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Term Four 2013

“The best teachers don’t give you the answers... They just point the way ... Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 1 and let you make your own choices.”


2 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013


Index 3 Your Soapbox

4

Assessment and the Practice of Moderation

Bernie Hiha

5

A Lesson In Giving This Christmas

MOTAT

12

And Finally the Rains Came

Rachel Williams

16

Why is thematic learning helpful during middle years?

International Middle Years Curriculum 20

Historians In Action

Elaine Le Sueur

26

E-learning + efficacy = enhanced opportunity

Laurie Loper

30

Self Review in New Zealand early childhood education Pam Wardrope - improving the quality of practice 34 What’s on Your Mind?

Workshop info and enrolment

37

New distance education model broadens curriculum

Dale Pearce

43

‘WWW’ Working in our Wired World

Workshop info and enrolment

45

The World Outdoors Summit

51

Tertiary fashion school takes leadership-gong at annual awards

52

Whole Body Learning

Michelle LaBrosse

54

Do You Speak “Negotiation”

Michelle LaBrosse

55

The New Graffiti/Street Art/Craft?

56

One Man’s Dream and the Ruben Jane

Neil Adams

62

Delightful Chairs With Quirky Characters

Irina Neacsu

67

2013 WISE Awards

68

Chinese Educators Look to American Classrooms

70

Dan Levin

Equinox Summit: Learning 2030

71

For Halloween

72

Melbourne Now... getting closer

73

National Gallery of Victoria

“What should a 4 year old know?” Front and Back Covers:

74

Adelaide Pictures, email us for further information

Good Teacher Magazine would like to acknowledge the unknown designers and craftspeople internationally for the Street Art series... most were collated from a wide range of internet sources.

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Your Soapbox!

‘Last year, while vacationing in Bangkok, a Venice of the Orient, I became aware of the ease and freedom with which the Thais approach the water. One day, at my hotel, I saw a middle aged Thai lower himself into the deep end of the pool. But just when I expected him to start swimming he brought his feet together, placed his hands along is thighs and with his head above the surface, began to float upright as if standing on a transparent shelf. Approaching the pool, I examined him closely – several feet of water separated him from the bottom – and there was no device to keep him afloat. “Excuse me,” I asked perplexed, “Why don’t you sink?” “Why should I?” said the man, “I don’t want to.” “Then why don’t you swim?” “I don’t want to swim,” said the man. “What do you do to buoy yourself like that?” I asked. “Can’t you see?” said the man, “I do nothing.” “But what’s the trick?” I asked watching his every move. “Being oneself. That’s the trick,” he said, shifting in the water. His thighs spread his feet tucked under him his hands clasping his shins, he became motionless, gently bobbing with the movement of the water. “Being oneself – that’s all?” “That’s all,” he agreed. “But when I’m myself and do nothing I drown,” I objected. “To drown is to do something,” said the man. “Do nothing. Be yourself.”   “Easily said! Is there a place where I could learn it?” I asked. “There is,” he replied a bit impatient.  “Water.”   “But do you know someone who can teach me how to?” “I do. You can teach yourself,” said the man with emphasis, as he turned away’.

The Art of Looking Sideways Alan Fletcher

If you want to have YOUR SAY please email your offering to: soapbox@goodteacher.co.nz

4 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Assessment and the Practice of Moderation Bernie Hiha

The New Zealand curriculum Mathematics Standards for Years 1-8 and Reading and Writing standards for Years 1-8 (Ministry of Education (MOE), 2009a,2009b) were introduced to New Zealand schools in 2010 to gather evidence of learning and achievement in those functional areas. Assessing progress and achievement against the relevant standards is now an integral component of teaching and learning, and central to this process are the concepts of teacher judgement and the sharing of information (MOE,2010). With the introduction of the National Standards, a range of assessment evidence and a variety of approaches is now a requirement to serve as the foundation or sound judgements and valid interpretations of student achievement. “Using a single piece of evidence as a basis for judgement is hazardous because the most obvious conclusion is not necessarily the correct one” (Brooks, 2002,p.61). Triangulation of a range of evidence is effective in building dependability of teacher assessment decisions. It is unlikely that educational policy makers and practitioners would make important decisions based on only one source of evidence Brookhart (009). Brookhart [provides examples of doctors diagnosing illnesses using multiple assessments, and the range of factors one might consider when buying a house, to illustrate her point. The New Zealand Parliamentary library (2010 report, National Standards, maintains this view, stating “overall teacher judgements have been found to offer more reliability than tests because tests so not take into account variations in: •

Student’s performance depending on the particular day the test is taken

Pupil’s performance according to the particular items chosen; and

Marks awarded depending on the marker” (p. 34).

There are two main reasons for gathering evidence across the range of tasks and processes a particular student uses. First it increases the validity which relates to the suitability of the inferences, uses and actions or decisions that come from assessment, and secondly, it increases reliability. An assessment is said to be dependable when it has high reliability and validity (MOE, 2010).

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 5


It is important that assessment collected from a range of sources determines a particular child’s competencies and strengths as well as areas requiring attention, and that this enables decisions to inform next steps for learning and improvement (Absolum, Flockton, Hattie, Hipkins & Reid, n.d.). Information gained from assessment is ‘useful for informing and involving pupils in their learning process” (Klenowski and Adie, 2009, p. 121). The central premise being developed here is that the actions taken as a result of the assessment are important regardless of whether the information is used to make professional judgements and/or to provide feedback. There are a number of influences and factors that contribute to making a sound teacher judgement; ‘the complexity is such that there is no simple, linear course that teachers follow to arrive at their judgements” (Wyatt-Smith, Castleton, Freebody, & Cooksey, 2003, p.16). Because of the challenges that this new way of working presents, primary teachers and schools need to examine the meaning of the work that students generate, not only to help with judgements decisions but also to inform teaching and the participation of students in their learning process (Hipkins& Robertson, 2011). This is essential is the education system is committed to raising student achievement and providing students with the best opportunities to realise their potential (MOE, 2010). One way to accomplish this is through collaborative assessment where teachers actively challenge, critically reflect, and consider each other’s’ perspectives in order to construct knowledge and share understandings. Effective collaboration enables insights and solutions to be aired through active participation in dialogue that includes the development and evaluation of diverse points of view (Driscoll, 2005). Such engagement in constructive and professional dialogue about judgements of pupils work leads to improved teacher capacity for assessment, professional growth and quality learning opportunities for students (Klenowski & Adie, 2009). Another rationale for teachers gathering together to evaluate students’ work is to increase the wider educational communities’ confidence about teacher judgements being consistent and accurate. “Collaborative work will give teachers confidence when making overall judgements relating to national Standards. It helps teachers ensure that interpretation of assessment information is accurate, consistent, comparable and usable” (Poskitt, 2010, para.3).

Social Moderation Models of social participation provide the landscape for understanding the processes of knowing and learning (Wenger, 1998). This notion is central to the premise that social moderation is a valuable means of professional learning. “Social moderation’ (Linn, 1993) involves groups of teachers gathering to talk about and negotiate assigned grading of student work with the purpose of 6 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

reaching a consensus and shared understanding of the quality of work (Gipps, 1994). Such moderation processes are concerned with encouraging evidencebased professional conversations that build confidence and consistency in teacher judgement (MOE, 2010). Introducing practices where teachers collectively evaluate students’ work into the on-going business of schools is a venture into challenging terrain because of the long-standing workplace traditions of privacy and non-interference (Little, Gearhart, Curry & Kafka, 2003). Despite these reservations, many schools are now aware of the importance of collecting ad using evidence to improve teaching and learning, and that analysis and interpretation is usually carried out in social contexts. These “evidence informed discussions are therefore central to building schools’ capability to analyse and use data to inform teaching” (Lai & McNaughton, 2010, p. 157). Further support for social moderation comes from research on England’s national reforms on assessment. This research highlights the growth of primary teachers’ sophistication in assessment capability as a result of professional collaboration among teachers with the the introduction of the new National Curriculum and its assessment framework (Woods, 1993; Gipps, Clarke & McCallum, 1998, cited in Hall and Harding, 2002). Middle school teachers in Queensland are actively participating in constructive and professional dialogue with their colleagues about judgements of pupils’ work, with the intention of improving their capacity for assessment (Klenowski and Adie, 2009). There is a growing field of research that attests to the value of social moderation as a context for building assessment capability and professional development through active participation in the process (Hall & Harding, 2002, Hipkins, 2010, Hipkins & Robertson, 2011; Klenowski & Adie, 2009; Klenowski & WyattSmith, 2010; Nixon & McClay, 2007; Poskitt, 2010; Reid, 2007 Wyatt-Smith & Castleton, 2005; WyattSmith, Klenowski & Gunn, 2010).

Theoretical Frameworks There are two theoretical frameworks underpinning collaborative moderation where teachers work socially to make judgements on children’s work. The first is social constructivism, which emphasises the view that learners actively construct meaning (Vygotsky, 1978); the second is a sociocultural theory which takes into account the particular social, cultural and historical contexts which influence and shape learning (Bronfenbenner,1979; Rogoff, 1990; Murphy, 2000). For schools and teachers, this involves being able to understand and mediate sociocultural influences in order to provide quality programmes and assessment that engages and is responsive to the diverse backgrounds, interests and needs of all students. Integral to the process of accurate and consistent decision-making is an individual teacher’s awareness of their own cultural context and how this influences

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the way they think and feel and respond (MOE, 2011a). In terms of moderation practices, Nixon and McClay’s (2007) case study highlights the value of taking a sociocultural and social constructivist perspective in writing assessment, They demonstrate that ‘”quality decisions about written work happen best when teachers negotiate with other professional s the meaning of criteria used for making judgements and what they determine is evidence for their grading decisions” (p161). These social contexts provide teachers with the environment to engage in dialogic processes where they debate, persuade, challenge, reflect and justify until they arrive at shared consensus regarding the quality of work that constitutes a certain standard. Conversely, if left to judge students’ work on their own, without the feedback of others, teachers may grade to an overly generous or overly strict standard. “Many studies reported that bias in Teacher Assessment relating to student characteristics, including behaviour, gender, special educational needs; overall academic achievement and verbal ability, may influence judgement when assessing specific skills:” (Harlen. 2004, p27). The argument advanced here is that error and bias in teacher judgement needs to be addressed through social moderation practices where teachers are better positioned to judge their students with more consistency and accuracy (Harlen, 2005b).

as being professionally affirming because it enabled the teachers to be part of a broader community of interpreters with access to a richer pool of knowledge a nd experience from which to draw to support their decision making, It is interesting to note that in this study the community of learners was also extended to the students. Although moderation usually takes place after teachers have provided personal judgements on individual pieces of work, The MOE (2011b) maintains that it is a good idea for teachers to work collaboratively to make judgements about a sample of student work focusing on difficult sets, prior to assessing their own class’s work. In these social contexts judgement decisions are honed by consideration of those students’ who sit on the border between standards (Wiliam, 1998). Three models of social moderation have been advanced: •

The calibration model involves a teacher grading samples of student work from different classes in their own school or another school. The teacher then discusses their judgements with colleagues in order to reach consensus. As a result of this process, teachers develop shared understandings in their ability to judge samples of work prior to grading tasks from their own class.

It is important to emphasise that the recently introduced New Zealand curriculum standards for years 1-8 may not be understood in the same way by all teachers so it should be anticipated that there will be diverse interpretations (Klenowski & Adie, 2009). Sociocultural understanding of learning play an important role in assessment practices where respectful and responsive interactions in a social context become fundamental to developing shared understandings that strengthen teachers’ judgement of student work. Learning relationships and conversations that are developed and built un sociocultural contexts highlight the “importance of ‘Ako’ (effective and reciprocal teaching and learning) quality teaching and quality relationships in all teaching” (MOE, 2008, p22).

The conferencing model involves an individual teacher grading a sample of their students’ work, Samples of work that represent different levels of achievement in relation to a standard are then selected by a group of teachers to discuss and reach consensus. Teachers may need to regrade some of their class work as a result of this meeting.

The expert model requires teacher to mark all their students work and then submit a selection of samples to an expert who confirms whether there is consistency in the way the standards are interpreted and applied (Queensland Studies Authority 2007, as cited in Klenowski and Adie,2009, P.13).

Models of social moderation

Schools have the autonomy to be drawing on all or parts of these models as they develop processes that produce valid and reliable judgements. Additionally, these models of social moderation involve opportunities for teachers to use their own judgements of assessment data with other teachers so that interpretations of standards and criteria are shared and negotiated with the group in order to reach consensus about the quality of the work. Other positive outcomes of social moderation include the sharing of pedagogical practices (Klenowski & Adie, 2009).

Schools can design their own social moderation processes to suit their context and needs. Considerations may include: the size of school; the number and types of samples to be included; time frames; who will be involved; who will facilitate or lead the process; how the school will record its moderation processes (MOE, 2011a para.5). In addition, social moderation practices can involve teachers working together across a cluster of schools or the use of social media especially in more isolated rural areas where schools have smaller student populations. In the Reid (2007) study, teachers from primary and secondary sectors worked together to moderate students’ work. This social experience was reported

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Resources for making judgements Contextual and intellectual resources contribute to making a sound teacher judgement and offer these six indices: Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 7


Assumed or actual knowledge of the community context in which the school is located

Teacher experience

Moderation practices, both planned and incidental

Assessment criteria and standards

First-hand/in-class observations of students

Knowledge of pedagogy (Wyatt-Smith, Castleton, Freebody & Cooksey, 2003,p.16).

From these indices it is evident that teacher judgements are not limited to the use of achievement criteria, but are intertwined with a network of teacher resources that require consideration and reflection. Teacher access to rich “knowledge files” that they can open and close and pull together as required when making judgements is important (Wyatt –Smith, 1999). Being able to draw on vital information to interpret evidence is the learning that takes place as teachers actively participate in the process of arriving at assessment judgements. “Intellectual and experiential” resources that highly competent teachers bring to the act of evaluating students’ work are also significant: •

Advanced knowledge about the content and learning progressions

A set of “attitudes or dispositions” which includes being able to empathise and help students to improve their learning

Existing expertise that has been gained through developing tests and tasks that reveal important information about students learning, This requires the teacher to have good knowledge of the learner

In-depth knowledge of success criteria and standards which are relevant and pertinent to the assessment exercise

Skill and expertise gained from judgements made on student work over time

Experience in being able to provide clear feedback to students that they can act on to improve their learning (Sadler, 1998).

Given these resources, which extend to attitudes or dispositions, it seems that professional judgement is influenced by the interplay of many factors rather than being reliant exclusively on the stated standard ”that’s why it becomes very important for teachers to realise the value of engaging with other colleagues” (Poskitt, 2010, para8). Furthermore it is apparent that knowledge of assessment practices together with superior content knowledge plays an important role in assisting teachers to make dependable decisions. “People who have well developed assessment capability are able and motivated to access, interpret and use information from quality assessments in ways that affirm or further their learning” (MOE, 2010, p.26).

A complex process 8 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

The moderation process involves a number of steps and therefore requires careful planning and organisation. The first step in the process involves the gathering of evidence. Evidence can be gathered in the following ways: •

Conversing with the student to find out what they know, understand and can do.

Observing the process a student uses.

Gathering the results from formal assessments, including standardised tools (MOE, 2011c para7).

The rationale for using a variety of approaches is that it is essential to build a detailed picture of a particular student’s progress as well as competencies and areas that require attention (MOE, 2010). The ‘triangulation’ of information increases the dependability of the decision making. Once quality evidence to inform decision making has been gathered, the teacher reviews all the combined evidence to determine which standard describes the ‘best fit’ for a particular student’s achievement. Interpretation of evidence serves two purposes: one is to determine the standard a student has reached and other is providing feedback that will help further learning (Harlen, 2005a). Three basic elements have been described by Sadler (1998) as being crucial to the judgement of students’ work. These include: the teacher looking closely at the individuals work; evaluating the work against some sort of standard or criteria, involving reflection and identifying strengths and weaknesses; arriving at a decision (for example grading work). These elements suggest that there needs to be careful planning on the part of the school and the teachers if the assessment process is to be of benefit to pupils and useful for reporting purposes. Reasons for failure of summative assessment practices reside win the teachers lack of preparation for this part of their work and their not knowing how to respond to the freedom to use evidence from variety of sources as an alternative to following prescribed criteria or guidelines (Harlen,2005b). Different teachers could arrive at different conclusions depending on the details which they focus on and the resources they use to help evaluate the work (Hipkins & Robertson, 2011). Teachers need to be aware of unfair assumptions and bias in their assessments, and need to address their judgements through training and through moderation of teachers assessments (Harlen, 2005b) Once personal judgements have been made, teachers can work together to compare individual judgements while negotiating meaning around their expectations and understandings of the standard and eventually arrive at a shared consensus. A criticism made of the moderation is that it can become an activity in rearranging grades and marks (Harlen, 2005b). However the overall aim of moderation is to improve the consistency of teachers’ decisions about student learning and this in itself far outweighs

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the criticism. “Teacher judgement is intrinsic to moderation and to professional practice and can no longer remain private. Moderation too is intrinsic to efforts by the profession to realise judgements that are defensible, dependable and open to scrutiny” (Klenowski and Wyatt-Smith, 2010, p.21).

Negotiating meaning with other professionals In order to support judgements that are dependable, teachers are encouraged to draw from a range of assessment tools and processes from standardised tests to learning interactions with students. Also needed are descriptions of expected progress and achievement (achievement criteria) as well as concrete examples detailing what levels of achievement look like, such as annotated exemplars of student work as well as illustrations outlined in the New Zealand Curriculum for Mathematics Standards for Years 1-8 and Reading and Writing standards for Years 1-8 (MOE, 2009a, 009b). What the teacher brings to bear on the task in terms of their internalised knowledge and experience (tacit Knowledge) is important (Reid, 2007). The implicit knowledge and experience that teachers bring to assessment is combined with their advanced knowledge of the progressions to assist with their professional judgement of children’s work, rather than relying exclusively on rubrics. Issues around the use of achievement criteria relate to the various interpretations of key statements by different teachers. This moderation challenge is highlighted by Wiliam, who believes that “it is a fundamental error to imagine that the word laid down in the written (assessment criteria) will be interpreted in the same way by all teachers who use them. Rather they need to be subjected to an on-going and collective process of shared interpretations such that their meaning is made evident” (cited in Hall & Harding, 2002, p.2). Because of the ambiguity of criteria it is necessary for teachers to share a common understanding of ‘quality’ in order to apply the criteria consistently/ Interpreting achievement criteria is a complex activity. In their Canadian case study, Nixon & McClay (2007) emphasise that quality decisions are made when teachers negotiate with each other about the meaning of criteria used for making judgements and about what they decide is evidence for their grading. Written words on their own are not enough to define standards or to achieve consistent teacher judgements (Hipkins, 2010), so teachers need to work together to negotiate meaning and develop shared understandings and discourse. Collective agreement as to what constitutes quality can be achieved through the notion of an ‘assessment community’ which involves “professional dialogue and sharing of perspective sand working practices supported by exemplar materials (Hall & Harding, 2002, p.3).

Building assessment capability and professional learning New and dynamic contexts for professional learning Back to index

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such as social moderation practices offer teacher opportunities for dialogue, analysis, reflection, and collegial support. Sustained, job-embedded professional development that is collaborative and collegial has been demonstrated by research to be ore effective and sustainable than what has traditionally been available (Darling-Hammond & Richardson, 2009). The New Zealand Curriculum (MOE, 2007) gives emphasis to knowledge that is actively sought, created and used rather than knowledge that is received. To this end social moderation provides a structure for teachers to learn through active teacher inquiry. The moderation process can be a “form of peer review that brings important benefits to teachers” (Poskitt, 2010, para2), such as the confidence and ability to interpret and judge students work consistently and accurately against the national Standards. It is also argues that the process of learning with colleagues in small, trusting, supportive groups is what makes the difference to professional learning (Dunne, Nave & Lewis, 2000) and that both novice and expert markers can learn from one another through the diverse perspectives that they bring to the moderation conversations (Hipkins & Robertson, 2011). Illustrating these points Nixon and McClay (2007) documented how a group of three elementary teachers in Alberta, Canada, who were comfortable working together, collaboratively assessed their students’ written work over a three and a half month period. One of the three teachers was in her second year of teaching. Conversational protocols enables the teachers to challenge each other, create new knowledge and understandings of the criteria, and critically reflect and evaluate the assessment process and their own pedagogy. These social moderation practices and protocols are beneficial for teachers’ professional development and confidence in assessment decisions. Having protocols in place in place to steer moderation discussions is important, as dissonance and tension may be part of the decision making process (Healy and Bush, 2010). For such groups to be effective, with all participants contributing to the judgement process, the environment needs to be non-threatening and non-judgemental and teachers must respect each other’s perspectives (Klenowski & Adie, 2009). The process of actively engaging in assessment moderation facilitates professional learning in a number of ways (Reid, 2007). Collaborating with the secondary colleagues on the interpretations of achievement criteria had benefits for primary teachers as they increased their subject knowledge, whereas the perceived benefit for their counterparts was being exposed to primary teachers’ knowledge of teaching “craft” relating to “features such as classroom organisation and management, differentiation and cross-curricular planning links” (p.143). The quality of the dialogue in these social moderation meetings contributed to teachers developing a shared discourse for discussing student performance and Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 9


assessment criteria as well as increased consensus about the characteristics of ‘quality’ writing. By adopting the formative assessment approach of sharing success criteria with pupils in terms of articulating what constitutes ‘quality’ in writing important links were being created between teaching and learning and assessment (Reid, 007). A key point is the awareness of teachers that effective assessment both enhances teaching and learning and is a mechanism for monitoring learning (MOE, 2010). This is demonstrated in the Wyatt-Smith and Castleton (2005) study where teachers paid special attention to ‘tracking individual progress on and across tasks with each judgement linking past performance to possible futures” (p.151). Moderation discussions need to include the next steps for teaching and learning (Poskitt, 2010). By engaging in professional conversations teachers gain a clearer sense of developmental progressions and the curriculum. Furthermore, by explaining aspects of their understanding to a colleague their implicit knowledge becomes explicit and this enables teachers to provide clear feedback to students. Moderation is also more effective as a context for professional learning if the practice is on-going. Regular opportunities for social moderation “create social practices, tools, terminology, assumptions and beliefs for evaluating student written work” (Nixon & McClay, 2007, p.161). The dependability of assessment is enhanced when teachers have a sound understanding of goals and the progression towards them. This is facilitated by regular and active participation in the social moderation process (Harlen, 2005a).

Summary comments In summary, there are many reasons why social moderation practices can be viewed as valuable professional learning opportunities for schools and teaches. In keeping with the socio cultural and social constructivist perspectives, quality decisions are made when teachers negotiate with other professional about the meaning of criteria and standards used for making judgements that are dependable. These social contexts provide a strong platform which enables teachers to critically reflect and evaluate their teaching and student learning. In the process of working collaboratively towards shared understandings and consistency in judgements, teachers refine and build their professional practice and assessment capability. Therefore the practice of moderation is a valuable context for professional learning through the process of active, social and negotiated participation.

References Absolum,M., Flockton, L., Hattie,J., Hipkins, R. & Reid, I (n.d.). Directions for assessment in New Zealand: Developing students’ assessment capabilities. Retrieved from http://www.tki.org.nz/r/ assessment/research/mainpage/directions/ 10 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

Bronfenbrenner,U (1979). Contests of childrearing, problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 3, 137-148. Brookhart,S.M..(2009). The many meanings of ‘multiple measures”. Educational Leadership, 67(3), 6. Retrieved from HttP://www.ascd.org/ publications/educational-leadership/nov09/vol67/ num03/The-Many-Meanings-of%C2%A3MultipleMeasures%C2%A3.aspx Brooks,V.(2002). Assessment in secondary schools: the new teacher’s guide to monitoring, assessment, recording, reporting and accountability. Buckingham, England. Open University Press. Darliing-Hammond,L.& Richardson,N.(2009)Teacher learning: What matters. Educational Leadership.66(5), 46-53. Retrieved from: http:// www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership. aspx Driscoll,M.,P.(2005).Psychology for learning and instruction (3rd ed.) Boston: Pearson Education. Dunne,F.,Nave,B.,&Lewis,A.(2000). Critical friends: Teachers helping to improve student learning. Phi Delta Kappa International Research Bulletin, 28, 9-12. Gipps,V.,V.(1994). Beyond testing Towards a theory of educational assessment. London, UK: The Falmer Press. Hall,K.,& Harding,A.(2002). Level descriptions and teacher assessment in England: Toward a community of assessment practice. Educational Research (Windsor),44(1),1-15. DOI:10.1080/00131880110081071 Harlen,W.(2004). Can assessment by teachers be a dependable option for summative purposes? Perspectives on Pupil Assessment, London, Retrieved from www.gtce.org.uk/documets/ pub;icationpdfs/policy_pnrcp1104.pdf Harlen,W/(2005a). Teachers summative practices and assessment for learning tensions and synergies. The Curriculum Journal,16(2). 207-223. DOI Harlen,W.(2005b). Trusting teachers’ judgement:Research evidence of the reliability and validity of teachers’ assessment used for summative purposes. Research Papers in Education, 20(3), 245270. DOI: 10.1080/02671520500193744 Harlen,W.(2008). Trusting teachers’ judgements. In Swaffield,S (ed.). Unlocking assessment: understanding for reflection and application. (pp.138-154). New York: Routledge. Healy,H.,&Bush,H.(2010). Moderation: Making learning a priority in primary religious education. Journal of Religious Education, 58(1),29-37. Hipkins,R.(2010). Learning through moderation: Minding our language. Set: Research information for teachers, (1), 18-19. Hipkins,R.,& Robertson,S. (2011). Moderation and teacher learning: what can research tell about their

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interrelationships? New Zealand Council for Educational Research. Te Rununga O Aotearoa Mo Te Tangaahau I Te Matauranga. Wellington: NZCER. Retrieved from: http://www.nzcer.org.nz/research/publications/ modertion-and-teacher-learning Klenowski,V.,&Adie,L.(2009) Moderation as judgement practice: Reconciling system level accountability and local level practice. Curriculum Perspectives, 29(1), 10-28. Klenowski,V.,& Wyatt-Smith,C.(2010). Standardsdriven reform years 1-1; Moderation an optional extra? The Australian Educational Researcher, 337(2), 21-39. DOI: 1007/BF03216920 Lai,M., & McNaughton,S..(2010). Evidence–informed discussions: The role of pedagogical content knowledge. In Timperley,H., & Parr,J.(Eds.). Weaving evidence, inquiry and standards to build better schools (pp.157-172). Wellingon: NZCER Press. Linn,R.L. (1993). Linking results of distinct assessments. Applied Measurement in Education, 6(1), 83-102. Little,J.W., Gearhart,M., Curry,M., & Kafka,J. (2003) Looking at student work for teacher learning, teacher community and school reform, Phi Delta Kappan, 85(3), 185-192. Retrieved from: http://www. nsrfharmony.org/Warren_Little_et_al_2003.pdf Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ministry of Education. (2008). Ka Hikitia. Managing for success/Maori education strategy. Wellington: Author. Ministry of Education. (2009a) Mathematics standards for years 1-8. Wellington: Learning Media. Ministry of Education. (2009b) Reading and writing standards for years 1-8. Wellington: Learning Media. Ministry of Education.2010). Ministry of Education position paper: Assessment (schooling sector): Ko to wharangi takotoranga arunga, a te tāhuhu o te matauranga, te makekitenga. Wellington: Author Ministry of Education. (2011a). Assessment online. Retrieved from: http://assessment.tki.org.nz/ moderation.why-moderate Ministry of Education (2011b). Factsheet 5 Moderation retrieved from: http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/ National-Standards/Key-Information/Fact -sheets/ Overall-teacher-judgement Ministry of Education. (2012). Making an overall teacher judgement. Retrieved from http:// assessment .tki.org.nz/Overall-teacher-judgement/ Making-an-oveall-teacher-judgement Murphy,S. (2000). A sociocultural perspective on teacher response: Is there a student in the room? Assessing Writing, 7, 79-90. DOI:10.1016/ S1075-2935(00)00019-2

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New Zealand Parliamentary Library. (2010) National standards (Parliamentary support research papers). Retrieved from: http//www.parliament.nz Nixon,R., & McClay,J.K. (2007. Collaborative writing assessment: Sowing seeds for transformational adult learning. I (2), 149-166. DOI:10.1016/j. asw.2007.10.001 Poskitt,J. (2010). How teachers can work together. Education Gazette, 89(5). Retrieved f6th October 2011 from http://www.edgazette.govt.nz/Articles/ Article.aspx?ArticleId=8026 Reid,L. (2007. Teachers talking about assessment: valuable professional learning? Improving Schools. 10(2) 132-149. DOI:10.1177/1365480207077843 Rogoff,B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive developments in social context. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Sadler,R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18(2), 119-144. DOI:10.1007/ BF00117714 Sadler,R.(1998) Formative assessment: Revisiting the territory. Assessment in Education: Principles Policy & Practice, 5(1). 1-9, DOI:10.1080/0969595980050104 Vygotsky,L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wenger,E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wiliam,D. (1998. Enculturating learners into communities of practice: raising achievement through classroom assessment. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Ljubljana, Slovenia, September. Wyatt-Smith, C. (1999). Reading for Assessment: How teachers ascribe meaning and value to student writing. Assessment in Education, 6(2), 195-223. DOI:10.1080/09695949992874 Wyatt-Smith,C.,& Castleton,G. (2005). Examining how teachers judge student writing: An Australian case study. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(2), 131-154. DOI:10.1080/0022027032000242887 Wyatt-Smith,C.,Castletin,G.,Freebody,P., & Cooksey,R. (2003). The nature of teachers’ qualitative judgements: A matter of context and salience Part one: in-context judgements. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 26(2), 11-32. Wyatt-Smith,C.,Klenowski,V., & Gunn,S. (2010). The centrality of teachers’ judgement practice in assessment: A study of standards in moderation. Assessment in Education: Principle Policy and Practice, 17(1), 59-75. DOI:10.1080/09695940903565610 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 11


A Lesson In Giving This Christm

This Christmas MOTAT holds its annual charity initiative, ‘Give and You Shall Receive’, to help give back to those in need. From December 1-24, school groups visiting MOTAT will have the option of donating a Christmas present from the gift shop, instead of paying the normal admission fee. In 2012 more than 6,000 gifts were donated to charity via ‘Give and You Shall Receive’ and this year MOTAT hopes to give even more this festive season. The donated gifts will be given to Variety - The Children’s Charity, and the Auckland City Mission to put gifts in the hands of struggling families during the holiday season. MOTAT Museum Director, Michael Frawley says, “Christmas is the perfect time to remember, and more importantly to help, those less fortunate than ourselves.” The holiday season can be tough, both financially and emotionally for many Kiwi families. Variety -The Children’s Charity Chief Executive Officer, Lorraine Taylor says the act of receiving a gift can boost a 12 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

child’s self-esteem. “Receiving a gift at Christmas is special to all kids but especially to those who usually go without. A gift tells them they’re special. MOTAT coming onboard as a benefactor and helping the community give back is something we are hugely grateful for.” Diane Robertson, Missioner at Auckland City MiSsion, says, “Thousands of people turn to the City Mission for help and support over the Christmas period. Last year the look of delight on so many faces when we shared the gifts from MOTAT was priceless. We are thankful to MOTAT’s caring visitors for bringing alive the spirit of Christmas.” During December, MOTAT will have a special Christmas Great Race program on offer. Students will be able to learn about tree decorating and what a traditional New Zealand Christmas tree looks like; map out Santa’s trip for delivering Christmas presents to various New Zealand locations and collecting coal from MOTAT’s iconic Pumphouse for all the naughty children. Schools can book in for MOTAT’s Christmas Great Race program by either emailing bookings@motat. org.nz or phoning 09 815 5808. If you would like to teach a valuable lesson to your students by brightening Christmas for a child in need, please share this MOTAT initiative with your school.

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mas

Note

MOTAT is open from 10am – 5pm every day excluding Christmas Day.

Location MOTAT, Great North Road and Meola Road, Western Springs Costs

Entry to MOTAT during the day from 1-24 December is free if you purchase and donate a gift from the MOTAT gift shop to the same or greater value as your normal entry fee*

*Gifts must be from the selected MOTAT gift range and be of equal or greater value to admission cost. No pre-purchased or pre-loved gifts please. Not valid in conjunction with any other offer.

School/Early Childhood Groups - $5 per child (all supervising teachers/adults are free of charge). For more information visit: www.motat.org.nz

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 15


And Finally the Rains Came The day hadn't started yet, but that was nothing out of the ordinary. In fact, Jo was somewhat offended when the phone call to her foreign cell awoke her at 6.04AM. She leant up to the coffee table from her suitably comfortable blow up mattress to see if she recognised the number. When she saw who it was, she rolled back onto the bed in the comfort that her Mum would surely understand the time difference and forgive Jo for being asleep. As she listened to the vibration on the table with her eyes now resting shut, Jo considered what would constitute a phone call: now? She had been away for nearly a month, and Jo and her Mum, Margaret, had been emailing for contact because of the time difference. As much as Jo didn't want to admit it, she really did miss home and thought the distance would be easier to deal with behind the computer - after all, you can't hide the fresh emotions in your vocal chords! 'Odd', she thought as she curled up into her blanket. No sooner had it stopped, her phone was buzzing again - Mum. Losing

the normal phone etiquette, and so too the hello, Jo snapped "You do know what time it is here don't you?" as she flicked open her Advent 200. Happy-go-lucky Margaret didn't seem to recognise the disbelief in her daughters voice as she replied, "Yes Jo, sorry, were you sleeping?". Jo immediately realised her brashness and was really quite pleased to hear her Mum's voice; she laughed at Margaret's response:- "I was sleeping Mum, yes, but how are you is everything okay?" The second it took Margaret to inhale before responding seemed to last five minutes. If Jo was chattier, it would have been interrupted. She jumped out of bed onto her feet ready to take action. The importance of this phone call became evident all too quickly in that moment of silence. In fact the silence they endured was somehow far more powerful than the syllables that followed. Dad's dead. A whole new situation for Jo, this was the first time she had been so far away from home: and on her own, and considering she left with everyone in good health, those words were not the first to cross her mind. Whether due to her upbringing or her strength of character, in the case of a family crisis, Jo became somewhat perceptively unresponsive to her emotions but very vigilant to the situation. "Right, okay". Being the first experience of a close family member’s death, the questions didn’t really come automatically. How? When? The rest of the conversation didn’t matter much. Margaret was a little perplexed as to what had happened, and the lack of sudden shock Jo portrayed. No ‘oh’, no ‘oh my’, no tears, and really no outcome by the end of the phone call. It just seemed to come to an end with no resolution.

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Rachel Williams For Jo however, it was obvious. Her Paps had just died, she was thousands of miles from home and the family needed support. The next flight home was in four hours. The time alone on the flight was the time it really sunk in. Small things: the elderly couple she sat next to were still so in love. ‘Mum can’t enjoy that anymore’. The socks she had brought for Paps while she was away – Best Dad. What if someone asks why she changed her flight, why she is home so soon? How do you say it? My Dad died. He passed away? I lost my Dad. My Dad is gone. He’s not lost, gone, or taken though; he’s dead. My Dad is dead. My Dad is dead? My Dad. My Dad was fine when I left him, but now he’s dead. She contemplated the best phrase and the most appropriate intonation – it made the twelve hour flight seem a lot shorter, but it didn’t change the truth. Jo wouldn’t receive that warming, welcoming hug from her favourite man ever, ever again. When she landed, Jo’s cousin came to pick her up. The initial embrace was brief and the tiny second of eye contact they shared was drawn to a close with a small raise of the right corner of Jo’s mouth, enough to highlight the mutual understanding. Normally an incredible wave of conversation would bounce between them. This time was different. Just the facts rolled around the car on the journey home. “The last chance to see him in the Chapel of Rest is today. We have an appointment and can go straight there, you don’t have to come in, no one will be offended.” Another obvious choice for Jo. She didn’t say goodbye to her Paps when she left for America, she said see you later. Realistically, she knew she had to see it to believe it because it was far too early for him to duck out. Never did it cross her mind that people were telling lies, but this surely couldn’t be the truth. They arrived in the waiting room, where Margaret sat with other family members. Jo had never seen her Mum so emotive and distraught. Sitting down on the chair next to her, Jo took

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Margaret’s hand and told her not to be sad. “He’s not here anymore, Jo” she whispered, as her bottom lip trembled and tears dropped from her welling eyes. Although countless people continued their use of the hospital, the only thing Jo could hear were her Mum’s tears. The here and now mattered to Jo, heal Mum and maybe Dad will come back: a total nonsensical concept, but somehow completely logical at the time. As they followed the staff nurse through the mazed hospital corridors to get to the chapel, it dawned on Jo that although she was here to see her Paps, he wasn’t going to welcome her home. She edged into the room. Cold, like the nurse had said. Although she knew her Paps would never hurt her, Jo initially stayed close to the door, ready to deal with any reaction her body could throw at her. As she became more confident, she moved in to see it really was him. He’d shaved for the occasion, even combed his few little tufts of hair. She knew it was the doing of someone else, but it comforted her to think he’d prepared himself for Jo’s homecoming. That was enough, it was him. Jo stepped back to allow her Mum in, but just hovered behind her to confirm her presence, her support. Jo realised, when they had all been in to see Paps, just how much everyone looks like him, but that may be highlighted by the red puffy eyes and swollen nose that everyone except Jo seemed to share. As they left the hospital, Jo appreciated the sensation, the feeling that ran through her core. Numb. It was as if something had exploded inside her shell, so she couldn’t feel anymore. As she walked through the entrance, her vision seemed hazed. Pockets of time passed through where so much could have happened and it wouldn’t have been noticed. There were normal people, walking, smiling, chatting away as if nothing had happened – they couldn’t know yet that Harold, her Paps wasn’t coming home, or they wouldn’t be continuing like that. She felt betrayed by these people she didn’t know. Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 17


As she fumbled her way through the next few days in the lead up to the funeral nothing seemed coherent, nothing seemed logical. Jo wasn’t sure how she should feel, but she knew she was to at least pretend to have a good head to make sense of things. As she stood on hold to insurance companies and banks and funeral directors, she would overhear the family conversations. Each would consist of “How’s Jo coping” with one of two answers – ‘yes, she is doing great, she is so helpful and seems to know exactly what to do and when to do it’, or: ‘well, I think she’s ok but she really hasn’t seemed to show much. She must care, they had a wonderful relationship but I’ve just not seen her show it’. Jo became all too aware of the family concern and how she was expected to act but there was too much to do and too many people to look after to consider herself for a while. Order of service done. Mum ready. Church ready, Jo ready. He’s ready. Ok. The week of organisation was ready to roll. The funeral car pulled up.

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The funeral car pulled up. The funeral car pulled up. Jo couldn’t move. Today was the day she was burying her Dad. Crowds of people were outside the house, ready and waiting to follow the procession from their local house to the village church. Everything was ready to go except Jo. The realisation struck her that once the service was over; he was really not coming back, and she felt guilty for facilitating the progress. “Where has my Dad gone?” she spluttered to those surrounding her. They tried to help her up but her legs wouldn’t stand, let alone walk her to the car. Two men, she wasn’t sure who, held her and marched her to the car where the close relatives sat waiting. Jo’s head hung for the duration of the service while her shoulders shook. Even when tears weren’t falling, Jo’s cry went deep within. That gut wrenching, dry to the core cry when there’s nothing left to give. “Finally,” her Mum whispered, wrapping her left arm comfortably around Jo “let them pour”.

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Jo was very aware of the number of people Harold had influenced in his years, but was astounded by the support that was shown that day. The church held 80 people seated, more stood at the back and people who couldn’t fit inside the church, stood outside for the duration to pay their respects. She could even hear them singing. Jo knew those respects were not just for her Dad, but would be passed on to her as the family successor. While time passes and wounds heal, the moment her Dad was lowered into the ground will always stay with Jo, as will the initial phone call. For her it was the moment that their bond became unbreakable and they grew stronger. Now, she knew wherever she was, and wherever he was, they were always together.

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 19


Why is thematic learning helpful

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during middle years? There are several ways a thematic approach can help students with their learning during the middle years; when students’ brains are experiencing significant changes and therefore have unique needs. Recent neurological research tells us that this age group needs particular support organising and connecting their thinking and learning. Their brains are synthesizing and specialising, requiring them to connect and make meaning of their learning like never before. As a result of this brain development, 11 to 14 year olds experience an increasing need to make sense of their world and to understand who they are and where they fit into it all. Therefore they need to see the relevance of everything they do and learn and they need to be active participants in their learning and decision-making.

Making connections and finding meaning Many students require more support with the above challenges than what the ‘traditional’ model of separated subject learning can provide. A thematic approach can help by giving students a common or central idea to which they can link their learning. Not

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only does this enable them to make connections between subjects, but to real life too, therefore helping them to develop personal meaning. However, rather than the simple themes often used during the primary years, middle school students need a more complex, abstract, conceptual theme to challenge them and help them to link their learning. To ensure a common focus across all subjects and between all subject teachers, it is crucial that all teachers consistently refer to one agreed common idea; that cannot be misinterpreted or adapted, and that can be effectively applied, with rigorous outcomes, to all subject learning.

A practical solution for schools One independent curriculum that has gained particular recognition in recent years for providing a practical and successful thematic solution for 11 to 14 year olds is the International Middle Years Curriculum (IMYC) – older sister of the highly acclaimed International Primary Curriculum (IPC). With the IMYC, students follow a conceptual thematic unit of learning for six weeks. During the unit, students look for links to the conceptual theme - or, what the IMYC calls the ‘big idea’ - in all their subject learning; from history and science, to art and languages. They are also given opportunities to

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consider the conceptual theme from a personal and global perspective through class discussion, blogging and journaling. At the end of the six week unit, the students then present their own understanding of the conceptual theme and what it means to them personally, to their classmates in the form of a media project. This encourages differentiation, personalisation and the regular chance for students to learn, develop and practise presentation and technological skills.

The impact of a conceptual theme on students Schools learning with the IMYC are seeing the difference that a conceptual theme makes to students. “Having the IMYC big idea as a theme across all curriculum areas has proved to be very successful,” says Tom Bowen who is the Assistant Principal at The UCL Academy in London. “It’s a benchmark to support students in developing their understanding within all their learning,” he continues. “The students are seeing the links in their subject learning before the adults do. We hadn’t anticipated the students’ ability to make the links so effectively and what’s most interesting is that it’s a very personal thing for each student; they can find connections in very different ways. The students get to know the big idea very quickly and easily. They can identify connections in their learning in ways that we teachers don’t always see and they are understanding exactly how to use the big idea to help them find relevant links.” And in the USA at the British School of Washington, Head of English and Performing Arts, Katie Stewart says: “The abstract nature of the IMYC big ideas encourage critical and conceptual thinking and allow students to take more ownership of their learning. It’s up to the students to find the links in their subject learning, rather than being told that their learning is linked to a simple, explicit theme such as ‘Space’ or ‘Conflict’. This puts the responsibility on the student to identify connections and make meaning of their learning. It takes a bit of time for the students to see how to find the links to a 22 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 23


conceptual theme but once they do, you see the impact that this has on them; they take much more responsibility for their learning.” The conceptual theme is just one part of a detailed learning structure that forms the International Middle Years Curriculum. Head of the IMYC, Isabel du Toit says the conceptual theme is important because it helps teachers to provide a context that responds to the changing needs of the adolescent brain. “We all know that middle years students who are engaged in their learning become inspired, confident, independent learners well prepared for the next stage in their education,” she says. “The answer to engaging middle school students is to provide them with a learning approach that supports their maturing brain. Scientific research tells us this includes the need to connect with peers, the need to take risks, and the need to link learning and make meaning. The conceptual theme within the IMYC is specifically designed to respond to these needs and, as a result, engages students in a deliberate and purposeful way.”

Advice for using a conceptual theme Here are some tips from the experts at the IMYC for using a conceptual theme: •

Establish agreement among all your colleagues of the conceptual themes you want to use for a committed and agreed period of time.

Start your planning by looking for links with the conceptual theme. This includes your daily lesson plans as well as your medium and long term planning (recommended 4-6 weeks).

Connect the learning of subject knowledge, skills and understanding to the conceptual theme where it links easily and naturally, and develop your planning around it.

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Make sure everyone has a clear, mutual idea about the conceptual theme. Encourage students, teachers and parents to refer to it when sharing their own learning experiences and how it relates to their own lives.

Ask students questions about their academic, personal and international learning through the lens of the conceptual theme. Give them time to share their answers in the form of a blog or journal.

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Give students time to present their own understanding of the conceptual theme through a media form of their choosing: video, podcast, dance, artwork, etc.

To find out more about how the International Middle Years Curriculum uses a conceptual thematic approach visit www.greatlearning.com/imyc

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Historians In Action Elaine Le Sueur The following is the outline of a study on life in Ancient Egypt 4000 years ago undertaken by a group of ten year 4 and 5 gifted students who selected the topic in response to thinking about the questions that are the focus for thinking like a historian. Everyone is technosavvy these days, and these students are digital natives with a keen interest in movie making. They are adept at such techniques as green screening, voiceovers, clip editing etc and are always after ideas that will allow these talents to be used. I introduced the concept of thinking like a historian with the suggestion that it could provide lots of learning opportunities to suit the range of individual interests that they represented and could be the focus for a 5 minute film clip to be shared with classmates and parents. The idea was met with enthusiasm, although my initial suggestion that we could investigate life in prehistoric times was not!

The Question The students elected to find out how people living in Egypt 4000 years ago viewed their world and how their choices and actions were affected by that in order to look at how the past helps us to make sense of the present. We found a selection of questions we ask of the past online- http://www.wisconsinhistory. org/ThinkingLikeaHistorian/images/chart-back-cover. gif and used these as guidelines to help us to clarify the direction that our study would take. We chose to focus on how the people of the time viewed their world and how this affected their choices and actions. We were interested in comparing the past with the present to understand changes in ideas over time.

Aim The aim was twofold. We wanted to find out as much as we could about life in Ancient Egypt in the time of Montuhotep Đ&#x;(because he was the first Pharoah of the Middle Kingdom and was credited with uniting upper and lower Egypt) so that we could produce a short 5 minute film to share our understanding and to practise our video making skills. The study was scheduled to be completed within term 3 during a group session once a week but it soon

What did the Ancient Egyptians eat and drink? Start with this article online http://www.barrygray.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Egypt/Food.html Decide if each of these statements is accurate. Find evidence to support your view. (this is reading literally). Discuss your responses with others.

Potatoes were eaten by both rich and poor in Ancient Egypt.

Builders who worked for the government were better fed than the average person..

Spices were not grown in Ancient Egypt.

Decide if each of these statements is accurate. Find evidence to support your view. (this is interpreting text). Our knowledge of food and drink in Ancient Egypt may not be as accurate as we think it is.

Life was harder in ancient times.

An apiarist would have been an important person in ancient Egypt.

Based on your understanding, explain what the text has challenged you to think about, or taught or shown you. (this is reading beyond the text)

Cultural beliefs influence the way in which people live today.

or

People are healthier now than they were in ancient Egypt.

Choose one or other of the two statements to comment on. What do you think? Explain the reason for your answer. Be prepared to support your view or change your mind in the face of new information. 26 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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became evident that it would take much longer than this and the final product will not be completed until the end of the year. Each student chose an aspect of life that he/she was interested in and took responsibility for becoming the expert through researching then sharing what he/ she learned with the rest of the group. Each student became the facilitator of learning in the chosen area of expertise and it was interesting to see the varied teaching techniques that they employed when sharing their knowledge. Topics covered included music and dance, the importance of gods and goddesses and the Nile River, costumes and clothing, food and drink, games, government, flora and fauna, and occupations. We had an amazing time researching and learning about life in the distant past but it took much longer than we thought it would because we found that historians don’t always agree with each other and we needed to evaluate and form our own opinions about some aspects, just as they do.

We were interested to discover that hummus was made and eaten by the Ancient Egyptians and we held a homework competition to create an original hummus from a tin of chickpeas plus student choice of ingredients that would have been available to the people 4000 years ago. There was no list provided because the expectation was that each student could justify his/her choice of ingredients used and back it up with research source evidence. It was a popular challenge and resulted in much discussion regarding the ingredients and the method used in the production. We used unleavened Lebanese bread as an accompaniment.

Sample Activities Amongst other things we found out that the game of Senet had been widely played during that time and we made senet boards and learned the rules of the game so that we could challenge each other. It was interesting to note that there were two different versions for the way in which this game is played but reflected Ancient Egyptian beliefs about death and the afterlife. The students found this aspect interesting and it prompted some thoughtful philosophical discussion about cultural differences. We reflected on how some of the games that we play nowadays might be viewed in the distant future. We also found that the Ancient Egyptians believed there was a great deal of power in a name. There are some interesting websites with more information about the origins and importance of a person’s name in the past and that led us to reflect on the origins of our own names. Each student selected an Egyptian name for his/her role in the movie. http://www.behindthename.com/names/usage/ ancient-egyptian http://babynamesworld.parentsconnect.com/categoryancient-egyptian-names.html http://virtualkemet.com/perankh/namesfemale.htm

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Hommous (Hummus) Hummus is a spread that is made from chickpeas. Hummus is the Arabic word for chickpea. You may notice that many hummus recipes call for garbanzo beans, not chickpeas. Garbanzo is the Spanish translation of chickpea. They are called cece beans in Italy. Ingredients: 1 can garbanzo beans/chickpeas 1/4 cup olive oil 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon cumin Preparation: Drain the chickpeas. Mash them up and add the rest of the mashed / crushed ingredients. Using a mortar and pestle is the old way of making hummus. A mortar and pestle are two objects used to pulverize foods, such as seeds, herbs and spice. The mortar is the bowl and the pestle is the pulveriser. NB The Ancient Egyptians would not have included lemon juice. Why not? If you are making authentic hummus that would have been eaten by the Ancient Egyptians then what will you use in your own batch instead? Create your own experimental modern version Some types of hummus have a garlic flavour, and some hummus has a spicy tone. You can add the spices and vegetables you want. These will work well ...black beans, pumpkin, walnuts, white beans, sweet potato, spinach and feta. Mushrooms were only eaten by royalty.

You can make use of modern day technology to make your hummus if you choose to. Microwaving will soften the chickpeas and make them easier to mash with a fork. Don’t throw away the liquid as you might need that if your hummus is too thick and lumpy for your taste. If you use a food processor then be aware that the hummus you make would not be as thick as that eaten by the Ancient Egyptians who had to make it all by hand. Your mixture will keep in an airtight container for up to three days. Plan when you intend to make it so that it is still fresh to eat on sharing day. Once we felt confident that we had an understanding of what mattered to the people and why it mattered, then we set to work on putting it all together as a film script. We needed a way to show the aspects of life that we had researched, bearing in mind that it was a perception of the times gained second hand from a range of sources. We had to evaluate each piece of information so that our film was as accurate as we could make it, just as historians strive to portray the past as accurately as they can. We brainstormed ideas and then combined and remixed until we had a story thread that allowed each person the opportunity to demonstrate their talents and star in the film AND to participate in behind the scenes production as well. This was a triumph of teamwork! The group finally decided on linking the past with the present by having a boy travelling back in time to answer a question posed by a computer game that he was playing in his bedroom. A boy was selected rather than a girl because it would have been inappropriate for a female to have such freedom of movement 4000 years ago. This study is a work in progress and it is fortunate that there is a holiday break before filming begins in earnest to allow for the costumes to be completed with some outside help.

Tomatoes were not available to the Ancient Egyptians. If you use dried chickpeas then you need to soak them in water overnight before you make your hummus.

Homework Challenge – You are challenged to make your own batch of hummus and bring it to school for the rest of the group to try next week.You can use the recipe provided and add your own choice of vegetables but please keep a record of what you use so that it can be replicated by others if it is judged to be a winner! Please make your hummus all by yourself but you can have parent supervision if necessary.

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 29


E-learning + efficacy = enhance A change of teacher role from “keeper of knowledge” to “academic tour guide” may seem to be where teaching is heading.   If that’s the case then a lot more needs to be understood about the nature of the learning process and the teaching model involved than is currently evident.   E-learning may be appear the greatest advance in learning ever – I mean why memorise stuff when a few finger taps on an e-device will have the information to you in seconds?   But learning’s learning nonetheless, and must accord, for instance, with what Nuthall has proven is the nature of learning and how it works in classrooms.   Closer scrutiny shows e-learning to be no different in essence, both as a process and as a teaching model, from that inefficient, traditional learning process and its associated model Nuthall talks about.   No matter how much its proponents laud its main feature – rapid retrieval of information – when it comes to dealing with that information, Nuthall’s learning rule still applies.  The rule requires that the full information of any new topic/idea/concept (tic) students meet up with must be experienced three times, with a two day spacing between each experience.  This rule is crucial because when those conditions are not met, none of the information involved gets to be properly processed.   That means all of the in-the-head stuff –  understanding and sense making, and the integration of the new learning with the existing knowledge base –  simply won’t happen because it can’t.  That traditional model of learning remains notoriously

30 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

static and difficult to change so proponents of e-learning best be aware of the fact, its influence will be felt for a long time to come.  The power of this traditional model to resist change is demonstrated by the fact that it has survived virtually unaltered  since prehistory.  How e-learning will impact on it is yet to be determined.  A betting person, though, would lay a large wager against any significant  change occurring, not for quite a while yet anyway. The thing that needs to be understood about advances in digital technology is that, in relation to learning, while it may look as if good things are associated with it, that’s more apparent than real.  For all the increased student engagement its use occasions, because of the inherent inefficacy involved, students will still end up being short changed.  Granted that when hitherto low achievers see themselves at last making possibly the fastest progress of their lives, they probably won’t feel much like they’re being short changed, nevertheless they will.  And not just them either, under the all-prevailing, inefficient learning regime, all students will be (and indeed are).   If that’s a bit hard to swallow, think of it this way.  Nuthall has proven just about every learner possesses a  «remarkably similar” capacity to learn yet  across the board, achievement outcomes are very uneven.  So uneven in fact that New Zealand has the worst achievement gap of all the OECD countries.  When that unevenness of outcome is examined from the point of view of how much of the total of that “remarkably similar” capacity to learn of the nation’s young is being developed, according to work I’ve done on this, only about 50 per cent of it is.  That such a large proportion of the total of student learning capacity is going undeveloped signifies that all students, irrespective of their level of achievement, are being short changed. Expecting e-learning to cover for the deficiencies of the current inefficient learning process and its associated learning model, places it in a no-win situation.  Whilst the efficacy problems of the traditional process and model remain unaddressed, being forced therefore to operate in an environment that’s “inherently inefficient” means that e-learning’s

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ed opportunity Laurie Loper Psychologist contribution to ensuring across-the-board improvement will never live up to the high expectations held by its backers.  Since e-learning has not been designed to deal to the efficacy issue, neither can it be viewed as being a suitable replacement for the “inherently inefficient” learning system in current use. What needs to be understood is that the traditional learning process and its associated teaching model are both hardwired into the heads of teachers’ and into the heads of everyone who has experienced an education of any sort.  Unless something specific is done to counter – preferably discard and replace – both the process and model involved, history shows their influence will always be felt  to the detriment of effective learning.  So instead of the teachers involved thinking that by using e-learning that they’ve cracked it , or thinking they are on the cusp of some type of hugely beneficial change, what’s in fact happening is that yet another intervention is being corralled into supporting a learning process and a teaching model both of which are way past their use-by date. Back in the real world, lists of the skills required for e-learning are starting to appear and to be talked about in various media.  As one blogger I came across has it, these pertain to how to use tools like “online data bases and bibliographies, classroom whiteboards, instantaneous one-click word definitions, footnotes, and annotations on e-readers, and countless other IT devices.”  The devotees of e-learning, though, regard these as learning-tolearn skills, albeit doing so not to the exclusion of other sorts of traditional learning activities, such as   “reading, classroom discussion, taking notes, underlining sentient passages in a textbook, rereading first and last paragraphs of a chapter or assignment”.   It seems to me that the e-learning fraternity understands the concept of learning to learn to involve the use of tools and learning activities like those just mentioned.  This I see as unfortunate in that it fails to take into account that there are a large number of prerequisite, preparatory-type learning skills involved that educators cannot afford to take for granted.  In the normal order of things, one might expect that many of these would be catered for at the

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Early Childhood Education level.  Observation would suggest that’s not happening much, and where it is, there is a bias towards those compliance, cooperation, social, and such like other skills that serve to ease pre-school children as seamlessly as possible into New Entrant classrooms.  The grooming of pre-school children to suit the requirements of the education system is now big business. My interest and knowledge on this topic arises from the fact that about 12 years ago, sensing a need to do something about getting parents more purposefully and gainfully involved in the learning-to-learn skill development of their children, I compiled a list of learning-to-learn skills to guide parents wanting to support that learning.  There were 16 categories of them, totalling 414 specific skills, all targeting some aspect of the prerequisite learning skills parents could encourage their children to develop.  To me, these prerequisite skills are of a kind more worthy of being called learning-to-learn than the ones now being called that by e-teachers.  Making the distinction here is important for many of the ones I’m talking about, as said, are simply taken for granted.  Besides, provided they can be shown a way to do it that suits their way of life, there are legions of parents just itching to become involved, all they lack is the know how.   As e-learning becomes more prevalent, it›s going to be interesting to see what will become of learning-tolearn as a concept.  The experience of Early Childhood Education notwithstanding, already too many New Entrant children arrive first day at school with an insufficiently developed repertoire of prerequisite learning skills. Over time, I suspect the demand for faster and faster information retrieval from ever more whizz-bang devices is going to dictate which sorts of learning skills are going to become most valued.  Somehow I don›t see this prerequisite skills situation I›m talking about getting any better.   I also wonder what the impact of all this is going to have on the proper processing of information as young students begin the first stages of their formal education.  Understandably, the proponents of e-learning concentrate their attention on the information that supports their view of learning.  Knowing no other

Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 31


view, it appears as if they don’t even think another might exist, or that there might be research on learning that they ought to be considering.  What seems to be happening is that the ways in which technology works is producing it’s own understanding of learning as a process, a tail wagging the dog situation if I ever saw one.  That is, this understanding of learning as a process pays no heed to the one that’s currently in use, but it ends up, nonetheless, being just as belief based as the model it’s bidding fair to replace.  It takes no heed, either, of the possibility that there might be an effective replacement for both that traditional learning process and its associated model. The other day I came across an example of an e-learning process in a blog that seems to illustrate how e-devotees conceptualise e-learning.  Let’s see how it stacks up against certain aspects of what’s now a proven body of fact about how learning works.   The e-learning model is based on the assumption that the “main function of formal education … is teaching the skills of learning how to learn.”  Given the tsunami of information now engulfing us, acceptance of that assumption is simply facing facts.  The trouble lies, though, in what any e-teacher thinks those skills are.   In more detail, this e-learning model conceptualises understanding to be a grid comprised of a “complex network of small branches flowing to bigger branches”.  At the final stages of formal education, those bigger branches tie in together to constitute the grid of Understanding.   Along this grid Data in the form of “facts, thruths, opinions, theories, beliefs” flow to inform Understanding.  As Data  flows along the grid of Understanding, ever increasingly sophisticated concepts begin forming, signalling that Synthesis is an element of the model.  In short the model becomes  ata + Understanding + Synthesis = Knowledge. One further addition is required to complete this e-learning model.  Over time Knowledge, in situations where it’s subjected to an individual’s experience and system of values, might yet become Wisdom.  Were that to happen, the equation would then read:  Data + Understanding + Synthesis + Accumulated Knowledge = Wisdom. So much for the theory, how  might it pan out in practice?  That’s a very pertinent question.  With free e-learning based university courses beginning to appear in New Zealand – Massey University announced their first ones on July 22, 2013 – and with the likes of Stanford

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University, one of the world’s leading research and teaching institutions, already providing for classes around the world of up to 100,000 in some courses, e-learning is set to make a huge impact.   In this ever changing IT era, it could be that these developments will see the sort of model of learning just discussed here ending up being set in concrete.  The obvious question to ask is whether these otherwise exciting developments are contributing anything new to what’s been the model of learning up till now, and whether or not the benefit flowing from them is going to be all it’s being cracked up to be. The first thing to note in the university examples quoted is that what’s on offer is still in the format of a course and that the respective institutions retain their credentialing authority in respect of issuing certificates/degrees.  Though there is a great deal of flexibility now in catering for individual interests within any course’s structure, and while that will obviously reinforce engagement, hello, hello, the learning process as such is still owned, operated and controlled by the institution, while the “inherently inefficient” traditional learning model Nuthall describes remains essentially as is.   Even when Stanford’scourses  make concessions with regard to the use of peer grading and individual grading so as to cope with the huge numbers involved – incidentally, enhancing the learning experience of those taking part and earning my admiration for bringing to the notice of the world the viability of those two assessment measures – the learning model involved is still the one we’re inherited from the past.   Similarly, when lecturers employ electronic feed back systems to ensure the understanding of every student in class stays up to speed with the lecturer,  this isn’t a learning model change, it’s just a more modern form of the traditional model. The point being made is that all of the changes discussed above are impacting only marginally on the efficacy of that inefficient  traditional learning process and it’s associated teaching model.  There is little doubt these new ways of delivering education will make an impact – perhaps the largest in history.  But that shouldn’t persuade us into thinking it will be large enough to ensure all of that undeveloped capacity to learn of all students that was spoken about earlier, will now get utilised.  Nor, in the case of New Zealand, will it ensure that our large and persistent achievement

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gap – now some 20 years old – will be bridged.   Neither should it satisfy us that we are heading in the right direction, efficacy wise.  The across-the-board improvements we all seek are not just around the corner any more than, with the advent of e-learning, is the task of creating an efficient and equitable delivery of education complete.  At present students have no other option but to operate within the confines of that inefficient learning regime.  Even with the aid of  e-learning, were all students then able to achieve at the uppermost level permitted by that constriction, no one would be aware there’d still be something like 30 per cent of the student body’s total capacity to learn going undeveloped. Back to that blogger’s e-learning model.  Since the model makes no provision for the proper processing of Knowledge, such as the Nuthall learning rule would ensure, achieving the state of Wisdom would be nigh on impossible.  The danger here is that much of e-learning could be expected to degenerate into mere infotainment, because very little of the e-learning involved would end up as properly processed knowledge. Not that e-teachers would be necessarily aware of this for in the short term students can use such knowledge whilst giving every appearance of it being properly processed and understood.  Improperly processed learning of new topics, ideas and concepts – something that the Nuthall research suggests is happening routinely in our schools – patently lies at the root of the problems facing the traditional learning process. Since the e-learning model under discussion does not observe Nuthall’s learning rule, why would things then be any different with e-learning?   Whether the proponents of e-learning are any more likely to recognise the efficacy issue than do those who espouse the traditional learning regime will be interesting to see.  As my own investigations attest, certainly the people driving the new venture, Network for Learning (N4L), along with the Ministry of Education that’s overseeing its operation, do not recognise there’s an efficacy issue.   Set up with initial funding of $5.5 million, there’s talk of $440 million funding being pumped into it over the next 10 years. Designed to be a one stop shop for e-learning programmes and support, it’s a Government business (an SOE in fact) that hopes to propel schools willynilly into embracing e-learning so optimal use can be made of the Ultra Fast Broadband roll out.   Given what we now know about learning, it would not

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be at all difficult to find a far better alternative use for funding of that magnitude. The seduction that is e-learning sees the likes of Stanford University,  as said,  providing free courses to very large numbers.  Flushed with the scale of their expansionist successes, I doubt the idea of not being successful in their use of  e-learning will ever enter the consciousness of any of the decision makers involved.  That’s particularly sad for Stanford, for having not cracked the efficacy issue, it isn’t destined to reap the full rewards for the undoubted innovation that is evident in what’s being done there, their enterprise deserves a much better payoff.  I really like the idea of bringing free education to such large numbers and doing it in a way that includes the use of forms of assessment that put more of the control of learning into the hands of students.  The assessment research Stanford uses to justify this bold assessment initiative is particularly welcomed for it fits very nicely with both the Nuthall findings and the student centred learning model I devised and have successfully trialed in a number of situations with students from age 8 years old right up to mature adults.  I commend them for venturing into peer and self grading, which I see as being a large part of the only true way of producing independent life long learners.  In my opinion, the higher the level of education across the board in any society the more likely will that society be a just one and the better able to solve its own outstanding issues.  When Stanford took on this expansion of it’s teaching function, though, it’s tragic that those pushing the vision weren’t better prepared, knowledge wise, for what they have gotten into.  Obviously, they weren’t aware of the Nuthall research, though it’s not too late for them to pick up on it. In our search for across-the-board educational improvement we can do with all the help and innovation that’s available.  While learning in the modern world looks set to become more and more electronic, false hope bids fair to become its  Achilles Heel.  The proponents of e-learning have a potentially powerful learning aid within their grasp, they have a responsibility to make the very best use of it they can.   They also have a duty to be more informed about what they are undertaking.  Destiny has us on the cusp of enhanced opportunity, efficacy will determine how much we’re up to the challenge.

Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 33


Self Review in New Zealand earl improving the quality of practice Self review is an ongoing process through which early childhood services evaluate the effectiveness of what they do, with the aim of improving the quality of their practice (Ministry of Education [MoE], 1999). Throughout a teacher’s own learning journey – from the beginning teacher through to a registering teacher - there are many opportunities to engage in and undertake self reflection. Often this is as a result of teaching experiences and introspective reflection and discussions with a mentoring teacher on their own practice, values, morals, and culture with a view to achieving and renewing registered teacher status.

However, there is a difference between self review and self reflection, which can be summarized as follows: •

Self review enables services to evaluate what they do to improve the quality of education provided for children

Self reflection is the capacity of the individual teacher to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence.

The Early Childhood Regulations licensing criteria under Governance Management and Administration GMA6 states: •

An ongoing process of self-review helps the service maintain and improve the quality of its education and care

Documentation required: 1. A process for reviewing and evaluating the service’s operation (for example, learning and teaching practices, philosophy, policies, and procedures) by the people involved in the service. The process is consistent with criterion GMA4, and includes a schedule showing timelines for planned review of different areas of operation. 2. Recorded outcomes from the review process

Self review works effectively when whole teaching teams are engaged in, and contributing to, the entire process, together with the all parties to the early childhood service including service managers/owners, children, whānau and family. It is the responsibility of the whole service to ensure robust and ongoing self review is evident, visible, explicit, and actively used to improve teaching practice and learning outcomes for children. We document self review so that it is transparent, it is a living document, and it reminds us of our journey towards improving practice for the future. We start the self review process by identifying what it is we are reviewing and why; this usually comes about as a result of planned items (emergent self review usually occurs after the event has happened). Ngā Arohaehae Whai Hua (MoE, 1999) identifies three key areas of practice that require self review: 1. Learning and teaching practices (embracing the concept of Ako – learning and teaching as reciprocal processes) 34 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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ly childhood education e 2. Collaborative practice (Fostering a learning community - authentic opportunities to learn and to contribute to learning) 3. Governance and management practice (how we operate our service with the knowledge of our priorities and external expectations) Once we identify and plan what it is we are to review, we then start the process of self review. We document the answers to questions such as What do we want to find out? How will we find out? Who can help us? What do our children say? What do our family and whānau say? What does this information tell us? What did we learn? What decisions are we going to make? How do we decide what to do next? How will we share the results? Documenting self review allows us to explore all of the different options we may have, acknowledging and respecting the many different languages, culture and identity of the contributors, to come to a decision on how best to proceed whilst at the same time leaving opportunities for the item to be revisited again at a later date in order to review its ongoing and relevant effectiveness. Documented in Ngā Arohaehae Whai Hua (MoE, 1999), the review process identifies six elements of effective review: Relationships Evidence Vision Improvement Ethics Wisdom.

Relationships Effective self review means hearing and actively listening to all parties to the review process, as each individual brings with them knowledge, understanding, culture, and a learning perspective that is recognized and respected as being valid. Therefore, self review should be undertaken collaboratively with teachers, children, whānau and family, hapū, iwi and where practicable, the wider community. “Whakawhanaungatanga, building a collaborative learning community, establishes and environment of trust and reciprocity as an essential base for effective review.” (MoE, 1999, p39)

Evidence Gathering evidence is an important component in the documentation of self review, as it is used to help us

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By Pam Wardrope

make informed decisions on best teaching practice. Gathering a range of evidence such as learning stories, observations, children’s voice, whānau and family voices, and current research, enables all parties to the early childhood service to contribute to the process of self review.

Vision Having a shared vision for children involves developing and setting clear goals, and then regularly engaging in ongoing, robust self review to monitor our journey towards achieving those identified goals. Having an explicit service philosophy and regularly reviewing this, enables us to check that what we believe about children is actually evident in our practice. “It is critical to effective review that we discuss and debate our service philosophy so that we can develop a shared vision to guide our practice.” (MoE, 1999, p43).

Improvement The purpose of self review is to reflect on what we do with a vision to improving practice and ultimately learning outcomes for children. Self review enables us to identify and celebrate what we do well and highlights areas for improvement. Ultimately, we create a climate of enquiry “in which we seek to acknowledge and act on areas for improvement rather than justify our practice through review” (MoE, 1999, p44).

Ethics The four fundamental principles for teachers that guide us to act ethically are justice, autonomy, responsible care, and truth (New Zealand Teachers’ Council, 2004). Acting ethically throughout self review also requires us treat all parties to the process with dignity and respect, irrespective of culture, gender, age, ethnicity, community, and geographical location.

Wisdom Through reflection and reflexivity, wisdom is achieved. Reflection is about becoming aware of ourselves and why we make the decisions we do. Reflexivity is the acknowledgement that there are many ways of knowing and we explore these through the process of preparing, gathering, making sense, and deciding. Linking it all together: strategic goals, annual plans, and ongoing self review: Underpinning and essential to robust and ongoing planned self review are the Strategic goals and annual plan of the service: Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 35


The Early Childhood Regulations licensing criteria under Governance Management and Administration GMA8 sates:

2. Regular self review: is about ‘business as usual’. It is smaller, focused and ongoing, feeding regular data into the strategic self review.

3. Emergent self review: is in response to unplanned events or issues as they arise. They are one-off spontaneous reviews; however, should fit with strategic goals and link to other reviews.

An annual plan guides the service’s operations

Documentation required: 1. An annual plan identifying ‘who’, ‘what’, and ‘when’ in relation to key tasks undertaken each year. The Ministry of Education suggests that ‘an annual plan is part of good business practice and will show the Ministry of Education how the service intends to ensure ongoing compliance with all regulatory requirements and criteria.’ Therefore, it is intended that each service should have in place an explicit and effective annual plan noting all of the key or important tasks that the service is committing to undertake in that year. Also imperative is to note alongside each task who is going to be responsible for ensuring the task is completed, and when. In order for services to identify key tasks in the first instance, there should be over-arching strategic goals identified by the service that are reflective of the community within which they exist and evident in the service’s philosophy. Only then can ongoing, strategic and regular self review be undertaken effectively. An example of an overarching strategic goal for a service, under Governance and Management, might be: Commit to an ongoing regular cycle of self review to ensure the current needs and requirements of the ECE Regulations, Licensing Criteria, Philosophy and The Treaty of Waitangi/Te Tiriti O Waitangi is reflected and evident in the service. The annual plan for the current year would then break down this strategic goal into manageable and achievable individual tasks to be undertaken to ensure that the whole service is working together towards achieving the strategic goal. Each individual task in the annual plan would then be subject to critical self review to assess its effectiveness in improving the quality of practice. Through critical self review, we might ask ourselves the following questions: •

How does this impact on children?

What does this mean for Māori, Pasifika, and children with special needs?

How can we involve whānau and family and the wider community?

In order to answer these questions, we need a robust procedure and the capacity and willingness to build solid relationships and partnerships with all parties involved in the early childhood service. The Education Review Office (ERO) notes there are three components to self review: 1. Strategic self review: is long term and focused on key goals related to the service’s vision. 36 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

Once a service’s strategic goals are documented, establishing an explicit annual plan then ensures the whole service is working together towards achieving these goals. Subjecting the annual plan’s tasks to robust and planned self review encourages us to then evaluate the effectiveness of the tasks we set and, through informed decision-making, to guide us in our journey towards improving outcomes in practice on an ongoing and sustainable basis. ERO identified the following common factors in services where self review was well understood and implemented: •

Strong leadership to promote self review

Relevant professional development

Stable staffing

Collaborative teamwork

Sounds systems for review

Use of relevant resources

As summarized in Ngā Arohaehae Whai Hua, “effective review allows us to be more confident that the curriculum whāriki we weave for children is robust and strong and that we have a clear design to work with in the future together.” (p49).

References: Education Review Office (2009). Implementing Self Review in Early Childhood Services. Wellington, New Zealand: Education Review Office Ministry of Education (1999). Nga Arohaehae Whai Hua – Self Review Guidelines for Early Childhood Education. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media. Ministry of Education (2004). Governing and Managing Your Early Childhood Service. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. New Zealand Teacher’s Council (2004). Code of Ethics for Registered Teachers and Those Granted a Limited Authority to Teach. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Teacher’s Council.

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What’s On Your Mind?

Kath Murdoch Georgette Jenson Dianne Smardon Jan-Marie Kellow Ximena Aitken Perry Rush Pip Newick

Distinction Rotorua Hotel

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Inquiry Learning for the 21st Century Learner 5 - 6 August 2014

Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 37


Enrolment and Workshop Choice Form: (Use ‘Workshop Selection’ to make three choices for each session) Complete symposium choice form: One form per teacher attending. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Enter your personal details. Choose 3 workshops for each of the 3 sessions. Insert the relevant Workshop Numbers ONLY Further information can be obtained online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz

5.

Post/Email/fax back to:

Post/fax back to: Jennie Harper PO Box 641 Gisborne Phone: Fax: Email:

06 863 3741 06 863 3742 jennie@waikato.ac.nz

Closing Date:

Friday 18 July 2014 (Enrolments not accepted after this date)

Please Note:

Places for this event are limited. * Your school will be invoiced for the Conference in the month you enrol for the event

Name:

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School:

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Email Contact:

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Please note: your email confirmation will be sent to the above email address

Your School’s MOE Number:

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Special Dietary Requirements:

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Select using workshop number ONLY Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

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1st Choice

2nd Choice

3rd Choice

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1st Choice

2nd Choice

3rd Choice

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1st Choice

2nd Choice

3rd Choice

Please ensure you fill out this form completely as you may not get your first choice. 38 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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What’s On Your Mind? Inquiry Learning for the 21st Century Learner

5-6 August 2014

Distinction Rotorua Hotel, 390 Fenton Street, Rotorua

5 August Timetable 8.00 - 8:45

Registration with tea & coffee available on arrival

8:45 - 9:00

Welcome and Admin

9.00 - 10.30

International Presenter - Kath Murdoch

10.30 - 11.00

Morning tea provided

11.00 - 12.30

International Presenter - Kath Murdoch

12:30 - 1:15

Lunch provided

1:20 - 2.50

International Presenter - Kath Murdoch

6 August Timetable 8.00 - 8:55

Registration with tea & coffee available on arrival

9.00 - 10.30

Session One

10.30 - 11.00

Morning tea provided

11.00 - 12.30

Session Two

12:30 - 1.15

Lunch provided

1:20 - 2.50

Enrolment:

Session Three

Closing date is Friday 18 July

An attempt will be made to honour your first workshop preferences; however limits on group sizes may be necessary in some cases. It is important that you indicate your first three workshop choices for each session on your registration form. Confirmation of registration will be emailed upon receipt of registration form

Cost: * $600.00 + gst per person for both days * Your school will be invoiced for the Conference in the month in 2014 that you enrol

Accommodation: You are able to book accommodation at Distinction Rotorua Hotel - Standard accommodation rooms $140.00 including GST single or twin share per night. Phone Distinction Rotorua Hotel directly on 0800 654 789 quoting the “Inquiry Conference” name or reference number 225846 to make your reservation and receive this special conference accommodation rate while rooms are still available. There is complimentary parking available on site. Accommodation cancellation is the delegate’s responsibility.

Cancellations Policy: For cancellations submitted by Friday, 20 June 2014, your pre-paid conference registration fees will be refunded in full. No refund of conference registration fees will be given for cancellations* made after Friday 20 June 2014. If you are unable to attend we recommend that you send a replacement staff member. No refunds will be made for ‘No Shows’. Cancellations must be received in writing only – all correspondence must be sent to Nikki Pound: poundn@waikato.ac.nz IPL reserves the right to add, withdraw, reschedule or substitute speakers and/or vary advertised programmes, prices and venues. Should an event fail to attract a required minimum number of participants we reserve the right to cancel it. In this instance, IPL will provide a full refund but will not accept responsibility for travel and accommodation costs incurred by participants. IPL strongly advise against booking non-refundable flights; occasionally circumstances beyond our control mean that a conference may be cancelled or postponed. Enrolment in this conference constitutes acceptance of this policy. *At the discretion of the Regional Course Coordinator up to 75% of the conference fee may be reimbursed due to extenuating circumstances.

Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 39


5 August

9.00am – 3.00pm

Kath Murdoch – Australia

Are You An Inquiry Teacher….Or A Teacher Who ‘Does’ Inquiry?....And What’s The Difference? Teachers throughout NZ know, inquiry is not a ‘subject’ – it is an approach that can be applied as much to a spelling workshop as it can the study of history. This presentation will challenge us to embrace inquiry as a ‘mindset’ we carry into all our teaching by exploring: • The language we use with students on a day to day basis • How to embrace the competencies through the lens of inquiry • The way we use the classroom environment • Opportunities for authentic inquiry • The role of students in making decisions about their learning • Teachers as inquirers

6 August

Workshop Selection

Session 1 Choices 1. It’s time for I-Time! - Planning for Personalised Inquiry This workshop is all about supporting students in personal inquiry. A range of programming options will be shared but we will focus in detail on one approach- a weekly routine called “I-time”. The workshop will share real and practical examples of how teachers set up this engaging and powerful session and manage the demands of individualized investigations that help students learn to plan, research and communicate learning in which they have real voice and choice. Kath Murdoch (Australia)

2. Inquiry- Model or Mindset? What do you know but have little understanding of? Teaching for understanding is critical in an age where knowledge is plentiful and easy to access. But what constitutes deep knowledge and how do we teach in a way that grows deep understanding? Perry will share a school curriculum that supports deep understanding and inquiry strategies that enable powerful, personal learning. Perry Rush (Wellington)

3. Connecting ‘Teaching as Inquiry’ and ‘Inquiry Learning’ This 90 minute interactive workshop will provide an opportunity for participants to: • Continue to explore the concepts of inquiry and inquiry mindedness • Examine their practice and professional learning in the context of Inquiry Learning • Consider how they might use an inquiry approach to evaluate the impact of Inquiry Learning on students’ learning. • Participants will be encouraged to link their learning to their practice and identify future actions. Dianne Smardon and Pip Newick (Hamilton)

4. Thinking Maps From the beginning of time people have used Visual Tools to tell stories, study the sciences and teach lessons. The Thinking Maps, developed by Dr David Hyerle, are 8 graphic organisers that encompass the cognitive thinking skills to develop critical, creative and metacognitive thinking. Georgette brings her experience with practical examples from all age groups of how this common visual language integrates learning across the curriculum. Georgette Jenson (Gisborne)

5. Getting the HOTS for Inquiry How higher order thinking skills can support and be developed through inquiry. Techniques and strategies used to develop the processes and efficiency of thinking are cultivated by explicit teaching, preferably in context. This workshop looks at some of the tools and strategies, including decision-making and parts-whole thinking, that can be developed within inquiry-based learning. Jan-Marie Kellow (Hamilton)

6. Inquiry Learning and Personal Voice Ximena will share multiple examples of practical and successful inquiry from within her own teaching. Links will be made between intentional learning, curriculum knowledge and student voice. This reflects her goal to ensure that inquiry is not a formulaic model but a living, breathing journey of curiosity that is truly student led. Ximena Aitken (Wellington)

Session 2 Choices 7. It’s time for I-Time! - Planning for Personalised Inquiry This workshop is all about supporting students in personal inquiry. A range of programming options will be shared but we will focus in detail on one approach- a weekly routine called “I-time”. The workshop will share real and practical examples of how teachers set up this engaging and powerful session and manage the demands of individualized investigations that help students learn to plan, research and communicate learning in which they have real voice and choice. Kath Murdoch (Australia)

8. Inquiry Learning and Assessment How do you assess inquiry learning and what do you assess? Perry will share a rigorous approach to assessment that places the student at the centre. The same process can be used for reporting to parents, staff professional development and Board self-review. If assessment leaves you cold then cheer up, this presentation will breath life back into our goal to reclaim assessment from the clutches of accountability and infuse it with humanity, joy and relevance. Perry Rush (Wellington) Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz 40 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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9. What is the Learning? This 90 minute interactive workshop will provide an opportunity for participants to consider the following questions in the context of Inquiry Learning: • What are the students learning? • Why are they learning this and how will they know they have learnt it? • Participants will be encouraged to link their learning to their practice and identify future actions. Dianne Smardon and Pip Newick (Hamilton)

10.

Analytic and Global Learners When reading a magazine do you • Jump in wherever looks most interesting • Start at page 1 and read in sequential order Depending on situations or tasks most of us are ‘anaglobes’… a mixture of both analytic and global. But we do have a preference and by understanding how we learn, we develop empathy and strategies to involve everyone in our class in powerful learning. Georgette Jenson (Gisborne)

11. Getting the HOTS for Inquiry with Juniors How higher order thinking skills can support and be developed through inquiry with junior students. Techniques and strategies used to develop the processes and efficiency of thinking are cultivated by explicit teaching, preferably in context. This workshop looks at some of the tools and strategies, including decision-making and classification that can be developed within inquiry-based learning. Jan-Marie Kellow (Hamilton)

12. Inquiry Planning What do we want our learners to understand? How can we grow their learning further while honouring their voice? The Inquiry planning journey: how to plan Inquiry Learning that is learner driven. This workshop will cover the initial planning stages (developing knowledge outcomes and finding/sorting out episodes), and help teachers identify areas for going further and taking action. This planning methodology will involve incorporating the Facets of Understanding and the NZ Curriculum Key Competencies to develop robust inquiry learning skills. Ximena Aitken (Wellington)

Session 3 Choices 13. It’s time for I-Time! - Planning for Personalised Inquiry This workshop is all about supporting students in personal inquiry. A range of programming options will be shared but we will focus in detail on one approach- a weekly routine called “I-time”. The workshop will share real and practical examples of how teachers set up this engaging and powerful session and manage the demands of individualized investigations that help students learn to plan, research and communicate learning in which they have real voice and choice. Kath Murdoch (Australia)

14. Inquiry- Model or Mindset? What do you know but have little understanding of? Teaching for understanding is critical in an age where knowledge is plentiful and easy to access. But what constitutes deep knowledge and how do we teach in a way that grows deep understanding? Perry will share a school curriculum that supports deep understanding and inquiry strategies that enable powerful, personal learning. Perry Rush (Wellington)

15. Connecting ‘Teaching as Inquiry’ and ‘Inquiry Learning’ This 90 minute interactive workshop will provide an opportunity for participants to: • Continue to explore the concepts of inquiry and inquiry mindedness • Examine their practice and professional learning in the context of Inquiry Learning • Consider how they might use an inquiry approach to evaluate the impact of Inquiry Learning on students’ learning. • Participants will be encouraged to link their learning to their practice and identify future actions. Dianne Smardon and Pip Newick (Hamilton)

16. Thinking Maps From the beginning of time people have used Visual Tools to tell stories, study the sciences and teach lessons. The Thinking Maps, developed by Dr David Hyerle, are 8 graphic organisers that encompass the cognitive thinking skills to develop critical, creative and metacognitive thinking. Georgette brings her experience with practical examples from all age groups of how this common visual language integrates learning across the curriculum. Georgette Jenson (Gisborne)

17. Getting the HOTS for Inquiry How higher order thinking skills can support and be developed through inquiry. Techniques and strategies used to develop the processes and efficiency of thinking are cultivated by explicit teaching, preferably in context. This workshop looks at some of the tools and strategies, including decision-making and parts-whole thinking that can be developed within inquiry-based learning. Jan-Marie Kellow (Hamilton)

18. Inquiry Learning and Personal Voice Ximena will share multiple examples of practical and successful inquiry from within her own teaching. Links will be made between intentional learning, curriculum knowledge and student voice. This reflects her goal to ensure that inquiry is not a formulaic model but a living, breathing journey of curiosity that is truly student led. Ximena Aitken (Wellington) Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 41


Kath Murdoch Kath Murdoch is an experienced primary teacher, university lecturer, author and popular consultant. She is recognized throughout the world for her expertise in inquiry-based learning. Kath is based in Australia where she regularly works in local schools as well as maintaining consultancies with inquiry schools in a wide range of international settings. Kath has had a long association with schools throughout New Zealand.

Georgette Jenson Georgette Jenson has personally trained with some of the best thinkers in the world; Rita & Kenneth Dunn - international renowned experts in Learning Styles, David Hyerle - developer of the Thinking Maps Model, Art Costa - originator of the Habits of Mind. Georgette brings her wealth of knowledge and wisdom from the classroom. She will share practical, simple to use tools to encourage critical and creative thinking.

Dianne Smardon Dianne works collaboratively with school leaders and teachers facilitating professional learning opportunities in The New Zealand Curriculum and the Leadership and Assessment PLD Projects. She provides workshops and presents papers regionally, nationally and internationally at educational conferences. Dianne has a deep interest in developing learner’s critical thinking and reflective practices. She has a strong belief in the agency of learners, honouring the voice of students, teachers and school leaders and in working in dialogic ways.

Pip Newick I am a facilitator in the Te Toi Tupu Leadership and Assessment Professional Learning and Development (PLD) project. For the past nine years I have been privileged to have been involved in a wide range of PLD projects across a variety of contexts. I have a particular strength in ‘assessment’ and a deep interest in enhancing the capacity of teachers to ‘inquire’ into the impact of their practice on student learning and achievement.

Perry Rush Perry Rush is the Principal of Island Bay School in Wellington. He was formerly foundation Director of the innovative Discovery 1 School in Christchurch and the founder of Tawa School City Site in Wellington’s CBD. Perry is currently completing a PhD. He is a passionate advocate for student-centred learning, an avid coffee drinker, BBQ king, and owner to a tricked out Holden.

Jan-Marie Kellow Jan-Marie Kellow is a primary teacher with over 20 years classroom experience. Literacy, e-learning and Inquiry-based learning are areas she is passionate about. Jan-Marie is a CORE e-fellow, her fellowship research looked at the ways ICTs can support inquiry-based learning. She is currently an e-learning facilitator with the University of Waikato as part of Te Toi Tupu, and an educational consultant www.inquiringmind.co.nz

Ximena Aitken Ximena is an experienced teacher and is passionate about inquiry learning. She teaches at Island Bay School in a Year 4 class. She is a native Spanish speaker whose interests include brain theory, teaching for diversity, Te Reo Maori and key competency based learning. She has worked extensively across numerous inquiry approaches and brings a practitioner’s perspective to her work.

Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz 42 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Kyle Staggard

New distance education model broadens curriculum by Dale Pearce - principal of Bendigo Senior Secondary College and sponsor of the Victorian Virtual Learning Network.

Australian education systems have long grappled with the tyrannies of distance, small school size and teacher shortages.

nation’s first truly virtual school. Fundamental to the model has been the creation of high quality, interactive content which students can access at any time and from any location.

In combination, these factors restrict the access of students to a broad curriculum and higher education pathways.

Over the years we have seen governments make significant investment in the creation of learning objects, all designed to support teachers in the classroom. There has been no attempt to address the significant need for access to whole courses, particularly at senior school level. Teachers just don’t have the time or instructional design expertise to do this work on top of their other duties.

Our response at Bendigo Senior Secondary College has been to establish a variety of distance education models and localised sharing arrangements supported by technology, facilitating access and supporting collaboration. Our college has adopted a unique approach to these challenges. With almost 1800 Year 11 and 12 students, we are Australia’s largest provider of senior school curriculum and have few issues in providing access for our students to a broad curriculum delivered by well qualified and experienced teachers. In 2009, we identified the need for a very contemporary model of distance education provision to service the needs of other schools. Approaching the Education Minister provided endorsement for a business plan and funding has subsequently been sourced from a variety of sources to support the development of a very different model of distance education. Our college set out to establish a model based on asynchronous delivery, the state and perhaps the

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We set out to create courses in high stakes subjects in the sciences and mathematics and this year rolled out courses in specialist mathematics, mathematical methods and physics to students from around the state. Twenty eight schools from every corner of the state and including metropolitan Melbourne have enrolled students to do these subjects through the Victorian Virtual Learning Network (VVLN). In 2014 new subjects will be available including chemistry, legal studies, psychology, general maths, and health and human development. We expect the current enrolment of over 100 students to more than double next year and we anticipate significant growth in future years as further subjects are added and understanding of the model builds. The journey has not been without its challenges. Each of the courses has cost around $200,000 to develop and the financial support of the Victorian and Commonwealth governments has been significant. The state education department has backed the project and the current courses have been developed Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 43


and delivered with the support of its Broadband Enabled Innovation Program and DEEWR’s NBNEnabled Education and Skills Services program.

opted for a set of Adobe tools — Captivate, Presenter and Connect — which integrate well and are both sophisticated and intuitive.

Our college has also made a significant investment in the work. At the outset we carried out research of existing models and the available research literature. In 2010 we sent 12 staff to the USA to visit virtual schools and undertake professional learning. But our biggest challenge has been the development of the skill sets needed for this work.

In the early stages we had difficulty in building understanding of our model and our needs. This model is quite different to video conferencing-based models, which are primarily synchronous and thus limited in their capacity for scaling. And it is different again to more traditional models of distance education provision.

Schools have plenty of content experts but we also needed instructional design and technology expertise. The teachers involved were experienced, highly capable and working full time on the project but it was the most challenging work of their careers. Thankfully it was also among the most rewarding.

Many institutions claiming to be ‘virtual’ are in fact doing little more than posting video or flat text supplemented with weblinks and course notes. Our model differs primarily in the nature and quality of the content.

Designing an activity to be accessed asynchronously is fundamentally different to designing an activity for a class where you can be physically present. Our courses comprise text, video, animations, voice and simulations. Our design process and the Moodle platform allow us to monitor student activity and progress. Online students have an online teacher [Kyle Staggard, pictured, is one of the teachers ] available through various technologies, to provide 1:1 support and advice. Host schools provide a liaison staff member to assist with logistical support, but there is no need for this to be a specialist teacher; in fact it can be a nonteaching member of staff. Assessment is managed through a combination of online and proctored tasks. For the first three years of the project we employed three teachers/developers and a part time project manager. We now have 14 staff including two project managers. As the project has grown we’ve identified the need to standardise our development tools in order to manage support and provide professional learning. We’ve

Apart from building a pool of teacher expertise the benefit for our college is in the ability to take this content and turn it back into our own classrooms to support blended models of delivery. The potential to fundamentally change the role of the teacher is significant and we will progress down this path with caution given the high stakes of the final years of secondary schooling. We hope the VVLN is a forerunner to a Victorian Virtual School which may address issues of curriculum access, but also the broader matter of the use of technologies to support student learning across the F-12 spectrum. This article appears in the Term 3 issue of Technology in Education – a standalone magazine inserted into the September issue of Australian Teacher Magazine. Technology in Education is published every term. The latest magazine is available to download free on iOS and Android devices. iOS: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/teacher-+/ id569816828 Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/ details?id=com.paperlit.android.teacher

http://www.ozteacher.com.au/technology/technology-in-schools/new-distance-education-model-broadens-curriculum-options/23822

Remember to keep an eye on us... Bookmark our site: http://goodteacher.co.nz Follow us on facebook: http://goodteacher.co.nz/facebook Follow us on twitter: http://goodteacher.co.nz/twitter Contact us on info@goodteacher.co.nz

44 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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‘WWW’ ... Working in our Wired World... Enhancing learning through technology 18-19 June 2014

Ewan McIntosh Tom Barrett - Chrissie Butler - Stuart Hale Mary-Anne Murphy - Wendy Stafford

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 45

Distinc tion Rotorua Hotel


Enrolment and Workshop Choice Form: (Use ‘Workshop Selection’ to make three choices for each session) Complete symposium choice form: One form per teacher attending. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Enter your personal details. Choose 3 workshops for each of the 3 sessions. Insert the relevant Workshop Numbers ONLY Further information can be obtained online: www.iplconferences.com

Post/email/fax back to: Karina Davies

Private Bag 12 027 Tauranga Phone: Fax : Email:

07 577 5356 07 577 5322 karinad@waikato.ac.nz

Closing Date:

Monday 2 June (Enrolments not accepted after this date)

Please Note:

Places for this event are limited. * Your school will be invoiced for the Conference in the month you enrol for the event

Name:

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School:

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Email Contact:

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Please note: your email confirmation will be sent to the above email address

Your School’s MOE Number:

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Special Dietary Requirements:

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Select using workshop number ONLY Session 1

Session 2

Session 3

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1st Choice

2nd Choice

3rd Choice

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1st Choice

2nd Choice

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Please ensure you fill out this form completely as you may not get your first choice. Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz 46 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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‘WWW’ - Working in our Wired World: Enhancing Learning Through Technology... 18-19 June 2014 Distinction Rotorua Hotel, 390 Fenton Street, Rotorua

18 june Timetable 8.00 - 8:45

Registration with tea & coffee available on arrival

8:45 - 9:00

Welcome and Admin

9.00 - 10.30

International Presenter -Ewan McIntosh and Tom Barrett

10.30 - 11.00

Morning tea provided

11.00 - 12.30

International Presenter - Ewan McIntosh and Tom Barrett

12:30 - 1:20

Lunch provided

1:30 - 3.00

International Presenter - Ewan McIntosh and Tom Barrett

19 June Timetable 8.00 - 8:55

Registration with tea & coffee available on arrival

9.00 - 10.30

Session One

10.30 - 11.00

Morning tea provided

11.00 - 12.30

Session Two

12:30 - 1.20

Lunch provided

1:30 - 3.00

Enrolment:

Session Three

Closing date is Monday 2 June

An attempt will be made to honour your first workshop preferences; however limits on group sizes may be necessary in some cases. It is important that you indicate your first three workshop choices for each session on your registration form. Confirmation of registration will be emailed upon receipt of registration form

Cost: * $600.00 + gst per person for both days * Your school will be invoiced for the Conference in the month in 2014 that you enrol

Accommodation: You are able to book accommodation at Distinction Rotorua Hotel - Standard accommodation rooms $140.00 including GST single or twin share per night. Phone Distinction Rotorua Hotel directly on 0800 654 789 quoting the “WWW Working in our Wired World” name or reference number 225845 to make your reservation and receive this special conference accommodation rate while rooms are still available. There is complimentary parking available on site. Accommodation cancellation is the delegate’s responsibility.

Cancellations Policy: For cancellations submitted by Friday, 9 May 2014, your pre-paid conference registration fees will be refunded in full. No refund of conference registration fees will be given for cancellations* made after Friday 9 May 2014. If you are unable to attend we recommend that you send a replacement staff member. No refunds will be made for ‘No Shows’. Cancellations must be received in writing only – all correspondence must be sent to Nikki Pound: poundn@waikato.ac.nz IPL reserves the right to add, withdraw, reschedule or substitute speakers and/or vary advertised programmes, prices and venues. Should an event fail to attract a required minimum number of participants we reserve the right to cancel it. In this instance, IPL will provide a full refund but will not accept responsibility for travel and accommodation costs incurred by participants. IPL strongly advise against booking non-refundable flights; occasionally circumstances beyond our control mean that a conference may be cancelled or postponed. Enrolment in this conference constitutes acceptance of this policy. *At the discretion of the Regional Course Coordinator up to 75% of the conference fee may be reimbursed due to extenuating circumstances.

Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 47


‘WWW’ - Working in our Wired World: Enhancing Learning Through Technology... 18-19 June 2014 18 June

9.00am – 3.00pm

Ewan McIntosh (Edinburgh) and Tom Barrett (Australia)

Unpack The Broad Assessment Agenda We Face In Schools Today And Explore New Insights And Solutions That Help Us Plan For More Authentic Assessment Opportunities. •

It is all about the grade at the end of the day. How can I break this everlasting cycle?

I want my students to be more central in their learning, how do I take steps towards this?

There’s just stuff the kids have to learn - how can I rethink my planning to offer more engaging opportunities, with more opportunities for authentic assessment, as part of learning, baked in from the start?

19 June

Workshop Selection

Session 1 Choices 1

Creating Generative Topics If you are going to be in a position to inspire your students you need to feel inspired yourself. Most of our traditional topics can very quickly be given a new lease of life by developing a more generative topic title. We need to be able to literally propel our learners into the topic with these few words. The title is their first introduction to a project and so should immediately inspire them to be involved, and therefore make the most of the digital tools you plan into an immersive learning experience. Ewan McIntosh (Edinburgh)

2 Generating Ideas and Sharing our Professional Expertise A workshop that aims to gather and share practical ideas for the classroom, building an extensive resource as we go. We will explore the role of ideation in the creative process, how this mindset ties in with design thinking and use these new skills to crowdsource teaching and learning ideas. Tom Barrett (Australia)

3 Identifying and removing barriers to learning? For students, many barriers to learning are inadvertently created by teachers passionate about designing great learning environments. Using the Universal Design for Learning framework, we will take a look at learning from a student perspective and identify where a tweak in our practice can better align our learning design and increase our effective use of digital tools. Chrissie Butler (Auckland)

4 Capturing The Learning Share means of capturing and storing evidence of student learning within a Literacy context. Will suit Years 0-8 level. Mary-Anne Murphy (Hamilton)

5 Why iPad? With Steps And Structures To Make It Work! At the top of the list of trends for 2010 - 2013 is the use of portable technologies. This workshop will look at why this is so with the special focus on the iPad. We will examine why this technology is here to stay. Based on working with many New Zealand schools the length of the country - what are steps and structures to make this work for your school! Stuart Hale (Auckland)

6 iPads As A Storytelling Tool Digital Storytelling can transform your students’ writing into a visual masterpiece that is filled with voice and emotion, while enhancing critical thinking skills. The iPad takes digital storytelling to a new level by making the process easier, and even more engaging for students of all grade levels as well as for their teachers. This hands on workshop will highlight the top apps available for Storytelling using the iPad. Wendy Stafford (Rotorua)

Session 2 Choices 7 Creating Generative Topics If you are going to be in a position to inspire your students you need to feel inspired yourself. Most of our traditional topics can very quickly be given a new lease of life by developing a more generative topic title. We need to be able to literally propel our learners into the topic with these few words. The title is their first introduction to a project and so should immediately inspire them to be involved, and therefore make the most of the digital tools you plan into an immersive learning experience. Ewan McIntosh (Edinburgh) Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz 48 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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8 Generating Ideas and Sharing our Professional Expertise A workshop that aims to gather and share practical ideas for the classroom, building an extensive resource as we go. We will explore the role of ideation in the creative process, how this mindset ties in with design thinking and use these new skills to crowdsource teaching and learning ideas. Tom Barrett (Australia)

9 Releasing Talent Across Cultures The students in our schools have a multitude of passions, skills, gifts and aptitudes. In our classrooms, much of that potential energy can remain dormant but could support a deeper engagement in learning. In our session, we will look together at how we recognise talent across cultures and how we can use a Universal Design for Learning approach to re-evaluate how we design learning that enables students to consistently build on their personal expertise and experience. Throughout the session we will be considering how we harness the potential of digital tools and online environments. Chrissie Butler (Auckland)

10 Motivating Boys To Write Using e-tools Share means of harnessing the power of e-tools to rev-up those reluctant writers amongst your boys. Will suit Years Middle-Senior Primary school level. Mary-Anne Murphy (Hamilton)

11 iPads Transforming Teaching A)nd Learning - With 8 Key Apps With 900,000 Apps the numbers are daunting! This workshop will look at just 8 amazing Apps that are transforming classrooms from Yr 1-13 and in all subject areas. NB This will show the potential and linkage of these Apps but in the time given it is not a hands on workshop! Stuart Hale (Auckland)

12 iPad - Tools For The Teacher With iPad, your classroom materials go way beyond the classroom. iPads have exploded throughout schools and classrooms. Their flexibility, versatility, and mobility make them a phenomenal learning and teaching tool. Join me to explore the endless possibilities available to you as a teaching professional and how you can enhance your own professional development. Wendy Stafford (Rotorua)

Session 3 Choices 13 From Theory To Practice: An End-of-conference Deep Dive, Wrap-up And A Bout Of Pragmatism At the end of a day or two of professional learning, it’s essential to wrap up those loose ends, see things from different angles, explore potentially interesting tangents and commit to action. In this workshop, we will use suggestions and queries from the group of participants to explore the area’s most in need of some more thought, and learn some creative and pragmatic tips for putting our learning’s into practice effectively, and bring our colleagues on board. Ewan McIntosh (Edinburgh)

14. Generating Ideas and Sharing our Professional Expertise A workshop that aims to gather and share practical ideas for the classroom, building an extensive resource as we go. We will explore the role of ideation in the creative process, how this mindset ties in with design thinking and use these new skills to crowdsource teaching and learning ideas. Tom Barrett (Australia)

15 Expand your expectations of storytelling and sharing thinking Even with all the bling and shiny screens of new technology, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut and find yourself and your students repeatedly representing their ideas in the same ways across the curriculum. As a tonic to the stalemate, come and participate in a hands-on, immersive, studio session trialling and experimenting with alternative ways of telling stories and expressing ideas using sound, text, digital tools and a few props. Chrissie Butler (Auckland)

16 Harnessing The Use Of e- tools To Support Reading Comprehension Development Share ways of optimizing the use of e-tools to support the development of reading comprehension. Will suit Years Middle-Senior Primary school level. Mary-Anne Murphy (Hamilton)

17 iPad And The Evolution Of Literacy To be able to have access to all the books you need 24/7 because you carry them with you! To be able to read, write and publish interactive media rich publications is revolutionary. To link the real with the virtual! This is all possible now. This workshop will demonstrate and address these issues and how they will impact teaching and learning. “It is a book Jim but not as we know it!” Stuart Hale (Auckland)

18 Classroom 5th Wall Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century has moved way beyond the classroom. Classroom websites and blogs provide a platform for students to engage in their learning outside of school hours and encourage community involvement. Develop your own Classroom 5th Wall using Weebly and learn how to utilize it as a teaching and learning tool that enhances your classroom programme. Wendy Stafford (Rotorua) Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 49


Ewan McIntosh Ewan leads the development of work with key clients globally, in both the education world and creative industries, and is a keynote speaker on innovation, design thinking and creativity. We are world leaders in leading innovation, showing how design thinking can provide a process for learning anything, and how to build teacher capacity in thinking skills & formative assessment. I’ve been advisor on the digital agenda to the Vice President of the European Commission, Mrs Neelie Kroes, and sit on the ICT Excellence Expert Group advising the Cabinet Minister for Education in Scotland.

Tom Barrett Tom Barrett was one of the UK’s best known primary classroom teachers before starting with NoTosh in 2011, and is now known for his highly innovative approaches with schools around the world. He curates and shares thousands of practical ideas from teachers across the globe on his blog edte.ch, and puts into practice the very best thinking on educational technology to inspire and engage children in their learning. Tom works on leadership, technology adoption and improving teacher capacity with NoTosh in schools across Australia, and provides regular input on other projects globally. He inspires teacher audiences with fresh ideas for engaging young people in learning at conferences and workshops. Tom leads education and creative projects for the Australian branch, based in Melbourne and working globally.

Mary-Anne Murphy Mary-Anne is a Learning Facilitator/Consultant, based in the Waikato and works throughout NZ. She partners with schools to offer tailored professional support that provides practical and innovative learning for teachers. She is committed to supporting teachers in their quest to provide learners with the tools, strategies and competencies that equip them to become global citizens of tomorrow. She has extensive teaching and leadership experience within both Primary and Secondary contexts. Her experience includes roles as a Primary Principal, Assessment Adviser, Specialist Classroom Teacher and Professional Development Co-ordinator of Literacy and Assess To Learn initiatives, school-wide Syndicate Leader with a particular emphasis on student engagement and motivation programmes, HOD English Department and e-Learning and Inquiry facilitator.

Chrissie Butler Chrissie is a leader, writer, speaker, teacher and facilitator in the areas of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), e-Learning, inclusive education, and professional learning development. She’s works with the team at CORE Education where she is highly regarded for her ability to illustrate and make accessible differing perspectives, complex concepts, and new educational ideas with humour, a pencil, a camera and few props. She also has a reputation for closely connecting culture with learning and bending the expectations of how we can use technology and the Arts to transform learning environments

Wendy Stafford Wendy Stafford has an extensive background in ICT, is a trained teacher in the 21st Century and a parent of two dyslexic boys. As an Aunty, mother and teacher of children with special learning needs (Aspergers, ADHD and Autism) she has dedicated many years to researching literacy, numeracy and e-learning programmes that cater for all children in a whole class setting, incorporating learning styles, multi media and that promote independence.

Stuart Hale Stuart specialises in delivering eLearning Professional Development to New Zealand schools and has worked extensively with schools, staff and students to explore the full extent that eLearning can be integrated in a Teaching and Learning environment that is centred on the needs of the learner throughout New Zealand schools. In the last 3 years he has worked with many schools with hands on innovative workshops as they have introduced iPads.

Conference Information online: www.2014IPLconferences.ac.nz 50 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Leading academic, Dr Justin Ihirangi Heke, is a Māori health and physical activity consultant involved in projects ranging from community-based initiatives to working with elite athletes.

The world’s leading outdoor educators and academics are gathering at The World Outdoors Summit (WOS) - a four-day conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, 19-22 November - to share, teach and inspire with their projects and research.  The Summit is a rare opportunity for connecting, learning and engaging with the international outdoor education community’s most influential leaders and thinkers. Delegates will come away with access to fantastic tools and information specific to the outdoor education community, gain insights into the latest research and developments in outdoor education and learn about Māori whakapapa (genealogy) of the outdoors with a bush workshop. Prominent outdoor educator, Liz Thevenard, will be speaking on the value that outdoor education brings to society.

Dr Heke’s presentation will provide an introduction to atua, kaitiaki and tipua Māori (environmental guardians, animal guardians and spiritual guardians) and briefly discuss some of the current barriers to reintroducing these culturally relevant beings into mainstream outdoor education. Dr Heke is a lecturer at the Wānanga o Raukawa. He is also a consultant to the New Zealand Academy of Sport delivering to several national sporting bodies including Motorsport New Zealand, Cycling New Zealand, Motorcycling New Zealand and New Zealand Swimming Federation. Other outdoor educators and academics presenting at the Summit include: Dr Ian Williams, from Australia, who will give an overview of findings from the Outdoor Youth Programs Research Alliance (OYPRA) research, including insights into perceived benefits of outdoor programs as well as key characteristics of outdoor experiences that might influence these outcomes; and Tom Deer, from Canada, who will share various games of the Iroquois that are still played today in the ancient way, and explain how they can assist in restoring a person’s health and balance with nature. Other topics the Summit will cover include innovations in outdoor recreation, policy development discussion with a political panel, and business development strategies for adventure tourism operators. Delegates can also look forward to a range of field trip options and workshops, including a Māori bushcraft session, hosted by Dr Heke and Paora Te Hurihanganui, and an EONZ Professional Development Workshop run by Ms Thevenard. The Summit is the opportunity to explore, network and learn what’s new and what lies ahead for the whole outdoors community. The Summit programme can be viewed at www.wos2013.com/

The intent of her presentation is to stimulate practitioners to engage in reflective practice and provide ideas to enrich and improve outdoor education programmes. Ms Thevenard is a senior lecturer in health, physical education and education outside the classroom at Victoria University, Wellington. She is currently the chair of Education Outdoors New Zealand (EONZ) and in 2009 was presented with the Sport New Zealand Supreme Award for her outstanding contribution to outdoor recreation and education. 

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 51


Photographs from the NZ Fashion Tech 2012 Graduate Show 52 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Tertiary fashion school takes leadership-gong at annual awards While fashion eyes are on the design forward garments strutting the runways at New Zealand Fashion Week, tertiary education eyes are on a leading fashion institute who is teaching young New Zealanders how to create them. Applied fashion design and technology programmes delivered by NZ Fashion Tech in Auckland and Wellington, have taken centre-stage at the New Zealand Association of Private Education Providers (NZAPEP) annual awards in Wellington. NZ Fashion Tech was awarded the Southern Cross Travel Insurance Leadership Award, after winning the Cengage Provider of the Year Award in 2011. The award was accepted by both directors - Academic Director Val Marshall-Smith and Managing Director Kevin Smith. It is rare in the NZAPEP Awards for a provider to win two top awards inside three years. NZ Fashion Tech’s business model is believed to be unique within the sector. While other providers deliver fashion programmes within other degrees, NZ Fashion Tech offers fashion programmes exclusively, with emphasis on preparing graduates for a designled fashion industry. In its TEC Educational Performance Indicators, NZ Fashion Tech reports that 86% of graduates

“successfully find employment in the industry or go onto further study and then into employment.” NZ Fashion Tech has been part of two innovative partnerships which helped “enhance learning” and “bring reality to the theory”: the annual Red Cross Upcycling Challenge and the Kleenex® Cottonelle® Brand Paper Dress collaboration which has just completed its fourth year. Val Marshall-Smith says: “It’s a huge honour to be recognised among our peers. As the fashion industry expands its export horizons and moves some production off-shore, the demand locally for broadly based, highly tuned skills to create world-beating collections increases.” “We are proud to be equipping our students well for the reality of the industry and are pleased our team culture recognises and responds so positively to the challenge of changing times,” she says. Kevin Smith speaks about the benefits of one of the collaborations: “Since 2009, the Kleenex® Cottonelle® Brand Paper Dress partnership has extended our Diploma students’ awareness of the realities of receiving and responding to a commission brief from a client. “By participating in this collaborative project our NZ Fashion Tech Diploma students experience the fashion world first-hand, helping them to make more-informed career choices and offer a wider range of skills.”

Academic Director Val Marshall-Smith and Managing Director Kevin Smith.

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 53


Whole Body Learning According to speed-reading experts, we take in 2000 times more information than our conscious minds are aware. We do this through a multiple use of our senses - both by themselves and when used together. The better we can use our body in learning, the better we can learn. This is what we do when we craft learning experiences at Cheetah Learning – we help each student to leverage their whole body to learn faster and more effectively.

Eyes – According to the Visual Teaching Alliance, approximately 65% of the population are visual learners. This means that they assimilate information best when ideas, concepts, and data are conveyed using visual techniques rather than through audio or text. Think about how you assimilate information. Do you have an easier time remembering pictures and charts rather than just text? Do you see information in your mind when you close your eyes? Do you make a “movie” in your mind as you read to better associate with the information you are processing? These are things that help visual learners to learn. Your eyes also help you make spatial sense of the world. Working on your peripheral vision can help you pick up more information in your environment – this is especially helpful when you are learning new skills. Students in engineering classes improve their spatial cognition abilities by taking basic engineering drawing classes their freshman year, which then helps them in subsequence courses as they have used their eyes to improve their spatial cognition. Visual aids can improve learning by 400% - so the next time you are learning a new concept – use your eyes!

Ears – Auditory learners are those who learn best when they can hear the information. But hearing information is not the only way you can benefit by using your ears. The right kind of music, such as Baroque classical music, can help you relax and can boost your mental performance as you learn. A study called the “Mozart effect” found that listening to Mozart’s music could improve performance as it enhanced the ability to think of abstract solutions to logical problems. At Cheetah Learning, we also do some fairly fascinating things with binaural beats. When people listen to binaural beats through headphones and one ear hears a different beat than the other ear, the middle of the brain senses the difference between the two beats and entrains the brain waves to the frequency difference. This is very helpful for putting you into a more relaxed brain state that is better for learning new information. Now, that sounds pretty amazing!

Nose - Your sense of smell is your strongest sense of instant recall and state conditioning. When you need to remember vast amounts of information such as 54 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

when you take exams, it’s helpful to activate this sense. In Cheetah Learning’s Accelerated Exam Prep program, our students eat sugar-free mints throughout their course and then take them with them into the exam. This way, they are reproducing their state of relaxed focus that they learned how to achieve in class and they are thus stimulating instant recall of the key concepts. We also use our noses for breathing. How you breathe significantly impacts your brain state and how you can learn. In Cheetah’s courses, we teach our students how to best breathe to put their brains in a state of peak performance.

Mouth - Chewing mint-flavored gum while studying can have an even stronger impact on the state of conditioning and instant recall; however, many exam centers do not allow gum chewing. Vocal Chords - Some people learn best by hearing themselves talk about what it is they are learning. This is a combination of your speaking ability and your abilities to hear. So making your own binaural beat tapes of what you need to learn in your own voice can help significantly when you like to learn this way.

Stomach – Everyone has experienced a “gut feeling” before – it happens when you’re nervous, scared, or excited and your gut is conveying information that can be useful to the rest of your body, so long as you listen. Scientists often refer to the gut as the “Second Brain” due to the extensive network of neurons that line our gut. According to a Scientific American article, “Think Twice: how the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well Being”, reveals that the neurotransmitters in the gut do much more than handle our digestion; they actually play a larger role in our mental state. Given that 90% of the fibers in the gut carry information from the gut to the brain, and not the other way around, it’s not surprising to see how the gut can affect your mental and emotional state of being. So what does this mean for you? To be in a state of mind where you are conducive for learning, you can’t just focus on the brain in your head, but also your “second brain.” By eating lots of vegetables, lean proteins, and complex carbohydrates, you are making it easy for your gut to do its job, and therefore send positive messages to your brain.

Fingers – One of the most important mottos at The Center for Accelerated Learning is “Learning is Creation, not Consumption.” This means that a learner does not simply absorb knowledge, but actually creates knowledge by building synapses in the brain and integrates the new knowledge or skill into their existing structure of self. The best way to do this is by using your fingers. Back to index

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By writing down what you are learning in way that makes sense to you – through drawings or mind maps or notes – you are creating linkages in your brain in ways you can more quickly retrieve it. With your hand, draw a mind map summary of each chapter you read next time you read a book – you will be amazed at how much more knowledge you created in this effort than if you had simply read the book. The more you draw the mind maps, the better you will get at this skill.

Focusing on every part of your body is the way to improve how you learn and this gets even more important as you age. Recent studies by the Center for Brain Health through the University of Dallas show that the more you can engage all elements of your body, the better you can maintain and even improve your abilities to learn at any age. So remember – it’s not “all in your head” – it’s in your whole body.

Arms & Legs – Do you think the best way to learn tennis is by watching and analyzing the Williams sisters for hours on end – or going out and playing? While learning a skill like tennis can be improved by pretending you are playing and seeing yourself playing like Williams sisters, kinesthetic learning happens when the body is moving and you are learning a task or skill by actually doing it. If you are this type of learner, you might use big hand gestures when telling stories – because you learn and convey messages by moving and expressing. Moving also helps to dissipate nervous energy that makes it much harder to concentrate and focus. This is the reason why in every 90 minutes of Cheetah’s courses, our students do an eight-minute series of yoga stretches designed to help burn off any excess stress and maintain a state of relaxed focus.

By Michelle LaBrosse, PMP®, Chief Cheetah and Founder of Cheetah Learning, and Kristen Medina, Co-Author, CAPM®

Michelle LaBrosse, PMP, is an entrepreneurial powerhouse with a penchant for making success easy, fun, and fast. She is the founder of Cheetah Learning, the author of the Cheetah Success Series, and a prolific blogger whose mission is to bring Project Management to the masses.

Do You Speak “Negotiation”? Negotiation is a word that conjures up images of boardrooms, power plays and attorneys. We often find ourselves intimidated by the very concept of negotiation, and we’re overwhelmed before we begin. It doesn’t have to be that way, though. To get the most out of your career, it is imperative to learn how to negotiate in way that fits your personality type, and where you are also able to change based on the other party’s negotiation style. Negotiation is a language that is best done when both parties know it fluently. Can you speak the “negotiation language”?

Know Thyself The first step to negotiating effectively is to know and understand who you are. This might seem silly, as you spend 24/7 with yourself – who knows you better than you? But sometime it can be hard to see yourself objectively because you are so used to your own mannerisms. To get a better perspective, take a moment to identify your Myers Brigg personality type: E or I Are you an Extrovert (E) or an Introvert (I) How are you energized? Do you get excited or animated around others (E) or do you prefer to be on your own? (I)

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N or S Are you Intuitive (N) or Sensory (S)? What do you focus on in your environment? Do you look at what could be (N)? Or do see “what is” (S)? People who fit the N classification are “Idea” people and the people who fit the “S” classification are driven by “real” facts and data. T or F Are you Thinker (T) or a Feeler (F)? How do you make decisions? Do you make them impersonally with comments such as “I think” (T)? Or do you make decisions based on your own values, prefacing comments with “I feel…” (F)? J or P Are you Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)? How do you choose to live? Do you keep your desk neat and tidy (J)? Or do you prefer to keep it more spontaneously organized and flexible (P)?

Find your Blind Spots Once you know you personality type, then you should become very familiar with the strengths and challenges that are common within that personality. For instance, INTJ’s are typically strategic, thoughtful, deliberate, logical, and prepared. However, they often don’t spend the necessary time to establish rapport or develop relationships, and can have difficulty communicating clearly. Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 55


The New Graffiti/Street Art/Craft? In previous issues of Good Teacher Magazine we have meandered through the world of international graffiti. From the bravado fuelled dubious starts of tagging through to the development of colourful lettering then onto what can only be described as works of art, available to the public all day every day with no restrictions or charges. Is this the future of art? The last of the pictures in the term three issue were very dark and made uncomfortable viewing... however we have explored enough of these and many more examples are available for viewing on the internet. Some of the artists while claiming anonymity have pseudonyms which have become household names and with the internet their work is as instantly recognisable in Australia and Japan as it is in the country in which they have been created. Another phenomenon in the world of street art which is becoming more and more prevalent is that which harmlessly adds to the surroundings. Now you may say that it is what street art does but remember that the only way that can be removed is by painting over (except in the case of chalk works which need a street cleaner, high pressure hose or well aimed downpours.) The new kids on the block are crafting and planting.

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The other rising art is that of yarn bombing. The increase of guerrila yarn bombing has to be the most amusing and good humoured form of street art visible today. Usually serving no purpose other than to brighten the world around us and perhaps at the same time make those who notice it smile and lighten their step as they face the rest of their day... it also has become an outlet for communities of knitters and crocheters who gather to stitch, plot and plan their next foray out into the streets. And plan they must as it is usually (though not always) undertaken in groups. The following pages show the variety and scope possible... from a community and its trees through to the transport system with a few other embellishments on the way...enjoy Next term we look at the transport industry and how it can be humanised and made amusing! (Term One 2014) Plants can take the form of the pictures shown but there is also the rise of the guerilla gardeners who utilise unused city plots to bring some of the country into the city whether in the form of trees and grass or a gardening project which will help feed the local community. More about this aspect in the following issue of Good Teacher Magazine (Term Two 2014)

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Damage-free graffiti for a softer and more cuddly urban environment.

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 57


Community Yarn Bombing workshops at Adelaide’s BowerBird Market

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Newspaper article Yarn bombers hit Greerton Greerton’s cherry blossom trees are blooming in a feat of colour – after a bunch of needle-wielding ladies bombed the trees yesterday. The yarn bombing community art project is part of an initiative to add colour to the precinct and attract more people to the Cameron Road and Chadwick Street shops. Young fans admire the yarn bombing on Greerton trees. Photo Bruce Barnard. Greerton Lotto Shop owner Belinda Sands, a keen knitter herself, is among a gang of the area’s yarn bombers, that have been scheming – and knitting – the project since early this year. “I’ve always loved the pictures I’ve seen of yarn bombing, so I thought it would be great to do it here,” says Belinda. The group took to the streets of Greerton on Sunday morning to pin their creations covering the trunks and branches of trees in colourful yarns. Greerton Village Mainstreet manager Victoria Thomas thinks the community art project will add colour to the precinct and attract more people to

the shopping centre. “It is colourful and something different which will get people talking.” The area’s 30 cherry trees have been decorated in woollen knitting, crocheting or panels from recycled jumpers. Victoria, who describes herself as a poor knitter, has been wrapping her adopted tree in panels from recycled jumpers. “The public art will be on display for a fortnight. Now the trees have lost their leaves and are looking bare it’s the ideal time to put it up.” Victoria says the knitting and crocheting will be taken down early if it starts to deteriorate and “look tatty” due to weather. “I think it’s really exciting – and the best thing about it is that it’s a project that comes from the community.” Yarn bombing, also called guerrilla knitting, has become a popular form of temporary public art since the first recorded example in the Netherlands in 2004, with yarn installations appearing overnight in public places.

Yarn Bombing in the Greerton Village Mainstreet

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 59


Statues Next term we look at the transport industry and how it can be humaniised and made amusing!

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 61


One Man’s Dream and the Ruben Our intrepid sailor determined to tick his lifelong dream off is ‘bucket list’ finishes his journey with the Ruben Jane.. 22nd October. Went to clear customs and what I thought to be a long 10 minute walk turned into about 50 minutes. I had left the map on the boat so when I was almost there I sought directions from a passer-by. He didn’t speak English and did not understand ‘Douanes’. When I showed him a passport he wanted to send me to a bank so I gave up on him and we parted as friends. I next sought help from a receptionist. After a while spent conversing in my limited French I realised that she spoke English so that helped. However I must have been here too long because all my responses were in French - c’est la vie! Non? I cleared customs, then another 10 minute walk to Immigration (the grumpy man again) and the Port Captain. Did a small amount of shopping (present for Joy), checked the weather map (nothing sinister) and departed for New Zealand after paying Carol at the marina for our berth. She has been helpful in many ways. Friends were there to see us off. A parting video shot was taken and we motored to the fuel berth. I had decided that with a big high coming off Australia, fuel was more important than spare water so we filled the spare water containers with diesel at NZ$1-40 per litre compared to New Zealand price of $0-47. There’s 1147 miles to go to ‘A’ Buoy at the Tauranga Harbour Entrance. Some of those miles we have to fight for. Until 1100 hours it had been flat calm but as we departed at midday the breeze came up. We exited the Petite Rade then the wind was on the nose all the way to the Amedee Light. We could have gone out through the Dumbea Pass but I’m going to the Amedee lighthouse. It is one more of the goals I have set for this trip. It took over 1 1/2 hours under motor to clear the Ile Maitre light only 3 1/2 miles from Noumea. After 6 miles we were able to raise the storm jib and make faster progress. There was a very short sharp sea and the boat pitched horribly. She doesn’t sail well in those conditions. It took 4 hours to go 12 miles to the light. The transit is very straightforward with both markers being white. The green vegetation behind the front one makes any deviation from the track very obvious. There was quite a tidal influence going out the pass. Also 2 wrecks on the N side of the entrance bear testimony to intemperate navigation. Outside the reef the short sharp seas continued but at least we could sail. I was seasick fairly soon after leaving the light and continued vomiting each end of my watch for the next 30 hours. I was outwardly cheerful though, as usual. Donn also had a touch of the dreaded lurgy. He too remained cheerful. He is really good crew. At 1800 hours we changed up to the No4 but at nightfall we 62 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

were down again to the storm jib. Still with 3 reefs in the main we made painfully slow progress overnight. The log shows that for the first 24 hours our top speed was 5 knots but the norm was about 2.2 knots. 23rd October. The 1.5 metre swell continued to drop but the chop was still very confused and uncomfortable. We had done the right thing in leaving on the back of a low pressure system but it didn’t feel the best yet. Donn was also sick but we’re all standing watch still which is good. Spoke to Sunset Quest on the morning sked. It is a comfort to have other contacts whilst at sea. John Goater’s presence is of great emotional and psychological benefit. He’s a real friend to all. At 1500 hours we changed from the storm jib up to the No4 and at 1800hours we shook the reefs out of the main (all times are NZST). When we put the No4 up our speed went from 4.4 to 7.1 knots. Donn got a top speed of 8.7 knots (GPS) and the boat didn’t appear stressed. At the start of my night watch I spied a light off the starboard bow on a constant heading which indicates a collision course. I tried calling him but got no response. After an anxious hour he disappeared below the horizon off the starboard quarter. Just before the end of my watch a boat, presumably the same one, appeared from the starboard quarter. Again he was on a collision course. Called him again but again there was no response. I put on the foredeck light so it lit up the sails and shone the torch directly at him. I even got the flares out but he then veered off to port and disappeared over the horizon. 24th October. The breeze has slowly been dropping but our speed has still been around 6 knots. The sky cleared this morning then became overcast again. In my mental survey of the boat this morning I found myself saying ‘This is the day the autohelm broke’. One hour later the nipple under the tiller sheared off! Using good old Kiwi ingenuity, Wayne and I drilled another hole and rigged a makeshift nipple which should last until we get home. Donn was not able to help with the repairs as he was steering. Just after the motor had been run to charge the batteries a squall came through and left us rolling uncomfortably. We motored for a while then it returned at 18-20 knots SE so we have been doing 7-8 knots towards home. Donn and I are both over our seasickness. Today is the first day we have eaten anything much. I have been sucking from a condensed milk can for the past couple of days which is my usual practice when seasick. We spied a ship on the W horizon heading N

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n Jane but again no response on the radio. Just on dark Wayne caught a 47 inch mahi-mahi (c.f. my 48 inch one on the way to Makongai). His fish wasn’t as big and I have been teasing him about this. It is still a very creditable size. He was a little put out when I made him gut it too. Spoke with Tony just before John’s sked. On the sked I made enquiries about calling in to Norfolk Island tomorrow. In the end we decided not to visit as someone would have to stay with the boat and by the time clearance in and out had been made the visit would have been too short. Sailed overnight with just a double reefed main. Midday to midday 162 miles. Some spectacular meteorite activity tonight with one landing just over the horizon to the E.

followed just a few miles later by 1695 metres whereas the dog-leg route has fairly consistent depths of around 3000 metres. Just before dark we had another strike but we lost the fish. After dark we saw the lights of several planes. There was also some meteorite activity, but not as much as last night.

25th October.

26th October.

At 0300 hours we raised the storm jib too then at 0700 hours lowered both sails and raised the No1. Spoke with Malcolm Sunset Quest on the morning sked. Homesick. We make our first turn tomorrow morning - left - then only a right turn and we’re home. Midday run 140 miles. ‘Land Ho’ was the cry. We sighted land about 12-15 miles off the port beam at 1800 hours followed shortly afterwards by ‘Thar She Blows’ when I saw the spume from a whale several times about 400 metres away. Didn’t see the whale but I finally got to make the time-honoured call. I told John about the whale. He asked if we were calling at Norfolk Island and I said ‘No, and the whale isn’t either.’ I think he liked that one. He also said it’s OK to turn right around North Cape if the traffic lights are on our side. We made our left turn at 2020 hours.

Donn took several loads of green water into the cockpit during his watch; I took one. I saw it coming so ducked my head so my wet weather gear took the impact. I was just congratulating myself on dodging it when I realised that my elbows were awash. Cold water drained back down my arms. I have shoes on for warmth. I haven’t worn shoes since the 5th May. They feel funny. They’re soaking wet because we’ve just gone from storm jib to No4 and I was on the bow. We still have two tucks in the main.

After dark we picked up the light on Norfolk Island so turned back onto our S course for several hours to ensure clearance around the shoal area S of the island. When we finally turned towards North Cape I decided to abort the waypoint 50 miles S. This caused a cross track error of 118 miles with the waypoints being off Amedee light and North Cape. The traditional course is to head due S from New Caledonia with the SE trades and wait until the SW winds come up the Tasman sea before turning for North Cape. However the winds instead of turning SW were backing to the NE. Who wants cold winds when warm winds are available? The water temperature this afternoon was 22°C. Two hours later it was 20°C. Don’t go to Norfolk Island for hot water. Also by heading due S instead of taking a direct line from New Caledonia to North Cape one look at the chart will show constant depth rather than grossly variable depth leading to rougher, more turbulent seas. The direct route, for example has a depth of 236 metres

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Just on daybreak I watched an albatross for 5 minutes. It flew for the entire time without flapping its wings - really beautiful to watch. Saw a ship hull down on the horizon moving NW. We’re humming along at 7-8 knots and its quite uncomfortable with a short chop (Donn calls it a Waitemata chop). I’m looking for speed (safely) as I don’t like this area of the ocean. I have just told the crew that this next 300 miles is the part of the voyage I have been dreading since I began planning the voyage. They thought I was joking. The swell is only 1 1/2 metres. By this time tomorrow it will have risen to 3 to 5 metres. It was around here that the Quartermaster was lost with all hands in the June ‘94 storm. The last 300 miles before North Cape has a fearsome reputation. Spoke to Malcolm on the morning sked. He said we’ve got this high for another day or so. It’s good being able to access someone’s weather fax. There’s a low and a front peeling off Tasmania. I’d like to be around North Cape before they arrive. He’s invited Joy and I to his 50th birthday party in Sydney, next March 19. I told the crew that I have 5 aims for this trip: viz 1.To arrive 2.safely. Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 63


3.with crew intact 4. with boat intact 5. harmoniously. Wayne and I had some mahi-mahi for tea. The weather has turned rough and my fish and corn kept falling off the plate onto the floor so I ate some of it from there. Donn said he wished he had the camera handy so he could have taken a photo. Donn is not keen on eating any of the tuna family as he reacts to it. We past some flotsam this morning and when the line passed near it we got a strike so we dropped the jib and immediately lost the fish. Spoke to Brian on Windermere II tonight. We have 236 miles to go to North Cape and they have 200 so a race is on. In the night during a sail change I noticed that one of our water containers containing diesel is leaking. We’ll assess it in the light of day. Going to the toilet in any sort of seaway would be hilarious to watch as removing clothing in a confined space is likely to involve bumping the door open. Once one is settled on the seat with one leg up the wall, one on the floor, and hands widely spaced on the walls, one then endeavours to relax. Just when action is imminent the boat lurches unexpectantly and the body tenses. It is important for the crew to have no problem with bowel habits. If constipation is a problem for one person it can jeopardise the entire voyage. I always tell the crew that if their bowels don’t open for 2 days that is their problem but if they don’t open for 3 days it becomes my problem. As eating habits often change dramatically at sea it is noteworthy for any skipper to be aware of the problems. 27th October. Malcolm was unreadable this morning, probably because he’s in Port Moselle. Temaraire relayed for me. Snapped the outhaul but it’s repaired now. Our 24 hour run to midday was 177 miles. This is our best ever and that’s with double reefed main and the storm jib. An uncomfortable day with several sail changes. The tiller arm connection on the autohelm is bent way out of shape but is still functioning. For how long we don’t know but it’s giving its best so I can’t ask for more than that. The sky is overcast. The swell this morning is a steep 3-5 metres and we took a few into the cockpit. It’s not the 4 metre swell but the 1/2 metre slop on top which gets us. Water temperature is 18°C. Saw a large pod of small dolphins this afternoon but they were heading away from us. There are at least 4 yachts - us, Windermere Ii, Ramona and Sea Salter converging on North Cape from various northern climes, so I’ve warned the crew to maintain good vigilance. Not that I have any complaints with them. They are very willing to pull their weight and we are still harmonious. Tonight Donn’s food lurched over his T-shirt so I took a photo before he recovered. Cooking at sea can be hazardous. Tonight it took three people to cook and dish it up - one to serve the meal, one to hold the 64 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

server and one to hold the plate. It must look funny but it is real teamwork. We’ve had the No4 up since 1100 hours. Our speed is consistently over 6 knots. On the evening sked I found that we have taken 60 miles out of Windermere II. I tried contacting them after the sked but I think they knew that so they didn’t answer. 28th October. Very disturbed night, very rolly and lumpy seas. Skies have been leaden for the last couple of days. Today we were visited briefly by a small pod of dolphins. Saw 8 gannets together resting on the water which is interesting. I don’t think I’ve ever seen that many together on the water, they are either on the wing in very small numbers or on land en masse. The autohelm bracket broke at 0300 hours so from here we’re hand steering all the way home. We’re down to 2 hour watches now to make it easier. At 1000 hours heard a gale warning for the Cape on Far North Radio. At midday we passed the first waypoint since Amedee light and 1/2 hour later Donn sighted land. I’ve been singing ‘Land on the starboard bow, starboard bow, starboard bow’ since then, and I think it’s driving the crew crazy. Still we did miss out on our Saturday night concert. ‘It’s land, Jim, but not as we know it’. Took some photos of distant land. Rippled sky. Not many people get to see North Cape from this angle so we feel quite privileged. Since midday yesterday we’ve been under No4 alone but still peeled 155 miles off the distance in 24 hours. I think I’ve won all but one of the distance-run guesses. Guess I know my boat. Contacted Far North Radio to find where the gale is coming from so we can position the boat to best advantage. It’s a front with 30-35 knots N-NW winds and 2 metre seas. Pretty much what we’ve been having for the past 300 miles except for the wind. Still they should help us on our way. We have North Cape abeam at 1500 hours so we’re sheltered from W seas. We will put up the storm jib at the first sign of strong winds. I have been trying to contact Tauranga Coastguard since we left Noumea and today I got Far North Radio to relay a message to Joy for me. Tauranga came through a few hours later to say that Joy would call tonight at 1755 hours NZ Daylight saving time. (1655 our time). Wayne wanted to change the clock by an hour but we haven’t because that would have shortened his watch by an hour. The barometer is steadily dropping - 4 points in 4 hours so it looks as though we’ll get plastered. Well before dark we had everything lashed down securely. The wind was gusting 22 knots which is fairly normal but the seas are becoming very irregular. I have been in bigger seas but I Don’t think I’ve ever been in rougher seas. The swells seem to be coming from about three different directions. They are all about 2 1/2 metres, but when they meet, the boat may go up 2 1/2 metres or 7 1/2 metres. There is no predicting the motion, and down below it is quite uncomfortable. Must be the influence of the Cape. Early in the

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evening we heard that a yacht, Total Bliss, was on the rocks at Manganui Heads. They called for assistance which was given by Simply Red and Nine Cat. There is a totally different feel to a rescue when you too are at the mercy of the elements compared to sitting safely at home. After several hours they managed to pull it off with no apparent major damage. My watch was from 1900 to 2100 hours. I had great difficulty staying awake. Although it was well after sundown the sky remained fairly light. I was concerned at my tiredness until I realised that before any big event in my life; be it a big game of basketball in my younger days, or an exam I would always feel sleepy and I could often fall asleep. I used to worry about oversleeping into the event but never have. I realised that I was mentally and physically preparing for the rough night. I was glad when my watch ended. The ships log records the poignant ‘cold, wet, miserable, but tomorrow’s coming!’ There is an air of expectation on board but not of fear. Right at the end of his watch Wayne yelled out ‘Oh No!’ I had been asleep in my bunk but was immediately alert. The boat lurched one way and then the other. Then there was a loud ‘sploosh’ as a wave broke over him. I knew that he was safe so I left it a minute to collect himself before looking outside. He had not been splashed....he had been bathed. The water was still well over ankle deep in the cockpit. Again the log states ‘Ditto and the last wave always gets ya’. I then slept well, so well that I slept 1/2 an hour into my watch. I have never done that before. Donn was so cold and the rain was so heavy. He said he had been too scared to look at the clock in case only 1/2 hour of his watch had gone by. I was grateful for the rest. It was his job to wake me anyway. I did feel sorry for him suffering at my expense though. I checked our position on the GPS and confirmed that we were 18-20 miles offshore before taking the helm. The exact distance was not important. Suffice to know that we were not going to run ashore. I had just taken over the helm and Donn hadn’t had time to get to his bunk in the front cabin when I saw what I initially thought was a village with all its lights on, emerging out of the heavy rain. Then I saw a red light and a green light and realised that it was a ship heading straight towards us from a distance of about 1/3 mile. I yelled for Donn to take the helm. We were moving across its path at about 2 1/2 knots with just our storm jib up. It was probably about 30,000 tonnes bearing down on us at about 27 knots. With Donn at the helm I tried contacting her on Ch16. There was no response. I grabbed the torch and a flare and went back up into the cockpit. Wayne turned on the foredeck light. I shone a torch at the bridge - again with no response. Next I started to unwrap the flare but by this time I realised that she was going to pass just behind us so didn’t fire the flare. People have subsequently asked me what the name of the vessel was. I reply that I had other things on my mind at the time. I did not even recall seeing the flag on the stern. All I know was that it was a container ship, that it was

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bigger than us and that we were still alive. Awakened memories of the Sleaven family being run down several years ago only 20 miles further S. (3 out of 4 people died). Ships set their radar to see other large ships, but not little yachts, then they head for bed. With the rough conditions I doubt they would have picked us up on radar anyway. If they had hit us they probably would not have felt a thing so would have been unaware of our plight. The remainder of the watch passed peacefully apart from the rough sea and the wind which rarely got over 25 knots. It was a nervous skipper who had stood the watch though. 29th October. In the morning we increased the sail area, swapping the storm jib for the No 1 and raising the full main. It seems strange that following a supposed gale and with the trip almost over we finally had all possible canvas aloft. The mist quickly cleared and we saw a ship to seaward and a yacht heading in to the Bay of Islands. The maritime authority had gale warnings out for most of New Zealand. Shortly afterwards we were becalmed off Cape Brett. After breakfast we dropped the sails and resorted to motor until we reached the Hen and Chickens. The swell was 1 ½ metres and easing. Inside the Poor Knights we passed a basking shark but Wayne didn’t want to try catching it. There’s a wind warning out for the outer Hauraki Gulf 25 knots W gusting 35 knots and at 1730 hours it arrived. I tried to raise Windermere 11 to ask them how to tack because when we raised the sails they were on the opposite side to what we have had for the entire leg so far, but they didn’t answer. We had stopped the motor and with all sails up were cruising but we quickly reefed to 2 folds in the main and the No4 jib. We rushed to do it before the radio sked. On the sked we heard that Windermere 11 was 70 miles behind us and motoring in the calm. We really hummed along. It was my last sked with John so I thanked him. Words seem so inadequate to express my gratitude. Navigating after dark was easy with the GPS and the lighthouses but I was awake to help Wayne through the difficult parts. Once out from behind the protection of Little Barrier the swell and the wind increased and we creamed along at 7 plus knots. I took over the helm just past Channel Island light. The wind was coming from the starboard quarter. We had gradually lightening winds and Donn pointed out a ship approaching Channel light from Auckland. Once around the light it headed towards us so I radioed to him but as usual, got no reply. Don’t any ships monitor Ch16? Again I put on the foredeck light to show up the sails and shone my torch towards him. This is considered bad etiquette because it takes away the watchman’s night vision but if he’s not going to talk to me I am not going to be frightened by an insult. He signalled us with a torch so at least he is aware of our presence. There is another ship approaching from the E and the ex-Auckland one passed between us. At the end of my watch I reluctantly woke Donn and we shook out the reefed main and changed the No4 for the No1. Wayne had a Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 65


difficult time of clawing back 3/4 mile cross-track error in 12 miles to avoid putting in another tack. We had a preventer on the main and the 12 knot breeze was almost from dead astern so it made it hard for him but all credit to him in managing. It was annoying hearing the jib sheet car banging but I managed to sleep well. On Donn’s watch he was joined by some dolphins which played around the starboard side before departing. 30th October. I emerged just after daybreak when we were off Old Man Rock. We motor sailed across Mercury Bay as far as Slipper Island. I tried contacting Malcolm on Sunset Quest and he tried contacting us. In the end Christine on Temaraire relayed for us. Sunset Quest is heading for Sydney via Brisbane today. Five minutes before the sked we had a strike so the others reeled it in while I used the radio. It was a barracuda so they let it go. The breeze came in so we stopped the motor which also helped the radio and reeling in the fish. However the breeze was short-lived so we lowered the sails and motored. I contacted Tauranga Coastguard with our ETA. Off Whangamata the breeze came back again so we raised the sails but had to tack twice before the wind settled into the SW. Tacking was difficult because a) We had the cutter rig up which involved taking the jib around the long way, and b) we hadn’t tacked since leaving Noumea, and c) we had forgotten how.

Home - it brings a tear to the eye. I had often dreamed about returning through the entrance after my overseas trip. The feeling of fulfilment cannot be described. I have achieved something more than just the trip. It is not a matter of showing others. That is not important to me, but I have led a successful campaign safely to its conclusion. We made very good speed as we came through the entrance and that added to the feelings of pleasure. My parents were with Laura around the Mount track almost to the beacon on NW rock. We waved and they waved. Trevor and Kay were about 100 metres further S. Trevor was videoing our entrance. As we sailed past Pilot Bay we saw them speeding along the waterfront to get to the marina before us. We finally dropped the sails just off the Tauranga wharf and were met by Tony in his inflatable with Joy and Susannah on board. They escorted us into the marina and saw us safely berthed. There to greet us were about 20 people. It was a real blessing to see so many friends and relations welcoming us home. ‘Home is the hunter, home from the hills, And the sailor home from the sea.’ Robert Louis Stevenson.

‘We who adventure upon the sea, however humbly, cannot but feel that we are more fortunate than ordinary people and that we have something which we could not tell nor they understand.’ Claud Worth.

The breeze only increased gradually to 17-18 knots. I called Coastguard again to update my ETA when we were off Waihi Beach. I also had a bucket shower at this time (on the seaward side of the boat). The water temperature was 15°C. The crew decided to defer their ablutions until they were on land but I did set a good example; a pity they didn’t respond. It was certainly refreshing and crazy. The definition of a good crew is one which doesn’t belittle the skipper and is also able to rescue the situation without the skipper suffering undue embarrassment when he does something silly. This crew filled the requirements nobly. It was turning into a grey day and it was only when we passed on the inside of Karewa Island that both Joy and Trevor Troughton were able to spot us from their respective homes. We were the only yacht around. Joy waited at home for the Coastguard to phone her while Trevor and Kay went down to the Mount to see us come through the entrance. The wind increased to over 29 knots giving us a speed of 7.3 knots. At A Buoy I made my final call to the Coastguard requesting Customs, MAF and Immigration clearance. They immediately phoned Joy who came down to the marina to greet us. Tony from the marina also called to welcome us home.

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Delightful Chairs With Quirky Characters by Romanian Designer Irina Neacsu

Romanian designer Irina Neacsu launched a collection of chairs with character at the Cote Deco section of the famous Parisian event Maison&Objet, that marks a new direction in the evolution of her brand, thecraftlab. Mr Him and Ms Her went to Paris, together with the characters from the Seasons series, the traditional couple Draga and Dragu, and the urban fashion duet Miss One and Miss Due. Each character-chair is unique, manually personalized through the textile mixes and techniques that already characterise her work. See more on http://irinaneacsu.com/

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PEAS, London, United Kingdom Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 67


2013 WISE Awards Doha, Qatar, 2013

The World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) announced the six winners of the 2013 WISE Awards.

Medersat, Morocco

Since 2009 the WISE Awards have helped to disseminate some of the most effective practices in addressing urgent global challenges in education. The winning projects are: ·        Medersat; Casablanca, Morocco * ·        PEAS (Promoting Equality in African Schools);London, United Kingdom ·        ALISON (Advance Learning Information Systems Online); Ireland ·        Pathways to Education; Toronto, Canada

Medersat, Morocco

·        Te Kotahitanga; Hamilton, New Zealand ·        iThraYouth Initiative; Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia * Medersat received the special mention for “access to education”. This reflects the support of Qatar Foundation Chairperson Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser for United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2 on achieving universal primary education.

PEAS, London, United Kingdom

A Jury composed of the most prolific individuals in the education world, chaired by H.E. Sheikh Abdulla bin Ali Al-Thani Ph.D, Chairman of WISE, met recently to select the winning projects from a short list of finalists. Dr. Al-Thani remarked, “The WISE Awards Jury has identified six diverse projects from around the world that represent inspiring models for all who seek to overcome obstacles to education.

PEAS, London, United Kingdom 68 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

For five years the WISE Awards have been building a community of education pioneers from across the educational spectrum, including non-governmental organisations, academia and both the public and private sectors, who are

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having a growing and sustainable impact. The 2013 WISE Awards winners will join their peers to inspire positive change in education.” The six projects that have received a 2013 WISE Award will, along with the finalists, participate in the annual WISE Summit which will address the theme of “Reinventing Education for Life” and take place in the Qatar National Convention Center in Doha on October 29-31, 2013

Te Kotahitanga, New Zealand

About the WISE Awards: Inaugurated in 2009, the WISE Awards identify, showcase and promote innovative educational projects from around the world. To date, over 2,000 applications have been received from 136 countries, resulting in30 winning projects. The 30 successful initiatives have come from a variety of countries around the world, including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ghana, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, South Africa, Turkey, the UK and the USA. These “real world” initiatives are progressively building a pool of sound practice which is having a local or global impact on education.

Te Kotahitanga, New Zealand

About the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE): Inaugurated in 2009 by Qatar Foundation on the initiative of its Chairperson, Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, WISE is the only international initiative that stimulates innovation in education through collaboration and new approaches among diverse sectors – recognizing cutting-edge practices and helping to share them on a global scale. WISE is driven by the belief that education can be enhanced through innovation in three priority areas: Learning for All, Learning for Life and Learning Anytime, Anywhere. WISE has developed a program of year-round activities to encourage international collaboration in education including the WISE Prize for Education, the WISE Awards, WISE publications, and Learners’ Voice. The annual international Summit is a unique occasion for thought-leaders, decisionmakers and practitioners to come together and share concrete solutions to the challenges in education today.

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iThraYouth Initiative, Saudi Arabia

iThraYouth Initiative, Saudi Arabia

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Chinese Educators Look to American To prepare for an endless barrage of secondary-school exams, Zhang Ruifan learned to memorize entire science textbooks. Zhang Ruifan’s parents, afraid he’d become a “book-cramming robot” in Beijing, sent him to the United States for high school. When his family sent him to high school in the United States, he was so far ahead of his fellow freshmen in math and science that he usually knew the correct answer even before the teacher had finished speaking. I’d just blurt it out,” he said in an interview while back home here this summer.

But Ruifan, 15, who goes by Derek in the United States, soon discovered that science was more than just facts and formulas meant to be regurgitated on tests. At school in West Des Moines, Iowa, where he lived with a host family, his science teacher donned protective goggles and used a long-reach lighter to ignite a hydrogen balloon, just so students could get a firsthand look at the element’s explosive properties. Then there was the day he and his classmates went up to the roof to learn about gravity by dropping basketballs, tennis balls and other objects over the edge. “Back in China I learned about gravity from a PowerPoint slide,” he said. “That’s it.” The United States State Department does not break down its data on visas by age and school type, but anecdotal evidence here suggests that increasing numbers of middle-class families are looking for a way out of China’s test-taking gantlet. “I didn’t want my son to become a book-cramming robot,” said Ruifan’s mother, Wang Pin, explaining why she sent him to live and learn halfway across the world. American educators and politicians have been warning for years that rising powers like China and India are poised to overtake the United States in science achievement. On a 2009 standardized test that drew worldwide attention, students in Shanghai finished first in the sciences among peers from more than 70 countries, while the United States came in 23rd (right behind Hungary). But even many Chinese educators are dismayed by the country’s obsession with stellar test results. Last fall they convened a conference on the topic in Shanghai. “When American high school students are discussing the latest models of airplanes, satellites and submarines, China’s smartest students are buried in homework and examination papers,” said Ni Minjing a physics teacher who is the director of the Shanghai Education Commission’s basic education department, according to Shanghai Daily, an Englishlanguage newspaper. “Students also have few chances to do scientific experiments and exercise independent thinking.” That message appears to be getting through to Chinese education officials, who are moving toward the American model of hands-on science learning. This summer, the Ministry of Education launched the latest in a series of campaigns aimed at shifting the focus away from standardized testing. The ministry said the systemic fixation with testing “severely hampers student development as a whole person, stunts their healthy growth, and limits opportunities to cultivate social responsibilities, creative spirit, and practical abilities in students.”

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Classrooms By Dan Levin But as with so many orders from the central government, it remains to be seen whether these guidelines, aimed at provincial education departments, will be adopted or ignored. Meanwhile, preparation for China’s national university entrance exam continues to dominate the lives of secondary students. Known as the gaokao, or high test, the exam takes nine hours over two days, and some say it makes the SAT look like a pop quiz. Compounding the pressure, gaokao results are the sole factor used to determine university admissions. This ironclad criterion, combined with the fact that most families have only one child, gives Chinese parents little incentive to encourage extracurricular activities, lest it divert their children from the slog of gaokao memorization. Critics say it also produces poorly socialized adolescents who are ill-prepared to face the challenges of the real world. Students have their own term for describing the way their teachers impart knowledge: “feeding the ducks.” As a science teacher in the northwestern region of

Ningxia, Wei Jinbao has seen firsthand how China’s education system transforms children into hardworking students with an impressive capacity for processing factual information. “Give them a problem and they will find the answer,” he said. “However, they can’t ask a good question.” Like many Chinese science professionals, Mr. Wei is keenly aware that the country has yet to produce a Nobel Prize winner in the sciences whose research is homegrown. Over the years, he has tried to spark innovative thinking among his students, but he is missing a critical element: lab equipment, which most Chinese schools see as an unnecessary expense. Asked why, he sighed in exasperation. “The entrance exam doesn’t test experiments,” he said. A version of this article appears in print on September 3, 2013, on page D2 of the New York edition with the headline: Turning to U.S. Classrooms. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/03/science/chineseeducators-look-to-american-classrooms.html?_r=1&

Equinox Summit: Learning 2030 Lose the grades, lose the exams, and don’t worry if all the kids in a class are not the same age. That’s what a gathering of international education leaders is recommending in a dramatic new learning roadmap released today. The sweeping recommendations of the Equinox Summit: Learning 2030 (a product of the Waterloo Global Science Initiative) also propose eliminating grades 9 through 12 in favour of groupings of students based on ability and area of study. “We assume 30 students in the same grade, one teacher and four walls is ideal. But what would happen if we threw out that model?” says summit participant Greg Butler, founder of Collaborative Impact and former head of global education for Microsoft. “The current model of grade levels and ages is flawed. We need to progress students through high school, not by their ages, but by the stages they’re at.” The Learning 2030 Communiqué contains summit participants’ detailed recommendations on areas ranging from the use of new technologies in the classroom and methods of increasing student engagement, to teacher training and benefits of local school autonomy.

and we have the same system. If you want different outcomes, you have to rethink of all the parts of the system and redesign them together.” Learning 2030’s 33 summit participants represent nearly a dozen countries, including the UK, Australia, Singapore, Finland, Qatar, several African nations, the U.S., and Canada. “Students today have a very negative energy surrounding their high school education,” says summit participant Zainab Ramahi, an undergraduate student in knowledge integration, a unique interdisciplinary program at the University of Waterloo. “The world needs students who feel impassioned and excited about going to school.” The Learning 2030 Communiqué, video of summit plenary sessions, and summaries of the behindclosed door meetings that led to the Communiqué, are available at http://wgsi.org/video. A more detailed Learning 2030 Blueprint will be released in the New Year.

Waterloo Global Science Initiative (WGSI) is a nonprofit partnership between Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and the University of Waterloo. The mandate of WGSI is to promote dialogue around complex global issues and to catalyze the long-range thinking necessary to advance ideas, opportunities “Ideas like this are already successfully happening in and strategies for a secure and sustainable future innovative individual schools around the world,” says Canon New Zealand Managing Director, Yusuke Mizoguchi, through the Equinox Summit Series, Equinox summit participant Jennifer Groff, a graduate Blueprints and Impact Activities. researcher at MIT and Room vice president learning &School, with students from One atofPukehou Hawkes Bay. program development with the Learning Games For more information visit wgsi.org Network. “We’ve tinkered and tweaked for decades Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 71 Back to index

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For Halloween: BUT not for the FaintHearted: The Blood Dripping Chopping Board

Here is a slightly unusual kitchen instrument to spice up your day! The creative team at Mustard came up with the Splash Red Chopping Board, a red-painted cutting tool especially designed to be placed on the edge of a table. Why? Because this position is perfect for creating the illusion that blood is dripping on the floor. Initially discovered on Laughing Squid, the seemingly terrifying chopping board is described to have a durable surface, one that is also easy to clean.

Moreover, its flashy red color is an attention grabber no matter where you place it- this kitchen piece could even “scream” from one of the cupboards. In case the idea of your kitchen counter-top reminding guests of a horror movie doesn’t frighten you, the product is available for purchase online atmzube, for UK£16.99. Find it “ownable”?

Thanks to Freshome.com 72 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

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Melbourne Now... getting closer In less than 40 days the National Gallery of Victoria will open Melbourne Now, the largest and most ambitious exhibition in its history. The NGV has today revealed the list of over 300 artists, architects, designers and creative practitioners who are participating in this landmark exhibition. Tony Ellwood, Director, NGV said: “Melbourne has a dynamic creative identity, and through several key themes such as the poetics of place, history and memory, independent production, play and participation, visitors to Melbourne Now can explore the complexity of the city’s creativity in a major exhibition over the summer months. “Although it is still days until the exhibition officially opens, the NGV is fully focused behind-the-scenes as we work to transform exhibition spaces, produce a suite of five publications and prepare for this landmark contemporary art exhibition. We are delighted to have announced the full list of artists, designers and architects as well as program highlights on the 50th day out from Melbourne Now, and we look forward to welcoming everyone to this free exhibition in November,” said Mr Ellwood. Melbourne Now will present major new commissions and a range of new works by leading emerging and established artists. Visual arts projects encompass the fullest range of contemporary art disciplines and practices, from painting, sculpture, drawing, ceramics and contemporary jewellery, to photography, video, sound, performance, installation and online projects. In addition to the involvement of over 20 NGV curators, Melbourne Now involves more than 10 guest curators who have contributed to specific areas such as architecture, design, dance and sound programming, as

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well as artists who have been invited to respond to the NGV Collection, or to develop dedicated ‘exhibitions within the exhibition’. As well as a diverse exhibition offering, located at the entrance to NGV International isCommunity Hall, an architecturally designed space created by the architectural firm McBride Charles Ryan. This highly participatory space will serve as a workshop, stage, platform and catwalk, hosting a rotating program of over 600 events throughout Melbourne Now. In the spirit of ‘community halls’ across this city, the NGV is calling all passionate enthusiasts, collectors, students and hobbyists of Melbourne to get involved with the Community Hall. For more information visit the NGV Blog. Melbourne Now has been made possible through the generosity of the State Government of Victoria, Principal Partner Mercedes-Benz, Major Partners Ernst & Young, Bank of Melbourne, City of Melbourne and Higgins Coatings, Learning Partner La Trobe University and Partner the Australia Council for the Arts. This vital support, along with the generosity of Melbourne Now Champions the Dewhurst Family and Robin Campbell and Bruce Parncutt, Melbourne Now Major Donor the Spotlight Charitable Foundation as well as a number of individual donors and philanthropic foundations has allowed the NGV to stage this exhibition. For the full list of artists and to view a short film about Melbourne Now please visit the NGV website or contact the media office. Melbourne Now will be on display at The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia and NGV International from 22 November 2013 – 23 March 2014. 10am–5pm. Free entry.

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“What should a 4 year old know?” I was on a parenting bulletin board recently and read a post by a mother who was worried that her 4 1/2 year old did not know enough. “What should a 4 year old know?”she asked.

Most of the answers left me not only saddened but pretty soundly annoyed. One mom posted a laundry list of all of the things her son knew. Counting to 100, planets, how to write his first and last name, and on and on. Others chimed in with how much more their children already knew, some who were only three. A few posted URL’s to lists of what each age should know. The fewest yet said that each child develops at his own pace and not to worry. It bothered me greatly to see these mothers responding to a worried mom by adding to her concern, with lists of all the things their children could do that hers couldn’t. We are such a competitive culture that even our pre-schoolers have become trophies and bragging rights. Childhood shouldn’t be a race. So here, I offer my list of what a 4 year old should know.

She should know that she is loved wholly and unconditionally, all of the time. He should know that he is safe and he should know how to keep himself safe in public, with others, and in varied situations. He should know that he can trust his instincts about people and that he never has to do something that doesn’t feel right, no matter who is asking.

74 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013

He should know his personal rights and that his family will back them up.

She should know how to laugh, act silly, be goofy and use her imagination. She should know that it is always okay to paint the sky orange and give cats 6 legs. He should know his own interests and be encouraged to follow them. If he could care less about learning his numbers, his parents should realize he’ll learn them accidentally soon enough and let him immerse himself instead in rocket ships, drawing, dinosaurs or playing in the mud.

She should know that the world is magical and that so is she. She should know that she’s wonderful, brilliant, creative, compassionate and marvellous. She should know that it’s just as worthy to spend the day outside making daisy chains, mud pies and fairy houses as it is to practice phonics. Scratch that– way more worthy. But more important, here’s what parents need to know.

That every child learns to walk, talk, read and do algebra at his own pace and that it will have no bearing on how well he walks, talks, reads or does algebra.

That the single biggest predictor of high academic achievement and high ACT scores is reading to children. Not flash cards, not workbooks, not fancy preschools, not blinking toys or computers, but mom or dad taking the time every day or night (or both!) to sit and read them wonderful books.

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Written by a Pre-School Teacher – It says it all!

That being the smartest or most accomplished kid in class has never had any bearing on being the happiest. We are so caught up in trying to give our children “advantages” that we’re giving them lives as multi-tasked and stressful as ours. One of the biggest advantages we can give our children is a simple, carefree childhood. That our children deserve to be surrounded by books, nature, art supplies and the freedom to explore them.

Most of us could get rid of 90% of our children’s toys and they wouldn’t be missed, but some things are important– building toys like lego and blocks, creative toys like all types of art materials (good stuff), musical instruments (real ones and multicultural ones), dress up clothes and books, books, books. (Incidentally, much of this can be picked up quite cheaply at thrift shops.) They need to have the freedom to explore with these things too– to play with scoops of dried beans in the high chair (supervised, of course), to knead bread and make messes, to use paint and play dough and glitter at the kitchen table while we make supper even though it gets everywhere, to have a spot in the yard where it’s absolutely fine to dig up all the grass and make a mud pit.

care of our kids. Yes, we all need undisturbed baths, time with friends, sanity breaks and an occasional life outside of parenthood. But we live in a time when parenting magazines recommend trying to commit to 10 minutes a day with each child and scheduling one Saturday a month as family day. That’s not okay!

Our children don’t need Nintendos, computers, after school activities, ballet lessons, play groups and soccer practice nearly as much as they need US. They need fathers who sit and listen to their days, mothers who join in and make crafts with them, parents who take the time to read them stories and act like idiots with them.

They need us to take walks with them and not mind the .1 MPH pace of a toddler on a spring night. They deserve to help us make supper even though it takes twice as long and makes it twice as much work.

They deserve to know that they’re a priority for us and that we truly love to be with them.

That our children need more of us. We have become so good at saying that we need to take care of ourselves that some of us have used it as an excuse to have the rest of the world take

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Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013 75


“The best teachers don’t give you the answers... They just point the way ... and let you make your own choices.”

76 Good Teacher Magazine Term 4 2013


Good Teacher Magazine 2013, Term 4