BER 23 - Chapter 3 People

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Chapter 3: People Challenging Times

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1 Deprivation in Birmingham 2019. BCC. Available at: 2 MHCLG. The English Indices of Deprivation 2019

3 Prepared by the authors with data from Birmingham City Observatory

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Birmingham City Council. (2020) Index of Deprivation 2019 ONS. (2023) Consumer price inflation, UK: May 2023


ONS. (2023) Cost of living insights: Food

7ONS. (2023) Cost of living insights: Food

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8 DESN and BEIS. (2023) Fuel poverty statistics


ONS. (2022) Regional gross disposable household income: enterprise regions Nomis. (2022) Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 11 Imperial College London (2022) Retrofit our homes to tackle multiple crises 10


ONS, 2023. Regional gross disposable household income, UK: 1997 to 2021


Office for National Statistics (2023), Labour market overview, UK: July 2023, ONS Statistical Bulletin, released 11th July 2023. The economically inactive are those not currently employed and not searching and/or available to start work, e.g., due to retirement, looking after family and home, studying, sickness or disability. 14

15 The economically active population refers to all those either employed or ILO unemployed aged 16+ and can be thought of as the size of the

active workforce living in a given area.

16 Beatty, C., Fothergill, S., Gore, T. and Leather, D. (2022), The real level of unemployment 2022: the myth of full employment across Britain.

Project Report. Sheffield Hallam University, Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research. 17 There is no double counting in adding these numbers as there is no overlap in membership of each group (by definition, the ILO unemployed are not economically inactive). Note that there would be double counting in adding the claimant count to either of the other two measures, as there is overlap in membership. 18 Houston, D. (2020) Local resistance to rising unemployment in the context of the COVID‐19 mitigation policies across Great Britain, Regional Science, Policy & Practice, 12, pp.1189-1209,

19 Caution should be exercised when comparing geographical areas that have been defined in different ways. Ideally, the West Midland

Metropolitan County should be compared with the other Metropolitan Counties. Nevertheless, Greater Birmingham has also been included in Figure 3 given the principle geographical focus of the Birmingham Economic Review on Greater Birmingham.

20 Nomis. (2023) Annual Population survey 21 UK Parliament (2023) Why have older workers left the labour market?

22 ONS. (2023) Long-term international migration

23 DFE. (2022) Record numbers of 18-year-olds take up their place at university 24 IFS. (2022) Early years spending update: The impact of inflation

25 Green, A. (2022), Over 50s in the Labour Market. 26 CIPF (2019), Megatrends – Ageing Gracefully: The opportunities of an older workforce.

27 Office for National Statistics (2023), Population changes and economic inactivity trends, UK: 2019 to 2020. 28 Green, A. (2023). Changing labour market participation of people aged 50 years and over.

29 ONS (2022), Reasons for workers aged over 50 years leaving employment since the start of the coronavirus pandemic: wave 2. 30 Phoenix Insights (2022). What is driving the Great Retirement? 31 ONS (2022). Reasons for workers aged over 50 years leaving employment since the start of the coronavirus pandemic: wave 2.

32 National Institute of Economic and Social Research. (2023) Spring Budget 2023: Who Will Benefit and Who is Left Behind? 33 University of Birmingham. (n.d.) Socio-Economic Impact Model for the UK: SEIM-UK 34 City REDI. (n.d.) City-Region Economic Development Institute 35 ONS. (2023) Census Map

36 Parliament. (2020) Written evidence submitted by the Professional Association for Childcare and Early Years 37 DFE. (2023) Childcare and early years survey of parents

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38 Industrial Strategy Council and City REDI. (2020) Rising to the UK’s Skills Challenges

39 City REDI. (2023) What Could the £4 billion Expansion of Childcare Support mean for the West Midlands Economy? 40 ONS. (2023) EMP14: Employees and self-employed by industry

41 Mayhew, K. and Anand, P. (2020) COVID-19 and the UK labour market. Oxford Review of Economics Policy 36(S1), S215-S224. 42 Brewer, M. and Gardiner, L. (2020) The initial impact of COVID-19 and policy responses on household incomes. Oxford Review of Economic

Policy 36(S1), S187-S199.

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NASUWT. (2022) Teachers know stark reality of cost of living crisis IFS. (2021) The long, long squeeze on teacher pay


Nomis. (2023) Annual survey of hours and earnings Qualification data from the annual population survey for 2022, has not yet been released. This makes the census data released in February 2023 the most up to date data set, by the 30 th of September 2023. 47 ONS, 2021. Census 2021- Household Questionnaire 48 ONS, 2012. Annual population survey (APS) QMI 46


ONS, 2023. How workforce qualification levels differ across England and Wales, technical annex: Census 2021

50 WMCA, 2023. Devolution Deal for the West Midlands

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