Local government chronicle Celebrating Excellency in South African Government
Publisher Applewood Tree (PTY) Ltd Suite M38, Innovation Centre, Mark Shuttleworth Street The Innovation Hub, Persequor ext 10, Lynnwood, Pretoria, 0087
Cedric Mamabolo firstname.lastname@example.org
Executive Director Lawrence Mofokeng Lawrence@localgovernmentchronicle.co.za
Editor-in-Chief Gopolang Peme email@example.com
Editor & Sub-Editor Eugenie Louw firstname.lastname@example.org
Creative Director & Layout Design Ntokozo Brian Mahlaba email@example.com
Dating back from my tertiary days I’ve always had
As Local Government Chronicle (LGC), a proudly
a problem with the lack of balance of ownership in
South African publication, we plan to undo the many
the media landscape. To put it in plain simple English:
injustices that have for many years been taking place
‘Black people in South Africa do not own nearly
in the reporting of the country, the government and
enough media houses and therefore we cannot tell
citizens of South Africa.
our stories the way we know best’.
LGC will showcase and promote good governance
With that being said I am also very wary of
and service delivery at local government and also
parachute journalism as for many years we have
focus on all local government related disciplines
been tuning to international TV channels and reading
such as: economic development, infrastructure,
news articles written by foreign news agencies and
housing, finance and all other government related
allowing them to dictate how Africa and South Africa
should be depicted. And as you would know stories
LGC is 100% wholly black owned and through this
written by foreign news agencies on Africa, seldom
platform the staff of LGC realise that as the media
paint a positive light on this continent of hope.
we play an extremely important role in the successful
If you think I’m talking a whole lot of hogwash and out of my depth, please allow me to take you back a few months ago. Prior to the world cup almost every second article that came out of Europe spoke of the bloodshed that that was going to take place
running of democracy and we aim to always give all sides of a story.
Bonny Benade firstname.lastname@example.org
Head of Events Evelyn Mamabolo email@example.com
IT Manager Mojalefa Mailula firstname.lastname@example.org
Photography Motlatso Phahlane email@example.com
Admin Support Sizwe Nkosi firstname.lastname@example.org
I hope you’ll enjoy this first copy of LGC and the many more issues to come. Till the next issue.
in South Africa during the world cup. Even one of
Contacts Tel: 012 844 0881 E-mail: email@example.com
our ‘independent’ broadcast channel aired a criminal during their prime time news stating how much of a
fortune he was planning on raking during the world
Administration & Finance
Contents page 02 General:
Developing the industry
Household survey shows positive trends
23 Africa needs speed and effectiveness
Raising the bar
Education and service delivery
Boasting the best South African database
DBSA at forefront of Renewable Energy
Business and politics should be separated
Sustainable transformation for Cacadu
Serving its Citizens
government & Municipalities: 04
Local government boosted with technology skills injection
Joburg initiates public private partnership to deal with municipal waste
Municipalities improve financial management-Finances
The making of a man
Receipe for success
Three-folds and challenges of local government,democracy and delivery
RUSTENBURG: Host City with hosts of opportunities!
The dawn of democracy in South Africa, has been a real eye-opener. Having said that, dissemination of information within the three-tiers of government has been the most interesting one, with more than a dozen of local government publications mushrooming.
man behind LGC
A lot has happened, wherein the new government has had no structures or rather unbiased but fair media representation. The formation of Local Government Chronicle was orchestrated by the fact that: we as the publishers strongly believe that there is a dire need to close this gap. We are looking at a long term working relationship with government at local government level in ensuring the sustainability of governance by way of celebrating those municipalities and officials that are contributing towards service delivery and good governance.
Photos by: Motlatso Phahlane
It is not doom and gloom, we have seen the current administration introducing new departments as well as restructuring existing ones. The Ministry of Monitoring and
It has always been a vision and a goal of mine to be part of a product or project that can help celebrate the achievements and highlights of this country. And finally I think that goal of mine can be ticked-off. Local
mission is to report on local government’s strategy, challenges and success through indepth well researched factual editorial, while also remaining contemporary in our reporting.
Performance evaluation in the Office of the President under Minister Collins Chabane is also doing a good job, with good supporting programmes and structures in place. Fellow colleagues, this is your magazine, use it to your advantage, share your success stories, achievements and lastly challenges so that necessary interventions can be put
in place. Working together we can do even more… enjoy the read Lawrence mofokeng Co- Founder and Publisher
It is my view that yes our government like any other government may have its challenges and difficulties, but that does not mean that everything that is done by the government is not worth celebrating. Hence the inception of LGC, to celebrate the work that is done by government, private institutions and individuals in the advancement of the country. This magazine is not for the enrichment of my fellow publishers and I, but to make a
positive contribution to the lives of our readers
If you read my Editor’s note you’ll realise that I am passionate about South African’s
through an informative publication that aims to
telling their stories from an African perspective, and sharing them with the world. And
celebrate the country.
it is because of that reason why I decided to join the other publishers and make Local
Dare to be great and impossible is nothing.
Government Chronicle (LGC) materialise.
i wish you a pleasant read.
My co-founders and I realised that there aren’t enough instruments (media-platform) that could fully channel through information from the three tiers of government to all
relevant stakeholders and hence the birth of LGC. The publication aims to celebrate the
work done by government, private institutions and the public at large. Being not only a co-founder, publisher, but also an Editor-in-Chief of the publication I can assure you dear readers that LGC will not compromise on the good ethics of journalism which include: •
Factual and objective reporting.
Remaining partial at all times.
Promote non-parochial understandings.
Serve the citizens of the country as best as we possibly can and provide a publication that will add value to your life.
We shall constantly strive for excellence. Gopolang peme Co-founder and Publisher
has prompted governments to review their
approaches to ethical conduct. In response
The Principles have broad practical application
to these challenges, the Public Management
the public service; •
Promoting government action to maintain
management across national and sub-national
high standards of conduct and counter
Managing Ethics in the Public Service to help
levels of government. Political leaders may use
corruption in the public sector;
countries review the institutions, systems and
them to review ethics management regimes
mechanisms they have for promoting public
and evaluate the extent to which ethics is
management frameworks to ensure that
Incorporating the ethical dimension into
operationalised throughout government. The
management practices are consistent with
These principles identify the functions
principles are intended to be an instrument for
the values and principles of public service;
of guidance, management or control against
countries to adapt to national conditions, and
which public ethics management systems can
to find their own ways of balancing the various
ethics management systems based on
be checked. They draw on the experience of
aspirational and compliance elements to
ideals with those based on the respect
OECD countries, and reflect shared views of
arrive at an effective framework to suit their
sound ethics management.
own circumstances. They are not sufficient
environments, they often confront similar
Committee agreed to a set of Principles for
“Although governments have different
institutions influencing ethical conduct in
in themselves they should be seen as a way
management reforms on public service
of integrating ethics management with the broader public management environment.
Combining judiciously those aspects of
ethical conduct; •
Using as a reference the Principles for
ethical challenges, and the responses in
The OECD council recommends that:
their ethics management show common
member countries take action to ensure
characteristics.....Member countries need to
well-functioning institutions and systems for
have a point of reference when combining
promoting ethical conduct in the public service.
Member countries on how they apply
This can be achieved by:
these principles in their respective national
own political, administrative and cultural
Managing Ethics in the Public Service to ensure high standards of ethical conduct. •
contexts. The purpose of the analysis is to provide information on a comparative
“A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of the news on the television
show that ethics and anticorruption issues continue to figure on the
“Ethical standards should be reflected in the legal
public agenda. They are no longer confined to only local and national
framework. The legal framework is the basis for
levels of government but are spilling over into the international arena.”
communicating the minimum obligatory standards and principles of behaviour for every public servant.”
discourse about governance today. There is a perception that standards in public life are in decline. This raises questions about the costs
officials, to safeguard democracy and promote better governance. A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of
form of a code of conduct, can accomplish
analysis and moral reasoning. Impartial
to maintain well-functioning institutions
this by creating a shared understanding
advice can help create an environment
and systems for promoting ethics;
in which public servants are more willing
Providing support to Member countries
to confront and resolve ethical tensions
2. Ethical standards should be reflected in
and problems. Guidance and internal
by, inter alia, facilitating the process of
the legal framework. The legal framework
consultation mechanisms should be made
available to help public servants apply
basic ethical standards in the workplace.
Presenting a report in two years’ time
principles of behaviour for every public
4. Public servants should know their rights and
analysing the experiences, actions and
servant. Laws and regulations could state
obligations when exposing wrongdoing.
operation and Development (OECD), brings
practices in the member countries that
the fundamental values of public service
Public servants need to know what their
have proved effective in a particular
and should provide the framework for
rights and obligations are in terms of
guidance, investigation, disciplinary action
exposing actual or suspected wrongdoing
within the public service. These should
committed to democracy and the market
of misconduct on the part of those who have
the news on the television show that ethics and
economy from around the world to compare
been entrusted with guarding public interest
anticorruption issues continue to figure on the
policy experiences, seeks answers to common
These costs are losses in trust and
to improve conduct in the public service
is the basis for communicating the
basis to support Member country actions
promising practices in Member countries;
Source: Principles for managing ethics in the public service/OECD, Photos by: fotolia.com
Ethics is gaining prominence in the
Ethical standards for public service should
3. Ethical guidance should be available to
include clear rules and procedures for
public servants. Professional socialisation
officials to follow, and a formal chain of
public agenda. They are no longer confined to
problems, identify good practice and co-
be clear. Public servants need to know the
only local and national levels of government but
ordinate domestic and international policies.
basic principles and standards they are
should contribute to the development
responsibility. Public servants also need to
of the necessary judgement and skills
know what protection will be available to
confidence in public institutions and losses
are spilling over into the international arena.
Although South Africa is not a member
expected to apply to their work and where
in precious resources which were meant to
There is a growing recognition that countries
country, it does have a working relationship
the boundaries of acceptable behaviour
enabling public servants to apply ethical
with the OECD.
lie. A concise, well-publicised statement of
5. Political commitment to ethics should
core ethical standards and principles that
Training facilitates ethics awareness and
reinforce the ethical conduct of public
confidence in government and corruption
guide public service, for example in the
can develop essential skills for ethical
servants. Political leaders are responsible
support the economic and social development
need to co-operate at the transnational level to
of nations and peoples. There is a move
stem corruption and other problems, such as
worldwide to restore a measure of trust
organised crime, which are associated with it.
them in cases of exposing wrongdoing.
propriety in the discharge of their official duties. Their commitment is demonstrated by example and by taking action that is only available at the political level, for instance by creating legislative and institutional arrangements
behaviour and create sanctions against wrongdoing,
â€œThe decision-making process should be transparent
support and resources for ethics-related
and open to scrutiny. The public has a right to
avoiding the exploitation of ethics rules
know how public institutions apply the power
6. The decision-making process should be
and resources entrusted to them. Public scrutiny
has a right to know how public institutions
should be facilitated by transparent and democratic
activities throughout government and by and laws for political purposes. transparent and open to scrutiny. The public apply the power and resources entrusted to them. Public scrutiny should be facilitated
processes, oversight by the legislature and access to
by transparent and democratic processes,
public information. Transparency should
oversight by the legislature and access to be further enhanced by measures such as disclosure systems and recognition of the role of an active and independent media. 7. There should be clear guidelines for
interaction between the public and private sectors.
standards should guide the behaviour of public servants in dealing with the private sector, for example regarding public or
that more attention should be placed on public service values and requiring external
same values. 8. Managers
promote ethical conduct. An organisational environment where high standards of conduct are encouraged by providing appropriate
behaviour, such as adequate working conditions and effective performance assessment, has a direct impact on the daily practice of public service values and ethical standards. Managers have an important role in this regard by providing consistent leadership and serving as role models in terms of ethics and conduct in their professional relationship with political leaders, other public servants and citizens. 9. Management policies, procedures and practices should promote ethical conduct.
Management policies and practices should demonstrate an organisation’s commitment to ethical standards. It is not sufficient for governments to have only rule-based or compliance-based structures. Compliance systems alone can inadvertently encourage some public servants simply to function on the edge of misconduct, arguing that if they are not violating the law they are acting ethically. Government policy should not only delineate the minimal standards below which a government official’s actions will not be tolerated, but also clearly articulate a set of public service values that employees should aspire to. 10. Public service conditions and management of human resources should
is not sufficient for governments to have
adequate remuneration and human resource management policies
only rule-based or compliance-based structures.
should create an environment conducive to ethical behaviour. Using
Compliance systems alone can inadvertently encourage some public servants simply to function on the edge of misconduct, arguing that if they are not violating the law they are acting ethically.”
basic principles, such as merit, consistently in the daily process of recruitment and promotion helps operationalise integrity in the public service. 11. Adequate accountability mechanisms should be in place within the public service. Public servants should be accountable for their actions to their superiors and, more broadly, to the public. Accountability should focus both on compliance with rules and ethical principles; and on achievement of results. Accountability mechanisms can be internal to an agency as well as government-wide, or can be provided by civil society. Mechanisms promoting accountability can be designed to provide adequate controls while allowing for appropriately flexible management. 12. Appropriate procedures and sanctions should exist to deal with
misconduct. Mechanisms for the detection and independent investigation of wrongdoing such as corruption are a necessary part of an ethics infrastructure. It is necessary to have reliable procedures and resources for monitoring, reporting and investigating breaches of public service rules, as well as commensurate administrative or disciplinary sanctions to discourage misconduct. Managers should exercise appropriate judgement in using these mechanisms when actions need to be taken.
The United Nations also underpin the principles laid out in the OECD (PUMA Policy) and in turn organised a series of regional conferences on the themes of civil service professionalism and ethics.
Source: thepresidency.gov.za, Photos by: fotolia.com
A number of unilateral ethics and anti-corruption initiatives have been undertaken by countries, from disclosure systems in South Africa and the Philippines to the creation of an anti-corruption entity in Argentina and Hong Kong. Public service professionals are always in the public eye and set a standard and provide an example to the rest of society. If the government wants to change people¬’s behaviour, it must set the example itself by practising what it preaches and refraining from doing what it wants nobody else to do. By government, it is meant not so much the temporary or transitory holders of public office as the permanent career public service professionals who support them and on whom they rely for their effectiveness. In July 2010, the OECD Secretary General – Angel Gurria – visited South Africa to discuss the country’s economic situation and prospects, as well as the phase 2 report on Bribery regarding International Business. According to Gurria, South Africa should take a more pro-active stance in combatting bribery which has its basis in ethics. Further recommendations that were made can be found on the OECD website:www.oecd.org/southafrica.
During the course of the year President
what, by when and with what resources.
Jacob Zuma signed a performance agreement
efficient local government system.
The twelve delivery agreements which
with all 34 Cabinet Ministers. In these
were agreed upon are:
resources that are well protected and
performance agreements, Ministers were
Improved quality of basic education.
requested to establish an Implementation
A long and healthy life for all South
Forum for each of the twelve outcomes.
Create a better South Africa and contribute to a better and safer Africa and World.
In each implementation forum Ministers
All people in South Africa are and feel safe.
and all other parties responsible for delivering
Decent employment through inclusive
oriented public service and an empowered,
fair and inclusive citizenship.
A skilled and capable workforce to support
Delivery Agreements will further unpack
Agreement. All departments, agencies and
spheres of government involved in the direct delivery process required to achieve an output,
should be party to the agreement. The Delivery Agreement will refine and
provide more detail to the outputs, targets, indicators and key activities for each outcome,
and identify required inputs and clarify roles and responsibilities. It will spell out who will do
An efficient, effective and development
an inclusive growth path.
each outcome and each output and the
An efficient, competitive and responsive
requirements to reach the targets. Aspects
economic infrastructure network.
that will be described in detail include
Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural
the legislative and regulatory regime, the
communities with food security for all.
making processes and rights, the resources
improved quality of household life.
A responsive, accountable, effective and
Source: Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Photos by: Co-operative Governance & Traditional Affairs - Photo Gallery
“The government must be rooted in the
people on the ground and continue to remain relevant to its citizenry.”
The Ministry of Cooperative Governance
engages its people, and how it accounts for
and Traditional Affairs implementation of
The 2009 electoral mandate from the
work done or not done, remains critical in
the Local Government Turn Around Strategy
majority of our people presupposes a new
deepening and consolidating our democracy.
(LGTAS) which is aimed at providing better
approach to the societal challenges facing the
As government departments or entities we
service delivery and address service delivery
exist to serve; not vice versa.
backlogs is well underway and promises to better the lives of the citizens of the country. The birth of this strategic plan took place in 2009 during a Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CGTA) Bosberaad. This is what the Minister of CGTA Sicelo
It calls for a responsive, effective and efficient state machinery to the needs of
This task requires the cooperation of all spheres of government.
We need to create a platform that
It is therefore, within this context that
encourages co-ordination and elimination of
the strategic thrust of CGTA is repositioned
duplication. Synergies have to be leveraged for
Shiceko had to say on the plan: The plan outlines
The government must be rooted in the
the strategic initiatives and commitments by
people on the ground and continue to remain
have to be part of our history; those serving
the Department to protect, guide and direct
relevant to its citizenry.
ought to jealously guard the interests of
the expanded and unique political mandate of the department over the next five years. It is a blueprint that defines our strategic path in pursuit of a developmental agenda of the fourth administration.
However, this requires all spheres of
In this country, we are still living in a
government to operate in UNISEN for the
CGTA intends to distinguish itself by
benefit of all people of South Africa, regardless
deploying employees who have passion to
of colour, creed, ethnicity and/or otherwise.
serve and whose interests remain indebted to
There is only one country, a unitary
divided society characterised by the poor,
Constitutional state accountable to the people. The package of services delivered to our
those of the communities they serve. Main Challenges of Cooperative Governance over the Next 5 Years
marginalised and rural, on one hand, and the
people must therefore not discriminate against
CGTA will need to build on the gains
affluent, rich and urban population on the
any citizen of this country because of his or her
that have been made in the last 15 years
discomforting and reminds us of the mammoth task ahead for the bridging the divide. We need
The services must reach all corners of South Africa, even those who live in farms. CGTA
Fighting poverty, creating decent work and improving the lives of our people will be at the
to create conditions for everyone to realise his
against the scourge of abject poverty and
or her potential in life and make this country
underdevelopment in our communities. “Our
better to live in.
desire is to ensure that governance systems
are streamlined and utilised as a vehicle to
provincial and local government.
be harnessed and made available to all, with a deliberate bias towards the remote, rural
change people’s lives. How government does its work, how it
departmental weaknesses and deficiencies.
centre of the Department’s collective actions. CGTA will need to address the misaligned that
The Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) and Local Economic Development Strategies
of municipalities must reflect the priorities
of the entire public sector, including those of
programmes in many areas continues to be
In the area of oversight, greater attention
public entities as well as those of business
fragmented, disjointed and uncoordinated.
will need to be given to the implementation of
This is due to the fact that government has been working in silos and our people have been suffering the effects of this silo approach.
The department is aware that this planning misalignment is a fundamental challenge. Going forward, the Department will work very
resources has not been our central problem, but rather how we managed our resources.
the Inter-Governmental Relations Framework
creative and innovative ways of mobilising our
levels of government more effective, efficient
Act and also sharpening our existing tools and
communities, stakeholders and organs of civil
resources and their leverage are maximised
instruments to ensure greater compliance and
society to become development partners with
A central feature of the South African
government in matters of governance and
developmental state must be to ensure
seamless and integrated service delivery to
government is another important pillar of
implementation has also come sharply to the fore in the various Izimbizo this government
intergovernmental relations system is not
the alignment of our planning across all
has undertaken in the past, where national
dependent on voluntarism and good will.
spheres and ensure a top-down cascaded
The core challenge over the next 5
implementation of national, provincial and local
entities implement their programmes in
years will be to create a single window of
local areas without the knowledge and input
coordination for local government and to
spheres of government and all sectors.
government by making execution by these
It is our view that the availability of
developmental state in provincial and local
determined in contributing to building the
closely with the National Planning Commission the
horizontal relationships between the three
This means CGTA will review all inter-
and expended in a coherent manner. Strengthening
governmental structures across government
The President has announced that in the
and strengthen Ward Committees and other
context of the global economic downturn, this
Public representatives and councillors
participatory governance structures.
government will rollout a R787 billion social and
in particular need to be more accountable
economic infrastructure programme.
to communities and CGTA proposes new
Over the next 5 years CGTA will be more
“The core challenge over the next 5 years will be to create a single window of coordination for local government and to significantly strengthen the monitoring and oversight regime for municipalities.” significantly strengthen the monitoring and
ensuring greater equity and standardisation
that some of these matters are included in the
and improved measures in this regard. In
referred to in his State of the Nation Address.
oversight regime for municipalities.
on how this institution is treated across
particular, CGTA will strengthen the capability
This institution must play a greater role in
In doing so, deliberate interventions will be
of communities to exercise oversight over
fighting poverty and promoting peace in rural
deployed in all spheres of government in order
councillors, municipalities and all projects in
communities In summary, the Department as
to stay focused on the common national agenda
their area of jurisdiction.
reflected in its new mandate, is positioned to
of creating decent jobs, fighting poverty,
CGTA’s observations of uncoordinated
various provinces. Furthermore the work of
planning, implementation and oversight across
the Commission on Traditional Leadership
the three spheres apply equally to local and
Disputes and Claims must be accelerated and
resolved in the next 5 years.
CGTA will protect and promote indigenous
government must receive dedicated attention
knowledge management systems; traditional
as a sphere of government.
healing and the practice of “floor X-rays”.
In our view, rural voices have not been sufficiently heard and recognised. CGTA will create space and opportunities for the institution of traditional leadership
In particular, performance management
be the custodian of our unitary developmental
combating crime and corruption, improving
and our traditional communities to become a
systems (PMS) of municipalities and those
state through its development facilitation,
the delivery of health and education to all, and
vibrant and active part of this democracy.
of councillors and officials will all need to
advancing rural development, agrarian reform
role, where necessary, as provided for in the
Mandate and Approach to Cooperative
This will entail providing greater support
Traditional customs and ways of living
Governance the birth of the Department
Strengthening accountability and building
and considering more coherent legislation
must complement and re-enforce our modern
of Cooperative Governance and Traditional
clean government also relates to how the
It is, therefore, within this context that
and frameworks governing this sphere and
systems of democracy.
Affairs ushered a new era which represents
spheres interact with each other politically
CGTA expects all spheres, sector departments
an irreversible shift to an expanded and
and public entities to act according to
addressing the issue of sub-national powers and functions. The institution of traditional leadership is central to our system of governance in rural areas. However, there are key challenges of
We need to protect our rich heritage as an African state” and ensure that our
more deliberate mandate on matters of
knowledge and customs are transmitted to
working class masses of this country.
leadership at the centre of rural development
applicable legislative frameworks.
established rules and standards on service delivery and good cooperative governance.
Over the next five years CGTA will stay
will be a key objective during this term. This
In line with the Manifesto of the ruling
In this regard we will have discussions
focussed on government’s 10 priorities by
is integral to our understanding of creating
party, this government has resolved to deepen
with the Department of Education to ensure
forging and enabling better vertical and
an interactive government that the President
its base and roots amongst the poor and
and food security. CGTA will be a catalyst in ensuring that these initiatives are felt or become a reality in the local communities.
the game in Leadership
â€œAccording to leadership development practitioners and human resource professionals, flexibility and adaptability are the keys to sustaining leadership development success.â€?
Source: Leadership Development Practices of Top-Performing Organisations, Photos by: fotolia.com
Continued... Developing leaders is a formidable challenge for today’s global business. The deficit of available leadership talent is widely cited as the greatest limiter of growth. Cracking the code on developing effective leadership has the potential of conferring incredible advantages—competitive and organisational. According
resource professionals, flexibility and adaptability are the keys to sustaining leadership development success. Many organisations are moving away from standardised, set-piece leadership development super structures. Majority of organisations deploy a wide array of leader development platforms, but most identified best practices centred on leadership development techniques that are real-time and real-life. Real-time practices emphasising specialised and customised learning interventions targeted to individual leader development needs; and real-life in the emphasis on experiential and action learning practices linking leader development to actual business challenges. Driving the need for responsive leader development systems is the focus organisations place on strategy articulation and execution. In this fast-paced era two leadership development imperatives have emerged. First, executive management, as the voice of strategy, must play an increasingly visible and active role in leadership development. And second, leadership behaviours must be aligned with these new strategies to keep both the employees and the organisation focused on the end-game of success. Competency models for leaders are becoming more focused, with fewer competencies, and are more easily prioritised to fit the changing needs of the business. It is also noted that leader development, as a discipline, is increasingly becoming interwoven with other talent management systems, particularly succession planning and performance management.
Building leadership bench strength is a universal challenge that requires organisations to move away from treating leader development as a standalone endeavour. The more readily leader development can be aligned and integrated with other talent management tools the stronger the capability for business growth. Finally, organisations still lag in their ability to evaluate the return on their leadership development investments. Most organisations assess their leader development outcomes informally and anecdotally, with little emphasis on connecting leader development to bottom line business outcomes. But this may be changing. A subset of organisations sampled has groups established to link leader development efforts to organisational outcomes. These efforts could portend an even greater awareness of the importance, as defined by expected results, in developing leaders at all levels of the organisation. How do organisations, in highly competitive industries, develop leaders
“Driving the need for responsive leader development systems is the focus organisations place on strategy articulation and execution. In this fastpaced era two leadership development
to achieve business results? To pursue this question, let us focus on three
imperatives have emerged.”
key areas: 1.
Leadership development practices resident and effective in highperforming organisations
2. Leadership behaviours most important for success in highly competitive industries 3. Specific indications organisations utilise to test whether investments in leadership development are paying off. During
resource leaders and business unit leaders, leadership development systems
and keep pace with the strategic challenges
guidelines on how leaders should think,
not changed, but their priority has. Thinking
mid-level managers. Upper-middle and senior-
There is an emerging emphasis on
of the business. The skill sets of leaders must
development endeavours. Without this central
act and interact with others. In this way, a
strategically is more critical because of
level leadership development are much more
“experience” over classroom training. And
correlate with the business challenges and
focus, leadership development practices tend
leadership competency framework becomes a
likely to incorporate experiential and action-
there is a greater willingness to individualise
exigencies of the enterprise. A quote from one
to become ends in themselves. Organisations
powerful force for defining, or redefining, an
Building teams and relationships are certainly
development for leaders by bringing in the
interviewee illuminates the linkage between
more critical than it used to be because of
Leadership curriculum designs
right skill sets at the right time.
strategy and leadership skills:
strategy in multiple ways. The mechanisms
One obvious trend is a conscious move
Driven by business strategy
“Our leadership skill needs have changed
technology, the need for virtual teaming, and
Only a few organisations have specialised,
include classroom-based programs, action
by top-performing organisations to a much
working across geographies.”
learning projects, rotational assignments, and
smaller and more focused set of competencies
Multi-dimensional learning platforms
development programs in place. For those that
not exist in a vacuum. The best leadership
seen a dramatic shift in the last few years. The
the prioritisation and emphasis on specific
for each unit of business. Rather than a laundry
One size does not fit all leadership
do, however, there is a tendency to identify
development systems are anchored in—
company has been through two phases and is
list of leadership competencies, organisations
development challenges. Organisations take
the program as being distinctive and highly
and driven by—business strategy. Why is
now moving into a third.”
Active senior leadership involvement
are identifying a focused few—three, four
a multidimensional approach to leadership
effective in elevating the leader potential of
development utilising a variety of learning
focal point for developing their current and
techniques. These included classroom, Web-
based and experiential learning activities.
as the organisation has evolved.
the leadership development connection to
Organisational leaders must possess the
business strategy so critical? For one, the
right skills and orientations to launch, test and
effective leadership development is executive
half-life of a business strategy is not what it
revise business strategies as necessary. This
management sponsorship and visibility.
requires an on-going analysis and alignment of
Active support by senior leaders is referenced
As the strategic demands of the business
Research further identifies that leadership
leadership skills to strategy.
frequently as a most effective factor in
change, leadership development priorities also
development tools are stratified by level of
many organisations are creating set-piece
Leadership development purpose
shift. As one leader identified:
management. Classroom and e-learning tools
are much more prevalent for front-line and
Business strategies change and churn more rapidly, putting a premium on strategy execution skills. Leadership traits must mirror
Aligning leadership behaviours to strategy
organisations cite executive management
“The top leadership competencies have
seems to be the watchword influencing leadership
curriculum development are
“If business strategy sets the core purpose for
leadership development, then competencies stand as the primary clusters of knowledge, behaviour and motivations organisations strive to instil in leaders.”
commitment and sponsorship as cornerstones
leaders play a huge role in crafting leadership
incorporating just-in time response elements
promoting the leadership skills of upper-
of their approach to developing leaders.
business efficiently, generating revenue, and
middle and senior level leaders.
Leadership competencies as the development
keeping pace in rapidly changing competitive
Executive endorsement lends credibility to leadership development efforts and elevates the criticality of the experience of those
Finally, experiential learning can bring together leaders from different disciplines to
work on special projects. This co-mingling of
Having a defined leadership model in
environment. This includes a greater reliance
development for leaders are many. First,
participants tends to break down barriers and
the form of critical knowledge, skills and
on eLearning and blended learning solutions,
leaders are challenged to take on real problems
promote the ability of organisations to pursue
being developed. But active participation by
purpose for leadership development, then
motivations is a frequently cited leadership
particularly targeted to entry-level and mid-
with immediate feedback and payback. This
senior leaders in development programs and
competencies stand as the primary clusters
development best practice.
“mainstreaming” of leadership development
Leadership development produces higher
initiatives may have an even greater return on
of knowledge, behaviour and motivations
of a core competency framework is that it
Experiential development linked to strategic
connects managers to projects that have both
performing organisations through improving
educational and business consequences.
leader effectiveness. Today there is no simple
organisations strive to instil in leaders. Today
can be aligned and integrated throughout the
it is standard practice for organisations to
talent management cycle – from recruiting to
Some organisations employ some form of
leaders in learning is through being actively
have a defined set of leadership competencies
selection to development to promoting and
experiential or action-learning programme. For
bonding that occurs as individuals work
Organisations have the most success when
involved in the development of other leaders
guiding their development efforts.
example, experiential learning included moving
intensively together. Taking on and solving
they tailor leader development systems to
as teachers, mentors and coaches. Involving
The leadership competencies tend to
senior leaders in learning through action
be highly differentiated and very specific to
learning applications is another tool for developing effective leaders. By defining
A Focused and prioritised few
or single template for developing leaders.
leaders onto special projects, task forces
significant organisational challenges establish
the realities of the business, recognising that
or organisational initiatives. It also includes
a predicament that forges relationships with
strategies for growing leaders shift with the
individual organisations. However, further
competency model establishes behavioural
embedding real-world business problems
lasting impact. These experiences establish
changing demands of the organisation.
analysis proves that leadership behaviours
expectations for leaders at all levels of the
core challenges, or sitting in on panels
most likely to impact business performance
organisation. This allows the virtual “collection”
As a development tool, experienced-based
strengthen as leaders mature and move into
reviewing action-learning outcomes, senior
more senior levels of management.
Next issue: Leadership competencies and measurements
Local government chronicle Celebrating Excellency in South African Government
The purpose of
LocalChronicle government Photo by: fotolia.com
will resolutely seek out and extract the information
local government to make the decisions that matter. LGC are committed to playing its part in local government’s success in the face of the challenges the future will bring. It will provide exclusive facts and data to aid decision-making and it will champion and represent its readers
“The mission of The Local Government Chronicle (LGC) is to put the local government’s strategy, challenges and successes in perspective through focussed research, qualitative and objective editorial, while keeping in mind the broader context of relevant issues.”
and their work. Daily LGC will seek to better understand the challenges readers face and the information they need. LGC
services to contribute to the magazine by supplying objective and positive news for possible publishing.
In order for the local government to
Through objective and
from all stakeholders – management teams,
positive editorial, the public sector’s image
contribute to the economic growth and
will be enhanced to attract great talent
social development of the country, public
public to enhance loyalty and trust in the
to manage a profitable agency and boost
servants need to tap into the Southern African
agency-to-agency business and stakeholder
The ever-expanding volume of information
Local Government Chronicle is published
demands through sharing information in
about local government’s vast arena of service
on a monthly basis starting from September
order to continue maximising service delivery
areas and functions necessitates that LGC filter
this information and present a comprehensive
consists of qualified individuals with many
briefing of everything local government
years of experience in both corporate and
leaders need to know. There is no need to look
The mission of The Local Government Chronicle
The editorial and production staff
LGC will feature interviews with prominent
research, qualitative and objective editorial,
personalities, government executives and
while keeping in mind the broader context of
contributors with indepth knowledge of key
or line employees--have the ability to play
areas for local government- management,
an important role in transforming their
organisations and the country.
and distributed across all 283 municipalities
It is our view that employees at all
successes in perspective through focussed
LGC has an estimated readership of 90 000
with a print run of
government agencies often face difficulties in
services, environment and infrastructure. In
When we understand the connection
creating a positive image through the lack of
other words, people who know the answers to
between what we do and how the organisation
communicating their advances and successes
Corporate Head Office
we are part of serves others, we will have
suit M38, Innovation Center MarkShuttleworth
Tel: 012 844 0882/0881/0880
P.O. Box 48
a clearer long view that transcends all
street, The Innovation Hub, Persequor ext 10
Fax: 086 695 6295, Cell: 082 298 2061
The Innovation Hub,
Lynnwood, Pretoria, 0087
to the public. We aim to promote increased recognition
Not all information is useful – and not all useful information is easy to find. LGC
“LeMark is celebrating its tenth year in business and for a decade the organisation
has moved from strength to strength and today it is one of the leading training and development institutions in the country.”
Marnell Dickson, Managing Director of LeMark.
Leading the country through
Source: Gopolang Peme, Photo by: Picture Perfect Studio
Former head of state and one of the
world is an ever evolving one and the challenge
and service excellence training courses offered
most respected man in the world, Nelson
for training service providers is to remain
by LeMark are based on a long standing license
Mandela, once said: ‘Education is the most
relevant by continuously adding value in line
agreement with the University of North West’s
powerful weapon which you can use to change
with business evolution,” says Marnell Dickson,
(NWU) Potchesftroom Business School and its
Managing Director of LeMark.
School for Social and Government Studies.
And it’s intuitions such as LeMark, a training
Dickson adds that as LeMark they ensure
On the partnership with NWU Dickson
and development institution that prides itself
that their products and services remain
says: “This partnership and its accreditation
in the providing world class education which
relevant to their ever growing client base by
to the Services Seta allows LeMark to offer a
not only empowers their graduates, but also
meticulously applying, amongst others, the
vast range of learning interventions, ranging
help in the development and advancement of
from business, commerce and management
LeMark is celebrating its tenth year in business and for a decade the organisation has
skills, to one-year university management
continuously evaluating and improving costs.
and certificate programmes, short courses
The institution only uses highly specialised
moved from strength to strength and today it
is one of the leading training and development
institutions in the country. The institution is
distinction for many years. National, provincial
Course evaluations are taken seriously
and local government training is designed in
Services of Sector Education and Training
and feed directly back into the loop of
accordance with key regulations and policies,
Authority (Seta) and has achieved a remarkable
including the Public Finance Management Act,
All facilitators practically use case studies
the Treasury and the Batho Pele principles.
One of the many reasons why the
and examples from current developments
institution received the Star Rating Status
in their fields of expertise to contextualise
delivery and the Batho Pele principles create a
is because of its innovation in its tailor made
content. This approach feeds their credo:
binding golden thread”.
courses and remaining relevant in the ever
Practical, hands-on staff training that’s
evolving global business and economic world.
relevant to real-world issues.
training for a decade and this is due to its
“The local and global business and economic
It is also worth mentioning that the office
a fully accredited service provider with the
2, 3, & 4 Star Rating.
“In addition to the private sector, LeMark has been servicing the public sector with
You are invited to view our training schedule on www.lemark.co.za, and then discuss your special staff training needs with our sales team. Tel: 012 654 4288 082 337 8939/087 700 9414 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com LeMark is a corporate member of PRISA and the Proudly South African Campaign.
The office and service excellence training courses offered by Lemark are based on a long-standing licence agreement with the University of North West’s Potchefstroom Business School and School for Social & Government Studies. We are exceptionally well positioned to support South Africa’s commitment to guide and upgrade its rising stars – educated and keen-to-learn-more people – in the Private Sector, the Public Service and the parastatals… … and enthuse them with the ethic of service delivery through excellence in their chosen occupations.
LeMark Training and Development Pty (Ltd) is a fully accredited service provider with the Services SETA (accreditation number 0149), with Star Ratings 2 (ISO compliant / recognised) and 3 (client-centric staff driven by user perceptions of service excellence) in place and now Star 4 (Certificate of Achievement) as well.
ETQA, Provider Entity Number: 2001/025985/23 Accreditation Status: FULL ACCREDITATION Accreditation number: 0149
Our training programmes (offered at our venues or in-house on your premises) are practical, hands-on and relevant to real-world issues in an ever-changing corporate and business environment.
obtaining funding for nuclear and coal. They also pointed out the importance of considering new technologies still emerging, such as solar hydrogen technology and sugar fan fibre. “South Africa faced tough choices around the future of its energy mix and the economy couldn't
environment” Aphane said.
He further added that at present, available capacity would not be able to keep up with
The Future of SA’s
future demand, meaning the threat of blackouts would increase. Another challenge was that the costs of clean technologies were high and that international agreements on financing these
technologies had still to be concluded. The IRP2, which is part of the department's Integrated Energy Plan, looks at the electricity sector, and assesses which plans are to be developed for liquid fuels and gas. Resources, skills, infrastructure Aphane said the IRP2 would take into consideration
promulgated by November.
next month, and public hearings will be held with the National Energy Regulator - Nersa. scenarios
Leading up to this, the department plans to release a draft of the IRP2 for public comment
parameters, including the impact on South Africa's electricity supply of climate change,
“Most of the respondents called for a low carbon economy and for renewable energy – such as wind, solar and geothermal – to make up between 20% and 75% of South Africa’s electricity mix
Source: BuaNews, Photo by: fotolia.com
enough primary energy sources, skills, land
a carbon tax, distributions infrastructure, and
and transmissions infrastructure to meet its
The department received 81 submissions
The plan also needs to meet funding
from the public, including non-governmental
requirements and answers to what the future
costing of electricity would be, what would be
South Africa will have a clearer picture
industry and business. A total of 831 specific
required to meet the country's energy needs,
of the future of its electricity mix and supply
inputs have been fed into a database and were
and whether there was sufficient confidence
by the end of the year, says the Department
now being used to build the various scenarios.
from South Africans in seeing the plan through.
of Energy's acting Deputy Director-general
Many of the comments were around
It also had to consider how energy needs
of electricity, nuclear and clean energy,
could help grow the country by complementing
consultation process itself – with most of the
the Department of Trade and Industry's
respondents adding that they were impressed
Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), which was
committee on energy and public comments
with the process.
launched earlier this year and aims to increase
received by the department on its Second
Low carbon economy, renewable energy
the country's industrial capacity.
Aphane was briefing Parliament's portfolio
water availability, price elasticity of demand,
Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) in Cape Town
Most of the respondents called for a low
Each scenario will describe the effect on
carbon economy and for renewable energy –
the price of electricity, security of supply,
Draft future energy policy
such as wind, solar and geothermal – to make
multiplier effects and the effects of carbon on
up between 20% and 75% of South Africa's
He said the plan is to have a revised second draft of the IRP2 – which will present various
electricity mix by 2050.
scenarios for the country's future energy
Many of the respondents were strongly
policy – by October, and to have the final plan
against coal and nuclear as future energy
Public comments on all 29 parameters of the IRP2 can be found on the Department of Energy's Integrated Resource Plan website.
29 “Prior to 1994 there was no single national government department responsible for water supply and sanitation in South Africa.”
water and sanitation becomes a
Source: The Water and Sanitation Programme in South Africa: Turning the ‘Right to Water’ into reality, Photos by: fotolia.com
If South Africa is to advance from a third
to a second world country and at the same
water supply and sanitation in South Africa.
time alleviate poverty there are a number of
Responsibility was fragmented and allocated
In 1994, the government of South Africa
initiatives that the country has to implement.
to local governments in the previous four
mandate the department of water and forestry
One crucial issue is to ensure that every citizen
provinces and to ten autonomous homelands
to ensure that all South Africans had equitable
of the country has ready access to water
resulting in very different levels of service.
access to water supply and sanitation. The
While most of the then white local
department consulted a range of interested
When the ANC led government came into
governments offered standards equal to those
parties and produced a policy (outlined in
power in 1994 a large number of the then
of industrialised countries, the rural and black
a government White Paper) on community
estimated 40 million people in the country had
urban areas often had no services at all. And if
water supply and sanitation in November 2009.
little or no access to clean drinkable water. To
services were available to urban and rural black
underline this fact the African Union stated in
people they were often in a state of disrepair
foundation and the regulatory framework
1994 that almost half of the population lacked
and was further hampered by the absence
(enacted in Water Services Act of 1997)
of any coherent national policies, guidelines
for governing the national water sector
or support structures.
programme in order to address the backlog
Prior to 1994 there was no single national
of water and sanitation services to those who had been excluded from services in the past – especially the rural poor. The
responsibility for service provision even though the majority of the South Africa’s poor people still lived in areas without any legitimate local government. In 1994, the then department of water and forestry launched the Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programme to enforce the policy of delivering basic water services to the areas of greatest need. The subsequent experiences illustrate how the various aspects of a national water programme can relate to each other in order to provide an effective framework for sustainable implementation. Equity
water policy Under the 1994 policy, the government funded the capital costs of new services
“In 1994, the then department of water and
forestry launched the Community Water
division that applies to many other countries.
Supply and Sanitation Programme to enforce
that the high running costs of these schemes
the policy of delivering basic water services to the areas of greatest need.”
operation and maintenance costs – a financial Towards the end of the 1990s, it became clear meant that poorer people could not afford the charges.
The government agreed that
this arrangement would not be adequate for sustainability or equity in support of these services.
A substantial and important part
of the population was being denied access to water and sanitation which was further undermined by conflict In response, using a combination of political
1994 promised its citizens: ‘a better life for all’ and maintains a vision encapsulated in the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) of ‘peace and security for all, build the
“The free basic water policy was
nation, link reconstruction and development, and deepen democracy’.
introduced within an international context in 1999.
The RDP emphasised that the improvement of the quality of life for the majority of South Africans was needed to enable economic growth,
provided a valuable method for
and that economic growth was needed to sustain
ensuring people’s right of access
deep political commitment to programmes of
to basic water supply which was not limited by affordability.”
improved quality of life. There was thus a service delivery. The national water and sanitation programme was therefore part of a strong, shared national vision of a South Africa in which people would have opportunities to develop their skills and use them productively to work for an income with
and legislative mechanisms, the government
which they could meet their basic needs.
developed a free basic water policy.
In the 1994 elections, water was rated the
This encouraged water services authorities
second highest priority for rural voters and in 1996
to structure their charges for water to provide
the aims of the RDP were further strengthened by
the first 6,000 litres per household per month
the adoption of a new constitution underpinning
free of charge.
The operating costs were
covered by a combination of a rising block tariff
above that consumption and a subsidy from
the national budget to the local government
specifically for basic service provision. With
The cholera epidemic of 2000 provided a
substantial political support, this policy had by
huge stimulus for addressing the country’s slow
mid 2002 been implemented in local government
rate of progress in sanitation.
areas serving over 27 million people.
This slow progress was mainly due to the
The free basic water policy was introduced
communities demand for water supply on the one
within an international context in 1999. The policy
hand and the absence of promoting an improved
provided a valuable method for ensuring people’s
sanitation system at a community level on the
right of access to basic water supply which was
other hand. While the system used for water is
not limited by affordability
community based that for sanitation should be
What this means in the political context
The success of the national water sanitation
Even though the South African government
programme was a result of the political
has made significant progress in water supply, it
context in which it was developed. The new
has not yet reached the point of providing good
government which has been in power since
sanitation for all its citizens.
centre to spawn
Source: SA good news, Photos by: fotolia.com
The Cape Town-based African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), a postgraduate academic institution, is to be the model for three maths training centres on the continent. The three centres are expected to serve as a nurturing ground for more world-class African mathematicians. According to cosmologist Neil Turok, founder of AIMS South Africa, the goal is to build 15 such centres across Africa by 2020, possibly in countries such as Botswana, Egypt, Rwanda, Madagascar, Mozambique and Uganda. The project, dubbed NextEinstein, is Turok’s brainchild and has already led to the opening of a second AIMS centre at the African University of
“With the announcement of major support for the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Canada is also pioneering the sharing of knowledge and expertise as a route to development”
Science and Technology in Abuja, Nigeria. NextEinstein aims to boost capacity for
financial support for the project, to the tune
universities locally, and the Cambridge, Oxford
mathematics graduates from various African
scientific and technological education, research
of R140-million. The money will go towards
and Paris-Sud-XI universities abroad. An
countries successfully complete the training
and development in Africa.
the construction of AIMS centres over the
enthusiastic teaching body of both local and
course. With their skills and knowledge now at
next four years.
visiting lecturers ensures that tuition is of the
a globally competitive level, these students are
highest quality, and often at no charge.
able to apply to universities around the world
The South African-born Turok is currently
the executive director of Canada’s Perimeter
“With the announcement of major support
Institute for Theoretical Physics, taking up his
for the African Institute for Mathematical
According to the centre’s director Prof
for admission to postgraduate degrees. Many
position after a stint as the Chair of Mathematical
Sciences, Canada is also pioneering the
Barry Green, there is no shortage of willing
have been accepted into courses in Europe
Physics at the UK’s Cambridge University. The
sharing of knowledge and expertise as a route
teaching staff, and he felt confident that the
and the US, while others have successfully
non-profit Perimeter Institute, which focuses on
to development,” said Turok. “Just as ideas
other AIMS centres wouldn’t have any problem
completed postgraduate degrees at South
scientific research and educational outreach, is to
and innovation are the foundation of Canada’s
in attracting lecturers either.
distribute the funds.
new economy, they will be the basis of Africa’s
“AIMS is now generating a stream of well-
About 60 students are currently enrolled,
Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper
future economic, educational, scientific and
prepared students entering many advanced
but the expanded AIMS network of 15 centres
announced the new venture in July 2010, saying
areas of science,” said Hawking in 2008. “The
will see about 750 scientists graduating across
that his government was pleased to support
Africa’s young Einsteins
NextEinstein plan, to create AIMS centres
the continent each year. This bodes well for the
research into science and technology, as millions
All of the new centres will be based on
all over Africa, is even more exciting. Its
future of African science and technology.
of people in developing countries already lead
the Cape Town model, established by Turok in
implementation will have a major impact on
The M’bour Institute will take in 35 students
better lives because of it.
2003. AIMS South Africa receives sponsorship
the continent's development. Not only will this
for the 2011-2012 academic year. The centre’s
The first centre is to be launched in Senegal in
be vital for Africa, I believe it will be important
director Mamadou Sangharé said that it would
September 2011, with others in Ghana and Ethiopia
Sir Bob Geldof, eminent physicist Stephen
for the future of science because science
employ local lecturers, but also draw foreign
Hawking, South African entrepreneur Mark
needs Africa's talents.”
teachers from its own pool of partnerships,
government has allocated about R9.4-million
Shuttleworth, US actor Forest Whitaker,
towards the facility, and has donated a parcel
and business tycoon Sir Richard Branson,
attended the Canadian announcement, added
of land near the coastal city of M’bour, about
that he was looking forward to meeting Africa’s
80km south of Dakar. The Canadian government has also pledged its
Stellenbosch, Cape Town and Western Cape
potential young Einsteins. AIMS South Africa has already seen over 300
particularly those with French universities.
“There are many ways in which ergonomic problems can be identified. These can range from general observations and checklists to quantitative risk assessment tools.” Source: Health and Safety Executive, Photos by: fotolia.com
surfaces are high enough to allow adequate
and poor productivity, stress, eye strain,
space for a worker’s legs; or ensuring that
headaches and other aches or pains.
floors are even to avoid slipping. However, it
for absenteeism from work, organisations
can also solve problems such as stress and
can go a long way in minimising legitimate
Absenteeism in the workplace costs the country millions of Rands each year. Even though there are many reasons
health complaints such as aches and pains of the wrists, shoulders and back, eye strain,
“Ergonomics is a science concerned
between people and their work. It puts people first, taking into account their capabilities and limitations.”
These problems may result in mistakes
comfortable position? -Does the person
experience discomfort, including aches,
Poor control of the risks causing work-
pain, fatigue, or stress? -Is the equipment
Display screen equipment
physically –organisations undoubtedly create a happier, healthier environment and generate
greater return on their human investment. What is Ergonomics
The screen is poorly positioned - it is too
Ergonomics is a science concerned with
The load is too heavy and/or bulky, placing unreasonable demands on the person.
related stress could lead to ill health and
The load has to be lifted from the floor
reduced performance and productivity.
maintained? -Is the person satisfied with
Managing the working day
their working arrangements? -Are there
Insufficient recovery time between shifts.
signs of poor or inadequate equipment
The task requires awkward postures, such
Poor scheduling of shifts.
design, such as plasters on workers’
as bending or twisting.
Juggling shifts with domestic responsibilities.
fingers or ‘home-made’ protective pads
The load cannot be gripped properly.
Employees working excessive overtime.
offset to one side.
The task is performed on uneven, wet, or
These problems may lead to tiredness
sloping floor surfaces. •
The task involves frequent repetitive lifting.
The mouse is placed too far away and
and/or above the shoulders.
high/low/close/far from the worker, or is
requires stretching to use.
Assessing the work system by asking questions such as: -Is the person in a
headaches and to some extent accidents
designing workplaces which support people
Conflicting demands, eg high productivity
some ‘typical’ ergonomic problems found in
Poor support from management and/or colleagues.
By applying Ergonomics –the science of
Chairs are not properly adjusted to
fit the person, forcing awkward and
made of tissue or foam? •
Examining the circumstances surrounding
or exhaustion, which can increase the
frequent errors and incidents where
likelihood of accidents and ill health.
mistakes have occurred and people have
How to identify ergonomic problems
been injured. Use accident reports to
There are many ways in which ergonomic
identify details of incidents and their
These problems may result in physical
problems can be identified. These can range
There is glare on the screen from overhead
injuries such as low back pain or injury to
from general observations and checklists to
lights or windows, increasing the risk
the arms, hands, or fingers. The problems
quantitative risk assessment tools.
may also contribute to the risk of slips, trips,
Hardware and/or software are not suitable
The kind of workplace problems ergonomics
for the task or the person using it, causing
their views. Employees have important
What to do once ergonomic problems have
frustration and distress.
Work demands are too high or too low.
knowledge of the work they do, any
Not enough breaks or changes of activity –
The employee has little say in how they
problems they have, and their impact on
organise their work.
health, safety, and performance;
the ‘fit’ between people and their work. It puts people first, taking into account their
uncomfortable postures. •
capabilities and limitations. Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.
problems. For example, ensuring that work
i.e. data capturing.
possible causes; •
and staff turnover levels. High numbers
Ideally, several approaches should be used: •
Recording and looking at sickness absence may result from the problems listed earlier
and/or dissatisfaction at work.
Look for likely causes and consider possible solutions. A minor alteration may be all that
39 “Talk to employees and get them to suggest ideas and discuss possible solutions. Involve employees from the start of the process - this will help all parties to accept any proposed changes.”
is necessary to make a task easier and safer
It is possible to eliminate aches, pains, and
mistakes and would repeatedly adjust her
to perform. For example: -provide height-
stresses at work and improve job satisfaction.
posture to view the screen.
adjustable chairs so individual operators
Ergonomic solutions can be simple and
The assessment led to the introduction
can work at their preferred work height;
straightforward to make ¬even small changes
of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce
-remove obstacles from under desks
such as altering the height of a chair can make
to create sufficient leg room; -arrange
a considerable difference.
items stored on shelving so those used
Thandi is a receptionist in a large
heaviest are between waist and shoulder
organisation. Much of her work involves using
height; -raise platforms to help operators
a telephone to take messages and redirect calls
reach badly located controls; -change shift
to appropriate departments. Thandi regularly
work patterns; and -introduce job rotation
uses a computer to make appointments, record
rearranged her workstation so her screen
between different tasks to reduce physical
messages and respond to e-mails.
was no longer facing the window, to
Thandi’s neck and shoulder problems. •
An eye test to establish if Thandi had any problems with her vision.
After working at the front desk for a
With the help of her manager, Thandi
remove the glare caused by daylight.
Talk to employees and get them to suggest
few months, Thandi found she was leaving
ideas and discuss possible solutions.
work with an aching shoulder and neck,
periodical training sessions for all staff, so
Involve employees from the start of the
and with sore eyes and a headache. Thandi
they were aware of the health problems
process - this will help all parties to accept
asked her manager for a risk assessment to
associated with computer use and how
any proposed changes.
identify possible problems with her working
to prevent them by adjusting their chairs,
Ensure that any alterations are properly
arranging their workstation appropriately,
evaluated by the people who do the job.
improvements could be made.
Be careful that a change introduced
most frequently and those that are the
and mental fatigue. •
A hands-free telephone headset was
following areas for improvement:
Thandi was much happier in her work, her
Thandi would often hold the telephone
health problems diminished, and productivity was increased.
on the phone and typing a message on
Where to get more information
expense of making changes can often be
the computer. She regularly adopted this
kept low. However, you may need to ask
awkward, static, strained posture during
a qualified ergonomist if you are unable
her working day.
to find a straightforward solution or if a
During the summer Thandi’s computer
between her shoulder and ear while talking
to solve one problem does not create You
problem is complex.
screen was difficult to read because of glare
An understanding of ergonomics in your
and reflections from light through the window.
workplace can improve your daily work routine.
This meant she struggled to avoid making
Ergonomics Society of South Africa (ESSA):
The case for building a
workforce supply will not meet demand. This
predicted: “The beneath-the-surface issue isn’t
shortage will reduce skill levels and decrease
jobs, it’s work. Specifically, it’s the growing
beginning to take heed of the enormous
recognition by workers that corporate leaders
financial costs of turnover (in the United
threatening companies’ stability and business
have so abused them during the recession,
States the estimate is in the billions) and are
performance over time. In order to tackle the
that when a job producing recovery really
increasingly viewing employee engagement
challenges ahead, companies must create and
kicks in, companies will suffer a wave of
as an imperative for keeping their key
extend compelling employment offers.
employees— and attracting new ones—as the
Alan Weber, the editor of Fast Company,
Over and above the workforce cost of
war for talent heats up once again.
41 “Highly engaged employees go the extra mile because they care. And, they care because they feel someone is caring for them. Managers who care really get to know the individuals on their teams as people, not just employees.”
Source:: Eugenie Louw, Photos by: fotolia.com
There can be little doubt that “employee
employees will go ‘above and beyond the call
engagement” is the issue of the moment for
of duty’ and is performance driven. It is also
Retention and the war for talent.
those in HR and communication functions.
based on the desire of employees to stay in an
Everyone, it seems, has heard about it.
organisation and is thus retention driven.
Many organisations want more engaged
under pressure for decades to prove that it makes a difference.
A lack of convincing
interests, and families. The recognition of the
“whole person” sends a powerful message to
The Corporate Executive Board surveyed 50,000
employees that the organisation understands and
about the potential for workforce shortages
evidence on the value of HR initiatives has
worldwide and reported a staggering fact that
is the key to improved performance and
due to the aging population. The study’s
led to HR professionals scrambling, according
employees with lower engagement are four
their human capital investment. And increasing
and campaigns dedicated to it.
The landmark 1998 McKinsey study, The War for Talent, was among the first to talk
industry, and not contained to a few hundred
employees and greater financial returns on numbers every year are rolling out programs
The human resources function has been
authors called upon organisations to take more
to a recent Conference Board report, to
times more likely to leave their jobs than those
being emotionally engaged.
seriously their efforts to attract and retain
prove that their activities and investments
who are highly engaged. Even more important,
perception of Care & Concern; Fairness at
namely rational commitment which drives
talent, to assure that they would be able to
are both efficient and positively influential to
moving from low to high engagement can
Work; Recognition; Trust; Appreciation of
The first step is to determine exactly what
retention, and emotional commitment which
survive and thrive in the future.
result in a 20% increase in performance and
Ideas; Communication; and Leadership seem
is meant by the term “employee engagement.”
drives effort and commitment. In terms
87% decrease in resignations.
to be of most importance.
Employee Engagement, as defined by the
And some predict that as the economy
improves, many talented employees will
engagement and performance (documented
leave an organisation when they conclude
in hundreds of studies, with the evidence
Highly engaged employees go the extra
valued all contribute to observable behaviour.
which employees commit – both rationally and
that the organisation no longer meets their
Corporate Leadership Council states that
mounting every day) provides a way for
mile because they care. And, they care because
Levels of excitement and energy can be
emotionally – to something or someone at their
while the economy begins its recovery from
HR to prove its contribution. It’s a fact: The
they feel someone is caring for them. Managers
witnessed as people go the extra mile to solve
an economic downturn, literature warns of an
higher the level of engagement, the higher the
who care really get to know the individuals on
customer issues, and the desire for quality and
impending labour shortage and skill deficiency
performance of the business. The research is
their teams as people, not just employees.
continuous improvement are amplified.
in the workforce. In the coming years,
not inconclusive, not limited to one country or
He wants to know about their aspirations,
Emotional commitment is four times
they stay as a result of their commitment’.
This definition is based on the extent to which
Job enjoyment and feelings of being
Corporate Leadership Council, ‘is the extent to
organisation, how hard they work and how long
Engagement means reaching the heart.
Enjoyment: People are more likely to be
Continued... engaged if their jobs and the culture of the organisation match both their abilities and skills, and their motivation and values. •
Belief: If people feel they are making a meaningful contribution to their job, their organisations, and society as a whole, they tend to be more engaged. The connection between what people do every day and the goals and mission of the organisation, is crucial to engagement.
Value: People want to be recognised and awarded/ rewarded
recognition come in many forms, including competitive compensation packages and a healthy work/life balance. But perhaps more important is the heightened sense of worth employees feel when their leaders take just a few minutes to let them know that they are doing a great job and that their contributions are valued and appreciated. Similarly, workplace behaviours indicative of low engagement— moaning, low energy, passive-aggressive behaviour, lack of teamwork, frequent absenteeism—can be equally visible. The “right feelings” lead to the “right behaviours and these “right behaviours” fuel higher levels of business performance. Engagement must be driven from the top. Engagement is a business imperative, not an HR initiative, though HR should be a key player in driving higher levels of engagement. Support from the top also means senior leaders must be highly engaged themselves. Managers play a crucial role in driving employee commitment, but most of all the manager is the enabler of the most valuable forms of commitment to the job, organisation, and team. Measuring engagement and demonstrating its business impact is crucial, but it’s only a small part of winning the battle. Far too many organisations pour hundreds of thousands of Rands into measuring and re-measuring engagement, leaving little energy or budget for actually improving engagement levels. Keep engagement measures simple and cost effective. Instead, spend your resources and energy on creating an engaged climate through strategic initiatives that work. Engagement is not a short-term initiative. Because engagement is simple in concept but difficult in execution, it is never achieved or finished—only improved. It might take years of steady progress to build high levels of employee engagement, and without the proper care and feeding, these gains can wane and fall away surprisingly quickly. Engagement Drivers Organisations
leveraging three sources of influence for change: employees, leaders, and organisational systems and strategies. These three drivers work in concert to build an engaging work environment. Although engagement has multiple drivers,
the ultimate ownership of engagement rests
some employees are more likely than others to
more than an employee’s immediate leader.
within the individual employee.
be inherently engaged in their work.
While this might be a slight exaggeration, but
Organisations hoping to drive engagement
most people do not leave their jobs; they leave
must tap into employees’ passion, commitment
exceptional leadership. Leaders have the
their bosses. Where there is a highly engaged
and identification with the organisation. This is
influence and power to serve as catalysts for
team, there is a strong likelihood of a leader
accomplished by having the right employees
higher levels of engagement, not only in one
who is coaching for success, setting clear
working in the right jobs, which is the first
or two areas, but in all aspects of leadership
goals, empowering others, providing open
engagement driver. The “right” employees
(See box below, Melcrum report). Even more
and honest feedback, and making the winners
mean that individuals have the skills to do the
compelling, assessment and testing research
job (“can do”) and that their jobs tap into their
personal motivators (“will do”). Organisations
can ensure high job fit by effectively deploying employees’ talents when making selection,
placement, and promotion decisions. Research has repeatedly shown that when job fit is high; an employee performs better and is more likely to stay with the organisation. In addition to having a motivational match,
Engaging leaders understand that their engaged
role is not to take charge of all the decisions,
engaged direct reports.
but to be more empowering motivators. It’s
The direct reports of engaged managers
about recognition for a job well done; it’s about
are less likely to leave the organisation.
giving people the room and encouragement
Higher-performing managers have direct
to grow. It’s also about being tough when
reports who are more highly engaged.
necessary, holding people accountable for
Leadership and engagement
oing for Financial simplicity...
No one impacts the state of engagement
44 “Finally, organisations need strong systems and strategies aligned to their Employment Value Proposition( EVP) that support and foster engagement.”
To assist medium sized companies, government department and non-government organisations with professional business solutions to ensure operational sustainability of our clients, that ultimately ensure that the clients grow
PROFILE OF ENGAGED LEADERS •
Empower employees to solve problems themselves
Involve employees in decision making
Help employees understand their role in the organization’s success
Create a climate of open communication
Employment Value Proposition Finally, organisations need strong systems
and attract top talent in the market are often
and respected. This in turn, leads to enhanced
referred to as “Best Employers”.
or discretionary effort. Enhanced effort is not
and strategies aligned to their Employment
Value Proposition( EVP) that support and
foster engagement. Mega drivers aligned to
and reward, remuneration, training, career
EVP are for example, perception of employer
development and succession management.
as branded place to work; employee focus and reputation.
just putting in the extra time; it’s also getting
things right the first time and going out of
A large part of building higher levels
Many of the organisations that
of employee engagement is creating an
have developed a strong engagement culture
environment in which employees feel valued
Li ht ACCOUNTING INC Management consulting – Auditing – Tax – Accounting
one’s way for the customer. Many employees cite that the environment, culture and mood of the organisation as critical factors in driving engagement. Next issue: measuring engagement
For more information: Address: 302 Ontario, 579 Adcock street Gezina, 0084
Tumelo Ratau • Cell: 083 295 7439 • Fax: 086 210 7923 • E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Keaobakwa Leshomo • Cell: 082 429 5446 • Fax: 086 665 4459 • E-mail: email@example.com
on fuel, despite its top performance in terms of
CGI – Charged Gasoline Injection
torque, output and noise reduction.
CGI appears at the end of the C180 and
engine for the new C-Class, signifying that
“Offering the same power output as the outgoing models,
Mercedes-Benz uses direct petrol injection for
the four-cylinder engines with direct petrol injection
therefore impress with their higher torque, meaning that
Compared to conventional port injection, and thus improved thermodynamic efficiency.
enjoyment while being more economical and eco-friendly.”
direct fuel injection allows higher compression
the new Mercedes-Benz models provide even more driving
Mercedes-Benz has a long tradition in the
This is achieved by means of the following
C200 model designations of the four-cylinder
field of direct injection. As early as the mid1950s, Mercedes-Benz unveiled this technology
in the 300 SL, the legendary Gullwing model.
increase in the compression ratio for a
This classic sports car was the first series-
higher rate of efficiency.
produced automobile to feature a four-stroke
Turbocharging for an increase in output
engine with direct engine.
combined with a small displacement. •
from the engine.
The new C 200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY model
Fast, smooth adjustment of valve timing
has a displacement of 1.8 litres and an output
Offering the same power output as the
for high torque, even at low engine speeds.
of 135 kW yet consumes a mere 6.8 litres of
outgoing models, the four-cylinder engines
An exhaust-gas turbocharger gives the new
premium unleaded petrol per 100 kilometres
with direct petrol injection therefore impress
4-cylinder petrol engine added thrust. After
with their higher torque, meaning that the
carefully weighing up all the pros and cons, the
0.8 litres (10 percent) less than the previous
new Mercedes-Benz models provide even
engine developers went for the turbocharger
four-cylinder engine with conventional fuel
more driving enjoyment while being more
concept over the belt-driven supercharger.
injection and a supercharger. CO2 emissions
economical and eco-friendly.
Under the specified conditions, the exhaust-
from the direct-injection model with a manual
The C180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY and C200 CGI
gas turbocharger achieves superior efficiency
transmission are 158 grams per kilometre
BlueEFFICIENCY models comply with the EU5
mainly because, unlike a belt-driven charger,
(12 percent lower than previously). Despite
emissions standard and are especially frugal
it does not need to draw drive power
the lower fuel consumption, the peak torque
Writen by: Gopolang Peme, Photo buy: fotolia.com
47 New Mercedes-Benz C-Class models are even
Mercedes-Benz now equips the successful C-Class C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY and C 200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY models featuring a six-speed manual transmission with a fourcylinder turbo-charged engine.
injection petrol engine develops 115 kW and,
that the driver experiences noticeably greater
enabling the new C 200 CGI to complete the
thanks to its higher peak torque of 250 Nm
response and a high level of driving enjoyment.
sprint from 0 to 100 km/h in 8.2 seconds
(outgoing model 230 Nm), the version with
The engine displacement has grown from a
(outgoing model 8.6 seconds).
manual transmission is half a second quicker
previous 1 596 cc supercharged variant to a
from 0 to 100 km/h (9.0 seconds). This means
In the C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY, the directKey technical data for the new C-Class models
Photos by: Mercedes-Benz C-Class
‘Direct injection, fourcylinder engine with turbo-charger’
has been increased from 250 Nm to 270 Nm,
Mercedes-Benz C Class takes efficiency and
Consumption in litres/100 km
0 - 1 0 0 km/h km/h
C 180 CGI
6.7* - 7.1 (m/a) (sedan) 7.3 – 7.4 (m/a) (estate)
159 – 165 (m/a) (sedan) 169 – 172 (m/a) (estate)
6.8* - 7.6 (m/a) (sedan) 7.2 – 7.5 (m/a) (estate)
158 – 177 (m/a) (sedan) 168 – 175 (m/a) (estate)
driving enjoyment to new levels. Mercedes-Benz systematically employs direct petrol injection – a technology that allows a further reduction in fuel
petrol injection makes these models even more
responsive than their outgoing counterparts.
Thanks to its BlueEFFICIENCY technology, the
specified in conjunction with a five-speed
C 200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY
be * Figures for the sedan, combined NEDC consumption
1 796 cc turbocharged.
“The aerodynamics of the C-Class is better
technology such as the ADVANCED AGILITY
than any other sedan in its segment,
control, the Intelligent Light System with
boasting a drag co-efficient cd figure of
five different lighting functions.
0,26. On the road, aerodynamics has a
anticipatory occupant-protection measures.
significant effect on fuel consumption:
reducing the cd figure by 0,01 alone can
measures within the individual model series
lead to a fuel saving of up to 0,15 litres
goes by the name of BlueEFFICIENCY.
per 100 km at 130 km/h.”
across all disciplines, with the main aim being
management even more efficient. The aerodynamics of the C-Class is better
CONTROL package with selective damper Standard
features include the PRE-SAFE® system with
The combination of various technical This
package, compiled by development engineers to reduce weight, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance, to further optimise the engine technology and to make on-board energy
Sealed joins at the headlamps
Lightweight wheels with
consumption display in the cockpit Attractive proposition
than any other sedan in its segment, boasting
a drag co-efficient cd figure of 0,26. On the
the C-Class has the highest resale value in the
road, aerodynamics has a significant effect on
Door mirror housing with aerodynamic
fuel consumption: reducing the cd figure by
The new Mercedes-Benz C-Class 4-cylinder
litres per 100 km at 130 km/h.
At a glance: the BlueEFFICIENCY C-Class
Weight-optimised, laminated windscreen
Aerodynamics • •
and R348 000 estate
Downsized four-cylinder petrol engine Six-speed
either sedan or estate guise. C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY: R339 000 sedan
with the same output •
Firewall insulation with varying material thicknesses
petrol model variants are now available in
steering's servo pump
with Maybach technology
Local independent studies confirm that
0,01 alone can lead to a fuel saving of up to 0,15
A Daimler Brand
As well as an exciting design and hallmark Mercedes-Benz refinement, the Mercedes-
C200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY:
sedan and R368 000 estate transmission
These new additions to the C-Class range
also come standard with the MobiloDrive
Final drive with low-friction bearings and
120 maintenance contract which includes a
2 year/120 000 km full vehicle warranty and
Longer final-drive ratio
complimentary roadside assistance.
Full underbody panelling with a smooth
Partially shrouded radiator grille
Gear change prompt and current fuel
Arrive as though you have never been away. Welcome home. The new E-Class. Now available at your Mercedes-Benz dealership. www.mercedes-benz.co.za
Vehicle specifications may vary for the South African Market.
Source: Management and Organisational Behaviour Principles of Change Management, Photos by: fotolia.com
Organisations need to change constantly,
inevitable part of both social and organisational
universal nature, change at any one level is
for many kinds of reasons, but achieving a true
life and we are all subject to continual change
interconnected with changes at other levels,
step change is rare – indeed, only a third of
in one form or another.
and it is difficult to study one area of change
executives interviewed say their organisations succeeded in doing so. – McKinsey
Change impacts many levels of society from
Change is a universal influence. It is an
to national level.
However, because of its
In this issue, the focus is on the management of organisational change.
“Resistance to change can take many forms and it is often difficult to pinpoint the exact reasons. The forces against change in work include ignoring the needs and expectations of employees; when employees have insufficient information about the nature of the change; or if they do not perceive the need for change.”
“A programme of planned change and improved performance developed by Lewin involves the management of a three-phase process of behavioral modification.”
Organisational change can be initiated by
recognition of the need for change and
aligned and committed to the direction of
for individual resistance to change within an
the organisation; and improve the ability
improvement to occur
change, understand the culture and behaviours
or procedures or it can arise through
of the organisation to cope with changes
Movement – development of new attitudes
the changes intend to introduce, and can
Habit: People are inclined to settle into
lead to a prejudiced view of a particular
in its environment.
or behavior and the implementation of
model those changes themselves. Only once
comfort zones and routines.
situation or change i.e. trade unionists may
the leadership team has been aligned and
changes to habits, especially if the habits
have a stereotyped view of management
Refreezing – stabilizing change at the
committed to the change initiative will the
are well established, may be resisted. “This
new level and reinforcement through
work force be able to follow suit.
supporting mechanisms, for example,
Resistance to change
are best positioned for success. They are
the behavioural patterns of members of
maintain behavior in its present form,
must respond to the challenge of modifying
Change can affect all
aspects of the operation and functioning of
data collection and analysis, planning and
implementation, discipline as does a redesign
Any significant change creates “people
This demands much
of strategy, systems or processes.
issues.” Leaders will be asked to step up, jobs
The change-management approach should
will be changed, new skills and capabilities
be fully integrated into program design and
must be developed, and employees will be
decision making, both informing and enabling
uncertain and resistant. Dealing with these
strategic direction. It should be based on a
issues on a reactive, case-by-case basis puts
realistic assessment of the organisation’s
speed, morale, and results at risk.
history, readiness, and capacity to change.
will turn to the CEO and the leadership team for
employees; when employees have insufficient
strength, support, and direction. The leaders
information about the nature of the change; or
A formal approach for managing change
policies, structure or norms.
Selective perception: Individuals view the world from their perspective. This can
is going to be more difficult….” •
Security in the past: Some people tend
intentions might be. “How do we know…” Organisational resistance
Resistance to change can take many forms
to find security in the past. In times of
Although organisations have to adapt
and it is often difficult to pinpoint the exact
frustration or difficulty, or when faced
to their environment, they tend to feel
Because change is inherently unsettling for
reasons. The forces against change in work
with new ideas or methods, people
comfortable operating within the structure,
people at all levels of an organisation, all eyes
include ignoring the needs and expectations of
may reflect on the past. “It used to be
policies and procedures, which have been
formulated to deal with a range of present
Fear of the unknown: When people
situations. Organisations often set up defenses
Change starts from the top
— beginning with the leadership team and
A programme of planned change and
themselves must embrace the changes first,
if they do not perceive the need for change.
do not understand or distrust a new
against change and prefer to concentrate on
then engaging key stakeholders and leaders —
improved performance developed by Lewin
and then to challenge and to motivate the rest
Fears may be expressed over such matters as
method of work, they feel insecure. Many
the routine things they perform well to ensure
should be developed early, and adapted often
involves the management of a three-phase
of the organisation. They must speak with one
job security, re-skilling, loss of job satisfaction,
major changes within the organisation
operational effectiveness. Some of the main
as change moves through the organisation.
process of behavioral modification.
voice and model the desired behaviours.
wage rate differences, changes to social
present some degree of uncertainty,
reasons for organisational resistance against
structures and working conditions.
i.e. the introduction of new technology.
Unfreezing – reducing those forces which
Executive teams that work well together
Organisational culture: The culture of an
longer be initiated due to the re-allocation
organisation develops over time and may not be easy to change. This is “how things
of funds. •
Individuals are inherently rational and will
Past contracts or agreements: Contracts
question to what extent change is needed,
are done around here” has a significant
entered into with other parties, such
whether the company is headed in the right
effect on organisational processes and the
direction, and whether they want to commit
behaviour of employees.
trade unions, suppliers and customers
personally to making change happen. They
culture may result in a lack of flexibility for,
might have to be renegotiated.
will look to the leadership for answers. The
or acceptance to change.
agreement made with unions regarding
articulation of a formal case for change and
job stability may now have to be revised to
the creation of a written vision statement are
especially large ones, are concerned about
introduce compulsory redundancies, or the
invaluable opportunities to create or compel
maintaining stability and predictability.
introduction of certain new technology or
The need for formal structures are the division of work, narrow definitions of assigned
threat to the power in their own positions.
working practices. •
Threats to power or influence: Managers
developing the case: First, confront reality and
may view change as a threat to their power
articulate a convincing need for change. Second,
established rules and procedures, can
or influence over certain groups within
demonstrate faith that the organisation has a
result in the resistance to change.
the organisation, such as their control
viable future and the leadership to get there.
Investment in resources: Change often
over decisions or resources. I.e. Managers
Finally, provide a road map to guide behaviour
requires large investments that may
may resist the change in organisational
and decision making. Leaders must then
already be committed elsewhere.
structures because they see this as
customise this message for various internal
Funds might have been allocated to
increasing the role and influence of other
audiences, describing the pending change in
other “necessary” projects which can no
members of staff in their “arena”, and a
terms that matter to the individuals.
“According to Atkinson, a major problem in
driving change in organisations is dealing with and managing the resistance that will be encountered - but that resistance should be welcomed as a healthy response.”
According to Atkinson, a major problem
Responsibilities of management
This is often best created by
in driving change in organisations is dealing
The key to a successful change programme
involving people in identifying problems
with and managing the resistance that will be
is the positive action from top management
and crafting solutions. It is reinforced by
encountered - but that resistance should be
and their style of transformational leadership.
incentives and rewards. These can be tangible,
wel-comed as a healthy response. Resistance is
Management has the responsibility for the
natural and should not be viewed as a negative
underlying philosophy and attitudes of the
psychological, for example, camaraderie and a
response to change. In the absence of positive
organisation, for creating and sustaining a
sense of shared destiny.
benefits from the proposed change, the
healthy climate; and establishing supportive
'default' response of resistance is acceptable.
organisational processes. This requires more
Some employees will readily understand
People are the key factor
than mere buy-in or passive agreement that the
the advantages of the change programme and
direction of change is acceptable. It demands
exhibit natural attributes for effective change
programme is dependent upon the effective
leadership. The key factors and behaviours
cop-operation of staff, management and
responsibility for making change happen in all
that are crucial to the success of change
unions. If change is to work, it must change
of the areas they influence or control.
the perceptions, attitudes and behaviour
The successful implementation of a change
Involve employees to create a sense of
Effective communication of the reasons for change and developing an open
Effective management of change requires
change leaders can adapt their strategies and
Championing innovation and creativity
continual reassessment of its impact and the
techniques based on the unique attributes of
of all who are actively involved in the
organisation’s willingness and ability to adopt
Change leaders in turn
The most common lesson learnt from
Setting a good personal example; and
assess the data received from the field, arm
change is that managers must avoid treating
Self-pacing to avoid any stress
themselves with more information, make
change as a single meeting or announcement.
Too often, change leaders make the
adjustments supported by solid decision-
Change is not implemented in a single moment,
mistake of believing that others understand
making processes to maintain momentum and
and likewise the role of business leaders in
the issues, feel the need to change, and see the
managing change should not be reduced to
new direction as clearly as they do. The best
Most leaders contemplating change know
a single event. The manager's role in change
change programmes reinforce core messages
that people matter. It is all too tempting,
must be active and visible in all phases of the
through regular, timely advice that is both
however, to dwell on the plans and processes,
change process. A second practical application
inspirational and practicable. Communications
which don’t talk back and don’t respond
for this concept is to customise your change
flow in from the bottom and out from the top,
emotionally, rather than face up to the more
management activities according to where you
and are targeted to provide employees the
difficult and more critical human issues.
are in the change process.
right information at the right time and to solicit
But mastering the “soft” side of change
their input and feedback.
management needn’t be a mystery.
is the process of how individuals navigate
Prepare for the unexpected
Change is a process
change. The ADKAR change management
A larger lesson from the principle of change
No change programme goes completely
The concept of change as a process has
model (The Perfect Change), characterises the
according to plan. People react in unexpected
been well documented in change management
process for individual change in five key steps:
ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall
literature for many years. By breaking change
Awareness of the need to change
away; and the external environments shift.
down into discrete time periods or phases,
“No change programme goes completely according to plan. People react in unexpected ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall away; and the external environments shift.”
54 the change
Knowledge about how to change
and Cohen list the following eight steps for
Ability to implement new skills and
success¬ful large-scale change:
people, whatever the nature or size of the
The concept of change as a process
2. Build a guiding team with the credibility, skills, connections, reputations and formal
treating changes as a single meeting or
authority to provide change leadership.
announcement. The manager's role in change
3. Create visions, which are sensible, clear and uplifting; and sets of strategies. 4. Communicate the vision and strategy
activities must be tailored according to where
in order to induce understanding and
you are in the change.
Many books and articles cite steps or actions to be taken to secure successful
5. Empower action and remove obstacles that stop people acting on the vision. 6. Produce
after wave of change.
culture, and developing group norms of behaviour and shared values. Concentrate on one project at a time, and make it successful. Success, more than any other factor, will show those who might have
change process. Finally, change management
Actions to consider for effective change
consolidate early changes and create wave 8. Make change stick by nurturing a new
management teams. Managers must avoid
must be active and visible in all phases of the
momentum to the overall effort. 7. Do not let up but maintain the momentum,
Create a sense of urgency among relevant
Reinforcement to keep the change in place
to provide credibility, resources and
a tendency to resist change, that there is nothing to fear
“Emotional intelligence is derived from four basic elements
that operate like the building blocks of DNA. If nurtured with experience, these elements enable one to develop specific skills and abilities - the basis of emotional intelligence.”
Source: Working with Emotional Intelligence/ The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, Photos by: fotolia.com
We all know what emotions are. day
intelligence that involves the ability to monitor
They give us valuable information we can’t get anywhere else.
one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate
emotions from excitement, love, empathy to
among them, and to use the information to
apprehension, loathing and depression.
“Many aspects of emotional intelligence
guide one’s thinking and actions.” Or, more
what then is emotional intelligence and why
simply, emotional intelligence is knowing how
skills that only become automatic through
Skills we need to practice,
should we apply our emotions intelligently,
we and others feel, why we feel that way,
practice. And that takes time. There is no pill
especially in business?
and what can be done about it. Emotional
for emotional intelligence. It is an on-going
psychologists John Mayer of the University of
High self-awareness is the foundation
understanding and predicting one’s emotional
New Hampshire and Peter Salovey of Yale, who
upon which all other emotional intelligence
reactions to situations. One who is emotionally
also coined the term emotional intelligence
skills are built. The more we are aware of the
competent at self-awareness is also fully
emotions that drive us, our skill to interpret
aware of one’s values and core beliefs and
our thoughts, feelings, senses, emotions, and
knows the impact and effect of compromising
intentions will be at a higher level.
these core components.
Each building block represents abilities that together give rise to our emotional intelligence. They are hierarchical, with each
So, how can we increase our self-
The self-control component requires full
level incorporating the building upon the
awareness? Believe it or not… hours of
mastery of being in control of emotions. Both
capabilities of all previous ones. The four
expensive psychotherapy are not required to
positive and negative emotions are channelled
building blocks are:
increase our effectiveness in this area! What
in the most productive manner when one
The ability to accurately perceive, appraise,
we need to do is some serious thoughtfulness
controls the emotion (recognises and channels)
and express emotion
and the courage to explore how we react to the
versus the emotion controlling the person
people and events in our work-life. Specifically
(behaviour reflects the persons emotions). The
feelings on demand when they can
we have to:
person with mastery and control of emotions
facilitate understanding of yourself or
Examine how we make appraisals
Tune in to our senses
reactions to maximise effectiveness.
Get in touch with our feelings
Knowing what drives us and what we’re
Learn what our intentions are
passionate about leads to jobs that make us
Pay attention to our actions
happy, where we’ll be more productive. It leads
3. The ability to understand emotions and the knowledge that derives from them 4. The ability to regulate emotions to promote
“Emotional intelligence is not about being
Intelligence is our ability to understand and use
process” Peter Slovey
emotional and intellectual growth
It has been said that “Self-awareness” is
to relationships, both working and personal,
touchy feely. It’s about being aware of feelings,
the power of our emotions wisely. It’s learning
The building blocks
With high self-awareness we are able to
the foundation that supports all of the other
where we’ll be more constructive and positive.
yours and other people’s. And emotional
the difference between “I think” and “I feel,”
Emotional intelligence is derived from four
monitor ourselves, observe ourselves in action
emotional intelligence competencies. It comes
And it leads to lives that are more honest,
intelligence is not about being emotional, it’s
and hearing the difference when others say it.
basic elements that operate like the building
and influence our actions so that they work to
first because if we don’t know ourselves and
which will make us more satisfied.
about being smart with your emotions. It is
Just as importantly, emotional intelligence
blocks of DNA. If nurtured with experience,
our benefit. By being aware, for example, of
what we’re feeling, how can we possibly
The more we know about ourselves, the
knowing how to use our passions to motivate
is learning to manage our emotions rather
these elements enable one to develop specific
gritting our teeth and becoming increasingly
know or understand someone else and how
better we are able to control and choose what
ourselves and others. And it is knowing how to
than letting them control us. It is important
skills and abilities - the basis of emotional
angry at our manager during a performance
kind of behaviours we will display in a work
keep our distressing emotions under control” -
to remember that emotions are not good or
intelligence. Unlike one’s biological DNA,
coaching session – and recognising, of
setting. Self-awareness is about knowing
Daniel Goleman, Ph.D.
bad. Emotions are information. By listening to
emotional intelligence building blocks can be
course how important this information is to
Self-Awareness and Control comprise two
where we are now and where we want to go,
According to the pioneers in the field,
them, we can use our IQ –intelligence quotient-
developed so that one can dramatically increase
our professional growth – we might relax,
separate skills. The self-awareness component
so that we will be willing to change to get
Daniel Goleman, John Mayer and Peter Salovey,
more effectively because we reason better
their emotional intelligence. Four building
defuse our anger, and respond to our manager
demands intimate and accurate knowledge of
emotional intelligence is “a type of social
when our feelings are taken into account.
blocks were identified by the pioneering
one’s self and one’s emotions. It also demands
Without self-awareness, our emotions
can blind us and guide us to do things or to
Those components consist of:
become people we really don’t want to be. If
Our thoughts or cognitive appraisals
we are aware of our feelings and thoughts,
Our physiological changes or arousal actions
we can choose how we will act or react in a
Our behaviours or action tendencies
given situation or to a certain person. With
Some argue that thoughts precede bodily
this choice comes power, the kind of intrinsic
changes… it’s like the chicken and the egg,
power that no one can take away from us.
which comes first? This is not a subject for
The difference between thoughts or
debate, what is important is to understand
It is extremely important to
that emotions are produced by an interaction
know the difference between “I think” and
of these three components in response to an
“I feel” if you are to know yourself better.
external event. By taking charge of them we
Practice asking yourself, “Is that a feeling
are able to effectively manage our emotions.
or a thought driving that conclusion?” For
There is actually one more component to
example “Based on the score I received
your emotional system. Emotional Context -
in this competency area, I think the
this is also known as emotional makeup. This
respondents did not read this question
encompasses how we were brought up, what
correctly” and “I feel concerned about the
we believe, experiences we have had – in fact,
score I received in this competency area, I
everything that makes us who we are today!
should seek clarification.” •
Monitor your self-talk. Often we use feeling
negative self-talk because we work out of fear
throughout the day and be honest. Your
instead of power. This leads to a distorted
heart races or you blush or you are short
perspective of what is going on. Working out
of breath – each of these is usually a gut
of fear leads to making very poor choices or no
reaction. Ask yourself, ‘What is the feeling
choices at all, which makes us feel like a victim.
behind it?” Name that feeling – fear,
Awareness on the other hand, leads to
anxiety, and eagerness. Even if it may be
painful, do not let up because it is better
to face the pain now than to rationalise
action. Consequently, there is a feeling
it away and have it come back to haunt
Be open to input from others.
Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in the workplace.
and associates can often enlighten us
are willing to be accountable, you are
about our behaviour. Ask co-workers
acknowledging your own power.
for feedback on how you come across
and whether you seem “authentic” and
prepare to manage them. We all have
honest about yourself. Find someone
things that we dread doing – quarterly
reports, too many meetings, – which can
someone who will be open and honest
set us off. Know what gets to you and
defuse the situation in advance through
Self-talk is very revealing. What we
planning and preparation. Give yourself
tell ourselves goes immediately to our
more time, a quiet place to work, soothing
music – whatever will calm you and
decreases our anger or other emotions. Repeated
prevent the trigger from setting you off. •
exaggerated and irrational thinking.
Reframe an irritating situation into a problem-solving
encounter a situation that provokes an
Unlike suppressing our emotions, which
undesirable emotional response, decrease
deprives us of the valuable information our
your anger by focusing on the behaviour.
emotions can give us, managing our emotions
Reframe it to make the behaviour the
means understanding them and then using
problem, and not the person. Then think
that understanding to deal with situations
about what you can do to defuse that
productively. Because emotions are produced
behaviour or to minimise how much it
by an interaction of our thoughts, physiological
bothers you the next time.
changes, and behavioural actions in response
Use humour! While other people get upset,
to an external event, we can manage our
try to find something funny to laugh about.
emotions by taking charge of each component.
It will boost your mood, help you use your
“Good communications lead to trust. The more open and willing we are to
by not letting our emotions hijack us.
share our feelings, the more trust and openness we will inspire in others - the
When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often react inappropriately by
greater the trust in a corporate environment, the higher the performance.”
blowing an incident out of proportion. We lose our perspective. By learning to manage our
“Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than reactively. When we strive to be intentional, we mean what we say rather than spouting off without thinking and later regretting the impulsive act.”
emotions, we become more adaptable and
gestures, or misunderstood meanings can lead to
we like them and trust them within three to five
innovative in stressful situations.
very unsatisfactory outcomes.
seconds of meeting for the first time! It’s that fast
Self-regulation helps us act intentionally
Think about the many competencies that can be
for our emotional brain to form a first impression.
rather than reactively. When we strive to
drawn when focusing on communication skills such as
The rational brain has no time to get involved and
be intentional, we mean what we say rather
negotiations -when you need information from a busy
deliver intellectual proof until later – initially; we rely
than spouting off without thinking and later
colleague, selling -when you are making a proposal for
on our gut instincts. That is the reason, according
regretting the impulsive act.
a new idea, managing -your teams task to complete a
to Ms. Casper, “Trust lives in the heart, not in
Those employees who are good at self-
project, leading -moving a project forward to meet a
regulation and manage their emotions well are
deadline, conflict resolution -when a member of your
Being attuned to customer’s or clients’ needs
very good in their mood management. They
workgroup is unwilling to come to consensus on how
and emotional responses is particularly important
handle stress well, their communication is
to complete a task, and team building -among your
where we service the needs of others, where
frequent and consistent, and they tend to offer
peers, colleagues and constituents.
empathy comes into play at all levels: in reading the
The key to making these and other relationships
customers’ cues, in working as a team of members
and interactions successful so that they benefit all
from different departments, in working as a team
concerned is emotional intelligence. How we put our
with diverse cultural backgrounds and experiences.
emotionally competent individual. However,
emotional intelligence to work is by recognising and
Empathy is the glue that binds the group together to
skill in listening requires far more than
responding to the emotions and feelings of others,
technique. True listening requires a mind-set
guiding those emotions toward productive resolution
Share and be honest about our feelings.
that includes the following elements:
of a situation, and using those emotions to help
Good communications lead to trust. The more
A respectful attitude toward the speaker
others help themselves. Clearly our ability to do all of
open and willing we are to share our feelings, the
even when the content of the speaker’s
this will enhance our position in any organisation. Not
more trust and openness we will inspire in others -
message is abrasive
only do we get more done because we find consensus
the greater the trust in a corporate environment,
and cooperation, but others perceive us as being
the higher the performance. Be consistent so that
seek understanding of the messages of
an indispensable person to have on their team, in
our spoken and unspoken messages match. We want
what we are saying to match what we are doing.
feedback to co-workers. Listening skills Listening
Areas that we need to focus on to increase our
Placing the speaker as a human equal thus worthy of the listener’s attention
which builds trust. For example, smile when we tell
Self-disclosure: clearly telling the other person
someone that we are happy to see them, instead of
what we think, feel, and want
frowning or looking away.
Assertiveness: standing up for our opinions,
Take the kinder road whenever possible:
Empathy requires the ability to understand how others perceive situations. This perception
ideas, beliefs, and needs while respecting those
includes knowing how others feel about a
IQ more effectively, and will make you
second step is to regulate those feelings
less critical of others.
and manage them so they do more good
Empathy requires knowing the perspective of
others and being able to see things from the
particular set of events or circumstances. •
criticism. We can be honest and still give positive
Dynamic listening: hearing what the other person
feedback which increases confidence. Constructive
is really saying
Criticism: constructively sharing our ideas and
shows our employees that we truly mean to help
feelings about another person’s ideas and actions
Try to see from the other person’s perspective:
Our passions can be contagious and
value and belief system of the other person.
of oxygen to the brain eases tension,
energise others, but our ranting and ravings
It is the ability to fully immerse oneself in
clarifies thinking and has a relaxing
can damage work relations beyond repair.
another’s viewpoint, yet be able to remain
effect on your psyche and body. It
When we get mad, we often sound more
wholly apart. The understanding associated
also gives you a moment to collect
upset than we really feel because we are
with empathy is both cognitive and emotional.
What underlines each of these skills and helps
your thoughts and to think before
allowing our raw emotions to surface
It takes into consideration the reasons and logic
unchecked by our rational side. Checking
ensure their effectiveness is sensitivity. Empathy begins with listening. As emotional
behind another’s feelings or point of view. is
there are many ways to deliver opinions and
taking deep breaths. Increasing the flow
Remove yourself from the situation and
This proves that we are being honest, or authentic,
communication skills are:
empathy is about imagining what it would be like to walk in someone else’s shoes. Go ahead – give people the benefit of the doubt. We ought to assume that everyone is doing the best that they can with the
intelligence consultant Christine Casper points out,
self-regulation is all about. It is giving the
communication. Communication establishes
“Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we
Resolving conflict without compromising core
distancing yourself from a bad situation
rational side time to temper our feelings
have listened to them.” Someone who listens and
beliefs or values is an important component of social
and re-directing your energy into a new
responds empathetically cannot help but display
expertness. High social expertness also allows for
keep moving. There are major benefits in
resources they have at the moment.
activity, whether it’s clearing off your
Self-control comes from recognising our
communication skills in the workplace is
sensitivity and concern. This makes a connection
strong networks on both a professional and personal
desk, checking your e-mail, reorganising
emotions and moderating the response. It is
immense. Think of trying to resolve a conflict
with people. Individuals who lack empathy are more
level that can readily be enlisted when needed for aid.
your shelves or taking a quick walk around
using our understanding of feelings to reason
with a co-worker, or speaking to a colleague
focused on their needs and pay little or no attention
well. This proves less threatening and makes
about their insensitivity, or listening to a
to anyone else’s with the result that no connection
While the first step is self-awareness,
us more trustworthy to co-workers. We want
customer’s complaint without being able to
to listen and learn from our gut feelings, the
to take charge of our responses and actions
communicate well. Wrong words, ill-advised
Research has proven that we determine whether
Next issue: Building relationships
Book reviews The Essential Guide to Effect Sizes
III). The book concludes with a handy list of
Statistical Power, Meta-Analysis, and the
recommendations for those actively engaged
Interpretation of Research Results
in or currently preparing research projects.
About the Book
Provides a practical, jargon-free introduction to the interpretation of research results
Effective Negotiation From Research to Results About the Book
Draws on examples from a wide range of
social science disciplines
professionals in the fields of business, law
Calculations are clearly explained, requiring
no more than basic quantitative skills
offers a realistic and practical understanding
This succinct and jargon-free introduction
List of figures; List of tables; List of
to effect sizes gives students and researchers
boxes; Introduction; Part I. Effect Sizes and
the tools they need to interpret the practical
the Interpretation of Results: 1. Introduction
significance of their results. Using a class-
to effect sizes; 2. Interpreting effects; Part
of negotiation and the skills required in order
tested approach that includes numerous
II. The Analysis of Statistical Power: 3. Power
to reach an agreement. In this book Ray Fells
analysis and the detection of effects; 4. The
draws on his extensive experience as a teacher
introduces and explains three of the most
painful lessons of power research; Part III.
and researcher to examine key issues such as
important issues relating to the practical
Meta-Analysis: 5. Drawing conclusions using
trust, power and information exchange, ethics
significance of research results: the reporting
meta-analysis; 6. Minimizing bias in meta-
and strategy. Recognising the complexity of
and interpretation of effect sizes (Part I),
analysis; Last word: thirty recommendations
the negotiation process, he gives advice on
the analysis of statistical power (Part II),
for researchers; Appendices: 1. Minimum
how to improve as a negotiator by turning
and the meta-analytic pooling of effect size
sample sizes; 2. Alternative methods for meta-
the research on negotiation into practical
estimates drawn from different studies (Part
analysis; Bibliography; Index.
recommendations. It covers:
How to negotiate strategically
Negotiating on behalf of others
Cultural differences in negotiation The principles and skills outlined here
focus on the business context but also apply
to interpersonal and sales-based negotiations, and when resolving legal, environmental and
also features a companion website with lecturer resources. Contents Acknowledgements; 1. An introduction to negotiation; 2. The essence of negotiation; 3.
Destructive Leaders and Dysfunctional
their organizations. Featuring clinical case
leadership: the allure of the toxic leader in a
Being strategic; 4. The process of negotiation;
studies, ranging from the fashion industry
volatile industry; 9. The outer limits of toxic
5. Managing a negotiation; 6. Dealing with
to an aeronautical engineering corporation,
behaviour: corporate trauma in the form of
differences; 7. Exploring options; 8. The end-
the book explores the damaging effects
disturbed leadership; 10. Destructive leaders;
game exchange; 9. Negotiating on behalf
of destructive leadership on organizations
of others; 10. Cross-cultural negotiations;
and provides the tools necessary for early
Addresses the relationship between toxic
checklist; Appendix 2. A negotiation review
leadership and dysfunctional organizations
checklist; Appendix 3. Self-reflection tools;
Provides in-depth clinical case studies of
Appendix 4. The strategy framework; Appendix
the author's work with toxic leaders
5. The Nullarbor model; Appendix 6. Managing
Vividly illustrates diagnosis and intervention
workplace negotiations; Appendix 8. Managing
A Therapeutic Approach About the Book Organizational behavior and leadership research influenced
appreciative inquiry. Yet, in recent times, a wave of corporate scandals and spectacular
recognition, assessment, and treatment. Contents Preface; Acknowledgements; Introduction: treatment; 1. Hubris and narcissism: the dark
approach. Unethical CEO behavior, white
underbelly of leadership; 2. The enigma of an
collar crime, property deviance, employee
unintentionally toxic leader: an emotionally
a business negotiation; Appendix 9. A culture
turbulent and impulsive workplace; 3. The
checklist; References; Index.
terrorism, and workplace violence have all
provided the impetus for an examination of the
quite arrogant; 4. Leader sabotage: the fish
and organizational theorists to rethink this
organizational failures has forced management
In Destructive Leaders and Dysfunctional
perfection or destruction; 6. The borderline
leader: when brilliance and psychopathology
consultant and executive coach to provide a
coexist in a leader; 7. Trouble at the top:
fascinating behind-closed-doors account of
high toxicity implications of a leader with
troubled leaders and the effect they have on
anti-social personality disorder; 8. Histrionic
competitive or cooperative
compulsive leader: a manager’s mandate for
Organizations, Alan Goldman draws on his experience
goes beyond regarding negotiation as
rots from the head down; 5. The obsessive
darker side of leadership.