Page 1

Alcohol and Muscle Tissue _______________________________________________________________________________

The remaining alcohol that leaves the brain goes about sedating and irritating the rest of the cells in the body. When it comes in contact with your heart, it sedates and inflames the cardiac tissue causing myocarditites. The effect of this is a decrease in cardiorespiratory function. Research has found that even minimal amounts of alcohol can significantly decrease cardiovascular fitness and oxygen uptake. Alcohol even in small quantities does basically the same thing to your neuromuscular system…it sedates and inflames the muscle tissue decrease in muscular strength and endurance.

∞ DRUGS in Perspective ∞ __________________________________________________________________

What Are the Numbers? Alcoholics Anonymous has been supporting recovery since its inception in 1935. In excess of one million persons have achieved recovery through involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) programs. It is estimated that, at any one time, more than 100,000 men and women worldwide are involved in AA 12 step programs.

causing myocytities. This in turn causes a significant

CRITICAL POINT: Alcohol can decrease the production of testosterone and significant decrease in muscular strength and endurance. Worse yet, alcohol has been found to decrease the production of testosterone. As you are probably aware, testosterone is an anabolic hormone which aids in the development and maintenance of muscle mass. There is a prolific amount of research which has revealed that a decrease in testosterone can result in a significant detriment in muscle size and strength. Obviously, this is a major problem for an athlete who drinks even in moderation and it’s not exactly great news for us plain folk who also like a drink now and then. CRITICAL POINT: When alcohol comes in contact with your muscle tissue, it sedates and inflames the tissue causing myocytities. This in turn causes a significant decrease in muscular strength and endurance. Brace yourself though, because this alcohol excursion is not over yet and to be perfectly candid, it gets worse.

Alcohol and the Immune System _______________________________________________________________

Another area where alcohol can really cause you problems is by compromising your immune system, thereby making you more venerable to diseases. There is considerable evidence which indicates that heavy drinkers are much more susceptible to contracting diseases due to the effect that alcohol has on the immune system. I talk about the immune system in depth in chapter 8. CRITICAL POINT: There is considerable evidence which indicates that heavy drinkers are much more susceptible to contracting diseases due to the effect that alcohol has on the immune system.


Here is the Reader’s Digest version. First, an invading array of antigens attacks the body. They are engaged by large white blood cells called macrophages. If the macrophages cannot defeat the attacking invaders, they send out an SOS to the stem cells in the yellow bone marrow. In turn, the stem cells start producing lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are processed and converted into T cells…helper T cells, suppressor T cells and killer T cells. The killer Ts engages the enemy. If more killer T cells are needed, the helper T cells will stimulate their production and send them to the battlefront. On the other hand, if the killer Ts are kicking ass, the suppressor T cells will call a halt to the slaughter by restricting the number of killer Ts being sent to the battlefront. If the killer Ts cannot conquer the invading enemy by themselves, the T cell commanders, you know, the helpers and suppressor Ts, will call for reinforcements by sending a message to the stem cells to produce more lymphocytes. Some of the lymphocytes are converted into killer Ts, but others are converted into B cells. The B cells in turn become plasma cells. These plasma cells manufacture molecules of protein called antibodies. These molecular rockets race through the blood and lymph vessels looking for the invaders. Once they find them, they lock onto them and call for backup from another chemical component of the immune system called complement. Once summoned, complement races to the antibody that has locked on to the invader, surrounds the enemy and dissolves the invader. As soon as the invaders are killed, the antibody calls in other white blood cells called polys to clean up what’s left of the mutilated invaders. CRITICAL POINT: Alcohol tranquilizes the stem cells in the bone marrow, causing a significant reduction in the production of white blood cells. This reduction in white blood cells significantly compromises the immune system’s ability to fight off invading antigens. When all of the invaders have been completely conquered, the T cell council, more specifically the suppresser T cells, will call a halt to the action. Memory T cells Prevalence of binge drinking and heavy drinking among adults in and B cells remain in the blood the United States, 1990–2004. and lymphatic system to patrol the body. If the same invader once again attempts to do the body harm, the memory cell will attack and destroy it. END OF STORY! Okay, it wasn’t exactly the Reader’s Digest version, but it wasn’t exactly War and Peace either. Don’t give me that look. If you would have gone to chapter 8 and read the damn thing like I told you to in the first place, I wouldn’t have had to go through all of that.


Anywho, where does alcohol fit into all of this? I am glad you asked. Alcohol tranquilizes the stem cells in the bone marrow, causing a significant reduction in the production of white blood cells. This reduction in white blood cells compromises the immune system’s military force. When the immune system is compromised in this matter, it cannot fight off antigens that are invading the body because they don’t have enough T and B cells to seek out and destroy the enemy. In other words, alcohol decreases the size of your internal military force. Consequently, battles that the immune system usually wins easily are prolonged or even lost. It goes without saying that when this occurs, it renders you at greater risk of contracting various diseases. If you check the medical history of most heavy drinkers, this declaration will be confirmed over and over again. Typically, people who drink heavily are sick more often and miss significantly more workdays.

The Pygmalion Effect of Alcohol Use ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

I don’t know if you are aware of this, but binge drinking has become a major problem among Ivy League College students. In reality, drinking patterns of these students revealed a significant increase in alcohol consumption over the last half decade. You would think that the more intelligent an individual is, the less the propensity for drinking. Obviously, this is not the case…at least at the Ivy League schools. In order to find out why the most elite students in the country had the greatest incident of binge drinking, a team of researchers from the Rand Corporation interviewed over 100 Ivy League students who were identified as problem drinkers. The answers the students gave were quite revealing. For instance, some students said that the reason they drank was because they were under so much stress to get good grades that they needed alcohol to relax. Other students said that they were shy and that alcohol helped them to be more outgoing. Still, others said that they lacked confidence and when they drank they felt more self-assured. Of course, there were those that said that they were depressed, unhappy and anxious and that alcohol helped them cope with these conditions. By the time they finished interviewing everyone, they had just about as many reasons for drinking as they had student interviews. After the investigation was concluded, the Rand Corporation had a huge keg party for all the participants. The students were allowed to drink all the beer they wanted as long as they didn’t drive anywhere after the party. Interestingly, when the students got to the party, they exhibited the same personality traits that they said caused them to drink. For example, the students who said they were shy acted…well shy. The students who indicated they lacked confidence, in fact, seemed to lack any confidence. And the ones who said they were depressed, unhappy and stressed out exhibited those personality traits. Here is the interesting part though….as the students started drinking, sure enough they started exhibiting the positive characteristics that they said alcohol gave them. The shy students became more gregarious, the insecure students became confident, the unhappy students became cheerful and the stressed out students became relaxed and jubilant. Even more significant was the fact that the more they drank, the more they exhibited these positive characteristics, which seemed to indicate that alcohol was successful in helping the students overcome many of their emotional problems. There was one little glitch in all of this empirical evidence. None of the students were drinking real beer…it was non-alcoholic beer. All of this clearly indicated a Pygmalion effect, which simply states


that you are what you believe you are. In a nutshell, you get in life exactly what you believe you are going to get. If you believe you need alcohol to be a success, you are right. If you believe you don’t need alcohol to be a success, you are right again. Think about all of that!

The Other Rand Study _____________________________________________________________________

Not everything about alcohol is bad‌it just seems that way. In ancient times, alcohol was used as an analgesic. Jesus was given wine when he was on the cross to dull his pain. During the Old Wild West, alcohol was used both as an analgesic and an anaesthetic. A cowboy would get shot and he would pour alcohol on the wound to kill the germs and take a big slug of whiskey to deaden the pain. Then, he would take his knife and dig the bullet out. I know this is what they did because I saw it happen numerous times on the Roy Rogers Cowboy Show. Today we have better drugs than alcohol to dull pain and decontaminate wounds. So, if you want to use alcohol today, you are going to have to come up with a better excuse. Well, I just might have that excuse for you. Interestingly, the Rand Corporation did a study a number of years ago in Palermo, Italy that showed significant benefits for using alcohol. It was observed that no one in the city of Palermo had ever died of a heart attack or stroke in over one hundred years. It was also observed that the life expectancy of the people living in Palermo was almost ten years higher than the life expectancy for Americans, even though Americans had significantly better medical care. After learning of this phenomenon, the Rand Corporation sent a team of researchers to Palermo to try and find out what, if anything, these people were doing to defy medical science. At first, they thought it was their life styles...most of the citizens of Palermo were very laid back compared to Americans. When they ruled out life style, they thought it might be their diet. They noticed that just about everyone in Palermo ate pasta every single day of their lives. This was ruled out quickly when they determined that the fat in the pasta sauce more likely than not predisposed them to cardiovascular disease. The researchers were just about ready to give up when they observed that everyone, including small children, drank red wine with their meals. CRITICAL POINT: red wine in small amounts, approximately two ounces, significantly decreases psychological stress and blood viscosity, thereby decreasing strokes and heart attacks. When they investigated this variable, they discovered that red wine


in small amounts, approximately two ounces, significantly decreases psychological stress and blood viscosity, thereby decreasing strokes and heart attacks. It was the red wine that was responsible for the wonderful health that the people in Palermo were experiencing. The Rand Corporation concluded that two ounces of wine a day could significantly decrease cardiovascular disease and increase longevity. Naturally, people back in the States used this study to justify their drinking…generally making a quantum leap from two ounces to two liters. Still, the fact remains that alcohol, specifically red wine, can have beneficial effects on our health, which brings up a rather interesting point…drugs are not bad or good in their own right. It is how they are used that can be bad.

Treating Alcoholism _________________________________________________________________

- Treating Alcoholism There are probably as many reasons to drink as there are drinkers, but the primary reason most people drink is simply that it makes them feel good. And you know what that means? Alcohol is a positive reinforcer…it’s a stimulus that will increase the frequency of the response. Briefly, people drink because it makes them feel better. What if, however, every time you took a drink you felt like hell? Do you think you would continue to drink? Did you ever get really “plastered”, so much so, that you felt like you’re riding the scream machine at Disney World? You know the roller coaster with the double loop-de-loop. And then, the next thing you know you are on your knees in front of the porcelain god, upchucking ninety five percent of your entrails…stomach, kidneys, lungs, testicles…the works. Fifteen minutes into your dry heave cycle, you look to the heavens and say, “Dear God, let me live and I’ll never drink again.” Well, what if you got sick like that every time you drank? Unless you are a regular subscriber to S&M Quarterly, there is a good chance you would stop the madness. At least that’s what a number of psychiatrists and chemists figured. So, they developed this anti-abuse drug called disulfiram. CRITICAL POINT: Antabuse is a drug prescribed for some recovering alcoholics that produces violent illness if alcohol is consumed. Remember when I was talking about the breakdown of alcohol, I said that the liver produced an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down ethyl alcohol into acetylcholine. It’s the buildup of acetylcholine that makes you sick as a dog when you drink too much. Generally, once alcohol is converted to acetylcholine, all the cells in the body can absorb it and use it in metabolism. However, if you are drinking like you are auditioning for a part in Animal House, the acetylcholine blood level gets so high that the cells can’t absorb it all and then, you are back on that scream machine. The antabuse disulfiram goes one step better. It keeps the cells from absorbing any of the acetylcholine. Consequently, as soon as you start drinking, you are stepping on to the scream machine. In other words, when you are consuming disulfiram, you become violently ill as soon as you start drinking. In fact, you get so sick you usually have to be hospitalized. Even your most hard core drinkers can’t


handle a disulfiram related affliction. Like they say, when it hits, you are scared to death that you are going to die. Five minutes later, you are scared to death that you won’t die. It’s that painful. Obviously, this is simply an aversive conditioning technique in which you pair an unpleasurable consequence with a response that is generally pleasurable. After a while, the response will become unpleasant. With disulfiram the response can be extremely venomous. CRITICAL POINT: The antabuse program is an aversive conditioning program in that it pair an un unpleasurable consequence with a response that is generally pleasurable. Of course, I know what you are thinking...I always know what you are thinking…that is why I am here and you are there. You are thinking, “If it is that bad, why in the world would anyone take the disulfiram?” See, I know what you were thinking. Well, no one in their right mind would…except for those S&M Quarterly subscribers. The way it usually goes down is some poor slob who was out partying with Spud’s McKenzie gets a DUI. Them, he is marched in front of a judge who gives him an option. He can either pay a fine for about quarter million dollars or he can opt for the drug abuse program. Unless he is Bill Gates, he most likely will go for the drug abuse program. What happens next is every morning he has to report to the drug abuse center and take disulfiram. Typically, the hard core drinkers take the disulfiram and head right for the nearest bar. Ten minutes later, they are on the scream machine and heading for the hospital. The stuff works that well. Even the hardest of hard core drinkers don’t challenge the effects of disulfiram more than two or three times. In brief, the drug abuse program works extremely well as long as the individual remains on the drug. The problem is the courts can only keep an individual on the drug for three months. Generally, after they get off the drug, they will go right back to drinking. They might start out with one percent beer, but eventually they will work right back up to where they started. This is very common with aversive conditioning methods. They work very well in sterile environments, but once the reinforcer is removed, the person typically reverts back to his old behavior. For instance, have you ever been driving somewhere, going around a thousand miles an hour and all of a sudden a blue light comes up behind you and a police officer pulls you over? The cop gets out of his car and writes you a ticket for a million dollars. Then, he goes back to his car and drives off. And what do you do?


∞ DRUGS in Perspective ∞ __________________________________________________________________

Alcohol dehydrogenase: metabolizes ethyl alcohol.

Principle

enzyme

that

Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Set of symptoms that people have when they suddenly stop drinking after using alcohol for a long period of time. Alcoholics Anonymous: Voluntary support group for recovering alcoholics. Alcoholism: Continued excessive or compulsive use of alcoholic drinks. Amotivational syndrome: Symptoms or behavioral patterns characterized by apathy, loss of effectiveness, which can result from chronic alcohol abuse. Amnesiac: The loss of memory. Cirrhosis: Scaring of the liver and the development of fibrous tissue resulting from alcohol and/or drug abuse.

You get back on the road and you are driving about two miles an hour. You keep looking in your review mirror, but after a while, when you don’t see any blue light back there, what happens? You speed up a little. The longer you go without seeing one of those blue lights, the faster you go. The next thing you know you are back up to a thousand miles an hour. Now, what do you think would happen if that police officer followed you all the way to your destination? Do you think you would speed? I will answer that for you…HELL NO! The longer that reinforcer is there, the longer you are going to behave, but once it’s gone so are you. CRITICAL POINT: Longitudinally speaking, the antabuse program does not work very well in helping alcoholics overcome their drinking problem.

That is the same thing that happens with the drug abuse program. As long as the reinforcer is there, the disulfiram, it works real well. However, as soon as the reinforcer is removed, extinction occurs and the individual goes right back to drinking again. So, longitudinally speaking, the program does not work very well. Actually, it is a bust.

- Detoxification There are several different forms of detoxification programs depending on an individual’s level of addiction and ability to pay…no pay, no play. The most recent and widely advertised form of detoxification is known as rapid anesthesia assisted detoxification (RAAD). It is also referred to as rapid detoxification or ultra-rapid detoxification. RAAD is typically a four to six hour treatment in which a patient withdraws from addiction while they are safely asleep under general anesthesia. After the detoxification procedure, the patient remains hospitalized for approximately 24 hours. This procedure requires professional medical assistance by a licensed physician in a medical facility. RAAD is frequently followed up with counseling and other outpatient services as needed. More traditional forms of detoxification available include medical residential or inpatient, nonmedical residential and non-residential or outpatient programs. Detoxification occurs when addictive drugs or alcohol are eliminated from the body after the abuser quits using the drug. Because drug addiction withdrawal is so difficult physically, medical support is frequently required. Although some alcoholics may initiate detoxification by themselves (cold turkey), most require assistance when withdrawal symptoms intensify.


Residential detoxification takes place in a supportive and supervised environment. The use of residential detoxification should be considered if any one of the following conditions exists: 1. The risk of severe withdrawal symptoms such as epileptic seizures or extreme agitation is probable. 2. The home environment is inadequate to support the detoxification and rehabilitation process or other drug users are present. 3. The abuser is homelessness or is currently residing in a crisis shelter. 4. Previous attempts through non-residential or community detoxification failed. Residential or inpatient detoxification can be either medically or non-medically assisted. Reasons for using medically assisted residential detoxification would include health threatening symptoms, coexisting medical problems such as heart disease, multiple drug and alcohol dependencies or failed non-medical residential detoxification. Non-medical residential detoxification would be appropriate for an individual whose addiction is not severe enough to warrant medications or if the individual can work through the withdrawal with counseling. When the dependency is mild and the individual is sufficiently motivated, non-residential or outpatient based detoxification may be the best route to take. When drug addiction results in a profound decrease in the normal levels of mental and physical functioning, urgent detoxification may be required. Before this can be initiated, a medical assessment is necessary to rule out any other possible cause such as pneumonia or head injury for their condition.

- Self-Control Training A number of self-control recovery programs have surfaced, which promote behavioral self-control training (BSCT) as a means to overcome drug addiction. The goal of these programs is to teach methods of changing drinking behavior from severe drinking to moderate and non-problematic drinking. The effectiveness of these programs remains unclear. However, what is clear is that addiction and selfcontrol are at opposite ends of the spectrum. Addiction to drugs or alcohol means that you no longer have the ability to choose and thus, you no longer have control over your drug and alcohol use.


- Psychotherapy Most therapists believe that drug abuse disorders are difficult to treat because they often require more structure and a multiple treatment approach to be successful. To effectively treat drug addicted individuals, it is important to combine therapy with knowledge of the treatment process. The knowledge important for recovery includes knowledge of the drug itself as well as its intoxication and withdrawal effects, a working knowledge of drug culture and the addictive lifestyles and knowledge of self-help programs. CRITICAL POINT: Despite the fact that drug abuse counseling and psychotherapy are nearly universal in drug abuse treatment, surprisingly little is known about these forms of treatment. Much more research has focused on pharmacological treatments for drug abuse than on non-pharmacological, even though nonpharmacological interventions are almost always utilized and are sometimes the only form of treatment offered to the drug abuser. In treating drug abuse disorders with psychotherapy, certain issues compound the therapy process. One such issue is the amount of time and energy the therapist needs to exert to overcome denial and get the abuser into treatment. Another issue is that treatment goals must be developed early in the process and kept in the forefront. Therapists must also pay careful attention to developing a good rapport and supporting the individual client. An additional issue is that the therapist must stay abreast of the abuser’s compliance with the overall treatment program, which includes monitoring such things as attendance at different parts of the recovery program, providing regular urinalysis and reporting use of any drugs. In the event of substitution therapy, such as methadone maintenance, it is important to record the different aspects of the treatment. A wide variety of psychotherapy methods are available to the therapists and each approach may differ depending on certain factors. These factors include the extent to which expressive or supportive techniques are used, whether the focus is on acute or chronic problems and having a goal of changing symptoms or personality.

- Support Groups A variety of support groups are available to support individuals that are in the treatment process. These groups are typically divided into either 12 step programs or non 12 step programs. One of the fundamental issues that divide these two types of programs is the spiritual dimension of recovery, which is an essential part of the 12 step programs. Although the element of spirituality is very general and not specific to any religion, some groups choose not to include this dimension. Spirituality also involves a belief in or sense of connection to something greater than oneself. This concept is quite consistent with some of the newer models of psychotherapy. Historically, 12 step treatment programs are linked largely to recovery from alcohol abuse and addiction. Participation in a self-help program is not for everyone, but


for many, it is an extremely valuable aid to recovery. A number of non 12 step based self help groups also exist, but their numbers are small in comparison to the number of 12 step programs. CRITICAL POINT: Many, though not all, support groups follow a 12-step treatment model that has decades of proven success behind it. The 12 steps function under a structure of anonymity, meaning that what is said during support group meetings is not repeated outside of those walls. Other aspects of the 12-step program include personal accountability, but not self-pity or excessive guilt. The 12 steps teach members to recognize and understand their past failings, and correct them, but there is no sense crying over the spilled milk of the past. A key benefit of 12-step programs is that they offer help to their members not just during the hours that meetings are held. Members typically exchange phone numbers and can call on each other during difficult times – when an addict needs help with relapse prevention, for example.

- Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) The most successful program in helping people with their drinking problems is Alcoholics Anonymous or A.A.. The story behind AA is as extraordinary as the program is successful. Bill Wilson, the founder of AA, grew up in a quarry town in East Dorset, Vermont. When he was ten years old, both his mother and father abandoned him, leaving his grandparents to raise him. At the age of 22, he started drinking to enjoy himself and to alleviate depression. By the age of 26, he had become a successful and prosperous businessman. Less than a decade later, he had become an unemployed stumbling drunk living on charity. He had lost not only his wealth and career, but also his health. It was at this time, the lowest point of his life, that he had a spiritual awakening‌a flash of white light and the liberating awareness of God. In the wake of this spiritual experience, he envisioned himself and a society of temperate alcoholics. Five sober months later, he founded Alcoholics Foundation, a group for alcoholics which was based on the major premise that only an alcoholic could help another alcoholic. In order to help others, he began writing down his principles for sobriety. He eventually condensed and published these principles in a book entitled Alcoholics Anonymous. CRITICAL POINT: The most successful program in helping people with their drinking problems is Alcoholics Anonymous or A.A.. Ultimately, Alcoholics Anonymous became the group’s name. Today, there are over two million A.A. members in 150 countries. Interestingly, the 12 step program he devised for sobriety is now being successfully used for eating disorders, gambling, narcotics, sex compulsion and other addictions. It is estimated that his program has helped more a half billion people. His contributions have been so great that Time Magazine selected him as one of the most influential people of the 20th century. From the rubble of a wasted life, Bill Wilson has risen to the heights of


what Aldous Huxley calls, “The greatest social architect of our century.” Is that great or what? What follows is Alcohol Anonymous’ 12 step program to sobriety…the most successful program for helping problem drinkers: 1. We admitted we were powerless over alcohol—that our lives had become unmanageable. 2. Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity. 3. Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God, as we understood Him. 4. Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves. 5. Admitted to God, to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs. 6. Were entirely ready to have God remove all the defects of character. 7. Humbly asked Him to remove our shortcomings. 8. Made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to them all. 9. Made direct amends to such people wherever possible, except when to do so would injure them or others. 10. Continued to take personal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admitted it. 11. Sought through prayer and meditation to improve our conscious contact with God, as we understood Him, praying only for knowledge of His will for us and the power to carry that out. 12. Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics and to practice these principles in all our affairs.

The Mickey Mantle Saga I’m sure you have heard of the New York Yankees Mickey Mantle. When I was a little boy he was everyone’s idol. He was literally a baseball phenomenon. Mantle had everything you would want in a baseball player. He had world class running speed, an arm like a rocket, incredible eye hand coordination and awesome bat velocity. Best yet, he was a switch hitter. And man, could he hit. Not only did he hit for average, he hit with power from both sides of the plate. Believe me, he was a pitcher’s nightmare. At the end of his career he was inducted into the baseball Hall of Fame. He was also selected as one of the top 25 athletes of all time by ESPN. Can you imagine that? What an accomplishment! Of all the athletes who ever played the game of baseball, Mantle was among the very, very best. Not only that, but he had more money then you could ever imagine. In truth, he had it all: money, fame and prestige. But do you know what he said right before he died? In essence he said, “I’m ashamed of my career. God gave me all of these wonderful physical gifts and I abused them. I drank constantly, I stayed out nights and I never practiced hard. I was a terrible alcoholic. I have so many regrets because I know that if I had done my best I could have been so much better. Maybe I could have been the best of all time. Now, I have nothing but regrets…Believe me, I’m no role model and I’m not a success. Look at my career to see what you shouldn’t do, not what you should do.” Right to his dying day, Mantle felt that he could never make amends for the life he felt he had wasted. That was his cross to bear…his torment. This brilliant man who had the world in his hands for the taking threw it all away because he was too foolish to realize that true happiness comes from accomplishment not amusement. There will always be that “What if?” that lingers about Mantle. What if he had applied himself, what contributions could he have made to


his sport and his fellow man? That’s what happens when you focus on short term pleasure rather than long term gratification. I don’t care how great you are or how much money you have, there is no worse feeling than walking away from something knowing you could have done it better...wondering, “what if?” When you don’t push yourself to your limit, you limit yourself, because you are not becoming all that you can become. There is no greater sin in life. The essence of life is to become all that you can become. When you fail at doing that, you fail at life itself. Like Robert Louis Stevenson said, “To be what we are and to become what we are capable of becoming, is the only end of life.”

du-chapter 2 section 3 text  
du-chapter 2 section 3 text  

CRITICAL POINT: Alcohol can decrease the production of testosterone and significant decrease in muscular strength and endurance. CRITICAL PO...

Advertisement