Page 1

Editor’s note

Local government chronicle Celebrating Excellency in South African Government

Publisher Applewood Tree (PTY) Ltd Suite M38, Innovation Centre, Mark Shuttleworth Street The Innovation Hub, Persequor ext 10, Lynnwood, Pretoria, 0087



Cedric Mamabolo

Executive Director Lawrence Mofokeng

Editor-in-Chief Gopolang Peme

Editor & Sub-Editor Eugenie Louw

Creative Director & Layout Design Ntokozo Brian Mahlaba

Dating back from my tertiary days I’ve always had

As Local Government Chronicle (LGC), a proudly

a problem with the lack of balance of ownership in

South African publication, we plan to undo the many

the media landscape. To put it in plain simple English:

injustices that have for many years been taking place

‘Black people in South Africa do not own nearly

in the reporting of the country, the government and

enough media houses and therefore we cannot tell

citizens of South Africa.

our stories the way we know best’.

LGC will showcase and promote good governance

With that being said I am also very wary of

and service delivery at local government and also

parachute journalism as for many years we have

focus on all local government related disciplines

been tuning to international TV channels and reading

such as: economic development, infrastructure,

news articles written by foreign news agencies and

housing, finance and all other government related

allowing them to dictate how Africa and South Africa

flagship programmes.

should be depicted. And as you would know stories

LGC is 100% wholly black owned and through this

written by foreign news agencies on Africa, seldom

platform the staff of LGC realise that as the media

paint a positive light on this continent of hope.

we play an extremely important role in the successful

If you think I’m talking a whole lot of hogwash and out of my depth, please allow me to take you back a few months ago. Prior to the world cup almost every second article that came out of Europe spoke of the bloodshed that that was going to take place

running of democracy and we aim to always give all sides of a story.

Bonny Benade

Head of Events Evelyn Mamabolo

IT Manager Mojalefa Mailula

Photography Motlatso Phahlane

Admin Support Sizwe Nkosi

I hope you’ll enjoy this first copy of LGC and the many more issues to come. Till the next issue.

in South Africa during the world cup. Even one of

Contacts Tel: 012 844 0881 E-mail:

our ‘independent’ broadcast channel aired a criminal during their prime time news stating how much of a


fortune he was planning on raking during the world

Gopolang Peme

cup. Pathetic!

Administration & Finance

Contents page 02 General:



Developing the industry



Household survey shows positive trends


23 Africa needs speed and effectiveness


Raising the bar


Education and service delivery

Boasting the best South African database

DBSA at forefront of Renewable Energy


Business and politics should be separated


Sustainable transformation for Cacadu


Serving its Citizens

government & Municipalities: 04

Rural development


Local government boosted with technology skills injection

Book reviews:

43 46


Joburg initiates public private partnership to deal with municipal waste


Municipalities improve financial management-Finances

The making of a man

Receipe for success



Three-folds and challenges of local government,democracy and delivery


RUSTENBURG: Host City with hosts of opportunities!


The dawn of democracy in South Africa, has been a real eye-opener. Having said that, dissemination of information within the three-tiers of government has been the most interesting one, with more than a dozen of local government publications mushrooming.


man behind LGC

A lot has happened, wherein the new government has had no structures or rather unbiased but fair media representation. The formation of Local Government Chronicle was orchestrated by the fact that: we as the publishers strongly believe that there is a dire need to close this gap. We are looking at a long term working relationship with government at local government level in ensuring the sustainability of governance by way of celebrating those municipalities and officials that are contributing towards service delivery and good governance.

Photos by: Motlatso Phahlane

It is not doom and gloom, we have seen the current administration introducing new departments as well as restructuring existing ones. The Ministry of Monitoring and

It has always been a vision and a goal of mine to be part of a product or project that can help celebrate the achievements and highlights of this country. And finally I think that goal of mine can be ticked-off. Local




mission is to report on local government’s strategy, challenges and success through indepth well researched factual editorial, while also remaining contemporary in our reporting.

Performance evaluation in the Office of the President under Minister Collins Chabane is also doing a good job, with good supporting programmes and structures in place. Fellow colleagues, this is your magazine, use it to your advantage, share your success stories, achievements and lastly challenges so that necessary interventions can be put


in place. Working together we can do even more… enjoy the read Lawrence mofokeng Co- Founder and Publisher

It is my view that yes our government like any other government may have its challenges and difficulties, but that does not mean that everything that is done by the government is not worth celebrating. Hence the inception of LGC, to celebrate the work that is done by government, private institutions and individuals in the advancement of the country. This magazine is not for the enrichment of my fellow publishers and I, but to make a


positive contribution to the lives of our readers

If you read my Editor’s note you’ll realise that I am passionate about South African’s

through an informative publication that aims to

telling their stories from an African perspective, and sharing them with the world. And

celebrate the country.

it is because of that reason why I decided to join the other publishers and make Local

Dare to be great and impossible is nothing.

Government Chronicle (LGC) materialise.

i wish you a pleasant read.

My co-founders and I realised that there aren’t enough instruments (media-platform) that could fully channel through information from the three tiers of government to all


relevant stakeholders and hence the birth of LGC. The publication aims to celebrate the


work done by government, private institutions and the public at large. Being not only a co-founder, publisher, but also an Editor-in-Chief of the publication I can assure you dear readers that LGC will not compromise on the good ethics of journalism which include: •

Factual and objective reporting.

Remaining partial at all times.

Promote non-parochial understandings.

Serve the citizens of the country as best as we possibly can and provide a publication that will add value to your life.

We shall constantly strive for excellence. Gopolang peme Co-founder and Publisher

has prompted governments to review their


approaches to ethical conduct. In response

The Principles have broad practical application

to these challenges, the Public Management







the public service; •

Promoting government action to maintain

management across national and sub-national

high standards of conduct and counter

Managing Ethics in the Public Service to help

levels of government. Political leaders may use

corruption in the public sector;

countries review the institutions, systems and

them to review ethics management regimes

mechanisms they have for promoting public

and evaluate the extent to which ethics is

management frameworks to ensure that

service ethics.

Incorporating the ethical dimension into

operationalised throughout government. The

management practices are consistent with

These principles identify the functions

principles are intended to be an instrument for

the values and principles of public service;

of guidance, management or control against

countries to adapt to national conditions, and

which public ethics management systems can

to find their own ways of balancing the various

ethics management systems based on

be checked. They draw on the experience of

aspirational and compliance elements to

ideals with those based on the respect

OECD countries, and reflect shared views of

arrive at an effective framework to suit their

of rules;

sound ethics management.

own circumstances. They are not sufficient





environments, they often confront similar

Public Service


Committee agreed to a set of Principles for

“Although governments have different

in the


institutions influencing ethical conduct in

in themselves they should be seen as a way






management reforms on public service

of integrating ethics management with the broader public management environment.

Combining judiciously those aspects of

ethical conduct; •

Using as a reference the Principles for

ethical challenges, and the responses in

The OECD council recommends that:

their ethics management show common

member countries take action to ensure

characteristics.....Member countries need to

well-functioning institutions and systems for

have a point of reference when combining

promoting ethical conduct in the public service.

Member countries on how they apply


This can be achieved by:

these principles in their respective national










ethics their

own political, administrative and cultural

developing policies,







Managing Ethics in the Public Service to ensure high standards of ethical conduct. •





contexts. The purpose of the analysis is to provide information on a comparative

“A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of the news on the television


show that ethics and anticorruption issues continue to figure on the

“Ethical standards should be reflected in the legal

public agenda. They are no longer confined to only local and national

framework. The legal framework is the basis for

levels of government but are spilling over into the international arena.”

communicating the minimum obligatory standards and principles of behaviour for every public servant.”

discourse about governance today. There is a perception that standards in public life are in decline. This raises questions about the costs






officials, to safeguard democracy and promote better governance. A glance at the newspapers or a glimpse of

form of a code of conduct, can accomplish

analysis and moral reasoning. Impartial

to maintain well-functioning institutions

this by creating a shared understanding

advice can help create an environment

and systems for promoting ethics;


in which public servants are more willing

Providing support to Member countries

broader community.



to confront and resolve ethical tensions

2. Ethical standards should be reflected in

and problems. Guidance and internal

by, inter alia, facilitating the process of

the legal framework. The legal framework

consultation mechanisms should be made




available to help public servants apply


basic ethical standards in the workplace.

Presenting a report in two years’ time

principles of behaviour for every public

4. Public servants should know their rights and


analysing the experiences, actions and

servant. Laws and regulations could state

obligations when exposing wrongdoing.

operation and Development (OECD), brings

practices in the member countries that

the fundamental values of public service

Public servants need to know what their


have proved effective in a particular

and should provide the framework for

rights and obligations are in terms of

national context.

guidance, investigation, disciplinary action

exposing actual or suspected wrongdoing

and prosecution.

within the public service. These should


Organisation the






committed to democracy and the market

of misconduct on the part of those who have

the news on the television show that ethics and

economy from around the world to compare

been entrusted with guarding public interest

anticorruption issues continue to figure on the

policy experiences, seeks answers to common


These costs are losses in trust and


to improve conduct in the public service

The Principles

and resources.


is the basis for communicating the

• and

basis to support Member country actions

promising practices in Member countries;

Source: Principles for managing ethics in the public service/OECD, Photos by:

Ethics is gaining prominence in the





Ethical standards for public service should

3. Ethical guidance should be available to

include clear rules and procedures for

public servants. Professional socialisation

officials to follow, and a formal chain of

public agenda. They are no longer confined to

problems, identify good practice and co-

be clear. Public servants need to know the

only local and national levels of government but

ordinate domestic and international policies.

basic principles and standards they are

should contribute to the development

responsibility. Public servants also need to

of the necessary judgement and skills

know what protection will be available to

confidence in public institutions and losses

are spilling over into the international arena.

Although South Africa is not a member

expected to apply to their work and where

in precious resources which were meant to

There is a growing recognition that countries

country, it does have a working relationship

the boundaries of acceptable behaviour

enabling public servants to apply ethical

with the OECD.

lie. A concise, well-publicised statement of



5. Political commitment to ethics should


core ethical standards and principles that

Training facilitates ethics awareness and

reinforce the ethical conduct of public

confidence in government and corruption

guide public service, for example in the

can develop essential skills for ethical

servants. Political leaders are responsible

support the economic and social development

need to co-operate at the transnational level to

of nations and peoples. There is a move

stem corruption and other problems, such as

worldwide to restore a measure of trust

organised crime, which are associated with it.







them in cases of exposing wrongdoing.







propriety in the discharge of their official duties. Their commitment is demonstrated by example and by taking action that is only available at the political level, for instance by creating legislative and institutional arrangements




behaviour and create sanctions against wrongdoing,




“The decision-making process should be transparent

support and resources for ethics-related

and open to scrutiny. The public has a right to

avoiding the exploitation of ethics rules

know how public institutions apply the power

6. The decision-making process should be

and resources entrusted to them. Public scrutiny

has a right to know how public institutions

should be facilitated by transparent and democratic

activities throughout government and by and laws for political purposes. transparent and open to scrutiny. The public apply the power and resources entrusted to them. Public scrutiny should be facilitated

processes, oversight by the legislature and access to

by transparent and democratic processes,

public information.�

public information. Transparency should

oversight by the legislature and access to be further enhanced by measures such as disclosure systems and recognition of the role of an active and independent media. 7. There should be clear guidelines for


interaction between the public and private sectors.





standards should guide the behaviour of public servants in dealing with the private sector, for example regarding public or



Increasing public

employment interaction









that more attention should be placed on public service values and requiring external





same values. 8. Managers




promote ethical conduct. An organisational environment where high standards of conduct are encouraged by providing appropriate




behaviour, such as adequate working conditions and effective performance assessment, has a direct impact on the daily practice of public service values and ethical standards. Managers have an important role in this regard by providing consistent leadership and serving as role models in terms of ethics and conduct in their professional relationship with political leaders, other public servants and citizens. 9. Management policies, procedures and practices should promote ethical conduct.

Management policies and practices should demonstrate an organisation’s commitment to ethical standards. It is not sufficient for governments to have only rule-based or compliance-based structures. Compliance systems alone can inadvertently encourage some public servants simply to function on the edge of misconduct, arguing that if they are not violating the law they are acting ethically. Government policy should not only delineate the minimal standards below which a government official’s actions will not be tolerated, but also clearly articulate a set of public service values that employees should aspire to. 10. Public service conditions and management of human resources should





ethical as





service personal

employment development,

is not sufficient for governments to have

adequate remuneration and human resource management policies

only rule-based or compliance-based structures.

should create an environment conducive to ethical behaviour. Using

Compliance systems alone can inadvertently encourage some public servants simply to function on the edge of misconduct, arguing that if they are not violating the law they are acting ethically.”

basic principles, such as merit, consistently in the daily process of recruitment and promotion helps operationalise integrity in the public service. 11. Adequate accountability mechanisms should be in place within the public service. Public servants should be accountable for their actions to their superiors and, more broadly, to the public. Accountability should focus both on compliance with rules and ethical principles; and on achievement of results. Accountability mechanisms can be internal to an agency as well as government-wide, or can be provided by civil society. Mechanisms promoting accountability can be designed to provide adequate controls while allowing for appropriately flexible management. 12. Appropriate procedures and sanctions should exist to deal with


misconduct. Mechanisms for the detection and independent investigation of wrongdoing such as corruption are a necessary part of an ethics infrastructure. It is necessary to have reliable procedures and resources for monitoring, reporting and investigating breaches of public service rules, as well as commensurate administrative or disciplinary sanctions to discourage misconduct. Managers should exercise appropriate judgement in using these mechanisms when actions need to be taken.


Outcomes Approach



The United Nations also underpin the principles laid out in the OECD (PUMA Policy) and in turn organised a series of regional conferences on the themes of civil service professionalism and ethics.

Source:, Photos by:

A number of unilateral ethics and anti-corruption initiatives have been undertaken by countries, from disclosure systems in South Africa and the Philippines to the creation of an anti-corruption entity in Argentina and Hong Kong. Public service professionals are always in the public eye and set a standard and provide an example to the rest of society. If the government wants to change people¬’s behaviour, it must set the example itself by practising what it preaches and refraining from doing what it wants nobody else to do. By government, it is meant not so much the temporary or transitory holders of public office as the permanent career public service professionals who support them and on whom they rely for their effectiveness. In July 2010, the OECD Secretary General – Angel Gurria – visited South Africa to discuss the country’s economic situation and prospects, as well as the phase 2 report on Bribery regarding International Business. According to Gurria, South Africa should take a more pro-active stance in combatting bribery which has its basis in ethics. Further recommendations that were made can be found on the OECD

During the course of the year President

what, by when and with what resources.

Jacob Zuma signed a performance agreement

efficient local government system.

The twelve delivery agreements which





with all 34 Cabinet Ministers. In these

were agreed upon are:

resources that are well protected and

performance agreements, Ministers were

Improved quality of basic education.

continually enhanced.

requested to establish an Implementation

A long and healthy life for all South

Forum for each of the twelve outcomes.


Create a better South Africa and contribute to a better and safer Africa and World.

In each implementation forum Ministers

All people in South Africa are and feel safe.

and all other parties responsible for delivering

Decent employment through inclusive

oriented public service and an empowered,

economic growth.

fair and inclusive citizenship.

A skilled and capable workforce to support

Delivery Agreements will further unpack







Agreement. All departments, agencies and

spheres of government involved in the direct delivery process required to achieve an output,

should be party to the agreement. The Delivery Agreement will refine and

provide more detail to the outputs, targets, indicators and key activities for each outcome,

and identify required inputs and clarify roles and responsibilities. It will spell out who will do

An efficient, effective and development

an inclusive growth path.

each outcome and each output and the

An efficient, competitive and responsive

requirements to reach the targets. Aspects

economic infrastructure network.

that will be described in detail include

Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural

the legislative and regulatory regime, the

communities with food security for all.









making processes and rights, the resources

improved quality of household life.


A responsive, accountable, effective and

where appropriate.








delivery backlogs

Source: Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, Photos by: Co-operative Governance & Traditional Affairs - Photo Gallery

“The government must be rooted in the


people on the ground and continue to remain relevant to its citizenry.”

The Ministry of Cooperative Governance

and forgotten.

engages its people, and how it accounts for

and Traditional Affairs implementation of

The 2009 electoral mandate from the

work done or not done, remains critical in

the Local Government Turn Around Strategy

majority of our people presupposes a new

deepening and consolidating our democracy.

(LGTAS) which is aimed at providing better

approach to the societal challenges facing the

As government departments or entities we

service delivery and address service delivery

country today.

exist to serve; not vice versa.

backlogs is well underway and promises to better the lives of the citizens of the country. The birth of this strategic plan took place in 2009 during a Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CGTA) Bosberaad. This is what the Minister of CGTA Sicelo

It calls for a responsive, effective and efficient state machinery to the needs of

This task requires the cooperation of all spheres of government.

the poor.

We need to create a platform that

It is therefore, within this context that

encourages co-ordination and elimination of

the strategic thrust of CGTA is repositioned

duplication. Synergies have to be leveraged for

and recontextualised.

improved efficiency.

Shiceko had to say on the plan: The plan outlines

The government must be rooted in the

the strategic initiatives and commitments by

people on the ground and continue to remain

have to be part of our history; those serving

the Department to protect, guide and direct

relevant to its citizenry.

ought to jealously guard the interests of

the expanded and unique political mandate of the department over the next five years. It is a blueprint that defines our strategic path in pursuit of a developmental agenda of the fourth administration.

However, this requires all spheres of

In this country, we are still living in a



the communities.

government to operate in UNISEN for the

CGTA intends to distinguish itself by

benefit of all people of South Africa, regardless

deploying employees who have passion to

of colour, creed, ethnicity and/or otherwise.

serve and whose interests remain indebted to

There is only one country, a unitary

divided society characterised by the poor,


Constitutional state accountable to the people. The package of services delivered to our

those of the communities they serve. Main Challenges of Cooperative Governance over the Next 5 Years

marginalised and rural, on one hand, and the

people must therefore not discriminate against

CGTA will need to build on the gains

affluent, rich and urban population on the

any citizen of this country because of his or her

that have been made in the last 15 years

other hand.

geographic location.








discomforting and reminds us of the mammoth task ahead for the bridging the divide. We need

The services must reach all corners of South Africa, even those who live in farms. CGTA









Fighting poverty, creating decent work and improving the lives of our people will be at the

to create conditions for everyone to realise his

against the scourge of abject poverty and

or her potential in life and make this country

underdevelopment in our communities. “Our

better to live in.

desire is to ensure that governance systems


are streamlined and utilised as a vehicle to

provincial and local government.





be harnessed and made available to all, with a deliberate bias towards the remote, rural

change people’s lives. How government does its work, how it


departmental weaknesses and deficiencies.

centre of the Department’s collective actions. CGTA will need to address the misaligned that




The Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) and Local Economic Development Strategies


of municipalities must reflect the priorities





of municipalities.

of the entire public sector, including those of

programmes in many areas continues to be

In the area of oversight, greater attention

public entities as well as those of business

fragmented, disjointed and uncoordinated.

will need to be given to the implementation of

and CBO’s.

This is due to the fact that government has been working in silos and our people have been suffering the effects of this silo approach.

The department is aware that this planning misalignment is a fundamental challenge. Going forward, the Department will work very





resources has not been our central problem, but rather how we managed our resources.

the Inter-Governmental Relations Framework

creative and innovative ways of mobilising our

levels of government more effective, efficient


Act and also sharpening our existing tools and

communities, stakeholders and organs of civil

and responsive.

resources and their leverage are maximised

instruments to ensure greater compliance and

society to become development partners with

A central feature of the South African

better performance.

government in matters of governance and

developmental state must be to ensure

service delivery.

seamless and integrated service delivery to


our people.

government is another important pillar of

implementation has also come sharply to the fore in the various Izimbizo this government

intergovernmental relations system is not

the alignment of our planning across all

has undertaken in the past, where national

dependent on voluntarism and good will.

spheres and ensure a top-down cascaded



The core challenge over the next 5

implementation of national, provincial and local

entities implement their programmes in

years will be to create a single window of

government priorities.

local areas without the knowledge and input

coordination for local government and to





spheres of government and all sectors.

government by making execution by these



It is our view that the availability of

developmental state in provincial and local



determined in contributing to building the


closely with the National Planning Commission the

horizontal relationships between the three











This means CGTA will review all inter-






and expended in a coherent manner. Strengthening






of clean

governmental structures across government

The President has announced that in the

and strengthen Ward Committees and other

context of the global economic downturn, this

Public representatives and councillors

participatory governance structures.

government will rollout a R787 billion social and

in particular need to be more accountable

economic infrastructure programme.

to communities and CGTA proposes new

Over the next 5 years CGTA will be more

cooperative governance.



“The core challenge over the next 5 years will be to create a single window of coordination for local government and to significantly strengthen the monitoring and oversight regime for municipalities.” significantly strengthen the monitoring and

ensuring greater equity and standardisation

that some of these matters are included in the

and improved measures in this regard. In

referred to in his State of the Nation Address.

oversight regime for municipalities.

on how this institution is treated across

school curriculum.

particular, CGTA will strengthen the capability

This institution must play a greater role in

In doing so, deliberate interventions will be

of communities to exercise oversight over

fighting poverty and promoting peace in rural

deployed in all spheres of government in order

councillors, municipalities and all projects in

communities In summary, the Department as

to stay focused on the common national agenda

their area of jurisdiction.

reflected in its new mandate, is positioned to

of creating decent jobs, fighting poverty,

CGTA’s observations of uncoordinated

various provinces. Furthermore the work of

planning, implementation and oversight across

the Commission on Traditional Leadership

the three spheres apply equally to local and

Disputes and Claims must be accelerated and

provincial government.

resolved in the next 5 years.







CGTA will protect and promote indigenous

government must receive dedicated attention

knowledge management systems; traditional

as a sphere of government.

healing and the practice of “floor X-rays”.

In our view, rural voices have not been sufficiently heard and recognised. CGTA will create space and opportunities for the institution of traditional leadership

In particular, performance management

be the custodian of our unitary developmental

combating crime and corruption, improving

and our traditional communities to become a

systems (PMS) of municipalities and those

state through its development facilitation,

the delivery of health and education to all, and

vibrant and active part of this democracy.

of councillors and officials will all need to


advancing rural development, agrarian reform

be aligned.

role, where necessary, as provided for in the

Mandate and Approach to Cooperative




This will entail providing greater support

Traditional customs and ways of living

Governance the birth of the Department

Strengthening accountability and building

and considering more coherent legislation

must complement and re-enforce our modern

of Cooperative Governance and Traditional

clean government also relates to how the

It is, therefore, within this context that

and frameworks governing this sphere and

systems of democracy.

Affairs ushered a new era which represents

spheres interact with each other politically

CGTA expects all spheres, sector departments

an irreversible shift to an expanded and

and professionally.

and public entities to act according to

addressing the issue of sub-national powers and functions. The institution of traditional leadership is central to our system of governance in rural areas. However, there are key challenges of

We need to protect our rich heritage as an African state” and ensure that our

more deliberate mandate on matters of

knowledge and customs are transmitted to

cooperative governance.

future generations.

working class masses of this country.






leadership at the centre of rural development

applicable legislative frameworks.

established rules and standards on service delivery and good cooperative governance.

Over the next five years CGTA will stay

will be a key objective during this term. This

In line with the Manifesto of the ruling

In this regard we will have discussions

focussed on government’s 10 priorities by

is integral to our understanding of creating

party, this government has resolved to deepen

with the Department of Education to ensure

forging and enabling better vertical and

an interactive government that the President

its base and roots amongst the poor and

and food security. CGTA will be a catalyst in ensuring that these initiatives are felt or become a reality in the local communities.




the game in Leadership


“According to leadership development practitioners and human resource professionals, flexibility and adaptability are the keys to sustaining leadership development success.�

Source: Leadership Development Practices of Top-Performing Organisations, Photos by:

Continued... Developing leaders is a formidable challenge for today’s global business. The deficit of available leadership talent is widely cited as the greatest limiter of growth. Cracking the code on developing effective leadership has the potential of conferring incredible advantages—competitive and organisational. According







resource professionals, flexibility and adaptability are the keys to sustaining leadership development success. Many organisations are moving away from standardised, set-piece leadership development super structures. Majority of organisations deploy a wide array of leader development platforms, but most identified best practices centred on leadership development techniques that are real-time and real-life. Real-time practices emphasising specialised and customised learning interventions targeted to individual leader development needs; and real-life in the emphasis on experiential and action learning practices linking leader development to actual business challenges. Driving the need for responsive leader development systems is the focus organisations place on strategy articulation and execution. In this fast-paced era two leadership development imperatives have emerged. First, executive management, as the voice of strategy, must play an increasingly visible and active role in leadership development. And second, leadership behaviours must be aligned with these new strategies to keep both the employees and the organisation focused on the end-game of success. Competency models for leaders are becoming more focused, with fewer competencies, and are more easily prioritised to fit the changing needs of the business. It is also noted that leader development, as a discipline, is increasingly becoming interwoven with other talent management systems, particularly succession planning and performance management.


Building leadership bench strength is a universal challenge that requires organisations to move away from treating leader development as a standalone endeavour. The more readily leader development can be aligned and integrated with other talent management tools the stronger the capability for business growth. Finally, organisations still lag in their ability to evaluate the return on their leadership development investments. Most organisations assess their leader development outcomes informally and anecdotally, with little emphasis on connecting leader development to bottom line business outcomes. But this may be changing. A subset of organisations sampled has groups established to link leader development efforts to organisational outcomes. These efforts could portend an even greater awareness of the importance, as defined by expected results, in developing leaders at all levels of the organisation. How do organisations, in highly competitive industries, develop leaders

“Driving the need for responsive leader development systems is the focus organisations place on strategy articulation and execution. In this fastpaced era two leadership development

to achieve business results? To pursue this question, let us focus on three

imperatives have emerged.”

key areas: 1.

Leadership development practices resident and effective in highperforming organisations

2. Leadership behaviours most important for success in highly competitive industries 3. Specific indications organisations utilise to test whether investments in leadership development are paying off. During










resource leaders and business unit leaders, leadership development systems








in time”.

and keep pace with the strategic challenges



guidelines on how leaders should think,

not changed, but their priority has. Thinking

mid-level managers. Upper-middle and senior-

There is an emerging emphasis on

of the business. The skill sets of leaders must

development endeavours. Without this central

act and interact with others. In this way, a

strategically is more critical because of

level leadership development are much more

“experience” over classroom training. And

correlate with the business challenges and

focus, leadership development practices tend

leadership competency framework becomes a


likely to incorporate experiential and action-

there is a greater willingness to individualise

exigencies of the enterprise. A quote from one

to become ends in themselves. Organisations

powerful force for defining, or redefining, an

Building teams and relationships are certainly

learning techniques.

development for leaders by bringing in the

interviewee illuminates the linkage between


organisation’s culture.

more critical than it used to be because of

Leadership curriculum designs

right skill sets at the right time.

strategy and leadership skills:

strategy in multiple ways. The mechanisms

One obvious trend is a conscious move

Driven by business strategy

“Our leadership skill needs have changed












technology, the need for virtual teaming, and

Only a few organisations have specialised,

include classroom-based programs, action

by top-performing organisations to a much

working across geographies.”


We have

learning projects, rotational assignments, and

smaller and more focused set of competencies

Multi-dimensional learning platforms

development programs in place. For those that

not exist in a vacuum. The best leadership

seen a dramatic shift in the last few years. The

the prioritisation and emphasis on specific

for each unit of business. Rather than a laundry

One size does not fit all leadership

do, however, there is a tendency to identify

development systems are anchored in—

company has been through two phases and is

leadership competencies.

list of leadership competencies, organisations

development challenges. Organisations take

the program as being distinctive and highly

and driven by—business strategy. Why is

now moving into a third.”

Active senior leadership involvement

are identifying a focused few—three, four

a multidimensional approach to leadership

effective in elevating the leader potential of



development utilising a variety of learning

their organisations.

focal point for developing their current and

techniques. These included classroom, Web-

future leaders.

based and experiential learning activities.





as the organisation has evolved.




the leadership development connection to

Organisational leaders must possess the

business strategy so critical? For one, the

right skills and orientations to launch, test and

effective leadership development is executive

half-life of a business strategy is not what it

revise business strategies as necessary. This

management sponsorship and visibility.

once was.

requires an on-going analysis and alignment of

Active support by senior leaders is referenced

As the strategic demands of the business

Research further identifies that leadership

leadership skills to strategy.

frequently as a most effective factor in

change, leadership development priorities also

development tools are stratified by level of

many organisations are creating set-piece

Leadership development purpose


shift. As one leader identified:

management. Classroom and e-learning tools


are much more prevalent for front-line and


Business strategies change and churn more rapidly, putting a premium on strategy execution skills. Leadership traits must mirror

Aligning leadership behaviours to strategy









organisations cite executive management




“The top leadership competencies have






seems to be the watchword influencing leadership

curriculum development are

development. systems.



Not Most


“If business strategy sets the core purpose for



leadership development, then competencies stand as the primary clusters of knowledge, behaviour and motivations organisations strive to instil in leaders.”

commitment and sponsorship as cornerstones

leaders play a huge role in crafting leadership


incorporating just-in time response elements

promoting the leadership skills of upper-

of their approach to developing leaders.

development success.

business efficiently, generating revenue, and


middle and senior level leaders.

Leadership competencies as the development

engaging talent.

keeping pace in rapidly changing competitive

Executive endorsement lends credibility to leadership development efforts and elevates the criticality of the experience of those

core If
















Finally, experiential learning can bring together leaders from different disciplines to


work on special projects. This co-mingling of

Having a defined leadership model in

environment. This includes a greater reliance

development for leaders are many. First,

participants tends to break down barriers and


the form of critical knowledge, skills and

on eLearning and blended learning solutions,

leaders are challenged to take on real problems

promote the ability of organisations to pursue

being developed. But active participation by

purpose for leadership development, then

motivations is a frequently cited leadership

particularly targeted to entry-level and mid-

with immediate feedback and payback. This

problems synergistically.

senior leaders in development programs and

competencies stand as the primary clusters

development best practice.

management positions.

“mainstreaming” of leadership development

Leadership development produces higher

initiatives may have an even greater return on

of knowledge, behaviour and motivations

of a core competency framework is that it

Experiential development linked to strategic

connects managers to projects that have both

performing organisations through improving

investment potential.


educational and business consequences.

leader effectiveness. Today there is no simple

The advantage

organisations strive to instil in leaders. Today

can be aligned and integrated throughout the


it is standard practice for organisations to

talent management cycle – from recruiting to

Some organisations employ some form of

leaders in learning is through being actively

have a defined set of leadership competencies

selection to development to promoting and

experiential or action-learning programme. For

bonding that occurs as individuals work

Organisations have the most success when

involved in the development of other leaders

guiding their development efforts.


example, experiential learning included moving

intensively together. Taking on and solving

they tailor leader development systems to





as teachers, mentors and coaches. Involving

The leadership competencies tend to

senior leaders in learning through action

be highly differentiated and very specific to

learning applications is another tool for developing effective leaders. By defining

A Focused and prioritised few







or single template for developing leaders.

leaders onto special projects, task forces

significant organisational challenges establish

the realities of the business, recognising that


or organisational initiatives. It also includes

a predicament that forges relationships with

strategies for growing leaders shift with the

individual organisations. However, further

competency model establishes behavioural

embedding real-world business problems

lasting impact. These experiences establish

changing demands of the organisation.

analysis proves that leadership behaviours

expectations for leaders at all levels of the



core challenges, or sitting in on panels

most likely to impact business performance

organisation. This allows the virtual “collection”

As a development tool, experienced-based

strengthen as leaders mature and move into

reviewing action-learning outcomes, senior




more senior levels of management.














leadership are

development primarily








Next issue: Leadership competencies and measurements

Local government chronicle Celebrating Excellency in South African Government


The purpose of

LocalChronicle government Photo by:

will resolutely seek out and extract the information





local government to make the decisions that matter. LGC are committed to playing its part in local government’s success in the face of the challenges the future will bring. It will provide exclusive facts and data to aid decision-making and it will champion and represent its readers

“The mission of The Local Government Chronicle (LGC) is to put the local government’s strategy, challenges and successes in perspective through focussed research, qualitative and objective editorial, while keeping in mind the broader context of relevant issues.”

and their work. Daily LGC will seek to better understand the challenges readers face and the information they need. LGC




services to contribute to the magazine by supplying objective and positive news for possible publishing.

In order for the local government to


Through objective and

from all stakeholders – management teams,

positive editorial, the public sector’s image

contribute to the economic growth and



will be enhanced to attract great talent

social development of the country, public

public to enhance loyalty and trust in the

to manage a profitable agency and boost

servants need to tap into the Southern African

local government.

investor confidence.



agency-to-agency business and stakeholder

The ever-expanding volume of information

Local Government Chronicle is published

demands through sharing information in

about local government’s vast arena of service

on a monthly basis starting from September

order to continue maximising service delivery

areas and functions necessitates that LGC filter


and governance.

this information and present a comprehensive

consists of qualified individuals with many

briefing of everything local government

years of experience in both corporate and

leaders need to know. There is no need to look

government organisations.

The mission of The Local Government Chronicle











anywhere else.

The editorial and production staff

LGC will feature interviews with prominent

research, qualitative and objective editorial,

personalities, government executives and


while keeping in mind the broader context of

contributors with indepth knowledge of key

or line employees--have the ability to play

relevant issues.

areas for local government- management,

an important role in transforming their


organisations and the country.







and distributed across all 283 municipalities

It is our view that employees at all

successes in perspective through focussed


LGC has an estimated readership of 90 000






government--whether appointees,





with a print run of

15 000

government agencies often face difficulties in

services, environment and infrastructure. In

When we understand the connection

creating a positive image through the lack of

other words, people who know the answers to

between what we do and how the organisation

communicating their advances and successes

important questions.

Corporate Head Office



we are part of serves others, we will have

suit M38, Innovation Center MarkShuttleworth

Tel: 012 844 0882/0881/0880

P.O. Box 48

a clearer long view that transcends all

street, The Innovation Hub, Persequor ext 10

Fax: 086 695 6295, Cell: 082 298 2061

The Innovation Hub,

personal gains.

Lynnwood, Pretoria, 0087

Lynnwood, Pretoria

to the public. We aim to promote increased recognition




Not all information is useful – and not all useful information is easy to find. LGC

“LeMark is celebrating its tenth year in business and for a decade the organisation


has moved from strength to strength and today it is one of the leading training and development institutions in the country.”

Marnell Dickson, Managing Director of LeMark.

Leading the country through

world class


& development

Source: Gopolang Peme, Photo by: Picture Perfect Studio

Former head of state and one of the

world is an ever evolving one and the challenge

and service excellence training courses offered

most respected man in the world, Nelson

for training service providers is to remain

by LeMark are based on a long standing license

Mandela, once said: ‘Education is the most

relevant by continuously adding value in line

agreement with the University of North West’s

powerful weapon which you can use to change

with business evolution,” says Marnell Dickson,

(NWU) Potchesftroom Business School and its

the world’.

Managing Director of LeMark.

School for Social and Government Studies.

And it’s intuitions such as LeMark, a training

Dickson adds that as LeMark they ensure

On the partnership with NWU Dickson

and development institution that prides itself

that their products and services remain

says: “This partnership and its accreditation

in the providing world class education which

relevant to their ever growing client base by

to the Services Seta allows LeMark to offer a

not only empowers their graduates, but also

meticulously applying, amongst others, the

vast range of learning interventions, ranging

help in the development and advancement of

following practices:

from business, commerce and management

the country.

LeMark is celebrating its tenth year in business and for a decade the organisation has




skills, to one-year university management

continuously evaluating and improving costs.

and certificate programmes, short courses

The institution only uses highly specialised

and workshops.

moved from strength to strength and today it


is one of the leading training and development


institutions in the country. The institution is

matter expertise.

distinction for many years. National, provincial

Course evaluations are taken seriously

and local government training is designed in

Services of Sector Education and Training

and feed directly back into the loop of

accordance with key regulations and policies,

Authority (Seta) and has achieved a remarkable

continues improvement.

including the Public Finance Management Act,

All facilitators practically use case studies

the Treasury and the Batho Pele principles.

One of the many reasons why the

and examples from current developments


institution received the Star Rating Status

in their fields of expertise to contextualise

delivery and the Batho Pele principles create a

is because of its innovation in its tailor made

content. This approach feeds their credo:

binding golden thread”.

courses and remaining relevant in the ever

Practical, hands-on staff training that’s

evolving global business and economic world.

relevant to real-world issues.

training for a decade and this is due to its

“The local and global business and economic

It is also worth mentioning that the office

outstanding work.

a fully accredited service provider with the

2, 3, & 4 Star Rating.







foundation and


“In addition to the private sector, LeMark has been servicing the public sector with






You are invited to view our training schedule on, and then discuss your special staff training needs with our sales team. Tel: 012 654 4288 082 337 8939/087 700 9414 LeMark is a corporate member of PRISA and the Proudly South African Campaign.

The office and service excellence training courses offered by Lemark are based on a long-standing licence agreement with the University of North West’s Potchefstroom Business School and School for Social & Government Studies. We are exceptionally well positioned to support South Africa’s commitment to guide and upgrade its rising stars – educated and keen-to-learn-more people – in the Private Sector, the Public Service and the parastatals… … and enthuse them with the ethic of service delivery through excellence in their chosen occupations.



LeMark Training and Development Pty (Ltd) is a fully accredited service provider with the Services SETA (accreditation number 0149), with Star Ratings 2 (ISO compliant / recognised) and 3 (client-centric staff driven by user perceptions of service excellence) in place and now Star 4 (Certificate of Achievement) as well.

ETQA, Provider Entity Number: 2001/025985/23 Accreditation Status: FULL ACCREDITATION Accreditation number: 0149

Our training programmes (offered at our venues or in-house on your premises) are practical, hands-on and relevant to real-world issues in an ever-changing corporate and business environment.







obtaining funding for nuclear and coal. They also pointed out the importance of considering new technologies still emerging, such as solar hydrogen technology and sugar fan fibre. “South Africa faced tough choices around the future of its energy mix and the economy couldn't





environment” Aphane said.


He further added that at present, available capacity would not be able to keep up with

The Future of SA’s

future demand, meaning the threat of blackouts would increase. Another challenge was that the costs of clean technologies were high and that international agreements on financing these


technologies had still to be concluded. The IRP2, which is part of the department's Integrated Energy Plan, looks at the electricity sector, and assesses which plans are to be developed for liquid fuels and gas. Resources, skills, infrastructure Aphane said the IRP2 would take into consideration


promulgated by November.


next month, and public hearings will be held with the National Energy Regulator - Nersa. scenarios






Leading up to this, the department plans to release a draft of the IRP2 for public comment




parameters, including the impact on South Africa's electricity supply of climate change,

“Most of the respondents called for a low carbon economy and for renewable energy – such as wind, solar and geothermal – to make up between 20% and 75% of South Africa’s electricity mix

Source: BuaNews, Photo by:

enough primary energy sources, skills, land

a carbon tax, distributions infrastructure, and

and transmissions infrastructure to meet its

renewable energy.

energy needs.

The department received 81 submissions

The plan also needs to meet funding

from the public, including non-governmental

requirements and answers to what the future



costing of electricity would be, what would be

South Africa will have a clearer picture

industry and business. A total of 831 specific

required to meet the country's energy needs,

of the future of its electricity mix and supply

inputs have been fed into a database and were

and whether there was sufficient confidence

by the end of the year, says the Department

now being used to build the various scenarios.

from South Africans in seeing the plan through.

of Energy's acting Deputy Director-general


Many of the comments were around

It also had to consider how energy needs

of electricity, nuclear and clean energy,



could help grow the country by complementing

Ompi Aphane.

consultation process itself – with most of the

the Department of Trade and Industry's

respondents adding that they were impressed

Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), which was

committee on energy and public comments

with the process.

launched earlier this year and aims to increase

received by the department on its Second

Low carbon economy, renewable energy

the country's industrial capacity.

Aphane was briefing Parliament's portfolio

by 2050.”

water availability, price elasticity of demand,

Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) in Cape Town




Most of the respondents called for a low

Each scenario will describe the effect on

this week.

carbon economy and for renewable energy –

the price of electricity, security of supply,

Draft future energy policy

such as wind, solar and geothermal – to make

multiplier effects and the effects of carbon on

up between 20% and 75% of South Africa's

the environment.

He said the plan is to have a revised second draft of the IRP2 – which will present various

electricity mix by 2050.

scenarios for the country's future energy

Many of the respondents were strongly

policy – by October, and to have the final plan

against coal and nuclear as future energy

Public comments on all 29 parameters of the IRP2 can be found on the Department of Energy's Integrated Resource Plan website.


29 “Prior to 1994 there was no single national government department responsible for water supply and sanitation in South Africa.”

water and sanitation becomes a

basic right

Source: The Water and Sanitation Programme in South Africa: Turning the ‘Right to Water’ into reality, Photos by:

If South Africa is to advance from a third










sanitation challenges

to a second world country and at the same

water supply and sanitation in South Africa.

time alleviate poverty there are a number of

Responsibility was fragmented and allocated

In 1994, the government of South Africa

initiatives that the country has to implement.

to local governments in the previous four

mandate the department of water and forestry

One crucial issue is to ensure that every citizen

provinces and to ten autonomous homelands

to ensure that all South Africans had equitable

of the country has ready access to water

resulting in very different levels of service.

access to water supply and sanitation. The

and sanitation.

While most of the then white local

department consulted a range of interested

When the ANC led government came into

governments offered standards equal to those

parties and produced a policy (outlined in

power in 1994 a large number of the then

of industrialised countries, the rural and black

a government White Paper) on community

estimated 40 million people in the country had

urban areas often had no services at all. And if

water supply and sanitation in November 2009.

little or no access to clean drinkable water. To

services were available to urban and rural black

underline this fact the African Union stated in

people they were often in a state of disrepair

foundation and the regulatory framework

1994 that almost half of the population lacked

and was further hampered by the absence

(enacted in Water Services Act of 1997)

basic sanitation.

of any coherent national policies, guidelines

for governing the national water sector

or support structures.

programme in order to address the backlog

Prior to 1994 there was no single national






of water and sanitation services to those who had been excluded from services in the past – especially the rural poor. The




recognised would





responsibility for service provision even though the majority of the South Africa’s poor people still lived in areas without any legitimate local government. In 1994, the then department of water and forestry launched the Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programme to enforce the policy of delivering basic water services to the areas of greatest need. The subsequent experiences illustrate how the various aspects of a national water programme can relate to each other in order to provide an effective framework for sustainable implementation. Equity







water policy Under the 1994 policy, the government funded the capital costs of new services

“In 1994, the then department of water and


forestry launched the Community Water

division that applies to many other countries.

Supply and Sanitation Programme to enforce

that the high running costs of these schemes

the policy of delivering basic water services to the areas of greatest need.”





operation and maintenance costs – a financial Towards the end of the 1990s, it became clear meant that poorer people could not afford the charges.

The government agreed that

this arrangement would not be adequate for sustainability or equity in support of these services.

A substantial and important part

of the population was being denied access to water and sanitation which was further undermined by conflict In response, using a combination of political


1994 promised its citizens: ‘a better life for all’ and maintains a vision encapsulated in the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) of ‘peace and security for all, build the

“The free basic water policy was

nation, link reconstruction and development, and deepen democracy’.

introduced within an international context in 1999.

The policy

The RDP emphasised that the improvement of the quality of life for the majority of South Africans was needed to enable economic growth,

provided a valuable method for

and that economic growth was needed to sustain

ensuring people’s right of access

deep political commitment to programmes of

to basic water supply which was not limited by affordability.”

improved quality of life. There was thus a service delivery. The national water and sanitation programme was therefore part of a strong, shared national vision of a South Africa in which people would have opportunities to develop their skills and use them productively to work for an income with


and legislative mechanisms, the government

which they could meet their basic needs.

developed a free basic water policy.

In the 1994 elections, water was rated the

This encouraged water services authorities

second highest priority for rural voters and in 1996

to structure their charges for water to provide

the aims of the RDP were further strengthened by

the first 6,000 litres per household per month

the adoption of a new constitution underpinning

free of charge.


The operating costs were



covered by a combination of a rising block tariff


above that consumption and a subsidy from

among others.

the national budget to the local government










specifically for basic service provision. With

The cholera epidemic of 2000 provided a

substantial political support, this policy had by

huge stimulus for addressing the country’s slow

mid 2002 been implemented in local government

rate of progress in sanitation.

areas serving over 27 million people.

This slow progress was mainly due to the

The free basic water policy was introduced

communities demand for water supply on the one

within an international context in 1999. The policy

hand and the absence of promoting an improved

provided a valuable method for ensuring people’s

sanitation system at a community level on the

right of access to basic water supply which was

other hand. While the system used for water is

not limited by affordability

community based that for sanitation should be

What this means in the political context

household focused.

The success of the national water sanitation

Even though the South African government

programme was a result of the political

has made significant progress in water supply, it

context in which it was developed. The new

has not yet reached the point of providing good

government which has been in power since

sanitation for all its citizens.



centre to spawn




Source: SA good news, Photos by:

The Cape Town-based African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), a postgraduate academic institution, is to be the model for three maths training centres on the continent. The three centres are expected to serve as a nurturing ground for more world-class African mathematicians. According to cosmologist Neil Turok, founder of AIMS South Africa, the goal is to build 15 such centres across Africa by 2020, possibly in countries such as Botswana, Egypt, Rwanda, Madagascar, Mozambique and Uganda. The project, dubbed NextEinstein, is Turok’s brainchild and has already led to the opening of a second AIMS centre at the African University of

“With the announcement of major support for the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Canada is also pioneering the sharing of knowledge and expertise as a route to development”

Science and Technology in Abuja, Nigeria. NextEinstein aims to boost capacity for

financial support for the project, to the tune

universities locally, and the Cambridge, Oxford

mathematics graduates from various African

scientific and technological education, research

of R140-million. The money will go towards

and Paris-Sud-XI universities abroad. An

countries successfully complete the training

and development in Africa.

the construction of AIMS centres over the

enthusiastic teaching body of both local and

course. With their skills and knowledge now at

next four years.

visiting lecturers ensures that tuition is of the

a globally competitive level, these students are

highest quality, and often at no charge.

able to apply to universities around the world

The South African-born Turok is currently


the executive director of Canada’s Perimeter

“With the announcement of major support

Institute for Theoretical Physics, taking up his

for the African Institute for Mathematical

According to the centre’s director Prof

for admission to postgraduate degrees. Many

position after a stint as the Chair of Mathematical

Sciences, Canada is also pioneering the

Barry Green, there is no shortage of willing

have been accepted into courses in Europe

Physics at the UK’s Cambridge University. The

sharing of knowledge and expertise as a route

teaching staff, and he felt confident that the

and the US, while others have successfully

non-profit Perimeter Institute, which focuses on

to development,” said Turok. “Just as ideas

other AIMS centres wouldn’t have any problem

completed postgraduate degrees at South

scientific research and educational outreach, is to

and innovation are the foundation of Canada’s

in attracting lecturers either.

African universities.

distribute the funds.

new economy, they will be the basis of Africa’s

“AIMS is now generating a stream of well-

About 60 students are currently enrolled,

Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper

future economic, educational, scientific and

prepared students entering many advanced

but the expanded AIMS network of 15 centres

announced the new venture in July 2010, saying

governance self-sufficiency.”

areas of science,” said Hawking in 2008. “The

will see about 750 scientists graduating across

that his government was pleased to support

Africa’s young Einsteins

NextEinstein plan, to create AIMS centres

the continent each year. This bodes well for the

research into science and technology, as millions

All of the new centres will be based on

all over Africa, is even more exciting. Its

future of African science and technology.

of people in developing countries already lead

the Cape Town model, established by Turok in

implementation will have a major impact on

The M’bour Institute will take in 35 students

better lives because of it.

2003. AIMS South Africa receives sponsorship

the continent's development. Not only will this

for the 2011-2012 academic year. The centre’s


The first centre is to be launched in Senegal in


be vital for Africa, I believe it will be important

director Mamadou Sangharé said that it would

September 2011, with others in Ghana and Ethiopia

Sir Bob Geldof, eminent physicist Stephen

for the future of science because science

employ local lecturers, but also draw foreign



Hawking, South African entrepreneur Mark

needs Africa's talents.”

teachers from its own pool of partnerships,

government has allocated about R9.4-million

Shuttleworth, US actor Forest Whitaker,

towards the facility, and has donated a parcel

and business tycoon Sir Richard Branson,

attended the Canadian announcement, added

of land near the coastal city of M’bour, about

among others.

that he was looking forward to meeting Africa’s




80km south of Dakar. The Canadian government has also pledged its








Stellenbosch, Cape Town and Western Cape






potential young Einsteins. AIMS South Africa has already seen over 300

particularly those with French universities.


Absenteeism from

work through




“There are many ways in which ergonomic problems can be identified. These can range from general observations and checklists to quantitative risk assessment tools.” Source: Health and Safety Executive, Photos by:

surfaces are high enough to allow adequate

and poor productivity, stress, eye strain,

space for a worker’s legs; or ensuring that

headaches and other aches or pains.

floors are even to avoid slipping. However, it

for absenteeism from work, organisations

can also solve problems such as stress and

can go a long way in minimising legitimate

associated problems.

Absenteeism in the workplace costs the country millions of Rands each year. Even though there are many reasons

health complaints such as aches and pains of the wrists, shoulders and back, eye strain,

“Ergonomics is a science concerned




between people and their work. It puts people first, taking into account their capabilities and limitations.”

These problems may result in mistakes





comfortable position? -Does the person

Manual handling

versus quality.

experience discomfort, including aches,

Poor control of the risks causing work-

pain, fatigue, or stress? -Is the equipment

the workplace:

at work.

Display screen equipment

physically –organisations undoubtedly create a happier, healthier environment and generate

greater return on their human investment. What is Ergonomics

The screen is poorly positioned - it is too

Ergonomics is a science concerned with

The load is too heavy and/or bulky, placing unreasonable demands on the person.

related stress could lead to ill health and


The load has to be lifted from the floor

reduced performance and productivity.

maintained? -Is the person satisfied with




Managing the working day

their working arrangements? -Are there

Insufficient recovery time between shifts.

signs of poor or inadequate equipment

The task requires awkward postures, such

Poor scheduling of shifts.

design, such as plasters on workers’

as bending or twisting.

Juggling shifts with domestic responsibilities.

fingers or ‘home-made’ protective pads

The load cannot be gripped properly.

Employees working excessive overtime.

offset to one side.

The task is performed on uneven, wet, or

These problems may lead to tiredness

sloping floor surfaces. •


The task involves frequent repetitive lifting.

The mouse is placed too far away and


and/or above the shoulders.

high/low/close/far from the worker, or is

requires stretching to use.

Assessing the work system by asking questions such as: -Is the person in a

headaches and to some extent accidents

designing workplaces which support people

Conflicting demands, eg high productivity

some ‘typical’ ergonomic problems found in

Poor support from management and/or colleagues.

By applying Ergonomics –the science of



Chairs are not properly adjusted to


fit the person, forcing awkward and

rest breaks.









made of tissue or foam? •

Examining the circumstances surrounding

or exhaustion, which can increase the

frequent errors and incidents where

likelihood of accidents and ill health.

mistakes have occurred and people have

How to identify ergonomic problems

been injured. Use accident reports to

There are many ways in which ergonomic

identify details of incidents and their

These problems may result in physical

problems can be identified. These can range

There is glare on the screen from overhead

injuries such as low back pain or injury to

from general observations and checklists to

lights or windows, increasing the risk

the arms, hands, or fingers. The problems

quantitative risk assessment tools.

of eyestrain.

may also contribute to the risk of slips, trips,

Hardware and/or software are not suitable

and falls.

The kind of workplace problems ergonomics

for the task or the person using it, causing

Work-related stress

their views. Employees have important

What to do once ergonomic problems have

can solve

frustration and distress.

Work demands are too high or too low.

knowledge of the work they do, any

been identified

Not enough breaks or changes of activity –

The employee has little say in how they

problems they have, and their impact on

organise their work.

health, safety, and performance;

the ‘fit’ between people and their work. It puts people first, taking into account their

uncomfortable postures. •

capabilities and limitations. Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.





problems. For example, ensuring that work

i.e. data capturing.

possible causes; •

and staff turnover levels. High numbers

Ideally, several approaches should be used: •





Recording and looking at sickness absence may result from the problems listed earlier


and/or dissatisfaction at work.

Look for likely causes and consider possible solutions. A minor alteration may be all that


39 “Talk to employees and get them to suggest ideas and discuss possible solutions. Involve employees from the start of the process - this will help all parties to accept any proposed changes.”

is necessary to make a task easier and safer

It is possible to eliminate aches, pains, and

mistakes and would repeatedly adjust her

to perform. For example: -provide height-

stresses at work and improve job satisfaction.

posture to view the screen.

adjustable chairs so individual operators

Ergonomic solutions can be simple and

The assessment led to the introduction

can work at their preferred work height;

straightforward to make ¬even small changes

of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce

-remove obstacles from under desks

such as altering the height of a chair can make

the risks:

to create sufficient leg room; -arrange

a considerable difference.

items stored on shelving so those used

Case study





Thandi is a receptionist in a large

heaviest are between waist and shoulder

organisation. Much of her work involves using

height; -raise platforms to help operators

a telephone to take messages and redirect calls

reach badly located controls; -change shift

to appropriate departments. Thandi regularly

work patterns; and -introduce job rotation

uses a computer to make appointments, record

rearranged her workstation so her screen

between different tasks to reduce physical

messages and respond to e-mails.

was no longer facing the window, to

Thandi’s neck and shoulder problems. •

An eye test to establish if Thandi had any problems with her vision.

After working at the front desk for a

With the help of her manager, Thandi

remove the glare caused by daylight.

Talk to employees and get them to suggest

few months, Thandi found she was leaving

ideas and discuss possible solutions.

work with an aching shoulder and neck,

periodical training sessions for all staff, so

Involve employees from the start of the

and with sore eyes and a headache. Thandi

they were aware of the health problems

process - this will help all parties to accept

asked her manager for a risk assessment to

associated with computer use and how

any proposed changes.

identify possible problems with her working

to prevent them by adjusting their chairs,

Ensure that any alterations are properly


arranging their workstation appropriately,

evaluated by the people who do the job.

improvements could be made.

Be careful that a change introduced


most frequently and those that are the

and mental fatigue. •

A hands-free telephone headset was







following areas for improvement:

difficulties elsewhere.









Thandi was much happier in her work, her

Thandi would often hold the telephone

health problems diminished, and productivity was increased.

on the phone and typing a message on

Where to get more information

expense of making changes can often be

the computer. She regularly adopted this

kept low. However, you may need to ask

awkward, static, strained posture during

a qualified ergonomist if you are unable

her working day.

to find a straightforward solution or if a

During the summer Thandi’s computer



keyboard work.

between her shoulder and ear while talking









and identified

to solve one problem does not create You


problem is complex.

screen was difficult to read because of glare

An understanding of ergonomics in your

and reflections from light through the window.

workplace can improve your daily work routine.

This meant she struggled to avoid making

Ergonomics Society of South Africa (ESSA):

The case for building a


engagement culture

workforce supply will not meet demand. This

predicted: “The beneath-the-surface issue isn’t


shortage will reduce skill levels and decrease

jobs, it’s work. Specifically, it’s the growing

beginning to take heed of the enormous









recognition by workers that corporate leaders

financial costs of turnover (in the United

threatening companies’ stability and business

have so abused them during the recession,

States the estimate is in the billions) and are

performance over time. In order to tackle the

that when a job producing recovery really

increasingly viewing employee engagement

challenges ahead, companies must create and

kicks in, companies will suffer a wave of

as an imperative for keeping their key

extend compelling employment offers.

employee deflation.”

employees— and attracting new ones—as the

Alan Weber, the editor of Fast Company,

Over and above the workforce cost of

war for talent heats up once again.


41 “Highly engaged employees go the extra mile because they care. And, they care because they feel someone is caring for them. Managers who care really get to know the individuals on their teams as people, not just employees.”

Source:: Eugenie Louw, Photos by:

Overwhelming impact.

There can be little doubt that “employee

employees will go ‘above and beyond the call

improving performance.

engagement” is the issue of the moment for

of duty’ and is performance driven. It is also

Retention and the war for talent.

those in HR and communication functions.

based on the desire of employees to stay in an

Everyone, it seems, has heard about it.

organisation and is thus retention driven.

Many organisations want more engaged


under pressure for decades to prove that it makes a difference.

A lack of convincing

interests, and families. The recognition of the

people—it’s overwhelming.

“whole person” sends a powerful message to

The Corporate Executive Board surveyed 50,000





employees that the organisation understands and



about the potential for workforce shortages

evidence on the value of HR initiatives has

worldwide and reported a staggering fact that

outside work.

is the key to improved performance and

due to the aging population. The study’s

led to HR professionals scrambling, according

employees with lower engagement are four


their human capital investment. And increasing

increased retention.

and campaigns dedicated to it.



The landmark 1998 McKinsey study, The War for Talent, was among the first to talk

industry, and not contained to a few hundred

employees and greater financial returns on numbers every year are rolling out programs


The human resources function has been





that many

they other






authors called upon organisations to take more

to a recent Conference Board report, to

times more likely to leave their jobs than those

being emotionally engaged.


seriously their efforts to attract and retain

prove that their activities and investments

who are highly engaged. Even more important,

perception of Care & Concern; Fairness at

However, the

namely rational commitment which drives

talent, to assure that they would be able to

are both efficient and positively influential to

moving from low to high engagement can

Work; Recognition; Trust; Appreciation of

The first step is to determine exactly what

retention, and emotional commitment which

survive and thrive in the future.

business strategy.

result in a 20% increase in performance and

Ideas; Communication; and Leadership seem

is meant by the term “employee engagement.”

drives effort and commitment. In terms

87% decrease in resignations.

to be of most importance.

Employee Engagement, as defined by the






And some predict that as the economy





improves, many talented employees will

engagement and performance (documented

leave an organisation when they conclude



in hundreds of studies, with the evidence

Highly engaged employees go the extra

valued all contribute to observable behaviour.

which employees commit – both rationally and

that the organisation no longer meets their

Corporate Leadership Council states that

mounting every day) provides a way for

mile because they care. And, they care because

Levels of excitement and energy can be

emotionally – to something or someone at their


while the economy begins its recovery from

HR to prove its contribution. It’s a fact: The

they feel someone is caring for them. Managers

witnessed as people go the extra mile to solve

an economic downturn, literature warns of an

higher the level of engagement, the higher the

who care really get to know the individuals on

customer issues, and the desire for quality and


impending labour shortage and skill deficiency

performance of the business. The research is

their teams as people, not just employees.

continuous improvement are amplified.


in the workforce. In the coming years,

not inconclusive, not limited to one country or

He wants to know about their aspirations,

Emotional commitment is four times

they stay as a result of their commitment’.



This definition is based on the extent to which









Job enjoyment and feelings of being

Corporate Leadership Council, ‘is the extent to

organisation, how hard they work and how long


Engagement means reaching the heart.

Enjoyment: People are more likely to be

Continued... engaged if their jobs and the culture of the organisation match both their abilities and skills, and their motivation and values. •

Belief: If people feel they are making a meaningful contribution to their job, their organisations, and society as a whole, they tend to be more engaged. The connection between what people do every day and the goals and mission of the organisation, is crucial to engagement.

Value: People want to be recognised and awarded/ rewarded






recognition come in many forms, including competitive compensation packages and a healthy work/life balance. But perhaps more important is the heightened sense of worth employees feel when their leaders take just a few minutes to let them know that they are doing a great job and that their contributions are valued and appreciated. Similarly, workplace behaviours indicative of low engagement— moaning, low energy, passive-aggressive behaviour, lack of teamwork, frequent absenteeism—can be equally visible. The “right feelings” lead to the “right behaviours and these “right behaviours” fuel higher levels of business performance. Engagement must be driven from the top. Engagement is a business imperative, not an HR initiative, though HR should be a key player in driving higher levels of engagement. Support from the top also means senior leaders must be highly engaged themselves. Managers play a crucial role in driving employee commitment, but most of all the manager is the enabler of the most valuable forms of commitment to the job, organisation, and team. Measuring engagement and demonstrating its business impact is crucial, but it’s only a small part of winning the battle. Far too many organisations pour hundreds of thousands of Rands into measuring and re-measuring engagement, leaving little energy or budget for actually improving engagement levels. Keep engagement measures simple and cost effective. Instead, spend your resources and energy on creating an engaged climate through strategic initiatives that work. Engagement is not a short-term initiative. Because engagement is simple in concept but difficult in execution, it is never achieved or finished—only improved. It might take years of steady progress to build high levels of employee engagement, and without the proper care and feeding, these gains can wane and fall away surprisingly quickly. Engagement Drivers Organisations





leveraging three sources of influence for change: employees, leaders, and organisational systems and strategies. These three drivers work in concert to build an engaging work environment. Although engagement has multiple drivers,


the ultimate ownership of engagement rests

some employees are more likely than others to

more than an employee’s immediate leader.

within the individual employee.

be inherently engaged in their work.

While this might be a slight exaggeration, but

Organisations hoping to drive engagement



most people do not leave their jobs; they leave

must tap into employees’ passion, commitment

exceptional leadership. Leaders have the

their bosses. Where there is a highly engaged

and identification with the organisation. This is

influence and power to serve as catalysts for

team, there is a strong likelihood of a leader

accomplished by having the right employees

higher levels of engagement, not only in one

who is coaching for success, setting clear

working in the right jobs, which is the first

or two areas, but in all aspects of leadership

goals, empowering others, providing open

engagement driver. The “right” employees

(See box below, Melcrum report). Even more

and honest feedback, and making the winners

mean that individuals have the skills to do the

compelling, assessment and testing research

feel valued.

job (“can do”) and that their jobs tap into their

show that:

personal motivators (“will do”). Organisations

can ensure high job fit by effectively deploying employees’ talents when making selection,

placement, and promotion decisions. Research has repeatedly shown that when job fit is high; an employee performs better and is more likely to stay with the organisation. In addition to having a motivational match,





Engaging leaders understand that their engaged




role is not to take charge of all the decisions,

engaged direct reports.

but to be more empowering motivators. It’s

The direct reports of engaged managers

about recognition for a job well done; it’s about

are less likely to leave the organisation.

giving people the room and encouragement

Higher-performing managers have direct

to grow. It’s also about being tough when

reports who are more highly engaged.

necessary, holding people accountable for

Leadership and engagement

oing for Financial simplicity...

their performance.

No one impacts the state of engagement

44 “Finally, organisations need strong systems and strategies aligned to their Employment Value Proposition( EVP) that support and foster engagement.”

To assist medium sized companies, government department and non-government organisations with professional business solutions to ensure operational sustainability of our clients, that ultimately ensure that the clients grow


Empower employees to solve problems themselves

Involve employees in decision making

Build trust

Help employees understand their role in the organization’s success

Create a climate of open communication

Employment Value Proposition Finally, organisations need strong systems

and attract top talent in the market are often

and respected. This in turn, leads to enhanced

referred to as “Best Employers”.

or discretionary effort. Enhanced effort is not

and strategies aligned to their Employment


Value Proposition( EVP) that support and


foster engagement. Mega drivers aligned to

and reward, remuneration, training, career

EVP are for example, perception of employer

development and succession management.

as branded place to work; employee focus and reputation.






just putting in the extra time; it’s also getting


things right the first time and going out of

A large part of building higher levels

Many of the organisations that

of employee engagement is creating an

have developed a strong engagement culture

environment in which employees feel valued

Li ht ACCOUNTING INC Management consulting – Auditing – Tax – Accounting

one’s way for the customer. Many employees cite that the environment, culture and mood of the organisation as critical factors in driving engagement. Next issue: measuring engagement

For more information: Address: 302 Ontario, 579 Adcock street Gezina, 0084

Tumelo Ratau • Cell: 083 295 7439 • Fax: 086 210 7923 • E-mail: Keaobakwa Leshomo • Cell: 082 429 5446 • Fax: 086 665 4459 • E-mail:

Car review

automatic transmission.

on fuel, despite its top performance in terms of

CGI – Charged Gasoline Injection

torque, output and noise reduction.

CGI appears at the end of the C180 and


engine for the new C-Class, signifying that

“Offering the same power output as the outgoing models,

Mercedes-Benz uses direct petrol injection for

the four-cylinder engines with direct petrol injection

these powerplants.

therefore impress with their higher torque, meaning that

Compared to conventional port injection, and thus improved thermodynamic efficiency.

enjoyment while being more economical and eco-friendly.”



direct fuel injection allows higher compression

the new Mercedes-Benz models provide even more driving

Mercedes-Benz has a long tradition in the

This is achieved by means of the following

C200 model designations of the four-cylinder

field of direct injection. As early as the mid1950s, Mercedes-Benz unveiled this technology



in the 300 SL, the legendary Gullwing model.

increase in the compression ratio for a




This classic sports car was the first series-

higher rate of efficiency.

produced automobile to feature a four-stroke

Turbocharging for an increase in output

engine with direct engine.

combined with a small displacement. •

from the engine.

The new C 200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY model

Fast, smooth adjustment of valve timing

has a displacement of 1.8 litres and an output

Offering the same power output as the

for high torque, even at low engine speeds.

of 135 kW yet consumes a mere 6.8 litres of

outgoing models, the four-cylinder engines

An exhaust-gas turbocharger gives the new

premium unleaded petrol per 100 kilometres

with direct petrol injection therefore impress

4-cylinder petrol engine added thrust. After


with their higher torque, meaning that the

carefully weighing up all the pros and cons, the

0.8 litres (10 percent) less than the previous

new Mercedes-Benz models provide even

engine developers went for the turbocharger

four-cylinder engine with conventional fuel

more driving enjoyment while being more

concept over the belt-driven supercharger.

injection and a supercharger. CO2 emissions

economical and eco-friendly.




Under the specified conditions, the exhaust-

from the direct-injection model with a manual

The C180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY and C200 CGI

gas turbocharger achieves superior efficiency

transmission are 158 grams per kilometre

BlueEFFICIENCY models comply with the EU5

mainly because, unlike a belt-driven charger,

(12 percent lower than previously). Despite

emissions standard and are especially frugal

it does not need to draw drive power

the lower fuel consumption, the peak torque

Writen by: Gopolang Peme, Photo buy:

47 New Mercedes-Benz C-Class models are even





Mercedes-Benz now equips the successful C-Class C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY and C 200 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY models featuring a six-speed manual transmission with a fourcylinder turbo-charged engine.

injection petrol engine develops 115 kW and,

that the driver experiences noticeably greater

enabling the new C 200 CGI to complete the

thanks to its higher peak torque of 250 Nm

response and a high level of driving enjoyment.

sprint from 0 to 100 km/h in 8.2 seconds

(outgoing model 230 Nm), the version with

The engine displacement has grown from a

(outgoing model 8.6 seconds).

manual transmission is half a second quicker

previous 1 596 cc supercharged variant to a

from 0 to 100 km/h (9.0 seconds). This means


In the C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY, the directKey technical data for the new C-Class models

Photos by: Mercedes-Benz C-Class

‘Direct injection, fourcylinder engine with turbo-charger’

has been increased from 250 Nm to 270 Nm,

The direct

Mercedes-Benz C Class takes efficiency and





Consumption in litres/100 km

CO2 emissions

0 - 1 0 0 km/h km/h

C 180 CGI




6.7* - 7.1 (m/a) (sedan) 7.3 – 7.4 (m/a) (estate)

159 – 165 (m/a) (sedan) 169 – 172 (m/a) (estate)






6.8* - 7.6 (m/a) (sedan) 7.2 – 7.5 (m/a) (estate)

158 – 177 (m/a) (sedan) 168 – 175 (m/a) (estate)




driving enjoyment to new levels. Mercedes-Benz systematically employs direct petrol injection – a technology that allows a further reduction in fuel

petrol injection makes these models even more




responsive than their outgoing counterparts.


Thanks to its BlueEFFICIENCY technology, the

specified in conjunction with a five-speed


four-cylinder can



be * Figures for the sedan, combined NEDC consumption

1 796 cc turbocharged.






“The aerodynamics of the C-Class is better

technology such as the ADVANCED AGILITY

than any other sedan in its segment,

control, the Intelligent Light System with

boasting a drag co-efficient cd figure of

five different lighting functions.

0,26. On the road, aerodynamics has a

anticipatory occupant-protection measures.

significant effect on fuel consumption:

BlueEFFICIENCY measures

reducing the cd figure by 0,01 alone can

measures within the individual model series

lead to a fuel saving of up to 0,15 litres

goes by the name of BlueEFFICIENCY.

per 100 km at 130 km/h.”

across all disciplines, with the main aim being

management even more efficient. The aerodynamics of the C-Class is better

CONTROL package with selective damper Standard

features include the PRE-SAFE® system with

The combination of various technical This

package, compiled by development engineers to reduce weight, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance, to further optimise the engine technology and to make on-board energy

Sealed joins at the headlamps

Lightweight wheels with

consumption display in the cockpit Attractive proposition

than any other sedan in its segment, boasting

aerodynamic design

a drag co-efficient cd figure of 0,26. On the

Lowered suspension

the C-Class has the highest resale value in the

road, aerodynamics has a significant effect on

Door mirror housing with aerodynamic

medium-size category.

fuel consumption: reducing the cd figure by

The new Mercedes-Benz C-Class 4-cylinder

Energy management

litres per 100 km at 130 km/h.

At a glance: the BlueEFFICIENCY C-Class



Lightweight construction

Weight-optimised, laminated windscreen

Aerodynamics • •





and R348 000 estate

Downsized four-cylinder petrol engine Six-speed

either sedan or estate guise. C 180 CGI BlueEFFICIENCY: R339 000 sedan

with the same output •

Firewall insulation with varying material thicknesses

petrol model variants are now available in

steering's servo pump


with Maybach technology

Local independent studies confirm that


0,01 alone can lead to a fuel saving of up to 0,15

A Daimler Brand

As well as an exciting design and hallmark Mercedes-Benz refinement, the Mercedes-



R359 000

sedan and R368 000 estate transmission


These new additions to the C-Class range

overdrive characteristics

also come standard with the MobiloDrive

Final drive with low-friction bearings and

120 maintenance contract which includes a

differential gears

2 year/120 000 km full vehicle warranty and

Longer final-drive ratio

complimentary roadside assistance.

Full underbody panelling with a smooth


Display concept

Partially shrouded radiator grille

Gear change prompt and current fuel

Arrive as though you have never been away. Welcome home. The new E-Class. Now available at your Mercedes-Benz dealership.

Vehicle specifications may vary for the South African Market.

Working effectively



Source: Management and Organisational Behaviour Principles of Change Management, Photos by:

Organisations need to change constantly,

inevitable part of both social and organisational

universal nature, change at any one level is

for many kinds of reasons, but achieving a true

life and we are all subject to continual change

interconnected with changes at other levels,

step change is rare – indeed, only a third of

in one form or another.

and it is difficult to study one area of change

executives interviewed say their organisations succeeded in doing so. – McKinsey

Change impacts many levels of society from

Change is a universal influence. It is an



to national level.


in isolation.


However, because of its

In this issue, the focus is on the management of organisational change.

“Resistance to change can take many forms and it is often difficult to pinpoint the exact reasons. The forces against change in work include ignoring the needs and expectations of employees; when employees have insufficient information about the nature of the change; or if they do not perceive the need for change.”

“A programme of planned change and improved performance developed by Lewin involves the management of a three-phase process of behavioral modification.”

Organisational change can be initiated by





“What if………….”

recognition of the need for change and

aligned and committed to the direction of

for individual resistance to change within an

the organisation; and improve the ability

improvement to occur

change, understand the culture and behaviours

organisation include:

or procedures or it can arise through

of the organisation to cope with changes

Movement – development of new attitudes

the changes intend to introduce, and can

Habit: People are inclined to settle into

lead to a prejudiced view of a particular

external pressures.

in its environment.

or behavior and the implementation of

model those changes themselves. Only once

comfort zones and routines.


situation or change i.e. trade unionists may

the change

the leadership team has been aligned and

changes to habits, especially if the habits

have a stereotyped view of management

Refreezing – stabilizing change at the

committed to the change initiative will the

are well established, may be resisted. “This


new level and reinforcement through

work force be able to follow suit.

supporting mechanisms, for example,

Resistance to change



are best positioned for success. They are

the behavioural patterns of members of



maintain behavior in its present form,




must respond to the challenge of modifying








Change can affect all

aspects of the operation and functioning of

data collection and analysis, planning and

the organisation.

implementation, discipline as does a redesign

Any significant change creates “people

This demands much

of strategy, systems or processes.

issues.” Leaders will be asked to step up, jobs

The change-management approach should

will be changed, new skills and capabilities

be fully integrated into program design and

must be developed, and employees will be

decision making, both informing and enabling

uncertain and resistant. Dealing with these

strategic direction. It should be based on a

issues on a reactive, case-by-case basis puts

realistic assessment of the organisation’s

speed, morale, and results at risk.

history, readiness, and capacity to change.

will turn to the CEO and the leadership team for

employees; when employees have insufficient

Behaviour modification

strength, support, and direction. The leaders

information about the nature of the change; or

A formal approach for managing change

policies, structure or norms.

Selective perception: Individuals view the world from their perspective. This can

is going to be more difficult….” •

Security in the past: Some people tend





intentions might be. “How do we know…” Organisational resistance

Resistance to change can take many forms

to find security in the past. In times of

Although organisations have to adapt

and it is often difficult to pinpoint the exact

frustration or difficulty, or when faced

to their environment, they tend to feel

Because change is inherently unsettling for

reasons. The forces against change in work

with new ideas or methods, people

comfortable operating within the structure,

people at all levels of an organisation, all eyes

include ignoring the needs and expectations of

may reflect on the past. “It used to be

policies and procedures, which have been

better when..”

formulated to deal with a range of present

Fear of the unknown: When people

situations. Organisations often set up defenses

Change starts from the top

— beginning with the leadership team and

A programme of planned change and

themselves must embrace the changes first,

if they do not perceive the need for change.

do not understand or distrust a new

against change and prefer to concentrate on

then engaging key stakeholders and leaders —

improved performance developed by Lewin

and then to challenge and to motivate the rest

Fears may be expressed over such matters as

method of work, they feel insecure. Many

the routine things they perform well to ensure

should be developed early, and adapted often

involves the management of a three-phase

of the organisation. They must speak with one

job security, re-skilling, loss of job satisfaction,

major changes within the organisation

operational effectiveness. Some of the main

as change moves through the organisation.

process of behavioral modification.

voice and model the desired behaviours.

wage rate differences, changes to social

present some degree of uncertainty,

reasons for organisational resistance against

structures and working conditions.

i.e. the introduction of new technology.

change are:





Unfreezing – reducing those forces which

Executive teams that work well together

Continued... •

Organisational culture: The culture of an

longer be initiated due to the re-allocation

organisation develops over time and may not be easy to change. This is “how things

of funds. •

Individuals are inherently rational and will

Past contracts or agreements: Contracts

question to what extent change is needed,

are done around here” has a significant

entered into with other parties, such

whether the company is headed in the right

effect on organisational processes and the



direction, and whether they want to commit

behaviour of employees.

An ineffective



trade unions, suppliers and customers

personally to making change happen. They

culture may result in a lack of flexibility for,

might have to be renegotiated.

I.e. An

will look to the leadership for answers. The

or acceptance to change.

agreement made with unions regarding

articulation of a formal case for change and


job stability may now have to be revised to

the creation of a written vision statement are

especially large ones, are concerned about

introduce compulsory redundancies, or the

invaluable opportunities to create or compel

maintaining stability and predictability.

introduction of certain new technology or

leadership-team alignment.



The need for formal structures are the division of work, narrow definitions of assigned

threat to the power in their own positions.



working practices. •







Threats to power or influence: Managers

developing the case: First, confront reality and


may view change as a threat to their power

articulate a convincing need for change. Second,

established rules and procedures, can

or influence over certain groups within

demonstrate faith that the organisation has a

result in the resistance to change.

the organisation, such as their control

viable future and the leadership to get there.

Investment in resources: Change often

over decisions or resources. I.e. Managers

Finally, provide a road map to guide behaviour

requires large investments that may

may resist the change in organisational

and decision making. Leaders must then

already be committed elsewhere.


structures because they see this as

customise this message for various internal

Funds might have been allocated to

increasing the role and influence of other

audiences, describing the pending change in

other “necessary” projects which can no

members of staff in their “arena”, and a

terms that matter to the individuals.

“According to Atkinson, a major problem in


driving change in organisations is dealing with and managing the resistance that will be encountered - but that resistance should be welcomed as a healthy response.”

According to Atkinson, a major problem

Responsibilities of management


This is often best created by

in driving change in organisations is dealing

The key to a successful change programme

involving people in identifying problems

with and managing the resistance that will be

is the positive action from top management

and crafting solutions. It is reinforced by

encountered - but that resistance should be

and their style of transformational leadership.

incentives and rewards. These can be tangible,

wel-comed as a healthy response. Resistance is

Management has the responsibility for the


natural and should not be viewed as a negative

underlying philosophy and attitudes of the

psychological, for example, camaraderie and a

response to change. In the absence of positive

organisation, for creating and sustaining a

sense of shared destiny.

benefits from the proposed change, the

healthy climate; and establishing supportive

Change Agents

'default' response of resistance is acceptable.

organisational processes. This requires more

Some employees will readily understand

People are the key factor

than mere buy-in or passive agreement that the

the advantages of the change programme and





direction of change is acceptable. It demands

exhibit natural attributes for effective change

programme is dependent upon the effective



leadership. The key factors and behaviours

cop-operation of staff, management and

responsibility for making change happen in all

that are crucial to the success of change

unions. If change is to work, it must change

of the areas they influence or control.

agents are:

the perceptions, attitudes and behaviour

Create ownership

The successful implementation of a change

of people.





Involve employees to create a sense of

Effective communication of the reasons for change and developing an open

communication culture

Effective management of change requires

change leaders can adapt their strategies and

Championing innovation and creativity

continual reassessment of its impact and the

techniques based on the unique attributes of

of all who are actively involved in the

organisation’s willingness and ability to adopt

that phase.

change programme

the transformation.

Change leaders in turn

The most common lesson learnt from

Setting a good personal example; and

assess the data received from the field, arm

change is that managers must avoid treating

Self-pacing to avoid any stress

themselves with more information, make

change as a single meeting or announcement.

Too often, change leaders make the

adjustments supported by solid decision-

Change is not implemented in a single moment,

mistake of believing that others understand

making processes to maintain momentum and

and likewise the role of business leaders in

the issues, feel the need to change, and see the

drive results.

managing change should not be reduced to

new direction as clearly as they do. The best

Most leaders contemplating change know

a single event. The manager's role in change

change programmes reinforce core messages

that people matter. It is all too tempting,

must be active and visible in all phases of the

through regular, timely advice that is both

however, to dwell on the plans and processes,

change process. A second practical application

inspirational and practicable. Communications

which don’t talk back and don’t respond

for this concept is to customise your change

flow in from the bottom and out from the top,

emotionally, rather than face up to the more

management activities according to where you

and are targeted to provide employees the

difficult and more critical human issues.

are in the change process.

right information at the right time and to solicit

But mastering the “soft” side of change

their input and feedback.

management needn’t be a mystery.

is the process of how individuals navigate

Prepare for the unexpected

Change is a process

change. The ADKAR change management

A larger lesson from the principle of change

No change programme goes completely

The concept of change as a process has

model (The Perfect Change), characterises the

according to plan. People react in unexpected

been well documented in change management

process for individual change in five key steps:

ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall

literature for many years. By breaking change

Awareness of the need to change

away; and the external environments shift.

down into discrete time periods or phases,






“No change programme goes completely according to plan. People react in unexpected ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall away; and the external environments shift.”

54 the change


Knowledge about how to change

and Cohen list the following eight steps for

Ability to implement new skills and

success¬ful large-scale change:







people, whatever the nature or size of the

The concept of change as a process






2. Build a guiding team with the credibility, skills, connections, reputations and formal

treating changes as a single meeting or

authority to provide change leadership.

announcement. The manager's role in change

3. Create visions, which are sensible, clear and uplifting; and sets of strategies. 4. Communicate the vision and strategy

activities must be tailored according to where

in order to induce understanding and

you are in the change.


Many books and articles cite steps or actions to be taken to secure successful

5. Empower action and remove obstacles that stop people acting on the vision. 6. Produce


after wave of change.



culture, and developing group norms of behaviour and shared values. Concentrate on one project at a time, and make it successful. Success, more than any other factor, will show those who might have

change process. Finally, change management

Actions to consider for effective change

consolidate early changes and create wave 8. Make change stick by nurturing a new

management teams. Managers must avoid

must be active and visible in all phases of the

momentum to the overall effort. 7. Do not let up but maintain the momentum,

Create a sense of urgency among relevant

Reinforcement to keep the change in place


to provide credibility, resources and


a tendency to resist change, that there is nothing to fear

“Emotional intelligence is derived from four basic elements



that operate like the building blocks of DNA. If nurtured with experience, these elements enable one to develop specific skills and abilities - the basis of emotional intelligence.”



guide to



Source: Working with Emotional Intelligence/ The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, Photos by:

We all know what emotions are. day







intelligence that involves the ability to monitor

They give us valuable information we can’t get anywhere else.


one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate

emotions from excitement, love, empathy to

among them, and to use the information to

apprehension, loathing and depression.

“Many aspects of emotional intelligence


guide one’s thinking and actions.” Or, more

involve skills.

what then is emotional intelligence and why

simply, emotional intelligence is knowing how

skills that only become automatic through

Skills we need to practice,

should we apply our emotions intelligently,

we and others feel, why we feel that way,

practice. And that takes time. There is no pill

especially in business?

and what can be done about it. Emotional

for emotional intelligence. It is an on-going

psychologists John Mayer of the University of

High self-awareness is the foundation

understanding and predicting one’s emotional

New Hampshire and Peter Salovey of Yale, who

upon which all other emotional intelligence

reactions to situations. One who is emotionally

also coined the term emotional intelligence

skills are built. The more we are aware of the

competent at self-awareness is also fully

in 1990.

emotions that drive us, our skill to interpret

aware of one’s values and core beliefs and

our thoughts, feelings, senses, emotions, and

knows the impact and effect of compromising

intentions will be at a higher level.

these core components.

Each building block represents abilities that together give rise to our emotional intelligence. They are hierarchical, with each

So, how can we increase our self-

The self-control component requires full

level incorporating the building upon the

awareness? Believe it or not… hours of

mastery of being in control of emotions. Both

capabilities of all previous ones. The four

expensive psychotherapy are not required to

positive and negative emotions are channelled

building blocks are:

increase our effectiveness in this area! What

in the most productive manner when one


The ability to accurately perceive, appraise,

we need to do is some serious thoughtfulness

controls the emotion (recognises and channels)

and express emotion

and the courage to explore how we react to the

versus the emotion controlling the person

people and events in our work-life. Specifically

(behaviour reflects the persons emotions). The

feelings on demand when they can

we have to:

person with mastery and control of emotions

facilitate understanding of yourself or

Examine how we make appraisals


another person

Tune in to our senses

reactions to maximise effectiveness.

Get in touch with our feelings

Knowing what drives us and what we’re

Learn what our intentions are

passionate about leads to jobs that make us

Pay attention to our actions

happy, where we’ll be more productive. It leads

2. The






3. The ability to understand emotions and the knowledge that derives from them 4. The ability to regulate emotions to promote






“Emotional intelligence is not about being

Intelligence is our ability to understand and use

process” Peter Slovey

emotional and intellectual growth

It has been said that “Self-awareness” is

to relationships, both working and personal,

touchy feely. It’s about being aware of feelings,

the power of our emotions wisely. It’s learning

The building blocks

With high self-awareness we are able to

the foundation that supports all of the other

where we’ll be more constructive and positive.

yours and other people’s. And emotional

the difference between “I think” and “I feel,”

Emotional intelligence is derived from four

monitor ourselves, observe ourselves in action

emotional intelligence competencies. It comes

And it leads to lives that are more honest,

intelligence is not about being emotional, it’s

and hearing the difference when others say it.

basic elements that operate like the building

and influence our actions so that they work to

first because if we don’t know ourselves and

which will make us more satisfied.

about being smart with your emotions. It is

Just as importantly, emotional intelligence

blocks of DNA. If nurtured with experience,

our benefit. By being aware, for example, of

what we’re feeling, how can we possibly

The more we know about ourselves, the

knowing how to use our passions to motivate

is learning to manage our emotions rather

these elements enable one to develop specific

gritting our teeth and becoming increasingly

know or understand someone else and how

better we are able to control and choose what

ourselves and others. And it is knowing how to

than letting them control us. It is important

skills and abilities - the basis of emotional

angry at our manager during a performance

they feel?

kind of behaviours we will display in a work

keep our distressing emotions under control” -

to remember that emotions are not good or

intelligence. Unlike one’s biological DNA,

coaching session – and recognising, of


setting. Self-awareness is about knowing

Daniel Goleman, Ph.D.

bad. Emotions are information. By listening to

emotional intelligence building blocks can be

course how important this information is to

Self-Awareness and Control comprise two

where we are now and where we want to go,

According to the pioneers in the field,

them, we can use our IQ –intelligence quotient-

developed so that one can dramatically increase

our professional growth – we might relax,

separate skills. The self-awareness component

so that we will be willing to change to get

Daniel Goleman, John Mayer and Peter Salovey,

more effectively because we reason better

their emotional intelligence. Four building

defuse our anger, and respond to our manager

demands intimate and accurate knowledge of

us there.

emotional intelligence is “a type of social

when our feelings are taken into account.

blocks were identified by the pioneering


one’s self and one’s emotions. It also demands

Without self-awareness, our emotions

can blind us and guide us to do things or to


Those components consist of:

become people we really don’t want to be. If

Our thoughts or cognitive appraisals

we are aware of our feelings and thoughts,

Our physiological changes or arousal actions

we can choose how we will act or react in a

Our behaviours or action tendencies

given situation or to a certain person. With

Some argue that thoughts precede bodily

this choice comes power, the kind of intrinsic

changes… it’s like the chicken and the egg,

power that no one can take away from us.

which comes first? This is not a subject for

The difference between thoughts or

debate, what is important is to understand


It is extremely important to

that emotions are produced by an interaction

know the difference between “I think” and

of these three components in response to an

“I feel” if you are to know yourself better.

external event. By taking charge of them we

Practice asking yourself, “Is that a feeling

are able to effectively manage our emotions.

or a thought driving that conclusion?” For

There is actually one more component to

example “Based on the score I received

your emotional system. Emotional Context -

in this competency area, I think the

this is also known as emotional makeup. This

respondents did not read this question

encompasses how we were brought up, what

correctly” and “I feel concerned about the

we believe, experiences we have had – in fact,

score I received in this competency area, I

everything that makes us who we are today!

should seek clarification.” •





Monitor your self-talk. Often we use feeling

negative self-talk because we work out of fear

throughout the day and be honest. Your


instead of power. This leads to a distorted

heart races or you blush or you are short

perspective of what is going on. Working out

of breath – each of these is usually a gut

of fear leads to making very poor choices or no

reaction. Ask yourself, ‘What is the feeling

choices at all, which makes us feel like a victim.

behind it?” Name that feeling – fear,

Awareness on the other hand, leads to

anxiety, and eagerness. Even if it may be


painful, do not let up because it is better


to face the pain now than to rationalise

action. Consequently, there is a feeling

it away and have it come back to haunt

of empowerment.

you later.

Be open to input from others.



making in



Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in the workplace.

When you

and associates can often enlighten us

are willing to be accountable, you are

about our behaviour. Ask co-workers

acknowledging your own power.

for feedback on how you come across







and whether you seem “authentic” and

prepare to manage them. We all have

honest about yourself. Find someone

things that we dread doing – quarterly



reports, too many meetings, – which can

someone who will be open and honest

set us off. Know what gets to you and

with you.

defuse the situation in advance through

Self-talk is very revealing. What we

planning and preparation. Give yourself

tell ourselves goes immediately to our

more time, a quiet place to work, soothing


music – whatever will calm you and










decreases our anger or other emotions. Repeated





prevent the trigger from setting you off. •

exaggerated and irrational thinking.

Reframe an irritating situation into a problem-solving





encounter a situation that provokes an

Unlike suppressing our emotions, which

undesirable emotional response, decrease

deprives us of the valuable information our

your anger by focusing on the behaviour.

emotions can give us, managing our emotions

Reframe it to make the behaviour the

means understanding them and then using

problem, and not the person. Then think

that understanding to deal with situations

about what you can do to defuse that

productively. Because emotions are produced

behaviour or to minimise how much it

by an interaction of our thoughts, physiological

bothers you the next time.

changes, and behavioural actions in response

Use humour! While other people get upset,

to an external event, we can manage our

try to find something funny to laugh about.

emotions by taking charge of each component.

It will boost your mood, help you use your


“Good communications lead to trust. The more open and willing we are to

by not letting our emotions hijack us.

share our feelings, the more trust and openness we will inspire in others - the

When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often react inappropriately by

greater the trust in a corporate environment, the higher the performance.”

blowing an incident out of proportion. We lose our perspective. By learning to manage our

“Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than reactively. When we strive to be intentional, we mean what we say rather than spouting off without thinking and later regretting the impulsive act.”


emotions, we become more adaptable and

gestures, or misunderstood meanings can lead to

we like them and trust them within three to five

innovative in stressful situations.

very unsatisfactory outcomes.

seconds of meeting for the first time! It’s that fast

Self-regulation helps us act intentionally

Think about the many competencies that can be

for our emotional brain to form a first impression.

rather than reactively. When we strive to

drawn when focusing on communication skills such as

The rational brain has no time to get involved and

be intentional, we mean what we say rather

negotiations -when you need information from a busy

deliver intellectual proof until later – initially; we rely

than spouting off without thinking and later

colleague, selling -when you are making a proposal for

on our gut instincts. That is the reason, according

regretting the impulsive act.

a new idea, managing -your teams task to complete a

to Ms. Casper, “Trust lives in the heart, not in

Those employees who are good at self-

project, leading -moving a project forward to meet a

the head.”

regulation and manage their emotions well are

deadline, conflict resolution -when a member of your

Being attuned to customer’s or clients’ needs

very good in their mood management. They

workgroup is unwilling to come to consensus on how

and emotional responses is particularly important

handle stress well, their communication is

to complete a task, and team building -among your

where we service the needs of others, where

frequent and consistent, and they tend to offer

peers, colleagues and constituents.

empathy comes into play at all levels: in reading the

The key to making these and other relationships

customers’ cues, in working as a team of members

and interactions successful so that they benefit all

from different departments, in working as a team


concerned is emotional intelligence. How we put our

with diverse cultural backgrounds and experiences.

emotionally competent individual. However,

emotional intelligence to work is by recognising and

Empathy is the glue that binds the group together to

skill in listening requires far more than

responding to the emotions and feelings of others,

work successfully.

technique. True listening requires a mind-set

guiding those emotions toward productive resolution

Share and be honest about our feelings.

that includes the following elements:

of a situation, and using those emotions to help

Good communications lead to trust. The more

A respectful attitude toward the speaker

others help themselves. Clearly our ability to do all of

open and willing we are to share our feelings, the

even when the content of the speaker’s

this will enhance our position in any organisation. Not

more trust and openness we will inspire in others -

message is abrasive

only do we get more done because we find consensus

the greater the trust in a corporate environment,



and cooperation, but others perceive us as being

the higher the performance. Be consistent so that

seek understanding of the messages of

an indispensable person to have on their team, in

our spoken and unspoken messages match. We want

the speaker

whatever capacity.

what we are saying to match what we are doing.

feedback to co-workers. Listening skills Listening










Areas that we need to focus on to increase our

Placing the speaker as a human equal thus worthy of the listener’s attention


which builds trust. For example, smile when we tell

Self-disclosure: clearly telling the other person

someone that we are happy to see them, instead of

what we think, feel, and want

frowning or looking away.

Assertiveness: standing up for our opinions,

Take the kinder road whenever possible:

Empathy requires the ability to understand how others perceive situations. This perception

ideas, beliefs, and needs while respecting those

includes knowing how others feel about a

IQ more effectively, and will make you

second step is to regulate those feelings

less critical of others.

and manage them so they do more good

Empathy requires knowing the perspective of

than harm.

others and being able to see things from the






particular set of events or circumstances. •

criticism. We can be honest and still give positive

Dynamic listening: hearing what the other person

feedback which increases confidence. Constructive

is really saying


Criticism: constructively sharing our ideas and

shows our employees that we truly mean to help

feelings about another person’s ideas and actions

them succeed.


Try to see from the other person’s perspective:

Our passions can be contagious and

value and belief system of the other person.

of oxygen to the brain eases tension,

energise others, but our ranting and ravings

It is the ability to fully immerse oneself in

clarifies thinking and has a relaxing

can damage work relations beyond repair.

another’s viewpoint, yet be able to remain

effect on your psyche and body. It

When we get mad, we often sound more

wholly apart. The understanding associated

group situation

also gives you a moment to collect

upset than we really feel because we are

with empathy is both cognitive and emotional.

What underlines each of these skills and helps

your thoughts and to think before

allowing our raw emotions to surface

It takes into consideration the reasons and logic

you speak.

unchecked by our rational side. Checking








ensure their effectiveness is sensitivity. Empathy begins with listening. As emotional

behind another’s feelings or point of view. is

there are many ways to deliver opinions and

of others

taking deep breaths. Increasing the flow

Remove yourself from the situation and

This proves that we are being honest, or authentic,

communication skills are:





empathy is about imagining what it would be like to walk in someone else’s shoes. Go ahead – give people the benefit of the doubt. We ought to assume that everyone is doing the best that they can with the


intelligence consultant Christine Casper points out,

self-regulation is all about. It is giving the

communication. Communication establishes

“Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we

Resolving conflict without compromising core

distancing yourself from a bad situation

rational side time to temper our feelings



have listened to them.” Someone who listens and

beliefs or values is an important component of social

and re-directing your energy into a new

when needed.


responds empathetically cannot help but display

expertness. High social expertness also allows for

keep moving. There are major benefits in





and The



connection value



resources they have at the moment.

activity, whether it’s clearing off your

Self-control comes from recognising our

communication skills in the workplace is

sensitivity and concern. This makes a connection

strong networks on both a professional and personal

desk, checking your e-mail, reorganising

emotions and moderating the response. It is

immense. Think of trying to resolve a conflict

with people. Individuals who lack empathy are more

level that can readily be enlisted when needed for aid.

your shelves or taking a quick walk around

using our understanding of feelings to reason

with a co-worker, or speaking to a colleague

focused on their needs and pay little or no attention

the building.

well. This proves less threatening and makes

about their insensitivity, or listening to a

to anyone else’s with the result that no connection

While the first step is self-awareness,

us more trustworthy to co-workers. We want

customer’s complaint without being able to

is made.

to listen and learn from our gut feelings, the

to take charge of our responses and actions

communicate well. Wrong words, ill-advised

Research has proven that we determine whether

Next issue: Building relationships


Book reviews The Essential Guide to Effect Sizes

III). The book concludes with a handy list of

Selling Points

Statistical Power, Meta-Analysis, and the

recommendations for those actively engaged

Interpretation of Research Results

in or currently preparing research projects.

About the Book


Provides a practical, jargon-free introduction to the interpretation of research results

Effective Negotiation From Research to Results About the Book

Draws on examples from a wide range of






social science disciplines

professionals in the fields of business, law

Calculations are clearly explained, requiring


no more than basic quantitative skills

offers a realistic and practical understanding

This succinct and jargon-free introduction

List of figures; List of tables; List of

to effect sizes gives students and researchers

boxes; Introduction; Part I. Effect Sizes and

the tools they need to interpret the practical

the Interpretation of Results: 1. Introduction

significance of their results. Using a class-

to effect sizes; 2. Interpreting effects; Part

of negotiation and the skills required in order

tested approach that includes numerous

II. The Analysis of Statistical Power: 3. Power

to reach an agreement. In this book Ray Fells






analysis and the detection of effects; 4. The

draws on his extensive experience as a teacher

introduces and explains three of the most

painful lessons of power research; Part III.

and researcher to examine key issues such as

important issues relating to the practical

Meta-Analysis: 5. Drawing conclusions using

trust, power and information exchange, ethics

significance of research results: the reporting

meta-analysis; 6. Minimizing bias in meta-

and strategy. Recognising the complexity of

and interpretation of effect sizes (Part I),

analysis; Last word: thirty recommendations

the negotiation process, he gives advice on

the analysis of statistical power (Part II),

for researchers; Appendices: 1. Minimum

how to improve as a negotiator by turning

and the meta-analytic pooling of effect size

sample sizes; 2. Alternative methods for meta-

the research on negotiation into practical

estimates drawn from different studies (Part

analysis; Bibliography; Index.

recommendations. It covers:




How to negotiate strategically

Negotiating on behalf of others

Cultural differences in negotiation The principles and skills outlined here

focus on the business context but also apply


to interpersonal and sales-based negotiations, and when resolving legal, environmental and





also features a companion website with lecturer resources. Contents Acknowledgements; 1. An introduction to negotiation; 2. The essence of negotiation; 3.

Destructive Leaders and Dysfunctional

their organizations. Featuring clinical case

leadership: the allure of the toxic leader in a

Being strategic; 4. The process of negotiation;


studies, ranging from the fashion industry

volatile industry; 9. The outer limits of toxic

5. Managing a negotiation; 6. Dealing with

to an aeronautical engineering corporation,

behaviour: corporate trauma in the form of

differences; 7. Exploring options; 8. The end-

the book explores the damaging effects

disturbed leadership; 10. Destructive leaders;

game exchange; 9. Negotiating on behalf

of destructive leadership on organizations

References; Index.

of others; 10. Cross-cultural negotiations;

and provides the tools necessary for early

Selling Points


Addresses the relationship between toxic

checklist; Appendix 2. A negotiation review

leadership and dysfunctional organizations

checklist; Appendix 3. Self-reflection tools;

Provides in-depth clinical case studies of

Appendix 4. The strategy framework; Appendix

the author's work with toxic leaders

5. The Nullarbor model; Appendix 6. Managing

Vividly illustrates diagnosis and intervention



workplace negotiations; Appendix 8. Managing

A Therapeutic Approach About the Book Organizational behavior and leadership research influenced

has by

traditionally positive





appreciative inquiry. Yet, in recent times, a wave of corporate scandals and spectacular

recognition, assessment, and treatment. Contents Preface; Acknowledgements; Introduction: treatment; 1. Hubris and narcissism: the dark

approach. Unethical CEO behavior, white

underbelly of leadership; 2. The enigma of an

collar crime, property deviance, employee

unintentionally toxic leader: an emotionally

a business negotiation; Appendix 9. A culture


turbulent and impulsive workplace; 3. The

checklist; References; Index.

terrorism, and workplace violence have all


Selling Points

provided the impetus for an examination of the

quite arrogant; 4. Leader sabotage: the fish







and organizational theorists to rethink this








organizational failures has forced management





In Destructive Leaders and Dysfunctional





perfection or destruction; 6. The borderline


leader: when brilliance and psychopathology


consultant and executive coach to provide a

coexist in a leader; 7. Trouble at the top:


fascinating behind-closed-doors account of

high toxicity implications of a leader with




troubled leaders and the effect they have on

anti-social personality disorder; 8. Histrionic




competitive or cooperative

compulsive leader: a manager’s mandate for

Organizations, Alan Goldman draws on his experience


goes beyond regarding negotiation as

rots from the head down; 5. The obsessive

darker side of leadership.





workplace a


lecturer resources









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