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GCM Offcial Publication of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America


double Pinehurst No. 2 preps for back-to-back U.S. Opens PAGE 46

California drought 58 Conservation act 42 Relieving summer stress 66

Golf Course Management Magazine • June 2014

Think people don’t notice the accessories? On a golf course every detail is important. So make sure your accessories work as hard as you do to enhance the image of your golf course.

Wherever golf is played.

The right accessories improve course conditions and make golfers want to come back for more. More than ever, you have to wow golfers with your golf course. That’s because the No. 1 reason golfers give for not returning to a golf course is “poor course conditions.” But there’s more to course conditions than greens, tees, fairways and bunkers. Consider accessories – something golfers see, touch and feel on every hole. Having well maintained, proper golf course accessories is a crucial part of course conditions. They make an important and lasting impression on golfers and reinforce the course’s (and your) reputation. Quality accessories from Par Aide can improve course aesthetics and playability while saving you time and money. Find out how we can make your accessories budget work harder than ever.

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8 8 8 - 8 9 3 - 2 4 3 2

Coming soon: The new A Model Mowers from John Deere. Now your presence can be felt on every part of your course. That’s the control you get with the new A Model mowers from John Deere. Thanks to our TechControl display, no matter who is operating the mower, you can easily program these mowers to mow and turn at exact speeds, to transport at preset speeds, and to lock in fuel savings. You can also plug in service reminders and get diagnostic feedback quickly and accurately. And all of your operators can now perform in a more consistent fashion. The power to control your course is now in your hands. To fnd out more about our new A Models, contact your local John Deere Golf distributor today.

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Two for 2

Pinehurst No. 2 is not where you would expect a doubleheader, but the USGA thinks it hit golf’s equivalent of a home run by picking it for an unprecedented occasion. Howard Richman

It never rains in California Superintendents in the Golden State get proactive to nurse their facilities through one of the worst droughts on record. Stacie Zinn Roberts



Skip the stress

Summer can be a tough time for turfgrass, but increasingly, superintendents are finding more tools to deal with the season’s challenges. Mark Leslie

Weathering long-term drought with improved irrigation Converting to solid metal nozzles improves distribution uniformity and reduces costs at a top Texas course. Nancy Hardwick


I-1 EIFG 2013 Annual Report • G-1 GCSAA 2013 Annual Report • On the Cover: For the first time on a major stage since its major restoration, the entire world will see Pinehurst No. 2 not once — but twice — in back-to-back weeks as it hosts the men and women U.S. Opens this month. The photo is courtesy of the USGA.



Your greens are your signature. Now your fairways can make a name for themselves, too.



Introducing Bayer Fairway Solutions.


It’s the first fungicide program developed specifically for fairways. Featuring new Fiata™ StressGard™ and Mirage™ StressGard™, Bayer Fairway Solutions is the only plant health and disease management program designed with the fairway in mind. Finally, there’s a fairway solution that delivers at the caliber of your greens program.

Follow us on Twitter @BayerGolf The BackedbyBayer app is available for download at the iTunes store.

Bayer Fairway Solutions also includes: Interface® StressGard™ | Tartan® StressGard™ | 26GT®

Bayer CropScience LP, Environmental Science Division, 2 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. 1-800-331-2867. Bayer, the Bayer Cross, Fiata™, StressGard™, Mirage™, Tartan®, Interface ® and 26GT® are trademarks of Bayer. Not all products are registered in all states. Always read and follow label directions. ©2014 Bayer CropScience LP.


38 Environment


Preserving what you protect Pamela C. Smith, CGCS

Chill out: Vegetation reduces the urban heat island effect Madeline Leslie




Replacing orphan engines: Part III Scott R. Nesbitt



Drones: Coming to a golf course near you? Bob Vaughey, CGCS



Land grab Bob Helland and Christopher Rissetto

RESEARCH Using saline water and subsurface irrigation to establish bermudagrass and seashore paspalum Saline water and subsurface drip irrigation do not hinder establishment of two seeded grasses and one sodded warm-season grass. Bernd Leinauer, Ph.D. Matteo Serena, Ph.D. Marco Schiavon, Ph.D.


ETCETERA06.14 16 President’s message 18 Inside GCM 20 Front nine 30 Photo quiz 76 Through the green



Conservation act Bunny Smith

90 Verdure 92 Product news 96 Industry news 102 Climbing the ladder 102 On course



Fertilizing golf course rough with biosolids In the Chicago area, biosolids were found to provide an inexpensive and effective fertilizer for golf course rough. Thomas Voigt, Ph.D. Guanglong Tian, Ph.D. Albert Cox, Ph.D. Pauline Lindo, Ph.D. Kuldip Kumar, Ph.D. Thomas Granato, Ph.D.

103 Coming up 103 New members 104 In the field 105 Newly certified 105 On the move

Cutting Edge


Teresa Carson

108 In memoriam 112 Final shot




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*FMC recommends two applications of Dismiss turf herbicide or one application of Dismiss South herbicide for optimal control of purple nutsedge. Always read and follow label directions. FMC and Dismiss are trademarks of FMC Corporation. ©2014 FMC Corporation. All rights reserved.

Golf Course Management Magazine Offcial Publication of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America


Golf Course Management magazine is dedicated to advancing the golf course superintendent profession and helping GCSAA members achieve career success. To that end, GCM provides authoritative “how-to” career-oriented, technical and trend information by industry experts, researchers and golf course superintendents. By advancing the profession and members’ careers, the magazine contributes to the enhancement, growth and vitality of the game of golf. GCSAA BOARD OF DIRECTORS President Vice President Secretary/Treasurer Immediate Past President Directors

Chief Executive Offcer Chief Operating Offcer Chief Business Development Offcer


GCM STAFF Editor-in-Chief Sr. Managing Editor Sr. Science Editor Associate Editor Sr. Manager, Creative Services Manager, Creative Services Traffc Coordinator Traffc Coordinator


GCSAA This Week/Turf Weekly Editor

ADVERTISING 800-472-7878 Managing Director Marketing and Business Development Sr. Manager, Business Development Lead International Developer Account Development Managers

Best of All Worlds® 1-800-233-0628 •



The articles, discussions, research and other information in this publication are advisory only and are not intended as a substitute for specifc manufacturer instructions or training for the processes discussed, or in the use, application, storage and handling of the products mentioned. Use of this information is voluntary and within the control and discretion of the reader. ©2014 by GCSAA Communications Inc., all rights reserved.

You spoke. We listened. In answer to feedback from superintendents worldwide, our four new Country Club MD greens grade fertilizers contain phosphorus for those golf course managers who need to include P in their greens nutrition program. Ask your sales representative for more information about Country Club MD.

Best of All Worlds速 1-800-233-0628

(president’s message)

The power of partnerships I have been fortunate throughout my career to have productive, professional and friendly working relationships with my peers in other departments at the golf facilities Keith A. Ihms, CGCS where I have worked. Whether those ers have been in food and beverage, the front offce or the golf shop, the relationships I have formed, both personally and professionally, have been crucial to the collective successes we have all enjoyed. In my experiences, that has been particularly notable as it relates to my connection with the PGA professionals at the stops along my career path. More so than any other staff members at a golf facility, the club profesGCSAA and the sional and the superintendent typically stand PGA of America side-by-side as the frst lines of contact with golfers and club members. When that relahave long enjoyed tionship works, the whole operation tends to work as well. a strong and open Although the particular dynamics of my rerelationship, with our lationships with each PGA professional I have worked with have differed slightly from course boards of directors to course, there are certainly common threads that are shared among them. First, there has and executive staff always been a strong level of trust between my PGA counterpart and myself. We’ve rarely exchanging thoughts needed to ask for approval from each other beand ideas regularly. fore making a key decision. They’ve believed in me to ultimately do what’s right for the overall health of our facility, and I’ve always trusted in them to act in a similar manner. Going hand-in-hand with that trust has been a high level of communication. Trust is built on a foundation of open and honest communication, and I have been fortunate to experience that frsthand. When the superintendent lets the club professional in on matters of conditioning and course maintenance, and when the club professional keeps the superintendent plugged in to what’s going on in their world, the number of surprises either person encounters is greatly limited. Proactive beats reactive every time, and communication is the key. Finally, my relationships with PGA professionals have always benefted from a great level of understanding between the two parties. The old adage of walking a mile in another’s shoes certainly applies here. The ability



of both sides in this equation to understand the challenges that the other faces on a day-today basis, and to equally understand that both professionals are working with the best interest of the facility at heart is absolutely critical if broader success is to be achieved. In my few short months in my new position as the golf course maintenance manager at Bella Vista Village in northwest Arkansas, I’ve already seen these qualities emerging in my relationship with Andy Mar, Bella Vista’s golf operations manager and a PGA professional, which just lends further credence to what history has taught me about how crucial these relationships are to a successful golf operation. It’s also added to my excitement about an innovative new project that we are proud to be debuting in July. In partnership with our friends at the PGA of America, we will embark on an effort to showcase the value of strong relationships among PGA professionals and GCSAA superintendents through a series of bimonthly feature stories that will appear simultaneously in both organizations’ industry leading publications, GCM and PGA Magazine. These stories will dive deeper into many of the characteristics that I referenced above, and they’ll do so by highlighting many of the successful superintendent-club professional relationships that exist in the business. They’ll share the secrets of noteworthy teamwork at facilities hosting major championships and the winning strategies of small-town courses that earn high marks for delivering an excellent overall golf experience every day of the year. GCSAA and the PGA of America have long enjoyed a strong and open relationship, with our boards of directors and executive staffs exchanging thoughts and ideas regularly. I’m pleased that we will now bring that relationship to a much higher, more visible level, and that we will do so by spotlighting the true backbone of both of our organizations — our outstanding memberships.

Keith A. Ihms, CGCS, is the golf course maintenance manager at Bella Vista (Ark.) Village and a 33-year member of GCSAA.

(inside gcm)

And the winner is … Scott Hollister twitter: @GCM_Magazine

For us, and I assume for almost everyone in publishing, the most important feedback that we ever receive comes directly from our readers.



In the publishing industry, contests and award programs are big business. As editors, we’re inundated with requests to enter competitions that judge everything from writing and design to photography and marketing. At GCM, there are two or three contests that we enter regularly, with another four or fve routinely soliciting our entries. I imagine this reality is somewhat unique to our business. If you’re an accountant, a realtor, a construction worker or a software engineer, my suspicion is there aren’t too many contests clamoring to review your work. I’m sure the professional associations that represent those industries honor their members in some way, but I’m not sure it’s by judging the “Best Audit” or “Outstanding Achievement in Welding.” Interestingly, if there is one business that might identify with those of us in publishing when it comes to awards and contests, it’s golf. The traditional America’s 100 Greatest Golf Courses list from Golf Digest and Golfweek’s myriad Best Courses rankings have spawned similar programs in virtually all corners of the industry. And from talking with superintendents who have worked at courses that have been high on these lists, low on these lists or just on the outside looking in, I believe I have plenty of kindred spirits when it comes to my opinion about these contests, awards and lists. Frankly, I’m just not a big fan. Now, don’t get me wrong. I like winning awards as much as the next guy. Having your peers recognize your work as something special and noteworthy is a great feeling, and over the years, the folks who bring you GCM each and every month have been fortunate to take home our fair share of awards. Heck, from where I sit while writing this column, I can see several glass plaques and bronze trophies that I’ve been lucky enough to win. So, again, winning awards is a great thing. My problem is it’s not the only thing, and it’s easy for those of us on this side of the page to forget this. Without much trouble, you can forget that awards don’t defne the kind of job you’re doing in serving your readers. Awards can certainly be a measure of that, but by no

means are they the only measure, and they’re defnitely not the most important. For us, and I assume for almost everyone in publishing, the most important feedback that we ever receive comes directly from our readers. If they praise and compliment our work, if they fnd value and relevancy in what we produce, then I could care less if we win an award for that work. Conversely, if our readers fnd fault with something we’ve done or let us know that we’ve missed the mark on a certain issue … well, then there isn’t a trophy big enough that can completely salve that wound, in my opinion. Fortunately, GCM has rarely had problems in either arena. GCSAA members from around the world have largely been unreserved in their praise of or satisfaction with the magazine that we deliver. And as I mentioned earlier, that magazine has regularly been recognized for its excellence in the contests that we have entered. And I’m pleased to announce that continued in the 2014 Turf and Ornamental Communicators Association (TOCA) communications contest, the results of which were just announced during that group’s annual meeting in New Orleans. GCM brought home a total of seven awards in this year’s competition, including three frst-place honors and a “Gardner Award,” which is a best-in-show honor handed out in each of 10 individual categories. The highlight for us came from our design team of Roger Billings and Kelly Neis, who were honored with a frst-place award for overall magazine design for the April 2013 issue and also received the Gardner Award in the design category. We share a complete list of our TOCA awards on Page 26 of this issue. If you’ve read this far, you’ll realize that we won’t let these accomplishments go to our head, just like we haven’t in the past. But that doesn’t mean that we won’t take a minute to celebrate these honors and appreciate just how much contest judges — and most importantly, our readers — respect the work that we do in GCM. Scott Hollister is GCM’s editor-in-chief.

LM 315


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If he were alive, Didier Primat probably would have endorsed Rounds 4 Research. Primat, a French-born billionaire, purchased land in 1977 in southwest Virginia that was available when a developer’s housing plan crumbled. An outdoorsman at heart, Primat proved to be a staunch environmentalist. He couldn’t wait to hike or hunt; he saw his land as an ideal nature preserve that also could serve as a family retreat. It was a matter of luxury intersecting with ecology. Located amid the Blue Ridge Mountains, Primland’s The Highland Course is a 7,000-yard, par-72 that opened just eight years ago. Primat’s vision was for a golf course that summer patrons could use. “He was focused on protecting the environment here,” says The Highland Course’s GCSAA Class A superintendent, Brian Kearns, who notes the golf course is a Certifed Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary. Although Primat died six years ago at the age of 64, his dream continues to make a difference. As the frst Rounds 4 Research auction looms on the horizon (June 9-22; the second one is set for Aug. 1-10), Primland’s The Highland Course has benefted from the program, which is an innovative initiative intended to generate resources to fund research and help ensure golf’s future. In 2013, nearly $150,000 was raised. Here’s how it works: The program, administered by GCSAA’s philanthropic organization, the En-

Virginia Tech researcher Chantel Wilson, conducting a water sampling project, supported in part by Rounds 4 Research funding. Photo courtesy of Brian Mitchell


of irrigated acres on an average 18-hole golf course’s 100 acres of maintained turf

Portion of golf courses (excluding Southwest and Upper West/Mountain regions) that do not pay for irrigation water

Brian Mitchell working on a water quality monitoring project, aided by Rounds 4 Research funds. Photo courtesy of Brian Mitchell

vironmental Institute for Golf (EIFG), allows golf facilities to support the effort by donating rounds of golf for two or four. Donating stayand-play packages is another option. Also, other miscellaneous items are included in the online auction ( Average gallons of water Rounds 4 per day used for Research allows GCSAA chapters golf course irrigation in the U.S. and turfgrass foundations to participate as fundraising partners with the majority of proceeds going back to those organizations. In reality, fnding ways to fund turfgrass research isn’t a new concept. It became increasingly imperative a handful of years ago when the fnancial landscape took a hit (in 2009, the USGA and GCSAA suspended efforts for the rest of the year for new projects that were counting on research funds). Examples of those organizations that sought ways to acquire funding include Tee Times 4 Turf, in which people could bid on rounds of golf to help support Michigan State University and the Michigan Turfgrass Foundation. In Ohio, Bucks For Turf helps Ohio State University and the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation in research. One of the frst endeavors can be traced to nine years ago. The Virginia Golf Course Superintendents Association (VGCSA) launched the Holiday Research Auction in


Average overall distribution uniformity for 18-hole golf courses that conducted an irrigation audit Source: Golf Course Environmental Profle, Vol. II Water Use and Conservation Practices on U.S. Golf Courses, Environmental Institute for Golf, 2009



$107,800/$4,700 Highest (Southwest region) and lowest (North Central region) annual cost for irrigation water at 18-hole facilities

2005. VGCSA’s David Norman says he patterned the idea after the Virginia Society of Association Executives’ annual holiday silent auction, in which they tempted bidders with things such as hotel weekend packages. “We did pretty well that frst year. We were at least at the $4,000 mark,” Norman says. “We did it all in-house with our own software.” The evolution of Rounds 4 Research began fve years ago when the Carolinas Golf Course Superintendents Association (CGCSA) aimed for the stars. After attending a meeting at North Carolina State University, CGCSA Executive Director Tim Kreger was driving home, using that time to formulate ideas on how to grow turfgrass research funding for land-grant universities. That’s when he came up with the name Rounds 4 Research. In a year, the CGCSA took turfgrass research funding to new heights. “We grossed over $100,000 that year,” Kreger says. “The second year, we got states such as Georgia and Texas involved. It was the perfect storm for something in our industry that needed to be done.” As the program grew in scope nationally, CGCSA turned the keys over to GCSAA to administer Rounds 4 Research. Kreger’s hope is that allied groups, such as the USGA, will support the program. In 2013, nearly 900 rounds of golf were auctioned. Funds from Rounds 4 Research are being used on studies for mini-ring in the Carolinas, understanding and managing annual bluegrass weevil in New Jersey and annual bluegrass control in Oklahoma. More than 50 rounds of golf were auctioned last year in Virginia (including Primland, which donated a foursome worth $800), where best management practices (BMPs) have been enhanced because of funds from Rounds 4 Research. Virginia Tech’s Erik Ervin, Ph.D., was lead investigator for BMP research, which also should beneft other facilities way beyond the Virginia borders, according to GCSAA’s Mark Johnson, associate director of environmental programs.

“In order to keep golf innovative and moving into the future, turfgrass research is critical for quality playing surfaces,” Johnson says. At Primland, the Highland Course has encountered Poa trivialis and Poa annua, issues not unlike other courses nationwide. Testing on the Poa is happening now, Kearns says. As long as Rounds 4 Research thrives, the hope is that superintendents will be able to tackle any problem that arises. “This (Rounds 4 Research) is a no-brainer,” says Kearns, a 13-year member of GCSAA. “We have to get funding from somewhere. What better place than rounds of golf from our golf courses?” — Howard Richman, GCM associate editor

Plant winners at Pinehurst Is that a weed? That could become a frequently-asked-question during the U.S. Open and U.S. Women’s Open, June 9-22 at Pinehurst (N.C.) Resort’s No. 2 course if the pros miss the fairways or greens of the renovated championship venue (see Page 46 for feature). And the answer?

North Carolina State’s Thomas Rufty, Ph.D. and Danesha Seth Carley, Ph.D., take a closer look at the native plant species growing in one of Pinehurst No. 2’s sandy waste areas. Photo by Bunny Smith

“It’s not always cut and dried,” says Danesha Seth Carley, Ph.D., who is part of a team that was brought together in a unique collaboration among Pinehurst, North Carolina State University and Bayer CropScience. As No. 2 transitioned from its traditionally manicured layout to its current design featuring large sandy waste areas, a variety of both expected and unexpected plant species native to the Sandhills region of North Carolina came to light, and the golf course management team realized they would need some extra special help sorting out the vegetative riffraff from the indigenous gems. Enter the team of plant ecologists from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) offce of sustainability programs at N.C. State, whose Lonnie Pool Golf Course impressed Pinehurst director of golf course and grounds Bob Farren, CGCS, as a model for sustainable management in the region. When Thomas Rufty, Ph.D., the university’s distinguished professor of environmental plant bi-

Average tests for 18-hole golf facility in the U.S.









ology, went looking for partners to support the project, he found support just down the road from Research Triangle Park, N.C.-based Bayer CropScience. “We felt this was a unique opportunity because of the rebuild and because of the ecology here (Pinehurst),” Rufty says. “Bayer is the natural partner here.” Three years ago, Seth Carley, an assistant professor who is the CALS sustainability program director; Rob Richardson, Ph.D., an assistant professor in crop science and a weed scientist; and N.C. State doctoral student Kevin Stallings began visiting Pinehurst every 10 days to set up as many as 36 formal 10-by-10-meter research plots. Throughout, they asked themselves and the course management staff three main questions: What do we have? What do we want to keep? How do we manage what we don’t want? At the superintendents’ request, the team developed a pocket-size plant identifcation booklet to help herbicide spray teams in the feld. The unwanted species

Source: Environmental Institute for Golf Energy Use & Environmental Practices Study (2009)

are selectively removed and the bermudagrass is sprayed to keep it out of the naturalized areas. “This is a real model for a precision method of control, and we’ve only just begun,” says Richard Rees, senior principal scientist for Bayer CropScience. “We will see other projects developing as a result of this.” The Carolina wiregrass is the star player in the new landscape of Pinehurst No. 2, but Seth Carley says that every season reveals new species. “I thought that we would see much less diversity. I had no idea we would fnd so many species that are desirable — 75 and counting,” she says. Adds Farren, “You could play golf here once a month for a year and the course will look different every time. It’s very diffcult to predict what’s going to be blooming for the Open.” — Bunny Smith, GCM senior managing editor

Florida college eliminates golf degree Nearly 20 emails appeared in John Piersol’s inbox once word got out. Each message had to do with a major announcement at the place he has dedicated more than half of his lifetime, Florida Gateway College, where changes are in the works. This spring, the college previously known as Lake City Community College, announced it will no longer offer an associate’s degree in golf course operations because of decreasing enrollment. A program that gave the industry some giants — Ken Mangum, CGCS at Atlanta Athletic Club, and Tim Hiers, CGCS at The Old Collier Golf Club, just to name a couple — is hopeful a new course of action will keep a once-thriving operation viable. “We used to have a waiting list to get in here,” says 66-year-old Piersol (pictured above), executive director of industrial and agricultural programs at Florida Gateway, who arrived there in 1974. “The last fve or six years we noticed a decrease in student numbers. It’s just a different time.” The students who currently are working toward their associate’s degree at Florida Gateway College will be allowed to complete their degree beyond this year. Only four graduated in May, the fewest Piersol can remember. “There was a time we averaged 25,” he says.



Instead of offering an associate’s degree, Florida Gateway College plans to have an 18-credit online certificate in horticulture for the golf and landscape industries. “It is perfect for those who are working on a golf course and who cannot come to campus,” Piersol says. The offering includes courses in botany, chemistry, soils, irrigation, landscape plants and turf. “We are still servicing the golf industry, just in a different way, all online,” he says. Piersol saw signs of trouble in recent years when he would receive calls from superintendents and their assistants when they were seeking summer interns. “They were getting no responses (from potential interns). That tells you something,” he says. Asked why he thinks Florida Gateway College has

The students who currently are working toward their associate’s degree at Florida Gateway College will be allowed to complete their degree beyond this year. seen a drop in program interest, Piersol has a few ideas. “My theory is they (possible future industry members) are not working on golf courses and discovering this career,” he says. Piersol suggests that it won’t take long for somebody who may be interested in the industry to make a decision. “You’re outside, sweaty, working. You’ll know in two weeks if you’re made for it or not,” Piersol says. That batch of emails he recently received from students he taught, and even from some who were there and gone before he arrived, were laced with sadness as well as a certain understanding that the industry is facing some struggles. Piersol, who sees retirement in his future sooner rather than later, hopes the situation improves before he exits. “It’s not really the way I want to go out,” says Piersol, who plans to be on board when school resumes in the fall. “I’d rather have the program running hot when I turn the keys over to someone someday.” Piersol advises those who enroll in the online program to frst have golf course work experience and also work toward a degree in business. That combination, he says, would serve them well if an assistant or superintendent position is in their future. Piersol simply is glad to provide a chance for those who may be interested. “We are not going away, “ Piersol says, “just changing.” — Howard Richman, GCM associate editor

GCM earns TOCA awards

GCM received seven awards in the Turf and Ornamental Communicators Association (TOCA) Communications Contest. The awards, presented for work completed in 2013, were announced during TOCA’s annual meeting, which was held last month in New Orleans. First-place honors went to: • Roger Billings, senior manager creative services, and Kelly Neis, senior manager creative services, in the Printed Magazines Overall Design category for the April issue’s “What’s the buzz about?” article. Billings and Neis also received the Gardner Award for Design-Publishing. • GCM contributor Mark Leslie took frst in Writing for Commercial Publications, turf feature article, with “The ultradwarf revolution,” November 2013. • Contributing photographer Jason McKibben for “The night life,” September 2013. Merit honors went to: • Contributing writer Stacie Zinn Roberts in Writing for Commercial Publications, product information article, “Night moves no more,” June 2013. • Contributing writer Jim Knight, Ph.D., in Writing for Commercial Publications, series, “Coping with unwanted wildlife, Parts I and II,” April and May 2013. • Contributing photographer Scott A. Miller for “Driving Ambition,” December 2013.

Remembering his days at The Memorial venue Another The Memorial Tournament has come and gone (it concluded June 1), a marquee PGA Tour event at Muirfeld Village Golf Club in Dublin, Ohio, that has the iconic name of Jack Nicklaus attached to it. For Chris Flick, The Memorial and lessons that he learned at Muirfeld Village working under Paul B. Latshaw, CGCS, never will be forgotten. Flick, who in April became the superintendent at Cog Hill Golf and Country Club in Lemont, Ill., says Latshaw is quite a mentor. “My experience working for Paul means everything,” says Flick, who most recently was superintendent at National Trail Parks and Recreation District in Springfeld, Ohio. “Every day I spent there I can honestly say was in preparation for a career in this business. He taught me patience and a crawl-before-you-walk mentality. He showed me the value in hard work and professionalism, but also more importantly about growing and building a team behind you and around you.” Flick, whose introduction to golf course management began when, as a teenager, he worked on a course a block from his house, says he had the honor of meeting Nicklaus on several occasions. “It was always a great experience listening to his thoughts on the game, golf course architecture, and his vision for Muirfeld Village,” he says. Latshaw set the example for Flick to see that Cog Hill fourishes. “If I can give Cog Hill half of what Paul has given Muirfeld, I think I’ll keep my job,” Flick says. — Howard Richman, GCM associate editor

Survey says: Water an issue for businesses


RETWEETS Russell Heller@fpsuper Nice low cut bluegrass sod from Winding Brook. Finishing some cutting in on 12.

Nicholas Folk@nicholasfolk Really??? Kind of hard to miss bright white sign and then drive through a perennial wet spot. NtK3KnLTjI Pinehurst Resort@PinehurstResort The Stadium at Pinehurst begins... #30Days #2OpensAt2 hSWrI3ajAG

Thad Thompson@TerryHillsMaint Spring has fnally sprung! 18 looking good. #terryhills nmeU0LCExO PGA Championship@PGAChampionship Volunteers hard at work planting trees as part of community effort from #PGAChamp and @lexmark. pic. Danny Rich@dlrich17 My assistant brought me a baby cutworm this morning. I guess they got a copy of our Aerifcation schedule. #clockwork Andrew Hardy@andrewhardyturf Bunker crew killed it today. #welldone

Jacobsen Turf@JacobsenTurf Steve Randall of @GCSAA Chapter Outreach talks to #futureturf14 about benefts of membership #roadwarrior



U.S. businesses are slowly coming around to a reality that the golf course industry has encountered for years — water is an issue. A survey by the Pacifc Institute and Vox Global shows that 60 percent of companies in America believe water-related issues will negatively impact their businesses in the next fve years. Most of them did not indicate that they have any plans in place to deal with those potential water risks. The study also found that 80 percent of the companies surveyed think water concerns will affect where they locate future facilities. Five years ago, only 20 percent of the companies surveyed believed water-related issues had the potential of negatively impacting their operations.

Mangum gets hall call Ken Mangum, CGCS, is joining an elite club. Mangum has been elected to the Georgia Golf Hall of Fame, making him only one of three superintendents who will have been inducted. The others are Palmer Maples Jr., CGCS, and Mark Esoda, CGCS. The ceremony is scheduled Jan. 17. Mangum, in charge at Atlanta Athletic Club, has the U.S. Amateur Championship this summer. Previously on Mangum’s watch, the club has been the site of the 2001 and 2011 PGA Championships and the 1990 U.S. Women’s Open. Mangum served on the GCSAA Board of Directors from 1996 to 2001. In 2013, Mangum received GCSAA’s

Col. John Morley Distinguished Service Award. That same year, he was inducted into the Georgia Golf Course Superintendents Association Hall of Fame.

Wanted: Global Soil Survey participants for 2014 The 2014 Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf is available. Developed by researchers at Pace Turf and the Asian Turfgrass Center, the survey invites turf managers worldwide to participate by submitting three soil samples for analysis. Participants receive a kit that contains all of the materials needed to package and ship the soil samples taken from good performing areas of their facility. Samples are analyzed by Brookside Laboratories and the data interpreted by Micah Woods, Ph.D., of the Asian Turfgrass Center and Pace’s Larry Stowell, Ph.D. Each participant in the survey receives a report that shows soil nutrient levels, predicts how much of each nutrient is required as fertilizer and shows where each nutrient is on a sustainability index. The Global Soil Survey, launched last year, demonstrated that turf quality and playability can be maintained at much lower nutrient levels than were previously thought possible, according to Pace Turf. For more information on the Global Soil Survey for Sustainable Turf or to order a $250 global survey kit, visit

In the


Chicago-area courses try to rebound An unforgiving winter followed by less than ideal spring conditions have created some challenging moments for superintendents, according to a report in the Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune. com/2014-05-02/sports/ct-chicago-golf-spt0503-20140503_1_greens-fairways-frank-jemsek

Masters champion plays renovated course Bob Goalby, 1968 Masters champion, tried out the newly renovated St. Clair (Ill.) Country Club golf course in May, according to the Belleville News-Democrat. Some of the changes include the irrigation system and reconstructed greens. http://www.bnd. com/2014/05/02/3190089/st-clair-country-clubreopens.html

Alaska course closed by military Military-run Eagleglen Golf Course in Alaska closed in 2014, the Associated Press reports, mainly because of a decrease in rounds. The course will, however, remain open in the winter for cross-country skiing. 4086175/military-closes-golf-course-at.html

Homeowners save Arkansas course Wolf Ridge Golf Course in Arkansas was on the verge of vanishing when homeowners stepped in and did something about it, as reported by KFSM-TV in Fort Smith, Ark. http://5newsonline. com/2014/03/25/wolf-ridge-golf-course-saved-bycommunity/

By John Mascaro President of Turf-Tec International

(photo quiz)

Turfgrass area: Edge of fairway



Rockford, Ill.

Grass variety: Dormant Kentucky bluegrass

Brown and missing turf on top of mound

Turfgrass area: Rough

Location: Sugar Grove, Ill.

Grass variety: Kentucky bluegrass


Presented in partnership with Jacobsen

Two holes in ground by a tree Answers on page 100




Madeline Leslie

Chill out: Vegetation reduces the urban heat island effect

Vegetation in urban areas can reduce summer heat and its associated social, economic and environmental costs. Photo by Sam Bauer

Presented in Partnership with Barenbrug



In many places around the country, heat waves during the summer are commonplace; a time when most people gratefullly take advantage of indoor air-conditioning and access to nearby lakes or pools. However, as those of us in urban areas know, we frequently have to deal with average temperatures that are higher than surrounding areas, a condition commonly referred to as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This problem is likely to become worse in the future, as climate change raises average global temperatures and urban populations increase. Unfortunately, heat waves are not just uncomfortable events; they can have serious consequences. Excessive heat can have negative effects on human health in many different ways, resulting in illness and even death. In addition, there are other social, environmental and economic costs associated with high temperatures, including increased violent crime rates and global warming emissions related to higher energy usage from air-conditioning systems. A recent study, “Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA,” sought to fnd out what groups of people are most affected by high temperatures and also looked at a way to reduce the risk of heat exposure in urban areas. The authors of this study specifcally wanted to fnd out if greater vegetation cover in the Phoenix metropolitan areas has been correlated over the past 30 years with a reduction in temperatures in specifc areas. In addition, the authors also investigated the potential cost of using water to reduce temperatures in urban areas and the relationship among income levels, elevated temperatures and vegetation cover. They did this by looking at local weather station records, satellite images collected as part of the Landsat program and median household income from U.S. census data. The results showed that vegetation cover provided signifcant cooling ecosystem services, which were most pronounced in the summer and less pronounced in the winter. Additionally, strong relationships were found between income levels, cooling ecosys-

tem services and the amount of water needed to provide these services. Lower-income areas tended to have less vegetation cover, a pattern that did not exist in 1970 but has been increasing over the past three decades. This points toward a growing disparity between wealthy and poor neighborhoods in terms of vulnerability to heat-related health risks. The fndings of this study are very relevant to those in the turfgrass industry and related horticultural felds. Clearly there is a need around the country to mitigate the risks of high temperatures in urban spaces. This becomes a social justice issue in places like Phoenix, where low-income areas do not have the same access to the cooling effects of vegetated landscapes as higher-income areas. Turfgrass varieties that can survive in hot environments with low amounts of water could be very benefcial in parks and on private property, especially in areas where individuals do not have the resources to maintain landscapes that require high amounts of inputs. In this way, access to the cooling benefts of vegetative cover can be made accessible to people in all income levels, rather than only some. Information in this column is based on the article, “Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA” by G. Darrel Jenerette, Sharon L. Harlan, William L. Stefanov and Chris A. Martin, 2011, Ecological Applications 21:2637–2651, http://dx.doi. org/10.1890/10-1493.1.

Madeline Leslie is a graduate research assistant in the department of applied plant science at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn.

Scott R. Nesbitt


Replacing orphan engines: Part III Editor’s note: See Page 34 of the April and May issues of GCM for the frst and second parts of this three-part series.

Compared to the old fathead design (top) the overhead valve (OHV) engine (bottom) requires a taller, much more complex cylinder head. While it reduces air pollution and improves effciency by making the combustion chamber compact, the OHV design adds considerable cost and complexity. Photos by Scott Nesbitt



To control the end products of burning, your best bet is controlling the place where the burning happens. Thus, air pollution laws fnally pushed small engines to adopt the overhead-valve (OHV) layout in place of the oldstyle fathead that dominated the air-cooled engine world for most of the 20th century. Moving the valves from the side to the top of the cylinder allowed formation of a compact combustion chamber that aims the full load of burning air/fuel to push directly down on the top of the piston. In the fathead (side-valve) design, there is always a part of the combustion chamber directly above the valves and the surrounding engine block. The burning charge has to climb over the edge of the cylinder to push on the piston. That side of the block gets hotter than the rest of the block, so the cylinder gets out of round. The piston rings don’t seal as well. The combustion chamber does not exhaust or refll as completely as in the OHV design. There’s power wasted in the side pocket. The fathead design simply can’t match the combustion effciency of OHV. But the design persisted because it’s a lot simpler — and cheaper — to build. Overhead valves were always required for diesel engines, because they allow the high compression ratios diesels demand. In the 1950s, after World War II ended and the high-speed Interstate highway system began, consumer demand and competition drove the auto and truck makers to adopt OHV in their gasoline vehicles. There were some OHV air-cooled small engines 40 or more years ago. But rules from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) made the more effcient OHV the small engine industry standard. By squeezing more power out of each cubic inch of cylinder displacement, the OHV engine can produce equal power with less engine size and weight. The engine can rev up quicker in response to loads. It has better fuel economy. And it can often be designed to operate more smoothly and quietly than the fathead,

because internal tolerances can be tighter. Technicians fnd it a lot easier to adjust overhead valves: Just unbolt the valve cover and turn the adjusting nut system. On most air-cooled fatheads, you needed to remove the head and a side valve cover, then remove the valve and grind the base of the valve stem to increase clearance. Reducing clearance is only achieved by installing a new valve. Proper valve adjustment improves starting, operation and longevity. It was supposed to be done on fatheads, but almost never was. There are OHV downsides besides the extra cost and the chance for additional breakage since there are more parts to go back. Cooling can be a problem. With a fathead, there’s a number of fns atop the head to draw heat away. The head is rather thin and simple. But the OHV head is complicated. There are three cooling fns at the base of the head seen in the photo, but only a few stubs on the upper part. Cooling air can fow through a “portal” under the cast-in OHV logo, but that adds complexity to the casting and creates one more place where a plug of grass clippings can block air and cause overheating. The OHV has to rely on the engine’s lubricating oil to carry heat off the head. That makes forced lubrication almost mandatory to keep cooling oil fowing. So you add the cost and complexity of an oil pump, and make regular oil changes more important. Looking toward the future, the OHV design lends itself nicely to replacing the carburetor with a fuel injection system — something Kohler has already started offering. That change should greatly improve cold starting, especially in winter, and further improve fuel economy. Fuel injection would also make the addition of catalytic converters more feasible, if needed to meet air pollution mandates.

Scott R. Nesbitt is a freelance writer and former GCSAA staff member. He lives in Cleveland, Ga.

Bob Helland and Christopher Rissetto


Land grab On April 21, after years of study, litigation, controversy and mayhem, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) jointly published, for comment, a new defnition of “waters of the United States” under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA). The purpose of this rule is to settle 40 years of debate as to what constitutes waters of the United States. But, in fact, the new policy presents an aggressive direction for EPA and the Corps, appearing to place broad areas of wetlands, streams — including intermittent streams — and so-called “other waters” under federal scrutiny. If your golf course is either part of or adjacent to one of these bodies of water, you could be facing a host of new permitting requirements for any decision you make that impacts them. Under Section 502 of the CWA, jurisdiction frst applies to “navigable waters.” Early environmental laws were structured to promote and improve interstate navigation. Section 502 also applies to interstate navigable waters. The CWA also went further than its predecessors by defning navigable water to include “waters of the United States” and what are known as the “territorial seas” — the waters located within 3 miles of the U.S. coastline. No further defnition was provided for “waters of the United States,” so we have 40 years of court cases and federal rulemakings trying to do what Congress either could not or would not. As a result, we have a patchwork defnition of “waters of the United States” that focuses on interstate and navigable nature but also includes some lesser bodies of water that are connected to these types of waters.



T ink “signifcant nexus.” As we go further away from the term navigable, things get murky. With every push to go even further, the matter gets kicked to the courts, to decide the intent of Congress. In Rapanos v. United States, the Supreme Court had to decide whether the CWA applied to non-navigable tributaries of traditional navigable waters. In 547 U.S. 715 (2006), the court decided it did, but was split as how to defne the connection between them. Justice Kennedy ruled in a concurring opinion that any waters that share a “signifcant nexus” to navigable waters can be regulated under the CWA. This was not a majority opinion, so the matter was not settled. With the split as to how far to go, the EPA and the Corps — perhaps not surprisingly — took Kennedy’s “signifcant nexus” language and used it to formulate a rule today that defnes “waters of the United States.” Land grab. Under the proposed rule, all tributaries (including perennial, ephemeral and intermittent streams) and adjacent waters (including adjacent wetlands) would be categorically subject to federal oversight, with no additional analysis required. Additionally, a socalled “other waters” category would be added to include other bodies of water that do not fall into any other category. These would be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. For every body of water, though, there has to be a “signifcant nexus,” using Justice Kennedy’s language, to the bodies of waters traditionally regulated under the CWA mentioned above. The connection must be so that the water impacts the “chemical, physical or biological integrity” of the traditionally regulated water. But the scope of these rules, and the uncertainty that remains behind them, indicates this is not a rule just affecting water decisions, but land use decisions as well. W at about ponds or dit es? Some of the uncertainty affects two types of water bodies found on golf courses: ponds and ditches. A tributary can be water “physically characterized by the presence of a bed and banks and ordinary high water mark.” But it can also be “wetlands, lakes, and ponds” that do not have a bed or bank or high water mark, as long as in either case the waters “contribute fow, either directly or through another water” to traditionally regulated waters. The tributary can be

“natural, man-altered or man-made.” The last words raise the possibility that tributaries could be expanded to include either man-made bodies of water such as ditches used for drainage purposes or ponds. While the rule specifcally excludes “ditches that are excavated wholly in uplands, and have less than perennial fow,” no exclusion is provided for those that drain water downland. Further, while ponds are also excluded, they are only excluded if they are excavated from “dry land.” So if an ornamental pond is connected to a larger water table (as most are), it is included. Me anics and strategies. It is not easy to overestimate the reach of this proposed rule on golf. Adoption of the proposed rule on “waters of the U.S.” could have far-reaching consequences for the design, construction and management of golf courses in the future. The rule is broad in scope, inconsistent with Supreme Court precedent, fails to provide reasonable clarity, and could adversely affect jobs and economic growth. GCSAA is working with a golf industry stakeholder team to develop comments by the July 21 deadline. Any comments raised must be addressed by the EPA and the Corps.

Bob Helland is government services advisor with Reed Smith LLP, the Washington, D.C.-based frm that helps GCSAA advance its federal advocacy agenda. Christopher Rissetto’s legislation practice with Reed Smith emphasizes the Clean Water Act, government contracts and other environmental law.

Pamela C. Smith, CGCS


Preserving what you protect

Conservation easement quick facts • Conservation easements can be tailored to ft the needs of the present landowner while preserving conservation values such as recreational benefts, habitat and water quality for future use. • The landowner retains ownership of the land and is free to sell, use or pass on to heirs. • Conservation easement properties can be private use only and not open to public access. • Do not count on a golf course conservation easement to earn a big income tax deduction as a charitable donation. Check with a tax expert to see if your property would qualify for income tax benefts. • Conservation easements can reduce the value of the property because the use and development is restricted. This could result in lower property taxes as well as lower selling price.

Presented in Partnership with Aquatrols



It is diffcult to imagine that a golf course would cease to exist. It is a surreal experience to see a golf course dissolve back into the landscape. The bunker and green outlines fade as they submit to trees and wild grasses. The concrete paths continue to lead but without purpose. The occasional fag and 150-yard marker are the last material indications that this once was a golf course. According to the National Golf Foundation, golf course closures continue to outpace openings. NGF reports that in 2013 over 150 golf courses closed. Some golf courses become eyesores as the property goes unmanaged. Could an owner, club or community have anticipated the fate of their course? Could they have preserved this land to become a legacy rather than to watch it slip into obscurity? A conservation easement may be a means to ensure golf course property remains as a valued green space. In general, easements are a restriction on land where the property owner gives up certain rights and confers those rights on someone else. Land can be burdened by easements for a myriad of uses such as utilities, access, scenic views, hunting, ditches, etc. Land ownership is like owning a bundle of sticks. You can give up a few sticks and still retain possession and control of the remaining bundle. A conservation easement is a means for property owners to retain ownership and control of their land while establishing restrictions on future use and development. A conservation easement is an agreement between a landowner and a qualifed conservation organization or a government agency. Most often, the grantor donates the easement to the qualifed conserva-

tion organization. However, some conservation easements can be purchased by the qualifed conservation organization. The conservation easement becomes part of the deed and runs with the land. Each subsequent purchaser will be bound to the terms of the easement. The easement is recorded with the county clerk and recorder. Recording the easement and restrictions puts subsequent purchasers on notice that the land is burdened with this easement. Once the conservation easement is executed, the grantor continues his use, private ownership and control of the property. The grantor is freely able to dispose of the property subject to the conservation easement. The qualifed conservation organization becomes the holder of the easement and is responsible for monitoring and enforcing the terms of the easement with the current and subsequent landowners. The landowner may place conservation restrictions on the entire property or portions of the property. Many golf course and residential developments harbor pockets of wetlands, pristine woodlands and land left to revert back to an unmanaged state. Other than the occasional errant golf ball, few nonnative elements occupy these pockets of undeveloped land. These are ideal locations to place into a conservation easement to ensure they are preserved for future generations. Golf course closures may be a natural process. Due to the high cost of operating a golf course, it might be diffcult to fnd a qualifed conservation organization who could guarantee that the property operate as a golf course in perpetuity. However, the conservation easement would ensure that a defunct golf course would remain an undeveloped and minimally managed open space. Golf course owners, clubs and communities could rest assured that by granting a conservation easement, a failed golf course is not extinguished as a valued conservation area.

Pamela C. Smith, CGCS, is the director of agronomy for a large metropolitan city and a 23-year member of GCSAA.

High concentrations of salt in your soil disrupts osmosis, efectively sucking needed water away from turf roots. This leads to rapid wilting, reduced shoot growth and leaf tip burn. Aquaplex Amino速 sprayable osmotic regulator works within the plant to balance osmotic potential, improving water and nutrient uptake and minimizing the impact of stress caused by high EC.

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Bob Vaughey, CGCS Twitter: @rollinghillsgcm


Drones: Coming to a golf course near you?

Despite what you hear on the evening news, at present, it is not legal to use drones for commercial use without authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).



Drones have been in the news lately. We all learned that Amazon hopes one day to use drones to deliver packages to your doorstep in record time. Imagine you need butter, open your phone, click purchase and a drone drops the butter at your door in a short time. In early May, a drone and a commercial airline had a close encounter at 2,300 feet, raising concerns about public safety. Despite what you hear on the evening news, at present, it is not legal to use drones for commercial use without authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA has authorized one commercial use of drones and that was in the Arctic. If you are pursuing your hobby or engaged in recreational activity, you can fy your drone if you follow guidelines for model aircraft — fy “below 400 feet, three miles from an airport and away from populated areas” (www.faa. gov/news/updates/?newsId=76240). The FAA expects to have a proposal for use of small drones (Unmanned Aircraft Systems or UAS) ready to present to Congress by Sept. 30, 2015. Until then, we can imagine how drones could be used to enhance various tasks involved in golf course management. Drones are often used for video recording (for example, the Olympics in Sochi this past winter), with HD cameras attached to the front and bottom of the vehicle. The videos or photos taken by the drone can be sent directly to and recorded on a smartphone, essentially allowing you to see what the drone is recording in real time. On the golf course, a drone could produce videos and photographs that could be valuable tools for communicating with committees, members and even contractors. Drones could be used to record the before-and-after images of renovation work for presentations; to look at nests in trees; or to allow superintendents to see what is beyond hills and over tree lines. A drone could be used to examine the condition of clubhouse roofng, to inventory wildlife in native areas, or even to attempt mud hen control in lakes — the latter is effective but costly if the drone dives in the water (drones don’t come out of the water). The adage that a pic-

An HD video camera is attached to this drone to record the action at the 2014 Golf Industry Show. Photo by Jimmy Thomas

ture is worth a thousand words defnitely applies to the use of drones and the information they can provide. Many models of drones are available for recreational use today, ranging from a few hundred dollars ($300) to thousands. I only say this to point out that drones are not as expensive as one might think. For $300, you get the ability to fy a drone up to 400 feet high and a few hundred feet in range, streaming and recording the HD video directly to your phone. Note that fight time is about 10 minutes, so buy multiple batteries. Do not fy drones in heavy winds — I still don’t quite know where the frst one I purchased ended up. With iPhone tilt control and video feed, it is extremely easy to operate a drone, but spend some time to learn to fy your drone correctly and carefully because they crash easily. Fortunately, replacement parts are relatively cheap and simple to install. Log in to for a how-to video as well as a few demonstration videos. As with all technology, the improvements being made are impressive. Learn how to use a drone today, and you may be able to make it part of your job in the near future.

Bob Vaughey, CGCS, is the director of agronomy at Rolling Hills Country Club in Palos Verdes, Calif., and a 10-year GCSAA member.

Bunny Smith twitter: @GCM_Magazine


Conservation act

Pinehurst No. 2, which once had 1,100 irrigation heads, now has 450, with half of them covering the greens and tees. Photo by Bunny Smith

“I spent most of my career maintaining a monoscape of turf here — and a great golf course. I loved every minute of it, but frankly, it was time to change.” — Bob Farren, CGCS



For all those who think the major restoration of Pinehurst No. 2 was all about giving the famed North Carolina course a new look for the playing of the U.S. Open and U.S. Women’s Open this month (See “Two for 2,” Page 46), Bob Farren, CGCS, the resort’s director of golf course and grounds, would like to set the record straight: It’s about the water. No doubt the wiregrass and other plant species that have either been planted or allowed to establish themselves in areas that once were bunkers or rough lend a unique natural beauty to the layout. And no doubt the broadened fairways that are now bordered by minimally maintained sandy waste areas in place of the rough represent a return to the aesthetic of the original Donald Ross masterpiece. But that’s just the pretty face on Pinehurst’s sensible business model. “The common denominator in everything we did was water,” Farren says. “Virtually all of the changes we made in the last 50 years necessitated (using more) water, so we decided to turn that back.” Turning back involved removing more than 40 acres of bermudagrass turf. Today, the fairways are nearly twice as wide as a typical U.S. Open course, but with essentially no rough. Farren says No. 2’s irrigated area has been re-

duced from approximately 85 acres to 45 acres. They also reactivated the old center-line fairway irrigation, excavating and reinstalling damaged pipeline — some of it 60 years old. The course once had more than 1,100 irrigation heads, but now has only 450, with half of them covering the greens and tees. Additional water savings have been achieved by discontinuing the practice of overseeding the bermudagrass fairways with ryegrass in the winter months. “By taking away the overseed, the savings are huge,” Farren says, “but it took some convincing, and it takes convincing every single day. We still have to defend and talk about it.” Farren and No. 2 head superintendent Kevin Robinson, CGCS, bolster their defense with what Farren calls “talented use of colorants” to maintain an attractive appearance in the winter. “What Kevin and these guys are doing (with the turf colorant) is the art of greenkeeping — literally.” “We weren’t trying to paint to imitate overseeding, just trying to add a little color,” says Robinson, adding that eliminating this annual burden, along with the reduced bunker and rough maintenance, also has “allowed us to focus on maintenance down the middle.” Several other courses at the eight-course resort no longer overseed as well. In 2009, before the work began at No. 2, they measured the course’s water-usage “footprint” at 50-55 million gallons per year; today that fgure is closer to 15 million gallons per year. Farren says that the state’s director of water supply planning reported that even with 12.3 percent less rainfall in 2011 compared to 2010 (before the renovation), Pinehurst No. 2 used 26.1 percent less water during the same reporting period. In 2014, Farren reports, the course is using 60 percent less water. Farren admits that watching the green fade from No. 2 hasn’t been completely painless. “I spent most of my career maintaining a monoscape of turf here — and a great golf course. I loved every minute of it, but frankly, it was time to change.” Bunny Smith is GCM’s senior managing editor.







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two Pinehurst No. 2 is not where you would expect a doubleheader, but the USGA thinks it hit golf’s equivalent of a home run by picking it for an unprecedented occasion. Howard Richman

Photos courtesy of USGA

They have names for their dishes at The Pinehurst Track Restaurant, a cozy diner within walking distance of a famous golf course that is drenched in history and on the verge of an event that is groundbreaking at its fnest. For instance, the Golfer’s Scramble includes two scrambled eggs, ham, home fries and toast. As you partake, chances are good that, not too far from the front door, there will be horses being put through their paces on the 111-acre equestrian facility that has existed one year shy of a century. Neither decades nor eons have experienced what is about to go down in this golf mecca. The possibility of this historic event came to fruition inside Pinehurst Track Restaurant early in 2009, which was two years after the USGA announced the men’s U.S. Open was going to be held at Pinehurst No. 2 in 2014. Pinehurst President Don Padgett II accepted the invitation to meet there with then-USGA Executive Director David Fay.

USGA Executive Director Mike Davis (right) checks out Pinehurst

No. 2 with Bill Coore, who, along with Ben Crenshaw, did the course restoration. Photo courtesy of USGA

“First of all, David wanted me to meet with him off the property. I thought it was a little unusual that he wanted me to meet in private,” Padgett says. As Padgett dined on the Stallmate (pancakes and sausage), Fay served Padgett something else to chew on when he delivered a proposal that he hoped Padgett would fnd tasty. “He said, ‘While I’ve got you here, I want to know if you’d be interested in hosting the Women’s U.S. Open following the men’s Open.’ I thought I’d heard most ideas that had been contemplated, but I never had any thought like that pass through my mind,” Padgett says. Padgett informed Fay that he would ask Pinehurst owner and chief executive offcer Bob Dedman Jr., who responded by asking Padgett whether something like this — meaning back-to-back major championships, one week to the next, on the same golf course — had been done before. No, sir, it had not. “Bob kind of chuckled, then he said, ‘That’s pretty cool. Tell him



(Fay) we’re in.’ That was it,” Padgett says. The “it” factor defnitely scales new heights with this one. For two weeks this month, Pinehurst No. 2 and all of its crowned and undulating greens glory is front, center and everything in between when it comes to golf. The same Pinehurst where Annie Oakley oversaw the gun club in 1916, Amelia Earhart landed for a visit 83 years ago and Ben Hogan recorded his frst professional victory in 1940. Now, there is this: The men will hold their U.S. Open the 15th through 18th; the women then will do their thing the 19th through 22nd. The USGA is treating this as one event. It sure looks, though, like the ultimate package deal. “This is clearly innovative. With innovative things, there’s always a risk and we know that going into it,” says Mike Davis, who became the USGA’s executive director when Fay retired from the organization in 2011. “But we think that there’s many more upsides to this than potential downsides.” Umm, you might guess that Pinehurst’s director of golf course and grounds management, Bob Farren, CGCS, along with No. 2 superintendent Kevin Robinson, CGCS, and their crew, didn’t schedule June vacations. “I think our administration had enough confdence in us, along with our relationship with the USGA, that we could all do this together,” says Farren, a 33-year member of GCSAA. “I think we will prove we can do it.” Why not ladies first? Some LPGA players have been vocal about their concerns that the men will play frst during this fortnight of activity at Pinehurst No. 2. “It will be a disaster for us. We should’ve been frst out,” LPGA standout Suzann Pettersen says in the Jan. 10 issue of Golfweek. “We do minimal damage to the course compared to what the guys do.” Players such as Pettersen have been heard. One man in particular is motivated by their sentiments. “That’s going to be the challenge for us with the women, to preserve it (the course),” says Robinson, a 16-year GCSAA member who has been the superintendent at No. 2 since 2010. “We want to pull off the second week without a glitch.” The par-70 course will play to about 7,500 yards for the men compared with 6,600 for the women. Since much of the discussion about holding back-to-back tournaments focuses on whether the Open will provide a fair test for the women, Robinson intends for No. 2 to shine. The predominant spokesperson on the issue from the USGA perspective is Davis, who in this scenario acts as much like a soccer goalie as he does an executive director. More than once this year Davis has had to answer questions and defend decisions that the USGA has made on his watch — such as why hold back-to-back majors on the same course and why the men precede the women. Davis, in a way, simply is carrying the torch passed on to him by Fay, whose desire was to place the women players on a stage where they might gain maximum recognition. “This was never about trying to make it operationally easier or to save money,” Davis says. “I think there’s a secondary kind of intent here. It’s really to showcase women’s golf because I’m a big believer — and I know others within the USGA are huge believers — that the women just don’t get enough credit.”

Mod sod Bentgrass’s days are numbered on the greens at Pinehurst No. 2. Just nine days after the last ball drops into the last hole at the women’s championship, the course will shut down and the greens’ Penn A-1/A-4 bentgrass will be replaced with Champion ultradwarf bermudagrass. According to Pinehurst’s director of golf course and grounds, Bob Farren, CGCS, this was one change that demanded a period of adjustment, despite the foothold that ultradwarf bermudagrass has been gaining throughout the Southeast since the Atlanta Athletic Club’s success with the grass at the 2011 PGA Championship. “A lot of people had to get comfortable with it — we (superintendents) had to get comfortable with it,” Farren says. To raise the comfort level of maintaining bermudagrass greens on the resort’s premier course, the management team carefully watched what

happened on Pinehurst No. 1, which has MiniVerde ultradwarf bermudagrass greens, and on Nos. 3 and 8, whose greens were converted to Champion last year. “That was our proving ground,” Farren says. “We were able to develop the skill set we needed.” The wait-and-see approach resulted in the decision to make the switch on No. 2’s greens on July 1, but the reason wasn’t strictly agronomic. “It just fts our business model,” Farren says. “We believe we’ll be improving the guest experience for more weeks out of the year than we can with bent.” The resort hopes to reopen No. 2 Labor Day weekend. — Bunny Smith, GCM senior managing editor

These guys will be busy this month as Pinehurst No. 2 hosts back-toback U.S. Opens. From left to right: Assistant John Jeffreys; Bob Farren, CGCS, director of golf course and grounds; assistant Alan Owen; and superintendent Kevin Robinson, CGCS. Photos by John Gessner 06.14 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT


If the men need a playoff, it will start at noon Monday. The women will be able to begin their practice that morning, around 6:45 a.m., on Pinehurst No. 2 then continue to practice once the playoff is on its way. Old school in the Carolinas When the USGA frst pondered back-to-back U.S. Opens, Pinehurst topped the discussion even before No. 2 underwent extensive restorations that were completed three years ago. Designers Bill Coore and Ben Crenshaw restored much of the natural look that Pinehurst No. 2 was intended to have when it opened in 1907 behind the guidance of legendary architect Donald Ross. The project cost $2.5 million and the results include fairways that are about 50 percent wider on average and bunkers that have been restored based upon aerial images from the 1940s. The wall-to-wall green appearance that prevails today at some courses is gone as well. Sandy waste areas have been reintroduced and bunkers have been eliminated or restored with the addition of approximately 200,000 wiregrass plants and numerous varieties of native species, giving Pinehurst No. 2 the more natural appearance it had when Denny Shute captured the PGA Championship there in 1936. One such native species, prickly pear, has been around for decades on No. 2. It also provides a challenge of its own kind. “The prickly pear (a type of cactus) is beautiful, but I wouldn’t want to play my ball out of it,” says Danesha Seth Carley, Ph.D., associate professor of crop science and sustainable landscapes at North Carolina State University. Players such as Phil Mickelson, who is seeking a U.S. Open title to complete the career Grand Slam, will encounter what Pinehurst No. 2 was meant to be in the frst place. “We felt like No. 2 had lost its identity, in the last 40 years especially,” says Farren, who refers to a 1979 article by golf writer Charles Price that later appeared in Lee Pace’s book “The Golden Age of Pinehurst” with this: “The best golf course is a golf course that fts the land you’ve got. What Donald Ross had to work with in the Sandhills might be the most naturally endowed stretch of golfng landscape in America.” Farren adds, “I’ll stand behind it — and Bill and Ben got it.” Let’s play the numbers game to accentuate the drastic changes that were made to make Pinehurst No. 2 old school. 40: That is the total acres of irrigated areas that have been reduced. 450: Remaining number of irrigation heads, down from 1,125. 55: Acres of turf that cover Pinehurst No. 2 compared with the previous number of 90. Tees, fairways and green surrounds are Tifway 419 bermudagrass. 2: Heights of cut. “We don’t have intermediate rough, so that eliminates a lot of tasks,” Robinson says. 0: Rough, in acres. For the last U.S. Open at Pinehurst in 2005, that number was 50. That alone helps make for a fairly seamless transition from the men to the women. “Back then, there was bermudagrass rough everywhere,” says Davis, noting how that would have been an issue this time. “There was enough difference that, practically speaking, we just couldn’t get the roughs right from one week to another.” Robinson, who was the superintendent at Pinehurst Nos. 6 and 7 before taking over at No. 2, says the no-rough scenario was a major move. “It was a culture change. Now there’s more focus on right down the



Bunker mentality You may not recognize the bunkers at Pinehurst No. 2 for the men and women’s U.S. Opens. Your grandfathers and their fathers, though, might fnd them familiar. The modern look is yesterday’s news at the famed golf course. The restored Pinehurst No. 2 showcases bunkers that resemble their appearance from half a century ago, which is a major difference from the last U.S. Open there nine years ago. Smooth lines on bunker edges instead are rough and, in some cases, blend into surrounding hardpan sand, native areas that were uncovered when turf was eliminated. Don’t be stunned to see tufts of wiregrass on bunker faces — or in bunkers themselves. “In some cases, you can’t tell where the bunker ends and the native (area) begins,” bunker shaper Kyle Franz says. USGA Executive Director Mike Davis noted that bunkers won’t be manicured and some of their faces aren’t going to be raked on a daily basis. “I think what you’ll see at Pinehurst No. 2 is really a great statement on maybe what bunkers should be. They are hazards,” Davis says. “They were never intended to be perfectly consistent. When you get your ball in there, you should have to deal with different lies from time to time.” To eliminate the possibility of a Dustin Johnson scenario (he received a two-stroke penalty in the 2010 PGA Championship at Whistling Straits for grounding his club in a bunker he thought was a sandy area, which in part cost him a shot at the title), Davis formulated a plan. “In terms of where you go from through the green into a hazard, we’ll have a walking offcial with every group,” Davis says, “but in essence, the prepared areas, where you’ve got a depression, those are going to be treated as hazards, and then the sandy wiregrass areas aren’t.” If anything, Davis says Pinehurst No. 2’s bunkers serve as a superb example. “We love it because there’s just too much money being spent on bunker maintenance in this country right now,” he says. “There are expectations of players that (they) need a perfect lie in the bunker at that time and every lie ought to be exactly the same. We don’t buy into that logic.” — H.R.

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Top left: The spotlight shines on Pinehurst No. 2 this month. Photo courtesy of USGA Top right, bottom: The crew at work, preparing for the frst-ever back-to-back majors on the same course. Photos courtesy of John Gessner

middle,” Robinson says. That won’t be an issue this time. “This will be the frst U.S. Open and, really, the frst Women’s U.S. Open, where we’re not playing with long rough grass. Think about that,” Davis says. Farren imagines that Ross, who died in 1948, would be pleased. Price offers the following additional insight into Ross’s hopes for No. 2, as recited by Farren from Pace’s book: “Donald Ross interpreted rough to be broken ground, and it was intended to stay that way, not simply overgrown fairway turf. The term fairway meant to Ross the same as it would a ship’s pilot. It refers to the navigable channel for a ship to leave and enter the harbor. That’s what Ross felt the fairway was intended to do, to take you safely from tee to green through the broken ground.” Larry McWane, who served on Pinehurst No. 2’s greens committee for seven years, says: “Playing history is neat.” Don’t expect any huge alterations to the game plan from one week to the next. The USGA’s hope is for players to hit the same clubs, although the men and women may be hitting from different distances. Much preparation went into determining landing areas to make it work. “We plan to set it up exactly the same way both weeks,” Davis says. “The idea was, on a given hole, if the men are hitting drivers, we want the women to hit drivers. If the men are hitting 6- to 8-irons for their approach shots, that’s what we want to see the women do.” A key reason for why the women follow the men? “Simply put, agronomics,” Davis says. “It really gets down to the putting greens (Penn A-1/A-4 bentgrass), that they’re going to be the same green speed for both weeks. But the frst week, and if Mother Nature is cooperative, they’re going to be slightly frmer. We felt we could go from very frm greens to slightly — underscore slightly — less frm greens that second week, and it just agronomically was much easier to do than the reverse.” The greens will roll in the 11 to 12 range on the Stimpmeter; they



will be watered as needed to create the desired speed for the women, who tend to spin the ball less than the men. USGA offcials plan to replicate hole locations in the same spots for both championships and plan, if possible, to use the same quadrants on greens, mostly untouched in the restoration except for Nos. 15 and 17, where additional pin placements were added. In preparation for the Opens, Robinson instituted the use of turning boards a few years ago. They are placed on green collars to protect and preserve those areas around the greens when mowers are turned. “We haven’t had to sod around the greens hardly at all the last three years because of that,” Robinson says. The divot patrol will be on high alert in the fairways, which Robinson says have not been overseeded since 2009, to enhance their frmness. Obviously, divots are part of the deal; they will have Robinson and his crew’s full attention. “It’s something that we’ll focus on, not that we weren’t before,” he says. “We might take it to another level. (Divots) might not be straight sand-flled. We might have a little topsoil in it (divot repair mix) to help compact it a little better.” Since drive zones on most holes will be different for the men and

women, that should mitigate the divot issue, Davis believes. Chris Hartwiger, USGA director of course consulting services, exudes optimism about pulling off this twin bill. He knows the women’s event has received enormous attention, but he is anything but apprehensive. “We’ve considered the repercussions of doing this, and we’re very confdent we’re going to be able to give excellent golf conditions for the Women’s U.S. Open,” Hartwiger says. “It’s a unique opportunity to really elevate two of our championships and link them together as one big golf event. It works at Pinehurst because the proper grass is in place to do it.” For all of the changes that have gone down at Pinehurst No. 2, says Brian Powell, CGCS, president of the Carolinas GCSA, its place in golf lore remains the same. “A renovated Pinehurst No. 2 is still Pinehurst,” he says.

fresh over the two-week haul. Their staff may work two shifts then be off three. “We’re trying to involve our own talent. We’ve got three other very qualifed superintendents (Kyle Brown, Nos. 1, 3, 5; Steve Wilson, Nos. 4, 7; and Jeff Hill, Nos. 6, 8) and several high-level assistants we can involve, along with our crew, so they can feel some ownership with it,” Farren says. Robinson hopes to conduct something similar to time trials in advance of the U.S. Opens to serve as practice. “You try to condition yourself now on how to react to situations, how you get from Point A to Point B,” says Pinehurst No. 2 assistant superintendent John Jeffreys. “Come that time, you will have to do it with 35,000 spectators. We’ll be ready for it. It’ll take a daily effort. A team effort.” Actually, this opportunity is comparable to every day at Pinehurst No. 2, Jeffreys says. Luminaries, sometimes those who are rich and famous, have tested their golfng skill there for years. “We know people spend a lot of money to play here. The golf experience could make or break their whole trip,” he says. “It puts pressure on you to perform.” Pinehurst equipment manager Andy Caddell, who has been on the premises more than four decades, understands the get-it-done mentality at a course where rounds totaled 40,000 in 2013. “We keep it close to tournament-ready all the time. We try to be the best every day,” says Caddell, who has worked there since 1972 and noted how his staff of 24 will run split shifts for the U.S. Opens. “This is Pinehurst. You never know who is going to walk through the door. This isn’t going to be much different.”

With the U.S. Opens on the horizon, Farren has had plenty of opportunities

Not necessarily the same old song Ben Kimball, USGA director for the Women’s U.S. Open championship, recently used a line made popular by the rock band Phish to get his point across about what soon unfolds at Pinehurst No. 2. “It’s been perfectly planned. It’s completely insane. It’s a revolving cast but it’s the same old game,” Kimball recited from Phish’s song “Show of Life” in front of a large group in March during the USGA Green Section Regional Conference inside Pinehurst’s Carolina Hotel. Farren, son of a superintendent, beams for multiple reasons. These will be the third and fourth U.S. Opens since 1999 at Pinehurst No. 2 but the frst for the remodeled version (the last one occurred in 2005). “We went from using 55 million gallons of water a year to 15 million in the new model,” Farren says. “From a sustainability standpoint, we have a great story to tell” (see “Conservation act,” Page 42). Whether the USGA attempts to stage back-to-back U.S. Open championships again is unknown. If Pinehurst No. 2 hopes to set the bar for such a massive undertaking, Owen feels honored to be part of a feat that will have the world watching — and seeing double. The NCAA has March Madness in basketball. In golf terms, June Madness seems appropriate for what is on the horizon in the Sandhills of North Carolina. “Not many opportunities come around like this in your lifetime,” Owen says. “No matter how it turns out, I know we will have given it our best shot.”

to meet the media. Photo by John Gessner

Tee for 2 Pinehurst No. 2 assistant superintendent Alan Owen has worked two previous U.S. Opens at the course. Owen, an Englishman, was a college intern who also got to be part of the crew for the 1998 British Open. You could say he is a veteran at this. On second thought … “One week is challenging. Two weeks? Who knows,” Owen says. In most U.S. Opens, the superintendent invites those like him from throughout the country, sometimes even from across the pond, to serve as volunteers. As previously stated, however, this isn’t your typical U.S. Open. “It’s a paid opportunity for our guys,” Farren says. Translated, that means most of his crew comes from the Pinehurst Resort, which features eight golf courses (in all, that entails 222 full- or part-time employees, including nearly 40 at Pinehurst No. 2). Some outside help, particularly in case of weather-related issues, will come from golf courses not too far away, such as Charlotte, Greensboro and Raleigh. It will be business as usual for the other courses at Pinehurst during the U.S. Opens. Pinehurst Nos. 6, 7 and 8 will be open each day for play during the championships. Nos. 1, 3 and 5 will have limited holes open for play. Farren and Robinson plan to do everything possible to keep the crew



Howard Richman ( is GCM’s associate editor.

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NEVER rains in Superintendents in the Golden State get proactive to nurse their facilities through one of the worst droughts on record. Stacie Zinn Roberts

Photo by shutterstock

On April 29 of this year, the U.S. Drought Monitor released its latest statistics for the level of drought in California. The numbers were staggering. Every square inch of California soil, a full 100 percent, was categorized as “Abnormally Dry.” Nearly 77 percent was listed as experiencing “Extreme Drought” conditions. And a full 25 percent of California was classifed within the highest level of threat, “Exceptional Drought.” “We are in the third year of below average rainfall,” says Pat Gross, Southwest director of the USGA Green Section. “This last rainy season was the lowest recorded in California history.” When you consider that 38 million people call themselves Californians (one out of every eight Americans lives in The Golden State), half of the fresh fruit in the United States is grown in California, and the state supports more than 900 golf courses — second only to Florida, which gets a whole lot more rain — the consequences of year upon year of drought could take a catastrophic toll on the water supply. Most golf course operations have altered at least some of their management practices in order to adapt to the drought as the “new normal” by installing more effcient irrigation, removing turf in out-of-play areas, switching

ist dollars generated by the valley’s 124 golf courses. Stu Rowland is the GCSAA Class A director of golf course operations at Rancho La Quinta Country Club, located in the Coachella Valley. He’s also the immediate past president of the Hi-Lo Desert GCSA. “Golf in this community is the economic driving factor in this area. It’s usually not in any other area in the United States, but it is here because we have such a high concentration of golf courses,” says Rowland, a 13-year GCSAA member. “And as golf course superintendents around the nation know, if we deplete our natural resources, we essentially work ourselves right out of a job. In preserving those natural resources, and in this case, water, we come to a standard of long-term sustainability that keeps our jobs alive. It keeps our economy going. It keeps the residents of this valley here. If golf were to die in the valley, the valley would die.” Rowland also serves on the newly formed Coachella Valley Water Conservation Task turf varieties or by using wetting agents to get Force. He, along with current chapter presmore out of what little water is available to ir- ident Dean Miller, director of agronomy at PGA West, and Craig Kessler, director of govrigate turf. In at least one extreme case, the 18-hole ernmental affairs for the Southern California Legends Course at Diablo Grande in Patter- Golf Association (SCGA), meet monthly with son, located near Modesto and designed by offcials from the Coachella Valley Water DisJack Nicklaus and Gene Sarazen, turned off trict (CVWD) to create real solutions to adthe water altogether in order to divert limited dress water conservation in the valley. By the time the task force was formed in water supplies to the golf course communiDecember 2013, the valley had three years ty’s homes and a second 18-hole course that earlier already mandated a 5 percent reduction is more visible from the road, according to a in water use for golf, which was met. Another report in The Modesto Bee. The thought that a golf course owner mandate was put in place requiring an addicould decide to just cut their losses and walk tional 10 percent reduction in water use by away from such a high-profle facility is scary 2020. Besides conservation education, one of stuff. The implications are downright chill- the ways the task force hopes to meet this new ing, once you realize that California’s 921 golf reduction is to move as many golf courses as courses and other related facilities generated possible to irrigating with nonpotable water. According to Heather Engel, director $6.3 billion in economic activity in the state of communications and conservation with in 2011, according to a report called The California Golf Economy, commissioned by Golf the CVWD, water for the Coachella Valley comes from three sources: groundwater from 20/20 for the California Alliance for Golf. an aquifer, which is used primarily for drinking water and irrigation; reclaimed nonpotaDilemma in the desert Perhaps no single economy in the state is ble water, which is treated wastewater used as dependent upon golf as the Coachella Val- for landscape and golf; and nonpotable water ley. Home to the world-famous resort cities of diverted from the Colorado River, which is Palm Springs and Palm Desert, the Coachella untreated and used for agricultural and golf/ Valley is a desert climate in Riverside County landscape irrigation. Although most of the golf courses in the with a population of approximately 300,000 people, supported by the real estate and tour- valley still use potable water as their irrigation

Clockwise from left: Craig Kessler, the director of governmental affairs with the Southern California Golf Association; GCSAA Southwest Field Staff Representative Jeff Jensen; and Stu Rowland, the director of golf course operations at Rancho La Quinta CC and the immediate past president of the Hi-Lo Desert GCSA have all played integral roles in working with state water offcials to create logical guidelines and policies for golf in the face of California’s recent drought worries.

source, 51 courses have some access to nonpotable water, mostly in the form of a blend of reclaimed and Colorado River water. The CVWD has identifed 48 other golf courses that could eventually come off of potable water and accept some combination of nonpotable water for irrigation. “It’s going to take a while. It takes infrastructure and money and time,” Engel says. “We are hoping to construct the infrastructure to hook up an additional eight golf courses in the next two (fscal) years to the Mid-Valley Pipeline. The Mid-Valley Pipeline is the source of the blended recycled water and Colorado River water. In that same time frame, we are hoping to build infrastructure to connect four additional golf courses to the Coachella Canal, which is the source of the Colorado River water. That would equate to 12 golf courses coming off the groundwater supply in the next two years. It’s an ambitious plan, but we think it’s feasible.” In conjunction with this effort, Rowland says the task force is working to create a budgeting structure for water use on golf courses in the valley that is based on consumption per acre, not per golf hole. The task force is also helping the district with an application to receive up to $3 million in grant money from the state to help valley golf courses convert out-of-play areas into non-irrigated desert landscapes. Spreading the message Similar efforts are under way with task forces in Los Angeles, San Diego, Sacramento and the Central Valley under the guiding hand of the SCGA’s Kessler, in concert with the GCSAA’s Southwest regional representative, Jeff Jensen. The frst task force was organized in 2009 in Los Angeles, Kessler says, in the wake of that city’s adoption of its emergency water conservation ordinance that lumped cemeteries, parks, golf courses and Dodger Stadium into the same category. It allowed for irrigation only on two days a week, and limited irrigation to non-daylight hours. “That’s a death sentence for golf courses in LA,” Kessler says. So, in conjunction with the parks department, which included representatives from the city’s municipal golf courses, Kessler, Jensen and local GCSAA chapter representatives,



“Most of the agencies we approach, it’s often the frst time they’ve been approached by any type of commercial group outside of agriculture.” —Jeff Jensen and other task force members went to the Los Angeles City Council to propose an “alternative means of complying with all those draconian restrictions,” Kessler says. What they came up with was a workable program by which certain irrigators could be seen as complying with the water restrictions if they met a 20 percent reduction in water use overall. “We simply opened up a dialogue that allowed us to work through these issues, to help the LA Department of Water and Power, and the city of LA, meet that 20 percent and do so in a way that was consistent with sound business and science,” Kessler says. On the heels of the task force’s success in Los Angeles, Kessler, with help from GCSAA, took the same model to San Diego, and rep-

licated it again in Sacramento, California’s Central Valley and the Coachella Valley, making sure that golf course superintendents — the people actually charged with carrying out and managing any water restrictions — were included in the process. Jensen says it was important to form local groups, rather than one all-encompassing task force, because “we have over 3,000 water agencies in the state of California. It’s not possible for one group to oversee” all of these individual agencies. “Most of the agencies we approach, it’s often the frst time they’ve been approached by any type of commercial group outside of agriculture,” Jensen says. “Most groups don’t reach out to them to ask how we can work together to better the situation. Most water agencies are surprised to hear from us. They’re glad we’re starting to work with them and get the message out — not only that golf is trying to do this, but also that the water agencies

At Marin CC, CGCS Kevin Pryseski (top right) put into place a multi-faceted plan to address drought conditions that have become the new normal at his facility, just north of San Francisco. Among his efforts was a retention pond renovation project with U.S. Aqua Vac that removed a deep layer of silt via a system of large bladders that freed up an additional 1.6 million gallons of water capacity. Photos courtesy of Kevin Pryseski

are working with golf to conserve water where possible. It’s a good thing for the agencies in the eyes of the public, and the media as well, that they’re actually working on a solution to the problem. This is a long-term project. The drought in California is not going to go anywhere anytime soon.” At the regional level, and at GCSAA headquarters in Lawrence, Kan., the association works to help GCSAA members in California deal with the drought. Chava McKeel is the director of government relations at GCSAA. “From a national perspective,” McKeel says, “we provide help with strategy, talking points, data, research and BMPs” to prepare GCSAA members to serve on task forces and communicate with water management agencies. Forming strategic alliances between water management districts and golf industry representatives, giving golf course superintendents a seat at the table where water allocation decisions are made, is a win-win for all involved. “I think the big beneft so far has been in improving the lines of communication and being able to understand each other better. We explain some water-related issues to them. They explain golf issues to us. Both groups are much more educated. Understanding each other and communicating better is a beneft for the long-term goals of helping golf courses reduce their water use, which will beneft ev-



eryone in the Coachella Valley,” Engel says. She adds, “From the way I understand it, the golf course superintendent is the most important person at the golf course when it comes to the hands-on process of reducing water use. Without their support, I don’t see that it would happen. We need their support in order to make any progress.” Kessler says he thinks the country’s largest golf market (Southern California) has discovered that proactive engagement with all levels of government and the media is a good thing. “Don’t be afraid of it,” he says. “It actually is good for the golf business and good for the game of golf. Embrace it.” Ground-level tactics It may take a collaborative effort to address water policies, but on the ground, superintendents know they must manage their facilities to maximize water effciency and en-

sure conservation. In his travels around California, Gross says the superintendents he visits with are being proactive regarding the drought, taking action where possible. Some strategies he recommends are: • Perform an irrigation audit. Do it yourself or hire a certifed irrigation auditor to check distribution uniformity, have the pump measured for energy effciency, evaluate the hydraulics of the system, observe sprinklers while they’re running to check if the pattern is correct. • Upgrade irrigation systems. Upgrade to more effcient nozzles, employ moisture sensors, fx broken or outdated parts. • Switch from cool-season grasses to more drought-tolerant warm-season varieties, where possible. • Reduce the amount of irrigated turf. Remove turf in out-of-play areas and on

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Auction Dates: June 9-22, 2014 & August 1-10, 2014

Rounds Research Presented in partnership with The Toro Company.

A turfgrass conversion project, new irrigation systems and the broad use of wetting agents have been among the efforts Pryseski has put into place at Marin CC in an effort to lessen the impact drought conditions have had on his facility.

slopes around tee areas, replace turf with less water-intensive native or desert landscape plants. • Eliminate overseeding. Educate memberships on the playability of dormant turf, eliminate water-intensive transitions in and out of overseed. At Rancho La Quinta, Rowland initiated a program over the past few years to replace his course’s old brass impact sprinkler heads with newer, high-effciency heads. He’s also converting landscape areas from overhead sprinklers to more effcient drip irrigation. The overhead sprinklers, he says, once pumped out “anywhere from 15 to 20 gallons per minute, and now we’re down to one drip per plant at 1 gallon per hour.” In addition, during the summer golf off-season, Rowland says he’s reducing his water use by “keeping things alive but not lush and green across the whole property.” For seven years Kevin Pryseski, CGCS, has been the golf course superintendent at Marin Country Club, located 25-minutes north of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge. His course has seen less than normal rainfall. In all but two of those years, anticipating a water defcit has become part of his daily program. A multifaceted plan netted Marin CC a 30 percent water savings across the board. The 28-year GCSAA member explains the steps he’s taken to conserve water: • New grass. Just six months after he joined the club, the Poa annua course was converted to bentgrass greens and ryegrass fairways. • Less grass. Eight acres of turf were elimi-



nated, leaving only 90 acres of irrigated turf over all 18 holes. New irrigation system. At the time of regrassing, the club invested in a new computerized Rain Bird Cirus irrigation system, adding about 700 heads on the course to increase the ability to spot-water select locations. The new system also allows for a variety of customized irrigation schedules that pinpoint and deliver water only when and where it’s needed. Aggressive aerifcation. Pryseski says the club owns “six or seven” different types of aerifcation machines (solid tine, core pullers, Verti-Quake aerators, etc.). He aerifes all surfaces — roughs, fairways, tees and greens. “In the past two years we’ve doubled the amount of times we aerated fairways and roughs,” Pryseski says. Wetting agents. Pryseski says he’s a “big proponent” of wetting agents, but rather than spraying them, he injects small amounts into his irrigation system every night to spoon-feed wetting agents in the roughs and fairways. He injects on greens only about every two weeks when he fushes the greens for salt accumulation. Retention pond renovation. Pryseski hired U.S. Aqua Vac to remove silt from the bottom of one of the course’s six retention ponds. An innovative system that does not dredge, but rather sucks water and bottom muck out of the pond and into a large bladder, freed up an additional 1.6 million gallons of water capacity in the pond, the equivalent of about two weeks’ worth of

irrigation water. Plus, according to Brian Pirl, vice president of operations for U.S. Aqua Vac, the process allowed the fltered water to drain back into the pond and, after drying, the silt provided nutrient-rich soil that could be used other places on the golf course. • Cut off water in the rough. Last year, even with all of his conservation efforts, Pryseski knew that he would not have enough water to keep the rough alive through the hot summer months. After much communication with club members, in July he cut all irrigation to the roughs. “The big thing was communication. I put out a daily email to the members, we have a blog, and we explained that it was one of the driest years on record.” The rough didn’t die all at once, so it wasn’t a tremendous shock. And come October, when the rains returned, Pryseski and his crew reseeded the rough with ryegrass. Motivation for the future Once the drought does break, what will the long-term impacts be for California, and for other areas of the country? “I think we will fnd that these mandatory water restrictions will not go away,” Gross says. “Courses removing turf won’t go back and put the turf back in. I think we’ll see changes in the way courses are managed. Winter overseeds are being cancelled to primarily save water. We will see golf course design and landscaping change, and water will be a prime factor for doing so.” Still, in the face of so many changes and dire predictions, Rancho La Quinta’s Rowland continues to work with his colleagues, serves on the task force and shouts golf’s sustainable water story from the rooftops. He says his motivation comes from an unlikely source: Dr. Seuss. In the story “The Lorax,” there’s a scene where the old man, whom you never actually get to see, tells the young boy about the trees, and utters a sentence that Rowland says inspires him to take action. It’s this: “Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing’s going to get better. It’s not.”

Stacie Zinn Roberts is the president of What’s Your Avocado?, a writing and marketing frm based in Mount Vernon, Wash., and a regular contributor to GCM.

AT THE TURN By Mark Leslie

As summer heats up, superintendents check turf often for signs of stress and look for new ways to combat it. Photo © Montana Pritchard

(plant health)

Skip the stress Summer can be a tough time for turfgrass, but increasingly, superintendents are fnding more tools to deal with the season’s challenges.

“We can blow 60-degree air on a 100-degree day and manipulate the soil profle.” — Matt Weitz



The war of summer turfgrass stress may be a 60-day fght in the Northeast, or a 90- or 100day slugfest in the mid-Atlantic, Midwest and Texas, but whatever the duration, golf course superintendents need all the weapons they can fre to win an armistice. Colleagues across the high-heat-and-humidity swath of the country can relate to Paul B. Latshaw’s war story from the “brutal” summer of 1995, when Merion Golf Club in Ardmore, Pa., experienced 45 days above 90 degrees, including 20 over 95. And they can commiserate with GCSAA Class A superintendent Matt Weitz in his recollection of hosting a event at Victoria National Golf Club in Newburgh, Ind., when it averaged 109 degrees over four days, with an evapotranspiration rate of 0.5 inch in “conditions we’d never seen before.” But superintendents can also take solace that their colleagues, as well as industry and university researchers over the years, have used their creativity and ingenuity to help overcome summer stress. Many of their weapons are conventional, but as in military warfare where advanced weaponry and technology are being invented continually, superintendents report astonishing success with some new developments as well. Historically, irrigation and mowing programs were improved with venting machinery, foliar fertilizers and topdressing. Then along came superior mowers and bedknives and rollers, fans, moisture sensors and meters and even the invention of SubAir, an aeration and moisture removal system. Recently en-

tering the fght are Precision Air, a system that allows superintendents to actually air-condition a green’s subsurface through the drainage system, and Turf Screen, a sort of sunscreen for turf that Latshaw, a certifed golf course superintendent and 26-year GCSAA member, describes as “the most revolutionary thing I’ve seen in the last 10 years.” Add the human element — a good mechanic and a superintendent and staff who can act intuitively — and a golf course has an excellent chance to survive even the worst blitz of summer heat and humidity, and even the shade from an overload of corporate tents at a major tournament. For colleagues in this annual struggle, superintendents with bentgrass greens from Massachusetts to Ohio and Texas have shared tips ranging from cultural to mechanical. Water management “The biggest thing at all times is water management,” says Latshaw, director of grounds operations at Muirfeld Village in Dublin, Ohio, for the past 11 years, a period which follows seven years at Merion and fve at Oak Hill Country Club in Rochester, N.Y. Muirfeld Village’s greens are predominantly Penn A-1/Penn A-4 and the shade-tolerant Penn G-6 bentgrass, while its fairways are bentgrass and Poa annua. “The only time we auto-water greens is to water in a product or fush them. All other times it’s hand watering just because every area is different,” Latshaw says. “We do a lot of syringing throughout the day just to cool the ground off.” Moisture sensors are good, and Muirfeld Village has them on three holes, but Latshaw says handheld meters are his preference. Every scout handling the hand watering is armed with a moisture meter. “If a green reads below 10, they take it to 12. If it’s a high-ET (evapotranspiration) day, they take it to 13 or 14. If it’s hazy, hot and humid, they take it to 11.” Latshaw says his goal is to keep the greens as dry as possible but not let them wilt at noon. “The critical thing is making sure they get the right amount of moisture,” he says. “We try to keep them as frm and fast as possible, and make sure we don’t miss anything.” Jason Harrison, in his third year as superintendent at Worcester (Mass.) Country Club, a Donald Ross-designed course celebrating its 100th anniversary this year, deals with a Poa annua/bentgrass course with a lot of Poa. While he irrigates the entire course except putting surfaces every other day, the greens are



“almost strictly hand-watered,” the amount determined by moisture meters, says Harrison, a nine-year GCSAA member. Harrison starts the irrigation cycle at 2:30 to 3 a.m., “so that it’s still watering when we come in to work, and the turf is not sitting overnight in a saturated state.” Weitz, who is now director of agronomy at Vaquero Club in Westlake, Texas, which has bentgrass greens and zoysiagrass fairways, says he deep-waters Sunday nights in conjunction with the SubAir pulling moisture down into the root zone. “You want to keep it as dry as you can and push it longer and get longer life out of deep watering,” he says. Blowin’ in the wind Latshaw, Harrison and Weitz all ascribe to greenside fans. The need for them is thrust upon Latshaw merely because as a “stadium” course, Muirfeld Village was intentionally designed by Jack Nicklaus and Desmond Muirhead with playing surfaces lower than the surrounds and with water on all the holes. Therefore, there is limited air movement on most of its greens. “We have fans on 15 holes, and some have two fans,” Latshaw says. With a season managed around the PGA Tour’s late-May/early-June Memorial Tournament and played in the Ohio Valley — famous for very high temperatures and often oppressive humidity — Latshaw’s goal is to have the fans up and functional immediately after the event. “We see dramatic improvements when we get the fans up,” he says. “Without them, we would have some issues.” Weitz, a nine-year GCSAA member, has dealt with the heat, humidity and microclimates of Victoria National and Hillcrest CC in Indianapolis, and now faces the polar opposite: more heat, less humidity and frequent wind. But in both situations, he highly recommends fans for “cooling off the surface, helping air fow, allowing the plant to transpire as it should, and manipulating Mother Nature as much as we can.” Mowing and rolling Latshaw’s mowing crew does all its work at night, and if it’s a week of 90-degree-plus temperatures, they mow one day and roll the next. That rotation helps out, “especially with stress on greens,” he says, adding, “We make sure turf growth regulation is geared so that we can miss a mowing.” Harrison, who also mows at 0.1 inch, goes

into the summer using grooved rollers on the hand mowers as much as possible. But in July he switches to smooth rollers and maintains the same height of cut. “Even though the height of cut is the same, the effect is actually a little higher, so we get a longer leaf blade,” he explains. “I’ll use smooth rollers as long as I have to, but anticipate that by early August I’m back at grooved rollers and being as aggressive as I’m allowed to.” During summer stress, Harrison still normally rolls six days a week, though if he has to back off he will. “Certain days we’ll only roll and still achieve the green speed we want, but not cutting and injuring the plant,” he says. His decision on whether to roll or not is made by sight and feel, the temperature and its duration, and what the greens look like by eye. Regardless of the strategy, though, Latshaw places his mechanics third on his list of summer-stress accolades. “We’re fortunate to have a great mechanic,” he says. “The worst thing you do to a green is mow it. We always have a mechanic out in the feld, adjusting mowers, making sure the bedknife is okay, etc. We cut at 0.085 during a tournament, and if we have one mower knocked off by a thousandth of an inch, it’s life or death. “It’s like a surgeon using a dull scalpel versus a sharp one.” The new wunderkinds Along with the conventional summerstress treatments have come two recent phenomena in the golf world: Precision Air and Turf Screen. Weitz had a SubAir system at Victoria National in Newburgh, Ind., and describes it as “a great invention but still you’re dealing with ambient air.” Along comes Precision Air, which propels air conditioning into the greens profle to the point that “we can blow 60-degree air on a 100-degree day and manipulate the soil profle,” Weitz says. “In Indiana we had 20 in-ground SubAir units that helped suck the moisture out, nothing more,” he says. “That’s when I started playing with cooling the air down, blowing cold air into the green.” Following the lead of TPC Sawgrass in Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla., and The Alotian Club in Roland, Ark., Weitz had Precision Air units installed on fve holes at the Vaquero Club, which also has four SubAir units — two permanent and two portable. At the expense of $50,000 per green,

“We’re going to be putting Precision Air in all the greens,” he said, adding that the club’s membership “wants to do what it takes to be the best.” Meanwhile, the pièce de résistance in this annual bout with summer stress may be Turf Screen, an invention of former Manufacturers’ Golf & Country Club superintendent Scott May, a veteran of his own climatic battles in suburban Philadelphia. Taking the concept of sunscreen for humans to the world of turfgrass management, May experimented with a suspension concentrate comprised of sunscreen ingredients titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. And voilà! “The biggest game-changer,” says Weitz, “is Turf Screen, one of the most important tools I use.” “Turf Screen is a staple with our program,” says Latshaw, who experimented with it for four years and reported astonishing results. “I’ve seen a signifcant reduction in canopy temperature — on average six to eight degrees,” says Harrison. When temperatures were topping 100 degrees, Weitz started experimenting with Turf Screen two and a half weeks before a tournament at Victoria National. “You could draw a line between where the application was laid and where it wasn’t,” he said. “We pulled the trigger then and sprayed wall-to-wall because the bentgrass was stressing out.” Harrison, who applies Turf Screen every two weeks starting in April, says it helps turfgrass density — “with almost a fertilizer response but not with the growth” — and reduces the need for water. “Because of Turf Screen, we’re not wilting as quickly,” he says. Latshaw harkens back to 2012. “It was really dry,” he says. “On one fairway we could see where we stopped applying Turf Screen. Outside that area, it was wilting like there was no tomorrow. Inside it, there was no wilt at all.” So today, from May to October, Muirfeld Village crews spray a foliar application every week on greens, two weeks on fairways, and two to three weeks along with fertilizer and fungicide on bunker faces. Weitz says Turf Screen “could get costly if you’re spraying 50 acres, but if you’re just treating the greens, it would only cost $300 to $400 per application.” Plant protectants and topdressing As for other applications a superintendent



The greens at this course show noticeable improvement since the introduction of TurfScreen into the summer program, as this treated/untreated photo illustrates. Photo courtesy of TurfScreen can explore as a means to relieving summer stress, Latshaw says, “You need to make sure your rotational fungicide applications are tight and if you get in a situation above 90 degrees for two weeks, you might not get 14 days on chemistry, you might get 10. That’s a ‘feel’ thing.” “All summer,” Harrison says, “we topdress biweekly with hand-rotary spreaders. Even if it’s 90 degrees, we don’t back off. It keeps the greens frm and protects the [plants’] crowns.” Harrison also recommends “laying off granular fertilizer during the summer stress period. We almost always use foliar so it’s going out in a sprayer. We’re soil testing once a month so we know that we have an effcient amount of, or are low in, certain elements. We keep them fairly lean and use 100 percent foliar products.” Determining his applications by sight, he says he normally foliar sprays every two weeks. “But,” he says, “in the heat and humidity of mid-June to mid-August, we only soil spray if Mother Nature is going to water it in. I try not to put down any additional water.” Venting Keeping in mind that oxygen is a crucial element to plant health, venting is universally recommended, but with different types in dissimilar situations. At Weitz’s high-end Texas track, his choice is 4-inch, 9-millimeter needle tines once or twice a month “to open up the soil a bit, get air into the root system and release some of the gases.” At Harrison’s Poa annua/bent high-end club in Massachusetts, his choice is solid deeptine aerifcation, going 8 to 10 inches deep

without pulling plugs, once in July and again in August. The Lollapalooza Even with all these tools, when all is said and done, a superintendent can’t prevent, but can only deal with, turfgrass’s worst attack: a thunderstorm followed by sun and 95 degrees. “You get half an inch of rain and it’s humid and you cook your roots and then you’re done, left managing a compromised root system,” Latshaw says. How to best deal with that situation? “You depend on foliar feeding programs, light and frequent applications because the root system is compromised. You do a lot of syringing. You’ve got to know where your roots are,” Latshaw says. “In early-May to June you can run drier numbers because the root system is deeper,” he adds. “Later, the roots aren’t as deep and so you go with light and frequent applications — especially if the scenario is that pathology is working on the root system … your soil temperature always follows soil moisture. It’s an inverse relationship.” If they haven’t already, then that is when superintendents truly earn their keep, agrees Harrison, saying, “You’re a victim of your own success (in terms of golfers’ expectations).”

Mark Leslie is a freelance writer based in Monmouth, Maine, and a frequent contributor to GCM.

Congratulations to the Finalists. - Joe Stefanick, Seven Lakes Golf and Tennis Community, Fort Myers, Fla. - Bill Claytor, Muirfeld Village Golf Club, Dublin, Ohio - Raymond Hooker, Interlachen Country Club, Winter Park, Fla.

We will announce the winner soon. Stay tuned!

AT THE TURN Nancy Hardwick

A catch-can test measures irrigation distribution uniformity in the feld. Photos courtesy of Underhill


Weathering long-term drought with improved irrigation Converting to solid metal nozzles improves distribution uniformity and reduces costs at a top Texas course.

When golf course superintendents misread the weather…it can have serious consequences.



When the weatherman comes up with faulty predictions, no one gives it much thought. When golf course superintendents misread the weather, however, it can have serious consequences, says Texas superintendent Mark Semm. Semm is the GCSAA Class A director of agronomy at The Clubs of Cordillera Ranch, a resort-style community in Boerne, Texas, 30 miles northwest of San Antonio. In spring 2011, Semm and his crew were anxiously making plans to deal with another year of drought. Springtime in Texas is typically rainy, followed by long, hot summers, but there was little precipitation in 2011. “June rolled in with hot, dry weather and a Texas wind that could dry the turf down to its roots,” he recalls. “We tried to update some of our full-circle heads with newer models to improve the distribution uniformity (DU), but weren’t getting the coverage we needed. There were lots of dry patches, along with oversaturated areas. (See the sidebar, “What is distribution uniformity?”) Meanwhile, summer was fast approaching.” The Clubs at Cordillera Ranch is an 8,700-acre master planned community with luxury residences. The golf club opened in 2007 with the legendary Jack Nicklaus playing the inaugural round.

Cordillera Ranch was recently named the 2014 Course of the Year by the National Golf Course Owners Association, and is consistently rated one of the top courses in Texas (No. 1 in the Texas Hill Country, No. 1 in a Texas Residential Community). Hole No. 16 is recognized as one of the most beautiful in the state. Nestled in a scenic country setting, the Cordillera Ranch layout meanders through rugged, oak-covered terrain with natural water features. The Guadalupe River adjoins the property with fshing and water sports. The course’s bentgrass greens and zoysiagrass fairways are irrigated with Toro sprinklers and Osmac central control. With very little rain and another hot summer approaching, Semm had to explore new ways to improve distribution uniformity and keep his course playable during a predicted dry year. “Along with the DU issues, the crew had to deal with clogged nozzles,” says Semm, an 18-year GCSAA member. “We’re located in a river valley area with sedimentary soil that can choke up the heads.” After doing some research and consulting with other superintendents, Semm decided

What is distribution uniformity? Distribution uniformity (DU) rate is typically a barometer of turf condition and indicates whether a sprinkler is delivering uniform irrigation coverage. A low DU uniformity rate of 0.55 or less indicates that coverage is inconsistent, resulting in dry spots, donuts or overwatered, saturated areas. A high DU rate of 0.80 or better shows that irrigation is uniform, resulting in healthier turf and improved appearance. With a higher DU rate, sprinklers can be programmed for shorter run times, saving water and energy. In tests conducted at the Center for Irrigation Technology at California State University, Fresno, Profle solid metal nozzles were shown to improve irrigation distribution uniformity at a series of golf courses while also reducing water usage by as much as 20 percent. With improved distribution uniformity, superintendents are able to water less often and reduce run times. — N.H. to feld-test Profle solid metal nozzles on his toughest site — the eighth fairway, which, he says, has always been a struggle to keep uniformly watered. “I’m a fairly cautious guy and don’t like being a guinea pig…but we had nothing to lose…so we switched out a few full-circle heads on the eighth with Profles. And I was

blown away. Within two weeks, the eighth stood out like a green oasis because there was such an improvement in the distribution uniformity and appearance,” he says. “Words don’t do it justice….You had to see it.” That’s when Semm decided to retroft all the full-circle heads on his fairways with solid metal nozzles.



Mark Semm

“By the time July rolled around we were in the midst of one of our worst droughts. But many of our fairways had already been retroftted…and were looking great,” he says. To date, Semm has retroftted more than 300 full-circle heads on Cordillera’s fairways and perimeters with solid metal nozzles. He has also installed another 75 part-circle highuniformity heads on the greens where the spacing is a little tighter. The DU guru A longtime turfgrass and irrigation consultant and former superintendent, Mike Huck is known throughout the industry as the “DU guru.” Huck, who heads up Irrigation & Turfgrass Services in San Juan Capistrano, Calif., has also worked with the USGA Green Section. In that position, he evaluated golf courses across the arid Southwest, offering practical suggestions for improving turf health. His analyses often focused on distribution uniformity. “There are both visual and practical components to improving DU,” he says. “The vi-

Updating the irrigation system nozzles allowed The Clubs of Cordillera Ranch in Boerne, Texas, to improve distribution uniformity and coverage. Mark Semm is the GCSAA Class A director of agronomy.

sual components are obvious: fewer dry and wet patches and a frm and uniform green playing surface. “The practical components are realized over time: healthier, more disease-resistant turf and real potential for water savings. For example, for every 2 percent improvement in DU, we typically expect a 1 percent savings in water usage. “If a course goes from a poor 73 percent DU rating to an optimal 83 percent in DU, that’s a 10 percent improvement. This can translate to 5 percent in water savings. In coastal Southern California, it is common to have a water bill of $500,000 annually, so a 5 percent improvement can amount to $25,000 a year in savings,” he says. Huck’s experience with Profle solid metal

Test shapes and performance characteristics for equilateral triangular spacing • Slope or wedge. Most forgiving and desirable for optimizing coverage. • Stepped. Second-most desirable if length of each step is properly proportioned to its inverse counterpart when overlapped. • Flat. Undesirable — creates an excessively wet or dry donut surrounding the sprinkler. • Valley near head. Develops into a dry donut a few feet from the sprinkler as the season progresses. • Sharp peak near head. Develops into a wet donut near sprinkler as irrigation season progresses. — N.H.



nozzles goes back to the frst prototypes introduced by inventor David Malcolm in the early 1990s. As a superintendent, Huck had a 1960s-era system with poor DU. He decided to switch a few zones of his nozzles to Profles as a test…and saw immediate improvements. Advantages of improved DU Before Huck could complete the retroft, however, he joined the USGA. His successor completed the installation and reported dramatic results. After seeing the improved fairways frsthand, Huck was prompted to write a USGA Turf Tip entitled “Having Your Morning Coffee Without Donuts.” The presentation and article illustrated the importance of distribution uniformity and ways to achieve it. Huck found that courses retroftted with Profle nozzles have a real advantage in improving distribution uniformity. “Profle nozzles perform consistently across a range of pressures and still deliver a similar pattern, a key component in having a more effcient system,” he says. “I often recommend that superintendents try Profles on their most problematic areas. The Profle nozzle orifce design and solid metal construction deliver greater consistency and durability and are less prone to clogging. The nozzles are engineered specifcally for popular golf heads and can extend their useful life.” Huck also advises that an irrigation system requires uniformity in spacing and pressure, and recommends equilateral triangular spacing, rather than a square or rectangular layout,

At Cordillera Ranch, retroftting full-circle heads on the fairways with effcient solid metal nozzles cost around $6,000.

for best coverage. He notes that the best way to fully evaluate an irrigation system’s distribution uniformity is either an on-site audit or a laboratory evaluation at the Center for Irrigation Technology. Using catch-can tests, overall distribution uniformity can be measured in the feld, while in the lab accurate data can be collected and transcribed into a “profle” that can be used with software that projects performance when overlapped. The profle represents the shape of applied water along the length of a single sprinkler’s throw. It is visually displayed as a sloping wedge. A best-case profle shows heavier irrigation coverage near the head and less output farther out. If the profle shows peaks and valleys, those both can be problem areas. Peaks indicate potentially oversaturated turf; valleys indicate possible dry spots. (See the sidebar, “Test shapes and performance characteristics for equilateral triangular spacing.”) If the distribution uniformity doesn’t improve with the solid metal nozzles, Huck says, then the problem may be a hydraulics or programming issue, resulting in inadequate pressure caused by small pipe size or other installation issues. Back at the ranch Meanwhile back at the Cordillera Ranch, Semm says that, although the course has multiple sources of water, including an on-site treatment plant for recycled water, they have to be conservative. “We are in the midst of a three-year drought, but since installing Profle nozzles, we are actually saving water and estimate that we are using 25 to 30 percent less because of improved DU. We’ve also seen energy and labor savings. The pumps aren’t working as long or as hard and the crew spends less time hand-watering and un-clogging nozzles. “The … retroft cost approximately $6,000. Our other option was to replace all the full-circle heads at a cost well over $30,000. Dollar for dollar, the solid metal nozzles were one of the best investments we ever made. (They) paid for themselves in water, energy and labor savings.”

Nancy Hardwick is the principal at Hardwick Creative services and has written on irrigation issues for many national publications.

(through the green)

Managing summer stress fundamentally

Jack Fry, Ph.D.

The cultural practices you employ throughout the growing season, including cool times of the year when the plant is growing most effciently, are going to determine whether the turf survives through extended periods of summer stress.



It’s all about fundamentals. On Oct. 25, 2001, I took my 11-year-old son to see the Indianapolis Colts play the Kansas City Chiefs at Arrowhead Stadium. We arrived a couple of hours before kickoff, and Peyton Manning and two of his receivers were the only players on the feld. He was having them run routes as he threw passes, each on target, time after time. His success over the years begins with fundamentals: proper grip on the ball, footwork, ball position at release, perfect timing to anticipate the receiver’s position. Fundamentals are also critical for golf course superintendents managing creeping bentgrass and annual bluegrass putting greens during summer. The cultural practices you employ throughout the growing season, including cool times of the year when the plant is growing most effciently, are going to determine whether the turf survives through extended periods of summer stress. In other words, how you manage the greens in April and October infuences their performance in July. Here are some key fundamentals to keep in mind: • Maintain roo ealt Most of the cultural practices that follow are aimed at improving the growth and development of roots. Research has shown that the sequence of summer turf decline is as follows: roots die, then shoots decline, then visual quality is reduced. • Provide good drainage. A porous soil profle that drains well is critical to root health. If you’re managing turf on something other than a sand-based green built using sound construction practices, you may have a profle that retains too much water. Higher soil water content results in less soil oxygen and higher soil temperatures, both of which reduce root growth and health. • Carbo ydrates are “money in t e bank.” Research has shown that surplus carbohydrates (sugars) produced during autumn and spring and stored in the plant may determine whether turf survives during midsummer conditions. This is because the plant is ineffcient at photosynthesis (sugar production) during high temperatures, but respiration (use of sugars) continues at a relatively high rate. At ultra-low mowing heights on greens,

this can result in “starvation,” which leads to turf decline. Stored carbohydrates can make up for the plant’s ineffciency in fxing carbon during this time of year. Mowing ig t matters. Mowing higher is always better; you’ll see increased root development and better quality at higher heights. Replacing daily mowing with periodic rolling to maintain leaf area without a reduction in green speed also results in greater leaf area that the plant can use to develop roots. By increasing leaf area, you’re contributing to the plant’s mechanism for producing carbohydrates. Allow plenty of lig t. Shade reduces the plant’s ability to photosynthesize, and it becomes more susceptible to stress under reduced light levels. Encourage air movement. Transpiration is the process whereby the plant loses water through stomata as vapor in order to remain cool. On humid, still days, or when vegetation surrounds the green, lack of air movement prevents effective transpiration. Lack of transpiration results in more heat stress and, potentially, more turf decline. Provide balanced nutrition. Adequate macronutrient and micronutrient supplies are important. Nitrogen promotes color and growth; potassium has been linked to improved stress tolerance. Manage water effectively. An irrigation system that delivers water uniformly on demand is a necessity. Hand watering should be done by well-trained employees who apply the right amounts of water where needed.

When it comes to summer stress, there are no substitutes for good fundamentals in maintaining the health of your putting greens, and they should be practiced throughout the growing season.

Jack Fry, Ph.D., is a professor of turfgrass science and the director of the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kan. He is a 17-year educator member of GCSAA.

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Mike Cavanaugh, Co-Owner (215) 588-5594 |

Bernd Leinauer, Ph.D. Matteo Serena, Ph.D. Marco Schiavon, Ph.D.

Using saline water and subsurface irrigation to establish bermudagrass and seashore paspalum Saline water and subsurface drip irrigation do not hinder establishment of two seeded grasses and one sodded warm-season grass. To reduce the use of potable water for golf course irrigation, many facilities have begun using saline groundwater or various types of recycled water. Although the use of nonpotable water has increased, its effects on different aspects of turfgrass maintenance have not been fully explored. Two research projects were conducted at New Mexico State University to study the effects of a combination of subsurface irrigation with saline water on the establishment of two warm-season turfgrasses. Subsurface irrigation Subsurface drip irrigation is considered an alternative to pop-up sprinklers and has been proposed (2,4) and more recently mandated by water agencies (1) as an alternative means of irrigating turf landscape areas. It is reported to irrigate more effciently as it applies water from emitters placed within the root zone, and several studies have shown that turf quality does not decrease over time if grasses are irrigated from below-ground systems (5,6,7,8). Arguments against the use of subsurface irrigation include higher installation costs, a suspected inability to establish turf from seed when irrigated from subsurface drip irrigation, and diffculties in leaching salts in the absence of adequate rainfall (7,8). Such an effect could be particularly troublesome during germination and establishment, when seedlings are especially sensitive to salinity.

Bermudagrass seeded in June and irrigated from a subsurface drip system with potable water. The photo was taken on Sept. 24. Photo by Bernd Leinauer



Two studies In order for subsurface drip irrigation to become a widespread alternative to sprinkler

irrigation, its compatibility with common turf maintenance practices, such as establishing lawns from seed and sod, needs to be evaluated. Two research projects were carried out at New Mexico State University’s Turfgrass Salinity Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M., to investigate whether warm-season grasses can be established from seed and sod when saline water is provided from a subsurface drip irrigation system. The frst study investigated the effect of saline water applied by subsurface drip irrigation on the establishment of the seeded bermudagrass cultivar Princess 77 [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] and the seashore paspalum cultivar Sea Spray (Paspalum vaginatum L.). A second objective was to determine whether early propagation in March improved establishment compared to a traditional June propagation time. The objective of the second research project was similar to the frst but addressed the question of whether Princess 77 can be established from sod when subsurface drip irrigation is used in combination with saline water. We investigated the establishment of sodded bermudagrass from two different irrigation systems (subsurface drip irrigation and pop-up sprinkler), two different water qualities (potable and saline) and two propagation dates (March and June). The soil at the site was a sandy loam, and irrigation water used in the study was of two qualities: saline (EC = 2.2 decisiemens/meter) and potable (EC = 0.6 decisiemens/meter, SAR = 5.6). Saline water was pumped to the research site from a nearby shallow saline aquifer and matched the salinity levels of recycled water used for turfgrass irrigation in the Southwest (2,3). Subsurface drip irrigation was provided by Toro Rootguard DL2000PC, delivering 0.6 gallon/minute (2 liters/minute) and operated at 30 psi (200 kPa). Drip lines were installed in accordance with industry recommendations at a depth of 4 inches (10 centimeters) with each emitter and line spaced 12 inches (30.5 centimeters) apart. Overhead irrigation was applied by Walla Walla MP2000 sprinklers on plots established in 2008 and by Toro MPR spray nozzles on plots established in 2009. Irrigation throughout the investigative period was applied at 100% reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Irrigation audits conducted before propagation ensured that distribution uniformity (DU) on the sprinkler-irrigated plots was greater than 0.7. Visual

Seashore paspalum seeded in March (right) compared to that seeded in June (left). The entire plot is irrigated from a sprinkler system with saline water. The photo was taken 30 days after June seeding. Photos by Matteo Serena

Bermudagrass sod laid in March (bottom half) compared to sod laid in June (top half). The entire plot is irrigated from a subsurface drip system with saline water. The photo was taken on Sept. 2.



2008 ground cover 100

Early seeding Potable, sprinkler Potable, drip Saline, sprinkler Saline, drip

90 80 % Ground cover

70 60

Late seeding Potable, sprinkler Potable, drip Saline, sprinkler Saline, drip

50 40 30 20 10 0 0


100 150 Days after early seeding (DAES)


Figure 1 Percent ground cover during 2008 at days after early seeding (DAES) of sprinkler- and drip-irrigated plots irrigated with either saline (EC = 2.3 decisiemens/meter) or potable water and planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Data are averaged over two grass species (Princess 77 bermudagrass and Sea Spray seashore paspalum).

2009 ground cover 100

Early seeding Saline, sprinkler Saline, drip Potable, sprinkler Potable, drip

90 80 % Ground cover

70 60

Late seeding Saline, sprinkler Saline, drip Potable, sprinkler Potable, drip

50 40 30 20 10 0 0


100 150 Days after early seeding (DAES)


Figure 2 Percent ground cover during 2009 at days after early seeding (DAES) of sprinkler and drip-irrigated plots irrigated with either saline (EC = 2.3 decisiemens/meter) or potable water and planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Data are averaged over two grass species (Princess 77 bermudagrass and Sea Spray seashore paspalum).



inspection of the drip-irrigated plots ensured that wetting fronts from drip lines reached the soil surface and moistened the soil uniformly. Irrigation water use for each irrigated block was recorded by water meters. Plots were seeded and sodded on March 4 and June 10 in 2008 and on March 15 and June 15 in 2009. Before propagation, Milorganite organic fertilizer (Milorganite, Milwaukee, Wis.) was raked into the soil. Fertilization during establishment consisted of 0.5 pound potassium nitrate (KNO3)/1,000 square feet (2.5 grams/square meter) and 0.5 pound phosphate (P2O5)/1,000 square feet from 0-46-0 every two weeks from the end of May until Oct. 1 for plots propagated in March and from the frst week of July until Oct. 1 on late-propagated plots. Beginning in mid-April, three photographs per plot were taken randomly every 14 days to determine total turf coverage by means of digital image analysis. Total coverage of each plot was based on the mean value of the three photographs and is listed for days after early seeding (DAES) or days after early propagation (DAEP). Plots were mowed weekly at 1 inch (2.5 centimeters). Root samples were collected at the end of each of the growing periods on Nov. 20 in 2008 and 2009 from bermudagrass plots established from seed and sod. Root length and diameter were determined for each sample. The weight of the roots was divided by the sample volume to determine root weight density (milligrams/cubic centimeter). Root length density (centimeters/cubic centimeter) was calculated by dividing the root length by the volume of the sample. Results I. Establishment from seed Princess 77 and Sea Spray established equally fast during both years, but overall establishment speed was different between the two years. Therefore, all data were averaged over both grass species but are presented separately for each year. A sigmoidal regression (begins at zero, increases frst slowly, then rapidly, and progresses asymptotically toward a maximum cover) described establishment from seed (Figures 1, 2). Grasses irrigated with potable water from the drip system did not establish satisfactorily when seeded in June 2008 (Figure 1), whereas in 2009 each of the treatments reached 75% cover or higher

II. Establishment from sod All plots propagated from sod reached full coverage by the end of one growing season (Figure 4) (data averaged over water quality). Sprinkler-irrigated plots sodded in early March were fastest to reach full coverage (90 DAEP or early June), followed by plots sodded in June (115 DAEP or early July) (Figure 5). Sprinkler-irrigated plots established from seed in March and drip-irrigated plots that were sodded in March reached complete coverage

End-of-season ground cover A


A Potable early





% Ground cover





Potable late Saline early




Saline late

40 30 20 10 0

2008 2009 Figure 3 Mean percent ground cover at the end of the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons for plots irrigated with either saline (EC = 2.3 decisiemens/meter) or potable water and planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Data are averaged over two irrigation systems (sprinkler and subsurface drip) and two grass species (Princess 77 bermudagrass and Sea Spray seashore paspalum).

Bermudagrass, end-of-season ground cover A

100 90





AB Potable drip early


Potable drip late

80 70

% Ground cover

at the end of the growing season (Figure 2). Generally, early-seeded plots reached greater ground cover at the end of the growing season than late-seeded plots, regardless of water quality or irrigation system used (Figure 3). At the end of the 2008 growing season, plots seeded early and irrigated with saline water achieved the greatest ground cover (98%), followed by early-seeded plots irrigated with potable water (83%) (Figure 3). On late-seeded plots, grasses irrigated with potable water reached greater coverage (62%) than those irrigated with saline water (50%) (Figure 3). Similar results were recorded in 2009, with early-seeded plots irrigated with saline water reaching 95% coverage and plots irrigated with potable water reaching 90% coverage. Late-seeded grasses exhibited lower coverage when irrigated with either saline or potable water (Figure 3). These fndings support other research (9) that reported faster establishment of Princess 77 and Riviera bermudagrass in a transition zone climate when seeded as early as February compared to May seeding. Our results suggest that bermudagrass and seashore paspalum can be successfully established from seed in one growing season even when irrigated with saline water using a subsurface drip system. Subsurface drip irrigation appears to delay the establishment when compared to sprinkler irrigation. To counter such a delay, dormant seeding should take place in early spring. Moderately saline irrigation water, such as the recycled or treated effuent water available in the arid and semiarid Southwest, does not affect establishment of bermudagrass or seashore paspalum when it is applied from pop-up sprinkler heads. More research is needed to investigate other warmseason grasses such as zoysiagrass or buffalograss and their ability to establish from seed when saline water is applied from either sprinklers or subsurface drip systems.


Potable sprinkler early


Potable sprinkler late


Saline drip early


Saline drip late


Saline sprinkler early


Saline sprinkler late

10 0 Figure 4 Mean percentage ground cover at the end of the growing season of Princess 77 bermudagrass plots irrigated from either potable water (EC = 0.6 decisiemens/meter) or saline water (EC = 2.2 decisiemens/meter), using either subsurface drip or sprinkler irrigation and planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Data are averaged over two years (2008 and 2009) and two propagation methods (seeded and sodded). Bars followed by the same letter are not signifcantly different from one another.

equally fast (132 DAEP or mid-July) (Figure 5). Drip-irrigated plots seeded in March, dripirrigated plots sodded in June, and seeded sprinkler-irrigated plots needed longest to fully establish (180 DAEP or end of August) (Figure 5). Plots irrigated with saline water and planted early reached full coverage 123 DAEP (early July), followed by early- and late-planted plots irrigated with potable water (142 DAEP,

end of July) and 166 DAEP (mid-August), respectively (data not presented). Root data Root data were analyzed separately for each soil depth. Irrigation type affected root length density at three depths (Table 1). Generally, sprinkler-irrigated plots resulted in higher root length density compared to plots irrigated by subsurface drip. Moreover, early propagation



resulted in higher root length density (Table 2) than late propagation in mid-June.

Bermudagrass, 95% ground cover 200 180




Drip seeded early Drip Seeded Late





Drip sodded early



120 100

Drip sodded late Sprinkler seeded early



Sprinkler seeded late


Sprinkler sodded early

40 20

Sprinkler sodded late


0 Figure 5 * DNR= plots did not reach 95% of ground cover at the end of the growing season. Days after early planting to reach 95% of ground cover (DAEP95) of Princess 77 bermudagrass plots irrigated from either a subsurface drip or sprinkler system, propagated by seeding or sodding, and planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Data are averaged over two years (2008 and 2009) and two water qualities (potable [EC = 0.6 decisiemens/ meter] or saline [EC = 2.2 decisiemens/meter]). Bars followed by the same letter are not signifcantly different from one another.

Root length density: Princess 77 irrigated by subsurface drip or sprinkler Root depth (centimeters) 0-5




Root length density (centimeters/cubic centimeter)


6.95 b*

3.47 b

1.37 b


8.73 a

4.15 a

1.89 a

*Values at each depth follow by the same letter are not significantly different from one another. Table 1. Root length density (centimeters/cubic centimeter) for Princess 77 bermudagrass at depths of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 centimeters irrigated by a subsurface drip or sprinkler system. Each data point represents an average value over the two years of study (2008 and 2009), two water qualities (potable and saline), two propagation methods (seed and sod), two seeding dates (early [mid-March] and late [mid-June]) and three replications.



Discussion Establishment from seed with subsurface drip irrigation was successful only when planted early in the growing season (March). Therefore, late seeding of either bermudagrass or seashore paspalum is not advisable when subsurface drip irrigation is used. Establishment from sod was successful under both irrigation systems and water qualities regardless of date of planting. Our results suggest that bermudagrass can be successfully established from sod in one growing season even when irrigated with saline water using a subsurfacedrip system. Subsurface-drip irrigation may have delayed establishment when compared to a traditional sprinkler system, but establishment can still be considered successful at the end of the frst growing season under all conditions tested. Saline irrigation water, such as recycled or treated effuent or saline water from a shallow aquifer, does not negatively affect establishment of bermudagrass sod. Our results indicate that dormant seeding and sodding is advantageous for the development of a more extensive root system at all depths by the end of the initial season. Moreover, irrigation type had an effect on root length density within the top 2 inches of the soil profle. Sprinkler irrigation resulted in a higher root length density when the plots were planted early in the season; however, there was no difference between the irrigation systems when the plots were planted later in the growing season. Roots in the sprinklerirrigated plots were dominant in the top soil layer, most likely because of the higher moisture content provided by above-ground irrigation. For the plots that were seeded late, there was not enough time in the growing season to completely establish ground cover and a dense root system. Generally, subsurface drip irrigation resulted in lower root length density compared to sprinkler irrigation at all measured depths. Further research is necessary to investigate whether or not subsurface drip irrigation would result in increased root length density at depths greater than 8 inches (20 centimeters). Generally, root length density appears to be a much better predictor of turf coverage at the end of the establishment period than root weight density, since treatments that reached greatest coverage at the end of the establish-

ment period also had greatest root length density at all depths. Our study indicates that a more detailed root architecture analysis that also includes parameters such as root length density may be necessary to fully explain plant establishment. These results provide important information for turf managers that may be considering the use of subsurface irrigation but question its compatibility with maintenance practices such as establishment without the use of a temporary sprinkler system, or replacing sections of turf areas with sod. Funding Financial support for both studies was provided by New Mexico State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station, Facilities and Services; by the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture under Agreement No. 2005-34461-15661 and 2005-4504903209; by the Southwest Turfgrass Association; and by The Lawn Institute. Acknowledgments Support for the study was provided by Seeds West Inc., Simplot Jacklin Seed, The Toro Co., Helena Chemical Co. and Gardener Turfgrass Inc. We are grateful for the help and support of Bruce Erhard, Karl Olsen and John Kimmel, golf course superintendents at New Mexico State University’s golf course. The information in this article was originally published in two articles in academic journals: “Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum establishment from seed using differing irrigation methods and water qualities” by Marco Schiavon, Bernd Leinauer, Matteo Serena, Rossana Sallenave and Bernd Maier, 2012, Agronomy Journal 104:706–712, doi:10.2134/ agronj2011.0390; and “Establishment and rooting response of bermudagrass propagated with saline water and subsurface irrigation” by Matteo Serena, Bernd Leinauer, Marco Schiavon, Bernd Maier and Rossana Sallenave, 2014, Crop Science 54:827-836, doi:10.2135/ cropsci2013.07.0512. Literature cited 1. California Department of Water Resources. 2009. Model Water Effcient Landscape Ordinance. California Code of Regulations, Title 23. Waters, Division 2. Department of Water Resources, Chapter 2.7. Model Water Effcient Landscape Ordinance. (www.water.

Root length density for early- or late-planted Princess 77 Root depth (centimeters) 0-5 Seeding date



Root length density (centimeters)


8.42 a*

4.48 a

1.86 a


7.26 b

3.14 b

1.40 b

*Values follow by the same letter (separately for each depth) are not significantly different from one another. Table 2. Root length density (centimeters/cubic centimeters) for Princess 77 bermudagrass at depths of 0-5, 5-10 and 5-20 centimeters planted either early (mid-March) or late (mid-June). Each data point represents an average of 48 measurements: two years of study (2008 and 2009), two water qualities (potable and saline), two irrigation systems (drip and sprinkler), two propagation methods (seed and sod) and three replications.

pdf) Accessed May 13, 2014. 2. Duncan, R.R., R.N. Carrow and M.T. Huck. 2009. Turfgrass and landscape irrigation water quality: Assessment and management. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fla. 3. Huck, M., R.N. Carrow and R.R. Duncan. 2000. Effuent water: nightmare or dream come true? USGA Green Section Record March/April:1-22. 4. Leinauer, B., E. Sevostianova, M. Serena, M. Schiavon and S. Macolino. 2010. Conservation of irrigation water for urban lawn areas. Acta Horticulturae 881:487-492. 5. Schiavon, M., B. Leinauer, E. Sevostionova, M. Serena and B. Maier. 2011. Warm-season turfgrass quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention under drip irrigation. Online. Applied Turf Science doi: 10.1094/ATS-2011-0422-01-RS. Accessed May 13, 2014. 6. Schiavon, M., B. Leinauer, M. Serena, R. Sallenave and B. Maier. 2012. Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum establishment from seed using differing irrigation methods and water qualities. Agronomy Journal 104:706-712. doi: 10.2134/ agronj2011.0390. Accessed May 13, 2014. 7. Sevostianova, E., B. Leinauer, R. Sallenave, D. Karcher and B. Maier. 2011a. Soil salinity and quality of sprinkler and drip irrigated cool-season turfgrasses. Agronomy Journal 103: 1503-1513. doi: 10.2134/agronj2011.0162. Accessed May 13, 2014. 8. Sevostianova, E., B. Leinauer, R. Sallenave, D. Karcher and B. Maier. 2011b. Soil salinity and quality of sprinkler and drip irrigated warm-season turfgrasses. Agronomy Journal 103:1773-1784. doi: 10.2134/agronj2011.0163. Accessed May 13, 2014. 9. Shaver, B.R., M.D. Richardson, J.H. McCalla, D.E. Karcher and P.J. Berger. 2006. Dormant seeding bermudagrass cultivars in a transition-zone environment. Crop Science 46:1787-1792.

Bernd Leinauer ( is a professor and Matteo Serena is a research associate at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, N.M.; Marco Schiavon is a research associate at University of California, Riverside, Calif.

RESEARCH SAYS • Bermudagrass and seashore paspalum can be successfully established from seed and bermudagrass can also be established from sod in one growing season when irrigated with saline water using a subsurface drip system (SDI). • SDI appears to delay establishment from seed when compared to sprinkler irrigation. • Moderately saline irrigation water, such as treated effluent, applied from pop-up sprinkler heads does not affect establishment of bermudagrass or seashore paspalum. • Establishment from sod was successful under both irrigation systems and water qualities regardless of date of planting. • Generally, SDI resulted in lower root length density compared to sprinkler irrigation at all measured depths. • Generally, root length density appears to be a better predictor of turf coverage at the end of the establishment period than root weight density.



Thomas Voigt, Ph.D. Guanglong Tian, Ph.D. Albert Cox, Ph.D. Pauline Lindo, Ph.D. Kuldip Kumar, Ph.D. Thomas Granato, Ph.D.

Fertilizing golf course rough with biosolids In the Chicago area, biosolids were found to provide an inexpensive and effective fertilizer for golf course rough. Looking for an inexpensive way to fertilize and upgrade your roughs? A number of Chicagoland superintendents have found that using locally produced biosolids has improved turf at their course without impacting the budget’s bottom line. Biosolids are primarily organic, solid materials produced by wastewater treatment processes and have value as nutrient sources or soil amendments (1). The nitrogen in biosolids is mainly in organic form and has a slow rate of transformation to plant-available forms dependent on conditions that control the breakdown of organic matter by microbial activity. Biosolids also contain high amounts of phosphorus (1) and other plant nutrients including potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and micronutrients. Milorganite, a commercially available biosolids product available from the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sanitary District, has been used successfully in turfgrass management for many years. In this instance, the biosolids are digested aerobically, dried, screened and sterilized. Milorganite contains 6% nitrogen of which 92% is water insoluble. In northeastern Illinois, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) treats wastewater for an equivalent population of 10.35 million people in Cook County including the City of Chicago and 125 suburban communities. Founded in 1889 to protect Lake Michigan, the MWRDGC produces approximately 180,000 tons (dry weight)



of biosolids annually. These air-dried biosolids meet the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) standards of exceptional quality (EQ biosolids), are made up of approximately 35% organic matter, and contain 1.5%-2.5% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus and 0.3%-0.5% potassium along with other essential plant nu-

trients such as iron, zinc, copper and sulfur. Presently, the concentration of heavy metal in MWRDGC biosolids is much lower than the USEPA’s regulatory limits for EQ biosolids for land application, meaning that this product is safe for use in turf settings. Biosolids research has shown its successful use as a topdressing fertilizer (3) and

Biosolids are primarily organic, solid materials produced by wastewater treatment processes and have value as nutrient sources or soil amendments. The material in this study was provided by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. Photos by Thomas Voigt

soil amendment for turf (4). In the Chicago area, golf courses have successfully used MWRDGC biosolids as a low-cost method for managing and improving turf performance (2,5). Based on the potential for greater biosolids demand and use by golf turf managers, we initiated this feld research to answer the question, “Can locally produced biosolids be used as a low-cost fertilizer to manage and improve golf course rough performance?” The field study The feld study began in September 2006 and continued through October 2008, with research plots being established in roughs at two Chicago-area golf courses, south-suburban Coyote Run Golf Course in Flossmoor, Ill., and 60 miles north at the Knollwood Golf Club in Lake Forest, Ill. A relatively new course, the 18-hole Coyote Run GC opened in 2005 following a total remodel of a previously existing 27-hole layout; our rough research was conducted on recently disturbed urban soils of mostly clay with little topsoil. Knollwood GC was founded in 1924, and the research-site soils were mature with a layer of topsoil present. Kentucky bluegrass was the primary turf species on each research site, and the 5-foot × 10-foot (1.5-meter × 3-meter) plots were established in three replicates, not irrigated, maintained at 2-3 inches (5-7.6 centimeters), and grown in full or mostly full sun. The only chemical pest-control application was a postemergence broadleaf weed control herbicide application at Coyote Run in September of the frst year, to control heavy weed populations. There were eight treatments in the study (Table 1) consisting of two rates of MWRDGC biosolids; three commercial organic fertilizers (Nature Safe, Milorganite and Sustane); two commercial synthetic fertilizers (50% sulfur-coated urea and urea); and an untreated check. The two biosolids rates were selected to deliver 1 pound of total nitrogen/1,000 square feet (low biosolids rate) (4.88 grams/square meter) and 1 pound of plant-available nitrogen/1,000 square feet (high biosolids rate). At each application, all fertilizers except the high-biosolids-rate treatment were applied at 1 pound of actual nitrogen/1,000 square feet. Based on the assumption that approximately 20% of the total biosolids nitrogen becomes plant-available in the application season, the high-biosolids-rate treatment was applied at 5 pounds of prod-

Fertilizer treatments applied Plot no.

Nitrogen fertilizer (analysis)

Nitrogen/1,000 square feet at each application

$/pound nitrogen/ square foot*


MWRDGC biosolids ( 2.2-2.5-0.3)

1 pound



MWRDGC biosolids ( 2.2-2.5-0.3)

5 pounds†



Nature Safe (10-2-8)

1 pound



Milorganite (6-2-0)

1 pound



Sustane (5-2-4)

1 pound



50% sulfur-coated urea (24-3-14)

1 pound



Urea (46-0-0)

1 pound


8 Untreated check *Cost of nitrogen source at the start of the study. † One pound available nitrogen based on 20% nitrogen availability per year. Table 1. Fertilizer treatments applied to Coyote Run GC and the Knollwood GC during the study and the cost per pound of actual nitrogen in each fertilizer at the start of the study.

Applying biosolids at the high rate (left) and the low rate (middle) produced turf that was rated as the same or darker green than the check plot (right) at more than 80% of the evaluations.

uct nitrogen/1,000 square feet (24.41 grams/ square meter) to provide 1 pound of available nitrogen during the season of application. The roughs were fertilized in May and September starting in September of the year before beginning the evaluations and continuing through September of the second study year. To ensure consistent biosolids nitrogen content throughout the study, biosolids from the same batch were stored for all applications. The plots were evaluated monthly (AprilOctober) for turf quality and color during both study years. Soil and turf tissue samples were collected for analysis at the study’s start and at its conclusion in October of the second year. In the frst year, no color evaluations were made in July, August or September and no quality evaluations in August or September at Coyote Run because of excessive broadleaf weed populations. In our data analyses, the following contrast statements were developed to make statistical comparisons and determine statistical differ-

ence only between: • the low biosolids rate and the commercial fertilizer treatments (Milorganite, Nature Safe, Sustane, 50% sulfur-coated urea and urea) • the high biosolids rate and the commercial fertilizer treatments. What did we learn? Turf color Turf color was measured monthly (25 times) at Coyote Run and Knollwood over the two growing seasons. A Spectrum Technologies TCM 500 NDVI Turf Color Meter was used to record an average of six measurements per plot. This instrument measures refected light from turf and provides a consistent measurement of turf color. Measurements were conducted on healthy turf only, and weedcovered portions or other aberrant areas of plots were avoided. In these ratings, both biosolids rates produced turf color that was the same as or darker green than the commercially



Comparing biosolids to commercial fertilizers Statistical comparisons

Turf color (%)

Turf quality (%)

% evaluations in which low biosolids rate was equal or superior to the commercial fertilizer treatments



% evaluations in which high biosolids rate was equal or superior to the commercial fertilizer treatments



% evaluations in which low biosolids rate was equal or superior to check plots



% evaluations in which high biosolids rate was equal or superior to check plots



Table 2. Percent of evaluations in which the performance of biosolids was statistically the same as or equal to the commercial fertilizers treatments or the untreated check plots.

Mean turf tissue test results Coyote Run Tissue test



Knollwood Start


Common Sufficiency Range*

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (%)






Total phosphorus (%)






Total calcium (%)






Total magnesium (%)






Total potassium (%)






Total sodium (%)






Total iron (ppm) 98 143 105 416 50-100 *These published mineral ranges for turf tissues are general and can vary among turf species and cultivars (1). Table 3. Mean turf tissue test results from plots treated with the high biosolids rate at the start and the end of the twoyear trial and suffciency ranges.

Mean soil test results Coyote Run Golf Course Soil test pH Organic carbon (%)

Knollwood Golf Club

















Extractable potassium (mg/kg)





Extractable phosphorus (mg/kg)

Extractable calcium (mg/kg)





Extractable sodium (mg/kg)





Iron (mg/kg)





Table 4. Mean soil test results from plots treated at the high biosolids rate at the start and the end of the two-year trial.



available fertilizers at more than 80% of the evaluations and were also the same or darker green than the check plot at more than 80% of the evaluations (Table 2). Turf quality Turf quality, a combination of color, density, leaf width and uniformity, was evaluated 26 times over the two growing seasons and was rated subjectively using a scale of 1 through 9 (1 = dead turf, 9 = perfect turf, and 5 = minimally acceptable turf quality for the specifc use) as used in National Turfgrass Evaluation Program evaluations. For the rough turf at Coyote Run and Knollwood, the low biosolids rate produced turf quality that was statistically the same as or higher than the commercially available fertilizers at 77% of the evaluations and at 69% of the evaluations for the high biosolids rate. Additionally, both of the biosolids rates produced turf that was the same or better quality than the check plot at 100% of the evaluations. Monitoring warm-weather quality of coolseason Kentucky bluegrass can be useful. At cooler times of the year (an average of April, May, September and October evaluations), both biosolids rates produced turf quality that was comparable to or better than the commercially available fertilizers at 87% of the evaluations. During the warm months (June, July and August), the low biosolids rate produced turf quality that was comparable to or better than the commercially available fertilizers at 64% of the monthly evaluations, whereas the high biosolids rate was comparable or better at only 45% of the warm-season evaluations. Turf tissue tests Tissue testing can be used to identify mineral defciencies in turf tissue. At monthly ratings, there were no obvious visual signs attributable to insuffcient minerals in the turf fertilized with the high biosolids rate. This was confrmed by MWRDGC’s laboratory testing conducted on shoot tissue samples collected from the research sites at the study’s conclusion. Major mineral nutrients were present in suffcient quantities (Table 3) at all sites. While phosphorus levels in soils rose (Table 4), levels in turf tissues after two years of applications did not rise appreciably. In addition, sodium levels at Knollwood also rose and should be further evaluated in new studies to determine the long-term impact on turf.

In the study, inconsistent particle size in the biosolids made application and coverage diffcult, and the dust made application unpleasant. The air-dried biosolids can be screened to a desirable particle size before use, and controlling the moisture levels in biosolids can signifcantly reduce the level of dust produced during application.


emistry There were no extreme changes in most soil chemical characteristics from the beginning of the study through its conclusion (Table 4). However, soil-extractable phosphorus levels increased over the two-year period. After the application of biosolids, soilextractable sodium increased at one site, but decreased at the other. A possible explanation for this increase was that the 2006 tests occurred on turf plots that had not been recently fertilized, whereas the 2008 soil samples were collected in October following a September fertilizer application and were only collected from the high-biosolids-rate plots, which received large amounts of biosolids to supply the 5 pounds of nitrogen. There was also a slight increase in the organic carbon content, which improves soil quality. Evaluating biosolids characteristics when fertilizing turf There are several characteristics to evaluate before applying biosolids to turf. First, as with other organic fertilizers in our study, the biosolids had a slight odor, which lasted for a few

days after application. This slight odor immediately following application may be a concern to some turf managers or to golfers. Second, all of the commercial products were typically of uniform particle size, whereas the biosolids can be physically inconsistent if not screened before delivery and can contain dust-size particles when very dry. Inconsistent particle size in the batch of biosolids used in the study made application and coverage diffcult, and the dust made application unpleasant. Particle size can be addressed by screening the air-dried biosolids to a desirable particle size before use. In addition, by controlling the moisture levels in biosolids, the production of dust during application is signifcantly reduced. Finally, following long-term biosolids applications, phosphorus can build up to levels that are more than the turf needs. However, phosphorus in biosolids is tied with iron oxides and has low water solubility. In addition, because turf is an effective interceptor and holder of applied materials, there should be little concern about phosphorus movement into surface water. Excessive levels of phosphorus from biosolids fertilizers, however, can create iron defciencies

resulting in reduced-quality turf, but is likely relieved by the iron in the biosolids (Tables 3, 4). For long-term sustainability, it is necessary to note that annually repeated high-rate application of biosolids at the same sites may not be recommended. Conclusions Overall, this research found that MWRDGC biosolids could be used to maintain rough turf at two Chicago-area golf courses. In fact, at more than 80% of the evaluations, the biosolids plots produced turf color that was equal to or better than several commonly used commercial organic and synthetic turf fertilizers and the check plots. Turf quality in the plots receiving the low biosolids rate (1 pound of nitrogen per application) performed similarly to or better than the commercial fertilizers and the check plots in most cases, even during summer evaluations. The high rate of biosolids (5 pounds of nitrogen per application), however, performed less well, especially in the summer months of the second growing season. Perhaps the combination of warm temperatures and the high applica-



What you need to know about biosolids Biosolids can be an inexpensive mineral source for fertilizing your roughs, but be sure to learn about your locally produced product and conduct small experiments in out-of-the-way areas before committing to large-scale use. Whenever conducting in-house research, be sure to leave untreated check plots so you can make meaningful comparisons between treated and untreated areas. Here are several questions that you should ask the biosolids supplier in order to guide your potential biosolids use. • Do the biosolids meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency exceptional quality standard? • What are the typical amounts of nitrogen, phospohorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium in the biosolids, and how do these vary from batch to batch? • Are the biosolids free of offensive odors? • Are the biosolids free of weed seed? • Are the physical characteristics of the biosolids uniform to ensure easy application? • About what percent of nitrogen and phosphorus are available during the first season after application and in the long term? • What is an appropriate application rate? • When are biosolids typically available? • What is the cost per pound of nitrogen (or other mineral in the biosolids) compared to commercial products?

RESEARCH SAYS • Biosolids are primarily organic, solid materials produced by wastewater treatment processes and have value as nutrient sources or soil amendments. • Turf color, turf quality and turf tissue tests showed results comparable to or better than commercial and synthetic fertilizers in the study. • Soil chemistry tests showed that soil-extractable phosphorous increased over two years at both sites; soil-extractable sodium increased at one site and decreased at the other. • Biosolids can be used to effectively and inexpensively fertilize golf course rough; superintendents should test the products before use.



tion rate supplied excessive nitrogen, other minerals and/or salts as these materials built up over time. Additional studies evaluating rates between the low and high rates used in this study should be evaluated to fne-tune future applications. A huge advantage of fertilizing with biosolids is cost. At the start of the study, there was no cost for the MWRDGC biosolids, while the golf course price per pound of actual nitrogen in the commercial products ranged from $0.53 per pound for urea to $4.83 per pound for Nature Safe (Table 1). If used to fertilize 30 acres of mowed rough turf with two pounds of nitrogen/1,000 square feet/year, the cost to apply urea would be $1,385.21 compared to $12,623.69 for Nature Safe; at the same time, there was no cost per pound of nitrogen in the MWRDGC biosolids because it was available at no cost. Overall, it’s little wonder that some Chicago-area superintendents are using MWRDGC biosolids in rough areas. Given both the turf management and fnancial value of this material, the wonder is why it’s not more widely used.

Club) and Dave Ward (Coyote Run Golf Course) and their staffs for hosting this study and managing the research areas; and Kevin Armstrong, Shelby Henning, Rich Pyter and Emily Thomas of UIUC for data analyses and collection.

1. Carrow, R.N, D.V. Waddington and P.E. Rieke. 2001. Turfgrass Soil Fertility and Chemical Problems: Assessment and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J. 2. Dinelli, D. 2004. Compost scores high on golf course. BioCycle 45(7 ):52-54. 3. Garling, D.C., and M.J. Boehm. 2001. Temporal effects of compost and fertilizer applications on nitrogen fertility of golf course turfgrass. Agronomy Journal 93(3):548-555. 4. Linde, D.T., and L.D. Hepner. 2005. Turfgrass seed and sod establishment on soil amended with biosolids compost. HortTechnology 15(3):577-583. 5. Tian, G., T.C. Granato, F.D. Dinelli and A.E. Cox. 2008. Effectiveness of biosolids in enhancing soil microbial populations and N mineralization in golf course putting greens. Applied Soil Ecology 40(2):381-386.

Acknowledgments Thanks to the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago for funding this research and to their Soil Science Section and Analytical Laboratory Divisions staff for providing lab analyses; superintendents Randy Wahler (Knollwood Golf

Thomas Voigt ( is an associate professor and Extension specialist in the department of crop sciences at the University of Illinois, Urbana, Ill. Guanglong Tian, Albert Cox, Pauline Lindo, Kuldip Kumar and Thomas Granato are all employees of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago.

Literature cited


The research described in these summaries is funded in part by the United States Golf Association

Teresa Carson

Photo by James Baird

Irrigation requirements for perennial ryegrass salinity management Increasing use of recycled water that is often high in salinity warrants further examination of irrigation practices for turfgrass health and salinity management. A study was conducted during 2011-2012 in Riverside, Calif., to evaluate the response of SR 4550 perennial ryegrass turf to varying qualities and quantities of irrigation water. Irrigation water ranged from potable (ECw ~ 0.6) to saline (ECw ~ 4.2 decisiemens/meter), and four separate irrigation zones received irrigation at 80%, 100%, 120% and 140% ETo. Changes in turf quality cover and clipping yield were primarily driven by the number of days that the area had been irrigated with saline water. When data were separated by irrigation amount, both time and water quality accounted for 54% of the variability in quality and 46% of the variability in cover at 80% ETo. Soil salinity (ECe) and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) were highly correlated with irrigation water quality, but not irrigation amount. ECe at 4-8 inches and SAR at 4-8 inches accounted for 41% of the variability in quality and cover in September 2012. Our results suggest that perennial ryegrass requires irrigation scheduling above 120% ETo, irrigation water quality

below ECw ~ 1.7 decisiemens/meter and ECe below 3.8 decisiemens/meter to maintain acceptable quality and cover for 442 days in Riverside, Calif. Perennial ryegrass response (quality, cover and weight) over the two-year study was dependent on irrigation amount, water quality, and time that the turf was irrigated under saline and defcit conditions. Soil salinity (ECe) was also a signifcant predictor of turfgrass quality and cover during the 442-day study period. — James H. Baird, Ph.D. (; David E. Crowley, Ph.D., University of California-Riverside; Donald L. Suarez, Ph.D., U.S. Salinity Laboratory, USDAARS, Riverside, Calif.; Bernd Leinauer, Ph.D., New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, N.M.

Does glycinebetaine seed priming increase turf stress tolerance? Seed priming increases speed and uniformity of germination, and glycinebetaine has been shown to enhance germination in some cases, but not in others. The objective of this study is to determine whether glycinebetaine can enhance turfgrass germination when water-related stresses are present. Seeds of six turfgrass species (zoysiagrass, Kentucky bluegrass, creeping bentgrass, bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue) were primed with water or glycinebetaine or were

not untreated and then exposed to extreme temperatures or drought. (A third experiment exposing the seeds to saline conditions is ongoing.) In experiment 1 (extreme temperature), primed and unprimed seeds were exposed to an optimal germination temperature — 77 F/59 F (25 C/15 C) day/night for cool-season grasses (creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue) or 86 F/68 F (30 C/20 C) for warm-season grasses (bermudagrass and zoysiagrass) — or to temperatures 5 or 10 degrees C above or below the optimal temperature for each grass type. The experiments also examined the effect of temperature and species and drought and species on relative daily germination rate (RDGR) and relative fnal germination rate (RFGR). Responses to extreme temperatures and drought stress differed among turfgrass species. In experiment 2, both RFGR and RDGR decreased as drought severity increased. In the temperature study, glycinebetaine only affected RDGR, but seeds primed with water had the highest RDGR. In experiment 2, glycinebetaine did not affect germination under drought conditions. — Qi Zhang, Ph.D. (, North Dakota State University

Teresa Carson ( is GCM’s science editor.




Let’s get this established Beth Guertal, Ph.D. twitter: @AUTurfFert

Typically, we sprig, and that leads to a whole bunch of questions about the best nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates for establishment.



Just so we all start out at the same place: the hybrid bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy] we grow on our golf courses must be established via either sprigging or sodding, as seed is not viable. Typically, we sprig, and that leads to a whole bunch of questions about the best nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates for establishment. The talented folks in Dr. John Cisar’s research program at the University of Florida set out to answer these questions, focusing on N:K (nitrogen:potassium) fertilization ratios for their research. A putting green built to USGA recommendations (90% sand/10% organic matter, by weight) was used for the two years of establishment research. Tifdwarf and TifEagle were the grasses that were evaluated, and nitrogen was applied (as a soluble 12-4-12) at ¼, ½, ¾ or 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet (1.2, 2.4, 3.7 or 4.9 grams/square meter) per week until 90% cover was achieved. The nitrogen treatments also received different rates of potassium (as potassium chloride) to create four different N:K ratios: 1N:1K, 1N:2K, 1N:3K and 1N:4K. These treatments were continued for as many weeks as it took to obtain 90% turfgrass cover. There was also another set of treatments, which were one-time applications (immediately after sprigging) of a polymer-coated urea at 8 pounds nitrogen/1,000 square feet (39.1 grams nitrogen/square meter) and a polymercoated potassium chloride (8, 16, 24 and 32 pounds potassium/1,000 square feet [39.1, 78.2, 117.3 and 156.4 grams potassium/square meter]) applied at the same time to achieve the same 1N:1K, 1N:2K, 1N:3K and 1N:4K ratios as in the soluble nitrogen treatments. Basically, Dr. Cisar wanted to see if establishment would be enhanced by adding a big ol’ whopping amount of potassium. It wasn’t. Increasing the N:K ratio above 1:1 (for that ratio, potassium was applied at ¼ pound potassium [1/ 3 pound potassium oxide, K 2O] 1,000 square feet/week) did nothing to increase grow-in time or to improve turfgrass quality. Surface compressibility (in millimeters), thatch depth and ball roll (Stimpmeter) were all also unaffected by the N:K ratio. The time of year in which the sprigs were

planted and the amount of nitrogen applied had the greatest effect on bermudagrass establishment. In the frst year, the sprigs were not planted until the fall, and it took 13 weeks to reach 90% cover. In the second year, the sprigs were planted in the middle of summer, and establishment was completed at 10 weeks. The best nitrogen rate for establishment? For rapid establishment, the rate of ½ pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet/week was the best for all cultivars. There was no beneft at all in applying any more nitrogen and, in fact, there were many downsides to overapplication. First, plots that received ¾ or 1 pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet were spongy and had higher surface compressibility. This led to increased scalping. The polymer-coated urea treatment? It produced signifcantly less cover for both cultivars in both years. The best nitrogen rate for a superior stand of turfgrass? If you had the time for a slower grow-in, applying nitrogen at ¼ pound nitrogen/1,000 square feet/week was the best bet for highest turfgrass quality, minimal scalping and a less spongy surface. The polymer-coated urea treatment also had low surface sponginess and scalping. When nitrogen was applied at the lowest (¼ pound) rate, it took an extra two weeks for the Tifdwarf and four weeks for the TifEagle to reach 90% establishment (as compared to the ½ pound nitrogen rate). The authors noted that if rapid establishment were needed, the use of a higher sprigging rate could be considered — this study was sprigged at approximately 27 bushels/1,000 square feet (36.6 cubic meters/hectare) — rather than applying more nitrogen. Source: Rowland, J.H., J.L. Cisar, G.H. Snyder, J.B. Sartain, A.L. Wright and J.E. Erickson. 2010. Optimal nitrogen and potassium fertilization rates for establishment of warmseason putting greens. Agronomy Journal 102:1601-1605.

Beth Guertal, Ph.D., is a professor in the department of agronomy and soils at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala. She is a 17-year member of GCSAA.

(Product news)


ACCESS Turf Advisor by FMC provides instant mobile access to a wealth of weed and herbicide information. The mobile optimized tool allows turf professionals to search its herbicide database, connect with regional FMC market specialists and distributors and properly identify weeds, all from a smartphone. Contact FMC, 800-321-1362 ( To get Turf Advisor, bookmark and navigate through the tabs.



Bob-Cat introduced the 12-bushel Boss-Vac Pro collection systems. It is made to ft both the Bob-Cat ProCat and Predator-Pro mowers. They provide improved performance, durability and ease of use, the company says. A new front counterweight system uses easy-to-handle suitcase weights. The design puts the weight where it is most effective without blocking the operator’s sight line to the front of the deck. Operators can add and remove the weights easily without tools. The quick-disconnect bumper mount lets operators attach or disconnect the collection system from the bumper hitch quickly and easily. The hitch is mounted using existing holes in the mower’s bumper. The Dump From Seat system features a patent-pending double-hinge lift pivotdump system that lets the operator get within inches of an obstacle and still be able to empty the hopper. It has a

15.31-inch-diameter blower fan and 6-inch-wide blades to move debris quickly. Contact Bob-Cat, 866-469-1242 ( OxCart Utility Cart is now available for hauling heavy loads with a riding mower. OxCart’s innovative features include run-fat tractor-grade turf tires to move heavy loads rut-free across turf, lawns and gardens; an offset dump pivot that eliminates harsh and abrupt dump release caused by heavy loads shifting; a full mandrel bend steel axle support to provide high clearance; and the strength to hold and move heavy loads. The side dump rotates 110 degrees from either direction, making it safe to place heavy loads exactly where they were meant to go. Contact OxCart, 316-977-9600 (

Bandit Industries Inc. offers the Stump Gun, a powerful stump grinding attachment designed for use with skid steers. The simple design allows operators to easily grind stumps of virtually any shape or size. It connects to any skid steer with a quick-attach plate. Once attached, the operator simply connects the hydraulic lines and removes the Stump Gun from its stand cradle. The extent of Stump Gun’s maintenance: Two grease points, nine grinding teeth and an end-cap on the shaft. The hydraulic motor requires no routine maintenance and the steel-grinding shaft is built to easily withstand regular grinding operation. Contact Bandit Industries, 989-5612270 ( Curtis Industries launched their cab system for the Massey Ferguson GC1700 Series subcompact tractors. The all-steel cab frame, doors and roof are constructed of powder-coated commercialgrade steel, providing the operator with style, comfort and durability. It features tilt-out windshield and dual sliding glass windows for superior ventilation in any weather condition. The cab mounts independently of the existing factory ROPS (Roll-Over Protective Structure). Total-seal doors

are pin-hinged for easy removal. For tractors equipped for backhoe operations, the rear panel removes quickly and the pop-up roof is supported with gas shocks. Contact Curtis Industries, 800-343-7676 ( An instant rebate is available from now through June 30, 2014 on Blindside herbicide from FMC Professional Solutions. Turf managers can save $10 on every bottle they have purchased since May 1 of this year. No forms are required for the instant rebate. Blindside provides control or suppression for post-emergence weeds such as doveweed, dollarweed and buttonweed. Blindside is approved for use on most turfgrasses and may be applied to golf course fairways and roughs. For more information on the instant rebate promotion, go to www.


MOWER Masport unveiled the M800 Utility Mower, a 21-inch walk-behind push mower. Dubbed a throwback to when mowers weren’t too expensive and meant to last several years, the M800 is powered by a 1,900-cc Briggs and Stratton motor from the commercial 850 Series. The engine is larger than any other in this mower class. A 12-gauge steel deck is designed for durability, and the rugged external frame offers rigidity to withstand tough use. Single-handle height-of-cut adjustment between 1and 4 inches and adjustable bearings on all wheels ensures easy operation. Contact Seago International, 800-780-9889 (



Brookside Agra showcases Advanced Bio Pro Concentrate, which is all natural and designed to biologically degrade odors and eliminate organic material safely. It also eradicates fats, oils, greases and other organic materials. Advanced Bio Pro Concentrate is diluted with water, with recommended mixing rates based on specifc application areas, which include drains, plumbing, ponds, lagoons and pits. Contact Brookside Agra, 618-628-8300 ( Bioverse introduced Healthy Ponds Blue Water Colorant and Refections (Black) Pond Water Colorant to help maintain pond water clarity and beautify pond appearance. It is safe for people, wildlife, fsh, plants and animals. The colorants limit sunlight penetration and reduce algae and aquatic weeds naturally. The colorants are made with certifable food-quality dyes that contain no sulfates or dispersion aids. The dyes are ideal for golf course ponds, small lakes, residential ponds and water features. Contact Bioverse, 877-948-0303 ( Performance Nutrition entered into an exclusive agreement with EC Grow to produce and market a fertilizer in 23 states that is pre-blended with NutriSmart eco-fertilizer humate soil amendment. It is being sold under EC Grow’s Award Turf fertilizer brand for the turf and ornamental market. Contact Performance Nutrition, 732-888-8000 ( Growth Products Ltd. introduced Companion’s True Blue Bottle, which protects the product (formulated to fght a broad range of fungal disease) from UV light. The F-style handle makes it easier to pour. It is available in four package sizes. Contact Growth Products, 800-648-7626 (www. Groundskeeper Tech launched SprinklerMaps Mapping Software, designed to give users the ability to plot their irrigation and utility systems with pinpoint precision on a live satellite map, transforming an iPad into a practical landscape management tool. Additional features include a square footage estimator, Sprinkler Radius Viewer, GPM tallies and the ability to fag markers for repair. SprinklerMaps are made specifcally for landscape and irrigation managers, allowing them to map out assigned tasks and track progress, saving

time and money for all involved. Contact Groundskeeper Tech, 619-887-4627 ( The 4-in-1 Soil Conditioner Meter (DSMM600) from General Tools & Instruments is made to simplify the testing of soils in gardens, lawns and containers. By measuring the pH, temperature and moisture content of soil — as well as the intensity of sunlight it receives — the DSMM600 quantifes soil characteristics that are essential to determining ideal planting and potting locations and monitoring ongoing conditions. Temperature, moisture and sunlight intensity measurement features help pinpoint bad spots, identifying issues such as poor drainage and inadequate or excessive wetness and sunlight. Contact General Tools & Instruments, 800-6978665 ( General Tools & Instruments released PalmScope, a full-featured pocket-sized video inspection system that is built to survive harsh environments and rigorous tasks. The clamshell design allows the camera-tipped probe to be coiled safely and conveniently inside the device for storage. Plus, it can be operated with one hand, leaving the other hand free to use tools and making it ideal for busy craftsmen, contractors and DIYers. Contact General Tools & Instruments, 800-6978665 ( Spring Valley has two solutions to help landscapers. Ornamine is a nutrient-rich granular fertilizer combined with a highly effective pre-emergence weed control for use in ornamentals. The active ingredient in Ornamine controls 30 different weeds by preventing the germination of the weed seeds. Just two applications during the season eliminate the need for manual weed pulling or spot spraying. Also, Protego is a combination of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin, providing insect control to both grubs and surface feeders. Protego is a season-long, single application that delivers a full rate of 0.2 percent imidacloprid. The combination of ingredients controls a wide range of pests that cause damage to turf and hinder healthy grass roots. Both products are available in 50-pound bags. Contact Spring Valley, 800-635-2123 (www. Kohler unveiled engine repower specs for commercial mowers. The Confdant 21-hp twin-cylinder

models (recoil or electric start) are tested to exceed Kohler’s commercial duty-cycle demand and offer many features that appeal to landscapers, such as heavyduty cyclonic air cleaner that traps fne contaminants. It features quick, reliable starting and Consistent-Cut technology to provide consistent power to the deck, a cast-iron cylinder liner to protect the engine in extreme operating conditions and a heavy-duty professional fltration bundle. Contact Kohler, 800-544-2444 (www. Tournament-Ready is now available from Underhill International for use on golf courses. It provides both preventive and curative treatment of localized dry spots caused by hydrophobic soils. Tournament-Ready modulates water movement laterally and vertically into the soil profle for up to 14 weeks after treatment. By improving the infltration rate, Tournament-Ready allows more-effcient irrigation coverage and reduces hand watering. It can be applied to tees and greens with an application/ injection system and is available exclusively through Underhill in 2.5-gallon containers, 30-gallon drums and (24) 6-ounce pellets. Contact Underhill, 949-305-7050 (www. Hartman End Wall System from Hartman Products is a fast, easy and economical alternative to end wall construction, the company says. It comes in four preformed sections, is lightweight and easy to install. It is designed from strong polymer material containing UV inhibitors and won’t crack. It adapts to standard pipe sizes and can be easily adjusted for various height requirements. Once the base unit is in place, it is flled with material of choice. When flled with concrete, the unit weighs more than half a ton. Contact Hartman Products, 412-968-5774 (www. Larson Electronics released a 13-foot Two Stage Mini Light Tower that features 360-degree rotating capabilities. It is designed to provide a safe and effective way for operators to quickly deploy lights, security cameras and other equipment to elevations of 13 feet. Contact Larson Electronics, 800-369-6671 (www. Bernhard Grinders announced multiple enhancements to several models. Anglemaster 4000 and 4000DXi now offer a choice of confgurations to achieve recommended bedknife angles. Other highlights include

two new, side-by-side drawers at the front of the machine, ideal for keeping important tools and accessories organized and close at hand. The user-friendly arrangement shifted the coolant reservoir and main electrics to the left and right legs, respectively. The redesigned legs also allow machines to be moved with a pallet jack rather than a forklift. All Express Dual and Dual Master models now feature improved lift tables that do not require platform extensions. The modifcation is especially useful for machines mounted on wheel kits. In addition, the Express Dual 4000, like its Anglemaster 4000 and 4000DXi counterparts, has an hours-run meter that displays when the machine is turned on. A loose reel kit for the Dual Master also is new. Contact Bernhard Grinders, 888474-6348 ( SimpleFit Cart Shields are designed for golf courses and users who typically rent a car, the company says. SimpleFit does not require tools, is portable and only takes minutes to install. It also is water repellent and mold-resistant with scratch-resistant vinyl windows. It comes with a convenient travel bag with mesh drains for easy storage and drying. SimpleFit is available in beige or black. It is available for Club Car Precedent i2L and i2; E-Z-Go RXV and TXT; and Yamaha Drive. Contact SimpleFit, 888236-3781 ( McCord Golf Services and Safety announced that the company’s complete library of 12 golf course maintenance safety-training videos is now available in both English and Spanish. Developed by Mickey McCord, a certifed golf course superintendent with more than 25 years of industry experience, the videos give superintendents and others involved in the management of turf and grounds personnel a simple and economical way to educate crew members on workplace safety. The safety videos currently available address topics such as hazard communication, including required training for the new OSHA Globally Harmonized System and label and MSDS changes — proper chainsaw use, hearing and eye protection, appropriate lifting techniques, safe mower operation and fre prevention. The website-based videos range from 10 to 18 minutes. They are hosted on www. and available for $300 for a 12-month period. Subscribers log in, select the desired video and view on a computer, mobile device, screen, wall or any compatible television monitor. Contact Mickey McCord at 919-345-5831. 06.14 GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT


(Industry news)


DEMO The Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and Stoltzfus Farm Service Propane Mower Demo Day Event at Longwood Gardens in Kennett Square, Pa., in March was attended by 35 professionals. The event opened with educational sessions and a Q&A with industry experts. Speakers included Jeremy Wishart, senior programs manager for PERC; Garry Busboom, chief development engineer for Exmark Manufacturing; Brandon Fredricks, associate channel manager for Kohler Engines Group; and Chris Cafarella, sales and marketing manager for Boulden Brothers Propane. Stoltzfus Farm Services Inc. was the 2013 GIE+EXPO winner of PERC’s demo day event.

First Tee Bayer CropScience opened its North American Bee Center at its North American headquarters in Research Triangle Park, N.C. The $2.4 million center brings together signifcant technological, scientifc and academic resources, with goals of promoting improved honey bee health, product stewardship and sustainable agriculture. The North American Bee Care Center, part of the company’s $12 million investment in bee health in 2014, brings together some of the brightest minds in agriculture and apiology to develop comprehensive solutions for bee health. The center houses a full laboratory with a teaching and research apiary, honey extraction and hive maintenance space, interactive learning center and meeting, training and presentation facilities for beekeepers, farmers and educators.

and its TPC Network, provided an opportunity last month for 24 teenagers in three markets to attend day-long, activity-based programs, that provide exposure to careers in golf course management. On May 3, participants from The First Tee of the Quad Cities spent the day at TPC Deere Run and will get a chance to shadow the superintendent during the John Deere Classic in July. On May 7, two participants from The First Tee of North Florida shadowed the superintendent at The Players Championship at TPC Sawgrass; they also got to spend a day there Feb. 22. On May 17, participants from The First Tee of Connecticut spent the day at TPC River Highlands, and select participants will shadow the superintendent during the Travelers Championship this month. Careers on Course is being offered as part of Deere’s $1 million commitment to The First Tee.

The First Tee’s Careers on Course program, in partnership with John Deere, the PGA Tour


North American Bee Center GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT 06.14

Ewing Irrigation St. Philip the Apostle Catholic School in Dallas got the full attention of Ewing Irrigation. In April, the company and more than 350 of its employees and partners converged on the school to do a complete renovation of the campus irrigation system and build a football feld, community garden and outdoor entertainment area. Ewing selected the school as this year’s PRIDE Project recipient because it didn’t have the resources to construct a safe feld for the students to use. After months of preparation and planning from Ewing’s north Texas team and partners such as Landscape Unlimited, Mesa Verde Landscape, Precision Pavers and Environs Group,

the projects were ready to be completed. Ewing installed an eight-zone irrigation system with central control; new sod for a fat and safe surface to play; and numerous other improvements such as repainting the bleachers and adding a snack bar. St. Philip is celebrating its 60th anniversary this year. Purgatory Golf Club in Noblesville, Ind., chose Billy Casper Golf (BCG) to manage its facility. At 7,754 yards, Purgatory GC is thought to be the longest course in the state. The course features 125 white-sand bunkers and tall native grass lining fairways and greens.

Barenbrug USA

ANNOUNCEMENT Jay Ingham was appointed professional sales turf manager for Barenbrug USA. He has been with Barenbrug USA as western territory manager since 2001. He has been part of multiple successful launches in more than a decade of work for the company, including the Yellow Jacket Enhanced Seed Coating Program.




Aquatrols made a presentation on soil surfactants last month at the 2014 European Geosciences Union General Assembly in Vienna, Austria. Stan Kostka, Ph.D., director of technology and innovation for Aquatrols, is a co-author on two posters centered on soil surfactants. The frst highlights change in our understanding of water repellency in highly managed soils over the past 20 years while the second focuses on using soil surfactants to increase irrigation effciency for irrigated potatoes. Brandon Towns was named vice president of marketing for Creative Golf Marketing in Manhattan, Kan. The company specializes in private and country club marketing and membership. Towns brings more than a decade of marketing and sales experience to Creative Golf Marketing. Previously, Towns served as director of marketing and membership sales for Shadow Glen GC in Olathe, Kansas. Ingrid Thorson is the new director of marketing communications for the National Golf Course Owners Association (NGCOA). Thorson is responsible for creating and implementing a multifaceted communications program using traditional and new media while strengthening the organization’s role and reputation as the leader and voice of the industry. Previously, Thorson worked in marketing and communications at the Professional Association of Innkeepers International. Duininck Golf completed work at the University of New Mexico North Course. The William H. Tucker design, dating to 1941, received a major upgrade to its irrigation system. The advanced polyethylene pipe irrigation system features a Toro Decoder and a Flowtronex pump station. The irrigation project is expected to annually save millions of gallons of water. Colgate University selected Billy Casper Golf (BCG) to manage its Seven Oaks Golf Course in Hamilton, N.Y. It was the frst course designed by legendary architect Robert Trent Jones Sr. Seven



Oaks is located less than 60 minutes southeast of Syracuse, N.Y. E-Z-Go recalled approximately 30,000 golf cars, shuttles and off-road utility vehicles due to the potential risk for a crash. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission said the steering wheel nut on the vehicle may not have been tightened suffciently, which would reduce the driver’s control and could result in a crash. The recall involves E-Z-Go, Cushman and Bad Boy Buggies brand gas- and electricpowered, four-wheeled vehicles with bench seats for the driver and passengers. They were sold nationwide from August 2012 through February 2013. Potomac Shores Golf Club, the frst fully accessible Jack Nicklaus Signature Design in the region, was set to open last month. The par-72 layout is situated through mature forest overlooking the Potomac River. The course is located 45 minutes from the Washington, D.C., metro area. Kubota Tractor Corp. received the No. 1 rating and Dealers Choice Award among tractor manufacturers, according to the North American Equipment Dealers Association 2014 Dealer-Manufacturer Relations Survey. Nearly 1,400 equipment dealers participated in this year’s survey, rating the tractor lines they carry in 12 categories. Koch Agronomic Services (KAS) announced May 9 it agreed to acquire turf and ornamental assets, brands and product technologies of Agrium Advanced Technologies, a former business unit of Agrium Inc. The turf and ornamental business serves the horticulture, turfgrass, consumer lawn and garden, and specialty agriculture segments. In the deal, KAS would acquire production facilities in Sylacauga, Ala., and global intellectual property rights related to Polyon, Duration, XCU, Nutralene and Nitroform brands of slow-release and controlled-release fertilizers. Pending regulatory approvals, the transaction is expected to close at the end of the second quarter of this year. KAS did not disclose terms of the deal.

Larson Electronics donated rechargeable LED spotlights to the Kuala Gandah Elephant Sanctuary in Malaysia in an effort to help with rescue missions. The sanctuary was established in 1989 and is managed by the Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Parks. Due to agricultural development, the elephants’ natural foraging grounds shrunk and fnding food became more diffcult. As a result, some elephants were found in plantations and in small towns looking for food. Echo and Shindaiwa received Gold Level Status from the North American Equipment Dealers Association’s annual Manufacturer Relations Survey. The Gold Level Award recognizes those manufacturers who have achieved exceptionally high dealer ratings in categories such as product quality, technical support, parts availability, marketing and advertising support. Ali Harivandi, Ph.D., environmental horticulturist emeritus, University of California Cooperative Extension, received

the Turfgrass Educator Award of Excellence from Turfgrass Producers International. He is only the second recipient of this prestigious honor. Mark Mattingly and David Kupstas were appointed regional operating executives in the East region for KemperSports. Mattingly, KemperSports’ general manager of the year in 2002, oversees properties in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee; Kupstas, with more than three decades of experience in food and beverage, oversees food and beverage in the East region and also supervises several private club operations. The Irrigation Association (IA) and the American Society of Irrigation Consultants (ASIC) released a new version of their Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices. The update refects sound engineering practices, emerging technologies and recommended techniques for effcient water use. The updated guidelines incorporate feedback from irrigation designers, con-

sultants, contractors and water managers to ensure the BMPs remain relevant in today’s market. The Golf Course Builders Association of America recently approved Frontier Golf for Certifed Builder membership, while Formost Construction Co. and Mike Roach Inc. became the association’s frst two certifed golf irrigation contractors. Frontier Golf, formed in 1992, has done work in the U.S., Central America and the Caribbean. Formost Construction Co., more than 50 years old, is known for its work with private country clubs. The Olds College Turfgrass Research Program received a $2.3 million grant over a fve-year period through the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Dooks Golf Club in Glenbeigh, Ireland, is celebrating its 125th anniversary this year. The 18-hole links-style course was expanded from nine holes to its current layout in 1970.

Troon, a golf management company, announced it formed relationships with Dunes West Golf and River Club and Reunion Country Club. Dunes West is located in Mount Pleasant, S.C., near the downtown area of Charleston. Reunion CC is in Hoschton, Ga. Estonian Golf and Country Club, part of the European Tour Properties, earned GEO-certifed status from the Golf Environment Organization. Golf World ranked it among the top 100 golf courses in Continental Europe. Nine KemperSports facilities were recognized in Golfweek magazine’s Best Modern Courses list. They are: No. 2, Pacifc Dunes, Bandon, Ore.; No. 6, Old Macdonald, Bandon, Ore.; No. 8, Bandon Dunes, Bandon, Ore.; No. 22, Bandon Trails, Bandon, Ore.; No. 24, Chambers Bay, University Place, Wash.; No. 28, The Dunes Club, New Buffalo, Mich.; No. 29, Streamsong Red, Streamsong, Fla.; No. 43, Streamsong Blue, Streamsong, Fla.; and No. 86, The Prairie Club (Dunes), Valentine, Neb.



(photo quiz answers) By John Mascaro President of Turf-Tec International


PROBLEM The brown and missing turf on top of this mound is not a result of winter desiccation; it’s actually goose damage. As the snow began melting away on this northern Illinois golf course, the tops of the mounds were the frst areas to become exposed. As soon as the Canada geese noticed a spot of green grass, they focked to the area to feed on the turf, resulting in the damage shown in the photo. Most likely, the brown area is frost damage from their feet trampling the still-frozen crowns of the turf. When the remainder of the snow melted, the damage became evident. The course uses remote-controlled boats, coyote decoys, bird bangers and fuse guns to move geese off of the golf course. The superintendent reports that his dogs and the laser light, if used after dark, seem to work best for his course. He also states that when the same technique is used continually, the geese begin to recognize that it is not a threat. Photo submitted by Shane Bays, golf course superintendent at Aldeen Golf Club in Rockford, Ill., and an eight-year member of GCSAA.



The cause of the two holes in the ground by this tree can be easily diagnosed if you notice the brown lines coming from the tree roots toward the holes. These holes were created by lightning. Lightning struck the tree, and the electricity followed the tree roots until they found a PVC irrigation pipe. The pipe exploded between the two holes, and the electricity proceeded into the wire, which also blew out the irrigation box, as shown in the second photo. As you can see, even indirect lightning strikes can be damaging to equipment and deadly to golfers and maintenance workers. Photos submitted by Ed Nangle, director of turfgrass programs at the Chicago District Golf Association. Photos were taken by Jeff Vercautren, the GCSAA Class A superintendent at Rich Harvest Farms in Sugar Grove, Ill., and a 14year member of the association.

If you would like to submit a photograph for John Mascaro’s Photo Quiz, please send it to: John Mascaro, 1471 Capital Circle NW, Suite #13, Tallahassee, FL 32303, or e-mail to If your photograph is selected, you will receive full credit. All photos submitted will become property of GCM and GCSAA. Presented in partnership with Jacobsen




June 2-8 — Champions Tour, Big


Cedar Lodge Legends of Golf presented by Bass Pro Shops, Top of the Rock, Ridgedale, Mo., David Hardesty, GCSAA Class A superintendent.

June 5-8 — PGA Tour, FedEx St. Jude Classic, TPC Southwind, Memphis, Tenn., Jim Thomas, CGCS, director of golf course maintenance.

(Climbing the ladder)

June 5-8 — LPGA, Manulife Financial LPGA Classic, Grey Silo GC, Waterloo, Ontario. June 5-8 — Tour,

Jason Hanna Was: Is:

Assistant superintendent, Credit Valley Golf and Country Club, Mississauga, Ontario Superintendent, Credit Valley G&CC

Cleveland Open, Lakewood CC, Westlake, Ohio, Dan Cherrstrom, CGCS.

June 5-8 — European Tour, Lyoness Open powered by Greenfnity, Diamond CC, Atzenbrugg, Austria.

June 6-8 — USGA, Curtis Cup, St. Louis CC, St. Louis, Mo., Timothy Burch, GCSAA Class A superintendent.

June 6-8 — Symetra Tour, Firekeepers Casino Hotel Championship, Battle Creek CC, Battle Creek, Mich., Steve Rebhan, CGCS.

Getting to know you In the heart of hockey country, not far from where the legendary Toronto Maple Leafs have won 13 Stanley Cup championships, Jason Hanna chose grass over ice. “I played some hockey here and there, but I grew up playing golf,” says Hanna, 35, a seven-year member of GCSAA who was promoted to superintendent Jan. 31. “Believe it or not but golf is very, very popular in central Ontario. There are more than 200 golf courses within a 75-mile radius of where we are. There’s a lot more to us than hockey here, that’s for sure.”

Q: How have your frst few months in charge been for you? A: We’re coming off the worst winter in recent memory. Everybody lost some grass. Winter started in

early December and never let up. We had regular snow events and a lot of ice formed on our surfaces. We didn’t get the thawing that usually occurs in early January. We had no days above zero until the middle of March, so it’s made at least the start of my frst year interesting.


You served as an assistant at Credit Valley G&CC for seven years before taking over. What did you learn in that time to prepare you for this opportunity?

A: I was really lucky. Our former superintendent, Jeff Stauffer (now GCSAA Class A superintendent

at Rosedale GC in Toronto), exposed me as much as he could to all parts of our business, such as inner dealings at the club, committees and working with suppliers. It has helped going forward.

Q: It sounds like golf, outside of work, remains important to you. A: My grandfather from my mom’s side and my dad started a family golf tournament. It’s called the

Bridgman Family Golf Tournament and we’ve been doing it for more than 30 years. That’s one reason golf has been such a big part of my life. Howard Richman, GCM associate editor



June 12-15 — PGA Tour, U.S. Open, Pinehurst No. 2, Pinehurst, N.C., Bob Farren, CGCS, director of golf course and grounds, and Kevin Robinson, CGCS. June 13-15 — Symetra Tour, Decatur-Forsyth Classic presented by Tate & Lyle and Decatur Parks District, Hickory Point GC, Decatur, Ill., Greg Foley, superintendent. June 19-22 — LPGA, Women’s U.S. Open, Pinehurst No. 2, Pinehurst, N.C., Bob Farren, CGCS, director of golf course and grounds, and Kevin Robinson, CGCS.

June 19-22 — PGA Tour, Travelers Championship, TPC River Highlands, Cromwell, Conn., Thomas DeGrandi, GCSAA Class A director of golf course and maintenance operations.

June 19-22 — Tour, Air Capital Classic presented by Aetna, Crestview CC, Wichita, Kan., Chad Stearns, GCSAA Class A superintendent.

June 19-22 — European Tour, The Irish Open, Fota Island Resort, Republic of Ireland.

June 20-22 — Champions Tour, Encompass Championship, North Shore CC, Glenview, Ill., Dan Dinelli, CGCS. June 20-22 — Symetra Tour, Four Winds Invitational, Blackthorn GC, South Bend, Ind., John Quickstad, GCSAA Class A superintendent.

June 23-24 — PGA Tour, CVS Caremark Charity Classic, Rhode Island CC, Barrington, R.I., Steven Thys, GCSAA Class A superintendent.

June 26-29 — PGA Tour, Quicken Loans National, Congressional CC, Bethesda, Md., Mike Giuffre, director of golf course and grounds maintenance.

June 26-29 — Tour, United Leasing Championship presented by PTI, Victoria National GC, Newburgh, Ind., Kyle Callahan, superintendent.

June 26-29 — Champions Tour, Constellation Senior Players Championship, Fox Chapel GC, Pittsburgh, Pa., Jason Hurwitz, superintendent.

June 26-29 — European Tour, BMW International Open, Golf Club Gut

Larchenhof, Koln, Germany.

June 27-29 — LPGA, Walmart Northwest Arkansas Championship presented by P&G, Pinnacle CC, Rogers, Ark., Winston Turpin, superintendent.

June 27-29 — Symetra Tour, Island Resort Championship, Sweetgrass GC, Harris, Mich., John Holberton, GCSAA Class A superintendent.


June 9 — Demonstration Day sponsored by GCSA of New England, Blue Hill CC, Canton, Mass. Phone: 774-430-9040 Email: Website:

June 10 — Purdue University Second Annual Basic Sports Turf Workshop, W.H. Daniel Turfgrass Research and Diagnostic Center Phone: 765-494-8039 Website: php?pid=6182 June 16 — Vendors Day, Pontiac CC, Pontiac, Ill. Email: Website:

June 25 — Research and Demonstration Day, Southeastern Turfgrass Research Center, Lexington, Ky. Email: Website:

July 15 — UConn Turfgrass Field Day, Plant Science Research and Education Facility, Storrs, Conn. Phone: 888-561-7778 Website:

July 21 — Texas Tech Turfgrass

July 31-Aug. 1 — PAES Recirculating Technology Workshop, Apopka, Fla. Phone: 877-347-4788 Website: Aug. 6 — Turfgrass Field Day, UGA Griffn Campus, Griffn, Ga. Phone: 706-376-3585 Website:


Field Day, Quaker Farm, Lubbock, Texas Email:

ALABAMA Bradley A. Deal, Class C, Gulf Shores

July 24 — Iowa Turfgrass Field Day, Horticulture Research Station, Ames Host superintendent: Dan Strey Phone: 515-635-0307 Website:

ARIZONA Devon Freeman, Class C, Scottsdale

July 29 — WTA Summer Field Day, OJ Noer Research & Education Facility Phone: 608-445-4982 Website: July 29-30 — Rutgers Turfgrass Research Field Days, Hort Farm II, Brunswick; and Adelphia Farm, Freehold Phone: 973-812-6467

CALIFORNIA Trevor W. Hacker, Student, Los Gatos Miguel Lima, Class C, Angels Camp Tim McAndrew, Student, Riverside FLORIDA David A. Buth, Affliate, Rockledge Cale D. Chafn, Class C, Panama City Beach Bryan J. Melreit, Class C, Port Charlotte Shawn D. Swaringen, Student, Hobe Sound Kent Turner, Class C, Hobe Sound

IDAHO Aaron J. Taylor, Class C, Victor ILLINOIS Ryan A. Rolfes, Class C, East Moline Seth R. Smith, Class C, Peoria KENTUCKY Bobby Clymer, Class C, Paducah

(In the field)

Southwest Jeff Jensen Because of increasing concern about the cost of playing the game of golf, the Central California GCSA and the Southern California Section of the PGA hosted the Symposium on Affordable Golf, March 31-April 1, at Dairy Creek GC in San Luis Obispo. The symposium originated in 2010 at Southern Pines, N.C., as the vision of golf course architect Richard Mandell to raise awareness and understanding of golf’s challenges. The 2014 symposium attracted more than 100 attendees representing several facets of the golf industry, including superintendents, golf professionals, owners and managers, vendors, irrigation consultants, as well as representatives from water agencies and the golfing public. Numerous industry professionals, including GCSAA CEO Rhett Evans and former USGA senior technical director Dick Rugge, spoke to attendees about demand, a return to affordability, equipment and technology, customer service, promoting the game through community buy-in, the folly of replicating tournament conditions, and how water will be a major factor in the future success of the game. Case studies were presented on irrigation design and water efficiency, as well as player development courses, programs and non-traditional forms of the game. Host superintendent Josh Heptig provided keen insight through a tour of the zero-waste facility at county-owned Dairy Creek GC. For more information on the event and future symposiums, visit the website at

Southeast Ron Wright, CGCS I had the pleasure of speaking at the Earth Day (April 22) Celebration at Bear Trace at Harrison Bay (in Tennessee) recently. Most people are familiar with the course, thanks to the Harrison Bay Eagle Cam that you can watch online. It’s fascinating watching Elliot and Eloise care for their two young eagles. In just one day on the property I learned more about eagles than I had in my entire life. The eagles are both impressive and captivating as they soar above the property, but there is much more going on there than nesting birds. A year ago, the course began using Jacobsen Eclipse 322 triplexes to mow greens and tees. The course also uses a fleet of electric maintenance carts every day. In that year, they saved 9,000 gallons of fossil fuel at the course. To me, that was a staggering number. One other number that may be even more amazing is the 162 days with zero emissions. Think about that for a minute — that’s almost half a year with no exhaust. Now, that is really changing your carbon footprint! Congratulations to Paul L. Carter, CGCS, and the entire team at Bear Trace at Harrison Bay for pushing the envelope and being leaders in environmental stewardship. Who knows? In 10 years maybe this will be normal at most golf courses in the U.S.

For the latest blog posts from all of GCSAA’s feld staff representatives, visit community/regions.aspx.



MASSACHUSETTS Christopher N. Tuzzio, Class C, Framingham MICHIGAN Travis Fritsma, Student, Brimley Gerald K. Navarre, Student, Brimley Michael Sullivan, Student, Brimley MINNESOTA Jason K. Henderson, Class C, Becker Andy P. Yurek, Class C, Prior Lake MISSOURI Kolby Armbruster, Class C, Chesterfeld Bradley L. Thompson, Class C, Saint Charles NEW JERSEY Lloyd D. Chancellor, Student, New Brunswick Jerry L. Elliott Jr., Student, New Brunswick Frank J. Tropfenbaum, Class C, Clifton NEW YORK Kevin C. Panos, Class C, Croton-on-Hudson NORTH CAROLINA Taylor C. Potter, Student, Raleigh OHIO Mitchell R. Jurich, Class C, Sylvania OKLAHOMA Charles C. Collins, Class C, Broken Arrow Russell D. Fasig, Class C, Broken Arrow PENNSYLVANIA Brandon R. Bice, Class C, Pittsburgh Robert Guthrie, Class C, Lititz Louis Lagakis, Student, University Park Brett T. Niner, Student, University Park Paul Precone, Class C, Moscow Daniel R. Spall, Student, Doylestown SOUTH CAROLINA Michael J. Bird, Student, Conway Ronald L. Ferqueron, Supt. Mbr., McCormick John G. Ferreri, Class C, St. Helena Island Michael W. Reeves Jr., Class C, Hilton Head Island

TENNESSEE Jospeh D. Cannon, Student, Cookeville Jason T. Swindell, Class C, Brentwood TEXAS John D. Addison, Class C, Austin Jake M. Doucet, Student, College Station Jason F. Floyd, Class C, Amarillo Robert N. Hill, Student, Waco WISCONSIN Nicholas Bannach, Supt. Mbr., Horicon Tyler J. Kutz, Student, Platteville Ted M. Reierson, Class C, Lake Geneva GERMANY Frank J. Aherne, Student, Hamburg UNITED KINGDOM Chris Barnard, ISM, Deal Kent James Bledge, Class C, Deal Kent UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Peter G.T. Stewart, ISM, Dubai

NEWLY CERTIFIED Steven W. Martin, CGCS, Rivers Edge Golf Club, Shallotte, S.C. Erin L. Stevens, CGCS, Emerald Dunes Club, West Palm Beach, Fla.


ALABAMA Justin I. Jacobsen, formerly (C) at Bogey Hills Country Club, is now (C) at The Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail at Silver Lake in Gadsden. Erik Vogler, formerly (C) at Arrowhead Country Club, is now (C) at Auburn University Club in Auburn. ALASKA John F. Krull, formerly (S) at Southeast Community College, is now (C) at Anchorage Golf Course in Anchorage. ARKANSAS Keith A. Ihms, CGCS, formerly (A) at

Country Club of Little Rock, is now (A) at Bella Vista Country Club in Bella Vista. CALIFORNIA Matthew G. Drake, formerly (S) at Yuba College, is now (C) at Del Paso Country Club in Sacramento. Steven Gregory, formerly (C) at The Madison Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Montesoro Golf and Social Club in Borrego Springs. Cooper C. Hayes, formerly (C) at Naples Grande Golf Club, is now (C) at Tahoe Donner Golf Club in Truckee. Thom Irvin, formerly (C) at Indian Hill Golf Club, is now (C) at The Olympic Club in San Francisco. Scott C. McLeod, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Indian Tree Golf Couse, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at The Tuscan Ridge Club in Paradise. COLORADO Justin L. Becker, formerly (A) at Entrada at Snow Canyon, is now (A) at Club at Cordillera Valley Course in Edwards. Ryan Nicholson, formerly (C) at Roaring Fork Club, is now (C) at Colorado Golf Club in Parker. CONNECTICUT Raymond J. Platt, formerly (C) at Hampshire Country Club, is now (C) at Fairview Country Club in Greenwich. DELAWARE James J. Elliott, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Brandywine Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at White Clay Creek in Wilmington. Brenton R. Whitney, formerly (C) at Cripple Creek Golf & Country Club, is now (C) at Heritage Shores Golf Course in Bridgeville. FLORIDA Bayne Caillavet, formerly (A) at Hawkes Bay Course at The Villages-Championship, is now (A) at The Villages-Championship Golf in The Villages.

Scott C. Chastain, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Mirasol Club Inc., is now (A) at The Yacht & Country Club in Stuart. Matthew W. Eichmann, formerly (C) at Grasslands Golf & Country Club, is now (C) at Palma Ceia Golf & Country Club in Tampa. Andrew J. Engelbrecht, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Verandah Golf Course, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Rotonda Golf & Country Club in Rotonda West. Nicholas Flynn, formerly (A) at Greenbriar Woodlands, is now (C) at Falcon’s Fire Golf Club in Kissimmee. Sam H. Gardner, formerly (C) at Breakers Ocean Golf Club, is now (C) at Isleworth Country Club in Windermere. Robert Harper, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at The Club at Emerald Hills, is now (C) at

Hillcrest Country Club in Hollywood. Ryan M. Herren, formerly (A) at The Kissimmee Oaks Golf Club, is now (A) at Deer Creek Golf & RV Resort in Davenport. Scott McCoy, formerly (C) at May River Golf Club at Palmetto Bluff, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Naples Grande Golf Club in Naples. Joshua C. Sealey, formerly (C) at Belfair Plantation, is now (C) at The Forest Country Club in Fort Myers. Ryan L. Swilley, formerly (C) at Old Marsh Golf Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Gulf Stream Golf Club in Delray Beach. GEORGIA Ryan T. Hurkmans, formerly (C) at The Farm Golf Club, is now (C) at Bear’s Best



Atlanta in Suwanee. ILLINOIS Shane Bays, formerly (C) at Aldeen Golf Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Aldeen Golf Club in Rockford. Jeff L. Cameron, formerly (C) at White Eagle Golf Club, is now (C) at Bolingbrook Golf Club in Bolingbrook. Christopher F. Flick, formerly (C) at Snyder Park Golf Course, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Cog Hill Golf and Country Club in Lemont. Curtis W. Keller, formerly (C) at Pelican Hill Golf Club, is now (C) at Illini Country Club in Springfeld. Jacob B. Koch, formerly (C) at Wolf Run Golf Club, is now (C) at White Eagle Golf Club in Naperville. Daniel Lopez, formerly (C) at Highland Woods Golf Course, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Chick Evans Golf Course in Morton Grove. R. Scott Pavalko, formerly (Supt. Mbr) at Cog Hill Golf and Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Bob O’Link Golf Club in Highland Park. Matt Whitsitt, formerly (C) at Westmoreland Country Club, is now (C) at Lincolnshire Fields Country Club in Champaign.

INDIANA Phillip Fischer, formerly (C) at Victoria National Golf Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Oak Meadow Country Club in Evansville. IOWA Jon Hungerford, formerly (C) at Tournament Club of Iowa, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Tournament Club of Iowa in Polk City. Dean R. Sparks, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at TPC at Prestancia, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Davenport Country Club in Pleasant Valley. Brad Vander Werff, formerly (C) at Irv Warren Memorial Golf Course, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at South Hills Golf Course in Waterloo. KANSAS Kevin E. Kamphaus, formerly (A) at Quail Ridge Golf Course, is now (A) at Fort Hays Municipal Golf Course in Hays. Matt C. Vance, formerly (C) at Sanctuary, is now (C) at Cherry Oaks Golf Club in Cheney. KENTUCKY Andrew J. Wilson, formerly (C) at Standard Country Club, is now (C) at Shawnee Golf Course in Louisville.

MARYLAND Joseph Villegas, formerly (C) at Burning Tree Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Bretton Woods Recreation Center in Germantown. Kirk D. Warburton, formerly (C) at Columbia Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Worthington Manor Golf Club in Frederick. MASSACHUSETTS Daniel Brandt, formerly (C) at Cyprian Keyes Golf Club, is now (C) at Renaissance in Haverhill. MICHIGAN Kyle Barton, formerly (C) at Hobbits Glen Golf Club, is now (C) at Tam O’Shanter Country Club in West Bloomfeld. Phil Hopper, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at The Wyndgate Golf and Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at West Wynd Course at The Wyndgate Golf and Country Club in Rochester. Patrick Nunn, formerly (I), is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Black Forest & Wilderness Valley Golf Club in Gaylord. Ryan J. Williams, formerly (C) at Quaker Ridge Golf Club, is now (C) at Lochmoor Club in Grosse Pointe.

MINNESOTA Christopher D. Aumock, formerly (C) at Preakness Hills Country Club, is now (C) at North Oaks Golf Club in North Oaks. Nicholas Dickerson, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Tournament Club of Iowa, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Owatonna Country Club in Owatonna. Alex J. Dowdle, formerly (AS) at Golden Valley Country Club, is now (C) at Legends Club in Prior Lake. Kevin R. Gruber, formerly (C) at Oxbow Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Little Crow Country Club in Spicer. Luke Hoerig, formerly (C) at Bully Pulpit Golf Course, is now (C) at Giants Ridge Golf & Ski Resort in Biwabik. Kurtis Wacker, formerly (SW) at University of Minnesota-Crookston, is now (AS) at Medina Golf & Country Club in Medina. MISSOURI Anthony D. Molitor, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Timber Creek Resort, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Terre du Lac Country Club in Bonne Terre. Virgil A. Range III, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Maryville Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Sugar Creek Golf Club and

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Banquet in High Ridge. Christopher J. Root Jr., formerly (C) at Norwood Hills Country Club, is now (C) at Ballwin Municipal Golf Course in Ballwin. MONTANA Lee B. Olesen, formerly (C) at Austin Golf Club, is now (C) at Yellowstone Club in Big Sky. NEW JERSEY Matthew Bruno, formerly (C) at Cascades Course at Crystal Springs Golf Club, is now (C) at Black Bear Golf Course in Franklin. Michael Candeloro, CGCS, formerly (A) at Flanders Valley Golf Club, is now (A) at Berkshire Valley Country Club in Oak Ridge. Patrick J. McMahon, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Trump National Golf ClubPhiladelphia, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Pine Barrens Golf Club in Jackson. NEW YORK Nathan Bridges, formerly (C) at Green Brook Country Club, is now (C) at Sleepy Hollow Country Club in Briarcliff Manor. David L. Meteer, formerly (C) at Niagara Falls Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Niagara Falls Country Club in Lewiston. Jared M. Poljacik, formerly (C) at Shorehaven Golf Club, is now (C) at Metropolis Country Club in White Plains. Robert J. Schmeltz, formerly (C) at Osiris Country Club, is now (C) at Minisceongo Golf Club in Pomona. Jacob R. Travis, formerly (C) at Elmwood Country Club, is now (C) at Fenway Golf Club in Scarsdale. Scott Wiiki, formerly (C) at Fairview Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Mill Creek Golf Club in Churchville. NORTH CAROLINA Chad Kuzawa, formerly (C) at Colleton River Plantation Club, is now (C) at Old Chatham Golf Club in Durham. Ryan D. McClannon, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Charlotte Golf Links, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Skybrook Golf Club in Huntersville. NORTH DAKOTA Ryan Otto, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Devils Lake Golf Course, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Painted Woods Golf Course in Washburn. Andrew Stoldorf, formerly (S) at Rutgers University, is now (C) at Bully Pulpit Golf Course in Medora.

OHIO Scott K. DeLand, formerly (A) at Hamilton County Park District, is now (A) at Sharon Woods Golf Course in Sharonville. James E. Westendorf, formerly (A) at Sharon Woods Golf Course, is now (A) at Great Parks of Hamilton County in Cincinnati. Matthew R. Young, formerly (C) at Fremont Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Fremont Country Club in Fremont. OREGON James T. Colgan, formerly (S) at Oregon State University, is now (C) at Columbia Edgewater Country Club in Portland. PENNSYLVANIA Neil Finn, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Resort at Glade Springs, is now (A) at Southpointe Golf Club, Inc. in Canonsburg. Nicholas E. Huttie, formerly (C) at Lehigh Country Club, is now (C) at Brookside Country Club in Macungie. SOUTH CAROLINA Joseph T. Brown, formerly (S) at Central Piedmont Community College, is now (C) at Callawassie Island Club in Bluffton. Josh Green, formerly (C) at Prospect Bay Country Club, is now (C) at Palmetto Golf Club in Aiken. Michael Hunter, formerly (C) at Pinecrest Golf Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Island West Golf Club in Bluffton. Nicholas Price, formerly (A) at The Club at Seabrook Island, is now (A) at Sunset Golf Club in Sumter. SOUTH DAKOTA Joshua D. Caffee, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Awarii Dunes, is now (A) at Spearfsh Canyon Country Club in Spearfsh. TEXAS Mitchell S. Elliott, formerly (Supt. Mbr.) at Cypress Course at Sweetwater Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Kingwood Country Club in Kingwood. Timothy L. Richardson, formerly (A) at Oak Tree Country Club, is now (A) at Canyon Creek Country Club in Richardson. Bryan Tupa, formerly (C) at La Costa Resort & Spa, is now (C) at Sky Creek Ranch Golf Club in Keller. Heath J. Wisdom, formerly (C) at The Cliffs Resort, is now (C) at Firewheel Golf Park in Garland.



VERMONT Terry J. Davio, formerly (C) at Sagamore Resort and Golf Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Lake St. Catherine Country Club in Poultney. VIRGINIA Zachary M. Vinson, formerly (C) at Kiln Creek Country Club, is now (Supt. Mbr.) at Tanglewood Shores Golf & Country Club in Bracey. Michael Wyant, formerly (C) at The Lazy Swan Golf & Country Club, is now (C) at Loudoun Golf & Country Club in Purcellville. WASHINGTON Curtis E. Chambers, formerly (A) at Panther Valley Golf & Country Club, is now (A) at Yakima Elks Golf & Country Club in Selah. WISCONSIN Matthew R. Eagan, formerly (C) at Lake Ripley Country Club, is now (C) at Dodge Point Golf Club in Dodgeville. Albert A. Kronwall, formerly (A) at Lake Geneva Country Club, is now (A) at Abbey Springs Golf Course in Fontana. Robert A. Nixon, formerly (A) at Rock River Hills Golf Course, is now (A) at Koshkonong Mounds Country Club in Fort Atkinson. CANADA Elizabeth Crowley, formerly (ISM) at Miskanaw Golf Club at MacDonald Island Park, is now (C) at Country Hills Golf Club in Calgary, Alberta. Gary Stadnek, formerly (ISM) at Highland Pacifc Golf Course, is now (ISM) at Arbutus Ridge Golf Club in Cobble Hill, British Columbia. ENGLAND Peter J. Bradburn, formerly (ISM) at Montgomerie Papillon Golf Club, is now (ISM) at The Roehampton Club in London.


of GCSAA, served in the Air Force from 1951 to 1954. During that time, he helped design and build Moose Run GC at Fort Richardson in Anchorage, Alaska. Later, he worked at many clubs, including Shawnee CC in Milford, Del., Water Gap CC in Stroudsburg, Pa., Old York CC in Trenton, N.J., and Buena Vista CC in Buena, N.J. He also was general manager at Capital City CC in Tallahassee, Fla., among other stops in that position. In retirement, Entwistle still contributed as a consultant at Monarch CC in Leesburg, Fla. He founded the South Florida GCSA annual Adam Walsh Foundation Charity Golf Tournament, which has raised more than $600,000 for what is now known as the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Entwistle is survived by his wife of 55 years, Janet; and four children, 11 grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Daniel I. Gieseler, 81, died July 16, 2013. Mr. Gieseler, a 54-year member of GCSAA, got his start in the business by working summers at Yankee Run GC in Brookfeld, Ohio. He served in the U.S. Marines and saw action in the Korean War. Later, Gieseler was an assistant superintendent at Mayfeld CC in Mayfeld, Ohio, and eventually became superintendent at Lake Forest CC, Mission Viejo CC and Costa Del Sol. He also worked at Riviera CC, Beaver Creek and Marriott Desert Springs and Bogar, Indonesia. He is survived by his wife, Cathy; son Danny Gieseler; stepdaughter Jackie Voss; stepson Byron M. Smith III; step-grandchildren Shelby Smith, Michael Smith and Amber Voss; and step-greatgrandsons Kolton and Mason Smith. David Hockgeiger, 63, died Dec. 18, 2013. Mr. Hockgeiger, an 18year member of GCSAA, worked as a superintendent in Illinois and Indiana, most recently in 2006 at Eagle Glen GC. He is survived by sons Nathan E. (Barbara) Hockgeiger and Jeremy D. Hockgeiger; grandchildren Joshua and Olivia Hockgeiger; sisters Lisa Hockgeiger and Georgia Cisna.

William J. Entwistle, 84, died Jan. 14, 2014. Mr. Entwistle, a 41-year member

GCM (ISSN 0192-3048 [print]; ISSN 2157-3085 [online]) is published monthly by GCSAA Communications Inc., 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049-3859, 785-841-2240. Subscriptions (all amounts U.S. funds only): $60 a year. Outside the United States and Canada, write for rates. Single copy: $5 for members, $7.50 for nonmembers. Offce of publication and editorial offce is at GCSAA, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049-3859. Periodicals postage paid at Lawrence, Kan., and at additional mailing offces. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to: Golf Course Management, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049. CANADA POST: Publications mail agreement No. 40030949. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to P.O. Box 122, Niagara Falls, ONT L2E 6S8.









Recognition Program Baroness is known worldwide for providing high quality turf care equipment. Founded more than 105 years ago, this company is dedicated and focused to insure customers with the fnest golf course machinery and customer service in the industry. All of our products have received rave reviews from the LM2700 and LM2400 Fairway mowers, LM285 Rough mower, SP05 bunker rake, 3 types of walking mowers- LM18G, LM56G and LM66T and the new LM315- Triplex mower and GM1700 Slope mower. Our customers are amazed at the quality of cut and longevity of our reels and bed knifes. Baroness mowers are maintaining tournament level conditions at many of the fnest clubs in the US and International venues. We are excited for the future as we continue to grow and introduce new products into the US market. We are very proud to support the GCSAA and the talented group of superintendents and mechanics.

The Andersons Turf & Specialty Group is part of The Andersons, Inc., which was founded in 1947 by Harold Anderson in Maumee, Ohio and is currently a 3.4 billion dollar corporation (NASDAQ:ANDE). The Andersons is a major manufacturer and marketer of Contec DG速 along with other premium, patented dispersible and non-dispersible granular products for several professional markets that include golf courses, sports turf, lawn and landscape, horticulture and agriculture markets both across the country and internationally. The Andersons Turf & Specialty Group has 10 facilities in Alabama, Indiana, Ohio, North Carolina and Illinois and consists of 425 employees. The Andersons is an active member of the GCSAA and provides support through various vehicles such as marketing, advertising, feld representation, trade show exhibiting, and sponsorships. As a Silver Partner, The Andersons believes in the purpose and goals of the GCSAA in wanting to help the superintendent in growing and enriching the golf business. The Andersons is also an active member of NGF, PLANET, STMA, ITODA, RISE and many other industry organizations.


East Coast Sod & Seed ...................................... 111 (856) 769-9555

John Deere Co. ................................................4-5 (800) 257-7797

Foley United ...................................................... 71 (800) 225-9810 ..................

The Toro Co. ..................................................IFC-1 (888) 664-7489

Frost Inc. .......................................................... 105 (800) 621-7910 ......................... GCSAA Services..........63, 65, 91, 99, 109, 113-136 (800) 472-7878

GOLD PARTNERS Jacobsen ...................................................31, 101 (800) 232-5907 Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC ................. Cover 4 (909) 308-1633 .....................................................

SILVER PARTNERS The Andersons, Inc. .......................................... 25 (800) 253-5296 .............. Barenbrug USA .................................33, Cover Tip (800) 547-4101 ......................... Baroness ............................................................ 19 (707)283-0610 ............................ BASF ................................................................ 51 (888) 566-5506 Bayer Environmental Science ......................11, 55 (866) 550-8785 ..... golf-course-management Club Car ............................................................. 61 (800) 445-6680 ........................... Floratine Products Group .............................67, 77 (901) 853-2898 ....................... FMC Professional Solutions .........................13, 53 (800) 235-7368 .......... Lebanon Turf .......................................... 14-15, 69 (800) 350-6650 ............... Par Aide Products Co. ......................................2-3 (513) 470-0160 ........................ PBI Gordon Corp...........................................21, 75 (800) 971-7233 .................... Precision Laboratories, Inc. .............................. 43 (800) 323-6280 Quali-Pro ............................................................ 35 (888) 584-6598 Tee-2-Green Corp. ......................................... 44-45 (800) 547-0255 ....................

GreensGroomer Worldwide, Inc......................... 23 (888) 298-8852 ext. 500 ....................................... Grigg Bros. ........................................................ 37 (888) 623-7285 Helena Chemical Company ..........................56-57 (901) 752-4414 ........... J2 Golf Marketing ........................................94, 107 (877) 263-1614 Jenlis Inc. ......................................................... 105 (877) 356-6455 ..................... Milorganite ........................................................ 95 (800) 287-9645 ..................... Nufarm ............................................................ 106 (800) 345-3330 ..................... Otterbine Barebo Inc. .......................................... 29 (800) 237-8837 PlanetAir Turf Products ..................................... 27 (877) 800-8845 Plant Food Co. Inc. ............................................ 73 (800) 562-1291 ................. Schiller-Pfeiffer ............................................... Insert (800) 441-8482 ............. Seago International, Inc. ................................. 111 (800) 780-9889 Smithco, Inc................................................. Cover 3 (877) 833-7648 .......................... Steven’s Water Monitoring ................................. 103 (215) 908-0044 SubAir Inc. ...................................................... 110 (800) 441-1880 ............. TRIMS Software International Inc. .................. 111 (800) 608-7467 Turf Screen ......................................................... 41 (267) 246-8654 ....................... Underhill ............................................... 17, Insert (800) 328-3986 .........................

ADVERTISERS Aqua Control ................................................... 111 (800) 377-0019 ................. Aquatrols Corporation ....................................... 39 (800) 257-7797 ..................... BoardTronics...................................................... 6-7 (800) 782-9938 Buffalo Turbine ................................................. 98 (716) 592-2700 Champion Turf Farms ......................................... 8-9 (888) 290-7377



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Do you have a photograph that you’d like the GCM staff to consider for The Final Shot? You can submit photos for consideration by e-mail to or to GCM editor-in-chief Scott Hollister at

Photographer Lee Bembry • Title Golf course superintendent • Course Pinecrest Golf Club, Bluffton, S.C. • GCSAA membership Four-year member • The shot During the long hours of preparation for a professional mini-tour event on the Hurricane Pro Golf Tour, Bembry caught a glimpse that made all of the hard work that he and his crew put in worth it — this shot of the 18th hole at Pinecrest, which sits alongside a 12-acre lake. The course’s ninth hole is on the other side of this lake. • Camera Motorola Android


Annual Report The Environmental Institute for Golf is the philanthropic organization of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.


OUR MISSION The Environmental Institute for Golf fosters sustainability through research, awareness, education, programs and scholarships for the beneft of golf course management professionals, golf facilities and the game.

Part of the team When you read news about the Environmental Institute for Golf, it is often after we have received a large pledge of support from an organization, individual or industry partner. The EIFG is fortunate to have many donors that make signifcant impacts on the amount and types of programs we are able to support. In 2013, Bayer launched its Healthy Turf, Healthy Tomorrow program at the Golf Industry Show. This program is aimed at advancing plant health research and education for golf course superintendents to help ensure the health of their courses — and the industry — for the future. It is expected to generate a minimum of $100,000 per year for the EIFG. The frst class of the Melrose Leadership Academy was also at the 2013 GIS. The Academy was established by Ken Melrose, retired CEO and chairman of the board of The Toro Co., and is supported by a $1 million gift to the EIFG from The Kendrick B. Melrose Family Foundation. We also saw large gifts from the PGA Tour and the PGA of America. We are extremely grateful for the generosity of these partners. But these types of gifts are only part of the picture. If you visit the Supporters section of, you will see that smaller gifts from individuals are what make up the largest lists in our cumulative giving and other recognition programs. In the last several years, through a rebranding of the EIFG and initiatives to increase GCSAA’s member awareness of the EIFG, we have continued to grow our donor base. In 2013, the EIFG saw a 10 percent growth in member donations.


Grassroots donations of golf rounds played a large part in the success of Rounds 4 Research. In its frst full year, this national program to raise funds for turfgrass research exceeded our expectations. In 2013, more than 700 rounds were sold, raising nearly $150,000, generating much-needed revenue for chapters to support university research. Most of the rounds that were donated came from the efforts of our 50 fundraising partners or individual superintendents. GCSAA members also purchased rounds in the auction and encouraged golfers at their courses to take part. The EIFG would not exist without our many supporters. With each gift, big or small, we increase our ability to foster sustainability through research, awareness, education, scholarships and advocacy. Each donor is part of the collaborative effort to support programs and services that beneft the game of golf and all of the environmental, social and economic benefts the game provides. We continue to be ambitious with our efforts in ensuring golf ’s long-term viability, and we know we will fnd success with our team of supporters behind us. Rhett Evans

EIFG Chief Executive Offcer

Scholarships and Grants In its earliest days, the EIFG was known as The Scholarship and Research Fund, and scholarships have always been a vital, visible service of the EIFG. In 2013, the EIFG funded more than 70 scholarships and grants for the children and grandchildren of GCSAA members, turfgrass students, future researchers and superintendents interested in advancing their careers. Scholarships and grants funded by the EIFG help shape the minds that shape the game of golf. While the EIFG offers traditional scholarships to students entering college, we are also fortunate to administer several programs that assist in educating those in graduate schools and beyond. Three of the opportunities for those pursuing advanced degrees or professionals seeking continuing education are the Dr. James Watson Fellowship Program, the Melrose Leadership Academy and Healthy Turf, Healthy Tomorrow. Dr. James Watson Fellowship Program In 1998, The Toro Co. established the EIFG’s Dr. James Watson Fellowship Program to honor Watson, a former Toro vice president who pioneered turfgrass research. The program awards post-graduate grants to promising future teachers and researchers in the feld. Watson passed away on Oct. 1, 2013, at the age of 93, but not before leaving a huge impact on the industry. His fve-decade career included groundbreaking research and more than 400 published articles on turfgrass cultural practices and water conservation. In 1995, he was awarded GCSAA’s highest honor, the Old Tom Morris Award. The EIFG is proud to continue Watson’s legacy through the program that bears his name. Learn more about the Watson Fellowship Program at Melrose Leadership Academy The Melrose Leadership Academy is designed to support the professional development of GCSAA member superintendents by providing individuals the opportunity to attend the Golf Industry Show. The program grants up to 20 scholarships every

2013 Melrose Leadership Academy year. Established in 2012 by Ken Melrose, retired CEO and chairman of the board of The Toro Co., the program is designed to have a positive impact for each superintendent selected and, ultimately, the game of golf. The 17 members of the inaugural class of the Melrose Leadership Academy were brought to the 2013 Golf Industry Show in San Diego, where they were able to interact with other professionals at the industry’s largest event and participate in exclusive events for the academy. The response from the frst class was overwhelmingly positive. Healthy Turf, Healthy Tomorrow Environmental Science, a division of Bayer CropScience LP, launched Healthy Turf, Healthy Tomorrow at the 2013 GCSAA Education Conference and Golf Industry Show. This multifaceted program is aimed at advancing plant health research and education for golf course superintendents to help ensure the health of their courses — and the industry — for the future. The program’s components include free webinars on plant health topics, the Plant Health Academy, Plant Health Demonstration Courses and the Plant Health Scholarships for continuing education. The Academy brings superintendents to both GCSAA’s headquarters in Lawrence, Kan., and then to the Bayer Training and Development Center in Clayton, N.C. The frst Plant Health Academy class was composed of 12 GCSAA Class A members from

BOARD OF TRUSTEES President Keith A. Ihms, CGCS Vice President John J. O’Keefe, CGCS Preakness Hills Country Club Wayne, N.J.

Secretary/Treasurer Peter J. Grass, CGCS Hilands Golf Club Billings, Mont.

Trustee Rand Jerris, Ph.D. USGA Far Hills, N.J.

Trustee William H. Maynard, CGCS The Country Club of St. Albans St. Albans, Mo.

Trustee Darren Redetzke The Toro Co. Bloomington, Minn.

Trustee Cal Roth PGA Tour Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla.


• Infuence of best management practices on anthracnose disease control of annual bluegrass turf James A. Murphy, Ph.D., and Bruce B. Clark, Ph.D., Rutgers University Co-funded by the GCSA of New Jersey Funding for this project comes from the EIFG’s Dr. Michael J. Hurdzan Endowment

Rounds 4 Research

2013 Check presentation by Toro around the country. The demonstration courses serve as living labs where researchers and superintendents can work together to improve the long-term stability of their courses. Each year, two GCSAA A members will also be awarded $2,500 scholarships to use at either a college or university or a local, regional or national conference for the purpose of continuing education related to plant health.

Education EIFG grants support GCSAA’s comprehensive education offerings that cover a myriad of topics — and a variety of delivery methods. Superintendents can choose to sit in traditional conference classrooms, participate in live webcasts or watch ondemand webcasts at their convenience. The EIFG has helped fund GCSAA webcast education since its inception. The EIFG, through GCSAA’s education program, helped to provide: • Online education, including 28 free live webcasts and access to the On Demand library of more than 90 additional webcasts. In the past fve years, participation has increased from 738 seats to 7,549 seats in 2013. • More than 550 hours of education, including 100 seminars and 50 free sessions, at the GCSAA Education Conference in San Diego. Attendees had access to more than 150 turfgrass experts.

Research The EIFG continued its commitment to funding applied scientifc research. Through the GCSAA Cooperative Research Program, which affliated chapters also contribute funds, two projects receiving funding began in 2013:

• Effects of drought and traffc stresses on physiological responses and water use characteristics of creeping bentgrass (Agrostic stolonifera) and annual bluegrass (Poa annua) Kevin Frank, Ph.D., and Emily Merewitz, Ph.D. Michigan State University Co-funded by the Michigan Turfgrass Foundation I-4

Rounds 4 Research, administered by the EIFG and presented in partnership with The Toro Co., completed its frst full year on a national scale with two highly successful auctions that raised nearly $150,000 for turfgrass research. The frst auction in June featured more than 600 rounds of golf and raised $107,000, while a second auction of 300 rounds in August grossed an additional $39,000. This national campaign aimed at generating resources to address a critical shortage in turfgrass research funding by auctioning donated rounds of golf online and enabling organizations to raise revenue for research programs in their areas. The 50 fundraising partners around the country solicited the rounds that appeared on, and successful traditional and social media campaigns helped spread the word to golfers. For more information about Rounds 4 Research, how organizations or facilities can be part of the program, or how you can purchase or donate rounds, visit

Advocacy With education and advocacy support from the Environmental Institute for Golf, the golf industry has increased awareness of the industry and provided a voice for the golf course management profession. The EIFG supports advocacy efforts that build these collaborative relationships by providing funding to programs that keep superintendents informed about government issues that affect them and to encourage participation in grassroots campaigns to lawmakers. With the EIFG’s assistance, the GCSAA Board, staff and Government Relations Committee held more than 60 meetings with members of Congress during National Golf Day. Other victories this year that came about with help from the EIFG include a collaboration among GCSAA, its chapters and their state and local offcials to develop practical water management public policy on golf courses. Continued donations to the EIFG will help drive GCSAA advocacy efforts to the next level with new initiatives for a Web portal, newsletter and a key contacts program that will train more superintendents to be stronger advocates through education and enable them to be grassroots ambassadors by matching them with legislators.

Return on Investment In response to the rebranding efforts initiated in 2012, a signifcant increase in fundraising revenue was seen in 2013. (This increase over 2012 does not include the $1 million donation from Ken Melrose in 2012, but only compares traditional fundraising efforts between the two years.) This increase from numerous and diverse sources including Rounds 4 Research, grant programs and other major donors signifes what promises to be a sustainable increase in funding for EIFG programs in the near term. As a result of the broad support and growth in revenues, there was a 20 percent increase in block grants ($95,000) to support research, environmental programs, education and advocacy. Support for advocacy efforts received the largest share of the increase since this area has been identifed by donors and superintendents as critical to the profession, business and game of golf. Funding for scholarship programs also increased over $100,000 (77 percent) as industry continues to see the value in supporting superintendent education and awareness of environmental issues that impact golf.


Environmental Institute for Golf As of December 31, 2012 and 2013






Individual Contributions



Facility & Chapter Contributions



Industry Contributions



Scholarships & Grants



Silent Auction



Rounds 4 Research



Major Gifts and Pledge Payments



Endowment Withdrawal





Applied Scientific Research Programs



Environmental Programs



Education Programs



Advocacy Programs



Scholarship Programs



Fundraising Expenses







Total Assets

Total Funding Sources


Total Program and Supporting Expenditures

Program Management Expenses

The information contained in the Audit Report for the period ending 12/31/13 fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of The Environmental Institute for Golf. Cameron E. Oury, Chief Financial Officer The financial statements for the Environmental Institute for Golf were audited by an independent certified public accounting firm. The full text of the audit reports, financial statements and related notes are available at, or by contacting GCSAA Member Solutions at 800-472-7878. I-5

Golden Tee Club The EIFG’s “grassroots” support organization of donors. Members of the Golden Tee Club are individuals who give $100 or more to the annual fund. Golden Tee Club organizations are clubs, corporations and affliated chapters that give between $1,000 - $4,999 annually.

Organizations ($1,000 - $4,999 annually)

Platinum Tee Club This is the premier support organization for the EIFG’s annual fund. This extraordinary group is made up of donors who contribute a minimum of $5,000 annually.

Aquatrols Corporation Bayer Environmental Science Civitas/Petro-Canada Lubricants, Inc. Everglades GCSA Florida GCSA GCSA of New Jersey Heart of America GCSA Ingersoll Rand/Club Car John Deere Golf Kendrick B. Melrose Family Foundation Palm Beach GCSA Par Aide Products Company PGA of America PGA TOUR/Golf Course Properties Rain Bird Corp. – Golf Division Southern Nevada GCSA Syngenta Professional Products The Toro Company


Alabama GCSA Hacienda Golf Club Hazeltine National Golf Club Lone Star GCSA Michigan GCSA Midwest Association of GCS Old Dominion GCSA PGA Golf Club The Olympic Club West Virginia GCSA

Individuals ($100 or more annually)

Gregory W. Aljoe Richard C. Allen Robert B. Alonzi C. Michael Alwardt, CGCS James R. Alwine William D. Anderson, CGCS Wesley S. Anderson Mel W. Anderson Brian Archbold Thomas D. Ask, CGCS Michael Augustin A. A. William Augustin Scott C. Axon, CGCS James L. Bade Adam Bagwell, CGCS Bryan A. Balch Edwin D. Bale, CGCS Chad Ball, CGCS James R. Bantrup Rafael Barajas, CGCS Ronald W. Barley, CGCS Richard W. Barnes Mike Barrett, CGCS James M. Barrett Bryan A. Barrington Jeffrey S. Beardsley Guy Beatty Peter J. Becht III James C. Beebe David Behrman, CGCS Jan Bel Jan, ASGCA Brian Bell Jake Bell Scott A. Bell Kenneth E. Benoit Jr., CGCS David J. Berard, CGCS Jeffrey L. Berg Paul G. Bergantz Prasanta C. Bhowmik William K. Bieck, CGCS C. William Black, CGCS Retired Jeffrey G. Blanc, CGCS Cecil C. Bland Bob L. Bluml, CGCS Retired Brian A. Bossert, CGCS Richard L. Bowden Kevin P. Breen, CGCS Scott Brinckerhoff Barry B. Britton Thomas G. Brodeur Michael J. Brower Thomas V. Brown IV, CGCS Matt Brown Mark E. Burchfeld Michael E. Burke Stephen G. Cadenelli, CGCS Gordon Caldwell, CGCS James P. Callaghan Robert W. Campbell, CGCS Douglas W. Campbell Nicholas Capozzi John D. Carlone, CGCS Gary K. Carls, CGCS Jeffrey Carlson, CGCS Michael Carlson, CGCS Ronald L. Carmichael Stephen Carr Paul L. Carter, CGCS Sterling Caudle Brian C. Chalifoux Bruce Charlton, ASGCA Jason Chennault

Kok Cheong Ming Mark K. Clark, CGCS Stuart Cohen, Ph.D. Stephen E. Cohoon, CGCS Harvey L. Cole III Thomas Colombo, CGCS Roger H. Compton Dean R. Cravalho Michael D. Crawford, CGCS Casey Creighton Garry N. Crothers, CGCS Rodney W. Crow Matthew A. Crowther, CGCS Mark D. Cupit, CGCS Todd J. Currie Ron M. Dahlin, CGCS Ralph K. Dain Jr. John Daly Brian K. Darrock David R. Davies, CGCS Nicolas J. Davies Darren J. Davis Denny Dennett Glenn Denney, CGCS Carollane DeSart Grady Chris Dew Scot M. Dey Frank D. Dinelli, CGCS Paul A. Dodson Shaun Donahue Robert G. Dorsch III, CGCS John Downer Kevin F. Doyle Douglas J. Drugo George Druzisky David W. Dudones Bruce J. Duenow Randy Dufault Sean Duffy, CGCS Dennis W. Dulaney Jeffrey S. Edwards, CGCS Kelly J. Eilers Gene Eldridge Edward F. Ellis, CGCS Craig D. Ellis Don D. Ellsworth William J. Emerson, CGCS Retired Michael L. Epps Mark E. Esoda, CGCS J. Rhett Evans William R. Fach, CGCS Steve N. Fackler, CGCS Robert O. Farren Jr., CGCS David W. Fearis, CGCS Retired Tom Feller, CGCS David J. Fenton Alan T. Fierst Stephen Finamore, CGCS Patrick R. Finlen, CGCS Shelia M. Finney Thomas Fischer Edward W. Fischer, CGCS Howard E. Fisher Jr. James R. Fitzroy, CGCS Thomas A. Flaherty, CGCS Robert H. Ford Charles E. Fort III Anthony M. Frandria Kevin W. Frank Mark G. Fuller, CGCS John R. Fulling, Jr., CGCS Scott W Gabrielson John P. Gallagher Dane Gamble Hunter O. Gammon Steven R. Gano Victor E. Garcia John J. Genovesi, CGCS Richard L. Gettle Terry L. Gill Roger S. Goettsch, CGCS Michael P. Goldsberry Hanief D. Gooding Alan B. Goodwin Mark E. Gorga, CGCS

Matt Gourlay, CGCS Patrick J. Gradoville, CGCS Peter J. Grass, CGCS James Graves Samuel H. Green Jr. Bruce H. Gregory, CGCS Gary T. Grigg, CGCS, MG Gary R. Grube John M. Gurke, CGCS Gregory S. Gutter Richard C. Haas, CGCS Blake A. Halderman, CGCS Ronald E. Hall Thomas M. Hamulak, CGCS Hilding G. Hanson Larry C. Hantle, CGCS Robert Harper Peter Harradine Keith M. Hasenfratz, CGCS Retired Terje Haugen Tye E. Heidbreder Bernard F. Heilig Jr. Ricky D. Heine, CGCS Jeffrey W. Hemphill, CGCS James R. Hemrick, CGCS Steven C. Henderson James R. Hengel, CGCS Alan D. Hess, CGCS, MG Scott Hiles Dale J. Hlavin Colin Holligan Paul Hollis Jeffrey T Holmes Anthony M. Hooks Sean A. Hoolehan, CGCS Carl G. Hopphan Edward C. Horton, CGCS Greg Hubbard, CGCS Joseph L. Hubbard, CGCS Jeffery A. Huelsman, CGCS Matthew D. Hughes Terry K. Hutcherson, CGCS Richard F. Hynson Keith A. Ihms, CGCS Toru Inoue Joel D. Jackson, CGCS Retired Jeff Jensen Jeffrey H. Joedicke Rodney W. Johnson, CGCS David L. Johnson Gavin Johnson Craig M. Johnson Timothy C. Johnson David L. Jones Kyle Jones Norman D. Jones William E. Jones Craig S. Joscelyn, CGCS Retired Robert Kamp, CGCS Retired John F. Katterheinrich Timothy Kelly Robert A Kelly, CGCS Les Kennedy Jr., CGCS Chip K. Kern Michael M. Kisic Mike Kitchen, CGCS Mark A. Knaebel David T. Knott James M. Knulty Lucas M. Knutson Gregory Kolodinsky John M. Kosmalski, CGCS Retired Lee A. Kozsey Robert Kronn John M. Krutilla, CGCS Retired Mark D. Kuhns, CGCS Shunji Kurakami David J. Kuypers Lance LaBouve Britton Lacy, CGCS Richard T. LaFlamme William R. Larson, CGCS Terry L. Leach John J. LeClair, CGCS Paul A. Lemieux

James J. Lezon, CGCS Elmer B. Lindsey Thomas R. Lively, CGCS Joseph A. Livingston, CGCS Kenneth Lochridge Nathan A. Lopez Charles F. Lott Dennis D. Lyon, CGCS Mark W. Lytle Mark E. Magee Robert J. Maibusch, CGCS, MG Anthony S. Mancuso, CGCS Mario A. Mandujano Ken Mangum, CGCS Darcy Marshall Robert G. Marshall Kyle Marshall Robert D. Martin William Martin, CGCS Richard J. Matteson, CGCS David W. Mauk Scott Mauldin, CGCS Bill H. Maynard, CGCS Kirk P. McKinney Erwin H. McKone, CGCS Lee McLemore, CGCS James Medeiros, CGCS David C. Michael, CGCS James B. Miller Jesse T. Miller Jr. Seth M. Miller Glen J. Misiaszek, CGCS Minehiro Mita Charles W. Mock Clifford L. Moore Christopher J. Moran Gary S. Morgan James W. Moriarty Michael D. Morris, CGCS Jason B. Morris Brett W. Morris John Morris William R. Morton, CGCS Barry W. Mueller, CGCS Sam Mueller Wolfgang Mueller Ken E. Nelson Randy Nichols, CGCS Retired Jack Nicklaus James J. Nicol, CGCS Robert J. Nielsen Jr., CGCS Kurt D. Noonan, CGCS Jon P. O’Donnell Robert W. Oechsle Aidan O’Hara, CGCS John J. O’Keefe, CGCS Anthony J. Olender Ryan Oliver Dennis J. Orsborn Kevin F. Osgood Cameron Oury William B Owen William B. Owen III Louis F. Oxnevad Robert Paisley Lawrence J. Pakkala, CGCS Harold E. Parsons Jr. Richard Pavlasek, CGCS Vincent A. Pavonetti, CGCS Merle L. Pearce, CGCS Stephen M. Pearson, CGCS Bruce Peeples, CGCS Glenn M. Perry, CGCS Douglas Petersan Paul Petrie, CGCS Retired David Phipps George B. Pickel Dennis Pilgrim Jason M. Pillow Greg A. Plotner, CGCS R. Jeff Plotts Jonathan A. Pokrzywinski Britt W. Pollock, CGCS Robert E. Popp Timothy P. Powers, CGCS Kevin M. Pryseski, CGCS James R. Pyle Danny H. Quast, CGCS Retired Sandy G. Queen, CGCS

David J. Radaj II, CGCS Scott M. Ramsay, CGCS Robert M. Randquist, CGCS Peter Rappoccio Jr., CGCS Chris Rather, CGCS John D. Redmond Michael C. Reeb, CGCS Richard A. Reed Sean B. Remington Thomas W. Resseguie Justin W. Reynolds Jason L. Richards Bruce Rickert, CGCS Danny Rieger Marie Roberts David H. Robinson, CGCS Dan J. Robinson Donald A. Ross, CGCS Retired Roger M. Ruff, CGCS William B. Salinetti III, CGCS Craig W. Sampson, CGCS Kurt R. Sams, CGCS Gary D. Sayre, CGCS Steve P. Scarbrough, CGCS Charles Schaeffer Steven D. Schmidt John C. Schmidt Henry J. Schmitz Richard J. Schock Jr. Albert M. Schwemler Jeffrey L. Scott, CGCS Retired Phil Scully Jeffrey L. Seeman Kevin Seibel, CGCS Robert Y. Senseman, CGCS David A. Sexton, CGCS Matthew G. Shaffer John Shaw, CGCS Randy Shults, CGCS Allen O. Siegel, CGCS Frank T. Siple, CGCS Richard Slivinski Stephen E. Smith Thomas W. Solis Ioannis Spantidakis Cody C. Spivey Gary C. Springer David Staebler Randall L. Staton, CGCS Richard W. Staughton, CGCS Shane Stears David M. Stevens Jason C. Stewart Tim Sticco Michael F. Stieler, CGCS John F. Streeter, CGCS Ralph S. Strouth Jeffrey N. Stuart, CGCS Brian T. Sullivan, CGCS, MG Steven M. Sweet Craig Swiney Michael Swing, CGCS Joseph P. Tamborski, CGCS John L. Tanner, CGCS Retired Richard E. Taylor, CGCS Cary L. Tegtmeyer, CGCS David Tenpenny Phillip W. Thomas Steven C. Thomas Steven C. Tierney, MG Robert J. Tillema Akira Tominaga Frederick K. Travis Sean Tully Matthew S. Turner John R. Ujobagy Steve Van Acker, CGCS Steven A. Van Natta, CGCS Gary Vasquez James J. Vaughn Paul Vermeulen Milton J. Via Ralph Vicens Jr. James G. Vogel Jim VonAhn, CGCS John Walker Michael Wallace, CGCS Craig Walsh Kip Walsh

2013 Check presentation by Aquatrols

Douglas A. Ward Dennis H. Warner Alexander D. Watson, CGCS Retired Matthew Weaver, CGCS Robert J. Weaver Jeff R. Wendel, CGCS Neil M. Wendell Jeffrey A. Wentworth, CGCS Dale Wesselman Jeffrey Wetterling, CGCS Kirk A. Whiting, CGCS Bill Whittaker Charlie Whittemore Robert D. Wilbur Anthony L. Williams, CGCS Bruce R. Williams, CGCS Mark J. Williams David A. Willoughby Michael S. Wilson, CGCS Frank P. Wong, Ph.D. R. Scott Woodhead, CGCS Retired Mike B. Wooten, CGCS Dennis Wrede Stanley Wreyford, CGCS Mischia M. Wright William E. Yanakakis Deron C. Zendt Nick A. Zerr Ning Zhang

Golf Facility Members Donations of $250 or more annually by golf courses/ clubs. 3 Creek Ranch Golf Club Alexandria Golf Course Apache Sun Golf Course Baltusrol Golf Club Bel Air Country Club Big Canyon Country Club Bonita Golf Club Braeburn Country Club Broken Sound Club - Club Course Carlton Oaks Country Club Country Club of Little Rock Daniel Island Golf Club Davenport Country Club Dunes West Golf Club Elmcrest Country Club Fairview Country Club Floridian National Golf Club Fox Hollow at Lakewood GlenArbor Golf Club Goose Creek Golf Club Hacienda Golf Club Hazeltine National Golf Club Hilands Golf Club Hilldale Golf Club Hope Valley Country Club Innis Arden Golf Club Island Hills Golf Club Isleworth Country Club Jacksonville Golf & Country Club Jimmie Austin Golf Club at OU Kinloch Golf Club

Kirtland Country Club Lake Creek Golf Course Lancaster Country Club Mariner Sands Country Club Marriott Lakewood Golf Club Mission Viejo Country Club Napa Valley Country Club Old Tabby Links on Spring Island Olde Florida Golf Club Oneida Golf and Country Club Oquirrh Hills Golf Course Patty Jewett Golf Course Payson Golf Course Pennsauken Country Club PGA Golf Club Preakness Hills Country Club Prestwick Golf Club Reynolds Plantation Golf Course Rockland Country Club Round Hill Club Sequoyah Country Club Siwanoy Country Club Southern Hills Country Club Spring Valley Golf Course St. Andrews Golf Course Sykes/Lady Overland Park Golf Club The Country Club of St Albans The Grand Hotel Marriott Resort, Golf Club & Spa The Homestead Golf Course The Milbrook Club Inc The Olympic Club The Stanwich Club The Virginian Golf Club Torreon Golf Club Trump National Golf Club Bedminster Walden on Lake Houston Wethersfeld Country Club Windsong Farm Golf Club Wolf Creek Golf Links, Inc. Woodland Country Club Woodmere Club


CUMULATIVE GIVING PROGRAM The cumulative giving program takes into account all donations given by a donor since 1987.

Victory Club ($1,000,000 and above) Syngenta The Toro Company

Star Club ($500,000 - $999,999) Bayer Environmental Science Club de Golf Valderrama John Deere Golf Metedeconk National Golf Club PGA TOUR

Champions Club ($250,000 - $499,999) Callaway Golf Company Ingersoll Rand Foundation/Club Car Jacobsen, A Textron Co. Lebanon Turf PGA of America Rain Bird Corporation - Golf Div. Royal Spanish Golf Federation

Presidential Club ($100,000 - $249,999) Agrium Advanced Technologies Aquatrols Corporation of America Augusta National Golf Club BASF Corporation Bernhard & Company Limited Bighorn Golf Club Carolinas GCSA Charleston Harbor Benefactors Society Crescent Resources, LLC Dow AgroSciences Florida GCSA Golf Digest Harrell’s LLC/Jack Harrell Jr. Heart of America GCSA Hunter Industries Kohler Co. Ladies Professional Golf Assn. Landscapes Unlimited/Bill Kubly Medallist Developments Nike, Inc. Profle Products, LLC The Scotts Company TRIMS Software LLC Troon Golf TYCROP Mfg. Ltd. United States Golf Association Vineyard Golf Club West Coast Turf

Governors Club ($50,000 - $99,999) Air-O-Lator Corporation Broyhill Co. California GCSA Club Managers Assn. of America Eagle One Golf Products Everglades GCSA Flag Luxury Properties, LLC Floratine Products Group Inc. Flowtronex, a Xylem Brand G.G. Markers, Inc. Gear for Sports Greater Detroit GCSA Grigg Bros./BRANDT Midwest Association of GCS Milorganite Minnesota GCSA Par Aide Products Company PBI Gordon Corporation Plant Marvel Labs, Inc. Prestwick Golf Group Quintero Golf & Country Club Redexim North America Smithco Inc. Southern Nevada GCSA StrataPoint, Inc. Sustane Natural Fertilizer, Inc.

I-8 I-8

Turf Seed Inc. U.S. Battery Mfg. Co. Western Golf Properties

Executive Club ($25,000 - $49,999) Alabama GCSA American Golf Corporation Andersons Inc. ClubCorp, Inc. Constellation Energy Environmental Turf Fazio Golf Course Designers Inc GCSA of New Jersey Georgia GCSA Gravely Turf Hurdzan/Fry Golf Course Design, Inc. — Linda and Michael J. Hurdzan, Ph.D. IPAC, Inc. Jerry Pate Turf & Irrigation Inc. JRM Incorporated Lyle Anderson Company Michael Brown Golf Design Milliken Turf Products Monsanto Company National Golf Foundation Phoenix UPI Quali-Pro R & R Products Seed Research of Oregon Shoal Creek Golf Course Signature Control Systems Simplot Turf & Horticulture Group Sleeping Bear Press Softspikes, LLC Spectrum Technologies, Inc. Turf Science Laboratories Inc. Turfco Mfg. U.S. Aqua Vac Wisconsin GCSA WorldTek Travel

Statesmans Club ($10,000 - $24,999) Alvamar Country Club Ansley Golf Club Applied Biochemists Aqua-Aid Inc. Arizona Golf Association Arysta LifeScience Atlas Industrial Badger Meter, Inc. Barenbrug USA Bloomfeld Hills Country Club Bush Hog Corporation Cactus and Pine GCSA Canadian Golf Superintendents Association Central Illinois GCSA Cherokee Town & Country Club Cog Hill Golf and Country Club CourseVision Detroit Golf Club DSG Tag Systems Eastern Shore Association of GCS EBSC Consultants EPIC Creative Erosion Restoration Etonic Worldwide Corporation Firestone Specialty Products FMC Corporation Forestry Suppliers Inc. GCSA of New England GCSA of Southern California GlenArbor Golf Club Greater Cincinnati GCSA Greater Pittsburgh GCSA GreensGroomer WorldWide Inc. Griswold Controls Hazeltine National Golf Club Hi-Lo Desert GCSA Honours Golf

Husqvarna Forest & Garden Co. Iowa GCSA ITODA Kirby Markers Inc. Lone Star GCSA Long Island GCSA Meadowbrook Golf Group Metropolitan GCSA Mid Atlantic Association of GCS Montco/Surfside North Texas GCSA Northeastern GCSA Northern Ohio GCSA Nufarm Americas Inc. Nutramax Agriculture Inc. Oase Pumps, Inc. Ohio GCSA Chapters Oklahoma GCSA Oregon GCSA Otterbine Barebo Inc Palm Beach GCSA Pennington Seed Company Petro-Canada Lubricants, Inc. Pine Valley Golf Club Plant Science Inc. Precision Laboratories, LLC. Rhode Island GCSA Rosella Erosion Control Solutions, Inc. San Diego GCSA Seepage Control Incorporated SePRO Corp. South Florida GCSA Spraying Devices Inc. Standard Golf Company SubAir Systems/Turfbreeze Fans The Golf Course Trades The Oak Park Country Club TIP Incorporated Trans-Miss Golf Association Treasure Coast GCSA Tru-Turf Pty. Ltd. Turf Merchants Inc. Turf Pride, LLC Turf Specialties Wadsworth Golf Charities Foundation Weston Golf Club Who’s Your Caddy Winnercomm, Inc. Wittek Golf Supply Company

INDIVIDUALS Victory Club ($1,000,000 and above) Kendrick B. Melrose Family Foundation

Star Club ($500,000 - $999,999) Greg Norman/Shark Shootout Charities, Inc.

Champions Club ($250,000 - $499,999) Michael W. J. Smurft, Ph.D.

Presidential Club ($100,000 - $249,999) Tom Crow/The PCG Foundation Bill W. Jones, III/Sea Island Properties Jack A. Vickers

Governors Club ($50,000 - $99,999) Executive Club ($25,000 - $49,999) Jim Colbert Steven Fisher Peter Jacobsen Don Panoz Hall Thompson Bruce R. Williams, CGCS Weldon Wyatt

Statesmans Club ($10,000 - $24,999) Paul Crawford Ben Crenshaw Lester Crown

Joseph M. DiPaola, Ph.D. Pete and Alice Dye Patrick R. Finlen, CGCS Dane W. Gamble Peter Harradine Rees L. Jones Stephen F. and Cyndi Mona Jack Nicklaus Michael Wallace, CGCS Tom Watson

Diplomats Circle ($5,000 - $9,999) C. William Black, CGCS Retired Charles M. Borman Stephen G. Cadenelli, CGCS John D. Carlone, CGCS Stuart Cohen, Ph.D. Darren J. Davis, CGCS Mark E. Esoda, CGCS David and Rae Forker Evans Edward C. Horton, CGCS Les Kennedy, Jr., CGCS Ken Mangum, CGCS Richard J. Matteson, CGCS John D. Mills David Phipps Robert M. Randquist, CGCS George Renault, III, CGCS Retired Frank T. Shuman Michael E. Sommer Alfred Taubman Sam T. Williamson, CGCS Ron Wright, CGCS Charles J. Yash

Ambassadors Circle ($2,500 - $4,999) Robert U. Alonzi, CGCS W. R. Avery James M. Barrett Michael R. Bavier, CGCS Retired Jeffrey S. Beardsley John P. Betts Enrique Borobia Richard L. Bowden Gary K. Carls, CGCS Scott Carpenter, CGCS Mark K. Clark, CGCS Ronald M. Craig Garry N. Crothers, CGCS Donald F. Ewoldt, Jr., CGCS David W. Fearis, CGCS Retired Alan T. Fierst Stephen Finamore, CGCS Edward W. Fischer, CGCS Keith R. Foster Mark G. Fuller, CGCS John R. Fulling, Jr., CGCS Terry L. Gill Gary T. Grigg, CGCS Joseph Hahn, CGCS Retired Daniel L. Hall, Jr. Donald E. Hearn, CGCS Retired James R. Hengel, CGCS Arthur Hills Joon Kim Hwang Won Keith A. Ihms, CGCS Joel D. Jackson, CGCS Retired Rodney W. Johnson, CGCS Terry L. Leach Jerry Lemons Harold J. Loke, CGCS Greg T. Lyman Jon D. Maddern, CGCS Robert J. Maibusch, CGCS Richard Marcks Thomas E. Mason Bruce Mathews Paul S. McGinnis, CGCS Oscar L. Miles, CGCS Retired Glenn A. Miller, CGCS John C. Miller, CGCS Walter C. Montross, CGCS Retired Dale R. Morrison, CGCS William R. Morton, CGCS James J. Nicol, CGCS Robert J. Nielsen, Jr., CGCS Scott E. Niven, CGCS Robert W. Oechsle Timothy T. O’Neill, CGCS Kevin F. Osgood Lawrence J. Pakkala, CGCS Harold E. Parsons, Jr.

Charles T. Passios, CGCS Stephen M. Pearson, CGCS John M. Pollok Timothy P. Powers, CGCS Danny H. Quast, CGCS Retired Peter Rappoccio, Jr., CGCS Sean B. Remington Roger M. Ruff, CGCS Gary D. Sayre, CGCS Richard J. Schock, Jr. Albert V. Schulze Albert M. Schwemler Charles D. Scott Jonathon L. Scott Samuel R. Snyder, VII, CGCS Retired David C. Stone John F. Streeter, CGCS Seth J. Strickland Richard A. Stuntz, CGCS Roy A. Szyndlar, CGCS Clark Throssell, Ph.D. Ralph Vicens, Jr. Neil M. Wendell Jeffrey Wetterling, CGCS Terry L. Wood R. Scott Woodhead, CGCS Retired

Leaders Circle ($1,000 - $2,499) Richard C. Allen Joseph Alonzi, CGCS Robert B. Alonzi C. Michael Alwardt, CGCS Gordon F. Anderson Joseph M. Anderson Phillip A. Anderson Timothy J. Anderson, CGCS William D. Anderson, CGCS Tim Ansett, CGCS Kathy M. Antaya, CGCS Brian Archbold Gregory T. Armstrong Albert Auger Christopher R. Ayers, CGCS Harold G. Bahrenburg Joseph G. Baidy, CGCS Retired Bryan A. Balch Edwin D. Bale, CGCS Chad Ball, CGCS John Ball, Ph.D. Bob Banka Russell Banning, CGCS Retired James R. Bantrup Rafael Barajas, CGCS David J. Barber, CGCS Retired George F. Barger, Jr. Todd A. Barker, Sr. Ronald W. Barley, CGCS Mike Barrett, CGCS Bryan A. Barrington Mike Beard David Behrman, CGCS Jan Bel Jan Scott A. Bell Brian A. Benedict Kenneth E. Benoit, Jr., CGCS William M. Benson Tim G. Benstead A. H. Berckemeyer Stephen Bernhard Leonard W. Berry Daniel T. Billette Daniel J. Bissonette Robert R. Bittner, CGCS Lee S. Bladen Jeffrey G. Blanc, CGCS Peter Bly Hank Borg Brian A. Bossert, CGCS Jeff Bottensek, CGCS Retired Christopher Boyle, CGCS Kevin P. Breen, CGCS R. J. Brewster, CGCS David J. Brinkel Barry B. Britton David J. Brown Matt Brown Bob E. Bryant Terry Buchen, CGCS Retired, MG Robert O. Bullard James F. Burnard Philip Busey, Ph.D. Bruce Cadenelli

Gordon Caldwell, CGCS Maurice C. Cameron Tim Cann, CGCS Jeffrey Carlson, CGCS Ronald L. Carmichael Stephen Carr Brian C. Chalifoux Gary L. Chambers, CGCS Bruce Charlton Kok Cheong Ming Nick E. Christians, Ph.D. Sandy Clark, CGCS Cleve E. Cleveland, CGCS Mitch B. Clodfelter Stephen E. Cohoon, CGCS Jeffrey P. Collinge Robert C. Collins, CGCS Scott E. Conley Edward B. Connaughton John R. Cope Joaquim Costa Charles R. Costello Michael D. Crawford, CGCS Glenn W. Creutz Samuel W. Crowe, CGCS John C. Cummings, CGCS Retired Ron M. Dahlin, CGCS Brian K. Darrock Kent Davidson Raymond G. Davies, CGCS Marc P. Davison, CGCS Paul A. Dermott, CGCS Retired Mary Lou DesChamps Kurt A. Desiderio Frank D. Dinelli, CGCS Scott E. Dodson, CGCS B. Russell Dooge, CGCS David S. Downing, II, CGCS Kevin H. Downing, CGCS Kevin F. Doyle Bruce J. Duenow Ronny R Duncan, Ph.D. Joe M. Durden Jim Dusch, CGCS Kevin M. Dushane Paul M. Dushane Edwin M. Eagle, CGCS Corey B. Eastwood, CGCS William J. Emerson, CGCS Retired Jean L. Esposito, CGCS Elton E. Etheridge Robert W. Ewing, Jr. Michael K. Fabrizio, CGCS William R. Fach, CGCS Genger Fahleson, Ph.D. Robert O. Farren, Jr., CGCS Donald J. Fassnacht, CGCS Gerald L. Faubel, CGCS Retired Tom Feller, CGCS Donald S. Ferreri Michael A. Fidanza, Ph.D. William G. Fielder, CGCS Retired Howard E. Fisher, Jr. Thomas A. Flaherty, CGCS Ken Flisek, CGCS James A. Florine Raymond L. Floyd Dennis M. Flynn, CGCS Retired Gerald B. Fountain Ronald J. Fox, CGCS Anthony M. Frandria John H. Freeman, CGCS Retired Jeffrey L. Fry John P. Gallagher Hunter O. Gammon James D. Gardner, CGCS Retired Philip R. Gardner Donald C. Garrett, Jr., CGCS Ronald C. Garrison Dan R. Garson John A. Gay John J. Genovesi, CGCS Clifton A. George Marinus S. Gerritsen Richard L. Gettle Stephen R. Gill Kevin D. Glover, CGCS Roger S. Goettsch, CGCS Jerred D. Golden, CGCS Michael P. Goldsberry Alan B. Goodwin Mark E. Gorga, CGCS Roy L. Goss, Ph.D. David W. Gourlay, CGCS

Patrick J. Gradoville, CGCS John T. Grant Peter J. Grass, CGCS Dean M. Graves, CGCS Thomas J. Gray, CGCS Robert Green, Ph.D. Samuel H. Green, Jr. Charles L. Greif Gary R. Grube John M. Gurke, CGCS Elvin W. Gustafson Anthony Gustaitis, CGCS Charles Guy Richard C. Haas, CGCS Blake A. Halderman, CGCS Greg Hall Ronald E. Hall Thomas M. Hamulak, CGCS Retired Hilding G. Hanson Larry C. Hantle, CGCS James D. Harris Harry Harsin J. Michael Hart, CGCS David G. Hay, CGCS Tye E. Heidbreder Bernard F. Heilig, Jr. Ricky D. Heine, CGCS Jeffrey W. Hemphill, CGCS Steven C. Henderson Michael J. Hermanson Adam C. Hess William T. Hiers, CGCS Scott M. Hines, CGCS Michael J. Hoffman Sean A. Hoolehan, CGCS Jeff Howes Greg Hubbard, CGCS Joseph L. Hubbard, CGCS Scott A. Hurt, CGCS James C. Husting, CGCS Terry K. Hutcherson, CGCS Chuck Hybl Richard F. Hynson Trent J. Inman, CGCS Toru Inoue Mark S. Isley Jay R. Jamison Greg F. Jetter Charles L. Joachim, CGCS Donald H. Johnson, CGCS Jeffrey A. Johnson Scott H. Johnson, CGCS Cecil C. Johnston, CGCS Martyn T. Jones William E. Jones Craig S. Joscelyn, CGCS Retired James S. Kaczenski, CGCS Retired Robert Kamp, CGCS Retired Leland S. Keck, Jr. James M. Keith, CGCS Robert A. Kelly, CGCS Timothy Kelly William V. Kennedy Mark A. Kienert, CGCS Charles E. Kingsley, Jr. Alfred S. Kline Mark A. Knaebel David T. Knott Bradley G. Kocher, CGCS Gregory Kolodinsky Anthony J Koski, Ph.D. John M. Kosmalski, CGCS Retired Stanley Kostka, Ph.D. John R. Kotoski, CGCS Mark Kowaliczko Richard D. Kraus Mark Krick, CGCS John M. Krutilla, CGCS Retired Dale Kuehner, CGCS Mark D. Kuhns, CGCS Kenneth N. Lallier, CGCS Frank E. Lamphier, Sr. Paul B. Latshaw, CGCS John J. LeClair, CGCS Josef Leinauer Richard L. Lemmel David E. Leopin Armand H. LeSage Peter V. Leuzinger, CGCS Retired Thomas K. List, CGCS Retired Thomas R. Lively, CGCS Robert Lohmann Richard J. Lombardi

2013 Bayer Superintendents Grant winners

Charles F Lott Peter Lund, CGCS Dennis D. Lyon, CGCS Mark W. Lytle Douglas R. Mahal, CGCS David P. Major, CGCS Anthony M Maramarco, Ph.D. Robert G. Marshall Robert D. Martin William Martin, CGCS Paul E. Masimore, CGCS Robert A. Matthews, CGCS Paul G. Mayes, CGCS Joseph F. McCleary, CGCS Brian R. McKinney Erwin H. McKone, CGCS Lee McLemore, CGCS Stephen McVey, CGCS Paul E. Mechling, CGCS Retired James Medeiros, CGCS Shirley J. Mendenhall David C. Michael, CGCS Ronald Milenski, CGCS Retired Scott E. Miller, CGCS Glen J. Misiaszek, CGCS Minehiro Mita Robert V. Mitchell Larry H. Mize Gary S. Morgan James W. Moriarty Michael D. Morris, CGCS John Motycka Charles S. Mozingo Steven M. Mueller Wolfgang Mueller Daniel C. Mulder Edward J. Murphy William Murtha Michael R. Nass Don Naumann Randy Nichols, CGCS Retired Patti Niewoehner Kurt D. Noonan, CGCS John A. Nugnes, CGCS Kyle Nygaard, CGCS Joseph A. O’Brien Patrick M. O’Brien Michael A. O’Connell, CGCS Retired Michael J. O’Connor, CGCS Jon P. O’Donnell Ross J. O’Fee, CGCS Aidan O’Hara, CGCS Karl E. Olson, CGCS Dennis J. Orsborn Robert W. Osterman Cameron E. Oury Karnig Ovian William B. Owen, III Louis F. Oxnevad

Joseph M. Pantaleo Harold E. Parr, Jr. Mark Passey Robert Pattinson Duane E. Patton Richard Pavlasek, CGCS Vincent A. Pavonetti, CGCS David J. Pawluk, CGCS Merle L. Pearce, CGCS Glenn M. Perry, CGCS Benny A. Peta Angelo F. Petraglia Rick M. Phelps George B. Pickel Greg A. Plotner, CGCS R. Jeff Plotts Alan A. Pondel, CGCS Kevin M. Pryseski, CGCS Robert A. Radachi, CGCS Michael C. Reeb, CGCS Richard A. Reed Jason O. Regan Michael J. Reifert, CGCS Wayne P. Remo, CGCS Retired Steven W. Renzetti, CGCS Scott Reynolds Robert W. Ribbans, CGCS Retired Danny Rieger William R. Roberts Dean Robertson J. B. Robertson Tommy L. Robinson Michael J. Rohwer Donald A. Ross, CGCS Retired James D. Ross Peter R. Rousseau, CGCS Bridget Ruemmele, Ph.D. Pete Ruggieri Carl J. Rygg Kenneth A. Sakai Lynda Sakai Peter Salinetti, CGCS Retired William B. Salinetti, III, CGCS Paul V. Salmon Kerry Satterwhite, CGCS Steve P. Scarbrough, CGCS Thomas V. Schall, Jr., CGCS Arthur H. Schaupeter Timothy Schipper Bob Scofeld Randy Scott John A. Segui, CGCS Retired Robert Y. Senseman, CGCS David A. Sexton, CGCS Matthew G. Shaffer John Shaw, CGCS Thomas S. Sheets Dennis Shepard, Ph.D. Robert L. Shields Allen O. Siegel, CGCS

Brian Silva Glenn F. Smickley Terry M. Smith David B. Southard, CGCS Retired Ioannis Spantidakis David Staebler Gregg H. Stanley, CGCS Randall L. Staton, CGCS David L. Steel, CGCS Retired Roger A. Stewart, Jr., CGCS Michael F. Stieler, CGCS William R. Stritzinger Richard Struss, CGCS Retired James B. Sua, CGCS Michael P. Suess Brian T. Sullivan, CGCS Kevin L. Sutherland Hisayuki Suzuki Debra Swartz Steven M. Sweet Christopher N. Swim Matthew R. Taylor, CGCS Cary L. Tegtmeyer, CGCS Retired Jimmy D. Thomas, CGCS Stephen B. Tibbels, CGCS Steven C. Tierney James W. Timmerman Robert H. Togikawa Scott Tuggle, CGCS Thomas A. Tuttle, CGCS John R. Ujobagy Steve Van Acker, CGCS Thomas E. Van De Walle Steven A. Van Natta, CGCS Jim Van Ravenswaay James J. Vaughn Michael P. Vercautren Paul Vermeulen John C. Villetto James G. Vogel Michael D. Vogt, CGCS Robert S. Volpe, CGCS Jim VonAhn, CGCS Timothy A. Walker Stacy L. Wallace Edward Walsh, CGCS Retired Douglas A. Ward Gary A. Watschke, CGCS Retired Alexander D. Watson, CGCS Retired Robert J. Weaver Lee A. Webb, CGCS Retired Dennis Weber, CGCS James E. Weiland Jeffrey A. Wentworth, CGCS Dale Wesselman Don L. Wick Anthony L. Williams, CGCS Cheryl L. Williamson Michael S. Wilson, CGCS Randy H. Witt, CGCS

I-9 I-9

Tommy D. Witt, CGCS Gregory J. Wojick William Womac, CGCS Retired Steve Woodring Mark J. Woodward, CGCS Stanley Wreyford, CGCS Edward R. Wyatt John M. Yakubisin, CGCS Michael P. Zedreck, CGCS Randall P. Zidik

Advocates Circle ($500 - $999)

Maurice A. Aasland Roland Abbott, CGCS Retired Kevin C. Adams Todd F. Adams Alex Adaskaveg Nicholas A. Affre Michael L Agnew, Ph,D. Bill E. Ahlstedt Hal P. Akins, CGCS Sylvain Alarie Earl T. Albert, Jr. John B. Alexander Scott Alford Gregory W. Aljoe Donald H. Allgood, Jr., CGCS Scott Anagnostelis, CGCS John V. Andersen, CGCS Chad T. Anderson Mel W. Anderson Michael E. Anderson Tommy D. Anderson, CGCS Retired Christopher J. Andrejicka Juan M. Arteaga Thomas Ashfeld Saeed Assadzandi, CGCS, CCM William C. Atkins A. A. William Augustin Michael Augustin Scott D. Austin Scott C. Axon, CGCS Michael W. Bach James L. Bade Jason G. Bailey Andrea C. Bakalyar Darrin E. Baker, CGCS Dean A. Baker, CGCS Ryan L. Baldwin, CGCS Rodney A. Barker Paul Barratt, CGCS Retired Gary K. Barrick Kevin Bartholomew Michael Basile Michael R. Bavier, Jr. Carl A. Beasley, Jr. Guy Beatty Joseph Beaudoin Bernard I. Beavan, CGCS Peter J. Becht, III Alan S. Beck, CGCS Joseph Bedford James C. Beebe Richard J. Begley, Jr. Fred E. Behnke, CGCS Retired Mark H. Beiting Robert D. Bell William H. Bengeyfeld Donald F. Benner Gary D. Bennett Craig R. Benson Michael C. Benz David J. Berard, CGCS Jeffrey L. Berg Leonard H. Berg, CGCS Renze Berg David A. Bergstrom Greg Bergwin, CGCS Retired Steven W. Bernard Thomas P. Biggy Edward Binsse J. Mark Black, CGCS Richard C. Blum Bob L. Bluml, CGCS Retired David Bolyard Terry R. Bonar, CGCS Retired Lynn Bonner Barb Bornstein Randall D. Boudinot Kelly D. Bowen Edward Braunsky, Jr., CGCS Loren R. Breedlove L. Randall Brehmer, CGCS


Gerard J. Brett Robert Brewster Tom L. Briddle James T. Bridges, Jr. Leah Brilman, Ph.D. Scott Brinckerhoff Roger W. Brink Mandel Brockinton, CGCS Thomas G. Brodeur Thomas J. Brogger Marc Brooks, CGCS William E. Brooks Louis E. Brookshire, CGCS Retired William J. Brousseau Michael J. Brower Donald R. Brown, CGCS Jeffrey A. Brown Michael D. Brown Mitchell K. Brown Paul G. Brown Philip G. Brown Douglas W. Browne William L. Buchar Jay P. Buck, CGCS Steven R. Budge, CGCS Roger C. Bugenhagen Art Bunten Mark E. Burchfeld Steven J. Burgraff Brian E. Burke Hozie Burke Michael E. Burke Peter D. Burnham, CGCS Chad E. Burns Don K. Burns Joseph H. Burns, CGCS Robert J. Burrows, CGCS Randall Bushway Scott E. Buzzell Steve C. Byrne Kevin R. Cahalane John P. Cahill Sean P. Cain, CGCS James D. Calderwood Thomas J. Caliguire Andrew Campbell, CGCS Douglas W. Campbell P. Michael Campbell Robert W. Campbell, CGCS Bryan K. Cannan, CGCS James T. Cantrell, CGCS Retired Nicholas Capozzi Michael T. Caranci Michael Carlson, CGCS Ronald R. Carlyle Donald Carmichael, CGCS Leslie A. Carpenter, Jr. Douglas A. Carrick Kevin M. Carroll David R. Carson William S. Carter Henry R. Carunchio Jonathan E. Case Sterling Caudle Richard W. Caughey Peter Cavanaugh, CGCS Luke Cella, CGCS Henry G. Chafn, CGCS Retired Anthony W. Chalfn Gary W. Chapman Robert J. Charles John A. Chassard James A. Choinski Daniel F. Church Jerry R. Church Joseph Ciaravolo Charles A. Clark, CGCS Retired David M. Clark Todd Clark Pete Clarno, CGCS Jackson E. Clemons, Jr. Arthur G. Clesen Neil A. Cleverly Brian E. Cloud Ignacio J. Coelho Harvey L. Cole, III John Colgate Willis C. Collett, CGCS Robert Collins Thomas Colombo, CGCS Roger H. Compton Dale F. Conzelmann, CGCS Bradford L. Coole, CGCS Thomas B. Cooper, CGCS

George L. Cornell, Jr. Marcelo Cortez David Court, CGCS Jeff D. Couwenhoven Brian M. Cowan Curtis R. Crafton Patrick L. Cragin Larry A. Craig Dean R. Cravalho Gene Creel Jessie Creencia, CGCS James R. Cregan, Jr. Casey Creighton Casey Crittenden, CGCS Donald A. Cross, CGCS Matthew A. Crowther, CGCS Jay T. Cummiskey David A. Cumpsten Lawrence P. Cunningham Mark D. Cupit, CGCS James Currie Todd J. Currie Michelle DaCosta, Ph.D. Ralph K. Dain, Jr. Thomas F. Dale, CGCS Mark D. Dalton, CGCS Jeffrey M. Damcott David F. D’Andrea Peter C. Dane Todd Daniels David R. Davies, CGCS Alfred O. Davis, CGCS David D. Davis George T. Davis, Jr. Joellen G. Davis John F. Davis Kevin C. Davis Michael Davis Timothy F. Davis Harry G. Dawe Jozsef L. De Kovacs Clinton G. Deeds, CGCS Retired Thomas M. DeGrandi Wayne R. Delpesche Denny Dennett Glenn Denney, CGCS Mark C. Derby Kevin DeRoo Carollane DeSart Grady Thomas J. DeVaux Chris Dew Charles L. Dey Andy Diaz Michael B. DiBlasi, CGCS Retired Daniel C. Dickow Frederick A. Diefenbach Kenneth Dierschke, Jr. Jerome J. Dinelli Charles C. Dipman Matthew R. Dobbie Greg Dobbs Paul A. Dodson Shaun Donahue Brent D. Doolittle, CGCS Robert G. Dorsch, III, CGCS Paul E. Dotti Mark A. Douglas Wally Dowe John Downer Todd B. Draffen Charles Draper, Sr. Charles Draper Scott L. Drever Andy Drohen Joseph A. Drudi George Druzisky David Dube Glen W. Dube, CGCS Jerry Ducker, CGCS David W. Dudones Nolan Duke Dennis W. Dulaney Michael J. Dunk, CGCS Anthony Dunnavant Randal M. Dupont Brian T. Durant Michael L. Duszynski David M. Dwinell, CGCS Perry O. Dye Scott A. Ebers, CGCS Richard W. Edger Michael Edgerton Jeffrey S. Edwards, CGCS Larry F. Edwards

Stephen F. Ehrbar, CGCS Robert R. Ehrler, CGCS Kelly J. Eilers Frank E. Ekas, Jr. Craig D. Ellis Edward F. Ellis, CGCS Rick E. Ellis Gerald J. Elmer Jeffrey M. Elmer, CGCS Lawrence M. Emery John Emmolo Matthew Enderson Michael L. Epps Erik H. Ervin, Ph.D. Rick D. Eschbach Michel P. Etchemendy David M. Evans Michael A. Evans Raymond D. Evans, CGCS Retired Steve N. Fackler, CGCS Dean Fagerlind Bradley N. Fellrath, CGCS David J. Fenton James Ferrin, CGCS Kenneth Findeisen Robert B. Finnesey Steve Fiorillo, CGCS Thomas Fischer James R. Fitzroy, CGCS John Flachman Troy P. Flanagan David P. Flaxbeard Stanley E. Flegm Jim Flett Robert A. Fluter, CGCS Christopher L. Foote Robert H. Ford Charles E. Fort, III John M. Foster Wayne T. Foster Steve Frack Manuel Francis, Jr. Patrick J. Franklin, CGCS Daniel P. Franks, CGCS Retired Alan R. Frantik Douglas Fraser Bill C. Freeman, CGCS Michael G. Fridl Andrew J. Fries, CGCS Kevin J. Frost, CGCS David L. Fry Steven A. Funk Thomas Funkhouser, CGCS Retired Scott Furlong, CGCS Scott W. Gabrielson, CGCS John M. Gallagher, III Timothy S. Gallagher William C. Gallegos Mark D. Gallemore Adolfo Garcia Steve M. Garcia Victor E. Garcia Joseph M. Gardner, Jr. Michael T. Garvale Chuck Gast, CGCS Michael Gay Glenn Genereux Edward Genova Brian M. Gentner Patrick M. Gertner, CGCS Dana R. Getty Dominick J. Giardina, CGCS William F. Gilkes Kenneth Glick, CGCS Timothy C. Glorioso, CGCS Gregory M. Goedde Jose G. Gomez Paul Gonzalez, CGCS Frank S. Goodell, Jr. Walter A. Gooder Edward M. Goodhouse A. P. Goodley, III, CGCS Retired Forrest H. Goodling Thomas J. Goodwin, CGCS Brandon J. Goodyk Edward Gordon Kathy Gordon Jeff Goren, CGCS Kenneth A. Gorzycki, CGCS George G. Graber Jose L. Gradias Robert J. Gradishar Kent C. Graff Dave Graham, Jr.

Daniel Grainger John C. Granholt James A. Grant, CGCS Retired Anthony Grasso Terry Grasso, CGCS Robert W. Graunke, CGCS Retired James Graves Brad Gray Philip R. Green Robert B. Green, CGCS Bruce H. Gregory, CGCS Denis Griffths John Grund David J. Guerin Jeffrey L. Gullikson, CGCS Per Gundtoft Gregory S. Gutter Brad Hable Brian Hall Daniel J. Hall Jeffrey N. Hall Mitch A. Hamilton Thomas C. Hamilton William F. Hamilton, CGCS D. T. Hammett Steve Hammon Walter R. Hammond, III Jack Handly Marlow Hansen Ronald E. Hansen, CGCS Retired Johnny W. Hargrove David Harper Gary Harshman A. John Harvey Peter A. Hasak Richard W. Haseman Keith M. Hasenfratz, CGCS Retired Philip M. Hathaway, CGCS Richard Hathaway Terje Haugen Christopher J. Haunty, CGCS Harold W. Hawkes Derrick J. Hawley Shigeto Hayashi Paul G. Helbling Thomas Hellickson Arthur R. Helm James R. Hemrick, CGCS Mark J. Henderson Donnie J. Henry Keith M. Hering David A. Heroian, CGCS Robert T. Heron, CGCS Retired Peter Herreid Kenneth D. Herzog, Jr., CGCS Robert D. Higgins Thomas Higgins David R. Hill Ronald B. Hill, CGCS Retired Edward J. Hock, Jr., CGCS Jon R. Hock Kim J. Hocker, CGCS Retired Michael J. Hocko Alexander Hoefnger John J. Holenko Steven Hollembeak Jeffrey E. Holliday, CGCS Jeffrey T. Holmes, CGCS Lewis Holmes Thomas R. Holtsberry Douglas J. Homan Dennis J. Houle Dowse B. Howell Jim C. Howell Walter W. Hoyle, Sr. Jeffrey A. Huelsman, CGCS Steven H. Huffstutler, CGCS Gale O. Hultquist, CGCS Steven B. Humphreys James I. Hurning Clifton H. Hutchinson, Jr. Marlin J. Hutton Mark W. Hyland Ralph M. Hyslop Michael V. Iacono, CGCS Kenneth B. Ingram, CGCS Darius H. Iranpour Jeffrey L. Ische John Isgrigg, III, Ph.D. Gregory D. Jackson Russell L. Jacobs Randy L. Jacobson Chuck James Paul J. Janosik, Jr.

Steven W. Janssen Timothy P. Janzen Robert M. Jarrell Joseph M. Jehnsen, CGCS Robert A. Jenkins Jonathan S. Jennings, CGCS James R. Jensen Richard L. Jensen William G. Jewell Cindy J. Johnson Craig M. Johnson David L. Johnson Douglas W. Johnson Glyn Johnson Keith D. Johnson, CGCS Larry E. Johnson, CGCS Nels J. Johnson, Jr. Timothy C. Johnson Douglas N. Johnstone Paul K. Jonas David L. Jones Douglas H. Jones, CGCS Kyle Jones Norman D. Jones Richard C. Jones, CGCS Richard P. Jones Andy Jorgensen, CGCS Scott Jorgensen Steven P. Judd Glendon R. Junkin, Jr. Arthur W. Kain Anthony J. Kalina Kelley M. Karrigan Raymond C. Kasprack, CGCS Retired David S. Kasprzycki John F. Katterheinrich Randall S. Kehres, CGCS Robert E. Kehres Brian D. Keighin Patrick D. Kelley Geoffrey O. Kemp, CGCS Joseph A. Kennedy, Jr., CGCS Michael D. Kennedy Richard E. Kensinger Michael F. Keohan Gary L. Keppel Richard T. Kerins Chip K. Kern Dean A. Kerns, CGCS Jerry W. Kessel Hampton Kicklighter, Jr., CGCS Toby J. Kiggins Craig A. Kimmel Robert A. King Scott G. Kinnan, CGCS Michael M. Kisic Mike Kitchen, CGCS George R. Kleinpeter Eric M. Kleinsorge Robert S. Klinesteker Jeff Klontz Kurt M. Knox James M. Knulty David R. Koch Robert A. Kohlstedt William F. Koonz, Jr. Michael J. Kosak, CGCS Mike Koval David Koziol Lee A. Kozsey Keith L. Kruger Makoto Kudo Stephen A. Kuhn TJ Kukk Eric Kundahl Shunji Kurakami David J. Kuypers James E. Kuzak Kenyon Kyle, CGCS Wayne LaCroix Britton Lacy, CGCS Jason Lacy Richard T. LaFlamme Lyman A. Lambert, CGCS John J. Lammrish, CGCS Anthony D. Landgraff Henry M. Lane, CGCS Mark W. Lane Rich Lane, CGCS Robert W. Langhauser Walter E. Lankau, Jr. Karl Larson William R. Larson, CGCS

Byron W. Lash Ennio Latini Francis H. Laube, III Neil P. Laufenberg Jay Leach Jim Leiseberg, CGCS Paul A. Lemieux Larry Lennert Daniel G. Lenzen Jeff S. Leonard Mark A. Leppert Nicholas Lerner Jim Letourneau Stuart Leventhal, CGCS W. S. Lewis Michael L. Ligday Bill Liles David L. Linde Nels A. Lindgren, CGCS Retired James C. Lindsay, CGCS Elmer B. Lindsey Rodney Lingle, CGCS Jeffrey W. Lipics Thomas S. Lipscomb Ellen A. List Tony W. Littrell, CGCS Robert B. Lively Joseph A. Livingston, CGCS Larry P. Livingston, CGCS Timothy Long Dana R. Lonn William R. Lowery Guillermo Lozano Joseph M. Lucas Melvin B. Lucas, Jr., CGCS Retired Todd Lyijynen Samuel C. MacKenzie, CGCS John P. Madden Ted A. Maddocks William E. Maddox Gregory W. Madson A. Michael Maffei, CGCS Mark E. Magee Brian F. Main Anthony S. Mancuso, CGCS Jason D. Manfull Dale E. Marach Daniel Marco, CGCS John R .Marich Richard A. Marinke Michael Marino, CGCS Robert Markut, CGCS Joe Marra Wesley R. Marshall Fred J. Martell, CGCS Albert F. Martin John P. Martin Michael G. Martin Charles A. Martineau Jose B. Martinez Rafael Martinez Edmund J. Matott Jerry B. Matthews, CGCS Ken Mauser Steve R. May Timothy M. McAvoy, CGCS Darryl C. McCabe Daniel T. McCann Timothy E. McCarthy Eric S. McCormick Gregory P. McDanel, CGCS Michael McDermott Jason L. McDonald John A. McDonald Sam McEarl Gregory J. McFarlane Pat S. McHugh, CGCS Richard F. McHugh Charles McIlhargey Dave McIntosh Kirk P. McKinney Joel W. McKnight, CGCS, CPRP Michael D. McLaren Joseph P. McMahon Stephen J. McMahon Timothy R. McMahon Aaron S. McMaster J. B. McMaster Frederick L. McMullen Terry L. McNeilly John E. McPike Matthew V. Medeiros Robert C. Medeiros, Jr. Michael G. Medonis

M. J. Meindertsma, Jr. Albin B. Mellon Edward B. Mena Ralph V. Meola Steven K. Messerli Peter R. Metcalf, CGCS Stephen J. Meyer David Mihailides Dale A. Miller Daniel L. Miller Emil J. Miller James B. Miller Jesse T. Miller, Jr. Nancy L. Miller, CGCS Paul F. Miller, CGCS Retired Robert A. Miller Roger A. Miller Seth M. Miller Steve Miller Mark Millett Michael R. Milligan Brian C. Minemier Dale R. Minick, CGCS Retired Bradley C. Minnick, CGCS Joe Mistowski, CGCS Retired Massimo Mocioni Douglas F. Mohler Patrick Moir Joseph C. Moisa Paul R. Mollberg Gary P. Molnar Ross Monaghan Darren J. Moore Martin L. Moore John D. Morgan Brett W. Morris, Ph.D. John Morris Peter Morris Bruce Morse Alan A. Morton Klaus Mueller-Beck, Ph.D. Jimmie R. Murphy, II Marlin A. Murphy Michael C. Murphy James D. Murr Gary W. Myers, CGCS Alan Nakamura Larry Napora Thomas E. Natzel Jim Naudet Wendell T. Nealon, CGCS James W. Nedin R. Bruce Nelson, CGCS Thomas L. Nelson Robert W. Nesbit Kevin R. Nettles Brent Newcomb Gary W. Newcomb J. Edward Newton, CGCS Retired Robert B. Nichol, CGCS Retired Alan L. Nielsen, CGCS William H. Nigh, CGCS Retired Colin K. Nisbet Scott C. Norden William Nuessle Eusebio Nunez Juan H. Nunez Peter G. Nystrom Kenneth O’Brien Donnacha O’Connor James T. O’Connor Jon J. O’Connor Yasuhiko Oe, CGCS Seiuemon Okamoto John J. O’Keefe, CGCS Michael O’Keeffe Paul J. O’Leary, CGCS Retired Anthony J. Olender Manuel J. Oliveira Spencer R. Oliver Larry Olson Charles D. O’Nan, CGCS Robert J. Onyschuk Kevin S Orr Wayne Orrell Keith J. Osterman Daniel D. Otto Kayem Ovian Michael Ovian Bruce A. Packard, CGCS Richard M. Pagett Robert Paisley John J. Paquette John D. Parisien, CGCS

B.J. Parker Mark B. Parker Michael N. Pascoe Theodore F. Pasko, CGCS Retired Paul Passanante Leonard M. Pastuszak, II William M. Patton Ronald T. Payne Charles H Peacock, Ph.D. Peter L. Pedrazzi Michael J. Perham, CGCS Richard G. Perrier Joseph A. Perry, CGCS Douglas Petersan Eric H. Peterson Dennis P. Petruzzelli, CGCS William Phillips George W. Pierpoint, III Peter R. Pierson S. Daniel Pierson William F. Pike Jason M. Pillow William F. Ploetz James H. Plumb Michael D. Plummer Jonathan A. Pokrzywinski Terry L. Poley Richard M. Pollock, CGCS Chad Pool Robert E. Popp Vincent Porres Stephen W. Potter, CGCS Michael Powers, CGCS Peter G. Prentice Douglas G. Preston Paul F. Pritchard, CGCS Robert G. Proctor John F. Przybyszewski Allan H. Pulaski Joel V. Purpur, CGCS Sanford G. Queen, CGCS Alberto Quevedo, CGCS Stephen Rabideau, CGCS David J. Radaj, II, CGCS Donald D. Radford William F. Radke Jim Ramey, CGCS Retired Scott M. Ramsay, CGCS George Rasmussen Chris Rather, CGCS Steven M. Rebhan, CGCS Simon Rechedy John D. Redmond Zachary Reicher, Ph.D. Mark W Reid Robert Reid, CGCS Retired Travis A. Reineking David Renk, Jr. Jeremy Reph J. Robert Reynolds, CGCS Retired Jerry Richard Kent Richter Matthew D. Richter Bruce Rickert, CGCS David P. Riedman Edward Riefin, CGCS Retired Martin T. Rini Scott D. Robbins, CGCS Edward Roberts, Jr. J. Paul Robertson Daniel R. Robillard Robert N. Robillard Paul B. Robinson, Jr. John Rodriguez Lance A. Rogers, CGCS Stephen C. Rose Robert A. Rosebrook Matthew J. Rostal Cal C. Roth Jason H. Rouk Paul G. Rozek Mark Rubbo Ken Russell Troy E. Russell Les B. Rutan John Ruzsbatzky, CGCS Jaim Sadovnic Craig W. Sampson, CGCS Kurt R. Sams, CGCS Bill Samuels, CGCS Michael A. Sandburg, CGCS Brian Sandland Ross D. Santjer Justin F. Santos

Stephen P. Sarro Michael Sauls Raymond Savard Anthony Savone Barton L. Schaaf Fred Scheyhing, Jr. James C. Schilling Leo C Schleicher, Ph.D. Thomas J. Schlick, CGCS Maxim J. Schlossberg, Ph.D. Douglas J. Schmale John C. Schmidt Steven D. Schmidt Henry J. Schmitz Jacob P. Schmitz John P. Schneider, III Craig Schreiner Scott A. Schukraft Doug Schultz Scott A. Schurman David R. Schwall Bruce W. Scott Jeffrey L. Scott, CGCS Retired Jeffrey M. Scott, CGCS Jimmy D. Scott John Scott Edward J. Sealy, Jr. Christopher M. Seaton Louie Sebulsky Tim J. Sedgley, CGCS Terry T. Sedon Kevin Seibel, CGCS Robert L. Shanholtz, Jr. Randy S. Shatzer James Shaw Patrick A. Shea Robert C. Shearman Steven R. Shell Douglas E. Shelnutt Steve Shepherdson David E. Sherman Frank W. Shirk, CGCS Retired William K. Shirley, CGCS Michael Shopka William B. Shuford, III Randy Shults, CGCS Ken Siems, CGCS Charles Silcox, Ph.D. Steven Sinclair, CGCS James B. Singerling Ronald L. Sinnock Frank T. Siple, CGCS Patrick H. Sisk, CGCS Howard Sisson, CGCS Richard Slivinski Kenneth V. Small Chris L. Smith, CGCS Christopher D. Smith, CGCS David C. Smith, CGCS David W. Smith Eric S. Smith, CGCS Jared S. Smith Jeffrey A. Smith Kenneth L. Smith, CGCS Kevin P. Smith, CGCS Mark C. Smith Roger S. Smith, CGCS Retired Wayne B. Smith, Jr. Marc W. Snyder Mark A. Snyder Andrew W. Socie, Jr. David J. Solga, CGCS Frederic A. Sonnenberg Edward W. Spatz Richard A. Spear Travis L. Speers Jeff Spencer Dick Speros John J. Spodnik Samuel S. Sprague Pete C. Spratlin Gary C. Springer James J. St Ledger, Jr. Bob Staib Scott R. Stambaugh Kevin S. Stanya George C. Stasiulewicz, CGCS Richard W. Staughton, CGCS Dennis S. Steele Ted P. Steffensen John Steiner, CGCS Kenneth Stephens Steven C. Stephens John J. Stern, CGCS


Dan Sterr David M. Stevens Clement W. Stewart Jason C. Stewart Paul J. Stoffel Mark A. Storby Riley L. Stottern, CGCS Jamie Straight John Strawn Verlyn A. Strellner, CGCS Retired Ralph S. Strouth Jeffrey N. Stuart, CGCS Rick D. Stuart Charles D. Stump, Jr. William E. Styer Roger Sudnikovich George F. Sutor Paul C. Sutter Kyle D. Sweet, CGCS Steven C. Sweiderk James Swiatlowski Gary J. Sykes John G. Szafranski Robert J. Szymanski, Jr. Donald J. Szymkowicz Charles H. Tadge, CGCS Jack Talbert Masa Tamagawa Joseph P. Tamborski, CGCS John L. Tanner, CGCS Retired Melvin S. Taub Don Taylor, Ph.D. James R. Taylor Richard E. Taylor, CGCS Stuart Taylor John R. Temme Greg Tharp Scott D. Thayer Joel L. Tholund Chris Nicolaou Thomas Jim H. Thomas, CGCS Phillip W. Thomas Steven C. Thomas Craig S. Thompson, CGCS Drew Thompson Scott Thompson Brian F. Thomson, CGCS Neil J. Thrailkill Robert J. Tillema, CGCS Retired George T. Tiska Terry V. Todd Donald J. Tolson, CGCS Thomas K. Tooley, Sr. John E. Topakas Richard B. Traver, Jr., CGCS Craig Trenholme Scott Tretera Andrew W. Trinkino Gary M. Trombley Doug Trosper, CGCS Tsunao Tsukada Daniel J. Tully Sean Tully Eric Turner Matthew S. Turner Dan J. Tuttle Randy E. Tuttle Michael D. Twito Charles P. Underwood, III, CGCS Jonathan J. Urbanski W. Wayne Van Matre Joseph M. Vargas, Jr., Ph.D. Mark A. Vargason J. D. Varon, CGCS Gary Vasquez Terry L Vassey, Ph.D. Mark W. Vaughn, CGCS Gilberto Velazquez Stephen J. Verrall Steve W. Vessells Ramon M. Viera Robert M. Viera Tom Vinson Christopher Vitali Bernhard Voss Joe D. Wachter, CGCS George H. Wade, IV Timothy G. Waghorn D. Scott Wagner Paul S. Wagner Clifford A. Wagoner, CGCS Retired Randall C. Wahler, CGCS Danny L. Wahlin, CGCS Retired Randy J. Waldron


Todd L. Walker Thomas W. Wallick Craig Walsh Raymond D. Waltz Brian S. Ward Jerry A. Ware Peter A. Waterous Kerry C. Watkins Matthew Weaver, CGCS Tim Webb Raymond A. Wells John J. Welsh Kenneth R. Wenner J. Scott Werner, CGCS Thomas S. Werner, CGCS Timothy S. West Warren L. West Lentz Wheeler Scott Wheeler, CGCS John M. Whisler Roland L. White Timothy M. White Kirk A. Whiting, CGCS Jeffrey G. Whitmire, CGCS Bill Whittaker Charlie Whittemore Bill Whittington David L. Wienecke, CPAg David R. Wilber Robert D. Wilbur David Williams, CGCS Mark J. Williams Robert M. Williams David A. Willoughby Jeffrey T. Wilson Paul J. Wilson Stephen A. Wilson Lawrence J. Wimmers, CGCS Daniel D. Winters Robert H. Wittek, Sr. Thomas M. Wolff Bruce J. Wolfrom, CGCS Retired Charles A. Wolsborn Frank P. Wong Michael H. Wood, CGCS Allen A. Woodward Mike B. Wooten, CGCS Franz W. Workman, CGCS Bruce J. Worzella, CGCS Dennis Wrede Timothy J. Wren Mischia M Wright Thomas Wright William H. Wright Debra Yager Takao Yamada Teri Yamada William E. Yanakakis Tadashi Yasuda Brian T. Yeager Robert C. Yeo Courtney R. Young, III, CGCS George E. Young, III Robert G. Young, III, CGCS David R. Zahrte, CGCS Retired Steven M. Zarnick Bart Zayshley Jeffrey E. Zeman Xiaohu Zhang Paul S. Zile Walter Zimich Thomas O. Zimmerman John Zito

Sustainers Circle ($250- $499)

James R. Acheson Robert F. Ackermann John M. Ackles Thomas L. Ackley, CGCS Russell D. Adams Scott E. Adams Robert L. Adcock Thomas J. Addington John W. Adkins Jim C. Adsit Joseph F. Agnew Louis A. Agosta Ryan J. Ailes William C. Aiston, Jr. Dennis P. Albert Troy M. Alderson William B. Alford David R. Allan

Randy L. Allen, CGCS Patrick Allende Donald R. Allerheiligen Jeff J. Allison Jason D. Allmon Keith Almond Greg Alspaugh, CGCS James R. Alwine Debbie Amirault Harold D. Ammons Donald E. Amsler John R. Anderes, III, CGCS Brian S. Anderson Chuck Anderson David L. Anderson, CGCS Dwight D. Anderson Kaleb L. Anderson Kenneth R. Anderson Robert Anderson Robert E. Anderson, Jr. Ryan L. Anderson Keith A. Angilly Kurt S. Anno Mr. Anverasan Bill C. Apperson John M. Apple Gary L. Appleton Michael A. Apted Dave W. Arden Jon Arechabaleta Gary F. Arlio Donald A. Armbrust Wayne M. Arndt Jeff Arneson Will Arnett, CGCS Larry T. Arnold, Jr. Todd Arnott Andres W. Arrieta Frank Arruda Mick Ashcraft Eugene H. Asleson Robert J. Atol Andrew G. AuCoin Dale E. Augustin Scott A. Azinger Borja Azpilicueta Benjamin W. Babbage Brad Babek Fred B. Bach, Jr. Gilbert W. Bach Alfred Bachand Brett Bailey Greg R. Bailey Stephen Bais Andrew Baker H. Dean Baker, CGCS Robert M. Baldwin David A. Balerud Jeff Ball John G. Ballard, CGCS Bernard Banas, Jr. Jarrod Barakett Vaughn Barker William J. Barkshire Phinehas P. Barnes, III Richard W. Barnes Kelly A. Barnet Kenneth R. Barnett Christopher S. Barnicoat Jeffrey Barr Jim Barr J. David Barrett James F. Barrett Lawrence Barrett Matthew W. Barrett Alex S. Bartha Frank E. Barthol Clark Bartholomew Keith A. Bartlett, CGCS Sean D. Bartlett Gary Bartley Henry E. Bartony, Jr. Dennis C. Batz, CGCS Gary L. Baumann Raymond R. Beard Ryan G. Beauchamp Mark A. Beaumont Cliff R. Beckmann Brian E. Beckner David Behm Edward M. Beidel, Jr. Frank D. Bellucci, IV David Bendus Michael Benedict

Timothy J. Benedict, CGCS Jose Benevides E.P. Bengfort Charles R. Bennett Jeff C. Bennett Edward N. Benoit, CGCS Retired Glenn K. Bereiter, CGCS Michael T. Bergelin David Bermudez Jeff D. Bernard Dale J. Berton Chris Bessette John F. Beyer Ryan Bibich Eric L. Bickel William K. Bieck, CGCS Bryan P. Bielecki Dan M. Bierscheid Cale A. Bigelow Michael Binder Jack D. Birdwell Ronnie W. Bivins Jim Black Cecil C. Bland George D. Blasingame James R. Blauvelt, CGCS Mark Blees Gregg A. Blew, CGCS Paul Blodorn, CGCS Adam E. Bloom Randy G. Bobbitt David A. Bocci, CGCS William H. Bodemer Andre M. Bodmer Brian R. Boeckmann Christopher M. Bolender Jason D. Bolivar Torrey M. Boman Paul A. Bonini, CGCS Robert L. Bonino Kevin Bonk John M. Bonwell, CGCS Jason M. Booth, CGCS Chris Bordeleau Carl Boria Gregory P. Borle Aldo Bortolon Scott J. Bosetti Gerald L. Boucher Edward Boudreau Andrew N. Bowen Scott R. Bower Mitch W. Bowers Francis K. Bowman John H. Boyce David L. Boyd Edward E. Boyd Lessley Boyd, CGCS Steven Boyd William B. Boyd Douglas W. Boyle Dean A. Bozek Christopher P. Bradford John L. Bradley, Jr. Scott M. Brady T. R. Bragg Philip M. Brawner Pye BredenKamp Michael L. Brennan, CGCS Retired Michael P. Brennan Arthur Briggs Daniel A. Bright Joseph A. Brink Daken T. Broadhead Law J. Brod, CGCS Richard S. Brogan James E. Brooks Larry Brooks, CGCS Retired Conrad Broussard, CGCS Brian R. Brown Cory R. Brown Edwin L. Brown, II Herbert L. Brown James L. Brown, CGCS Robby Brown Rodrick Brown Stephen J. Brown Wayne Brown Neil Browne John P. Brownell, Jr. Ross C. Brownlie Michael Brual, CGCS David Brudwick Robert P. Brumfeld

Matthew Bruno Eric Bruns Steve Bruton Donavon P. Bryant Paul A. Buccellato Billy Buchanan Larry A. Buchholtz, III Ray Buckingham David A. Buckles Patrick T. Bugden Paul F. Bullock Jason Bultemeier Matthew T. Bunch Bruce J. Burger, CGCS Jeffrey J. Burgess Joseph E. Burke Toby L. Burkhart James G. Burlington Mark Burnette Steven H. Burnette Bob A. Burns Darren Burns Thomas W. Burnside Harold E. Burt Tom Burt Ryan B. Burton Willie Burton William H. Bushman Charles J. Butler Edward P. Butler Randall W. Butler, CGCS Gerard Byrne William H. Byrnes Andrew Cain Robert Calder Dale Caldwell James P. Callaghan Edgar C. Calloway, Jr. Leonardo Camacho Joseph J. Camberato Samuel K. Camp Timothy M. Camp Jose R. Canales Peter Candelora Joseph T. Candelore Michael D. Caprio Rick Carbonatto Robert D. Carey Ronan Carey David E. Carleton Frank C. Carlisle Travis Carlson Jerel M. Carn Patrick E. Carney Frank R. Carpenito Wayne B. Carpenter John Carpinelli Gary Carr James V. Carr Timothy W. Carroll Michael G. Carron Chris Carson Barry R. Carter Brandon D. Carter Paul L. Carter, CGCS Christopher Cartin John W. Casady Sergio Casas Gareth Cash Daniel L. Cassidy Michael R. Cassidy Earle E. Casteen, CGCS Todd Caudill, CGCS Manuel Cedeno Ralph H. Cessna Christine Chan Mark Chant Richard J. Chapman Wayne H. Chappell Dean R. Chase Richard A. Chase David L. Chasteen Joseph E. Chastenay Larry Checho Hung-Ming Chen Patrick Chenier Jason Chennault Jeremy Childree Robert H. Childres, Jr. Paul J. Chojnacky Timothy Christ Jon M. Christenson Richard E. Christian, Jr. James B. Christie

Peter G. Chulack, Jr. Steve Ciardullo Michael Claffey Trevor Clapperton Chad Clark John A. Clark Brady W. Clarke John D. Clarkin Scott D. Clayworth Kenneth Clear Donald Clemans Emory A. Clements, Jr. Irene Cline Van W Cline, Ph.D. Philip K. Clone Gregory H. Closs Kevin Clunis, CGCS Thomas B. Coady Michael G. Cobb Andrew Cochran James M. Cochran Martin C. Cochran Jay L. Cockroft Christopher F. Coen Christopher R. Coen John J. Coffey Robert L. Coffey Tommy J. Coffey, Jr. Robert L. Coffn Richard A. Colantino David W. Cole John D. Colen Sean A. Collins John Colo Charles E. S. Combs, CGCS Michael Combs, CGCS James B. Conant, CGCS Lindy Conard, CGCS Retired Ronald L. Conard, CGCS Michael T. Conklin Ty Conklin Curtiss N. Conkright Jonas Conlan Steven L. Conlin Hugo J. Connell Mark D. Conner Paul C. Conner Robert C. Conner Curtis C. Conrad Robert W. Conrad Edward A. Consolati Bruce M. Constable, CGCS, MS Steven M. Cook, CGCS Thomas W. Cook John L. Cooney, Jr., CGCS Retired Michael B. Cooper Perry Cooper Timothy S. Cooper Tyler A. Copeman, Jr. Steve Copley Brian K. Corley Steven R. Corneillier Pablo A. Cornejo Robinson Clyde E. Cornelison, Jr. Ernest C. Corsi Michael S. Cortner Ronald A. Coruzzi Terry F. Coughenour Owen M. Coulson Brandon W. Coulter Christopher M. Covington Robert D. Cowan Herb Cowen Dennis R. Cox Gerald L. Cox Andrew J. Coz Kelly C. Cragin John A. Creevy, Jr. Thomas M. Crenshaw Paolo Croce Brian Cross Eric K. Cross Sumner B. Cross James F. Crothers, CGCS Michael T. Crouch Ronald L. Crowe David Cuate Antonio Cuellar, Jr. Robert R. Cullen Bryan J. Culver Andrew M. Cummins Steven M. Cummins John P. Cunningham, CGCS James R. Curdy, Jr.

James D. Curlee, CGCS Robert A. Cushman Eric A. Czarnecki Joseph S. Czelatka Kenneth L. Dahl David M. Dale Chris Dalhamer, CGCS John W. Daniel Todd Daniel Gregory A. D’Antonio Syed T. Dara Russell E. Darr Nicolas J. Davies Benjamin E. Davis Glenn A. Davis Matthew C. Davis Mitchell D. Davis Ronnie M. Davis Scott A. Davis Thomas P. Davis Charles W. Dayton Juan De La Rosa Manuel S. deBettencourt Brett H. DeBie Timothy D. DeBone Garrett Deck Brian W. Decker Daryl C. Decker David J. Deem Vincent J. DeFusco, III Pasquale T. DeGirolamo Todd Deitz Robert M. DeMarco John P. DeMatteo Jorge A. Demuru John S. Denholm Joseph Dennis Mark E. Dennison Mark J. DeNoble Mitchell Derden Philip C. Desbrow Collin Deschamps Sean D. DeSilva Edward L. Devine Scot M. Dey Matthew D. Deyoe Robert E. Diaz, III Nancy C. Dickens, CGCS Nicholas Dickerson Peter S. Dickey Robert Dickison, CGCS Retired Fred E. Dickman, CGCS Paul G. Diegnau, CGCS DeWayne Diehl, CGCS Douglas R. Dieter Donn P. Dietrich Thomas L. DiFonzo, CGCS John J. Dilego, III Christopher A. Dill Wesley H. Dillard Matthew J. Dillon, CGCS Michael W. DiLorenzo, CGCS Retired John A. DiMascio, CGCS William F. Dinger John A. Dinwoodie Joseph P. Distefano Robert J. Distel Lawrence W. Dodge Todd Dodge Vincent G. Dodge, CGCS Bruce A. Dodson Glauco Doebeli Brad L. Doggett Paul Doherty Jeffrey A. Donahoe Michael F. Donahue Jason H. Donaldson Peter P. Donnelly Robert M. Donofrio Robert E. Donovan Christopher M. Doocy Robert E. Doran Remy Dorbeau Terry W. Doss James D. Dotson Paul Double Timothy N. Doubrava Thomas P. Dougherty Mark Douglas, CGCS Simon J. Doyle Scot S. Drader Thomas H. Drayer James F. Drinkard

Jeremy Driver Douglas J. Drugo Sean Duffy, CGCS Terry Duffy Richard Duggan, CGCS Melvin T. Duke Ben Dumakowski George H. Dunlap, Jr. Mathew S. Dunmyer Paul Dunn Steven K. Durand M. G. Durden, Jr. Danny J. Dursky Sylvain Duval Robert J. Dwyer Timothy J. Dyczko Scott Dyker Kyle D. Dykstra, CGCS Ed Easley J. S. Ebdon, Ph.D. Dennis C. Echols, CGCS Retired Fred W. Edwards, Jr. Richie E. Edwards Paula M. Eger Ken R. Ehrlenbach Wilhelm Eibl William Eifert Perry Einfeldt Mark A. Eisele John Ekstrom Kenneth E. Ellenson, CGCS James J. Elliott Jeff Elliott, CGCS Howard C. Ellis, CGCS Ted E. Ellis, CGCS Retired Don D. Ellsworth Paul D. Ellwood, CGCS Craig L. Elms, CGCS Robert L. Elwinger Douglas Emch, CGCS Paul F. Emling David Emmons Robert D. Emmons David L. Endicott Christian Engelmann Jim Engh Dale R. Engman Gary Epperson Randy Ernst Andrew D. Erskine Roberto R. Escano Mark L. Esposito Cecilio Estrada Miguel V. Estrada Rupert B. Eubanks, III R. Dean Evangelista Hawley R. Evans Idris Evans J. Rhett Evans James E. Evans James P. Evans Robin Evans Troy A. Evans William J. Evans Sean Evelyn John A. Every James W. Exley, III Scott Fabulich Blaine Fagnou Kevin J. Faherty Dick Fahey Patrick S. Fallow Matthew J. Fancher Jeffrey Fanok John P. Farley Chanaan P. Fasanello Donald Fassnacht, II David Faucher, CGCS Edward G. Faulk George L. Fawcett Jack B. Fearn Francis X. Feck, CGCS Jed P. Fedor Douglas W. Feher Gary S. Feliciano Andrew Felicien Keith A. Fellenstein Dean Ferguson David J. Ferrantino Daniel Fielder, CGCS Brian Fielding John F. Figgen David C. Fillmore Mark D. Finnerty

Gary R. Fischer Thomas C. Fischer, CGCS Paul D. Fiscus Richard J. Fisher, CGCS Terry A. Fisher William H. Fitch Alan G. Fitzgerald Guy K. Fitzgerald Phil R. Fitzgerald John A. Fitzgibbons Gerald P. Flaherty, CGCS Michael D. Flanagan Richard Flores Salvador G. Flores Harlan H. Foley Sean W. Foley Douglas G. Ford George W. Forrest Ronald E. Forse Chris Fossen Michael W. Fouty Brian T. Fox Marc Francoeur Christopher A. Frank Merrill J. Frank, CGCS Retired Robert W. Frase Michelle L. Frazier-Feher, CGCS Ronald L. Freking Robert S. Friend David Fruchte, CGCS Steven A. Fry Orlando Fuentes Edward A. Fufaro Monica Fuit Wayne Fuller Jack M. Fullmer Charles E. Fultz James C. Fulwider, CGCS Retired Gregory W. Gage Mark D. Gagne Randal C. Gai, CGCS James C. Gaiser Alex Galaviz, III Alex H. Galaviz, Jr. Hugo Galindo John S. Gall Scott R. Gallup William J. Gamble Steven R. Gano Marco Garbaccio Larry Garcia Nicholas Gargone Christopher M. Garrett Sidney B. Garrett John C. Gates Kirk Gates Christopher P. Gaughan, CGCS Billy J. Gautreaux Larry Gauvain Timothy M. Gavelek William Gaydosh Edward J. Gazaw Dariusz Gazdzinski Gregory R. Gearhart Paul L. Geer John L. Gehman Joshua W. Gehman David K. Geiger, CGCS Retired Patrick T. Gentile, CGCS Charles W. Gentz Douglas C. George Dean J. Gerdeman Jason M. Gerlach Thomas A. Gerlach John J. Gerling, Jr. Glenn R. Gerth Tim R. Gerzabek Douglas E. Gesdorf Jimmy T. Geter, CGCS Ludovic Geuens Darren Gfeller Anthony J. Gibson Bob G. Gibson Kenneth P. Giedd, CGCS Retired Marlon Gieseler Edwin B. Gifford, Jr. Barry Gilbert Baljit S. Gill Richard R. Gill Denise Gillett-Parchert James R. Gilliam Peter T. Gilray Jean Giovannini Marc Giraldeau

Anthony M. Girardi, CGCS Michael V. Giuffre Kristopher W. Givens Larry D. Glaser Bill J. Glashan C. M. Glasson Gary B. Glazier Steve Glossinger, CGCS Randall M. Glover Gary G. Gombos Edwin K. Gomes Francisco Gonzalez Evaristo Gonzalez Medina Hanief D. Gooding Neil V. Gordie Frederick C. Gore Jeffrey M. Gorham Jeramie Gossman Matt Gourlay, CGCS Keith R. Goyen Joseph M. Grady Gary J. Grandstaff Brian S. Grant Robert E. Grant, CGCS Retired Charles O. Graves John W. Gravett Christopher E. Gray Dick Gray Louis M. Greco Chuck Green Jason Green Michael S. Green Richard A. Green Thomas L. Green Karl W. Greene, Jr. Eric B. Greenfeld James L. Greenway Derek J. Grendowicz Steve M. Griesinger Mark M. Griff Michael E. Griswold Dennis Groeneveld James D. Groves Scott D. Grumman William H. Grund Michael T. Guertin Ray Guimont Erik Guinther Dean C. Gump Guy Gurney Daniel Gutierrez Terry Gwinn Dale E. Habenicht David A. Hackett Robbin Hackett Peter J. Hahn Craig W. Hale John A. Haley Corey D. Hall Michael J. Hall Thomas C. Hall James P. Halley Brian C. Hamacher Doug Hamman Joseph C. Hancock Wayne Hand Michael W Handrich, CGCS Corey D. Haney Vincent C. Hankley Andrew Hannah Neil E. Hanrahan Daniel G. Hanson Gordon Harcourt-Heaver Scott Hardy John Harkness Michael J. Harmon Robert Harper Steve Harrer, CGCS Retired Thomas E. Harrington Adam N. Harris Gary W. Harris Christopher P. Hart, CGCS Pat Hart Pinkey N. Hartline Leon J. Hartogh Marcus S. Hartup Bryan O. Hartzler Brent A. Harvey Timothy P. Haskins John T. Hassett Gregory Haston Gabe Hatchett William J. Hausch David W. Hawes


Jason B. Hawes Jimmie Hawkins John P. Hawkins Michael J. Hawkins Wade J. Hawksworth Connor B. Healy Kenneth J. Healy David J. Heatwole James M. Heck Frank Heery William H. Heffernan, III Chuck Hegan Steven L. Heinrich Brad Helms Evan C. Helms Arthur E. Helton David A. Henault William J. Henderson, III Craig M. Hendrickson Josh Heptig Richard J. Herber Thomas L. Hergert Rod G. Hermitage Ernesto Hernandez Gil Herrera David B. Hershey Robert Hertzing Alan D. Hess, CGCS, MG Mark C. Hess Randall C. Hess James W. Hesselbrock R. Christopher Hetherington Dusty Hettenbach Blane J. Hezel Stanley D. Hickerson Paul Hickman, CGCS Hiram Hield Ted Hile Charles U. Hill, III, CGCS Craig Hilty Rodney E. Hine Charles L. Hintz Eishiro Hirano Terukazu Hirayama Chad J. Hively Dennis Hlavaty Paul W. Hoarston Shawn G. Hocking James B. Hodge Eddie Hodgin Cecil T. Hoekstra Timothy E. Hoekstra Ian M. Hoffmann Scott Hoffmann, CGCS Terry Hogan John D. Holberton Milton B. Holcombe, CGCS Gregory W. Holder Mitchell T. Holder Steven R. Holich Lennie Holland Mark Hollick, CGCS Tracy Holliday Colin Holligan David D. Holling Peter M. Holloway Erick B. Holm, CGCS Albert A. Holmes Steven Holmes Darren D. Holt Jason Honeyball Anthony M. Hooks Rick Hoole Randal S. Hooper Mark A. Hopkins Maurice Hopkins Ronald D. Horner, Jr. Ronald D. Horner Jeffrey Houde Branden F. Houghtaling Thomas A. Houk Bill Houlihan Chip Houmes Clayton How Albert H. Howard Ryan C. Howard Scott K. Howard Warren H. Howard Eric E. Howarth Ashley Hoye Chris Hoyer Yankai Hu Christopher H. Hubbard Howard E. Hudson


Tom Huesgen, CGCS Wade J. Huff Mark Hughes Matthew D. Hughes Patrick J. Hughes Stephen D. Hughes John W. Hull Norm Hummell, Ph.D. James Hunt Alexander J. Hutchison James M. Hutton, CGCS Vincent A. Iacono John A. Ibison Grayling A. Ihle Patrick M. Immel Dennis R. Ingram, CGCS Kevin J. Ingram John Irwin Domenick Italiano Mason Ivy Lahcen Jabrane Gilbert R. Jackson Tyson Jacobs Christopher F. Jacques Mitch Jacques Adriana L. Jahna William D. James, II Arthur W. Jamison, CGCS Retired Jodon C. Jamison Kevin C. Jaracy John Jarosz Fred S. Jarred Miguel Jauregui William L. Jeffrey Cary M. Jeffries Robert L. Jennings Jeff Jensen Michael G. Jensen Ronald L. Jessee Jason A. Jesty Bill D. Jobe, CGCS Retired Dennis J. Jobert David Joers Jack L. Johns Robert L. Johns Brandon W. Johnson David L. Johnson, CGCS Retired David R. Johnson Donald Johnson Eric W. Johnson John J. Johnson Johnny B. Johnson, CGCS Retired Morris P. Johnson Robert E. Johnson Roger D. Johnson Thomas P. Johnson Troy C. Johnson Charlie Jones Dan Jones David W. Jones James W. Jones Michael J. Jones Michael R. Jones, CGCS Ronald D. Jones John M. Jorgensen Jeffrey Jowell, CGCS Jeffory J. Julich Bill Julie Benjamin D. Just Craig A. Justus Joel E. Kachmarek John E. Kaminski, Ph.D. Tom Kaplun Keith B. Kapnick Michael J. Kasyjanski, Ph.D Gordon Kauffman, III, Ph.D. Brian K. Kaulupali David A. Kazmierczak, CGCS Stephen A. Kealy, CGCS Vincent J. Keats, CGCS Brian L. Keck Robert B. Keck Donald C. Keefer Kevin S. Keenan Joel A. Keller Shawn E. Keller William E. Keller Linda A. Kelley Andrew Kelly John T. Kelly, Jr. Ronald E. Kelly, CGCS Duncan Kelso Chad M. Kempf James L. Kennedy

William Kenney Rick E. Kern Denis Kerr Merlin Kerr George P. Kervern David M. Kidd Kevin M. Kienast, CGCS D’Ann M. Kimbrel Steven R. Kimbrough, Jr. Mitsuo Kimura Peter Kinch Robert E. Kinder, CGCS Brian E. Kindle Michael A. King Mark Kingora Joseph H. Kinlaw, Jr. Jodie L. Kinney Bret J. Kirchner Tony B. Kirk Ronald W. Kirkman William M. Kissick, CGCS Retired Stanley Kitchin, Sr. Dennis R. Kitzelman Fred W. Klauk, Jr. Glen Klauk Brad Klein Timothy L. Klein F. A. Kleinfelder, II Errol Klem Gregory J. Klem, CGCS Scott B. Klingberg William Knight Frank C. Knott Erik R. Knudsen Paul J. Knulty Jason M. Knuutila Reid A. Koberg Rudolph Koboldt Ken Koch Jim Koenigs Jason K. Koester, CGCS Glen Kohorn Greg Kolakowski Sigmund D. Kolano Kevin J. Komer, CGCS Donnie J. Kouns Matthew L. Kraft Rick Krause Matthew Kregel Glenn T. Kreklow Keith Kresina Jakob Kressig Ronald D. Krieger Gregory W. Kriesch Ryan K. Krings Richard C. Krok Barry Kronman Robert F. Kronn Paul J. Krout, CGCS Brian L. Kruckenberg Timothy L. Krueger Michael J. Krupke G. David Krupp Tim Kubash Jason M. Kubel Mark S. Kubic Keith Kubik Ian Kunesch Steven M. Kurta Kris E Kvelland Edward Lach, CGCS Luc Ladouceur Gordon LaFontaine Scott Lagana, CGCS Philip N. Lagao, CGCS Raymond Lagares Jose L. Lamaignere Wayne D. Lamb Anthony R. Lambert, CGCS Frank E. Lamphier, III Stephen Lane, CGCS Joshua E. Langell Bradford J. Langley Jared D. Langston John A. Lapikas Andrew J. Larsen Jeffrey S. Larsen Douglass P. Larson Lianne Larson Joseph A. Lasher, CGCS Ivy E. Latham Paul R. Latshaw Robert A. Laubach Terry Laurent, CGCS

William Lawrence Raymond S. Layland Scott A. Lazenby Michael F. Leach Stu Leachman Robert LeBlanc Scott H. Ledet Jeff Lefebvre James E. Leftwich Michael R. Legere, CGCS Thomas J. Legg Brad W. Legnaioli, CGCS Jeremy C. Lehman Bernd Leinauer, Ph.D. Ronald Leishman Derek R. Lelievre Curtis E. Leming John J. Lenhart Brian Lenik Mauro Lenta Nicholas Lessner Josh Levitre David Lewallen Cary N. Lewis Ronnie P. Lewis Charles M. Lewison, CGCS George E. Ley, III James J. Lezon, CGCS Laurent Liatard Craig C. Liddle Richard A. Lidtke Joseph P. Liebsch, CGCS Marc Lilley Wayne S. Lindelof Darwin K. Lindsey James E. Lindsey Jimmy Lindsey Erik J. Linsenmayer Larry S. Liprando Arthur Little Michael Litton Dallas Litzenberger Per O. Ljung Donald Loch, Ph.D. Thomas C. Lochner, Jr. Kenneth Lochridge Dal E. Lockwood Todd Loecke Jeffrey A. Lohss John Lombardi Mark Lombardo Edwin Long Jonathan J. Long Steven L. Long Justin R. Lonon Nathan A. Lopez Ramon Lopez Larry Lorah James B. Loupee Gregory D. Loveland Mickey L. Lovett Micah J. Lowell Matt Lowery Richard S. Luikens Jimmy Lukacs Dennis A. Lukity Stephen G. Lutz Alistair J. Lynch Brian Mabie Brad M. MacDonald D. M. MacDonald Roy E. MacDonald Scott P. MacDonald David MacIndoe Timothy D. Mack Martin G. Mackanos Michael R. Macke John MacKenzie, Jr., CGCS A. Roy Mackintosh Iain A. MacLeod Gordon MacMillan Russell S. MacPhail Daniel R. Maddox Terry W. Magee Carmen Magro, CGCS Paul R. Mahaney Josh Mahar, CGCS Michael L. Maher Daniel C. Mahoney, Jr. Michael F. Maier Scott A. Main, CGCS Christopher J. Mains Douglas G. Malcolm Jesus Maldonado

Charles F. Mancino, Ph.D. Mario A. Mandujano Craig F. Manning Pat Manning, CGCS Mark B. Mansur Michael S. Manthey Palmer Maples, Jr., CGCS Retired Chris Marchiori Chad A. Mark Leslie H. Marlow Darcy Marshall John M. Marshall Kyle Marshall Randy B. Marshall Michael D. Martell G. Randall Martin Marco A. Martin Scott C. Martin, CGCS Steven W. Martin, CGCS Darin Martinez Robert J. Martinez Yutaka Maruo Mark A. Mascolo Michael J. Masterson David Mastroleo Tracy F. Mathis Jason Matos James A. Matteson Gerald H. Matthews David W. Mauk Anthony S. Mauldin, CGCS Martin Mauser Brook R. Maxwell Darryl Maxwell David A. Mayer Brian D. Mazey Wayne L. Mazzaferro James A. McAfee, Ph.D. Vincent R. McAlister Scott McBeath Michael S. McBride Scott L. McCall Glenn W. McCandless Brian A. McCann Mark R. McCarel John F. McCarthy, CGCS Thomas J. McCarthy Edward C. McClafferty Donald F. McClure, Jr. Timothy C. McCoy R. Scott McCracken Chris McCranie Richard S. McDanel, CGCS Patrick McDonagh Kenneth R. McFadden Ray McFarland Eli McGallian Brian McGiff Donald J. McGuire Joanne McGuire Kevin G. McGuire Linda McGurer Frank C. McInnis Scott B. McKay James McKenna James McKenzie Thomas W. McKenzie Carlos McKeon Rodney J. Mckeown Steve S. McMillan, CGCS John C. McMullan Marc F. McMullen Ronald M. McMullen Michael McNamara Ian McQueen Edward F. McSeaman Dennis J. Medeiros Joseph R. Meier Thomas R. Meier Kenneth F. Mentzer Jody D. Meredith Steven A. Merkel, CGCS Mark S. Merrick, CGCS Retired Daniel J. Messersmith Gregory J. Meyer Edmund J. Michaud Henry A. Michna, CGCS Paul W. Mickalko Mark A. Miedler Ronald A. Miesz Chris Mikita Jose O. Milan Stephen D. Miles, CGCS Bryan A. Miller

Charles E. Miller Glenn A. Miller, CGCS Robert A. Miller Russell D. Miller Seth A. Miller Earl F. Millett Robert A. Milliken James A. Mills John H. Mills, Jr. Kerry D. Minter Rick Miska Kym Mitchell Mark Moers David Moffett Mark G. Mohart Charles R. Mohr Quintin D. Molina Joseph G. Mondor Michael A. Mongiello, Jr., CGCS Retired Michael S. Mongon John A. Monson Edward G. Montecalvo Antonio Montes John L. Montgerard Fred Montgomery John H. Mook Clifford L. Moore Glenn D. Moore Gregory S. Moore James T. Moore Mark D. Moore Ronald D. Moore Ryan Moore William K. Moore Jeffrey R. Moots Frank J. Moran Bruce A. Morford David Morgan William K. Morgan John H. Morrill Jay Morrish Donald E. Mortell Daniel T. Mosblack Aaron Motl John V. Much Barry W. Mueller, CGCS Timothy T. Muench, CGCS Gregory B. Muirhead Paul M. Mulholland Troy A. Mullane Rodney Muller Matthew J. Mulvany, CGCS Donna Mummert Lindsey H. Munger Alberto Munoz Enrique Munoz Ing. Natalio Munoz Jeff C. Murdock Blake M. Murphy Samuel P. Murphy Stephen M. Murphy Thomas S. Murphy Tracy Murphy Brian M. Murray Tim Muys Harold L. Myers Rodney L. Myers Sam Myott Jeffrey J. Naas Christian J. Nady Moriya Nakamoto Alan Nakamura Clarence S. Nakatsukasa Hitoshi Nakazaki Justo Naranjo Neal B. Nash Giuseppe Nava Jose Nava Kevin G. Neal, CGCS Christopher Neff Brad G. Nelson Chris Nelson Dale L. Nelson John T. Nelson Ken E. Nelson Michael Nelson, CGCS Ryan M. Nelson Thomas R. Nelson Gary M. Nettles Brian C. Nettz, CGCS Steven R. Neuliep, CGCS John T. Neumann Bryan J. Newman

Christopher L. Newnham Gene Neyman Kenneth J. Nice David M. Nicholls Gregory C. Nicoll Keith Nienow Andrew P. Nikkari Brian L. Nikkel Lee Niles Gordon Nimmo Tomokazu Nishizaka, CGCS John A. Nolan Ronald F. Nolf, CGCS Retired Wendell L. Nolting Joseph F. Noppenberger, Jr. Travis A. Nordstrom Jack L. Norris Kenneth L. Norris Lisle G. Norris G. Todd Norton Richard M. Novak, CGCS Ronald A. Noyce Roger Null Javier Nunez Joseph S. Nuzback Michael K. O’Bryant Thomas S. OConnor Richard D. Odden Richard E. O’Dell Brian O’Flaherty Conor O’Gorman Terry M. O’Heron, Ph.D. Kenny M. Ohlinger, Jr. Thomas F. Ohlson, CGCS David O’Keefe Bill O’Leary Joao M. Oliveira Max C. Olsen Matthew J Olsonoski Lynn O’Neil Michael J. O’Neill Mark D. Onofrio Gregg Oonk Michael A. Orren Jerry Osborne Richard J. Osborne Erik A. Ostlund, CGCS Mark W. Ostrander Stephen A. Ostrum Art Oswald George E. Ott, III, CGCS John Ottaviano Gregory Otto Jerry Overbay Philip D. Owen, CGCS D. Cord Ozment, CGCS Rita Paananen David M. Padgett DJ Pakkala Ruben Palacios Milfred J. Palmer, Jr. William J. Palmer A. J. Panter, II Jason J. Parker Josh Parker Jeffrey A. Parks Raymond V. Pasold Michael J. Paterno John R. Patterson, Jr. Gregory S. Pattinson Aaron J Patton, Ph.D. Timothy D. Paulson Jeremy Payne Craig E. Pearson Peter L. Pedrazzi, Jr. Philip L. Peer Jennifer Pendrith Coley Penrose Thomas P. Pepe David P. Perconti Albert Perez Jose L. Perez de la Garza James M. Perez Manuel Perez John L. Perham Richard Perreault Josh Petersen Seth J. Petersen Keith A. Peterson Philip C. Petit John J. Petraitis Paul Petrie, CGCS Retired Jerry T. Pettit Pat Pewitt

Matthew E. Pfeiler David H. Pfieger Jim Phelps Gregory A. Pheneger Scott D. Phillips Tim Phillips Robert L. Phipps Byron E. Phoebus Robert J. Piantedosi, CGCS Retired O. J. Piccolo Dwight V. Pickett, Jr. Jason A. Pierce Harry Pierson Dean R Piller Christian Pilon David A. Pilotte John R. Pina Kristopher J. Pinkerton, CGCS Christopher Pinnell Jack B. Pinske Ed Pippin Michael R. Plantz David A. Pleier Bryan K. Plummer David M. Plummer, CGCS John Plummer James A. Poitz Anthony Politi Joseph Pollio, Jr. Jesse Poltorak Scott D. Polychronis W. Brian Pope Adam T. Poplawski Ray A. Popoff Brett R. Post Matthew S. Post Roch Poulin Lawrence R. Powell Ronald Powell, CGCS Retired Steven M. Powell Joseph Pozderac Timothy L. Pratt, CGCS Jerry V. Preisendorf Marcus T. Prevatte Daniel R. Prezell Mark A. Pribble Clinton R. Price Thomas A. Prichard Robert Prickett Mark Prieur Mark Printsky, CGCS Retired Bret Proctor James Provencher Barry Provo James L. Prusa David Pughe Gary Pulsipher Michael D. Purvis Richard F. Puskavich, Jr., CGCS Kirby E. Putt Michael E. Quimbey Drew Rachar Steve Rackliffe, CGCS Douglas P. Rae Brian J. Rafferty Bruce A. Rainier Steven J. Rainier Jose P. Ramirez Ruben E. Ramirez Javier M. Ramos Dean G. Randall Jay M. Randolph, CGCS Ronald J. Raposa Tim Rappach James W. Rardin Larry S. Raschko Keith Rasmus Joel A. Ratcliff, CGCS Wayne M. Rath, CGCS Edward Ratleff James G. Rattigan Mark Rawlins, CGCS Brian T. Ray Joseph Rayl Michael J. Rayman, CGCS Richard H. Raymond Ronald R. Read Brendon J. Reaksecker Thomas L. Reed David B. Reichenberg John G. Reidinger Kevin W. Reinke Jason J. Reiswig Eric Reiter

Chad E. Reitsma Jake Renner Ken E. Renner Blair C. Rennie Martin K. Repko Scott A. Resetich Thomas W. Resseguie Michael Rewinski Jerry L. Reynolds John P. Ribes Tracy J. Richard Eric M. Richardson James C. Richardson Michael Richardson, Ph.D. J. H. Richburg, Jr., CGCS Retired Kent R. Rickenbach Mel W. Ricketts Russell Riddell Ronald T. Ridl Manfred H. Riedel, Jr. Jake Riekstins Patrick J. Ringenberger Michael D. Rinowski Terrance P. Riordan, Ph.D. Timothy J. Riser Mark R. Robel Kenneth J. Robers James Roberts Norman L. Roberts Dennis J. Robidoux Michael J. Robinson Virgil Robinson, CGCS William S. Robinson Robert Rodrigue Tim A. Roethler Brent D. Rogers Jack L. Rogers Robert J. Rogers, CGCS Ronnie L. Rogers Palmer N. Rolfes, Jr. Collin M. Romanick James J. Roney, Jr. Christopher J. Rosio Ronald M. Ross, CGCS Retired Frank Rossi, Ph.D. Luigi Rota Caremoli Daniel J. Roth Donald M. Roth John C. Roth Karl E. Rothert Nicholas J. Rotondo Gary Roush Thomas M. Rousseau Thomas R. Rowell James R. Rowland, III K. Clark Rowles, CGCS Robert B. Roy Kevin Rue Eric M. Ruhs Paul Runyan Bruce W. Ruppert, CGCS Keith W. Ruppert Ronald J. Ruppert David F. Russell James N. Russell Lee D. Russell Randolph Russell Timothy J. Rutledge Adric Ryan Jeffrey T. Ryan Scott A. Ryan Christopher L Ryder Tom Ryon Barry A. Sage Tim Sage David Sagliano Michael C. Salinetti Wesley G. Salo Mark R. Samp Thomas Sampair Robert A. Samuelson, CGCS Matt Sandberg Earl J. Sanders, CGCS Henry C. Sanders Robert B. Sanderson Jerry Sandoval Dale R. Sandvick David C. Santana Jorge S. Santana de Silva Klaus P. Sauer Todd A. Sauer Thomas E. Savage Warren J. Savini, Jr. Charles I. Saxe, Jr.

Gerald W. Saylor Gene Scarborough, Jr. Kevin Schaal Scott H. Schaller, CGCS Scott Schellpfeffer Bill Schilling Lee E. Schmidt Parin E. Schmidt Matthew T. Schmitz Gene Schneiter John W. Schoellner, CGCS Kenneth Schoeni Richard Scholes Matthew Schreiber Bettina Schrickel Matt Schuldt Carroll D. Schulte Charles F. Schultz William V. Schumacher Tom Schunn Barry R. Scott James Scott Jon R. Scott Keith Scott Phil Scully Jeffrey L. Seeman Evan J. Seifert Joel Seling Lee Sellars Mark J. Seman Michael R. Semler Allen L. Semprebon Ramiro H. Sena Bernard L. Shafer Richard Shamo John T. Shampeny Patrick A. Shannon Troy L. Shattuck Daniel W. Shaughnessy John M. Shaver Dave Sheldon Mark Shepherd Paul Sheppard Charles Sheran Shawn D. Sheridan, CGCS William Sherman Kevin W. Shields Scott Shillington David C. Shindeldecker William C. Shipman Paul A. Shirey James T. Shirley, Jr. Robert A. Shively Greg T. Shoemaker Norman W. Shorts, Sr. Thomas J. Shropshire Richard L. Shroyer Patrick Siefker Arthur Silva, CGCS Retired Juan F. Silva John Silvis James K. Simmons Sherry L. Simmons Christopher R. Simon Dayton C. Simpson, II Michael Simpson, CGCS Travis D. Simpson Vedath Singh Clyde Sisson Dale K. Sitzman Michael O. Skirkanich Vern Slager Richard W. Slattery Duane L. Slaughter Thomas M. Slavish Stephen S. Slemp Craig M. Sloan Robert G. Sloan Scott S. Slomka Tom Small W. C. Smallridge Jeffrey M. Smelser, CGCS Aaron Smith Brian J. Smith Cecil P. Smith David C. Smith David L. Smith Donald H. Smith Elbert B. Smith, CGCS Retired Ian B. Smith James A. Smith Jerry M. Smith Joel R. Smith John M. Smith


Kenneth W. Smith, CGCS Kyle P. Smith Landon A. Smith Larry R. Smith Michael R. Smith, CGCS Retired Mike Smith Phillip G. Smith Rick T. Smith Rodney A. Smith Scot D. Smith Scott H. Smith Stephen A. Smith, CGCS Stephen E. Smith Theodore C. Smith Tim E. Smith Todd C. Smith William F. Smith, CGCS Gary L. Smither Louis L. Smoot Wayne Smuk Jack E. Snipes, Jr., CGCS G. D. Snyder Thomas W. Solis Frederick E. Soller, Jr., CGCS Retired David Solomon David J. Soltvedt, CGCS John R. Sonner Walker Sory Kirk F. Sowers Robert D. Sowers Jeff Spangler Darryl Sparta Doug K. Spear Robert I. Spearman Daniel E. Speicher, III William H. Spence Scot Spier, CGCS Tony Spink Bert M. Spivey Cody C. Spivey John E. Spiwak Scott R. Spooner James R. Sprankle, III, CGCS William P. Springirth, Sr. Steven D. Sprouse Eric D. Spurlock William A. St. Jeor Douglas C. Stachura, CGCS Retired Robin Stafford Gwen K. Stahnke, Ph.D. Mitch W. Stamey, CGCS Shawn F. Stanley James A. Stark, Jr. Joe W. Starr Jeff Stauffer John Staver James N. Stavros Timothy Stawovy Paul S. Stead, CGCS Chad D. Stearns William B. Stearns Christopher W. Steeber Jeff Steen, CGCS Benjamin Steidley Bob Steinhurst Bruce D. Steinmiller John W. Stenmoen Donald J. Stepanik, Jr. William Stepka Bryan J. Sterne William B. Stevens, CGCS Jeffrey R. Stevenson George Stewart Steven W. Stewart William E. Stewart Tim Sticco Jay D. Stine, III, CGCS Robert M. Stirling Michael A. Stirrup Gary D. Stoddard Elmer Stone Rick Stone Faron J. Stoops Peter W. Stormes Steven E. Storz, CGCS Retired William C. Stowers John M. Streachek Michael F. Streckfus Christopher W. Strehl Joe K. Stribley Christopher J. Strickland Jay W. Strickland Robert T. Stringer, CGCS Barry A. Strittholt, CGCS Leon P. Stroike


Paul J. Stroman Dean Styburski Michael Stylarek Eugene J. Stys, Jr. Juko Sugihara Michael J. Sullivan W. Michael Sullivan, Ph.D. Melvin L. Summer, Jr. Takenori Sunayama Aaron T. Sunderlin A. W. Sundstrom Tim L Supak Paul D. Sutter Jeremy S. Sutton Steve Swanhart Richard J. Sweeney, CGCS David J. Sweet, CGCS Eric C. Swenson Craig Swiney Michael Swing, CGCS Blake Swint Cody Swirczynski, CGCS John F. Swoyer Christopher C Sykes Peter Szarka David J. Szymanski Sean R. Taggart David Tan Shigeki Tanikawa Michael A. Tanner Michel Tardif Serge Tardif Hiroshi Tatsumi Jeffrey C. Taylor Paul A. Taylor Mark E. Teders Michael J. Tellier, CGCS Lee J. Terry Scott Terry Pete A. Tescher Carl F. Teschke Norman W. Tessier, Jr. Wayne R. Tessmer Michael D. Thibodeau Ben W. Thomas Gregory M. Thomas Robert L. Thomas Jack I. Thomasma, Jr. Kevin S. Thompkins Brian K. Thompson Carl D. Thompson, CGCS Charles A. Thompson Jason A. Thompson Troy L. Thompson Carter R. Thompson-Wrightsman Keith Thoresen R. M. Thorne David E. Threlkeld, CGCS Retired Christopher J. Thuer, CGCS Josh Thurner Steven J. Thys Charles E. Tiede, III Stephen Tilley John V. Tillman Russel N. Tisdale, III Dennis J. Tocquigny Dick Toh Thomas Tokarski Dan B. Tolson Ted Tom Dean Tomaselli Andrew H. Tomlinson Joseph R. Tompkins Ronald T. Toney Steven D. Torrant Thomas C. Totman Greg Tower Robert Townsend Joseph C. Trafcano, CGCS Kim D. Trainor Rhod Trainor, CGCS Charlie L. Trammell Philip V. Tran Bill Trask Jason J. Tresemer Dick E. Trevarthan Jess Troche Karl T. Troeger Thomas Troutman Mervin R. Troyer Ron Troyer Rayburn Tucker Steven Turchick Robert W. Turcotte Mike L. Turner

Ronald Turner Mitchell R. Twigg Richard P. Tworig, II Larry J. Underwood Michael L. Upchurch Donald G. Urso Yuichiro Ushiki Larry Utsurogi Michael J. Vacchiano Gregory V. Vadala, CGCS Jon D. Valentine John W. Van Vactor John K. Van Vranken, III Harry J. Vande Velde, III Meril D. Vanderpool Hermen B. VanDunk, IV Robert A. Vanlerberghe Michael J. VanSistine, CGCS Fernando Varela Frank Vargas Harold C. Vaubel Michael T. Vay Bradley S. Vecchio Michael R. Vella Kenneth M. Velpel Stephen T. Velsor Jeffre D. Vercautren Milton J Via David E. Vibber Richard D. Victorson Michael A. Vieira Lauro Villarreal, Jr. Jeff Vinkemeier John D. Vinson, Jr. Gordon J. Vinther Brett Vitrano Scott J. Vlahos Douglas A. Vogel Thomas C. Vogel, CGCS Tom Voigt, Ph.D. Jeff P. VonEschen Paul N. Voykin Gordon Waddington Charles A. Wagmiller, CGCS Brandon Wagner Robert E. Wagner Rick E. Wahl Kris Wakeman Melvin H. Waldron, III, CGCS John Walker Tommy Walker Richard C. Wall David H. Wallace Scott K. Wallace Tom Walrath James J. Walraven, CGCS William G. Waltz Yue-Wen Wang David S. Wansley, II Christopher M. Ward Harry D. Ward James N. Ward, CGCS Tony Ward James R. Wardman David A. Warman Wade M. Warms, CGCS Bill Warnick, CGCS Ralph Watkins Anthony Weaver Elliot Weber Jeffrey B. Webster Bryan J. Wegert Donald J. Weindel Chuck Welch Clark G. Weld James A. Wells Scott V. Weltzin Jeff R. Wendel, CGCS Jeff G. Wendler Peter M. Wendt, CGCS Robb A. Werley Robert S. Werline Brent L. Weston Robert J. Weston W. Craig Weyandt James P. Whalen Ken Wheeler David L. Whelchel Frank W. Whitcomb Herbye K. White Michael W. White Randy White Richard W. White Robert P. White Scott A. White

Stephen G. White Michael J. Whitehead, CGCS William Whitworth, CGCS David A. Wicklund Timothy R. Wicklund Matthew Wideman Bryan W. Widmer, CGCS James E. Wieborg Donald L. Wigersma William J. Wiggins Wilkerson H. Wilbourne Thom Wilbur Jay P. Wilke Chuck Williams Edward A. Williams John K. Williams, CGCS Melvin C. Williams Robert R. Williams Ronald L. Williams Wilfred C. Williams, III Dennis H. Williamson David G. Wilson Mark Wilson, CGCS Retired Peter B. Wilson Steve G. Wilson, CGCS Charles D. Winch Charles E. Winch Scott Winkelman Trevor A. Wishman Robert J. Witek Douglas O. Witham Sid Witteveen Markus E. Wittlinger Dean Wochaski, CGCS Peter J. Woitowich Jon Wolf Randall L. Wolff Thomas A. Wolff, CGCS Robert M. Wolverton Stephen B. Womble, CGCS Bryan D. Wood David J. Wood Stephen A. Wood Janyce Woodard Steve A. Woodruff James M. Wooten Stephen E. Worley Brian J. Woster Walter J. Wozniak David R. Wrenn Steven M. Wright, CGCS Roy Wu T. L. Wueschinski, CGCS Retired Eric H. Wulfman Samuel V. Wyatt Philip J. Wycoff John M. Wynn Gordon Xu Michael S. Yadrich

Grant A. Yaklich Peter K. Yamashita Hisashi Yanagi John G. Yancey Jeffrey A. Yarborough Mark A. Yoder, CGCS John H. Yokel, CGCS Retired James E. Yonce, III Joshua A. York Daniel L. Young Joseph Young Luke A. Young Scott R. Young Steven R. Young Toby S. Young Tony Young Noma Yutaka John R. Yvarra Scott A. Zakany, CGCS Scott J. Zalinsky Frank Zamazal, Jr. Matthew J. Zarnstorff Charles J. Zeh, Jr. Nick A. Zerr Jason M. Ziesmer Jeff S. Zimmerman John F. Zimmers, Jr. Michael L. Zirkle Robert A. Zoller G. Wayne Zoppo, CGCS Retired Troy R. Zufall

Every effort is made to ensure that the donor list is accurate. We regret any errors or omissions. We invite you to help us correct any errors by contacting the EIFG team at 800-472-7878, ext. 4445. Thank you to the more than 2,000 members who contribute to the EIFG through your GCSAA member dues renewal. Your collective generosity raised nearly $100,000 to provide support for environmental programs.

1421 Research Park Drive Lawrence, Kansas 66049-3859 Toll Free (800) 472-7878 ext. 4445 p (785) 832-4445 f (785) 832-4448

Annual Report

2013 Annual Report

Messages from GCSAA leadership The value of staying the course

Keith A. Ihms, CGCS President

For some, staying the course might not always be seen as the most exciting way to approach challenges. But if the accomplishments GCSAA enjoyed in 2013 are any indication, it is often the most effective. As our CEO Rhett Evans chronicles in his note below, 2013 was a year that saw your association achieve much, as several years of challenges for the golf industry gave way to great hope and forward momentum. And I know that the work of the GCSAA Board of Directors — both last year’s group and those that came before it — and their ongoing commitment to strategic planning efforts played a large part in the successes that we enjoyed. Long ago, your leadership determined that GCSAA could not be governed by the favor of the month. We could not be reactionary. We had to have a plan and be proactive in the decisions that we made on behalf of the association. If it worked in the individual management of our own golf courses, we knew it would work for GCSAA as well. 2013 was a year that delivered on the promise of that determination. We fully staffed our feld staff program that has brought engagement and increased chapter effectiveness to nine regions across the United States. Our commitment to technology continued with the launch of the frst GCSAA app for mobile devices. Our advocacy efforts paid dividends not only on Capitol Hill, where the association is now a recognized and trusted source of information on matters related to golf course management, but also among our allied associations in golf, who view GCSAA as a leader in government relations initiatives. And our ongoing focus on providing world-class education to our members when and where they want it continued unabated, with unparalleled online opportunities and the educational offerings at our Golf Industry Show leading the way. But while the tangible triumphs of 2013 were rewarding, it was the comments from GCSAA members that I interacted with throughout the year that were most fulflling to me personally. To hear fellow superintendents talk passionately about how a particular GCSAA product or service has helped them on their golf course, to listen to them praise our excellent staff at national headquarters in Lawrence, Kan., for promptly and professionally assisting them with a problem or to have them share example after example of just how important membership in this organization have been to them, both professionally and personally, has been a remarkable experience. It’s all made me believe even more in the value of sticking to a road map, of avoiding sudden detours and the ways that staying the course have benefted our great association.

Following through with the upswing

J. Rhett Evans Chief Executive Offcer

Hitting the golf ball on the upswing helps control the spin and increase the distance. Ushering GCSAA through the upswing means a clearer focus on new opportunities and far-reaching goals for the future. Associations provide value to a variety of stakeholders, but they primarily serve their members by delivering information, education and representation as a means to facilitate professional success. From that perspective, it is interesting to note how GCSAA’s offerings have undergone a transformation in a relatively short period of time. Some of those alterations are attributable to continuous improvement, while others have been in response to the cautiously optimistic outlook of the golf industry as a whole. After a full decade, the Golf Industry Show has frmly cemented itself as the marquee event in the industry. The San Diego show was a resounding success, and was among the Top 250 trade shows in the U.S, coming in at No. 129. Most importantly, the positive momentum that was palpable at the show continued throughout the year. From the success of the 2013 GIS and other programs, GCSAA was able to defne a broader, long-term vision of becoming the “global leader in golf course management.” GCSAA’s brand is increasingly known and valued around the world, and we are making particular strides in the fast-growing Asian market. No matter where our long-range goals take us, 2013 was a prime example of our primary commitment to bringing professional success to our members and the facilities they serve. Whether through our feld staff on the ground in nine regions throughout the country or advocacy efforts on Capitol Hill, GCSAA serves its members and advances their profession on local, national and international levels. And that service is always adapting as we embrace new technology and vehicles to deliver the information, education and opportunities our members require to meet the demands of an ever-changing industry. We are seeing the fruits of our labor as membership numbers continue to rebound and the support of industry partners continues to grow. As I traveled and interacted with the membership, allied organizations and industry representatives in 2013, the outlook for the industry was universally upbeat. For GCSAA, this year has positioned us for continued success and enables us to further our ambitious goals. And as we follow through with the upswing, there is no doubt that we are poised for a vibrant future.


Basking in the light When the sun rises on the world’s golf courses, most golf courses’ superintendents are there to greet it. One of the fringe benefts of a job that requires early morning hours is getting to witness the frst rays of light as they come up on the horizon. For GCSAA member superintendents, they are getting a clear view of both the daily sun, and a front-row seat to the re-emerging golf industry. GCSAA member golf course superintendents played a large role in the survival and resurgence of the industry. Their ability to do “more with less,” implement sustainability efforts to beneft the environment and the bottom line, and still meet golfer expectations, helped golf facilities weather the myriad challenges of the last decade. The engaged membership of GCSAA also supported the association as it adjusted and adapted to challenges and changes to remain a vital force in the industry. Despite being an industry based on an ancient game, GCSAA members are not ones to dwell on the past and are embracing the future in many ways. Whether it involves joining the upward momentum of the current market or learning and utilizing the latest technologies to enhance their operations, golf course superintendents have a keen eye toward the future. It is the forward thinking of GCSAA and its members that has set the association on a continuing path of helping to drive the growth and success of the broader golf industry.


2013 Annual Report With this new vision, GCSAA began aligning the organization to best support these priorities while continuing efforts to connect its programs and services to best serve its members, advance the superintendent profession and enhance the enjoyment, growth and vitality of the game of golf.

Sunny San Diego Golf course superintendents have always been tuned into the weather, so maybe it’s no coincidence that the sunny skies in San Diego at the 2013 Golf Industry Show and GCSAA Education Conference set the upbeat mood of the event. The Golf Industry Show attracted 6,018 qualifed buyers, spending time with 517 exhibiting companies covering 172,900 square feet of exhibition space. Total attendance was 13,192. More than 4,500 seminar seats were sold for education featuring presentations from the industry’s top subjectmatter experts. And with Torrey Pines among the GCSAA Golf Championships course offerings, participation in the golf event increased by more than 120 players.

Thinking globally and locally

Bright future With new optimism come new aspirations. Beginning with a Strategic Planning Session in early March, the GCSAA Board of Directors and executive leadership helped defne a broader, long-term vision of the association as the “global leader of golf course management.” During the meeting, the GCSAA leadership was tasked with evaluating the association from a strategic perspective, resulting in a greater focus on the key priorities of the association: • Professional development/education: GCSAA will continue to offer high-quality, industry-leading resources that enhance member and facility success. • Advocacy: GCSAA will continue to communicate with lawmakers with the goal of strengthening the profession and industry. • Member outreach and retention: GCSAA will grow/demonstrate the value of membership, giving the association a larger voice and more resources for programs and services. • Chapter success: GCSAA will enhance service to members, increase utilization of GCSAA programs and services, and increase participation in chapter events and leadership opportunities. • Growth of the game: GCSAA will collaborate with allied associations to increase golfer participation and retention, and strengthen golf’s compatibility with the environment. • Revenue generation: GCSAA will strengthen existing streams (industry support, sponsorships) and develop new sources (international initiatives) of revenue.


Becoming the global leader in golf will not be a simple task. However, in 2013 GCSAA took major steps, particularly in the Asian market. The association continued those efforts by participating in and sending representatives to the China and Asia Golf Shows and providing educational offerings, delivered in English and Mandarin. Attendance has continued to increase as the GCSAA brand becomes more known and valued. There is also a desire to assist our industry partners in their forays into these markets, and GCSAA again hosted the Road Map to Asia event, designed to help companies understand and navigate business development opportunities in Asia, in conjunction with the 2013 GIS. But no matter how far GCSAA’s reach becomes, the top priority remains serving members and providing them with the tools and resources to advance their careers and the profession. This year that commitment was most evident when the promise of the feld staff program came to fruition with nine fully staffed regions across the country. These staff members live and work in each region, assist members and visit their facilities, provide strategic planning sessions for chapters and meet with lawmakers in their areas. They are the “face” of GCSAA in the region and communicate with members via Twitter feeds and regional pages on that feature regional news, upcoming events, resources and a blog chronicling events in the area. Whether down the street or across the globe, GCSAA’s support of current members and efforts to create new ones is strengthening the organization. Like so many other associations in the U.S. in recent years, GCSAA experienced four years of negative growth, but the tide is turning, and GCSAA rebounded signifcantly in 2013, ending the year with less than a 1 percent decrease in both total members and professional members. This upsurge is the result of a higher retention rate and an increase in professional membership classifcations, including Class C. This positions the association well for the upward trend to continue.

Education for today, funds for tomorrow GCSAA has continually kept its professional development resources on the cutting edge, whether it is regular review and updating of offerings to best refect members’ current educational needs and to keep offerings relevant to the profession or exploring new ways to provide education. GCSAA also strives to provide the best value in professional development opportunities, utilizing the top industry experts while keeping costs low for members. Throughout the year GCSAA provided both free and affordable quality education events delivered by the brightest minds in the business. Conference seminar fees did not increase, and at the same time, more free conference education and free webcasts were provided than ever before. Webcasts, both live and ondemand, continued to be a popular choice among superintendents, giving them the topics they needed when and where they wanted them. Making it even easier, 2013 saw the introduction of mobile webcasts so members can use their smartphones as their education vehicle. In all, More than 7,000 users registered for webcasts in 2013. Like GCSAA, its philanthropic organization, the Environmental Institute for Golf (EIFG), places education among its top missions. Along with education, the EIFG provides funding for advocacy, research and scholarships. After a successful rebranding effort in 2012, a revitalized EIFG had a very lucrative 2013. Member donations grew by 10 percent and major gifts from Bayer, the PGA of America, the PGA Tour and others helped to support its initiatives. In particular, the EIFG’s Rounds 4 Research program helped generate much-needed revenue for chapters to support university research, education and scholarships. More than 700 rounds were sold, raising nearly $150,000 in the frst full year of managing this national fundraising platform. Administered by the EIFG and presented in partnership with The Toro Co., the program generates resources to address a critical shortage in turfgrass research funding by auctioning donated rounds of golf online and enabling organizations to raise revenue for research programs in their areas. By the end of 2013, nearly 50 GCSAA chapters and other turf-related organizations had signed on to be fundraising partners.

to extensive lobbying efforts by GCSAA, the EPA’s Offce of Pesticide Programs agreed to a six-month extension of the deadline for sale and distribution of existing stocks of methyl bromide for golf course resurfacing projects. Also, GCSAA and its chapters collaborated with state and local offcials to develop practical water management public policy for golf courses in New York, Virginia and Georgia.

Interactive communication The evolution of communication continues at a breakneck pace. GCSAA keeps up by continually refning efforts to meet member needs. GCSAA’s online presence is anchored by the main website where users can manage their membership information, connect with other members, view videos, consume education, read the latest news, utilize tools and documents to manage their facilities, access research, fnd job openings and more. But now much of that information is available in the palm of members’ hands, as well, as GCSAA released its own mobile app in 2013, giving the users access to core association information in the palm of their hands. And coming soon will be an expanded app, GCSAA Plus, which will offer “membership-in-your-hand” access to educational transcripts, membership information and more. GCSAA’s publications are also offered in multiple ways to meet the needs of different consumers. GCSAA’s award-winning fagship publication, GCM, is fully digital and mobile optimized, in addition to its traditional printed format. GCM is joined by its digital sister publication, GCM China, as well as two weekly e-newsletters, GCSAA’s This Week (focusing on membership and GCSAA news) and Turf Weekly (focusing on industry news). These publications are supported by an active social media presence. Members can connect and share on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. They can watch the latest videos on GCSAA TV, read the blogs from the staff of GCM and the feld staff, or exchange ideas with other members on our popular forums.

Spreading the word A core function of any association is to represent its members, and GCSAA expands on that by not only advocating for the interests of our members, but also for the industry and the game of golf. GCSAA’s advocacy efforts don’t take place in a vacuum. Instead they are often a collaborative effort with allied associations or other groups to maximize effectiveness in facing challenges to the industry and spreading the message of the positive attributes of golf. Among the most visible efforts was National Golf Day on April 16, 2013, in Washington, D.C., to advocate on behalf of golf. The GCSAA board, staff and Government Relations Committee held more than 60 meetings with members of Congress to tout the economic, environmental, social and recreational value of golf. For this pinnacle annual event of the We Are Golf coalition, GCSAA was joined on Capitol Hill by industry leaders from the CMAA, NGCOA, PGA Tour, U.S. Golf Manufacturers Council, PGA of America, USGA and the World Golf Foundation. But high-profle, national events are only one part of the advocacy picture. It covers many agencies and includes local and state efforts as well. Advocacy is an ongoing effort, with some issues resolving over the course of several years. However, 2013 saw the culmination of efforts on several fronts. Due


2013 Annual Report

2014 GCSAA Board of Directors Keith A. Ihms, CGCS President Golf Course Maintenance Manager Bella Vista Village Bella Vista, Ark. John J. O’Keefe, CGCS Vice President Director of Golf Course Management Preakness Hills Country Club Wayne, N.J. Peter J. Grass, CGCS Secretary/Treasurer Golf Course Superintendent Hilands Golf Club Billings, Mont. Patrick R. Finlen, CGCS Immediate Past President Director of Golf The Olympic Club San Francisco, Calif. Rafael Barajas, CGCS Golf Course Superintendent Hacienda Golf Club La Habra Heights, Calif. Darren J. Davis, CGCS Golf Course Superintendent Olde Florida Golf Club Naples, Fla. John R. Fulling Jr., CGCS Golf Course Superintendent Kalamazoo Country Club Kalamazoo, Mich. William H. Maynard, CGCS Golf Course Superintendent The Country Club of St. Albans St. Albans, Mo. Mark F. Jordan, CGCS Natural Resource Leader Westfeld Group Country Club Westfeld Center, Ohio

Priority funding Revenue from operations in 2013 grew 2 percent compared to 2012. While at frst glance the growth may seem small, in fact many positive trends occurred. The Golf Industry Show, which experienced dramatic declines through the post-recession recovery continued to see positive growth. This positive trend is projected to continue to increase in the near term. In addition, revenue from new marketing opportunities continued to grow as investments from industry increase as the golf economy recovers. Revenue from EIFG block grants increased in 2013 as The Institute experienced growth in fundraising in response to its rebranding that began in 2012. And one of the biggest revivals is in professional membership, where the declines of over 4 percent the last few years came to an end as membership growth and retention stabilized. Total expenses increased 1.5 percent in 2013 as the association continued to fund areas of high priority such as advocacy, feld staff, international exploration, communications and outreach. The feld staff program will continue to receive higher funding since member outreach and chapter effectiveness are considered cornerstones of a strong GCSAA for years to come. Funding has increased signifcantly for advocacy efforts that build collaborative relationships by providing funding to programs that keep members informed about government issues that affect them and increase awareness of the industry to lawmakers and providing a voice for the golf course management profession. In addition, funding increased for technology that supports member communication platforms as well as information to better perform their job duties. Funding also went to support the GCSAA headquarters facility improvement project. The investment reserves now total $6.9 million on strong returns from the fnancial markets in 2013. The $715,000 in reserves that is used to fund operations is planned to decrease to a more sustainable level of $400,000 now that operating revenues are growing on a consistent basis. The association continues to be well positioned to provide strong value to members while making new investments both nationally and in other areas of the world. The GCSAA continues to deliver a strong return on investment for its core attributes of advocacy, professional development, community, environmental stewardship and responsiveness.

GCSAA Partner Recognition Program The GCSAA Partner Recognition Program features three tiers designed to allow industry partners the fexibility of how they invest. The program benefts industry partners by positioning them year-round through a variety of communication vehicles and events as key supporters for GCSAA, its members and the superintendent profession. The PRP also provides industry with access to GCSAA members, opportunities for differentiation and access to proprietary components.

Platinum John Deere Golf The Toro Company

Outgoing 2013 GCSAA Director Sandy G. Queen, CGCS Manager of Golf Course Operations City of Overland Park Overland Park, Kan.


Gold Syngenta Jacobsen

Silver Standard Golf Club Car Arysta LifeScience Par Aide Barenbrug Agrium Advanced Technologies

Rain Bird R&R Products BASF E-Z-GO PBI Gordon Tee-2-Green Quali-Pro Bayer LebanonTurf

Floratine Baroness Civitas Precision Laboratories The Andersons FMC

Golf Course Superintendents Association of America and Related Entity Consolidated Statements of Activities Years Ended December 31, 2013, and 2012 2013


Assets Cash and cash equivalents Accounts receivable Investments Inventory Other assets Property and equipment, at cost, less accumulated depreciation

$ 1,202,386 1,259,200 6,865,611 233,065 917,498


507,136 982,553 6,505,071 268,674 851,627

7,867,355 $ 18,345,115

6,739,647 $ 15,854,708

$ 3,410,520

$ 1,764,785

7,623,007 $ 11,033,527 7,311,588 $ 18,345,115

7,020,307 $ 8,785,092 7,069,616 $ 15,854,708

$ 2,455,619 7,108,404 4,196,638 774,912 $ 14,535,573

$ 2,492,865 6,926,882 4,181,177 672,635 $ 14,273,559

$ 4,823,264 3,626,798 1,947,460

$ 5,042,510 3,731,034 1,871,076

1,709,894 $ 12,107,416

1,562,639 $ 12,207,259

3,409,810 (981,653)

3,075,607 $ (1,009,307)

Liabilities and Net Assets Accounts payable and accrued expenses Unearned revenue (primarily dues income and exhibit revenue) Unrestricted net assets

Revenues and Other Support Advertising and marketing opportunities Conference and show Membership dues Professional development Total revenues and other support

Expenses Program services Education, environmental programs, GCM, and website Conference and show Member and chapter services Career development, marketing and branding, and media relations Total expense for program services General and administrative expense Change in unrestricted net assets before other income


Other Income Net investment income Rental and other income Total other income Change in unrestricted net assets Unrestricted net assets, beginning of the year Unrestricted net assets, end of the year


954,203 269,422 $ 1,223,625


781,452 297,174 $ 1,078,626



7,069,616 $ 7,311,588

7,000,297 $ 7,069,616

The information contained in the Audit Report for the period ending 12/31/13 fairly presents, in all material respects, the fnancial condition and results of operations of GCSAA and GCSAA Communications, Inc.

The consolidated fnancial statements for GCSAA and GCSAA Communications, Inc. were audited by an independent certifed public accounting frm. The full text of the audit reports, fnancial statements and related notes are available at (in the ‘About GCSAA’ section), or by contacting GCSAA Member Solutions at (800) 472-7878.


GCSAA is… A leading golf organization and has as its focus golf course management. Since 1926, GCSAA has been the top professional association for the men and women who manage golf courses in the United States and worldwide. From its headquarters in Lawrence, Kan., the association provides education, information and representation to 18,000 members in more than 72 countries. GCSAA’s mission is to serve its members, advance their profession and enhance the enjoyment, growth and vitality of the game of golf. The Environmental Institute for Golf is the philanthropic organization of GCSAA, and has as its mission to foster sustainability through research, awareness, education, programs and scholarships for the beneft of golf course management professionals, golf facilities and the game.

GCSAA’s mission is… To serve its members, advance their profession and enhance the enjoyment, growth and vitality of the game of golf.

GCSAA’s vision is… To have GCSAA members consistently recognized as: • Key to the enjoyment of the game. • Crucial to the economic vitality of the facility. • Clear authorities regarding issues related to golf course management. • Professionals belonging to an inclusive organization that embraces a diversity of ideas and people. Members will take pride in belonging to GCSAA as the organization that provides them with increased recognition by continually: • Expanding its role as a leading golf organization. • Working to improve golf’s positive environmental impact.

GCSAA values… • The persistent pursuit of excellence that drives golf course superintendents to excel in meeting the continual challenges posed by nature, economics and the game of golf. • The integrity of character that embodies the highest standards of ethical and professional conduct. • The strong kindred spirit and camaraderie, born of a love of the outdoors and the game of golf that unites golf course superintendents across nations and generations. • The compassionate benevolence that compels golf course superintendents to give of their time, skills and resources to serve their colleagues and communities.

Golf Course Superintendents Assocation of America 1421 Research Park Drive • Lawrence, KS 66049-3859 • 785.841.2240 • 800.472.7878 • 785.832.4488 (fax) • @GCSAA

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©2012 Syngenta. Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or using Syngenta products. The label contains important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy. All products may not be registered for sale or use in all states. Please check with your state or local extension service before buying or using Syngenta products. Briskway™, the Alliance Frame, the Purpose Icon and the Syngenta logo are trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company. Syngenta Customer Center: 1-866-SYNGENT(A) (796-4368). MW 1LGG2034-P1 8/12



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When a product does its job day in and day out - it works. When it saves you time, money, or water - it’s smart. When it does both - it’s from Underhill.

Products that™

UNDERHILL PRODUCT INDEX WATERING PRODUCTS NEW Premium Watering Hose, NEW Hose Repair Fittings .....................................................................................3 Magnum UltraMax Premium Nozzles ....................................................................................................................4 Magnum Nozzles, NEW Sweeper Nozzles, CoolPro Cooling Nozzles .......................................................................5 Precision Specifc Task Nozzles ............................................................................................................................6 DrainBlaster Cleaning Nozzle, RainPro Shower Nozzle ..........................................................................................7 Pro Locker / Nozzle Locker Kits .............................................................................................................................8 Mirage / Novo 2Wire .............................................................................................................................................9 Quick Coupler Valve & Keys, The Claw................................................................................................................10 Impact Sprinklers, HoseTap ................................................................................................................................11 SpotShot Kits, RollerPro Portable Sprinkler Base ................................................................................................12 Tracker, Deep Drip Stakes ...................................................................................................................................13 SuperKey XL, EasyReach Key, VersaLid, Splice Kit ..............................................................................................14 Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Pumps ................................................................................................................15 AuditMaster, CatchCan Pro Testing Products .....................................................................................................16 TurfSpy Glasses, HeadChecker Nozzle Gauge .....................................................................................................17 PROFILE TORO & RAINBIRD SPRINKLER NOZZLES Profle Solid Metal Golf Sprinkler Nozzles ................................................................................................... 18 - 19 WETTING AGENTS & SPECIALTY PRODUCTS Tournament-Ready Wetting Agent ......................................................................................................................20 Medalist, H2O Maximizer Liquid Wetting Agent ..................................................................................................21 Hydro-Wet Injectable Wetting Agent ...................................................................................................................22 NEW Tournament-Ready Plus Pellets with Actosol .............................................................................................22 Tournament-Ready Pellets, Hydro-Wet Pellets ....................................................................................................23 NEW H2O Maximizer Pellets................................................................................................................................24 Wetting Agent Selection Guide ...........................................................................................................................24 Bio-90 Adjuvant, Cadence Spreader, Water FX Conditioner ..............................................................................25 Anti-Foam Agent, K-Klean Tank Cleaner, Tank Cleaner, Benchmark Foam Marker .............................................26 PelletPro Applicators, LiquidPro Applicators ......................................................................................................27 NEW Flo-Pro Injector System, NEW Flo-Pro Inline Applicator ...................................................................... 28 - 29 MARKING SYSTEMS Sprinkler Head Yardage Markers ........................................................................................................................30 Fairway / Tee / Range Disc Markers, Valve Box / Universal Markers ...................................................................31


Products that™


UltraMax™ Red CUSTOM ENGINEERED HOSE BY UNDERHILL USING GOODYEAR TECHNOLOGY Featuring outstanding durability and performance, Underhill UltraMax™ Red hose employs the highest standard of precision engineering in design and manufacturing. UltraMax™ Red is the ultimate choice for long life under heavy use…made of EPDM synthetic rubber and reinforced with spiral synthetic yarn for extra strength under high working pressure. Don’t settle for less, choose the best!

features • Kink, tangle and abrasion resistant • Burst pressure 800 PSI • Machined Brass couplings EPDM rubber with spiral synthetic yarn construction

ordering UltraMax-Red Hose Sizes Available: 5/8” (58) Length Available: 25’ (25) ¾” (75) 75’ (75) 1” (100) 100’ (100) custom (C)

ordering example: Part # H75-050


Hose - Size - Length (H) (¾”) (50’)

Hose Repair

SOLID BRASS, ULTRA-RELIABLE For reliable, crush proof, high-performance year after year, you just can’t beat our machined brass hose repair fttings.

Male Hose Mender

Female Hose Mender

Worm Clamp


ordering Brass Hose Menders Available: Sizes Available:

5/8” 3/4”


Male / Female / Couplings Male / Female / Couplings Male / Female / Couplings

ordering example: Hose Repair - Brass Mender - Size - Type Part #: HRBM-75-F




(3/4”) (Female)

HWC-050-125 Worm Clamp (For OD’s 1/2” to 1 1/4”); Use with 5/8” or 3/4” Hose HWC-075-175 Worm Clamp (For OD’s 3/4” to 1 3/4”); Use with 3/4” or 1” Hose


Magnum™ UltraMAX PREMIUM HOSE-END NOZZLES & ACCESSORIES Step up to the most professional nozzle you can buy - MAGNUM™ UltraMax. Firefghter quality for professionals in any feld, these variable fow, multi-function nozzles are virtually indestructible and leak proof. The innovative TURBO SHIFT models provide two distinct GPM ranges. And the outstanding distribution patterns of all MAGNUM UltraMAX nozzles make them excel in high demand areas like greens/tees, infeld conditioning and equipment and stadium washdowns.

features / specifcations • Multi-Pattern Spray: Fog, Jet Stream, Fan • Built for 1” and ¾” Hose Flow Rates (range: 7-43 GPM) • Materials: Aircraft Aluminum, Stainless Steel, TPR Rubber • Nozzles and Valves rated at 600 PSI working pressure

FULL THROTTLE Single Variable Flow: Delivers steady, maximum volume fog, jet stream and fan patterns. Low Flow (Residential Use) Model: 12-19 GPM (45-72 L/min) High Flow Model: 15-40 GPM (57-151 L/min) Super High Flow Model: 39-100 GPM (148-379 L/min)

Super High Flow UP TO 100 GPM!

TURBO SHIFT Dual Variable Flow: Delivers light fog and low volume jet stream patterns before shifting to high volume jet stream and fan patterns.

Low Flow (Residential Use) Model: Opens with 7-12 GPM (27-45 L/min) Turbo Shifts to 14-17 GPM (53-64 L/min) High Flow Model: Opens with 12-17 GPM (45-64 L/min) Turbo Shifts to 20-43 GPM (76-163 L/min) Super High Flow Model: 34-104 GPM (129-394 L/min)

Pistol Grip

Firefghter Grip

UltraMAX Valves Heavy duty ball valve, push-pull on/off control handle and exceptional build quality for long life under demanding use. Available in Firefghter Grip for two-handed operation or ergonomic Pistol Grip for comfortable, extended use. Nozzles sold separately.



All fow rates based on 80 psi (5,5 bar)

Part # NG550-DFH-75 Part # NG550-DFH-10 Part # NG550-DFSH-10 Part # NG550-DFL-75 Part # NG550-DFL-10 Part # NG500-SFH-75 Part # NG500-SFH-10 Part # NG500-SFL-75 Part # NG500-SFL-10 Part # NG500-SFSH-10 Part # SVPG-75 Part # SVPG-10 Part # SV-75 Part # SV-10

Turbo Shift 12-43 GPM (45-163 L/min) - ¾” FHT inlet Turbo Shift 12-43 GPM (45-163 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Turbo Shift 34-104 GPM (129-394 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Turbo Shift 7-17 GPM (27-64 L/min) - ¾” FHT inlet Turbo Shift 7-17 GPM (27-64 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Full Throttle 15-40 GPM (57-151 L/min) - ¾” FHT inlet Full Throttle 15-40 GPM (57-151 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Full Throttle 12-19 GPM (45-72 L/min) - ¾” FHT inlet Full Throttle 12-19 GPM (45-72 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Full Throttle 39-100 GPM (148-379 L/min) - 1” FHT inlet Pistol Grip Valve - ¾” FHT inlet Pistol Grip Valve - 1” FHT inlet Firefghter Grip Valve - ¾” FHT inlet Firefghter Grip Valve - 1” FHT inlet Products that™

Magnum™ SOLID METAL HOSE NOZZLE Underhill® Magnum™ contains no plastic internal parts to break, stick or wear out. Our unique ratchet mechanism easily adjusts from gentle fan to powerful jet stream and prevents over-tightening damage. Precision-machined, incredibly smooth operation and outstanding distribution patterns make it ideal for high-demand areas like greens and tees. Magnum™ is also an excellent equipment wash-down nozzle.

features • Solid metal internal - no plastic parts to break or wear out • Multi-pattern sprays - effortless control with hydraulic assist on/off • Ratchet mechanism prevents over-tightening damage • Fire hose quality nozzle feels great in your hands specifcations Materials: stainless steel,aluminum, TPR rubber • Built for 1” and ¾” fow rates Flow: 37 GPM at 80 psi

PowerBlast™ SOLID BRASS NOZZLE SERIES Heavy duty solid machined brass construction nozzles built to perform and last. Low fow designed to save water yet produce high power jet output. Ideal for equipment power wash down, cleaning driveways and walkways with minimum water usage - 7 GPM at 80 PSI


MULTIMAX ADJUSTABLE NOZZLE 4” High Pressure Easy Twist variable pattern nozzle, no leak design fne mist to power jet spray adjustment 5 GPM at 80 PSI

features SWEEPER JR. 2”


Perfect for tournament play, CoolPro™ puts down only enough water to cool the turf canopy. It prevents wilting while maintaining good ball speed.

COOL WITHOUT OVER WATERING - NO ROOT DAMAGE A hot summer day can be murder on your greens. Use too much water and you risk damage to the roots. CoolPro™ is the frst nozzle specifcally designed for the single purpose of lightly misting the turf canopy to cool without over watering. And its 25 foot fogging pattern gets the job done quickly.

features • Precision™ nozzle fogs at 70 psi to deliver a 25 ft. pattern with only 4-6 GPM • ¾” inlet (1’’ brass adapter available) • Ergonomic handle/valve provides easy grip and variable on/off control. • Durable solid metal design 866-863-3744 •

• Solid Machined Brass Construction • Constant Flow Smooth Operation • Simple Reliable Long Life

ordering Part # NG450 Part # HNC075 Part # HN0600 Part # CV075L Part # SN6-75 Part # SN2-75 Part # GNA-75

MAGNUM™ Hose Nozzle CoolPro™ Valve and Nozzle CoolPro™ Nozzle only CoolPro™ Valve only Super Sweeper 6” Power Nozzle-¾” FHT Inlet Sweeper 2” Power Nozzle -¾” FHT Inlet MultiMax Adjustable Nozzle -¾” FHT Inlet


Precision™ SOLID METAL, SPECIFIC TASK HOSE NOZZLES Underhill® Precision™ nozzles deliver millions of soft, uniform droplets to provide rapid yet surprisingly gentle water application over a huge range of fow rates. From soft watering to powerful drenching, patented Precision nozzles are designed with ideal fow rates and droplet sizes to fully irrigate without disturbing turf, dirt, seeds, etc., providing a precise solution for every hand watering application.

precision watering for specifc tasks Solid CONE Pattern

Rainbow™ TASKS: Greens, tees, seed beds, transplants, delicate landscaping (15 GPM)

Solid CONE Pattern

Rainmaker™ TASKS: Syringe and spot watering turf and hardy landscaping (23 GPM)

Solid CONE Pattern

Cloudburst™ TASKS: Dry spots, drenching, and wetting agent application (35+ GPM)

Flat FAN Pattern

Cyclone™ Pre-game skins watering, heavy watering of large areas, ideal for hydroseeding (50+ GPM) Note: GPM will vary with pressure at nozzle.

high-fow valves COMPOSITE / STAINLESS STEEL: ¾” hose thread inlet/outlet, oversized handle, up to 55 GPM SOLID BRASS: ¾” hose thread inlet/outlet, up to 50 GPM

hose adapters / quick-connectors


ordering Part # HN1500CV Part # HN2300CV Part # HN4800CV Part # HN5000CV

Precision™ Rainbow™ Nozzle Kit Precision™ Rainmaker™ Nozzle Kit Precision™ Cloudburst™ Nozzle Kit Precision™ Cyclone™ Nozzle Kit

Nozzle Kits include brass High Flow Control Valve and ¾”MHT x 1”FHT Adapter. To order nozzle only: remove “CV” from part number.

Part # CV075H Part # A-BV77FM Part # A-BA107FM Part # A-BA107MF Part # A-BQ7M Part # A-BQ7F Part # HN075W



High-Flow ¾” Valve - Brass High-Flow ¾” Valve - Composite/Steel 1’’ FHT x ¾’’ MHT Brass Hose Adapter 1’’ MHT x ¾’’ FHT Brass Hose Adapter ¾” Quick-Connect, male end ¾” Quick-Connect, female end replacement washer, ¾” hose

Products that™

DrainBlaster™ HIGH PRESSURE DRAIN CLEANING NOZZLE This unique hose-end, high pressure nozzle guides itself in cleaning out drains, to remove debris with ease. Special feature includes a wire attachment connector for using wire locator to determine drain route.

features • Front jet cuts through blockage • Rear jets propel nozzle upline • Two stage fushing action • Minimum water pressure: 70 PSI • Heat treated grade 303 stainless steel for long life

Wire attachment connector for mapping drain location under greens, bunkers and other locations using a wire locater. Great for cleaning under sidewalks or cart paths

Ideal for 4”-6” drains and catch basins

RainPro™ SOLID METAL SHOWER NOZZLE A truly revolutionary shower nozzle for soaking turf or other landscapes…featuring an exclusive solid brass nozzle plate for outstanding pattern and special rubber bumper for nozzle protection.

features • Ultra durable construction withstands any abuse • Beautiful, consistent and uniform spray pattern • Materials: zinc alloy, brass and TPR rubber • Flow: 40 GPM @ 80psi (built for 1” and ¾” hose fow rates) • Nozzle assembly unscrews for easy cleaning

Tough TPR rubber bumper protects nozzle


Excellent for golf greens or other turf and landscape applications 866-863-3744 •

Part # DN-75 Part # DN-10 Part # SHN-75 Part # SHN-10

DrainBlaster™ Drain Cleaner Nozzle – ¾” FHT Inlet DrainBlaster™ Drain Cleaner Nozzle – 1” FHT Inlet RainPro™ Shower Nozzle – ¾” FHT Inlet RainPro™ Shower Nozzle – 1” FHT Inlet




THE MOST POPULAR ASSORTMENT ALL IN ONE COMPLETE KIT Keep all of your Underhill® professional watering tools secure and safe in this handy kit. ProLocker attaches easily to any utility vehicle for easy access. Case is ultra-durable, made of high-strength composite material and is lockable.

kit includes • Entire Precision™ nozzle series and brass high-fow valve • CoolPro™ fogging nozzle • Magnum™ UltraMax nozzle • PelletPro™ wetting agent applicator • SuperKey XL™ golf sprinkler multi-tool • Gulp™ UltraMax syringe pump • Gulp™ UltraMax pump • TurfSpy™ stress detection glasses • HeadChecker™ nozzle discharge pressure gauge, fex hose and pitot tube


kit includes • Entire Precision™ nozzle series (Rainbow™, Rainmaker™, Cloudburst™ and Cyclone™) • Solid Brass High-Flow Valve • CoolPro™ with Precision™ fogging nozzle • Your choice of MAGNUM™ multi-pattern nozzle (original, UltraMAX Turbo Shift, or UltraMAX Full Throttle) • Unbreakable, lockable, corrosion-proof case to keep these tools safe and secure


ordering Part # PL-K2 Part # PL-K3 Part # PL-K4 Part # PL-K5 Part # HP-K1 Part # HP-K2 Part # HP-K3 Part # HP-K4 Part # HP-K5


ProLocker™ with ¾” Magnum UltraMAX Full Throttle nozzle ProLocker™ with ¾” Magnum UltraMAX Turbo Shift nozzle ProLocker™ with 1” Magnum UltraMAX Full Throttle nozzle ProLocker™ with 1” Magnum UltraMAX Turbo Shift nozzle NozzleLocker™ with ¾” Magnum (yellow) nozzle NozzleLocker™ with ¾” Magnum UltraMAX Full Throttle nozzle NozzleLocker™ with ¾” Magnum UltraMAX Turbo Shift nozzle NozzleLocker™ with 1” Magnum UltraMAX Full Throttle nozzle NozzleLocker™ with 1” Magnum UltraMAX Turbo Shift nozzle Products that™

Mirage™ HUGE THROW, HIGH-PERFORMANCE LARGE TURF SPRINKLERS Underhill Mirage pop-up turf sprinklers, featuring precision German engineering and huge throws, can be installed completely outside the playing area of sports fields.

M-160: With its powerful 174 ft. throw radius, the Mirage™ M-160 is a worldwide favorite for sports felds, golf driving ranges and other large area turf or dust control applications.

M-125: A very impressive long-throw sprinkler in its own right with a 125 ft.

radius, the M-125 is perfect for installation in the out-of-play areas of large turf felds.

M-115: For areas where irrigation must be installed within the playing area, the M-115’s deep sod cup cover holds a 9” (220 mm) diameter section of natural grass to “disappear” when not in use, staying out of the way of athletes and mowers.


Super Fast M-125 or M-115 sprinkler Electric valve-in head option

CALL FOR DETAILS! YOU PICK THE CONTROLLER... WE CAN MAKE IT 2WIRE! Need to add another sprinkler or expand an area? We can do it using existing controller and field wires... Here’s how with Novo! UNDERHILL NOVO 2WIRE CONVERTER UP TO 63 STATIONS Novo



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866-863-3744 •


Quick Coupler Valves & Keys SOLID BRASS, SINGLE SLOT/LUG ESSENTIALS Built to last, Underhill® valves and keys are constructed of solid red brass and stainless steel. Valves incorporate rugged one-piece design.

Valve: Part # QV-075R

Valve: Part # QV-100R

Valve: Part # QV-150R

(¾” FPT inlet)

(1” FPT inlet)

(1½” FPT inlet)

Key: Part # QK-075

Key: Part # QK-100

Key: Part # QK-150

(¾’’ MPT x ½’’ FPT outlet)

(1’’ MPT x ¾’’ FPT outlet)

(1½’’ MPT x 1¼’’ FPT outlet)

hose swivels Part # HS-075 Part # HS-100 Part # HS-101 Part # HS-151

¾’’ FPT x ¾’’ MHT outlet 1’’ FPT x ¾’’ MHT outlet 1’’ FPT x 1’’ MHT outlet 1½’’ FPT x 1’’ MHT outlet

EASY RETROFIT! Installs without

The Claw

removing valve or valve box!

QUICK COUPLER MOTION RESTRAINT When quick coupler valves become unscrewed from swing joints, it’s more than just a hassle - it can be dangerous. The Claw™, new from Underhill®, offers a simple solution. Embedded in the soil below the quick coupler, and then securely attached to its base, The Claw provides signifcant resistance to rotational, vertical and horizontal motion, preventing the valve from moving. Made from high strength ductile iron, this compact anchor attaches easily with a single steel bolt. The Claw™ pictured with 1” quick coupler, key and hose swivel.

ordering Part # QCA-075100 The Claw™ for ¾’’ and 1’’ valves Part # QCA-150 The Claw™ for 1½’’ valves


Products that™




For reliable, trouble-free, high-performance year after year, you just can’t beat our brass impact sprinklers. Available in full circle and full/part circle, in inlet sizes of ¾”, 1” and 1¼”.


Flow: 15-45 GPM Spacing: 50-80 ft. Flow: 25-120 GPM Spacing: 75-110 ft.

features • Solid brass construction • Stainless steel drive spring • Bearing assembly hood for longer wear life • Chemical resistant bearing seals • Solid brass nozzle

ordering Part # SI075F Part # SI075P Part # SI100F Part # SI100P Part # SI125F Part # SI125P

¾’’ MPT Full Circle ¾’’ MPT Part/Full Circle 1’’ MPT Full Circle 1’’ MPT Part/Full Circle 1¼’’ MPT Full Circle 1¼’’ MPT Part/Full Circle

Flow: 5-15 GPM Spacing: 40-60 ft.

GPM Radius (ft.) 13 57 11 48 23 71 23 71 51 96 54 78

Underhill® brass impacts atop the RollerPro™ portable base puts a powerful sprinkler anywhere you can run a hose. (See page 12.)

Performance data shown at 80 psi. GPM and radius will vary with pressure at sprinkler

HoseTap™ Includes HoseTap, 1” MHT brass swivel and ¾” adapter

SOLID METAL HOSE ADAPTER HoseTap™ gives you a hose connection anywhere you have a Toro® or Rain Bird® electric, valve-in-head sprinkler... a fast connection when quick-couplers or hose bibs are not available. Includes aircraft aluminum body (won’t break or wear out like plastic) anodized with sprinkler manufacturer color, o-ring, riser, 1” brass swivel and ¾’’ adapter. Also available without brass swivel/adapter.

ordering Part # HN-T100S Part # HN-T150S Part # HN-R125S Part # HN-R150S

HoseTap™ for Toro® 1” inlet golf sprinklers HoseTap™ for Toro® 1½” inlet golf sprinklers HoseTap™ for Rain Bird® Eagle 700 Series sprinklers HoseTap™ for Rain Bird® Eagle 900 Series sprinklers

Includes 1” brass swivel and ¾” adapter. Add “B” for BSP thread. To order without brass swivel: Remove “S” from part number.

REPLACEMENT O-RINGS Part # OR-100 Fits Toro® 1” inlet and Rain Bird® Eagle 700 Series golf sprinklers / HoseTap Part # OR-150 Fits Toro® 1½” inlet golf sprinklers / HoseTap Part # OR-150R Fits Rain Bird® 1½” inlet golf sprinklers / HoseTap 866-863-3744 •


SpotShot™ LOW VOLUME PORTABLE SPRINKLER KIT SpotShot™ is an expandable sprinkler system kit ideal for turf areas requiring low volume watering for extended periods. Connect the Starter Kit to a quick coupler (or golf sprinkler with the HoseTap™ on page 9) and connect Add-On Kits for larger area needs.

Starter Kit includes 20’ of ½” fexible PVC tubing with connection fttings, pressure regulator, sprinkler base and low volume rotating sprinkler ( 20 ft. radius / 0.65 GPM - 0.16 in./hr.) Add-On Kit includes 20’ of ½” fexible PVC tubing with connection fttings, sprinkler base and low volume rotating sprinkler ( 20 ft. radius / 0.65 GPM - 0.16 in./hr.) Micro-Sprinkler Options 20 ft. radius / 0.65 GPM (0.16 in./hr.)

ideal for

20 ft. radius / 1.2 GPM - (0.26 in./hr.)

• Leaching salts on greens • Targeting hot spots on fairways, roughs, etc. • Mound watering • New seed grown in • Other low volume watering


The 22” wide stainless steel roller of RollerPro™ provides a stable feld position for supplemental watering. Designed for years of hard use, it is ideal for watering dry spots and newly seeded areas.

RollerPro™ works with both 1” and ¾” hoses and sprinklers using the included adapters. Sprinklers sold separately on page 9.

features • 22” wide stainless steel roller is weighted to prevent movement during use. • ¾” inlet and outlet adapters included • Standard 1” FHT inlet x 1” female NPT outlet

ordering Part # A-RP221 Part # SS-SK Part # SS-AOK Part # SS-SK26 Part # SS-AOK26 Part # SS-SB


RollerPro™ SpotShot™ Starter Kit (20 ft. rad, 0.65 GPM) SpotShot™ Add-on Kit (20 ft. rad, 0.65 GPM) SpotShot™ Starter Kit (20 ft. rad, 1.2 GPM) SpotShot™ Add-on Kit (20 ft. rad, 1.2 GPM) SpotShot™ Sprinkler Base

Part # R75-HFM-40 Part # TP-050-20 Part # S40-050-HFS Part # S40-050-HMS Part # SS-S16 Part # SS-S26

Pressure Regulator (40 psi) 20’ Coil of ½” PVC, SuperFlex Pipe ¾” Hose Thread Female x Male, Slip Fitting ¾” Hose Thread Male x Female, Slip Fitting Micro-sprinkler (20 ft. rad, 0.65 GPM - 0.16 in/hr) Micro-sprinkler (20 ft. rad, 1.2 GPM - 0.26 in/hr) Products that™

Tracker™ PORTABLE IRRIGATION MACHINE The Tracker™ offers an economical solution for supplementing seasonal watering needs of ¼ acre to 2 acre areas. It’s also ideal for irrigating athletic felds, cemeteries, golf course roughs, or other large areas where an underground system is impractical. Built to last with precision German engineering and high quality materials, this portable powerhouse can irrigate an entire football feld in just two passes. Tracker™ requires minimal labor to operate. Powered by water, it pulls itself along a nylon cable, dragging up to 360 ft. of 1’’ reinforced heavy-duty hose (sold separately). Each pass irrigates about 2/3 acre per 8 hours of operations.

specifcations • Weight: 58 lbs. • Size: Length 33’’, Width 22’’, Height 22’’ • Materials: Aluminum, Brass, ABS • Minimum Water Pressure: 50 psi • Hose Required: 1”

features • Adjustable Speed Control: 20-70 ft./hr. • Standard full or part circle sprinkler (8-15 GPM) • 360 ft. nylon cable provides irrigated length of 400 ft. • 70-85 ft. pass width • Automatic shut-off at end of pass • Water turbine drive and gear box • Galvanized anchor stake • Includes 1” brass quick-connect adapter


Precision German engineering, high quality components built to last!

ADD TO EXISTING TREES! Install DeepDrip™ stakes during or after tree planting for instant access to the root system for fertilizer delivery or to set up deep automatic drip watering.

TREE WATERING STAKES Water and fertilize your trees at the roots, encouraging deeper roots and healthier trees with DeepDrip™ stakes. Water gets underground fast, so you can irrigate for shorter periods and save water. They also help aerate the soil, and you can add fertilizer into the shaft to direct nutrients to the root zone. Three Lengths For All Tree Sizes: Use the 14.5” stake for shallow root trees and shrubs, like rose bushes and ornamental trees (or boxed trees). The 24.5” stake is best for most other tree varieties except for palms and similarly deeper rooted trees, which will beneft from the longer 36” stakes. Built Smart - And Easy To Use: The DeepDrip’s reinforced tip and cap are made from ABS and the upper shaft is made from Schedule 40 PVC. Multiple holes in the bottom half of the spike, internally covered by a mesh flter, allow water to fow out but keep dirt from getting in and clogging the tube. The UV-protected cap acts as a reinforced cover when pounding the stake into the ground, keeps debris from entering the ordering shaft and holds a 1/4” drip line/emitter securely in place. By Part # T-400 Tracker™ Portable Irrigation Machine inserting a screwdriver through the two holes at the top of Part # A-DD14 DeepDrip™ 14.5” watering stake the upper shaft, stakes can be easily pulled up to remove/ Part # A-DD24 DeepDrip™ 24.5” watering stake reposition, or rotated to deter root invasion. Part # A-DD36 DeepDrip™ 36” watering stake 866-863-3744 •


SuperKey XL™ MULTI-PURPOSE TOOL FOR TORO, RAINBIRD GOLF SPRINKLERS The ultimate all-in-one tool for your golf sprinklers…think of it as a Swiss army knife, a must have companion. Made of stainless steel and composite material, it effortlessly turns electric valve-in-heads on and off, removes internal snap rings and performs many other sprinkler maintenance chores. Great for John Deere®/Signature® sprinklers, too!

Snap Ring Removal (Bottom Valve or Internal Rotor Assembly)

Screwdriver Tip for Filter Cap Disassembly or Pressure Screen Regulator Adjustment Removal

Hardened Bend Resistant Metal

High Strength Engineered Material

On/Off Control Pointer

On/Off Control Debris Removal

On/Off Control Assembly Removal

Solenoid Plunger Removal

On/Off Control

EasyReach™ Key EXTRA-LONG SHAFT ON/OFF KEY Extra long and extra heavy duty metal key designed for easy on/off operation for TORO, Rain Bird and John Deere/Signature electric valve-in-head golf sprinklers. Made of high grade metal, EasyReach offers years of effortless on/off operation.


STRONGER! BETTER FIT! than original equipment lids

VersaLid™ is the easy solution for broken or missing valve box lids. No need to guess what brand a buried box is or even worse - dig it up to fnd out - VersaLid’s locking system fts all 6”-7” round valve boxes.

features • Fits all 6”-7” round boxes • Universal ft • Greater top-load strength and more UV-resistant than structural foam lids • Purple Lid available for non-potable/reclaimed water


Splice Kit 3M DIRECT BURY SPLICE KIT Each kit includes one wire connector which accommodates wire sizes from 18-10 gauge and a waterproof gel case. Excellent for golf, commercial and residential applications.


Part # A-SKTRB SuperKey™ XL for Toro®, Rain Bird® and John Deere® golf sprinklers Part # A-ERT EasyReach™ for Toro® and John Deere®/ Signature golf sprinklers Part # A-ERR EasyReach™ for Rain Bird® golf sprinklers Part # VL-6 Green VersaLid™ 6”-7” valve box lid Part # VL-6P Purple VersaLid™ 6”-7” valve box lid Part # DBRY-4 Direct Bury Splice Kit - 4 Pack Part # DBRY Direct Bury Splice Kit - single unit Products that™

Gulp™ UltraMAX SUPER HIGH-CAPACITY WATER REMOVAL SUCTION PUMPS Whether you need to remove water from sprinklers and valve boxes or other areas or devices, UltraMax Series Pumps are the ideal tools for the job…huge capacities and the smoothest pumps you will ever use as well.

special features • Super Smooth Pumping Action • High Volume Capacity • Strong Aluminum Pump Shaft • Contour Grip Handle • No Leak Seals • Self Priming

GULP SYRINGE ULTRA • 12 oz./stroke • 12” pump chamber

BIG GULP ULTRAMAX • 35 oz./stroke! • 36” pump chamber • 72” or 36” outlet hose

GULP ULTRAMAX • 18 oz./stroke! • 14” clear pump chamber • 18” outlet hose

also great for


pipe repair




and more!

Easy, push-button cleaning system Gulp UltraMAX and BigGulp UltraMAX include debris flter attachment for very dirty water.

ordering Part # A-G12-C Part # A-G3636CK Part # A-G3672CK Part # A-G12S-C Part # A-GTUB-C 866-863-3744 •

Gulp™ UltraMax BigGulp™ UltraMax w/ 36” outlet hose BigGulp™ UltraMax w/ 72” outlet hose Gulp™ Syringe Ultra 100 ft. outlet hose


AuditMaster™ EXPERT SPRINKLER PERFORMANCE TESTING KITS Increasing watering times to compensate for poorly performing sprinklers wastes a lot of water. Accurately measuring sprinkler application rates with Underhill® AuditMaster™ helps maximize water savings.

4”x 5” Marking fags on 21” wire (50-pack) are available in 6 colors.

AuditMaster Combo ST/LT Kit (pictured), includes large CatchCanPro cups (blue) and CatchCanPro Mini cups (30 each). AuditMaster ST Kit excludes the large CatchCanPro cups. This kit is ideal for SMALL TURF audits. AuditMaster LT Kit excludes the CatchCanPro Mini cups. This kit is optimized for golf courses, sports felds and other LARGE TURF audits.

CatchCan Pro™

CatchCan Pro (CCPK-10) for LARGE TURF audits. Measures ml, cm, inches.

features • • • • • •

Self standing - easily anchors into turf, even on slopes Measures sprinkler application in inches or centimeters Unique design allows for shorter duration test Made of durable polypropylene engineered plastic Can be stacked for easy storage Each 10 pack kit comes with instructions

ordering Part # AUD-ST Part # AUD-LT Part # AUD-STLT Part # SALESPRO4 Part # A-STW Part # A-WIND Part # CCPK-10 Part # CCPMK-10


AuditMaster ST Kit AuditMaster LT Kit AuditMaster Combo ST/LT Kit AuditMaster Wheeled Carry Case Stop Watch Anemometer (Wind Gauge) CatchCan Pro (Blue) - 10 Pack CatchCan Pro Mini - 10 Pack

Part # MT-100 Part # A-FLAG Part # A-FLAG-B Part # A-FLAG-O Part # A-FLAG-P Part # A-FLAG-R Part # A-FLAG-W

Fiberglass Measuring Tape: 100’ Marking Flags: Yellow - 50 Pack Marking Flags: Blue - 50 Pack Marking Flags: Orange - 50 Pack Marking Flags: Pink - 50 Pack Marking Flags: Red - 50 Pack Marking Flags: White - 50 Pack

CatchCan Pro Mini (CCPMK-10) for SMALL TURF audits. Measures inches.

Products that™

TurfSpy™ EARLY STRESS DETECTION GLASSES Disease, drought and weed invasion are plant and turf killers. But by the time you see them it can be too late. TurfSpy™ glasses, with stress detection technology developed by NASA, lets you “see into the future” to identify problems 2-10 days before they are visible to your naked eye. Keep your turf and vegetation healthy BEFORE serious problems arise.

features fusarium patch

pythium blight

yellow patch (rhizoctonia) brown patch


• Shatterproof/polycarbonate stress detection lens (ANSI approved safety lens) • Wrap-around lens limits ambient light for optimal detection • Sports frame with adjustable ear piece • Lightweight case included

HOW IT WORKS Dying vegetation absorbs and refects sunlight differently then when its healthy. The earliest signals occur at the outer limits of the human visual spectrum, and are rendered invisible compared to the predominant middle wavelengths. TurfSpy™ flters the light in the center so that fringe spectra, which show early plant stress, become visible.

get a jump on broken or poor-performing sprinklers highly effcient spot watering saves time and labor costs superior weed location and spraying saves time and money

ordering Part # NG655-01 TurfSpy™ Glasses and Deluxe Case

HeadChecker™ NOZZLE DISCHARGE PRESSURE GAUGE Use this liquid-flled 160 psi gauge with 30” fex hose and solid brass Pitot tube, hose bib, or spray head adapter to measure water pressure at discharge points.

ordering Part # A-PHG-160K Part # A-SHG-160K Part # A-HBG-160K Part # A-HCGPK Part # A-PG160L Part # A-HCP Part # A-HBT Part # A-SHA

HeadChecker™ gauge, 30” Flex Hose, Pitot Tube HeadChecker™ gauge with Spray Head Adapter HeadChecker™ with ¾” POC Hose Bib Tap HeadChecker™ gauge and Pitot tube HeadChecker™ 160 psi pressure gauge only Pitot tube only ¾” Hose Thread x ¼” Brass Hose Bib Tap Spray Head Adapter

866-863-3744 •


Serious about saving water?

Profle™ SOLID METAL GOLF SPRINKLER NOZZLES Upgrade your sprinklers with Profile™, the ultra-high uniformity, water conserving, solid metal nozzles from Underhill®. You will see improved results immediately, save millions of gallons of water every year and improve the playability of your course at the same time…guaranteed.

Golf Sprinkler with OEM Nozzles

Same Golf Sprinkler with Profle Nozzles

Use less water, less energy and less manpower and get better course playability.

August 14: Profle nozzles installed in problem area.

“Profle nozzles lived up to our expectations and eliminated patchy dry spots and donuts. We retroftted all our fairways and now run a more effcient irrigation program.” Logan Spurlock Superintendent, Sherwood Country Club

“The real power is knowing that retroftting sprinklers with Profle nozzles can be phased in to work within a course’s operating budget.” Kurt Thompson K. Thompson and Associates, Irrigation Consultant and Trainer Huntersville, North Carolina and Pace, Florida


“It was like putting in a new irrigation system. I became a believer overnight.” Mike Huck

September 6: Uniform distribution restored, turf is green and healthy.

See how Superintendents are upgrading their entire golf courses! Video online now at

Irrigation & Turfgrass Services Former USGA Staff Agronomist Former Superintendent, Murrieta Hot Springs Resort

“The Profle retroft program has also extended the life of our Toro system while improving course appearance and playability.” Dennis Eichner Assistant Superintendent, Silverado Resort - Napa, California

Products that™

Profle nozzles for



730 SERIES Full Circle: Front/Rear Nozzle Set Part # T730-3313 T730-3413 T730-3515 T730-3515L (50 psi) T730-3615 T730-3617

Nozzle Color # range/spreader Toro Noz # Brown 33 / Gray 13 33 Blue 34 / Gray 13 34 Violet 35 / Red 15 --Green 35 / Red 15* 35 Red 36 / Red 15* 36 Red 36 / Lavender 17

Profle nozzles are so consistent, with distribution patterns so uniform... it’s like rain on demand.™

* For square spacing, specify #17 (lavender) nozzle with the #35 and #36 range nozzles

760 and 860 SERIES Part Circle: Midrange/Close-in Nozzle Set Part # T760-GY T860-GY

Nozzle Color: midrange/close-in Gray / Yellow Gray / Yellow

Profle nozzles for

830, 834S, DT SERIES Full Circle: Midrange/Close-in Nozzle Set Part # T830-GY T834-GY TDT100-GY

Nozzle Color: midrange / close-in Gray / Yellow Gray / Yellow Gray / Yellow

Toro Series 830 834S DT 34/35

835S SERIES Part # T835S-WP

Full Circle: Midrange/Close-in Nozzle Set Nozzle Color: midrange / close-in White / Plug

11/4'' INLET

Rain Bird®

EAGLE 700 SERIES Full Circle: Midrange/Close-in Nozzles Nozzle Color midrange / close-in Part # R70028-RG R70032-RG R7003640-GG

Blue / Gray Red / Gray Blue / Gray

Rain Bird Nozzle #s

28 32 36/40 and larger

630 SERIES CALL FOR AVAILABILITY 670 SERIES Full Circle: Rear Nozzles Part # T670-BY

Nozzle Color: midrange / close-in Black / Yellow

11/2'' INLET

690 SERIES Full Circle: Rear Nozzle Part # T690-G

Nozzle Color: spreader Gray

Look familiar? Poor performing Eagle 700 sprinklers are often the result of clogged and worn nozzles. Profle nozzles’ solid metal construction and nozzle shape were scientifcally designed to solve this exact problem. They simply don’t wear out. And they don’t clog. Upgrade your old golf sprinklers to better than OEM with Profle!

750 SERIES Full Circle: Front/Rear Nozzle Set Part # T750-5617 T750-5717

Nozzle Color #range / spreader Red 56 / Lavender 17 Gray 57 / Lavender 17

Toro Nozzle #s 56 57

900 EAGLE SERIES Full Circle: Close-in Nozzle Part # Nozzle Color R900-M Maroon

780, 854S, DT SERIES Midrange/Close-in Nozzle Set Part Circle (780), Full Circle (854S), Part/Full Circle (DT 54/55) Part # Nozzle Color: midrange / close-in Toro Series T780-BY Black / Yellow 780 T854-BY Black / Yellow 854S TDT150-BY Black / Yellow DT 54/55

11/2'' INLET

91 SERIES BRASS IMPACTS Full Circle: Close-in Nozzle Part # Nozzle Color R91-G Gray

51 SERIES BRASS IMPACTS 855S SERIES Full Circle: Midrange/Close-in Nozzle Set Part # T855S-PP

Nozzle Color: midrange / close-in Pink / Plug

650 SERIES CALL FOR AVAILABILITY All original equipment manufacturers, names and products presented in this publication are used for identifcation purposes only, and we are in no way implying that any of our products are original equipment parts. Toro® is a registered trademark of the Toro Company, Rain Bird® is a registered trademark of the Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corporation.

866-863-3744 •

Full Circle: Front/Rear Nozzles Nozzle Color # Part # range / spreader

Rain Bird Nozzle #s

R51-1411.5 R51-1611.5 R51-1811.5 R51-2011.5 R51-2213 R51-2413

14 / 11.5 16 / 11.5 18 / 11.5 20 / 11.5 22 / 13 24 / 13

White 14 / Gray 11.5 Blue 16 / Gray 11.5 Yellow 18 / Gray 11.5 Red 20 / Gray 11.5 Green 22 / Black 13 Black 24 / Black 13


WETTING AGENTS & SPECIALTY PRODUCTS You’ve known KALO since 1932 as a pioneer in the development of innovative products for agriculture, and today, leading turf products like Tournament-Ready® and Hydro-Wet®, as well as a range of specialty products. Now backed by the strength of Underhill distribution and product development, this new partnership provides golf superintendents and turf professionals with water management products that provide solutions to problems that turf managers face with maintaining turf quality.

When a product does its job day in and day out - it works. When it saves you time, money, or water - it’s smart. When it does both - it’s from Underhill.

Wetting agents keep your water wetter!



§ University tests confirm Tournament-Ready’s comparable performance in side-by-side testing against leading competitive brands* § Tournament-Ready uses a blend of three surfactant ingredients to provide flexibility in use as a preventative and curative treatment § Tournament-Ready delivers rapid wetting of repellent soils, drives down surface moisture to avoid spongy turf and delivers moderate residual for rewetting up to 14 weeks from initial application § Tournament-Ready will eliminate localized dry spot, provide more uniform wetting action, and enhance water’s infiltration and drainage 2.5 Gal / 9.48 L / 2 per case 30 Gal /113 L drum

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH TOURNAMENT-READY IF…you’re looking for a premium performing soil surfactant that is proven to compete with the best USE…Tournament-Ready at 8 oz (240 ml) first month, 4 oz (120 ml) every month thereafter per per 1000 sq ft (100 sq M)


TO…provide a comprehensive water management program for turf ordering Part # UHTUR02 Part # UHTUR30


TOURNAMENT-READY (2.5 Gal/9.48 Liters Jug) Soil Surfactant TOURNAMENT-READY (30 Gal/114 Liters Drum) Soil Surfactant

Products that™


2.5 Gal / 9.48 L / 2 per case 30 Gal /113 L drum



§ Medalist, when used in a scheduled, water management program, will eliminate turf localized dry spot and enhance turf quality while reducing watering frequency § Medalist’s lower active formula incorporates the same university tested ingredients found in Tournament-Ready Soil Surfactant to deliver comparable performance to leading competitive products at a reduced price § Get the most out of rain and irrigation § Saves money on water and energy costs

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH MEDALIST IF…you want a proven, lower cost soil surfactant for your water management program USE…Medalist at 16 to 24 oz (480 to 720 ml) per acre (0.4 hectare) monthly TO…enhance water infltration, reduce dew formation and improve turf quality while using less water ordering Part # UHMED02 Part # UHMED03

MEDALIST (2.5 Gal/9.48 Liters Jug) Soil Surfactant MEDALIST (30 Gal/114 Liters Drum) Soil Surfactant


2.5 Gal / 9.48 L / 2 per case 30 Gal /113 L drum


§ Unique soil surfactant and polymer resin blend that can be tank mixed for spray application or injected directly into irrigation flow § Surfactant ingredients provide initial soil wetting action while polymer resin adsorbs to soil particles for enhanced water retention § Reduced watering requirements are achieved through surfactant’s reduction of surface tension combined with polymer resin’s attachment to soil particles for greater water holding capacity to guard against plant stress § Polymer resin boosts water retention in soil to deliver enhanced residual activity

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH H20 MAXIMIZER™ want to maximize plant available water for turf and other plants by 25% or more USE...H20 Maximizer at 16 to 24 oz (480 to 720 ml) per acre (0.50 hectare) monthly TO...enhance water’s infltration into repellant soils while boosting soil water holding capacity for extended residual activity


ordering Part # UHHMAX02 Part # UHHMAX30

866-863-3744 •

H2O MAXIMIZER (2.5 Gal/9.48 Liters Jug) Surfactant/Polymer Resin Blend H2O MAXIMIZER (30 Gal/114 Liters Drum) Surfactant/Polymer Resin Blend




Hydro-Wet Injectable improves infiltration and penetration of rainfall and irrigation water Minimizes water loss due to run-off and evaporation Formulated for use with irrigation system metering equipment Hydro-Wet’s high affinity for water drives down surface moisture to avoid spongy turf and standing water § When university tested in comparison to 10 leading competitors, Hydro-Wet provided superior performance at reducing soil repellency

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH HYDRO-WET INJECTABLE 265 Gal / 1,003 L tote 30 Gal / 114 L drum

IF…you want a lower cost, irrigation-applied wetting agent USE…Hydro-Wet Injectable 24 oz (720 ml) per acre (0.5 hectare) monthly TO…reduce soil repellency while enhancing soil moisture content for quality turf


ordering Part # UHHYI30 Part # UHHYI265

HYDRO-WET INJECTABLE (30 Gal/114 Liters Drum) Liquid Concentrate HYDRO-WET INJECTABLE (265 Gal/1,003 Liters Tote) Liquid Concentrate

Tournament-Ready® Plus™ with Actosol® NEW!

PROVEN TOURNAMENT-READY FORMULA W/ ACTOSOL AND MICRONUTRIENTS § A combination of Tournament-Ready proven formula but with the addition of humic and fulvic acid, and micronutrients § Uniform moisture management (doesn’t bind in the thatch layer) § Increases soil moisture without causing “spongy turf” problems § The multiple benefits of humic and fulvic acids, calcium, and iron


8 oz /227 gm pellet 16 pellets per case

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH TOURNAMENT-READY PLUS w/ ACTOSOL IF…you are looking for a preventative and curative treatment of localized dry spot in highly maintained turf with an added nutrient benefit USE…Tournament-Ready Plus with actosol pellets to supplement areas that have poor moisture holding capacity, and rooting at a rate of 4-6 minutes per 1000 square feet


TO…reduce soil repellency and distribute water absorption onto soil particles ordering Part # UHTRPLPEL



Products that™


6 oz /170 gm pellet 24 pellets per case


§ Same University tested formula in solid pellet for supplemental treatments § Treat small turf areas while hand watering using Underhill PelletPro applicator § Inert binder is carrier for Tournament-Ready Soil Surfactant for metered hand watering application § Tournament-Ready Pellets help cool canopy temperatures of turfgrass during high heat, stress conditions § Pellet jar can be inserted in pellet applicator reservoir to modulate soil surfactant output

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH TOURNAMENT-READY PELLETS IF…you’re looking for the proven Tournament-Ready Soil Surfactant formula in a solid pellet form USE…Tournament-Ready Pellets at 2-4 minutes per 1,000 sq ft (93 sq M) TO…apply a curative treatment for localized dry spot while supplementing liquid Tournament-Ready applications


ordering Part # UHTRPEL


Hydro-Wet® Premium Pellets PELLETS

CONCENTRATED HYDRO-WET IN SOLID PELLET FORM § Same University-tested Hydro-Wet formula in solid pellet form for supplemental treatments while hand watering turf areas § Hydro-Wet Premium Pellets help to cool the canopy temperatures of turfgrass during high heat, stress conditions § Apply with PelletPro Applicator 6 oz / 170 gm pellets 24 pellets per case

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH HYDRO-WET PREMIUM PELLETS IF…you’re looking for a competitively priced turf wetting agent for use with hand watering USE…add Hydro-Wet Premium Pellets at 2 to 4 minutes per 1000 sq ft (100 sq M) TO…supplement irrigation applications of Hydro-Wet Injectable for improved water infltration and control of localized dry spot in turf

GOOD ordering Part # UHHYPEL-6

866-863-3744 •

HYDRO-WET PREMIUM PELLETS (6 oz/170 gm pellet)





§ § § §

Increase irrigation and rain efficiency by enhancing plant available water Improve water infiltration and water holding capacity of soil Remains active in the soil for 4-6 weeks, then bio-degrades into natural materials Polymer resin delivers increased plant available water

8 oz /227 gm pellet 16 pellets per case

PROBLEM SOLVED WITH H2O MAXIMIZER PELLETS IF…you want to enhance fltration, water holding capacity, and plant available water USE…H2O Maximizer pellets to supplement areas that have poor moisture holding capacity at a rate of 4-6 minutes per 1000 square feet


TO…reduce soil repellency and increase water adsorption onto soil particles ordering Part # UHH20PEL H2O MAXIMIZER PELLETS (8 oz/227 gm pellet)






Tournament Ready®




H20 Maximer® SPECIALTY

§ Penetrates § Hydrates LONGER under ALL conditions

§ Penetrates § Ultra Hydration - Holds MORE water for dry conditions




§ Greens


§ Approaches § Tees

§ Fairways § Roughs


§ § § §

Economy Choices: § Approaches § Tees n Roughs § Fairways


Bunker Facings New Sod / Seeding Fairways Roughs


§ Greens


Tournament Ready® Pellets

§ Penetrates § Hydrates LONGER under ALL conditions

§ Greens

§ Ultra Penetrates

§ § § §

Fairways Tees Approaches Roughs

§ Penetrates § Ultra Hydration

§ § § §

Bunker Facings New Sod / Seeding Fairways Roughs

Plus™ with Actosol®

Hydro-Wet® Pellets SPECIALTY

H20 Maximer® Pellets SPECIALTY



§ Penetrates § Hydrates LONGER under ALL conditions § Root Enhancing

Tournament Ready®



§ Penetrates § Hydrates under ALL conditions




Economy Choices: § Approaches § Tees n Roughs § Fairways

Products that™


NONIONIC SURFACTANT / TANK MIX ADJUVANT § Use Bio-90 when accompanying pesticide label instructions recommend the use of a nonionic surfactant tank mix adjuvant § Bio-90 optimizes the performance of turf fungicides, insecticides and herbicides § Use Bio-90 when uniform spray coverage and penetration into the targeted plant surface is preferred § Bio-90 contains rainfast ingredient to minimize wash-off § Bio-90 contains an antifoam ingredient to suppress troublesome foam during agitation

1 Qt / 946ml jug 12 per case need a tank mix adjuvant to enhance effectiveness of pesticide spray applications USE...Bio-90 at 32 oz (946 ml) per 100 gallons (378.5 L) of spray water TO...ensure spreading and penetration of active ingredient for enhanced uptake


NONIONIC ORGANOSILOXANE / SPREADER / PENETRANT BLEND § Cadence is a low use rate, spreader-activator tank mix adjuvant that significantly improves the performance of pesticide and fertilizer spray applications § Use Cadence when the accompanying pesticide label instructions recommend the use of a nonionic surfactant § Cadence’s super spreading action is the result of reducing surface tension dramatically lower than traditional nonionic surfactant adjuvants § Unlike conventional surfactants, Cadence rapidly covers and penetrates waxy plant surfaces to allow larger amounts of active ingredient to enter the plant § Cadence works as a dew control agent for turf and as a mulch, peat or potting soil surfactant

IF…you want a high performing nonionic surfactant for use as an adjuvant or soil wetter USE…Cadence at 6 f oz (180ml) per 100 gallons (378.5 L) TO…rapidly deliver the most active ingredient or water to targeted surface

1 Qt / 946ml jug 6 per case

Water FX

DRY WATER CONDITIONER / ACIDIFYING AGENT ADJUVANT § Water FX effectively sequesters hard water minerals such as calcium, magnesium and iron that can interfere with many pesticide active ingredients § Water FX lowers spray water pH to ensure full effectiveness of many insecticides, fungicides and herbicide sprays that perform better in moderately acidic water § Certain pesticide active ingredients will be more effective and are more readily available to the plant with the use of Water FX

IF…you want to lower spray water pH and sequester hard water minerals in tank mix sprays USE…½ lb (227 gm) per 100 gal (378.5 L) TO…adjust to desired pH and optimize performance of tank mix active ingredients ordering Part # BI901Qt Part # CADEN1Q Part # WFX04 866-863-3744 •

4 lb / 1.8kg jar 6 per case

Bio-90 (1 Qt/946ml Jug) 90% Spreader-Activator/Nonionic Surfactant Cadence (1 Qt/946ml Jug) Organosiloxane/Spreader/Penetrant Blend WATER FX (4 lb/1.8 kg Jar) Dry Water Conditioner/Acidifying Agent


Anti-Foam™ ANTIFOAMING AND DEFOAMING AGENT § Anti-Foam is a fast, effective defoamer for use in suppressing foam, controlling foam reduces filling time and lessens overflow waste § Anti-Foam improves spray performance § Silicone and surfactant blend work in tandem to quickly dissipate troublesome foam that forms during agitation IF…you want to prevent foam in mix tanks USE…Anti-Foam at 1 to 2 oz (30 to 60 ml) per 100 gallons (378.5 liters) of spray mixture TO…suppress foam formation during mixing, flling and recirculation 1 Qt / 946 ml bottle 12 per case

ordering Part # AF1Q ANTI-FOAM (1 Qt/946 ml Bottle)

K-Klean™ LIQUID TANK CLEANER § K-Klean is an effective cleaner for metal, fiberglass and plastic spray systems § K-Klean aids in the removal of dirt, grime, grease, chemical and fertilizer residues from tanks and equipment § K-Klean helps eliminate rust and scale and keeps costly equipment in ready-to-use condition need quick effective cleaning of spray tanks using a liquid use tank cleaner USE...K-Klean at 1-4 quarts (1 to 4 liters) per 100 gallons (378.5 liters) TO...wash out all types of spray tank reservoirs, lines and equipment to effciently remove residue materials from equipment ordering Part # KKLEAN01 K-KLEAN (1 Gal/3.79 Liters Jug) Liquid Tank Cleaner

1 Gal / 3.79 L jug 4 per case

Tank Cleaner™ DRY TANK & EQUIPMENT CLEANER § Tank Cleaner is designed for cleaning tanks, lines and nozzles to remove pesticide, herbicide and fertilizer residues § Tank Cleaner also removes light rust and dissolves deposit buildups while leaving a protective film that helps prevent corrosion § Color dye in Tank Cleaner indicates ingredients are still active in solution IF…you need a fast acting, dry tank and equipment cleaner USE…Tank Cleaner at 1-lb (456 gm) per 100 gallons (378.5 liters) 1 lb / 456 gm jar 12 per case

TO…remove spray ingredient deposits from tanks, hoses, booms, flters and nozzles ordering Part # TC01 TANK CLEANER (1 lb/456 gm Jar) Dry Tank & Equipment Cleaner

Benchmark™ ALL SEASON FOAM MARKER § This foam concentrate is specially formulated to deliver long lasting foam in a range of weather and field conditions § This highly concentrated formula, when used as directed will produce thick, white, highly visible foam. Benchmark can be used with any compressed air foam marking equipment to provide long lasting foam deposits on turf or soil areas to avoid over-sprays or skips § Benchmark is formulated with conditioners for hard water situations and can be used with foam colorants IF…you want to generate highly visible durable foam as a feld marker USE…Benchmark at 2 oz (60ml) for every 1 gallon (3.8 liters) of water in equipment reservoir TO…produce high expansion, stable foam in a range of foam generating equipment

1 Gal / 3.79 L jug 4 per case

ordering Part # BMK01 BENCHMARK Foam Marking Agent (1 Gal/3.79 Liters Jug)


Products that™

PelletPro™ rotates pellets at one revolution per second (RPS) to evenly dissolve/ apply wetting agent

PelletPro™ APPLICATOR GUN FOR SOLID WETTING AGENT TABLETS EACH PelletPro includes 1 FREE Tournament-Ready Pellet add -PL to Part# to receive your FREE pellet!

Our heavy-duty surfactant applicator, high-fow valve and Precision™ Cloudburst™ nozzle combo comprises the fnest wetting agent gun available. PelletPro™ accepts all wetting agent tablets and provides a high volume, yet soft spray for watering or applying surfactants to tight, hydrophobic soils.

features • 35+ GPM to get the job done faster! • Ultra Heavy-Duty construction: brass fttings, aircraft aluminum, stainless steel, precision engineered glass • Pellet rotation (1 RPS) evenly dissolves/applies tablets

IN-LINE APPLICATOR OPTION Connect directly to a water source (quick coupler, HoseTap, etc.) to get the benefts of PelletPro with less handheld weight.

PelletPro’s bowl works great as an in-line flter replacement for most spray rigs. Heavy-duty, transparent bowl shows fuid levels, won’t crack during winter storage.

LiquidPro™ APPLICATOR GUN FOR LIQUID WETTING AGENT LiquidPro’s chemical-resistant, UV-protected, lightweight siphon mixing system can cover 1000 square feet in less than a minute! With unmatched speed and uniformity, you can virtually “paint” your turf with liquid wetting agent, fertilizers, and micronutrients. Adjustable metering dial offers 10 additive settings including “Water Only.”

ordering Part # A-PPWA50K Part # A-PPWA50K-E Part # A-PPQ-075 Part # A-PPQ-100 Part # A-PPWASHNK Part # A-PPWASHNK-E Part # A-PPB Part # A-PPBG Part # A-LPWA50K Part # A-LPWA50K-E Part # A-LPWWASHNK Part # A-LPWWASHNK-E Part # A-LPWAB-6

PelletPro™ Applicator Gun (with 1” FHT x ¾” MHT adapter) PelletPro™ Applicator Gun (with ¾” quick-connect adapter) PelletPro™ In-line Applicator: ¾” FHT inlet, ¾” MHT outlet PelletPro™ In-line Applicator: 1” FHT inlet, 1” MHT outlet PelletPro Applicator Gun (with 1” FHT x ¾” MHT Adaptor) with RainPro Nozzle PelletPro Applicator Gun (with ¾” quick connect adaptor) with RainPro Nozzle In-line Filter Bowl Gasket LiquidPro™ Applicator Gun (with 1” FHT x ¾” MHT adapter) LiquidPro™ Applicator Gun (with ¾” quick-connect adapter) LiquidPro Applicator Gun (with 1” FHT x ¾” MHT Adaptor) with RainPro Nozzle LiquidPro Applicator Gun (with ¾” quick connect adaptor) with RainPro Nozzle 6-Pack of 32 oz. Polybottles and Carrier

866-863-3744 •

With the included 1” FHT x ¾” MHT brass adapter, PelletPro™ and LiquidPro™ work with both ¾” and 1” hoses.

RainPro™ Nozzle

Now available on PelletPro and LiquidPro Applicator Guns!



Flo-Pro™ Injection

HI-FLO PROPORTIONAL INJECTION SYSTEM The affordable solution for applying liquid or water soluble wetting agent, fertilizers, acids and soil amendments using your irrigation system. Designed for golf, sports felds, and large landscape commercial applications.

Simple & Affordable Size the tank needed for your application and connect into the irrigation mainline. • No Mixing • No Injection Limit • No Electricity Required • No Moving Parts

features • Patented, fuid-fow technology for precise delivery • Adjustable feed rates for various mixing ratios • Easy flling – no pre-mixing or pre-blending • No moving parts means no down time or maintenance


EASY OPERATION Simply turn dial to the desired injection rate. Just pour wetting agent directly into tank and let your irrigationsystem do the work… saves man power! (1-20 gallons per hour adjustment)



No pipe cutting required with saddle connection


Part # IHF-010 Part # IHF-017 Part # IHF-025 Part # IHF-045 Part # IHF-086 Part # IHF-36S Part # IHF-612S Part # IHF-MC45 Part # IHF-MC86

10 Gallon Hi-Flo Horizontal Tank System 17 Gallon Hi-Flo Horizontal Tank System 25 Gallon Hi-Flo Horizontal Tank System 45 Gallon Hi-Flo Vertical Tank System 86 Gallon Hi-Flo Vertical Tank System Saddle Connection Kits for 3-6” Mains Saddle Connection Kits for 6”-12” Mains Metal Vertical Enclosure for 45 Gallon Tank Metal Vertical Enclosure for 86 Gallon Tank

Products that™


Flo-Pro™ Inline

IN-LINE APPLICATOR FOR LIQUID WETTING AGENT The lightweight portable solution to apply surfactant to tight hydrophobic soils. Also, ideal for liquid or soluble fertilizers and soil amendments. Easy connection to water source (quick coupler, HoseTap, etc). Just attach your favorite nozzle like the Precision Cloudburst or RainPro and your ready to go.

features • Larger 1 gallon tank • Made of high impact PVC • Adjustable feed rate • Can also apply fertilizers and soil amendments

Flo-Pro™ Injection FLO-PRO™ VERTICAL TANK ENCLOSURE Constructed of 12 gauge powder coated steel, enclosure is both light weight and durable. Louvered side panels for cooling and removable front panel for full access.


ordering Part # IHB-1010

866-863-3744 •

Inline applicator includes coupling and on/off ball valves


by Underhill®

Marking Systems SPEED AND QUALITY OF PLAY…GOLF AS IT SHOULD BE. You know Grund Guide for making premier yardage marking solutions. Now backed with the strength of Underhill® distribution and product development, you can have the highest quality and most complete yardage marking systems available today and into the future. We offer durable and high-visibility customized markers for all popular golf sprinklers along with unique fairway, tee box, and driving range markers. Speed up and improve the quality of play with Grund Guide Marking Systems.

Sprinkler Head Yardage Markers Model SPM 106 - TORO Engraved Caps: Perfect-ft caps engraved and color flled for high visibility. Multiple number locations vary for lids with holes.

Model SPM 107 - Rain Bird Engraved Caps: Perfect ft caps engraved and color flled for high visibility number identifcation.

Model SPM 110 - Hunter Engraved Caps/Covers: Perfect-ft fange covers (G800, G900) and caps (G90), engraved and color flled for high visibility.

Model SPM 101 - Fit Over Discs: Anodized aluminum (no paint!), these markers are engraved and custom ft to each sprinkler. Multiple number locations vary for lids with holes.

Model SPM 105 - Universal Tags: Anodized aluminum (no paint!), these markers are engraved and designed for most universal ft applications. Tags are installed using 1/8” rivets.

Model SPM 103 - TORO Snap-In Markers: OEM UPGRADE to high quality polycarbonate custom ft. One complete, high-visibility marker snaps into OEM plug.

Model SPM 108 - TORO & Hunter: Special engraved plastic material designed to ft into OEM lid recess

Model SPM 104 - Lid/Molded Recess Markers: Durable replacement lid, with reverse engraved number insert process. Excellent number ID with this model

Model SPM 102 - Rain Bird Yardage Highlighter Snap-Ring: Replaces OEM snap ring with perfect ft bright yardage and reclaimed color identifcation.

ordering example Marker Model SPM-106


Sprinkler Mfg Series Toro 730

FITS: Toro 730, 750, 760, 780, 830/850S, 834S, 835S, DT34/35S. 854S. DT54/55, 860S, 880S COLORS: Caps - l/m/l/l Numbers - m/l/l/l/l/l/l FITS: Rain Bird E900, E950, E700, E750, E500, E550, 700, 751, 51DR COLORS: Caps - l/m/l/l Numbers - m/l/l/l/l/l/l/l FITS: Hunter G800, G900, G90 COLORS: Flange cover / caps - l Numbers - m/l/l/l/l/l/l FITS: Toro 630, 650, 660, 670, 680, 690, 830/850S, 834S, 835S, DT34/35, 854S, 855S, DT54/55, 860S, 880S, Rain Bird 47/51 DR, 71/91/95, E900, E950, E700, E750, E500, E550, 1100, Hunter G-70/75, G-90/95, G-990, G-995, John Deere/Signature – Call COLORS: Discs - l/l/l, Numbers - l FITS: Universal - Options: Crescent 2-7/8”W x 1”H, Round Edge 3”W x 1”H, Square Edge 2”W x ¾”H COLORS: Tags - l/l/l Numbers - l FITS: Toro 730, 750, 760, 780, 830/850S, 834S, DT34/35, 854S, DT54/55, 860S, 880S COLORS: Snap in - m/l/l, Numbers - m/l (Reclaimed water option - l no number - available) FITS: Toro 730, 750, 760, 780, 834S, DT34/35, 854S, DT54/55, 860S, 880S and Hunter G800, G70/75B, G870, G875, G880, G885, G990, G995 COLORS: Markers - m/l, Numbers - l FITS: Rain Bird 47, 51 COLORS: Lid - l/m/l Insert - m/l/l Numbers - m/l FITS: Rain Bird E900, E950, E700, E750, E500, E550, 700, 751 COLORS: m/l/l (Reclaimed Water)

View/download complete ordering guide at Marker Color Black

# Color Yellow

Qty. of #s on Marker 1

Total QM on Order 76

Products that™

Fairway / Tee / Range Disc Markers Large 7 ½” cap with big bold 3 ½” standard yardage numbers. Ideal for fairway, tee and driving range marking. Optional 8” mounting pipe attachment available for secure installation.

FAIRWAY STANDARD DISC SYSTEM Color-coded markers with bold 3 ½” yardage number. Several system options available.

FAIRWAY CUSTOM OPTIONS Markers can be customized to display specifc yardage numbers, include logos, or custom design. Disc Marker pictured with optional 8” mounting pipe (installs easily with standard cup cutter)

TEE BOX / DRIVING RANGE CUSTOM OPTIONS Markers can be customized to display specifc multiple numbers, include logos, or custom design.

SYSTEM EXAMPLES A: 3 markers placed down the center of the fairway at 50 yard intervals B: 5 markers placed down the center of the fairway for greater coverage C: Markers placed on sides and center (“diamond” layout) for highest visibility D: Create a custom system with your choice of color and numbers/markings





Valve Box / Universal Markers These engraved, anodized aluminum (no paint!) markers are ideal for isolation or control valves, satellites or other applications.

ordering Standard Disks with Markings FTM-Y-75 l Yellow Disk with 75 FTM-R-100 l Red Disk with 100 FTM-W-150 m White Disk with 150 FTM-BL-200 l Blue Disk with 200 FTM-BK-250 l Black Disk with 250 FTM-RWB-KIT 3 Disks with Yardages (l/m/l) FTM-YRWBB-KIT 5 Disks with Yardages (l/l/m/l/l) Custom Disks for Fairway, Tee Box and Driving Range FTM-Y l Yellow Disk no markings FTM-O l Orange Disk no markings FTM-R l Red Disk no markings FTM-W m White Disk no markings FTM-BL l Blue Disk no markings FTM-BK l Black Disk no markings FTM-G l Green Disk no markings FTM-L l Lavender Disk no markings Tee Box / Fairway / Driving Range Custom Markings To order, add to end of custom disk part numbers above. Example: FTM-Y-#1 (Yellow Disk with One custom number)

XXXX-#1 One custom number to disk XXXX-#2 Two custom numbers to disk XXXX-#3 Three custom numbers to disk XXXX-CUST Custom Design; Script XXXX-LOGO Logo added to disk XXXX-#4 up to 4 fags / targets / yardages XXXX-#8 5 to 8 fags / targets / yardages XXXX-#12 9 to 12 fags / targets / yardages Accessories FTM-PL 8" Mounting Pipe for all disks Valve Box / Universal Markers SPM-105-B Black anodized marker SPM-105-M Maroon anodized marker

For detailed ordering information of custom markers, visit 866-863-3744 •


20505 Crescent Bay Drive • Lake Forest, CA 92630 USA tel: (949) 305-7050 • fax: (949) 305-7051 1-866-863-3744 •

An industry leader in innovative watering products all over the world, Underhill® brings 34 years of know-how in developing our inventory of “Products that™

UNDERHILL INTERNATIONAL PROFESSIONAL WATERING PRODUCTS 2014 ©2014 Underhill International Corporation. All original equipment manufacturers, names and products presented in this publication are used for identifcation purposes only, and we are in no way implying that any of our products are original equipment parts. Toro® is a registered trademark of the Toro Company, Rain Bird® is a registered trademark of the Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corporation, Hunter® is a registered trademark of Hunter Industries. John Deere® is a registered trademark of Deere & Company. Signature® is a registered trademark of Signature Control Systems, Inc.

Form No. UIWP-B14

Products that™

Golf Course Management - June 2014  

A publication of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America

Golf Course Management - June 2014  

A publication of the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America