in the district of Wayanad decided to bring there life to an abrupt end through suicide owing to agricultural debts. This exposes the glaring disconnect between the market price doled out by the consumers and the return for the farmers for their products, both the groups unable to comprehend the way market forces are being manipulated by the corporate business class. Now the Year 2011 seems to have many more bad news for cash crop growers in its baggage. India is actively considering about inking Free Trade Agreements with a slew of nations including the mighty European Union. Such free trade agreements will open the flood gates for trade liberalization between the signing nations even in the field of cash crops and the same may bring the indigenous farm products under sever strain and competition from the products available from these countries and in the eventuality many Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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an Indian cash crops can loose their grip even in the traditional home markets. It is needless to say that all these are surely going to have a negative bearing for the state of Kerala. The point is not to flare up hyper national or jingoistic passions & protectionist sentiments. Nor it is any ones case that India, aspiring to become a super power in the 21st century and to increase its geo-political influence, should not help in the progress and development of small and lesser developed countries by providing favorable conditions of trade to them. Globalisation can enhance prosperity and development across the countries if the same modalities are applied with the intent of exchange of mutually beneficial products. It can increase the avenues for people to people contact across the borders and there by it can provide a great impetus to the “One World” concept and to world peace. But for that to happen the control of the economy should rest with the society as whole which is, in the present scenario, seems to be a distant dream. On the contrary the sate of affairs in the economic sphere is being controlled by a few oligarchs. In such a scenario globalisation just becomes the kaleidoscope for the representatives of private capital to view the whole world as just a single market in purist for profit maximization. Private capital transcends all national barriers in its quest for profits. The neo-liberal ruling dispensations in many countries are just the political faces-save covert faces- of private capital. Many a regimes are but forced to fall in line or to act at their behest. The policies and decisions of such governments, not so infrequently and without many hindrances, are influenced by the agents and the proxies of profit seeking private capital. Developed countries by virtue of their technological advancements and concentrated financial and economic power too often become successful in thrusting down the throat of developed and under developed countries policies that are favorable to them albeit under the most hypocritical claim of ‘helping in the development of the lesser developed.’ Developed nations seek for level playing fields in the markets of the developing and lesser developed countries and urge and audaciously advocate the governments of the land to cut subsidies and scrap other positive discriminatory measures instituted to safe guard the interest of local inhabitants, majority of whom belonging to the economically bottom strata of the world population pyramid. All these are done not withstanding the subsidies the developed world doles out to products from its own countries. Level playing field will be welcomed by all if it is impartially applied or in other words if those who cry for such level playing fields ensure that the same principle is applicable to them also. The observation by former diplomat and the flamboyant Member of Parliament from Thiruvananthapuram, Mr. Shashi Tharoor covers it all “The amount that the developed nations spends for susidising their animal husbandry products per year is so much so that when taken per livestock that will suffice each one of the cattle population in those countries to fly around the world in Business Class Flight Tickets not just once but twice an year!”. “Physicians heal thy self ”………. “Thou strain the gnats and swallow the camel”, can be the best reply that can be given to Uncle Sam & Co. With regard to the liberal trade regimes with small and lesser developed nations belonging to leagues of ASEAN, SAARC, LDC etc it should be ensured that the benefits are not appropriated by just a handful. Many a times business consortiums which are in no way related to such countries are found to gain advantages. Lessons can be learned from past experiences. The free trade regimes that Indian envisages with countries like Sri Lanka -which includes among the other things some spices also in its preview-should be watched and monitored with utmost caution. Big business can find the Island nation as a gate way to India to escape import duty. Huge quantities of spices may be first imported to Sri Lanka by global conglomerates and from there they can find its way to India- at virtually zero tariff rates -with an eye on the huge Indian markets. It can even end up in such a scenario that the quantity of spices that will be exported form the Lakan nation to India may be so big that even if the

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total land area of that country is converted for cultivation of spices the quantity won’t be able to match the tones that are exported to India! True that in 2009 while inking the FTA pact with ASEAN nations the state of Kerala was able to convince the Govt of India to exclude almost 200 items, that were critical for its farmers, from the no tariff regime .That owes much to the political clout of the state which saw the unequivocal criticisms & condemnation, of the India Govt’s initial plan for allowing complete free trade of all products, by the various bipartisan political parties of the state , cutting across political patronages and affiliations, surprising the whole nation. But will that maneuverability be effective against the arm twisting modus operandi of the mighty European Union Nations is a question worth asking. Also it will be good to introspect whether an economy can be substained always with the help of revenue from cash crops and foreign remittances. Policy makers, intellectuals, scientists, technocrats, politicians, literary figures, social and cultural activists, religious leaders, artists and the vast pool of the educated intelligentsia of the sate should unite at the earliest to find a way out of this imbroglio besieging the state and to save it from the clutches of the rampant consumerism orchestrated, engendered and fostered by the agents of the ongoing neo-liberal version of competitive freemarket capitalism. After all, it is not at all in the best interest of the state and its people to be branded as the “mouth watering and dream destination for marketing executives” which was once hallmarked for its intellectual disturbances and ferments amidst the intelligentsia , idealist romanticism among the artists, heightened political consciousness and activism by its general public, principle based religious and political leadership, its revolutionary fight against inequalities, exploitation and exclusionism based on the outdated & antiquated principle of the so called nobility of birth and last but not the least its longing pursuit of egalitarianism which finds its ultimate expression in the most widely celebrated festival of Onam which is conceptualised and woven around the much cherished and fallaciously constructed myth about the benevolent Socialist dictator Maveli and his classless empire. By: Anoop Nobert

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THIS ONCE AGAIN PROVES THAT UNLIKE DEVELOPED NATIONS INDIANS GO BY MOMENTARY PASSION AND NOT BE HARD LOGIC :: Why Anna Hazare fell ???? Yogesh Pratap Singh He is a former IPS officer and lawyer Could be reached at- yogeshpratapsingh AT gmail.com

Anna’s fall was predicted by me in April 2011 in an article in Tehelka. New York Times and others in media are analysing the same now when it should have been done then. People did not believe in me. TV channels were so obsessed with Anna’s glitter that after they heard me speak negative about Anna in various forums, t...hey kept me out from all interviews and panel discussions. For, TV Channels wanted only those activists in the panel who praised Anna. This was despite the fact that I was the only old associate of Anna who sat in fast with him in the year 2003. It is sad that when there were such glaring dubious elements to the entire agitation yet people did not see it even when it was brought before them. THIS ONCE AGAIN PROVES THAT UNLIKE DEVELOPED NATIONS INDIANS GO BY MOMENTARY PASSION AND NOT BE HARD LOGIC. ARTICLE IN TEHELKA DATED 30 APRILE 2011: CHASING A MIRAGE: Soon after quitting the service in an attempt to reform a corrupt system, I was disillusioned to see Anna Hazare’s love for the trappings of power Yogesh Pratap Singh Mumbai MUMBAI, 2003. Starting 9 August — August Kranti Day — Anna Hazare was to go on a fast demanding anticorruption measures. At that time, I was a serving officer of the Indian Police Service (IPS) posted in Mumbai. I checked the All India Services (Conduct) Rules, and could find nothing prohibiting collaboration with anti-corruption activists. I decided to join Anna in his fast. It was a modest scene then. The press was active but there was no hype. Unknown people, mostly from rural backgrounds, comprised the bulk of Anna’s supporters. Very few intellectuals were to be seen. For a couple of days, I sat on the stage next to Anna. After eight days of fasting, the then rather unknown Right to Information Ordinance specific to Maharashtra state, which had lapsed earlier, got resurrected in the form of an Act. Some decisions were also taken to decentralise powers of gram panchayats. I had to face the music within a fortnight. The Maharashtra government shunted me to Nagpur and subsequent events resulted in my leaving the IPS two years on. But I wasn’t unhappy. As a matter of fact, I was reasonably optimistic, though some of Anna’s close associates were not exactly inspiring confidence. Besides, his inability to grasp the complex dynamics of modern times was a limitation. I soon realised that my perception of Anna was a mirage. As reality descended, I felt disillusioned. That was why I decided not to join the crusade at Jantar Mantar. Many reasons, one after the other, kept me away. My first shock came when I saw a person fighting against the government so enamoured by authority. If a senior politician or minister called up Anna, he would feel gratified. Soon thereafter, he started moving in government vehicles with red beacon lights. I rode with him once. After I got off at Dadar, Anna drove to the plush High Mount Government Guest House at Malabar Hill, meant for high-level dignitaries. Scheming people in the Maharashtra government resolutely wooed Anna.

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Exploiting his quest for eminence, the government would organise meetings of IAS officers to be chaired by him in the sixth-floor conference hall of CM Vilasrao Deshmukh. A special room was given at Mantralaya for Anna’s people, who started using it as their office. In sum, Anna became an extra-constitutional authority within the Maharashtra government. Obviously, notwithstanding the rampant corruption in the state, he was no longer a threat to anyone associated with the government. However, I still thought those were minor issues. The point of no return was reached when Anna took information from me with respect to two cases. First was the Adarsh Society case, where the involvement of two Central ministers, namely Vilasrao Deshmukh and Sushil Kumar Shinde, had become apparent in falsifying file notings. The other was the Lavasa case, where the most startling revelation was that Sharad Pawar’s daughter Supriya Sule and her husband held a 21 percent share, and that these shares were allotted to them at highly undervalued rates. Anna spoke on the issue cosmetically, backtracking soon after. He decided not to speak against the Central ministers from Maharashtra, whose involvement in corruption had become a matter of record. In his agitation at Jantar Mantar, where the world was watching him, Anna never spoke about Pawar and his specific role in the Lavasa scam. He also never spoke against Deshmukh and Shinde, which should have been done first, before the demand for the Jan Lokpal Bill was taken up. Finally, think about these: How could activists who would need to do a critical appraisal of the final outcome themselves become part of the Lokpal Bill drafting exercise? Why was there not a single woman in his 10-member committee? Also, where are Anna’s old associates? The coterie around him ensured these questions weren’t asked.

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Sikkim Disaster :: “Khushi Punarvaas-2012” on 9th Jan 2012 at Sirifort Auditorium, New Delhi The “Environmental Health Club” of Khushi Centre for Rehabilitation and Research in its Endeavour to highlight the issues of Environmental Health, promote basic research and the relief/rehabilitation work in Bihar, Andhra, and Sri-Nagar & Uttarakhand. Now, it’s again a high time to serve our nation by doing the work for our own disaster affected people of Sikkim. Khushi Centre is organizing the “Khushi Punarvaas-2012” at Sirifort Auditorium-II by 4pm(onwards), on coming 9th January 2012. In this event we would have an expert panel talk; Exhibitions, Cultural Evening & Presentation of Memorabilia’s aiming on exchange of expert ideas on disaster relief / rehabilitation & resource mobilization. This event expects to have the participation of Institutions, PSU, and Corporate & Media.

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Illegal detention in police custody Kirity Roy, West Bengal

Case Detail Mr. Bikash Mahato, son of Bhusan Mahato, resident of village- Akhrasol, Post Office- Joypur, Police StationJhargram, and District- West Midnapur is a poor agrarian labour and having no active political connection. His family sustains themselves by agrarian works at others field and selling vegetables to nearby market and produce those in their small piece of land. On 4.12.2011 at around 2 pm, while Bikash was busy with household scores, the police personnel from Jhargram police station came to his house and asked for his name and identity. Bikash made satisfactory reply. After that the said police personnel forcibly took him to their parked vehicle without preparing any memo of arrest at the place and not obtained any signature of his family members who were present at the place of arrest. The family was in shock as Bikash has no criminal anecdotes. While his wife tried to reason with the police personnel, they said after an interrogation at police station, they will let him free. On 5.12.2011 and 6.12.2011, Ms. Shila Mahato; wife of Bikash, visited the Jhargram police station to meet her husband but the police personnel not permitted her for the same. On 6.12.2011, she made a written complaint to the Sub Divisional Officer (SDO) of Jhargram requesting him for appropriate direction regarding her meeting to Bikash at the said police station. Though, she made the complaint on 6.12.2011, but receipt of the complaint was shown as on 7.12.2011. Bikash produced before the Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate- Jhargram’s court on 7.12.2011 with a forwarding letter and enclosed arrest memo from one Prasanta Patra, Sub Inspector of Police, who happened to be the Inspector in Charge of Manikpara Beat House under Jhargram police station and prayed for judicial custody for the accused. In enclosed arrest memo, the time of Bikash’s arrest was fabricated and shown as on 7.12.2011 at 1.05 hours. His arrest was in reference to Jhargram PS Case No. 162/11 dated 14.6.2011, under sections 147/148/448/427/379/506 of Indian Penal Code. The de facto complainant of the case, one Mr. Seikh Afsar Ali, son of Seikh Sohrab Ali of village- Muraboni under Jhargram police station made a written complaint on 14.06.2011 and provided a list of 21 persons as accused with specific names and addresses. Mr. Bikash Mahato’s name was not in that list and he was not an FIR named accused of that case. A glance on the Memo of Arrest prepared by the police will prove that arresting police did not inform any person of the family of Mr. Bikash. Police also failed to diarise the incident of arrest.

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Murderous assault and criminal intimidation to a member of religious minority by the perpetrator BSF jawans Kirity Roy, West Bengal

Particulars of the victim: Mr. Tabibar Molla, son of late Sahajaddin Molla, aged about-38 years, by faith-Muslim, by occupation- day labourer, having residence at village-Tarali, Police Station-Swarupnagar, District- North 24 Parganas. Particulars of the perpetrators: The on duty four(4) BSF jawans posted on 13.12.2011 at about 1 pm at Border Security Force (BSF) OutPost no.3 under Tarali BSF BOP situated near Tarali FP school road crossing under Police StationSwarupnagar, District- North 24 Parganas. Place of the incident: In front of Border Security Force (BSF) Out-Post no.3 under Tarali BSF BOP situated near Tarali FP school road crossing under Police Station- Swarupnagar, District- North 24 Parganas. Date & time of the incident:

On 13.12.2011 at about 1 pm Case Details: It is revealed during the fact finding that on 13.12.2011 at about 1 pm the victim was walking towards farming land taking BSF road. At that time four BSF jawans were on-duty at BSF Out-Post no.3 under Tarali BSF BOP situated near Tarali FP school road crossing. The said BSF jawans restrained the victim from moving further and accused his of throwing stones on the last night. The victim protested against such accusation which according to him was false. Then the said BSF jawans detained him and started assaulting him severely by their wooden button and rifle butts. As a result of the assault the victim was hurt particularly on his head, ear, legs and backside leaving various reddish blood marks of beating by wooden sticks and rifle butts. The victim to save his life was shouting for help while the perpetrators were beating him mercilessly. The nearby persons hearing the screams of the victim rushed to the spot and with their efforts the victim was rescued from the clutches of the perpetrators. During the assault the perpetrator BSF jawans also abused the victim in filthy languages in their own vernacular (Hindi) even calling the names of his parents. The victim was later taken to a medical practitioner for treatment on the same day. The victim lodged written complaint against the perpetrator BSF jawans before the Sub-Divisional Police Officer, Basirhat, District- North 24 Parganas on 16.12.2011. The said Sub-Divisional Police Officer, Basirhat, District- North 24 Parganas reportedly did not take any legal action till dater since receipt of the victim’s complaint. The victim started that several local persons namely Mr. Bapi Mondal, Mr. Ainuddin Sardar, Hamida Bib were eyewitnesses of the incident and they also rescued him. The victim in his written complaint before the SubDivisional Police Officer, Basirhat, District- North 24 Parganas described the particulars of the perpetrator BSF jawans by their getup so that they could be identified and booked accordingly. In the said written complaint he also stated that one of the perpetrator BSF jawan had a name plate on his body bearing the name as “Prem Singh”. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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FDI IN RETAIL – DANGER SIGNAL FOR THE INDIAN ECONOMY Sachin Kumar Jain Social Researcher, Food rights activist and writer; also works as State Advisor to the Supreme Court Commissioners in Right to Food Case

The decision of the Government of India to permit foreign direct investment (FDI) for multi-brand daily consumable items in the country’s retail market was taken after much thought and consideration. Its purpose is, however, obvious: to quite literally roll out the red carpet for capitalist nations and their corporate entities, who exert considerable influence at the international level, to enter the Indian retail sector. Political parties, farmer's originations and retailers at large heavily opposed this decision. Functioning of the parliamentary process were disrupted and finally Government with-hold its decision keeping forthcoming assembly elections and huge opposition from various corners of the country. NEVERTHELESS, wait; they have not thrown this idea out of their box, they are still working on this day and night. GoI gave green nod for the single brand FDI in the second week of January 2012, they have done long meetings with consumer groups and trying to convenience them that FDI will give them opportunity to buy discounted items, they will have lot of choices and they will find all items at one place. Consumer organizations (who are represented by upper middle and high income class, who largely live a luxurious life and never bothers what is happening with small vendors, farmers and other producers) are now in government's court. In next step state is planning to deal farmer leaders and unions. The indication is that very soon state of India would come in the war-field with preparations, no matter for this they will sacrifice 60 million farmer's and 93 million people (around 77% of the total population) who survive by spending less than $ 0.40 per day. Most of us are by now familiar with the basic modus operandi of these transnational corporate interests. They first make an entry into the manufacturing sector and once they have established their control over industrial production they take the next logical step, which is to capture the natural resources required to produce goods, such as minerals, water, land and forests. The way they achieve their objective is by exerting pressure on national governments to dilute or weaken laws and regulations that stand in their path of consolidation. In the Indian context we have seen such dilution specifically in the case of the Special Industrial Areas (Development) Act as well as the Land Ceiling Act and the Land Acquisition (Industrial Areas) Act. Once the multinationals have more or less established their supremacy over resources and manufacturing, their next step is to capture the space between the producer and consumer of goods. That’s why they so eagerly eye India’s retail sector. This space is presently occupied by hundreds of thousands of merchants, commission agents and retail traders. Their game-plan is to eliminate these intermediaries, forge direct links with consumers and gain control over the complete trade cycle from production to consumption. The consequences of multinational corporations capturing the retail space in the country are fourfold. First, the profits that small retailers and commission agents presently earn will now flow into the hands of foreign entities. Second, once these giant companies establish their monopoly in the market, they will begin selling goods that fetch them the highest profits. Third, the push for higher profits will encourage them to produce only those goods that meet their economic objectives. And fourth, given their monopolistic position in the market, they can exert pressure on the government to demand land, water and energy at concessional rates to expand their trade base.

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The government offers several justifications for permitting FDI in the retail sector. It is important to analyze these reasons if we are to get at the underlying truth. For example, the government claims prices of goods will fall once FDI flows into retail because there will no longer be any middlemen or commission agents. The truth is slightly different. Once large malls and centralized sales distribution centres are established, expenditures on cold chains, storage, warehousing, electricity, and so on will shoot up. This, in turn, will raise the prices of goods reaching the consumer. This has been the worldwide experience wherever policies to corporatize retail have been implemented, as seen in the following examples: In Thailand, supermarkets run by multinationals charge 10 percent more for fruits and vegetables. In Russia, costs of goods available in supermarkets are 20 percent higher than in traditional outlets. In the US, supermarkets progressively raised the price of tomatoes by 46 percent between 1994 and 2004 even as tomato prices fell 25 percent in traditional retail outlets during the same period. The justification that small retailers would remain unaffected by the introduction of such a policy also appears to ring false. In Argentina, there was a sharp fall in the number of small retailers over a 10-year period - from 64,198 to around 44,000. In Brazil, the share of small retailers in fruit and vegetable trade fell 27.8 percent between 1987 and 1996. Another important consequence of corporatization of retail is the impact on farmers and agriculture. FDI in retail generally benefits only those farmers who collaborate with multinationals and accept their conditions, which means they begin growing only those crops decided upon by their collaborators. Only large farmers have the wherewithal to link up with the sales distribution systems of these corporate entities, who have the monopolistic power to control prices of their goods in their supermarkets. So what happens to the remaining 90 percent of our farming community, which comprises small and medium farmers with holdings of less than two hectares? They can no longer sell their produce directly in the market because they will be seen as competitors by these major players, who would make all efforts to deny them access to the market. They have the commercial power to do so and no small farmer dare challenge that power. There is also a question mark about whether the farmers who collaborate with them actually benefit in the long run. According to a study conducted by Oxfam, the prices of apples exported from South Africa fell 33 percent while tomato growers in Florida got 25 percent less for their produce even as consumers paid 46 percent higher prices for the vegetable in supermarkets. The study revealed several other serious impacts. Farmers began to face mental tensions as pressure mounted on them to keep prices low while improving the quality of their produce. They were also pressurized to grow only certain favoured varieties. Often, arbitrary changes were made in the conditions of their agreement at the crucial stage when their crop was market-ready. They had no say in the matter because their only option was to sell to the multinational since they had no access to the open market. The government’s argument is that this is exactly how existing malls and department stores in the country function, hence what is the harm in allowing FDI? But it is obvious that the inflow of capital will lead to many more spectacular malls being constructed, with the result that retail trade would see an increase in Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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monopoly control. At present, in the absence of a policy, any person is free to enter the retail trade, but once a policy is formulated even existing retailers will effectively be displaced from the market. We cannot also overlook the potential impact of corporatization of retail on our culinary culture. Monopoly trade will rob it of its diversity. Branding and packaging of foodstuffs will lead to higher prices and increase the consumption of inputs like electricity and water. Monopolies could also easily and surreptitiously introduce genetically modified (GM) foodstuffs into our diets. This is not all. Supermarkets will need to store products for longer periods of time. This will lead to increased use of preservatives, insecticides and other chemicals to protect fruits, vegetables and other such foodstuffs to ensure greater shelf life. All in all, it is clear that the proposed FDI policy will pose serious challenges for our country, impoverishing our culinary culture, impairing the physical and mental health of our people, compromising the independence of our farmers, endangering our economic system and jeopardizing the livelihood of 4.5 crore Indians. Twenty years after the introduction of policies to reform, liberalise and open up our economy we are once again passing through financial and economic uncertainty. These policies have been hotly debated for these past 20 years and today’s crisis can be traced to the reference points that underpin them. The most significant of these reference points is the growth rate of our economy, which is used as a measure of our development and is seen as being synonymous with progress. So every percentage point increase in our gross domestic product (GDP) is interpreted as a sign that we are entering a high growth phase. But GDP calculations disguise one significant fact – that this progress is not evenly spread and is not benefiting the majority of our people. Nor do they factor in the reckless exploitation of our resources, the despoliation of our environment, the ruthless suppression of community rights and the quiet burial of all human values. GDP-based development has divided our society into two antagonistic sections – one of people who create our society by the sweat of their brow (who constitute the overwhelming majority but are deprived and exploited) and the second of people who control our resources, or seek to control them (who are in a minority yet retain control of power). India’s GDP is in the region of Rs78 lakh crores yet a mere 8,000 people in the country control 73 percent of this output. So is it any surprise that our government and the policies it formulates are heavily influenced by this miniscule yet powerful segment? The process of economic reforms may have been introduced in 1991. But the groundwork for market liberalization was laid several years earlier when India became a signatory of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the precursor of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement. (In this context, it is pertinent to recall the Bombay Plan, worked out even earlier in 1944, which had a similar agenda.) Under the provisions of this agreement all participating nations agreed to open up their countries to trade, reduce taxes and levies, formulate policies to encourage foreign and private investment (which today include policies that grant forests, land, water, energy and security to multinational companies). It was also decided at the time that governments would encourage private sector participation by withdrawing from sectors such as agriculture, social security, health, education, energy and transport. The 1991 reforms were ushered in within the purview of this agreement. This was followed up in 2011 with the policy permitting 100 percent FDI in the agricultural sector for research, trading in seeds and fertilizers, and all other areas that impact upon the country’s agricultural system. This policy change, adopted by the Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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government without debate, de-emphasized research conducted by our farmers and signified that their economic security were no longer of any importance. The next step was taken in November 2011, when the government sought to permit 100 percent FDI in retail. But the ensuing public outcry forced it to place the proposal on the back burner. India has 1.21 crore retail outlets that conduct an annual trade in the vicinity of US$350 billion (Rs17.5 trillion), contributing 14 percent of our GDP. Now gigantic global players like Walmart, Carrefour and Metro are slated to enter this trade. Let us examine the example of Walmart in greater detail. The global retailer has a trading empire encompassing 85 crore sq ft of retail space around the world. Retailers in India use an average of 150 sq ft of retail space. If this is taken as a standard retail unit, we see that Walmart controls retail space equal to 56 lakh average retailers. It accounts for 40 percent of the retail trade in 20 countries yet gives employment to a mere 800,000 people. It buys its products direct from large manufacturers, bypassing the chain of wholesale and retail traders. So small local traders are completely wiped out wherever it establishes its presence. And once its monopoly is established, it encourages only its preferred brands.

The government has made every conceivable effort to bring in FDI in retail to benefit giant retailers such as Walmart. This company sells $421 billion (Rs21.05 trillion) worth of goods, which means it is so powerful it can twist the arms of the government at any time it wishes to influence the country’s agricultural and consumer policies. Even though it is not in retail trade in India at the moment, it has spent Rs85 crore in lobbying over the past four years. Opening the doors to entities like Walmart through FDI in retail will endanger the livelihoods of 4.5 crore people, the majority of them small traders like milkmen, hawkers, sweetmeat makers and others. Another policy change in the offing is linked to the fertilizer subsidy. From April 2012, the subsidy presently given to producers of fertilizers and pesticides will be paid directly into the accounts of the beneficiaries – the farmers. Until now fertilizer prices were linked to these concessions. Once the subsidy is paid directly to farmers, producers will have the freedom to fix the selling price of fertilisers. However, the subsidy paid out to farmers will remain unchanged regardless of the market price they will have to pay. If we look at the fate of petrol prices following their deregulation, we see that they have risen 100 percent over the past two years. This will be the fate of fertilizers as well. Attempts are also being made to end the subsidy for the public distribution system (PDS). To sum up, our society is at the mercy of the market today. Multinational companies are being given ownership rights to our resources and the people are being viewed as nothing better than captive consumers. That’s the hidden implications of the policy reforms we are witnessing today.

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Arsenic removal from ground water by Common Rust Method Waste Rust Filter Media Shailesh Kumar Jha & Yashvi Agrawal Environment Engineering Department, UPTU

ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a naturally occurring high concentration of arsenic in deeper levels of ground water, which became a high-profile problem in recent years due to the use of deep tube well for water supply, causing serious arsenic poisoning to large numbers of people. A 2007 study found that over 137 million people in more than 70 countries are probably affected by arsenic poisoning of drinking water. Arsenic is a carcinogenic which causes many kinds of cancers including Skin, Lung, and bladder cancer as well as cardiovascular disease. Like many places of India Arsenic in ground water is a serious problem at Bharatpur region Rajasthan , the sample which was tested for arsenic was collected from ground water source from hand pump which was being used for so many daily needs like agricultural use, for animals and for drinking also. There the ground water was being processed by R.O but still the Arsenic removal was unsatisfactory. In this research work we did lots of experiments upon Bharatpur groundwater sample as well as on an artificial standard arsenic sample also and we found drastic results from it. This study was done to check potential of removing Arsenic from ground water by available waste of common Iron rust, which is chemically Fe2O3. It was found that the arsenic removal capacity of this rust is more than 90 % and which is superior than using hydrous ferric oxide (FeOOH) gel, for removing Arsenic, TDS and color too. In this work various experiments were done to prove the better Arsenic removal capacity of rust, which were compared with the results of FeOOH for various water parameters. Lastly it was found that using Iron rust is more efficient in removing arsenic from ground water. INTRODUCTION: The problem of Arsenic pollution of ground water has been creating serious threat to a number of districts in West Bengal and some selected pockets of other parts of India like Bharatpur City (Rajasthan), Aligarh (UP), Darbahnga (Bihar) {3}. While WHO permissible limit of Arsenic in ground water is known to be 0.01 mg/L (10 parts per billion (ppb)) {16}, it has been reported that in the above part of India with a population of about 30 million, the Arsenic content is much more higher than the WHO limit. It may be noted here that Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has also revised the limit of Arsenic in drinking water from 0.05 to 0.01 mg/L (5 to 1 ppb) since 2003 {8}. Affected Areas by Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic is geological. The contamination is mostly reported from aquifers at a depth of 20-80 meters below ground. Various social problems are known to result from the Arsenic skin lesion in these districts. What is worrying is that malnutrition, poor economic/socio conditions, illiteracy, food habits and constant ingestion of Arsenic contaminated water for prolonged periods have aggravated Arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, it has been found that major water demands are met from ground water. High withdrawal of water causes leaching of Arsenic from the aquifer to source. If proper remedial measures are not taken, it is possible that

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large percentage of 30 million people of these districts may become exposed to Arsenic toxicity in near future. These results provide substantial evidence of prolonged Arsenic ingestion by the people through food chain as well as drinking water sources. Hair, nails, scales, urine and liver tissue analyses of people living in affected areas show elevated levels of Arsenic. The source of Arsenic is geological. The contamination is mostly reported from aquifers at a depth of 20-80 meters below ground. Various social problems are known to result from the Arsenic skin lesion in these districts. What is worrying is that malnutrition, poor economic/ socio conditions, illiteracy, food habits and constant ingestion of Arsenic contaminated water for prolonged periods have aggravated Arsenic toxicity. In all these districts, it has been found that major water demands are met from ground water. High withdrawal of water causes leaching of Arsenic from the aquifer to source. If proper remedial measures are not taken, it is possible that large percentage of 30 million people of these districts may become exposed to Arsenic toxicity in near future. BACKGROUND: I. What is Arsenic? Arsenic is a heavy metal that is placed in the group of Inert Metal group. The presence of it in a small quantity in water or food may affect the Human health drastically and some time may lead to Death {4}. The speciation of arsenic governs its availability, accumulation, and toxicity to organisms as well as its mobility in the environment. Arsenic (V) is the form that is more readily precipitated with or adsorbed onto metal oxides {9}. An ingested dose of 70-180 mg of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is lethal to humans. Somewhat lower doses produce sub-acute effects in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water has been linked to serious dermatological conditions; including black-foot disease epidemiological studies have linked arsenic in drinking water with cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, liver, and kidney and other ailments. Both As (III) and As (V) are strongly adsorbed in the human body. As (III) tends to accumulate in the tissues, whereas As (V) and organic arsenic are rapidly and almost completely eliminated via the kidneys [3]. The MCL for arsenic in drinking water for many years was 0.05mg/L [8], but recent research has suggested that the cancer risk at 0.05mg/L is unacceptably high. A review of the available arsenic- and health-related data prompted the USEPA to lower the level to 0.01mg/L[17], the same as the World Health Organization’s standard. II. Arsenic in ground water in Bharatpur city: Bharatpur is located at a distance of 55 kms from Agra, 22 kms from Fatehpur Sikri, 32 kms from Deeg, 39kms from Mathura, 176 kms from Alwar and184 kms from Jaipur. The water sample collected from Bharatpur city was collected from a tube well shown below which was being used by the local peoples for drinking washing and many other routine purposes, even this water being given to their pet animals also. After so many repeated tests it was found and cleared that the sample was high arsenic concentration as per WHO. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Column filtration method: The column filtration method was used in this work, this method requires quit less financial investment and facilities the researcher to change the filling material easily for cleaning and any required corrections. Three kinds of columns were used independently for comparing with each other to see the efficiency of particular Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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column. Different- different arsenic positive samples were passed through these columns at the same input flow rate. The filtered water was then tested for Arsenic, TDS and color etc. lastly the results were compared with each other. Column first was containing Sand, Gravels, Sieve, Cotton cloth, Glass Beads and our main arsenic removal FeOOH gel, second column was containing all above of first column except the gel, the waste Iron rust was used instead of that. The third column was same as second column but there was a extra layer of charcoal was present beneath iron rust layer. Back wash was given to all the three columns time to time. I. FeOOH Gel Prepared for column Treatment The gel of FeOOH can be prepared by using: ! Sodium Hydroxide – NaOH - 500 ml

! Ferric Chloride — FeCl3 - 500 ml

! Sodium Silicate – Na2SiO3 - 500 ml

When all mixed in required proportion pouring slowly and stirring for some about 1-2 Hour by using automatic stirrer a gel like substance is obtained which has a definite and some iron like property. II. Treatment Using RUST Rust is a general term for a series of iron oxides, usually red oxides, formed by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Several forms of rust are distinguishable visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances. Rust consists of hydrated iron (III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron (III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO (OH), Fe (OH)3). Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Other metals undergo equivalent corrosion, but the resulting oxides are not commonly called rust. Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass eventually converts entirely to rust and disintegrates. We have taken the sample of RUST from common Household and easily available substances. A common type of Rust from a thrown Cooler as we have obtained is shown in the following figure. Fig1. Showing used Cooler as a source of raw rust.

A Set-Up of Column using RUST is shown below. This set-up also contains Sand, gravels, glass beads, filter papers, sieve and cotton cloth. III. Fig 2. Showing a Full Setup of Rust Column

Treatment using Rust + charcoal Third and one of the important method for the removal of Arsenic from the ground water. Charcoal has the property to decrease the unwanted impurities like colour and some biological impurities from the water. ARSENIC TEST: Arsenic concentration in water was tested by a highly sensitive arsenic test kit by Merck KgaA, Germany. Measuring range (color scale graduation): 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mg/l. The kit work on the Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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principle that, When zinc and a solid acid are added to compounds of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V), arsenic hydride is liberated, which in turn reacts with mercury (II) bromide contained in the reaction zone of the test strip to form yellow-brown mixed arsenic mercury halogenides. The concentration of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) is measured semi-quantitatively by visual comparison of the reaction zone of the test strip with the fields of a color scale.

REFERENCES: 1.

1) Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. pp. 334- 337

2.

2) Arsenic Filtration Units. Prepublication Report. Sono Diagnostic Center Environment Initiative, Kushtia, Bangladesh.

3.

3) Chatterjee, A., Das, D., Mandal, B. K., Chowdhury, T. R., Samanta, G. and Chakraborti, D. (1999) Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: The biggest arsenic calamity in the World. Part 1. Arsenic species in drinking water and urine of affected people. Analyst, 120, p. 643-650.

4.

4) Joshi, A. and Chaudhuri, M. (1996), “Removal of Arsenic from Ground Water by Iron Oxide-Coated Sand”, ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 122(8), p. 769-771.

5.

5) Khair, A. (1999), Arsenic removal from drinking water by low-cost materials, Paper presented at the International Conference on Arsenic in Bangladesh Groundwater: World’s Greatest Arsenic Calamity, USA, February 27-28.

6.

6) R.Mamtaz, D.H.Bache, Low cost Techniques of Arsenic Removal from Water and its removal mechanism.

7.

7) BIS. Indian Standard Drinking Water-Specification (First revision). Fifth reprint; Report No. ISO 10500; BIS: New Delhi, India. 2003

8.

8) Driehaus, W., Jekel, M., Hildebrandt, U.: Granular ferric hydroxide – a new adsorbent for the removal of Arsenic from natural water. Aqua J.Water Supply Res.Technol. 47, 30–35 (1998)

9.

9) Hydrous Ferric Oxide. Wiley- Interscience, New Y ork. pp 89-95

10.

10) WHO, 2002. Arsenic and arsenic compounds. Environment Health Criteria, Geneva.

11.

11) WHO, 2009. Arsenic in Drinking Water. Fact sheet. No. 210 Retrieved June 6, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs210/en/

12.

12) WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality; 3rd ed.; Vol. 1, Recommendations; World Health Organization: Geneva, 2004.

13.

13) www.epa.gov 14) www.google.com 15) www.merck-chemicals.com/test-kits 16) www.sciencedirect.com/arsenic_removaltechniques 17) www.scribd.com/arsenic

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Proportionate Electoral System – An Urgent Need There is a huge crisis as we are in the phase of politicization of criminals and this has badly impacted the electoral system of this country. The ideological and morale basis of the parties have declined. The current phase is that it is none of the parties have any political ideology, agenda or programme. Once elected, they tend to forget their subjects – the people. Certainly there is a need for change and reforms in the Electoral System, said Justice Rajendir Sachhar. Justice Sachhar said this while inaugurating the National Conference of Campaign for Electoral Reforms in India (CERI). More than 250 delegates from 22 States of India gathered together for two full days at the Vishwa Yuvak Kendra on 10-11 February 2012. Presenting the key note address, MC Raj said that Indian Democracy is still in a state of emergence though democracy at the global level is at crossroads today. From distribution of values for the larger welfare of all it has altered to the accumulation of values in the hands of a few. The emergence of nation state also saw the evolution of new forms of concentration of power and new concepts of individualism and liberalism intruding into spaces of governance. These concepts also gave birth to capitalism as a powerful social and political system. The contours of democracy in modern times emerged as a systemic dominance over the powerless, a major shift from people's power to concentration of power in the hands of a few people. On the other hand, among the ordinary masses there also evolved a quest for power as resistance and power as participation. The flame of democracy is kept alive in such communities of peoples. Guest Speaker Additional Secretary to the Rajya Sabha Mr. Satyanarayan Sahu said that today Indian democracy is under fragile situation. If Proportionate Representation is introduced, it would succeed as it would provide space for people from marginalized sections. It would provide stability, curb corruption. He was of the opinion that as India heads towards the goal of universal education and literacy there is a real possibility now to bring in PES. PES would preserving the integrity, unity and stability of India , continued Sahu. Chief Guest Justice D S Tewatia said that money and muscle power had hijacked democracy and democratic institutions of the country. Electoral system, the very basis of democracy is at the behest of a minority Stability at the centre can't come around with more than 400 registered political parties. Only national parties should be allowed to put up candidates for the parliament. Others could put up candidates for the state. Then only we could have a stable government. Communal, caste forces are the most divisive factors of India social reality. All these needs to be overcome for which Electoral reforms are essential, said Justice Tewatia. The other topics and panels were on contours of democracy, electoral systems, FPTP, Proportionate Electoral System, Mixed Member Proportional Representation, Party List System, Two Votes system, Size of Parliament, Bicameral Parliament, Reservation, Threshold, Gerrymandering, Internal Party Democracy, Financing of elections, Negative Voting, Right to Recall, Compulsory Voting, Pre-poll or Post-poll Alliances. Towards the end the conference came up with a statement of the conference addressing all the issues and concerns. There was a galaxy of speakers from all over the country. Delegates of the national conference were from a wide variety of representatives from political parties, community organizations, people's movements, civil society organizations and varied socio-cultural groups. Some of the key speakers were D. Leena, Hyder Ginwalla, Raktim Mukhopadhayay, Sebastian, Prof. Kamal Mitra Chenoy, Jawaharulla, Shaji Krishan, Goldy M. George, P. Mohanty, Rayalu Yugal Kishore, Manas Jena, Iban Kumar, Sinthanai Selvan, Vishnu Baghel, Livnus Kindo, Dr. Narasingh, V. B. Rawat, Ashwani Bakshi, Jyotiraj, M. C. Raj, Jeroninio Almeida and Sheeba Aslam Fehmi.

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The mask is off. Team Anna and his lieutenants are batting for the BJP BJP’s Team B BY Dhirendra K Jha

On 30 October last year, when Mohan Bhagwat claimed that Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption movement was actually supported by the RSS, the remark conveyed palpable nervousness and attracted criticism from Team Anna. Three months later, as Team Anna launches its voters’ awareness campaign in UP, there is not even an attempt to keep its secular mask intact. The mask, in fact, fell off at the very first stop that Team Anna made in the state to remind prospective voters of their duties in the upcoming Assembly polls. It happened on 2 February at Fatehpur subdivision of Barabanki district, the spot that marked the beginning of the voters’ awareness campaign in the state by the lieutenants of Anna Hazare, and repeated itself through much of the first leg—four rallies, the last on the evening of 3 February at Basti—of Team Anna’s campaign. Kiran Bedi led Team Anna through this leg of the campaign, and the dais was set directly, in three out of four places, by the RSS. To begin with, the public meeting at Fatehpur was a typical RSS show. Rakesh Kumar Premil, the man who led the local group organising the entire event, has been a prominent member of the local unit of the Sangh Parivar. “Hindus must be aroused to fight against corruption,” he told Open. Premil is known in Fatehpur for his aggressive Hindutva ideology. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, he was president of the Shiv Sena’s Fatehpur unit. Later, he formed an NGO, Manav Utkarsha Sewa Sansthan, and started working under this banner. The banners of this NGO were prominent at the Mahadev Talab ground, where Kiran Bedi, Manish Sisodia, Sanjay Singh, Gopal Rai and some other members of Team Anna addressed their first public meeting. Ably assisting Premil was Ram Kumar Yadav, a local quack who is also the president of the Fatehpur unit of the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh, the farmers’ wing of the RSS. According to Premil, about 50 volunteers from outfits like the Manav Utkarsha Sewa Sansthan, Bharatiya Kisan Sangh and Rashtra Bhakta Vichar Manch, with known if not professed leanings towards the RSS, worked day and night for almost a week to make this event a success. Some of the volunteers, who had come all the way from Agra, belonged to Jai Kali Kalyan Samiti, another NGO with professed Hindutva leanings. No less significant was the role played by teachers and students—they were present in numbers to swell the crowds—of various branches of Saraswati Shishu Mandir, schools run directly by the RSS in and around Fatehpur, as well as those controlled by Sangh sympathisers, including Sai Usha Montessori High School, Glorious Public School and Rabindranath Tagore Senior Secondary School. If the RSS set the stage at Fatehpur and gathered the crowds, the speakers of Team Anna did the rest. Though members of the Team asserted that they had not come to tell voters who they should vote for, their categorical attack on “corruption” in the Congress, “criminalisation” of the Samajwadi Party (SP) and “misgovernance” by the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and high praise for the BJP government in Uttarakhand for bringing in a “really strong Lokayukta Bill” in the state left no doubt in the minds of listeners who they were being asked to vote to the new UP Assembly. Also, while members of Team Anna spoke, their volunteers distributed a leaflet—containing a 13-point ‘letter of oath’—to prospective voters. The ‘letter’ is an exhortation to the electorate to obtain 13 pledges Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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from the contesting candidate before committing their vote. The first pledge in the ‘letter of oath’, quoting Swami Vivekanand, invokes an idea of India that today only the RSS will endorse: ‘…that I am a citizen of India and every citizen is my brother. Indians are my life and Indian gods and goddesses my divinities. India and its society are the swing of my childhood, the garden of my youth, my sacred heaven and the Kashi of my old age. The soil of India is my highest heaven. My welfare lies in the welfare of India. And this whole life I will chant, day and night—O, Gaurinath, O, Jagdambe, make me more humane and take away my weaknesses and unmanliness.’ It is inconceivable for a non-Hindu to take this oath. The remaining 12 points in the ‘letter of oath’ are no less absurd, if not so religiously charged. They prod voters to obtain a commitment from contesting candidates that they would never sit in an AC room and remove ACs from their residences, that they would never travel in a luxury car but always in hooded jeeps, that they would never keep a driver and would drive their jeeps themselves—and, surprise, surprise, would always support the passage of the Jan Lokpal Bill. There are many other points in this one-page ‘letter of oath’ that point to a simple thing—the anti-corruption agitation of Anna Hazare has gone nuts. It was hard to miss the farce at Fatehpur. Nearly half the 2,000-odd present at the Mahadev Talab ground were children, most of them from local Saraswati Shishu Mandirs, who had come in their school uniforms and are clearly not yet eligible to vote. When Kiran Bedi, speaking after other members of Team Anna had delivered their speeches, asked “voters” in the crowd to raise their hands, the ones that shot up instantaneously belonged to schoolchildren. Those who might be eligible to vote didn’t even get Bedi’s instructions immediately, and by the time they realised this, it had become too awkward to obey. Bedi, apparently unfazed by all this, went on: “See, how voters are responding to Anna’s call. Now all of you stand up and swear with me that we will never vote for the corrupt.” This time nearly everyone responded, but the schoolkids were again the most eager. That was the first voters’ awareness rally of Team Anna, which left Fatehpur as soon as Kiran Bedi had finished her monologue around 2.30 pm on 2 February. The next destination was Gonda, about 140 km away from Fatehpur. Here the meeting began at 4 pm at the Ramlila Maidan in the heart of town, though the cavalcade of Team Anna reached slightly behind schedule. The farce was repeated here too. So was the silent message, though members of Team Anna continued to maintain that they were not foisting a political choice on prospective voters. As in Fatehpur, the organisers of the event at Gonda too had among them a generous peppering of the Hindutva brigade. The chief organiser of Team Anna’s voters’ awareness rally at Gonda, Dr Dilip Shukla, is a known RSS face in the area. Once again, the lieutenants of Anna Hazare set about their task in earnest—ripping apart Congress leaders Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi, Digvijaya Singh and many others, besides SP chief Mulayam Singh Yadav and BSP leader Mayawati. Once again they maintained a calculated silence vis-à-vis the saffron party. When they spoke of the BJP, they didn’t fail to mention the “strong” Lokayukta Bill brought in by the BJP government in Uttara khand. And as they concluded the meeting, once again, they left no doubt in the minds of those present who Team Anna would have them vote for. By the time they reached the Gulab Bari ground at Faizabad, around 1 pm on 3 February, Team Anna’s language had acquired the subtlest change in inflection. Here, they started off with the need to change the present system so that farmers, labourers and the unemployed could get their due, before returning to the familiar theme of bashing every other party save the BJP. Praise for the Uttarakhand BJP government’s “strong” Lokayukta bill was now a little subdued; there was mild criticism too of the Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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party’s UP state unit for not yet promising voters that they would follow Uttarakhand’s example. But only the envelope had changed, the message hadn’t—by the time the Faizabad leg concluded, Team Anna had left voters here in no doubt which way they leant. ‘Don’t vote for the BJP till it promises you a strong Lokayukta in your state’ was another way of saying ‘vote the BJP if it does’. The reasons for Team Anna’s restraint in Faizabad are not hard to figure. Unlike in their previous stops at Fatehpur and Gonda, the rally at Faizabad was organised mainly by those who have for long been associated with the Left and Dalit politics in the region—names like Gopal Krishna Verma, who led the group that organised the rally at Faizabad, and team members Arvind Murty, Nitin Kumar Mishra and Vinod Singh, among others. The presence on the dais of Tariq Sayeed—a senior member of the local intelligentsia and head of the Urdu department of KS Saket PG College, Ayodhya—who presided over the public meeting at Faizabad, may have been a deterrent for members of Team Anna and forced them to be less deferential to the BJP than in the previous two meetings. Their restraint notwithstanding, most members of Team Anna were silent on the threat of communalism. Only one of them, Mufti Shamoom Kazmi, underlined the need to fight communal politics. “Ayodhya means the place where no one fights, but some politicians of a particular party have tried to damage Hindu-Muslim unity in the name of religion. We must not forget that we can fight against corruption only if we remain one irrespective of our religious identities.” Here, too, Kiran Bedi created a flutter on the dais when she elbowed out stage manager Arvind Murty, who wanted to call speakers to the mike in a prearranged order. Bedi had ideas of her own, and when she grabbed the mike, Murty left the dais in a huff. She proceeded to hold forth for half an hour, and by the time former MP Ilyas Azmi, who was supposed to speak before her, began his address, the crowd had begun to recede. In Basti a few hours later, the last stop of the first leg of the campaign, the Anna anthem had been restored to its original fervour. Gone was the aberrant restraint of Faizabad, most apparent in the speeches of Bedi and Sisodia. Only three speakers of Team Anna- Sanjay Singh, Manish Sisodia and Kiran Bedi—spoke here, and the meeting was wrapped up in less than an hour because some of the Team’s leading lights had to catch a train to Delhi. “Rahul Gandhi says UP has been looted for the past 21 years. He says if you give him a chance, he will change the state in the next five years. Fact is, the Congress is in pain because it has not been able to loot UP for the past 21 years. That’s what they want to do now.” That was Sisodia. Bedi made a shorter speech here (remember she had a train to catch), signing off with the now familiar reference to the BJP government in Uttarakhand and its “strong” Lokayukta Bill. As for the organisers of the rally at Basti, the presence of the Sangh Parivar was even more obvious here. Harishchandra Pratab Singh, an advocate and a key figure in the local committee, has been district convenor of the Shri Rama Janmabhoomi Mukti Sewa Samiti formed in the late 1980s and was one of the leaders of its karsewak wing. He is a well-known Hindutva face in the district.

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Even the four-page message of Anna Hazare, distributed at all four stops, has a clear pro-BJP bias. Anna’s message is a litany of charges, framed as questions for Rahul Gandhi, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mayawati. For the sake of form, the tail-end of the message has some questions for the BJP too, but they sound more like exhortations to repeat what Team Anna sees as the party’s stellar performance in Uttarakhand. There’s not a mention, for example, of the corruption of the BJP government in Karnataka, nor its communal record in Gujarat. So, while the pamphlet names P Chidambaram and Mulayam Singh and Mayawati, it bestows no such honour on former Karnataka Chief Minister BS Yeddyurappa or Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi. When Anna Hazare sat on his first indefinite fast at Delhi’s Jantar Mantar in April last year, his proximity to the Sangh Parivar was on show. Hindutva symbols were a feature of the stage decor. Understandably, it drew flak from people then close to the movement but not similarly inclined politically. When it still seemed important to take these people along, as in Anna’s next show at the Ramlila Maidan, his lieutenants tried to play down this association—Gandhi had now replaced ‘Bharat Mata’ as stage backdrop. In UP, Anna and his henchmen were back to home base. In the days to come, as the political battle rages in the state, Kiran Bedi and her cohorts may continue to make a great deal of sound and fury. But it won’t amount to much except this: Team Anna’s transformation into Team B of the BJP is complete. Credits for the article to: http://www.openthemagazine.com/article/nation/bjp-s-team-b

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Joint Statement by India and Thailand on the State Visit of Prime Minister of Thailand Yingluck Shinawatra to India January 25, 2012 New Delhi

1. H.E. Ms. Yingluck Shinawatra, Prime Minister of Thailand, paid a State visit to India from January 24-26, 2012 as the Chief Guest for India's Republic Day celebrations. On her first visit to India, at the invitation of Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, she was accompanied by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Commerce, Industry and Information & Communication Technology; senior government officials, and a business delegation. 2. During the visit, PM Shinawatra called on Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, the President of India, and Shri Hamid Ansari, the Vice-President of India. She also held talks with Dr. Manmohan Singh, who hosted a banquet in her honour. Shri S.M. Krishna, External Affairs Minister called on the Thai PM. PM Shinawatra also attended a business luncheon hosted by (CII/FICCI/ASSOCHAM) chambers of commerce. 3. The two Prime Ministers held wide-ranging discussions on bilateral, regional and multilateral issues, and reviewed the outcome of the 6th Joint Commission Meeting held in New Delhi on December 27, 2011 cochaired by the Minister of External Affairs of India and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand. 4. Both sides noted that the visit coincides with the 65th anniversary of establishment of bilateral diplomatic relations, as well as 20 years of India's enhanced engagement with ASEAN. They noted with satisfaction that India and Thailand have, over the past decades, developed a strong and mutually beneficial cooperation at both bilateral and regional levels, and have played an important role in fostering regional frameworks which have contributed to peace, social and economic development, and infrastructural linkages between India and Southeast Asia. Given the progress in the relationship, both sides expressed the desire to work together towards elevating the bilateral relations to strategic partnership for mutual benefit. 5. The Prime Minister of India once again conveyed deep condolences to the Thai Prime Minister on loses suffered during the recent devastating floods in Thailand, and offered to support reconstruction and recovery effort as required. The Thai Prime Minister expressed deep appreciation for the financial assistance provided by India. Both sides agreed to explore the possibility of cooperation in water management and flood prevention. ECONOMIC RELATIONS 6. Both sides noted that South East Asia has grown significantly in terms of economic influence, and its dynamism continues to play an important role in global economic growth. Both leaders noted that Thailand and India have led efforts to integrate economies of the region. 7. To strengthen economic links between the two countries, both sides reaffirmed their resolve to conclude the bilateral Comprehensive Agreement on Trade in Goods, Services, and Investments by mid-2012, to further enhance economic links and between the two countries. The 2nd Protocol signed during the visit to amend the Framework Agreement for Establishing Free Trade Area would provide further boost to bilateral trade in immediate terms. 8. To further create a supportive atmosphere for the bilateral and regional comprehensive economic cooperation, the two leaders also agreed that ASEAN and India should conclude their regional Trade in Services and Investment Agreements by 2012. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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9. The Prime Minister of India welcomed Thai investments into India into sectors such as infrastructure development including ports and highways, computer hardware, automobile components and parts, food processing and power generation, as well as tourism and hospitality facilities in the Buddhist circuit. The Thai Prime Minister invited Indian investments to Thailand in information technology, manufacturing, electronics and automotive industry. Both sides looked forward to the establishment of a forum comprising senior representatives of business enterprises of both countries to promote expansion of bilateral business ties. 10. The two sides agreed to explore possibilities of collaboration between their respective oil and gas companies in Exploration and Production (E&P) opportunities in Thailand and India, as well as in third countries. SECURITY AND DEFENCE 11. Both sides noted that the increasing menace of terrorists, criminals, arms and drug traffickers trying to use this region for their nefarious activities provided an added urgency to strengthen cooperation in security and intelligence exchange. The 6th meeting of the Joint Working Group on Security Cooperation held in New Delhi on May 25-26, 2011 provided an opportunity to discuss these challenges in a comprehensive manner. It was agreed that a five-year Joint Working Programme on specific elements of cooperation would be finalized urgently. 12. The two leaders unequivocally condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stressed that there could be no justification whatsoever for any act of terrorism. Recognizing the common threats to national security from transnational crimes, including international terrorism, the two Prime Ministers resolved to significantly enhance bilateral cooperation in combating terrorism, including in restricting transnational movement and unauthorized stay of known terrorists in each other's countries. The two leaders resolved to commit their countries to improve sharing of intelligence, the development of more effective counter-terrorism policies, enhance liaison between law enforcement agencies, provide assistance in the areas of border and immigration control to stem the flow of terrorist related material, money and people and specific measures against transnational crimes, through the already existing mechanisms between Thailand and India. 13. Such cooperation will also complement regional efforts as declared in the ASEAN-India Joint Declaration for Cooperation in Combating international Terrorism. 14. The two sides shared the view that, Thailand and India being maritime neighbours, defence cooperation would be mutually beneficial in addressing shared challenges and concerns. In this regard, the two sides expressed satisfaction that the inaugural meeting of the bilateral Defence Dialogue held in New Delhi on December 23, 2011, had enabled a comprehensive review of various elements of defence cooperation and its future course. The MoU on Defence Cooperation signed during the visit would help both sides to further streamline and facilitate this process on matters of mutual concern. The two sides noted the ongoing cooperation between both Navies in the conduct of coordinated patrols and agreed that such measures of cooperation should continue. 15. The two sides will also expedite the ongoing negotiations on Bilateral Extradition Treaty and the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty on Civil and Commercial Matters. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 16. Both sides agreed on the need for concerted collaboration in domains of creativity, innovation and research and development, in order to transform their economies into knowledge based ones. In this Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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regard, enhanced cooperation on science and technology, information and communications technology, agricultural science, natural resource management, biotechnology, and marine & space sciences should be further pursued through existing mechanisms and future arrangements to be mutually agreed upon. CULTURE, EDUCATION, AND PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE EXCHANGES 17. The two leaders agreed to deepen cultural and historical ties between the two countries by promoting diverse cultural exchanges to build a lasting understanding between the peoples of the two countries. 18. In order to accelerate people-to-people contact in cultural and other fields benefiting both societies, both sides agreed to work together towards setting up an “India-Thailand Foundation”. Both sides also agreed to consider possibilities of audio-visual co-production. 19. The two sides welcomed the formation of the India-Thailand Parliamentary Friendship Group in the Indian Parliament that would facilitate parliamentary exchanges with its counterpart group in Thailand's National Assembly and agreed to intensify the exchange of parliamentary delegations between the two countries. 20. Recognizing that education is another important area of cooperation, the two leaders welcomed the progress made towards the revival of the Nalanda University, to be a leading regional academic institution as endorsed during the East Asia Summit. The Prime Minister of India thanked the Prime Minister of Thailand for pledging USD 100,000 to the University, with further contributions to be made by Thai private sector. 21. Both sides expressed satisfaction at the greater flow of tourists and visitors between the two countries. To address issues related to travel, visa facilitation, employment, and safety of tourists, both leaders welcomed the setting up of an ad hoc Joint Working Group on all visa and consular matters which will meet at regular intervals. 22. The Indian side welcomed Thailand’s participation as Partner Country in the Surajkund Crafts Mela 2012 at Faridabad between 1 - 15 February 2012 by sending a Thai cultural and crafts demonstration troupe. REGIONAL COOPERATION AND CONNECTIVITY 23. Both sides expressed their desire to further enhance their valued partnership and cooperation in the context of India - ASEAN relations. Both Prime Ministers supported the formation of the ASEAN Community by 2015 as an important step towards greater integration and prosperity in Southeast Asia. The Thai Prime Minister supported India’s engagement with ASEAN, and viewed that India’s role will be important for ASEAN’s continued dynamism, security, and prosperity beyond 2015. 24. In this connection, the two Prime Ministers reaffirmed their full support for the work of ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group to take stock and chart the future direction of the Dialogue relations so as to further realize the full potential of ASEAN-India partnership in the next decade. 25. Both leaders underlined the importance of the East Asia Summit as a platform for greater integration and cooperation, and, in the long term, achieving an East Asia Community of peace prosperity, and security. 26. Both leaders looked forward to the India - ASEAN Commemorative Summit in December 2012 hosted by India. In the run up to the Commemorative Summit, India will host a number of events such as the IndiaASEAN Car Rally, a sailing ship expedition along the monsoon trade winds route, the 4th edition of Delhi Dialogue, the ASEAN-India Business Fair, Ministerial level meetings and cultural activities throughout the year. Thailand will support these initiatives and events through its active participation.

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27. The two leaders reaffirmed the importance that both countries attached to the BIMSTEC as a link between South and South-East Asia. The two sides also agreed to synergize their development projects and capacity building in lower Mekong region through the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) initiative which could take the lead in reinvigorating this grouping. 28. Both leaders shared the view that the close cooperation on enhancing connectivity was a common theme in existing regional cooperation platforms, and agreed to focus on developing road and shipping infrastructure which will establish in the future, an economic corridor linking India with Thailand and Southeast Asia. To this end, the two sides announced setting up of a joint working group on infrastructure and connectivity to help expedite various development initiatives in these fields in both countries as well as in third countries. They agreed that the work of the Group could also aid regional connectivity efforts such as the India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION 29. The two sides agreed to enhance cooperation in the United Nations and other international fora on matters of mutual interest. The two leaders reiterated strong support for the ongoing reform of the United Nations and its principal organs with a view to making the United Nations more democratic, transparent and efficient so that it can deal more effectively with the myriad challenges of the contemporary world. They emphasized the importance of an early reform of the United Nations Security Council so that it reflects the contemporary realities and functions in a more accountable, representative and effective manner. 30. The Thai side acknowledged India’s credentials for permanent membership of the UN Security Council, and commended India’s active role and continued constructive contributions in the field of global security. 31. The following agreements were signed during the visit: (1) Treaty on Transfer of Sentenced Persons (2) Memorandum of Understanding on Defence Cooperation (3) The 2nd Protocol to amend the Framework Agreement for Establishing Free Trade Area between Thailand and India (4) Programme of Cooperation in Science & Technology (5) Cultural Exchange Programme for 2012-14 (6) MoU between Chulalongkorn University and ICCR for setting up a Chair at the India Studies Centre of the University. 32. The Prime Minister of Thailand expressed her gratitude to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and to the people of India for the warm welcome and hospitality that had been extended to her and to the members of her delegation on her State visit. She extended an invitation to Prime Minister of India to visit Thailand, which he gladly accepted.

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Tribal’s Health In Social Sector Development; An Inter District Comparison Prof (Dr.)Kumar B. Das Vice-Chancellor, Fakir Mohan University, Baleswar, Odisha Mr. Parikshita Sahu Research Scholar in Analytical & Applied Economics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar

Abstract: Augmentation in the health and nutritional status of the population should be the major thrust areas for the development initiatives of the social sectors of a nation. The health service should be reached at the door steps of all in stead of people will reached at the health provider institutions/organizations. The improvisation in the access to and utilization of Health, Family Welfare and Nutrition services with special focus on under served and under privileged segments of the population should be done at the priority basis. When these section will be healthier and physically fit for work, then the productivity, production, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), then per capita income and in general the National Income of the economy will be strengthen. According to the previous data that in spite of modern institutions which are well equipped by trained and contextually wealthy human resources with professionals and paraprofessionals in the medical colleges and vast health infra- structure it has been seen that the health status in the tribal pockets not only in India but also in different parts of the state are not improving as per the expectation. On the other side now people are becoming more aware about the benefits of health related technologies for prevention, early diagnosis and effective treatment for a wide variety of illnesses and accessed available services. Definitely the initiatives from government sector, non-govt. sectors and other stakeholders regarding the health service will promote the technological advancement and make easy access to health care technologies have resulted in substantial improvement in health indices of the population and a steep decline in mortality and other health deformities within the individual or in the state. Keywords: Social sector development, Indian Public Health Service Standards [IPHS], Maternal Mortality,Reproductive And Child Health (RCH), Indigenous Technologies , Malnourishment Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR),AYUSH, National Immunisation Program (NIP),Poverty, Illiteracy,Maternal Health, STDs,Primary Health Care (PHC), LE- Life Expectancy. CDR- Crude Death Rate

Introduction Augmentation in the health and nutritional status of the population should be the major thrust areas for the development initiatives of the social sectors of a nation. The health service should be reached at the door steps of all in stead of people will reached at the health provider institutions/organizations. The improvisation in the access to and utilization of Health, Family Welfare and Nutrition services with special focus on under served and under privileged segments of the population should be done at the priority basis. When these section will be healthier and physically fit for work, then the productivity, production, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), then per capita income and in general the National Income of the economy will be strengthen. According to the previous data that in spite of modern institutions which are well equipped by trained and contextually wealthy human resources with professionals and paraprofessionals in the medical colleges and vast health infra- structure it has been seen that the health status in the tribal pockets not only in India but also in different parts of the state are not improving as per the expectation. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Social development is critical for sustaining the long-term viability, not only of economic growth, but also of democracy itself. This understanding has underpinned political developments in recent times in these three major democracies. Social development does not simply involve quantitative advances but also incorporates critical normative elements. On the one hand, it includes a focus on addressing problems of poverty, and expanding access to quality education, and healthcare and, on the other hand, it also involves addressing issues of social exclusion such as discrimination and lack of voice in social and economic processes. What is at stake is quality of life with a sense of dignity. According to the 1995 United Nations' World Summit for Social Development, "the ultimate goal of social development is to improve and enhance the quality of life of all people." India, Brazil and South Africa have a number of striking similarities, such as sharing a commitment to democratic values and the building of equitable and culturally heterogeneous societies. They also face common challenges such as high levels of poverty and inequality, unemployment and underemployment, and exclusion of the majority from the benefits of social and economic development. The limited participation of civil society, particularly community-based organizations, in development processes is also a challenge. In many instances, this factor is to be changed not to hinder the IBSA countries` achievement of participatory democracy and effective governance at the local level. Some conclusions on how to tackle these challenges have already begun to emerge from the interchanges that have been taking place. Firstly, there is the recognition that inequality and structural poverty are interconnected and pose obstacles for the advancement of social development. Secondly, there is a need for a critical involvement of the state, because it is only the state which can marshal the necessary resources and coverage to reach the weakest elements of our societies. Related to this, there is also a clear sense that we must consider some of the basic principles underlying a welfare state as being applicable to our societies. Thirdly, effective social development policies must be participatory in character and must involve all elements of societies, from private sector to civil society, groups and communities. Fourthly, given the diversity of objectives and institutions involved in effective social development policy, it is necessary that any strategy for social development take advantage of both complementarities and synergy across different policies. It is important that each one of the agencies involved in the formulation of these policies be aware of their integrative character and function accordingly. Integrated service delivery must be promoted to tackle the multiple causes of social problems and advance the human development agenda. Integrated efforts are required to promote inclusion of the poor and vulnerable including those made poor due to spatial/geographic segregation and migration status. Fifthly, the concept of social development also underlines the importance of acting directly at the bottom of the social pyramid, where hunger, disintegration of families and lack of opportunities are prevalent. A comprehensive social protection network could provide the basis for integration of the families that are most vulnerable - e.g., through policies directed at income guarantee, food and nutrition security, and social assistance so that all families have access to opportunities of inclusion and development. There is also a special need to reform education, health and housing policies in order to broaden access and provide for the development of adequate social infrastructure and delivery of quality services. Finally, social policies are not formed in vacuum, nor do they emerge as fully developed at the time of their initial formulation. The main objectives of the health of the health sector programmes are as follows: i) Provision of adequate qualitative, preventive and curative health care to the people of the State. ii) Ensuring health care services to all, particularly to the disadvantaged groups like Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes and the backward classes. iii) To provide affordable quality health care to the people of the State not only through the allopathic system of medicine but also through the homoeopathic and Ayurvedic systems. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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iv) To ensure greater access to primary health care by bringing medical institutions as close to the people as possible or through mobile health units, particularly in the under-served and backward districts. v) To improve health care in the KBK districts of the State. vi) To eliminate diseases like polio and leprosy from the State, and prevent and control other communicable diseases. vii) To reduce maternal and infant mortality and to improve maternal and child health. viii) To guarantee to the people of Orissa free treatment (including free medicines) for certain major communicable diseases. ix) To improve hospital services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels in terms of infrastructure, drugs and personnel. x) To import training to doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff to upgrade their skills and knowledge to improve equality health care in the State. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Health Sector NRHM was launched to address infirmities and problems across primary health care and bring about improvement in the health system and the health status of those who live in the rural areas. The Mission aims to provide universal access to equitable, affordable, and quality health care that is accountable and at the same time responsive to the needs of the people. The Mission is expected to achieve the goals set under the National Health Policy and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). To achieve these goals, NRHM facilitates increased access and utilization of quality health services by all, forges a partnership between the Central, State, and the local governments, sets up a platform for involving the PRIs and the community in the management of primary health programmes and infrastructure, and provides an opportunity for promoting equity and social justice. The NRHM establishes a mechanism to provide flexibility to the States and the community to promote local initiatives and develop a framework for promoting inter sectoral convergence for promotive and preventive health care. The Mission has also defined core and supplementary strategies. The Mission lays emphasis on reducing mortalities, morbidities due to malnutrition, malaria and other deadly diseases. It gives stress on universal access to public health services, prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, ensuring population stabilization, maintaining gender balance, revitalization of local and health traditions and promotion of healthy lifestyles and hope the Mission will bring about a paradigm shift in the health system and quality of health care delivery in Orissa. To improve the quality of health services at the grass root level. It is expected that the health indicators like IMR, MMR etc. in the slate will conic down up to national level by 2012 through NI intervention. I hope with the different initiatives of N1 IM as mentioned in the annual report, we will be able to improve health care at all levels. It is evident that difficult terrain, diverse culture, hostile weather, different kinds of natural calamities arid inadequate specialist manpower make the implementation of NRHM much more challenging in Orissa. Still, the state has done much better in routine immunization, institutional deliveries, family planning etc. NRHM Orissa is striving hard to bridge the gaps and provide quality health services at the grass roots with different innovative intervention.

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GOAL OF NRHM • • • • • •

Reduction of Infant mortality rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). Universal access to public health services such as women’s health, child health, water, sanitation and hygiene, immunization & hygiene, immunization & nutrition. Access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare. Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance. Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH. Promotion of healthy life style.

NRHM initiative as a whole with its wide approach is a national movement than just a national health project in the health sector in the last 50 years. It recognizes the importance of health care in the process of economic and social development and improving the quality of lives of our citizens. It provides effective health care to rural population throughout the country with focus on 18 states which have weak public health indicators and weak infrastructures. In Orissa more than 85% of the population live in rural areas and depend mostly on agriculture. The percentages of SC & STs constitute 16.53 & 22.13 respectively of the total state population. Nearly 45% of the state area in as many as 13 districts has been declared as Scheduled Areas. Considering that good health is an important asset of livelihood and illness a major cause of impoverishment, the health and allied sector in the state has made noticeable improvements in leprosy control, Polio eradication, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Malaria, Crude Birth Rate, Crude Death Rate, Life Expectancy at Birth, Nutritional Status, Literacy, drinking water supply and sanitation. NRHM in Orissa entered into the third year in June 2007. The broad programme of NRHM in its ambit include the NRHM New Initiative, the ongoing Reproductive and Child Health Phase II (RCH-II) Program, National Immunization Program (NIP), National Disease Control Programme & Inter-Sectoral Convergence Efforts. Core Strategies of NRHM • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Train and enhance capacity of PRIs to supervise and manage public health services. Promote access to improved health care at household level through the female health activist (ASHA). Health Plan for each village through Village Health Committee of the Panchayat. Strengthen SC through an untied fund to enable local planning and action and more Multipurpose Workers (MPWs). Strengthen existing PHCs and CHCs and provide 30–50 bedded CHC per lakh population for improved curative care to a normative standard (Indian Public Health Service Standards [IPHS] defining personnel, equipment, and management standards). Prepare and implement an inter sectoral District Health Plan prepared by the District Health Mission, including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition. Integrate vertical health and family welfare programmes at national, State, and district levels. Technical Support to National, State, and District Health Missions for Public Health Management. Strengthen capacities for data collection, assessment, and review for evidence-based planning, monitoring, and supervision. Formulate transparent policies for deployment and career development of Human Resources for health. Develop capacities for preventive health care at all levels for promoting healthy life styles, reduction in consumption of tobacco and alcohol, etc. Promote non-profit sector particularly in underserved areas. The expected outcomes of NRHM are listed below: IMR—reduced to 30/1000 live births by 2012. Maternal Mortality—reduced to 100/100000 live births by 2012. TFR—reduced to 2.1 by 2012. Malaria Mortality Reduction—50% up to 2010 Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Health and Eleventh Five Year Plan During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, major focus will be on NRHM initiatives. Efforts will be made for restructuring and reorganizing all health facilities below district level into the Three Tier Rural Primary Health Care System. These will serve the populations in a well-defined area and have referral linkages with each other. Population-centric norms, which continue to drive the provisioning of health infrastructure, will be modified. These will be replaced with flexible norms comprising habitation-based needs, communitybased needs, and disease pattern-based needs. Steps will also be taken to reorganize Urban Primary Health Care Institutions and make them responsible for the health care of people living in a defined geographic area, particularly slum dwellers. • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tuberculosis DOTS—maintain 85% cure rate through entire Mission Period and also sustain planned case detection rate. Upgrading all health establishments in the district to IPHS. Increase utilization of First Referral Units (FRUs) from bed occupancy by referred cases of less than 20% to over 75%. Under the NRHM, it is planned to have: Over 5 lakh ASHAs, one for every 1000 population/ large habitation, in 18 Special Focus States and in tribal pockets of all States by 2008 All SCs (nearly 1.75 lakh) functional with two ANMs by 2010 All PHCs (nearly 30000) with three staff nurses to provide 24 × 7 services by 2010 6500 CHCs strengthened/established with seven specialists and nine staff nurses by 2012 1800 Taluka/Sub Divisional Hospitals and 600 District Hospitals strengthened to provide quality health services by 2012. Mobile Medical Units for each District by 2009 Functional Hospital Development Committees in all CHCs, Sub Divisional Hospitals, and District Hospitals by 2009 Untied grants and annual maintenance grants to every SC, PHC, and CHC released regularly and utilized for local health action by 2008 All District Health Action Plans completed by 2008

There is need to shift to decentralization of functions to hospital units/health centers and local bodies. The States need to move away from the narrow focus on the implementation of budgeted programmes and vertical schemes. They need to develop systems that comprehensively address the health needs of all citizens. Thus, in order to improve the health care services in the country, the Eleventh Five Year Plan will insist on Integrated District Health Plans and Block Specific Health Plans. It will mandate involvement of all health related sectors and emphasize partnership with PRIs, local bodies, communities, NGOs, Voluntary and Civil Society Organizations. Tribal population in India is considered to be the most socio-economically disadvantaged group. The National Population Policy (2000) has made special mention of tribal areas in terms of improving basic health and Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services. In order to ensure adequate access to health care services for the tribal population, apart from dispensaries and mobile health clinics, 20284 SCs, 3230 PHCs, and 750 CHCs have been established. Role of PRIs in Health Development PRIs have the mandate to manage the primary health system. Commoditization through ownership by PRIs is necessary for an efficient and effective health system. Implementation of the NRHM will have to be closely watched to ensure that the involvement of Panchayats is total and complete. The various tiers of PRIs will decide the local priorities and also supervise functioning of health facilities, functionaries, and Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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functions through their participation in various committees.Since one-third of elected members at the local bodies are women, this is an opportunity to promote a gender sensitive, multi sectoral agenda for population stabilization with the help of village level health committees. All this will remain rhetoric until the elected women are trained and empowered. Civil Society in Health Development

Community Based Health Partnership is the key to sustaining health action even with limited resources. This can take many forms, through the PRIs, community-based and NGOs, and of people participating at all levels of health interventions. This cannot be achieved only by giving financial and administrative powers to the Panchayats, it needs active participation of the people for local action. Partnership with community groups (through youth, mahila mandals, SHGs, and Gram Sabhas) is necessary for local solutions to local problems. The NRHM envisages community participation such as described above. Under the framework for implementation, the Mission tries to ensure that more than 70% of the resources are spent through bodies that are managed by peoples’ organizations and at least 10% of the resources are spent through grants-inaids to NGOs. The mechanism of untied funds at the local level is meant to give them a little flexibility. During the Eleventh Five Year Plan, efforts will be made to promote various community-based initiatives. Focus on Low Cost and Indigenous Technologies

For quality health service, development and utilization of appropriate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases is essential. Over the last few years, health-related technology has developed at a rapid pace. But its impact on indices of public health has been minimal. There is a need to develop cheaper technologies that are as effective as the existing ones. It should be of prime concern to find technological solutions for making crucial equipment affordable, for example, anaesthesia machine, surgical equipment and lighting, sterilization equipment, defibrillator, ventilator, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure monitoring equipment, pulse oxymeter. Benefits of reduced cost of such technologies should reach village health care providers. Maintaining Health Equity

Infant Mortality is one of the sensitive indicators of development and is a determinant of quality of life. As the development process strides ahead, the IMR declines. Special attention has been given to improve the health status of children of Orissa. Strategies have been built on the Reproductive and Child Health programme (RCH) and the Infant Mortality Reduction Mission of Govt of Odisha. Despite remarkable world-wide progress in the field of diagnostics and curative and preventive health, still there are objectives to be achieved.They are• To increase the coverage of the ANC services from people living in isolation in natural and unpolluted surroundings. • To increase the Institutional delivery by 25 points for beliefs and myth intact. They are commonly known as “tribal” the tribal population. and occupy 22.3% of state’s population. • To increase the Post-natal visit to the tribal families by an ANM by 20 points. • To reduce the malnourishment among the tribal Genetic abnormalities and infectious diseases such as sickle-cell children below 1 year of age by 10 points. anemia, malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, typhoid, and cholera are • To reduce the Incidences of the childhood diseases rampant in areas of west and south Orissa. Additionally, like ARI & Diarrhoea among the tribal children below malnutrition, birth disorders, and gastrointestinal diseases are 1 year of age in particular and among the under 5 children in general by 10 points.

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• To increase the adoption any family planning been detected in gross amounts of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin riboflavin, and animal protein.C. In case of mother and child health we have to increasing access to institutional deliveries for safe and quality care • Linkages with private hospitals, community groups and other stakeholders • Upgrading the skills of birth attendants, local health volunteers, and ANM, AWW & ASHA. • Development and distribution of IEC material on Safe Motherhood. • Mapping & dissemination of referral linkages

Similarly in case of child health Micro Immunization Plan was developed jointly by Health worker, Angawadi worker & involving the Representative of ANC/PNC-Camp organized by FNGO SHGs & Local PRI members. Dissemination of information on the date, days & immunization point were shared with the Community Members. Despite remarkable world-wide progress in the field of diagnostics and curative and preventive health, still there are people living in isolation in natural and unpolluted surroundings far away from civilization with their traditional values, customs, beliefs and myth intact. They are commonly known as “tribals” and are considered to be the autochthonous people of the land. About half of the world’s autochthonous people, comprising 635 tribal communities including 75 primitive tribal communities live in India. They are found in all states except Punjab, Haryana and Jammu & Kashmir1. Orissa, the most picturesque state in eastern India, occupies a unique place in the tribal map of the country having largest number of tribal communities (62 tribes including 13 primitive tribes) with a population of 8.15 million constituting 22.3% of state’s population2. The primitive tribal communities have been identified by the Govt. of India3 in 15 states/union territories on the basis of (a) pre agricultural level of technology (b) extremely low level of literacy; and (c) small, stagnant or diminishing population. Health is a prerequisite for human development and is an essential component for the well being of the mankind. The health problems of any community are influenced by interplay of various factors including social, economic and political ones. The common beliefs, customs, practices related to health and disease in turn influence the health seeking behavior of the community4. There is a consensus agreement that the health status of the tribal population is very poor and worst among the primitive tribes because of their isolation, remoteness and being largely unaffected by the developmental processes going on in the country. Situation Analysis Studies undertaken in the country indicate that the primitive tribes have distinct health problems, mainly governed by multidimensional factors like their habitat, difficult terrain, ecologically variable niches, illiteracy, poverty, isolation, superstition and deforestation. Hence an integrated multidisciplinary approach has been adopted by different researchers to study the tribal health problems. Data and Methodology-

This paper aims at investigating the fact that how the health status of the individual will affect the pace of development in social sector of the communities or of the societies or of the nation. In this paper we are trying to compare the health status of tribal people with the non tribal people and tries to collect the information that their status is still in the backward position in spite of several interventions of different stakeholders as compared to the non-tribal or urban sectors.. Here the data are collected from the primary as well as the secondary sources. In case of primary data, they have collected from the two study districts e.g. Keonjhar; which is a tribal district and Bhadrak ; which is a non-tribal district of Odisha state. In case of secondary data, they have collected from different survey conducted under the health related organizations of the state as well as the country.

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Different Diseases affecting Tribal’s

Orissa Health Strategy 2003 has advocated for improving the health status of tribal population by reducing mortality and morbidity. It indicates that the tribal people suffer disproportionately from malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, genetic disorders like G6PD deficiency, sickle cell anaemia as also nutritional deficiency diseases. These are some of the special health problems attributed to these communities. The situation analysis of health indices of the tribal population in Orissa are worse than the national average: Infant mortality rate under five mortality rate 126.6; children under weight 55.9; anaemia in children 79.8; children with acute respiratory infection 22.4; children with recent diarrhea ; women with anaemia 64.9 per 1000. A high incidence of malnutrition has also been documented in the tribal dominated districts of Orissa15 Orissa is one of the ten states in the country covered under the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). According to the latest report of NNMB (2000 – 2001), Orissa continues to have second highest level of under nutrition among the ten states. When compared with the aggregate figures for chronic energy deficiency (BMI < 18.5) in adult men and women in these states the level is higher in Orissa. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) in adult men in the state is 38.6% compared to aggregate of 37.4%, whereas the CED prevalence in the adult women is 46% against 39.3% aggregate figure. As malnutrition is known to potentiate susceptibility to death due to infectious diseases, the high mortality rate amongst the primitive tribes may be attributed to this. In a prospective study conducted in Bondo, Didayi, Juanga and Kutia Kondha primitive tribes of Orissa severe malnutrition (based on Gomez classification) was observed in 16, 19, 25.1 and 26.6% population respectively (GP Chhotray: Unpublished observation). In a separate study conducted by Regional Medical Research Centre (RMRC), Bhubaneswar, 66% of primitive tribal population (6 – 15 years age group) of Mayurbhanj and Sundergarh districts was found to be malnourished17. Similarly the chronic energy deficiency was found to be very high among Langia Saura (89.4%) and Kutia Kondha (88.9%) primitive tribes of Rayagada district of Orissa18. Nutritional status of primitive tribes of Orissa was lower compared to other major tribes .Anthropometric analysis of other primitive tribes of the country revealed that 50% of the children in Pahariyas of the Rajmahal hills of Bihar were below 3rd percentile and below 90% of Harvard standard20. It was found that 85% of Great Andamanese children (<6 years) were undernourished and more than 77% children and adolescents (<19 years) were stunted, wasted or both while 38.8, 23.6 and 7.3% preschool children among Baiga tribes of Madhya Pradesh had mild, moderate and severe grades of malnutrition respectively The majority of Bondo, Didayi, Kondha and Juanga primitive tribes of Orissa had different grades of anaemia (as per WHO classification) as an important clinical manifestation. The severe anaemia (Hb<7 g/dl) ranged from 0.6 to 2.3%, moderate (Hb 7–9 g/dl) from 7.4 to 13.6% and mild (Hb 9–11 g/dl) 30.7 to 48.2% of population. Anaemia was more common in females than males. Another study reported 85% of Paudi Bhuyan primitive tribes of Sundergarh district to be suffering from different grades of anaemia23. A cross sectional study conducted in Madhya Pradesh revealed severe anaemia in 40% of Abhujmaria, 29% of Birhor and 42.2% of Baiga primitive tribes24. Majority (51.2%) of the anaemic primitive tribal population of Orissa showed microcytic hypochromic blood picture suggestive of iron deficiency anaemia. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between hookworm infestation and anaemia possibly due to indiscriminate defecation, bare foot and lack of health awareness. An appropriate intervention resulted in the reduction of worm infestation and improvement of anaemia status in 51.2 and 34.8% of individuals respectively (GP Chhotray: Unpublished observation). The demographic status of the primitive tribes has shown a declining or static trend. The demographic data of Juanga primitive tribe of Orissa revealed a marital fertility rate of about 6 and life expectancy at birth 35.9 years .A study carried out recently by RMRC, Bhubaneswar amongst four primitive tribes of Orissa, revealed an infant mortality rate (per 1000 live birth) of 139.5 in Bondo, 131.6 in Didayi, 132.4 in Juanga and 128.7 in Kondha (Kutia); a maternal mortality rate (per 1000 Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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female population) of 12 in Bondo, 10.9 in Didayi, 11.4 in Juanga and 11.2 in Kondha tribe; the life expectancy of 48.7 years in Bondo, 57.1 years in Didayi, 49.6 years in Juanga and 50.7 years in Kondha; the crude birth rate (per 1000 population) of 18.31 in Bondo, 24.3 in Didayi, 22.3 in Juanga and 21.6 in Kondha tribe and the crude death rate (per 1000 population) of 19.2 in Bondo, 23.7 in Didayi, 21.2 in Juanga and 20.9 in Kondha population. The average number of pregnancies was found to be 5.09 in Kutia Kondha tribe. The unhygienic and primitive parturition practices were mainly responsible for high maternal mortality. It was observed that among Kutia Kondha the delivery was conducted by the mother herself in a half squatting position holding a rope tied down from the roof of the house. This helped her in applying pressure to deliver the child. In complicated labour, obviously it might lead to maternal as well as child mortality. Malaria is the foremost public health problem of Orissa contributing 23% of malaria cases, 40% of Plasmodium falciparum cases and 50% of malaria deaths in the country.More than 60% of tribal population of Orissa live in highrisk areas for malaria. Though the tribal communities constitute nearly 8% of the total population of the country, they contribute 25% of the total malaria cases and 15% of total P.falciparum cases. Various epidemiological studies and malariometric surveys carried out in tribal population including primitive tribes reveal a high transmission of P.falciparum in the forest regions of India, because malaria control in such settlements has always been unattainable due to technical and operational problems. In a specific study conducted in undivided Koraput district, it was observed that the district is endemic for malaria and is hyperendemic in top hills where Bondo primitive tribes are residing30. A prospective study conducted by RMRC, Bhubaneswar during 2000 – 2003 in Malkangiri, Kandhamala and Keonjhar districts, showed slide positivity rate (SPR) of 14.2% in Bondo, 14.4% in Didayi, 10.5% in Kondha and 9.5% in Juanga primitive tribes. The Pf% was 93.5% in Bondo, 91.6% in Didayi, 92.7% in Kondha and 91.2% in Juanga population and the spleen rate in children of 2 to 9 years was 25.8, 35.1, 26.3 and 24.4% in Bondo, Didayi, Kondha and Juanga tribes respectively. Water-borne communicable diseases like gastrointestinal disorders including acute diarrhoea are responsible for a higher morbidity and mortality due to poor sanitation, unhygienic conditions and lack of safe drinking water in the tribal areas of the country. In a cross sectional study conducted by RMRC, Bhubaneswar in 4 primitive tribes of Orissa, the diarrhoeal diseases including cholera was found to occur throughout the year attaining its peak during the rainy season (From July to October). During 2002 to 2003, 12.7% of Bondo, 13.2% of Didayi, 10.4% of Kondha and 12.6% of Juanga children (0- 6 years) and 10.9% Bondo, 11.6% Didayi, 10.2% Kondha and 6.9% Juanga adult population presented with acute diarrhoea. Bacteriological study of the rectal swabs revealed Vibrio cholerae in 2.5%, Escherichia coli in 39.2%, Salmonella in 0.23% and Shigella spp in 1.8% of all culture positive cases while 56.3% of rectal swabs were culture negative. Among the V.cholerae isolates V.cholerae O1 Ogawa was the predominant serotype. The acute diarrhoeal problem was basically due to the poor environmental hygiene, lack of safe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta which was further aggravated by low literacy, low socioeconomic status coupled with blind cultural belief, lack of access to medical facilities leading to serious public health problem encouraging faeco-oral transmission of enteric pathogens .In a similar study conducted by RMRC, Jabalpur in Hill Korwas, it was observed that 0.1% population suffered from acute diarrhea.

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Intestinal protozoan and helminthic infestations are the major public health problems and were observed in 44.6% Bondo, 44.9% Didayi, 31.9% Juanga and 41.1% Kondha primitive tribes of Orissa. Amongst helminthic infestation hookworm was most common (21% in Bondo, 18.7% in Didayi, 14% in Juanga and 18.2% in Kondha). Children (aged 0–14 years) were more affected than the adults. A repeat stool examination after 4 months of antihelminthic and antiprotozoal treatment revealed significant reduction in the worm burden (from 38.9 to 18.9%). Most of these infections are due to indiscriminate defecation in the open field, bare foot walking and lack of health awareness and hygiene. These are preventable with repeated administration of antihelminthic and protozoal treatment at 4 months interval which can be used effectively in national parasitic infection control programme31. Studies conducted by RMRC, Jabalpur also revealed that intestinal parasitic infection is widely prevalent in 75% of Abhujmaria, 57.8% of Baiga and 6.7% Kamar primitive tribes of Madhya Pradesh. Micronutrient deficiency is closely linked with nutritional disorders and diarrhoea. Deficiency of essential dietary components leads to malnutrition, protein calorie deficiency and micronutrient deficiencies (like vit A, iron and iodine deficiency). Vitamin A deficiency in the form of Bitot’s spot, conjunctival xerosis and night blindness was observed in 8.9, 25.9 and 11.4% Bondo; 13.7, 24.2 and 27.6% Didayi; 14.9, 17.9 and 7.4% Juanga; and 3.4, 12.6 and 6.9% Kondha tribes, respectively (GP Chhotray: Unpublished observation). However, other micronutrient deficiencies like iodine deficiency (goiter), vitamin B complex deficiency (in the form of angular stomatitis) were not encountered. Similarly a high percentage of vitamin A deficiency was observed in 24.4% of Birhor tribes and 53.3% of Sahariya tribes of Madhya Pradesh. Goitre was also observed in 3.4% of these tribes. Skin problems like scabies is a major health problem amongst the primitive tribes because of overcrowding and unhygienic living conditions as also close contacts and lack of health awareness. In a study conducted by the RMRC, Bhubaneswar, 20.6% of Bondo, 6.9% of Didayi, 10.7% of Juanga and 15% of Kutia Kondha tribes were affected with scabies (both infective and noninfective), which is comparable with the findings in Birhor primitive tribe (7%) of Madhya Pradesh.Other communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, yaws and venereal diseases, though have been described as significant health problems in several major tribal populations of the country, very few published reports are available concerning these diseases in the primitive tribes. In a prospective study undertaken in Orissa, the incidence of tuberculosis and leprosy was found to be 1.4% in Bondo, 3.9% in Didayi, 0.7% in Kondha and 1.6% in Juanga tribes. Yaws was reported only in 0.2% Bondo population of Malkangiri district compared to high incidence of 7% in Abhujmarias of Madhya Pradesh. The frequency of G6PD deficiency gene in various primitive tribal population of Orissa was very high (Munda 15.9%, Kharia 14.2%, Bhuyan 12.9%, Kolha 9.8%, Bhaturi 9.5%, Santal 9.0% and Saura 7.7%). In a study conducted by the RMRC, Bhubaneswar, the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was found to be 0.36% in Bondo, 1.6% in Didayi, 7.3% in Juanga and 4.8% in Kutia Kondha primitive tribes. An indepth molecular analysis amongst the G6PD deficient tribal subjects including Juanga primitive tribes of Keonjhar district of Orissa revealed the presence of a new variant of G6PD known as G6PD Orissa. This particular enzyme is responsible for protecting red cell membrane from oxidative stress, preventing haemolysis from offending agents and providing selective advantage against falciparum malaria. Thalassaemia also contributes significantly for the anaemia cases in tribal population of Orissa. Studies have shown that the frequency of thalassaemia gene varies from 1.9% in Kharias to 8% in Santala, 1.7% in Bhumija, 2% in Kolha, 5.2% in Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Munda, 6.2% in Saura and 7% in Lodha primitive tribes34. The prevalence of thalassaemia was 0.5% in Bondo, 3% in Didayi, 2.6% in Juanga and 2.3% in Kutia Kondha primitive tribes. District Health Profile of Keonjhar

One of the major focus areas of RCH -II is maternal mortality in the district. Over the years, the maternal health indicators have improved substantially, the vision of NRHM and MDG; significant efforts have been taken up to achieve the desired goal. A comparison of the major maternal health indicators for the year 2008-09 and 2009-10 are as follows. Table-1 2008-09 % of mother receiving full ANC

96

2009-10 (till Sept 09) 43

% of birth assisted by SBA

70.02

72

% of institutional delivery

64.26

67

The ANC coverage is 43 % (till Sept 09) as compared to 96% in 2008. The institutional delivery is also increased to 67% as compared to 64.26% in 2008-09 and 56% in the year 2007-08 as miserable in 36% in the year 2005-06. This increase is due to the successful implementation of Janani Surakshya Yojana, the motivation undertaken by ASHA and introduction of Janani Express. JSY has increased institutional deliveries in all Blocks, specially, DHH, 2 SDH and AH. The maternal death has been reduced to 22 in the year 2009-10 (till Sept 09) as compared to 70/100000 in 2008-09. It is evident that the delivery at the lower level/peripheral level institutions are higher in comparison to district and sub-divisional institutions. This has due to the impact of JSY which is indeed is significant from the intervention point of view. In the year 2008-09 Rs. 3,30,72,450/- has been expended towards the JSY payment to beneficiary as well as the ASHA Rs. 2,43,10,800 has been expended for institutional delivery, Rs. 11,70,500 expended for home delivery and Rs. 75,91,150/- has been utilized for ASHA payment. In the year 2009-10 (till Sept 09) Rs. 2,41,95,700 has been expended towards the JSY payment to the beneficiary as well as the ASHA. Rs. 15,58,26,200/- has been expended for institutional delivery, Rs. 6,42,000 expended for home delivery and Rs. 77,27,500/- has been utilized for ASHA payment. This year in the month of Sept 2009, a campaign was organized to clear up all the backlog payment of mothers and ASHA and it was successfully implemented. Child Health

Child health status is one of the most sensitive indicators of development and it is also an important determinant of the quality of life. The IMR of this district as report on HMIS 2008-09 - 55.04/1000 (Infant death 1733) live births and in the year 2009-10 (till Sept 09) the infant death is 601 and the IMR is 38/1000 live births. In Banspal Block the IMR is high as the Juanga community lives in hilly forest area and they believe on their myths and cons. Integrated management of Neo Natal Childhood Illness is being used as a major strategy for new born care in the district. As a part of this strategy, training has been imparted to ANM and AWW. At present total 1069 persons have been trained till Sept 2009. The quality of training is being assured through the existing organizational set up with monitoring and supervision at different level. Implementation has been commenced in three blocks i.e. Harichandanpur, Padampur (Sadar Block) and Banspal. Necessary medicines, Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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drug kits and monitoring charts have been provided to the ANM and AWW for necessary reporting and implementation of the programme. To combat malnutrition and for effective treatment of the malnourished children, 15th and 20th of every month has been declared as Prustikar Diwas in this district. The programme is being jointly organized by W & CD Department and Health. One of the major focus areas of RCH is Family Planning programme. Over the last few years, the family planning status has improved in the district. At present, 2, 72,572 eligible couples are exists in the district within the age group of 15-49 years. Female sterilization is by far the most popular method. In the year 2009-10 (Till Sept 2009), the 112 female sterilization has been conducted. Last year the female sterilization has gone up to 4564 as compared to 4475 in the year 2007-08. Tribal Health:

In spite of concerted efforts, the health status of the tribal people has not improved in comparison to other category of people. Evidence has shown that the health problem of the tribal community needs special attention because of their culture, habitat, difficult terrin, hilly forest, isolation and remoteness of their area. In this district, 10 tribal blocks are there out of 13 CD blocks. The Juanga and Bhuyan community are the two tribes. Last year the RCH camps, tribal camps and swasthya melas have been organized in remote and inaccessible pockets keeping in view, the tribal dominated community can get better health services. In the district, total 18 RCH camps (amounting to Rs. 25,000) have been organized and the patient load was 9725 in total. Also 208 camps (tribal swasthya mela- Rs. 4000/- per camp) were organized and the patient load was 26,175. 34 and Tribal Swasthya Melas were organized ( Rs. 10,000/- per camp) and 9674 patients were attended the camp. NRHM has taken some Initiatives to improve the health standard if the district.They are as follows; • Implementation of Janani Surkhya Yojana has increased the institutional delivery in the district by 8-9% increase in every year. Last year the institutional delivery was 64%. Payment of Rs. 3,30,72,450 has been paid to mothers including institutional & home delivery and ASHA. Table-2 Janani Surkhya Yojana 2008-09 Over all JSY Payment Institnl JSY Payment Delivery Payment del. Home del 32158

17672

2341

2009-10(till Sept 09 Over all JSY Payment Institnl JSY Payment Delivery Payment del. Home del 38395

11508

1272

Graph-a

Rogi Kalyan Samiti -Total 80 RKS formed in the district out of which 13 Block PHC/CHC, 2 SDH, 1 DHH, 62 PHC (N), 1 AH and 1 other hospital Joda. Activities taken up by RKS like; Annual Action Plan has been prepared by RKS. Functioning of Ayurvedic dispensary at DHH, Keonjhar Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Outsourcing of cleaning & security at DHH, Keonjhar and 2 SDH. > Minor civil works, purchase of medical equipments etc by block PHC/CHC/SDH. User charges collected by the RKS for generation of funds in all block PHCs/CHCs and also PHC (N). Referral support to the poor patients. Gaon Kalyan Samiti-1855 Gaon Kalyan Samities have been formed out of 2060 revenue villages,1705 GKS have been opened their bank accounts,Fund transferred to 1719 GKS @ Rs. 10,000/- per annum, Total Rs. 1,71,90,000/- released to each GKS,Training of GKS members is completed at Ghatagaon & Patana block in pilot basis. Table-3-- Gaon Kalyan Samiti T a r g e t N o o f G K S No of GKS Account Opened N o o f formed GKS 2060 1855 1705

Fund released to no of GKS (@ Rs. 10,000/-P/GKS) 1719

In case of AYUSH • 65 AYUSH doctors posted in the different health institutions of the district. (Ayurvedic-35, Homeopathic-30). In Block PHC/CHC 11 AYUSH doctors have been posted and in PHC (N) 54 AYUSH doctors have been posted. • Ayurvedic & Homeopathic medicines were provided by NRHM. • An herbal garden has been developed with the support of NGO at Telkoi block. • AYUSH doctors were conducting delivery after getting SAB training. Indian Public Health Standard: • Renovation of Labour room & OT of DHH, Keonjhar, two SDH (Champua & Anandpur) & AH- Barbil by R&B. • Repair & renovation of 9 blocks PHC/CHC is taken up by R&B. • Repair & renovation of 2 blocks PHC/CHC is in progress by CPWD. DISTRICT HEALTH PROFILE OF BHADRAK Table-4 JANANI SURAKSHYA YOJANA (JSY): No of beneficiary Name of the PHC/ N o o f b e n e f i c i a r y benefited (Institutional No of Deliveries assisted by CHC benefited (Home Delivery) Delivery) ASHA Total 1722 15401 8578 Programmers to reduce Infant Mortality

Increasing Institutional delivery by implementing Janani Surakshya Yojana. Janani Express to bring antenatal cases for delivery. 100% antenatal check up and steps taken for all deliveries to be conducted at Health Institutions. SAB training undertaken for all Health Worker (F), LHV, Staff Nurse and AYUSH Doctors. Increasing Full Immunization coverage. Training has been given to all Health Workers, LHVs on Immunization VHND / Mamata Diwas implemented at AWCs in the district to check up the pregnant women, lactating mothers, adolescent girls and 0 to 5 year child and referral of Grade III and IV child to block PHC/CHC. Pustikar Divas implemented in all PHC/CHCs/Hospitals in 15th of every month. children (Grade – III & IV) has been examined at Block PHC/CHC.

96 nos of malnourished

The patients provided with referral cost under IMR Mission Sanction of 5 Ambulances for Bhadrak District Creation of DHH as FRU and all 6 CHCs and Dhusuri Hospital as 24X7 hospital The essential drugs are provided with ASHA for minor ailments The cause of each Infant death has been analyzed jointly by Health Worker(F) and AWW. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Awareness among the adolescent girls and mothers regarding the cause of infant and maternal deaths on a monthly basis at Gaon Kalyan Samiti. Provide Emergency referral cost to patients using GKS untied fund at village level. Provision of emergency health services using untied fund of Gaon Kalyan Samiti. RCH: Family Welfare Activities Table-5 Sterilization Operation, IUD, CC, OP Activities 2008-09 2009-10 (as on June 09) Annual Target Achievement %achievement Annual Target Achievement %achieveme nt Sterilization 4965 5695 114.70 7031 87 1.24 IUD OP

8916 11382

9648 12980

108.20 122.40

9549 13218

2007 2377

21.02 18.00

CC

23261

24967

107.30

24728

3056

12.35

Folifer large 39294

36117

108.2

34012

6591

19.38

National Rural Health Mission(NRHM) in Bhadrak : The following are the initiatives by NRHM to improve health status of the district • To strengthen the health services and sanitation in the community level it is emphasized for the formation of village health and sanitation committees / Gaon Kalyan Samiti (GKS) Table-6 Gaon Kalyan Samiti (GKS)Name of the Blocks GKS- Formation CHC/PHC (Nos.)

Total:

Target

Formed

1226

1182

No. of village health plan

No.Swasthya Kantha

No.Swasthya Barta

363

172

% 401

33.93

• To reduce infant and maternal mortality rate “Janani Suraksya Yojana” implemented in the district under the umbrella of NRHM. Cash benefit of Rs. 1400/- for rural area and Rs.1000/- for urban areas are given to the mother’s for delivery in government institution. With the implementation of this ‘Yojana’ substantial increase has happened in the number of institutional deliveries thereby reducing numbers of home delivery in the district. Table-7 Institutional Delivery status: Year Total Delivery

Home

Inst. Delivery ( only in % of Institutional delivery Govt Institutions) ( only in Govt Institutions)

2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

24622 22472 26779 24048

17575 15413 10265 7003

7047 7128 16514 17045

28.62 31.72 61.67 70.87%

2009-10 (up to July 09)

6868

1535

5333

77.64%

Empirical Analysis

In this paper we have taken two districts ;one is Tribal District (Keonjhar) and another is Non-tribal District (Bhadrak).As per the analysis of table 3 & 6 ,in case of Gaon Kalyan Samiti (GKS) the target for Keonjhar District 2060, No of GKS formed is 1855 and No of GKS Account Opened is 1705 but in case Bhadrak District target for Bhadrak District 1226 ,No of GKS formed is 1182 .Here the target in opening the Samiti in Keonjhar District has lagged behind than the Bhadrak District. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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As per the analysis of table 2, 4, & 7 in case of Janani Surkhya Yojana ,in tribal district the cases of Institutional Delivery are not appreciable and here the cases of home delivery is still in a good numbers than Bhadrak district. One important thing can be made very clear that the health related awareness programmes are not effectively implemented or not fully successful in the tribal pockets in Keonjhar. Further more, the motivational spirit of the workers who are working for that shake should be accelerated, so that the beneficiaries will be more interested for Institutional Delivery. In case of Keonjhar district it has been observing that, the beneficiaries have been getting the payment for delivery but they are not interested to go medical for the same. It is clear from the analysis that these people with the communities are still in the blind belief and superstitions due to lack of health education and appropriate, need based and area specific awareness programme. Recommendations and Suggestions

To improve the health standard of the people in general and tribal’s in particular, some need based and area specific as well as a bottom-up approach should be done at a priority basis. For that micro planning with regards to the health sector must be done to identify the real cause of the detoriation of the health standard. So that in a right approach the correction can be made in that sector. As rightly said “Health is Wealth�, the health of a nation is a sum- total of the health of its citizens, communities and settlements as well as the overall climate within which the citizen and communities live. A healthy nation, therefore, is possible only if there is total participation of its citizens, communities and the government in this goal. In the last five decades, there has been a significant progress in various aspects of health in the country. But sadly, this advancement has been uneven and restricted to few selected states. A very large part of Hindi speaking areas of the country as well as the states of Orissa and Assam remain under shadows. Interestingly, even in the better off states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, etc., there are pockets where health status of the people has remained stagnant over the years. We have also noticed with considerable dismay the rising incidence of communicable diseases like malaria over the last few years. It is also doubtful whether the health services of most of the country are geared up sufficiently to meet the health problems due to modernization like heart diseases, accidents, traumas, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. Given the above situation, it is imperative that in the coming Five Year Plan, sufficient emphasis is given to health care needs of the people living in vulnerable regions, by ensuring that the pockets of darkness in the advanced states are adequately taken care of and the systems and infrastructure available in the country are totally revitalized to competently deal with the newer challenges in the health care. This task cannot be done just by the government and its functionaries alone. It requires enthusiastic and sustained participation of all the citizens of the country in taking responsibility for their own health as well as that of their communities. We also need to ensure active and responsible participation of the private and voluntary sectors. There is a considerable challenge for optimizing the existing rural health infrastructure throughout the country. Keeping in view the potentiality of the Panchayati Raj, it is proposed that health infrastructure in the rural areas are gradually but surely made accountable to village panchayats, panchayat samities and Zila Parishads at their respective levels. The primitive tribes of Orissa and their health scenario presents a kaleidoscopic mosaic of various communicable and non-communicable disease profile keeping in pace with their socio-economic development. Among these there are communities who still depend primarily on hunting and food gathering as primary source of livelihood. The wide spread poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, absence of safe Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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drinking water and sanitary conditions, poor maternal and child health services, ineffective coverage of national health and nutritional services, etc. have been found, as possible contributing factors of dismal health condition prevailing amongst the primitive tribal communities of the country. Many of the infectious and parasitic diseases can be prevented with timely intervention, health awareness and IEC activities. Some of the intervention programmes can be included in the national programme also. The non communicable diseases like diabetes and hypertension are conspicuously absent indicating that the primitive tribal communities are still far away from the modern civilization and developments. In spite of the tremendous advancement in the field of preventive and curative medicine, the health care delivery services in these primitive tribal people are still poor and need to be strengthened in order to achieve the goal of Health for all in the country. Here some points are to be taken into consideration to maintain a healthy society and hence the development in the social sector.They may be discussed as follows. Improvement in Infrastructure

The current outlay for the health sector, which is somewhere between 2 to 3 per cent, needs to be enhanced to at least 5 per cent to ensure adequate supply of equipments, drugs and other wherewithal to help District Hospitals, Primary Health Centres and Sub-Centres to attain optimum levels of efficiency. If we do not urgently improve the situation, we will end up as a nation full of sick people, requiring extraordinary amount of resources to cure them from various ailments. One of the chronic complaints of the people about government health functionaries is their non-availability in the place of duty. This problem needs to be tackled effectively. The problem of non-availability of MBBS doctors at the Primary Health Centre level can be tackled by recruiting Ayurvedic doctors and giving them eight month orientation and training on health management and appointing them at the PHC. This orientation and training should be designed with proper emphasis on the social development and management aspects of community health. A similar short-term orientation should also be mandatory for other staff at the PHC before they assume duty. Another idea is to make two years of rural service mandatory for all medical graduates before they can seek admission for post graduation. It is also necessary that all PHCs are equipped with modest lab facilities for doing simple tests. We should ensure that every PHC, CHC and Sub-centre of the country is properly equipped and manned. To encourage motivated and bright young professionals to join Primary Health Care Services, it is proposed to introduce an ‘Indian Health Services’, so that health care management of the country if left with competent people who would also be assured of an attractive career in medical services. Modalities of this should be worked out keeping in view the experiences from other Indian Administrative Services. A regulatory mechanism to assess the professional competence of doctors during their service should be introduced. Like in the other Indian Administrative Services, health personnel, including nurses, should be given adequate orientation and training before they join the services. This should be further strengthened with compulsory continuing education for health personnel of all levels. At the Community Level

In the last few centuries, the rich Indian health culture has gone through serious neglect. Every effort should be made to revitalize local health traditions by supporting the efforts of existing local/traditional health practitioners. This will provide about half a million traditional health functionaries to contribute towards taking care of people’s health at low-cost in their own community settings. The Department of Indian Systems of Medicine should be encouraged to work out a programme for upgrading the skills and knowledge of these practitioners as well as weeding out malpractices that have crept into this system. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Local health practitioners should be further strengthened with the introduction of ‘Community Health Workers’ throughout the country. The nucleus of this scheme should be a motivated social person from the village itself. There should be one PSS for every 1000 population in plain areas, and one PSS for around 700 populations in hill tribal and/or difficult areas. The entire country should be covered in a phased manner. There should be a massive effort in health education in the entire country, through school teachers, panchayat members, youth clubs, Mahila Mandals and health workers to help people inculcate a more rational and scientific understanding of health. As a part of this process, it must be ensured, with support from the Ministry of Education, that every village school has adequate sanitation and safe drinking water facilities. At the District Level

There should be a District Health Plan for all the districts of the country done at the district level itself. This should be supplemented by a Panchayat Health Plan. In the district level plan, there should be adequate flexibility for specific areas like the Desert and the Hill areas where a strong base-hospital supported by a mobile service must be provided. Given the fact that lack of safe drinking water is a major cause of morbidity, it should be ensured that every citizen of this country has access to a reasonable quantity of safe drinking water. This programme should be implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Rural Development and Employment. To ensure that the sources of safe drinking water are maintained properly, communities should be involved right from the beginning, from the installation to maintenance of these sources. Health Care for the Vulnerable Population

As mentioned earlier, approximately one-third of the people of our country, particularly living in the tribal, hilly and arid as well as feudal areas have a critical health status. Their health problems are very much associated with the issues of food security and underdevelopment. The health of this population is directly linked to their economic, social and political status. It is quite clear from the findings of all social development ministries that there is a need to think of a Sub-Plan for the vulnerable and deprived regions. Major thrust should be to help them reverse the situation through a well-planned, adequately financed community-oriented Integrated Health and Development Programmes with substantial participations from voluntary organizations. There has been several efforts in the Planning Commission in identifying these vulnerable areas. Therefore, it is proposed that in these pockets, subsidized supply of basic staple food be introduced. Given the fact that our country has additional food grain lying in stock as well as the fact that similar approach has given extremely good dividends in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, this should not be a difficult proposition. This will ensure food security and health security for the most vulnerable population of the country. Health Systems Research In order to find out successful approaches to implementation of key programmes of public health, there is a need to do systematic health systems research in the following areas: • Community Participation • Integration of Indian Systems of Medicine in PHC • Appropriate and low-cost health management information systems for rural health care • Financing of rural health systems • Effective methods of health education • Inter-sectoral coordination and mechanics of convergence of social development work in rural areas • Simple and effective epidemiological surveillance at the district level. Ground Report India ISSN 1839-6232

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Reformation in the PHC System Corner stones for revamping the primary health care system in future should be: • Active participation of the people in managing their own health and that of the communities where they live. • Optimum utilisation of existing primary health care infrastructure to remove the current inertia and to gear them up to meet the present and future challenges of health care. • Active participation of voluntary organisations in the planning, monitoring and implementation of health programmes, particularly in the vulnerable areas. • Ensuring a disciplined and responsible growth of the private sector both in curative as well as preventive and promotive care. • Revitalization of local health traditions and strengthening of local practitioners so that they can play important roles in health promotion, throughout the country. • Decentralised district level planning with flexibility to cater to the local needs and constraints. • Handing over the responsibility of health services gradually to Panchayats and Zila Parishads with technical support, guidance and leadership from State Health Services. • Increasing the outlay for health care to at least 5 per cent of Plan Budget. • Special Sub-plan to uplift the health status of the vulnerable people. • Health is not everything but everything else is nothing without health. References 14.

Census of India (1991). Paper-1 of 1992 : Final Population totals. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. New Delhi.

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Mahapatra, D.K.,J.Das(1990).Nuritional Ecosystems of Orissa tribal in Cultural and Environmental Dimension on health (rd. Buddhadeb Chaudhuri).

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Parsuraman, S and S Rajan (1990). On the estimation of vital rates among the Scheduled Tribes in Western India. In: Demography of tribal development (eds. A. Bose, U.P. Sinha and R.P. Tyagi).

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Swain, S, S.C. Jena and P. Singh (1990). Morbidity status of the Kondha tribes of Phulbani (Orissa). In Cultural and Environmental Dimensions on Health (ed. Buddhadeb Chaudhuri). Inter-India publications, New Delhi.

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Tekhre, Y.L. (1989). Impact of family welfare programme on tribal women. Ph. D. thesis (unpublished).

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U.N.Report (1984). V. Health Status of women. Improving concepts and methods for statistics and indicators on the situation of women. Studies in Methods - series F.No. 33.

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Ali, A. (1980). Health and genetic problems of Kutia kondhs of Bulubaru village, Phulbani district, Orissa. The Newsletter (Gove. Of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Tribal Development Division, New Delhi, 1(2) 103-114.

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Ali, A. (1980) Health and nutritional status of Pauri Bhuniyas of Jaldih village in Sundergarh district, Orissa. The Newsletter 13 [April]. Tribal Development Division. Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi.

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Baryam S, (1982). Biodemographic factors associated with offspring morality among the Jahongs of Meghalaya, J, Ind. Anthropol, Soc, 17(2): 143-146.

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Basu and Kshatriya (1993). Demographic features and health care practices in Dudh Kharia Tribal population of Sundergarth district Orissa[communicated].

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Basu, S.K. (1993). Tribal Health (In) Rural Health. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.

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Basu, S.K., Kshatriya, G.K. (1990).Growth trends and adolescent spurts among Kutia- Kondha - A primitive tribal group of Phulbani district, Orissa. Acta Medica Auxologica. 22 (3): 153-164.

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Basu, S.K. and G.K. Kshtriya (1992). Fertility and mortality trends in the Dudh Kharia tribal population of Sundargarh district, Orissa. Paper presented at 18th National conference on Human Genetics in Hydrabad.

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Ali, A. (1992) Nutrition [In] State of India's Health [ed. Alok Mukhopadhyay]. Voluntary Health Assoc of India. New Delhi.

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Ray, A and A. Roth (1991). Indian tribals fertility patterns from Orissa. Man in India 1991 (special) 71(1):235-239.

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Sharma, Krishan (1979). The Kondhs of Orissa : An Anthropometric study. Concept publishing company, New Delhi.

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