image A NEWLY DEFORESTED AREA WHICH HAS BEEN CLEARED FOR AGRICULTURAL EXPANSION IN THE AMAZON, BRAZIL.
© GP/RODRIGO BALÉIA
image THE BIOENERGY VILLAGE OF JUEHNDE WHICH WAS THE FIRST COMMUNITY IN GERMANY TO PRODUCE ALL ITS ENERGY NEEDED FOR HEATING AND ELECTRICITY, WITH CO2 NEUTRAL BIOMASS.
8.6.1 how much biomass box 8.2: what is an exajoule?
• One exajoule is a billion billion joules • One exajoule is about equal to the energy content of 30 million tons of coal. It takes 60 million tons of dry biomass to generate one exajoule. • Global energy use in 2009 was approximately 500 EJ
8 energy resources and security of supply |
Roughly 55 EJ/a of bio energy was used globally in 201180 (approximately 10% of the world’s energy81). The Energy [R]evolution assumes an increase to 80 EJ/a. in 2050. Currently, much biomass is used in low-efficiency traditional uses and charcoal.82 The Energy [R]evolution assumes an increase in the efficiency of biomass usage for energy globally by 2050. In addition to efficiencies in burning, there are potentially better uses of local biogas plants from manure (in developing countries at least), better recovery of residues not suitable as feed and an increase in food production using ecological agriculture. The Energy [R]evolution assumes biofuels will only be used for heavy trucks, marine transport and – after 2035 – to a limited extent for aviation. In those sectors, there are currently no other technologies available – apart from some niche technologies which are not proven yet and therefore the only option to replace oil. No import/export of biomass between regions (e.g. Canada and Europe) is required for the Energy [R]evolution. In the 2012 Energy [R]evolution, the bioenergy potential has not been broken down into various sources, because different forms of bioenergy (e.g. solid, gas, fluid) and technical development continues so the relative contribution of sources is variable. Dedicated biomass crops are not excluded, but are limited to current amounts of usage. Similarly, 10 % of current tree plantations are already used for bioenergy83, and the Energy [R]evolution assumes the same usage.
BIOMASS IN THE 2012 ENERGY [R]EVOLUTION
There have been several studies on the availability of biomass for energy production and the consequences for sustainability. Below are brief details of examples of such studies on available biomass. These are not Greenpeace studies, but serve to illustrate the range of estimates available and their principal considerations. The Energy [R]evolution estimate of 80 EJ/yr is at the low end of the spectrum of estimates of available biomass. The Energy [R]evolution doesn’t differentiate between forest and agricultural residues as there is too much uncertainty regarding the amounts available regionally now and in the future.
references 80 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY 2011. WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK 2011 HTTP://WWW.WORLDENERGYOUTLOOK.ORG/PUBLICATIONS/WEO-2011/ 81 IPCC, 2011: IPCC SPECIAL REPORT ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION. PREPARED BY WORKING GROUP III OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE [O. EDENHOFER, R. PICHS-MADRUGA, Y. SOKONA, K. SEYBOTH, P. MATSCHOSS, S. KADNER, T. ZWICKEL, P. EICKEMEIER, G. HANSEN, S. SCHLÖMER, C. VON STECHOW (EDS)]. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, UNITED KINGDOM AND NEW YORK, NY, USA. 82 IPCC, 2011: IPCC SPECIAL REPORT ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION. PREPARED BY WORKING GROUP III OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE [O. EDENHOFER, R. PICHS-MADRUGA, Y. SOKONA, K. SEYBOTH, P. MATSCHOSS, S. KADNER, T. ZWICKEL, P. EICKEMEIER, G. HANSEN, S. SCHLÖMER, C. VON STECHOW (EDS)]. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, UNITED KINGDOM AND NEW YORK, NY, USA. 83 FAO 2010. WHAT WOODFUELS CAN DO TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE. FAO FORESTRY PAPER 162. FAO, ROME . HTTP://WWW.FAO.ORG/DOCREP/013/I1756E/I1756E00.PDF