IMIESA June 2022

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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


Transportation Engineering Highways that connect Namibia with the world

Intelligent infrastructure needs smart interconnectivity

Municipal Focus A net-zero and climate-resilient Tshwane by 2050

Trenchless Technology


Relining Cape Flats I

Decarbonisation should not be viewed as a cost that must be avoided. It’s an opportunity to foster innovation.”

Njombo Lekula Managing Director, PPC RSA I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 7 N o . 0 1 • J a n u a r y 2 0 2 2 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT ) I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 7 N o . 6 • J u n e 2 0 2 2 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )


20 years of your support has given us given us 20 years of excellence



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Message from our CEO, Don Coleman:

The past 20 years has been a journey filled with fun and interesting challengers. This wonderful journey has been made possible by the enthusiastic, entrepreneurial character, which has encapsulated the Spirit of our amazing team. The road we have travelled was not without its challengers, but with the positive competitive nature of our management and staff, we managed to scale each mountain that was in our way. It has been an absolute pleasure serving with our adopted family and may we take this opportunity thanking the Good Lord for his Grace and many Blessings. May we all look forward to the next 20 years of this exciting journey. To our Dear Loyal Customers and Suppliers. Thank you for travelling this long road with us over the past 20 years. We have been truly privileged to be included as part of your supply team. Without your success and support, we would have surely stumbled along the way. We look forward to continuing our journey with you, into a bright new future.



VOLUME 47 NO. 06 JUNE 2022


IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


Transportation Engineering

Intelligent infrastructure needs smart interconnectivity

A net-zero and climate-resilient Tshwane by 2050

Municipal Focus: City of Tshwane

Editor’s comment


President’s comment


Index to advertisers

Highways that connect Namibia with the world

Municipal Focus



Cover Story Intelligent infrastructure needs smart interconnectivity


A net-zero and climate-resilient Tshwane by 2050


Smart Cities A bankable, non-revenue water project using technology


Municipalities need to lift their waste game


Africa Round-up Trenchless Technology Relining Cape Flats I


Infrastructure news from around the continent

Transportation Engineering 8

Decarbonisation should not be viewed as a cost that must be avoided. It’s an opportunity to foster innovation.”

Njombo Lekula, Managing Director, PPC RSA I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 7 N o . 0 1 • J a n u a r y 2 0 2 2 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT ) I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 7 N o . 6 • J u n e 2 0 2 2 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )


Sustainable growth hinges on the ability to optimise resources and the infrastructure backbone that serves communities and economies. Sean Bennett, Group Executive at NEXTEC, expands on the Group’s smart technologies and engineering solutions. P6

HOT SEAT Investment in infrastructure is crucial for South Africa’s and Africa’s socio-economic development. IMIESA talks to Njombo Lekula, Managing Director, PPC RSA, about the company’s visionary role in ensuring sustainable capacity while steadily transitioning to a net-zero future. P10



Hot Seat The evolution of green cement


Water & Wastewater

An integrated approach to transport infrastructure development


Highways that connect Namibia with the world


The quest for low-carbon and resilient road transport systems


Innovative, cost-effective solution for the school sanitation crisis


Roads & Bridges

Repairs to Durban Water Recycling plant completed


Maintenance of historic route within Tsitsikamma Nature Reserve

Drinking water for rural communities


Asphalt Technology

Geotechnical Stormwater management on retaining walls


New kid on the BLOC


Trenchless Technology Rehabilitation under way on Cape Flats 1 sewer line


SATBinderrr 2022 will be bigger and better


Cement & Concrete 2022 Fulton Awards showcase SA concrete construction quality


Special-use culverts with windows


Fleet Management

Environmental Engineering Stabilisation of severe bank erosion



Pumps & Valves

A game changer in online business fleet data reporting


Vehicles & Equipment

Ways that smart pump systems add value


Water pressure booster systems for local applications

Efficiency, productivity and increased stockpile capacity



New high-performance scalper unveiled






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EDITOR’S COMMENT MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Kirsten Kelly JOURNALIST Nombulelo Manyana EDITORIAL COORDINATOR Ziyanda Majodina HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders CONTRIBUTORS Hans King, Bhavna Soni PRODUCTION & CLIENT LIAISON MANAGER Antois-Leigh Nepgen PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise GROUP SALES MANAGER Chilomia Van Wijk BOOKKEEPER Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS Novus Print Montague Gardens ___________________________________________________

Challenges create opportunities


EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Email:

ith the Ukraine war showing no signs of easing up, the pressure continues to mount on global financial markets, especially when it comes to energy. Within South Africa, escalating fuel prices add to the local challenges, impacting all areas of society and the economy. Continued Eskom load-shedding, in turn, places further pressure on South Africa’s Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan, as has the aftermath of the KwaZulu-Natal floods. The upside, however, is that South African industry continues to adapt and reposition itself for growth in the medium term. This is underscored by the latest GDP figures for Q1 2022. According to Stats SA, GDP climbed by some 1.9% during this period – marking the second consecutive quarter of upward growth – as the size of the South African economy returned to preCovid-19 levels. Rising interest rates and escalating costs are expected to put a dent in the Q2 results. Even with this anticipated dip, there’s a sustained upward trend. The key concern is that the construction sector remains in negative territory – an indication that infrastructure investment is lagging. However, once public and private sector investments begin to gain traction, the long-term outlook is positive. Major opportunities include renewable energy, water, sanitation, roads and social housing.

KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Narisha Sogan Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email:

Why effective local government is so important

ADVERTISING SALES KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Joanne Lawrie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 / +27 (0)82 346 5338 Email: ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER Jacques Breytenbach 3S Media Production Park, 83 Heidelberg Road, City Deep Johannesburg South, 2136 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2022. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: Website: BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Email:

NORTHERN PROVINCES Secretary: Ollah Mthembu Tel: +27 (0)82 823 7104 Email: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Email: WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Email: All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. _____________________________________________

Within the mix, high-performing municipalities are crucial. There are some exceptional examples, as highlighted in the 2020-21 consolidated general report on local government audit outcomes released by the Auditor-General of South Africa. These include Senqu Local Municipality, which is among the 27 municipalities that have maintained their clean audit status for the past five consecutive financial years. Overall, 41 municipalities out of a total of 257 were deemed ‘unqualified with no findings’ (or

clean) for the 2020-21 period. A further 100 municipalities came close, with an ‘unqualified with findings’ audit, while 78 received a ‘qualified with findings’ opinion, so these are all a work in progress. Among the worst performing were four municipalities that received an ‘adverse with findings’ audit, while 25 received a ‘disclaimed with findings’ opinion, which means they were unable to provide supporting evidence for the bulk of the amounts and disclosures in their financial statements. Across the board, the main takeaway from the 2020-21 report is that a high percentage of municipalities don’t meet the benchmark for effective capital expenditure execution, financial management, and transparency. That includes inadequate revenue collection, which has severely impacted the financial sustainability of many municipalities.

A fresh five-year term The 2021-22 period marks the start of the next five-year administrative term following the 2021 Local Government Elections. It represents a major opportunity for new municipal leadership teams to implement turnaround strategies in transitioning all municipalities into high-performance organisations. But this can only happen with buy-in from municipal constituents. As auditor-general Tsakani Maluleke stated in her report, “Active citizenry is crucial to ensure that the needs of communities are heard and acted on, and that municipal leaders are held accountable for their actions.” Collectively, business and communities must be part of the solution. This is the social compact needed to forge world-class municipalities.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.



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Intelligent infrastructure needs smart interconnectivity

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Trenchless Technology


Relining Cape Flats I

Decarbonisation should not be viewed as a cost that must be avoided. It’s an opportunity to foster innovation.”

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IMIESA June 2022




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The transition to

SMARTER INFRASTRUCTURE As a developing nation, South Africa faces complex challenges, par ticularly when it comes to addressing social infrastructure gaps.


ne of the most pressing challenges is the rate of urbanisation and population growth. In this respect, the findings of Statistics SA’s Census 2022 will be invaluable in providing a more accurate picture of how our towns and cities are evolving, and the sustainable responses required. The advent of Industry 4.0 technologies now makes it possible to interpret, predict and model data in unprecedented ways. For example, a drone survey of a township – with its informal and formal mix – can be compared against census and municipal data to see where non-reported areas need further investigation. In this respect, the creation of digital twins – virtual models of the real-world environment – serves as an invaluable tool for testing urban planning and land-use optimisation scenarios within the context of a smart city evolution. A case in point is the future Lanseria development in Gauteng. Along the way, digital twinning also enables municipalities to progressively budget and shift informal communities to serviced and permanent homes away from known floodplains.

Internet of things (IoT) A major advantage of IoT is the way new information and communications technology innovations allow real-time management of resource consumption and allocation. Examples include smart metering and billing for core municipal services like water and electricity.

As is widely known, a high proportion of municipalities are in financial distress due to non-payment of these services by consumers. However, thanks to smart technologies, municipalities can now manage their revenue collection far more efficiently and shut off or regulate defaulters. This is crucial for local government performance in funding and rolling out infrastructure maintenance and new construction projects. Financial auditing and the monitoring of municipal expenditure also becomes easier to control and manage, with timely opportunities to step in if there’s a red flag. From a budgeting viewpoint, operations and maintenance become further enhanced through the remote monitoring and control of installations like pump stations, as well as water and wastewater treatment works. In our arid country, smart technologies will also prove invaluable going forward from a water security and demand-side management perspective. In fact, the smart possibilities are endless: from intelligent waste collection and recycling, to integrated public transport networks that foster e-mobility, and municipal wheeling agreements with independent power producers.

We’re pleased to report that the response to the conference continues to be exceptional, with delegates registering daily. Please note that our Early Bird delegate discount closes on 31 July 2022. In addition to the presentations, and our technical tours, there will be a wide variety of exhibitors at this year’s event displaying a fascinating range of cuttingedge products and ser vices, as well as a wealth of applied knowledge. Sponsorship and exhibitor slots are still open, but filling fast, so contact our conference organiser, Debbie Anderson, for more information via email at or phone 031 266 3263. Due to Covid-19, our last in-person conference was in 2019. However, it’s clear that the industry is fully behind the return of a highly engaging physical event where public and private stakeholders can map a smarter way forward.

85th IMESA Conference Smart technology concepts tie in well with IMESA’s November 2022 Conference theme – ‘Adapting to our Changing World’ – where our presenters showcase projects and innovation.

Bhavna Soni, president, IMESA

IMIESA June 2022



INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SMART INTERCONNECTIVITY Sustainable growth hinges on the ability to optimise resources and the infrastructure backbone that ser ves communities and economies. Sean Bennett, Group Executive at NEXTEC (a proudly EOH company), expands on the Group’s smar t technologies and engineering solutions.


ne of most significant milestones in modern history was the unveiling of the world’s first programmable digital computer in 1945, coined ENIAC. Although basic in today’s terms, it represented a major leap forward for digitalisation and the power of interconnectivity via the internet of things (IoT). “The path of change is now constant, so staying ahead of the IoT curve is essential to remain competitive and relevant as smart technologies continue to positively transform society,” Bennett explains. Within South Africa, NEXTEC’s digital transformation thrust is spearheaded by its Infrastructure Solutions and People Solutions platforms. The Infrastructure Solutions business line comprises two key service clusters, namely Digital Infrastructure and Infrastructure Consulting. The latter has two main offerings, which include environmental, sustainability and social-impact consulting solutions and multidisciplinary engineering consulting solutions. NEXTEC’s Digital Infrastructure services are designed to seamlessly integrate physical systems with digital technologies to create intelligent, resilient and high-performance systems. Areas that they specialise in include water, power, connectivity, as well as building technology, logistics and asset management. Bennett believes People Solutions, combined with the technology offering, creates a unique proposition allowing clients to move forward into a more technologically enabled age – for


IMIESA June 2022

example, having the ability within the business to provide solutions that use technology to lower accident rates. In parallel, People Solutions helps clients to respond to the challenges and opportunities presented by digital transformation in terms of recruitment, learnerships, training, and functional client outsourcing of non-core processes.

NEXTOPIA “We refer to our holistic services as NEXTOPIA – the connected and increasingly digitalised world we imagine for our clients and their customers,” Bennett explains. “Technology and IoT provide amazing opportunities to raise socio-economic standards through improved service delivery, smart infrastructure and intelligent business processes, which for any country is essential to remain globally competitive,” Bennett continues. Every nation is at a different stage in the digitalisation journey. Cities like Dubai and Singapore are at the cutting-edge of the so-called smart city evolution, spurred on by robust GDP growth, IoT investment and adoption, and a highly advanced education system. South Africa still has some way to go to match this, but it’s a work in progress. The smart city concept enables the capturing of big data to analyse, interpret, predict, manage and model every conceivable process via digital twinning – a virtual rendition of the real world. Within the public sector arena, there are farreaching benefits for the management and refinement of all social infrastructure and related activities like education and healthcare.

“Our business model focuses on providing practical solutions that are scalable, improve operational efficiencies, lower costs and boost profitability, and includes close working relationships with our OEM technology partners. For public sector clients, key deliverables include improved asset utilisation, enhanced asset security and better service delivery,” Bennett expands. Now, thanks to advances in artificial intelligence, the large volumes of data captured via 5G devices can be processed with a high degree of speed and accuracy, translating this information into meaningful reports and tasks.

Smart non-revenue water management An example of a NEXTEC intervention is the use of smart systems to combat non-revenue water losses. Currently, some 40% of South Africa’s potable water is unaccounted for due to one or a combination of factors, namely leaks, apparent losses (such as illegal connections and faulty meters), uncollected billing (including nonpayment), and inaccurate billing.

Sean Bennett, Group Executive, NEXTEC

COVER STORY NEXTOPIA is a world NEXTEC imagines for its clients and their customers Power Solutions

Building Solutions

People Solutions Connectivity Solutions

Logistics Solutions

Environmental Solutions Asset Management Solutions

Water Solutions

Scan here to experience the virtual NEXTOPIA

NEXTEC’s water solutions include network analysis and master planning, leak detection and the matching of consumption to billing data. Recent case studies include a project for a large provincial government to identify and then reduce leaks.

Asset management Within the infrastructure space, predictive and preventative maintenance interventions ensure well-executed services. However, this is dependent on municipalities ensuring that they have an accurate and current asset management register as a basis for budget provision and maintenance scheduling. Smart technologies allow municipalities to get ahead of the curve – a prime example being the backlog on road maintenance in South Africa. Poor road surfaces are a constant, low-level drag on the economy, with potholes becoming almost endemic. And the generally reactive approach to fixing them isn’t working. It simply delays the inevitable deterioration and rebuilding. But there’s a smarter approach. “We have technology at NEXTEC that allows you to look at the cracks in the pavement, and predict where potholes will arise in six months,” says Bennett. “Identifying a crack in the road through image analysis and machine learning is low-cost, and then allows asset owners to fix cracks before they become potholes, at a fraction of the cost and inconvenience to traffic.”

Award-winning project A recent example of a comprehensive asset management solution is a NEXTEC project working with one of the provincial governments responsible for managing over 2 800 facilities, including schools, hospitals, clinics, office buildings, depots, parks and infrastructure. NEXTEC’s team is developing an Infrastructure Asset Management Framework and Asset Data

Model aligned with industry standards and complex technical requirements. The outcome was that communication and governance improved; management was more effective; long-term forecasting could inform strategy, budgeting and resource allocation; and the department was placed in a position where it had better control over outcomes.

Smart buildings and warehouses Energy efficiency gains is another focus area – from environmental, demand-side management and cost perspectives – given the recent escalation in electricity tariffs. In this respect, NEXTEC’s building management solutions have been able to pass on significant efficiency gains for clients, with power usage reductions of up to 35%, and a one-to-three-year payback on the initial technology investment. NEXTEC also has a division that specialises in the design of intelligent warehouses and distribution centres. Its approach focuses on driving operational efficiency through the design of optimised process flows and the application of fit-for-purpose, mechanised and automated materials handling systems, overlaid with appropriate IT systems. Further efficiencies are gained through the design of a building and site envelope that supports the internal operations and flows, enabling the distribution operation to achieve its required throughput. Distribution centres today have a key role to play in environmental sustainability and supporting ESG initiatives – which are at the centre of the team’s design approach.

Africa – exacerbated by the impact of Covid19 lockdowns. Railway networks and electrical infrastructure were among the worst affected. In response to these and other challenges, NEXTEC has a wide spectrum of smart security solutions available. “It’s far more cost-effective and efficient to have drones, cameras and heat sensors monitoring kilometres of railroad and electrical cable than to have people patrolling them. The millions saved could be better spent on other priority areas like education,” Bennett asserts.

Integrated solutions NEXTEC’s services are frequently integrated. A recent example is a large government agency contract secured by NEXTEC for an integrated building management system, digital twinning and security solution. The agency required a holistic solution for its facility – integrating everything from perimeter control to CCTV, access control and alarms – as well as a building management solution that linked IoT and critical assets, including laboratories and data centres, in a utility-efficient manner. NEXTEC’s system design enabled the agency to access a digitised 3D graphical representation of its buildings’ critical systems. As a result, the agency can now proactively monitor, maintain and change conditions on hydraulics, generators, HVAC and laboratories via smart devices.

Thinking ahead Thanks to the progressive roll-out of its 5G network, South Africa’s access to data, communications technology and connectivity is now on par with the world’s best. This is further supported by largescale local investments in data centres. “We have the power of connectively in our hands. Now we need to embrace it to shape South Africa’s future socio-economic landscape in a more coherent and collaborative manner. It’s an exciting mindset shift, and an opportunity to catch up and keep pace with digital trends that promote sustainability,” Bennett concludes.

Smart security An overriding concern for municipal asset owners is the protection of infrastructure from theft and vandalism. This is a serious problem in South

IMIESA June 2022




KENYA Modern sanitation technology integral to 10 000 classrooms programme

BOTSWANA Rural connectivity and e-governance The government of Botswana is implementing new measures to help expand connectivity across the countr y. As repor ted by ITWeb Africa, Botswana’s Minister of Communications, Knowledge and Technology, Thulagano Segokgo, confirmed the government’s goal of extending the geographical range of mobile signal in the countr y, as well as pushing fixed ser vices to unconnected rural areas. “Connectivity, like access to water, is simply a human right,” said the Minister, adding that ongoing connectivity effor ts are suppor ted by the development of government online ser vices. Segokgo noted that the ministr y was assessing the tariffs offered by operators and internet ser vice providers to ensure that favourable packages are accessible to consumers and added that the government would strive to look at other policy measures it can adopt to reduce the input costs for operators and in turn reduce tariffs. Botswana’s government is currently implementing a rural connectivity initiative that aims to connect 500 villages with digital infrastructure, providing internet access to clinics, schools, businesses and municipal buildings in previously unconnected regions.


IMIESA June 2022

The Kenyan government’s plan to construct an additional 10 000 classrooms to accommodate the expected surge in student numbers once learners transition from primary to junior secondary schools under the Competency-based Curriculum has been welcomed as a necessary step. The transition will require an increase in teachers, equipment, meals, transport services and other infrastructure that provides access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). These WASH facilities make learning easier and play a key role in improving productivity by reducing incidences of communicable diseases – including diarrhoea and typhoid – which often result in missed school days. However, one of the main reasons that implementing large infrastructure projects becomes a challenge is due to the disruption to communities that they cause. Kenya is awash with examples of hostilities that arise every time construction begins on a new road, sewer or transmission line. Luckily, there are great strides in technology that can solve these challenges in a sustainable way. One such technology is Weholite HDPE, which is being used to manufacture wastewater, stormwater and sewage tanks, as well as manholes. Unlike other building materials, Weholite HDPE technology enables infrastructure products such as tanks and pipes to be designed and customised to fit at specific sites, then manufactured within a factory level, producing high-quality results. The advantage of this is that school WASH infrastructure can be installed with minimal disruption to communities and at a fast pace. The lightweight nature also makes such infrastructure easier to transport, which is paramount when the target schools are in far-flung areas. Weholite technology additionally has a service life of over 100 years.

MOZAMBIQUE US$40 million invested into solar and wind In the next five years, Mozambique’s publicly owned electricity company – EDM – will add to its capacity a fur ther 600 MW of energy, including 200 MW from renewable sources, to accelerate the process of providing energy to the entire population of the countr y. The solar and wind power plants will be constructed under the Renewable Energy Auction Programme. The first solar plant using energy storage will be in the city of Cuamba, Niassa, with a capacity of 15 MW. There will

also be plants at Dondo, Sofala, and Lichinga, Niassa. A wind power plant is being planned in the town of Namaacha, Maputo. A representative of the EU, Verlee Smet, proposed the development of an energy resource centre to strengthen the national distribution network and ensure the achievement of universal coverage by the end of 2030. “The EU will suppor t the government to develop the National Renewable Energy Centre that will be key to the integration of renewable energy by providing greater control of the balance between supply and demand to ensure the stability of the network.”


NAMIBIA Prepaid water after 20 years of using communal tap Residents of Havana informal settlement in Windhoek recently received prepaid water meters from the City of Windhoek. This comes after over 20 years of using communal taps. Windhoek’s mayor, Sade Gawanas, stressed that the prepaid meters – which will allow residents to buy water based on their consumption – will help them steer clear of fur ther debt while keeping track of their consumption per month. “It is ver y impor tant to take note that council made the write-off of debt conditional that the existing conventional meters are conver ted to prepaid water meters. This is to ensure control over consumption and that residents do not fall back into debt,” she added.

Once residents have applied for the prepaid meters, they will be able to buy water from Pick n Pay outlets in Eros, Grove Mall and Wernhil, as well as Otjomuise Dehli and Soweto Ser vice Station, among other vending points. The application process is easy and affordable. Residents can apply for an amount of N$4 200 approximately but will have a choice between upfront payment or repayment over five years. That repayment will then be loaded on to the person's unique tariff and they can pay it off in any way over those five years. Pensioners and other vulnerable members of the community, as well as residents who are in arrears, were prioritised during the roll-out of the campaign.

NIGERIA Economy outpacing electricity supply Nigeria’s Minister of Power, Abubakar Aliyu, has admitted that Nigeria’s current electricity generation was incapable of powering the economy of over 200 million Nigerians. The new board of the Transmission Company of Nigeria is charged with strengthening the transmission network to boost power supply to Nigerians. Nigeria had been hovering at around 5 000 MW of power and has had an inconsistent power supply. Aliyu urged the board not to stand against sustainable electricity in the countr y but ensure management of the national grid and administer the wholesale electricity market to Nigerians. “Your appointment as directors of the organisation is a great honour. All the appointees that President Muhammadu Buhari appointed are suitably qualified and are wor thy of appointment for a ver y critical component of the nation’s power sector value chain.”

IMIESA June 2022




THE EVOLUTION OF GREEN CEMENT Investment in infrastructure is crucial for South Africa’s and Africa’s socioeconomic development. IMIESA talks to Njombo Lekula, Managing Director, PPC RSA, about the company’s visionar y role in ensuring sustainable capacity while steadily transitioning to a net-zero future. Njombo Lekula, Managing Director, PPC RSA


IMIESA June 2022

How is PPC responding to the quest for sustainability? NL We’ve taken the decision to lead by example within the African continent where we operate. We’re well placed to do this, as South Africa’s largest Portland cement producer, as we celebrate our 130th year in business in 2022. We have a substantial footprint, with 11 cement factories in South Africa, and operations in Botswana, the DRC, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. We need to understand the challenges posed by climate change and respond meaningfully within the context of Africa’s development agenda. This was a key motivation for the compilation of the inaugural PPC|GIBS Building Africa Report 2022, an overview of which was presented at the African Smart Cities Summit in June 2022. Climate change is a reality, as is the pressing need to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals. In a world of rapid change, PPC recognises the need to respond proactively within our spheres of operation, while remaining relevant and profitable. The PPC|GIBS report addresses the realities of and opportunities for achieving carbon neutrality within an evolving market for cement on the continent.

What are some of the key highlights in the report? Essentially, the report – compiled in conjunction with GIBS’s Centre for African Management and Markets – is futuristic and looks beyond cement to consider what sustainable and smart construction will look like for the next generation. The full report (which can be downloaded at sets the scene with an overview of the major players in the African cement market. Other points considered include the growth potential for African infrastructure, the African Continental Free Trade Area, the legislative environment, funding mechanisms and the need for inclusivity. There are also fascinating case studies using hybrid concrete. Africa is a vast continent of 55 countries and more than 2 000 living languages, which makes it a complex trading environment. As highlighted in the report, investment in African infrastructure has remained constant, at just over 3.5% over the past decade. By comparison, China’s spend is more than double that percentage. Even more revealing, cement consumption in China between 2011 and 2013 was greater than that consumed by the USA in the entire 20th century. So, for Africa to catch up, there needs to be a major ramping-up and far greater collaboration. That includes reducing


cement imports and growing local capacity. Africa’s ability to move projects to financial close is one of the major stumbling blocks, rather than the availability of funding. According to the report, some 80% of infrastructure projects fail at the feasibility and business plan stage. Part of the solution, as in South Africa, is an increased focus on public-private partnerships. Another key enabler is policy certainty and good governance. This will further facilitate investment by cement producers in new markets, and inter-country African trade – given improved supply chain logistics, transportation and customs agreements. Going forward, South Africa and Africa must embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution to remain globally competitive. What are some of the main takeaways in the report for PPC? PPC demonstrated its strategic commitment to sustainability with the release of its first Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) report in November 2021. Interventions include how we will manufacture cement in future, including interventions like artificial intelligence to enhance efficiencies. How we include renewables in our energy mix is another area of investigation. We believe PPC can be carbon compliant while pushing the boundaries towards net-zero. However, that will require intensive technological development and investment – a prime example being the incorporation of carbon capture and storage solutions. What is PPC’s operating philosophy? Let’s revisit the reason why we exist as a company. We’d don’t see ourselves purely as a cement producer. We are builders of communities. So, we exist to empower people to experience a better quality of life. That’s the purpose we’ve adopted as a business, and this is what defines us. How is PPC addressing carbon neutrality? The global decarbonisation debate focuses on finding solutions. Many argue that it’s a delicate balance between putting economies and people, or the environment, first. Essentially, you cannot separate the two. We acknowledge that it’s going to be a major challenge for the world to meet the UN 2050 carbon-neutrality target (net-zero). We know a collective response to climate change is essential. However, the roadmap must be realistic. Our starting point was to see the

need for change as an opportunity, rather than a forced and punitive measure. PPC has set out on its journey to achieve a greener transition by progressively adding new technologies and processes. These will be ramped up over time and incorporate new innovations as they come to market. An example is green hydrogen as an alternative fuel source. While still in its infancy, green hydrogen is certain to accelerate in its development and adoption, with South Africa emerging as one of the leading producers. Going forward, PPC’s executives have drawn up a timeline running between now and 2030. We’ve set challenging targets that we believe are measurable and achievable. The 2050 objectives set out in our TCFD will be led by the next generation of PPC leadership. They will have a great foundation to build on. What are some of PPC’s current sustainability interventions? Aside from security of supply, energy is the main cost factor for cement producers, ranging up to around 40% of variable production costs. This is also determined by the location. PPC’s coastal facilities currently rely on coal for the firing of their kilns. Since this coal needs to be transported predominantly from Mpumalanga and Limpopo, the overall energy cost is much higher for these operations. Overall, we’re investigating a 7% to 10% recycled tyre substitution for coal as part of our net-zero contribution, while at the same time reducing our energy bill. Waste has a value. In parts of Europe, for example, there are cement kilns running on an almost negative cost of energy by burning waste. To do this locally, we need government to step forward and make this a sustainable process locally. With the right technologies in place, some 60% to 70% of domestic solid waste can be converted to a usable energy source. We also want to increase the use of fly ash as an extender. This serves two purposes. First, it reduces the clinker component, which is the most expensive element in cement production. And second, it solves a landfill problem, since fly ash is a waste by-product produced at thermal coal-fired power stations. PPC currently has a fly ash recovery operation at one of Eskom’s power stations and hopes to secure agreements with other Eskom facilities such as Kusile.

Another exciting opportunity is PPC’s research and adoption of geopolymers as a binder. This is a proven technology worldwide, with far-reaching benefits. Geopolymers have the potential to pass on a 30% to 40% reduction in carbon dioxide in concrete for applications that include the roads sector (including pothole repairs) and structural buildings. Alternative building technologies are another major focus area for PPC. Potential examples include the use of wood chips as an aggregate in concrete, alongside glass and steel fibre applications. The reality is that it will take some time to replace cement as an effective binder, but there are already wellestablished additives used in countries like Brazil and Colombia that will lower the carbon footprint. An example is calcined clay limestone cement. This material requires less energy to convert in terms of calcination. Calcined clay also has the potential to reduce the clinker component by 50% to 60%. However, to follow this route, PPC will need to make a major multimillion-rand technology investment. To support this innovation will also require the necessary legislative framework and we are currently in discussions with the South African government to map the way forward. And in closing? Decarbonisation should not be viewed as a cost that must be avoided. It’s an opportunity to foster innovation. In this respect, government and business need to collaborate more to ensure that sustainability targets are aligned with our development goals.

IMIESA June 2022



Innovative, cost-effective solution for the school sanitation crisis Lloyd Govender, project engineer, BORDA SA

Design considerations for school DEWATS

Daily, thousands of South African learners face unsafe, poor sanitation at schools and are often forced to use unlawful and unsafe pit toilets. In some of these cases, decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) are a viable option. By Kirsten Kelly


EWATS provide the sweet spot between waterless on-site sanitation and conventional sewers with centralised wastewater treatment. Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) has been partnering with eThekwini Municipality to pilot and implement DEWATS wherever a wastewater processing solution is needed. A standard DEWATS system consists of a screen, settler and anaerobic baffled reactor. One can also add a constructed wetland. The system is independent of electricity and chemicals but can be modified to use both if a more compact footprint is required and these utilities are available. DEWATS are easy to install and tolerant towards inflow fluctuations. They can treat between 1 m3/day and 1 500 m3/day of wastewater. Biogas digesters can be added for additional energy. DEWATS are an approach rather than a technical hardware package. With DEWATS,


IMIESA June 2022

the system must always be adapted to suit a specific context. It is impossible to use a generic design. DEWATS for schools differ to DEWATS in residential areas. And different school DEWATS may var y from each other.

Before designing a system, it is crucial to visit the site, retrieve information like the amount of water used (there needs to be enough water to carr y ever ything through to the system), the temperature of the site, and the best possible location on the school grounds for the DEWATS. One size does not fit all. Some schools have separate toilets for boys and girls that may be placed at opposite ends of the school grounds, and two different DEWATS may have to be installed. “There can be some challenges when designing DEWATS for school sanitation. They need to be robust. Children must know what DEWATS are, and understand

BORDA – BREMEN OVERSEAS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION • An expert NGO specialising in full-cycle decentralised sanitation • Together with governments, local enterprises and partner organisations, BORDA works on-site to improve communal planning processes, sanitation supply structures and basic needs services – they tackle unsolved sanitation challenges and bring tried and tested solutions to challenging places • Headquartered in Bremen, Germany, with regional offices in Tanzania, India, Jordan, Thailand and Mexico • With a network of local partner organisations, BORDA is active in more than 20 countries • Working in South Africa since 2006 to extend the wastewater infrastructure for inhabitants of peri-urban areas • Focused on projects in new and existing low-income housing developments, informal settlements and schools • Has partnered with eThekwini Municipality to exchange knowledge and build capacity in the water and sanitation sector, and to advise on innovative technologies and local implementation of DEWATS


PROPOSED PROJECT FOR SIKHULULIWE SECONDARY SCHOOL • The project will benefit 500 Sikhululiwe Secondary School learners and the surrounding community. The current sanitation facilities in the school are not safe to use for schoolchildren. This innovation will provide a safe and hygienic sanitation facility that improves the quality of education for learners. In addition, the innovation will present an opportunity to create jobs and generate income for the community through nutrient recovery from the sanitation facilities. The project aims to produce nursery plants and ornamental plants on a 360 m2 land parcel using the resources recovered from the sanitation facilities. • It will be a partnership between BORDA, UKZN, Umgeni Water, the Department of Education, PID and RUNRES ETH. • It is located in the uMgungundlovu District Municipality, Edendale, KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. • This system would collect human waste (urine and faeces) and flush water, and treat it to produce water for ornamental plants and fertilisers. • The DEWATS system will: collect 284 m3 of urine, faeces and flush water per year; process 264 m3 of water containing urine, faeces and flush water per year; and produce 616 kg of fertiliser and 50 kg of urea fertiliser per year. their value, so continuous education programmes are important. Due to school holidays, children are only present at the school for roughly 180 days a year, causing intermittent loading, making effective and logical design ver y important,” says Lloyd Govender, project engineer, BORDA SA.

He adds that one needs to either ‘overdesign’ school DEWATS so that they can be easily rebooted after a period of inactivity, or partner with some residences to always ensure that wastewater flushes through the DEWATS during weekends and school holidays. “The bacteria that stabilise or

settle in the anaerobic baffled reactor must be considered. Will the bacteria become inactive over the school holidays? Will the bacteria have to be re-seeded?” School DEWATS have high nitrogen levels (greater amount of urine) and will need to use filters with anoxic zones. There must be facilities available for the disposal of sanitar y pads and tampons, as they should not be added to the DEWATS. A screen should also be fitted at the wastewater source to catch any sanitar y pads and tampons that are flushed. At times, toilet paper is not available and children may use newspaper, so either DEWATS must be designed to take this into consideration or the school must budget for toilet paper. Govender believes that simplicity is the answer when installing school DEWATS. “Simple DEWATS can work for schools. Sensors and electronics should be avoided. Instead of using pumps, tr y to use a gravitational design. If one must use pumps, then there needs to be a calculation on the elevation levels of the pipes, the flow and then match the flow to the pump curve. All construction materials

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should be as generic as possible – easily found at any hardware store. This helps in ensuring all DEWATS parts are readily available for construction and maintenance. Try to use plastic wherever possible to avoid theft for scrap metal.

Barriers to DEWATS “The South African Human Rights Commission is currently taking the Department of Education to court because over 3 000 schools have only pit latrines for learners to use. I believe that policy is a stumbling block. Many municipalities are only mandated to roll out either traditional flush or ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs) and cannot consider anything else. New technologies need to be considered when addressing this water and sanitation crisis,” explains Govender. The DEWATS approach is doomed to fail if there is no education on why the system is in place and what it does. A good portion of a school’s annual operations and maintenance budget should be allocated towards continuous education. This prevents vandalism and theft, while improving acceptance. Posters and

teaching aids should be provided. The education campaigns need to be revisited to include new students and the same messages need to be reinforced constantly. “These children could be the next generation of financiers, engineers, politicians or designers that will address sanitation and water issues in the future,” adds Govender. Sometimes, communities perceive DEWATS as inferior to conventional wastewater treatments. They do not want to see the treatment, but education can be used to transform these initial negatives into strengths and positives. “Before we lay the first brick on-site, we must have acceptance by the community. Education campaigns teach the community the value of a good sanitation system. We distribute pamphlets, conduct training courses, and transfer knowledge to the community on the importance of not just having a system but practising good personal hygiene. You would be surprised how happy the communities are to receive this form of knowledge,” states Govender.

BORDA and its partners design, implement and evaluate decentralised sanitation systems around the world. “We find it is easy to create partnerships with schools because we are a non-profit organisation and are not encouraging this technology for financial gain,” he concludes.

IMIESA June 2022



Repairs to Durban Water Recycling plant completed

Veolia operates and maintains the Durban Water Recycling plant on behalf of the City of eThekwini

As a result of the KwaZulu-Natal floods, the Durban Water Recycling (DWR) plant was affected by a week-long power outage, and there was damage to the feed supply infrastructure from the Umlaas River/Chatswor th catchment area.


eolia operates and maintains the DWR plant on behalf of the City of eThekwini. Constructed in 2000, the plant recycles wastewater equivalent to the generation of about 220 000 households in the city. “The extreme weather events caused severe damages and blockages to the supply network. We observed a reduction in feedwater from about 25 000 m3/day to 4 800 m3/day as of 14 April 2022. Typical industrial reclaimed water consumption is about 14 000 m3/day,” says Siva Chetty, regional services manager for Veolia Services Southern Africa (VSSA) in KwaZuluNatal. Furthermore, the plant faced reduced sewage flows, which, in turn, compromised the plant’s biological systems. These issues resulted in an increased risk of environmental pollution and health risks for the surrounding communities.

Three acute failure points To address these issues and restore adequate flows to DWR, Veolia consulted to


IMIESA June 2022

the eThekwini Municipality to survey damages to the catchment system. It identified three acute failure points. In Chatsworth Silverglen, a section of 660 mm diameter steel line washed away. “The resultant spillage polluted the local river and environment, and caused reduced feed flow to DWR. Veolia expended its resources to fix this line,” says Chetty. VSSA engaged the services of engineering contractors to repair the pipe failures at two points in the Chatsworth feed line. “This intervention resulted in flow to DWR increasing from 4 Mℓ/day to 12 Mℓ/day,” adds Chetty. The second catchment system fault was the damage to the sewage transfer pipeline from Umlaas to DWR. This also included wash-away of the road system. The third was a blockage on the Chatsworth line, near RK Khan hospital. In both these cases, Veolia reported the failures to eThekwini Municipality. In the case of the pipe blockage, the municipality engaged its network team to unblock the pipeline to restore flows into the pipe instead of polluting the river course. “The Umlaas feeder

fault is complex. Veolia has advised that to address this, the municipality will require a multidisciplinary and integrated approach, involving roads, stormwater systems, land reinstatement, river course management and social involvement. Veolia will provide strategic-level input,” explains Chetty.

Supporting affected clients Most of Veolia’s clients in KwaZulu-Natal were flooded (including Mondi, Toyota, Simba and MSSL), with extensive damage to infrastructure and plant equipment. “Mondi and Sapref – both being DWR offtake partners – have declared force majeure as a consequence of the unprecedented flooding and damages to their respective infrastructure,” notes Chetty. While each client is undertaking repairs, Veolia has supported the process. “We supplied reclaimed water to facilitate mopping up. And the Veolia Mondi team of 17 personnel assisted with clean-up and repairs. Our maintenance and electrical teams also assisted in assessing damage to motors and equipment,” states Chetty.

Drinking water for rural communities


he completion of a largescale water supply scheme covering seven villages in uMuzimkhulu Local Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, is a game changer for the surrounding rural communities. The approximately 12-month project commenced in May 2021. “We were honoured to be awarded this contract, as the project was multifaceted, to say the least,” says Vuyokazi Radebe, a junior technologist at Zimile Consulting Engineers, adding that there is ‘no one-size-fits-all’ approach to rural bulk water supply, particularly when it comes to old, deteriorating infrastructure. “Many of the sites were in a poor condition, had illegal connections, and had insufficient water treatment

Work in progress on a largescale water supply project for seven villages within uMuzimkhulu Local Municipality

Vuyokazi Radebe, junior technologist, Zimile Consulting Engineers

processes, deeming the water unsafe,” she explains.

Boreholes and storage tanks Across the seven villages, Zimile drilled a total of four new boreholes, refurbished one, and revamped two springs. In addition, three new water reticulation systems were designed and executed, with the refurbishment of another three. A total of three new water storage tanks were also added. The team at Zimile made sure that each site was equipped with the right control and monitoring technology where necessar y. Importantly, additions were also made in terms of water treatment, with two sites being fitted with chlorine dosing plants to ensure the borehole water does not pose a danger to the communities. “Providing clean and safe drinking water is a priority for many local governments. We are glad to be playing our part by offering comprehensive and reliable water infrastructure solutions,” says Radebe. “Working across scattered and remote communities was no simple task, but we rose to the occasion and are ready to apply the lessons learnt to our next rural infrastructure project,” Radebe concludes.


Stormwater management on retaining walls Construction in progress on a doubleskin segmental retaining wall

Drainage system options

Most concrete retaining block walls are semi-imper vious, which means water cannot easily pass through. For this reason, efficient drainage is crucial to prevent a hydrostatic pressure build-up behind the wall that could cause damage such as bulging, cracking or even collapse.


he wall itself and the foundation are important, but the drainage layer is at least as important,” stresses Holger Rust, founder of Terraforce, a pioneering designer and manufacturer of precast concrete retaining blocks and allied systems. This drainage layer should consist of a coarse, well-draining material of not less than 300 mm behind the blocks (as shown in Figure 1) and be well compacted. In certain situations, an engineer may also specify a permeable drainage pipe above foundation level. “It’s also crucial to channel surface water away from the top of the wall in an open swale,” Rust explains.

Gravity versus reinforced retaining walls Terraforce retaining blocks can be used either as part of a gravity system or as the fascia of a geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall structure, or as a fascia for a cement stabilised backfill. Gravity retaining walls (either single or double skin) rely on their self-weight to resist lateral earth pressure, and such walls have


IMIESA June 2022

been in use for centuries. In a gravity system, the Terraforce masonry units can be stacked several courses deep to provide support to the forces imposed by the retained soil. The weight and geometry of the stacked units prevent the constructed wall from sliding on its base or, at an intermediate height, toppling over or rotating out of position. The key characteristic of geosynthetic reinforced soil segmental retaining walls is that they utilise reinforcing sheets of geogrid or suitable woven geotextile. These are attached to the fascia and are embedded in a body of engineered fill. The integrated nature of the fascia and the abutting large body of reinforced soil thereby support the applied earth forces. In this case, the ‘gravity’ component of the retaining wall is provided by the reinforced soil mass, which acts as a monolithic unit. By virtue of their inherent flexibility, reinforced walls can accommodate movement and some settlement without suffering distress. This makes the system particularly suitable for construction on (engineered) filled ground or in areas which may be prone to settlement effects.

The following are examples of drainage systems that could be required when designing and building Terraforce retaining walls, depending on the soil conditions and specific application. Fin drains: Fin drains, also known as wick drains, are typically installed at an angle of 45 to 60 degrees at predetermined centres against the cut face. Subsurface drains: Subsurface drains, also known as subsoil drains, are specified behind the bottom row of blocks. “Slotted or drilled drainage pipes should be installed within a gravel bed and wrapped in filter fabric to prevent clogging of the gravel with fine particles from the backfill,” Rust explains. “However, this may be waived in some conditions, depending on the soil analysis.” Drainage outlets: Another common design application is the installation of drainage outlets through the wall and at the end of the wall. “From experience, we recommend that installers wrap the open end of the outlet pipe with plastic mesh to prevent spillage of gravel,” Rust continues. Hard lawn paving blocks: Drainage and aesthetics can also be combined successfully to striking effect. An example is the use of Terracrete eco-surface hard lawn paving blocks in conjunction with concrete retaining block wall system designs. The Terracrete units can be laid in different patterns. They can also be used with or without ground anchors for the lining of riverbanks and other areas subject to soil erosion. Other popular applications include the paving of grassed roads and parking areas, as well as the stabilising of steep embankments. In- and outlets over the wall: “From the examples given, it’s clear that drainage is application and design specific,” says Rust, adding that – for in- and outlet drainage points – precast elements work well both over and through the wall.


Terraforce blocks

Typical swale or concrete channel to engineer’s specification

Sod laid on 200 mm topsoil

Subsurface/subsoil drains are installed behind the bottom row of blocks

Impervious layer Suitable nonwoven geotextile

Drainage fill

Mastering the science of retaining wall systems When designed and built by industry experts, concrete retaining block walls are highly robust and will last a lifetime. Bearing testimony to this are the walls standing today that were built with Terraforce’s first product, known as the S block, which was first introduced in the mid-1980s. As an added service to industry, in 1992, Terraforce introduced a design manual for local and international practitioners. The modern-day version has now been updated for release in 2022 with the participation of professionals in three countries. Split into two sections, the Terraforce Design Guide deals with the theory and practice of gravity retaining wall design – with worked examples – as well as the design and installation of Terraforce reinforced soil retaining walls in accordance with BS 8006 and SANS 207:2011. All the procedural Precast elements work well both over and through the wall for in- and outlet drainage points

and sequential steps that need to be followed are covered to construct safe and sound structures.

Understanding segmentation Alongside Terraforce’s products, there are a wide range of block designs on the local and international market. “Some systems are interlinked while others interlock on the vertical and/or horizontal plane,” Rust explains. “However, all these systems rely largely on interblock friction to derive sliding resistance. “It’s important to emphasise that no amount of interlocking or interlinking will prevent a structure from collapsing when substantial active lateral earth pressure occurs. Under such circumstances, designers must utilise layers of geosynthetic reinforcement in the backfill to achieve stability and ensure that the drainage systems are adequate for seasonal and storm events,” Rust concludes.

Terracrete eco-surface hard lawn paving blocks form part of the drainage system on this concrete retaining block wall design Installation of drainage outlets through the wall and at the end of the wall are common design features

Open drainage channel above the wall

IMIESA June 2022



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KEY CONTRACTS Lateral support: - N3 Umlaas Road, Civilcon / Raubex Pipe jacking: - 2 800 mm dia. for Rand Water’s bulk water projects in Johannesburg - LUSIP II project in Swaziland for Stefanutti Stocks Pipe jacking and sheet piling: - Penhill infrastructure project, Blackheath, Cape Town, for Asla Sheet piling - Pietermaritzburg’s Edendale township sewer main


ne of our core strengths is the deep reserve of skills, experience and applied knowledge gained by our young team of seasoned experts, who have all worked for many years in the South African and international geotechnical markets,” says Byron Field, director and head of BLOC Contractors, who joined the company in 2018 following a 15-year career with Esor. Headquartered in Durban, with operations in Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Zambia, BLOC is a CIDB 7CE graded contractor and a BBBEE Level 1 Contributor.

Areas of focus Since 2018, Field has transformed BLOC into a well-rounded geotechnical contracting firm, diversifying from its roots as a concrete cutting and coring business, which remains part of its Concrete Division. “To support our growth, we’ve invested in the best equipment brands from around the

Byron Field Director

world that are supplied and supported in South Africa,” says Field. Culvert jacking, pipe jacking and tunnelling: BLOC has a proven track record for its trenchless capabilities, having completed a wide range of pipe jacking, culvert jacking and tunnelling contracts around South Africa. Horizontal directional drilling capabilities have also been expanded, with pipes up to 800 mm successfully installed to grade for gravity lines. “Within the pipe jacking segment, we’re regarded as an industry leader, with projects completed from 900 mm to 3 000 mm in all ground conditions,” Field explains. “Success in this area has spurred major expansion within our broader geotechnical suite.” Sheet piling: Allied to its trenchless abilities, BLOC has a fleet of sheet piling excavators mounted with vibrators for the execution of temporary and permanent shoring and retaining excavations in weak

Colin Howe Contracts Manager

Kaylin Govender Contracts Manager

or water-saturated ground. Sheets can be installed to a depth of 12 m. Lateral support: Within the building and civils sector, another BLOC specialisation is lateral support for both temporary and permanent works. BLOC has recently completed some impressive contracts employing shotcrete, soil nails and cable anchors as integral parts of the final design. Design and turnkey: In addition to its installed solutions, BLOC offers a designand-construct package. Based on a detailed site inspection, the company’s professional design engineer will advise on the best geotechnical methodology.

Take-home message “BLOC has rapidly become a respected and trusted name in the highly specialised geotechnical field. We’re lean, responsive and well positioned to deliver as the roads and allied infrastructure pipeline picks up nationally,” Field concludes.

Andre Viljoen Office Manager

IMIESA June 2022



REHABILITATION UNDER WAY ON CAPE FLATS 1 SEWER LINE Demonstration prior to commencement of works on Cape Flats 1

The Cape Flats 1 and 2 (CF 1 and 2) sewer lines were originally installed in 1962 and 1969 respectively. Now a major refurbishment programme is under way in stages. Alastair Currie speaks to Vuyo James, Pr Tech Eng, Senior Professional Officer: Planning, Design and Projects at the City of Cape Town, about the trenchless technique employed. Based on recent pipe profiling inspections, what is the current overall condition of the CF 1 and 2 lines? VJ For background information, Athlone is the starting point for CF 1 and 2 – each measuring approximately 14 km in length – culminating at the Cape Flats Wastewater Treatment Works in Zeekoevlei. A further line, Cape Flats 3 (CF 3), was completed in 2016 to meet ongoing population growth and industrial expansion. Given their age, CF 1 and 2 have stood up remarkably well over the years, but it’s time for an intensive maintenance intervention to further extend their working life. Thanks to the addition of CF 3, we can embark on a systematic and phased refurbishment of CF 1 and 2 without comprising on sanitation delivery. The refurbishment programme starts with CF 1, where pipe diameters range from 1 050 mm to 1 430 mm.

Based on the contractor’s profiling of the pipelines, it was shown that the pipelines have a severely corroded soffit. From these profiling inspections, it was determined that the pipeline ovality varies from between 2.5% to approximately 14%. It was determined, however, that the pipelines are only partially deteriorated, as the severely corroded sections of pipe were encased in concrete at the time of construction. The corrosion of the pipelines has an impact on their flow condition and the high potential of collapse, plus the requirement for point repairs in the future. Which trenchless technology repair interventions have been approved by the City and why? Spirally wound pipe (SWP) lining is the preferred technology to be used for the rehabilitation of CF 1. This is based on the fact that the SWP liner caters for a wide range of deterioration conditions with a single lining profile thickness. This allows for a lower risk to the City and contractor in ordering material in advance, as this material satisfies the design requirements for multiple conditions with a high safety factor.

Vuyo James, Senior Professional Officer: Planning, Design and Projects, Water and Sanitation Directorate, City of Cape Town


IMIESA June 2022

The option of SWP fixed-diameter technology is being used, as this provides the City with the best solution in terms of the use of cleaning equipment and the lifespan of the rehabilitated pipeline. The major benefit of SWP is that it can be installed under live conditions. Where practical, it will be used for the whole of CF 1. What are the project costs, phases and timelines? The overall CF 1 project has been split into multiple works packages spanning a tender term of three years. Due to the unknown conditions of the pipeline at the commencement of the project, the CF 1 rehabilitation works have been split into two main phases, namely: cleaning, inspection and profiling; and SWP rehabilitation. Our first section on CF 1 needed to be completed ahead of a City Integrated Rapid Transit project commencing in Govan Mbeki Road on 1 July 2022. The length of this 1 100 mm diameter CF 1 section is approximately 1.2 km starting at Pinati Estate in Athlone and extending to Govan Mbeki Road in Wetton. The works began in mid-April 2022 for scheduled completion by the end of June 2022. The approximate cost is R27 000 per metre inclusive of cleaning, all civil works and rehabilitation.


ABOUT SWP Spiral-wound liners are a specialty extruded plastic ribbed profile made from pipe-grade PVC. The liners are constructed directly on-site using mechanical winding machines and the PVC profile is shipped to the job site on spools. The profile strip is wound into the existing pipe via stationary or traversing winding machines, with the edges of the profiles joining to form a continuous liner. The result is a new PVC pipe within the existing pipeline. (Source:

SWP launch preparation

Will the manhole chambers be replaced? On this particular project, the existing manhole chambers, which are currently 650 mm x 650 mm brick chimneys, are being upgraded to 1 250 mm diameter precast manhole ring chimneys. The chambers below the cover slabs remain unchanged except for minimal repairs required for the installation of the SWP liner. SWP feed in progress

What are some of the key technical challenges? Due to the high ovality of the pipeline, considerable effort went into the design and proposal of the fixeddiameter SWP liner in order to improve flow conditions and rehabilitate the pipeline without significantly reducing the cross-sectional area of the existing pipeline. An installed SWP section on Cape Flats 1

Has SWP been used by the City before? Prior to this contract, SWP liner rehabilitation had never been implemented within the City of Cape Town municipal area, making this contract a flagship project for trenchless technology for large-diameter gravity sewer pipeline rehabilitation. The City of Cape Town has previously implemented cured-in-place-pipe (CIPP) lining technology. This provided the City with in-depth experience on the implementation of large-scale pipeline rehabilitation projects. The use of the new SWP technology has the advantage of lower risk of installation in comparison with alternative methods and a reduced construction timeframe due to the ease of installation. This minimises the disruption to the surrounding/affected communities. An added benefit is that the SWP liner is designed to have a lifespan of 100 years. Will the installation of the new refurbishment solution negate the need for future pipeline maintenance? No, regular maintenance/cleaning of the pipeline will still be required to mitigate silt settlements in the line. However, the implementation of this rehabilitation method will prevent point repairs/collapses on the line within the designed lifespan of the SWP liner. What’s the next stage? Planning starts from mid-June 2022 with the City’s appointed professional service providers. This will determine the next steps and the drawing up of work packages from July for the new CF 1 phases. Based on available budgets, we aim to complete the entire CF 1 rehabilitation by mid-2024. And in closing? This is a pioneering project for the rehabilitation of large-diameter gravity pipelines in Southern Africa. With the current state of the existing sewer infrastructure in South Africa, there is a need for the use of trenchless technologies such as SWP.

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The erosion of part of the west arm of the Duiwenhoks Riverbank (north of Heidelberg, Eden District, Western Cape) during the 2013 flooding was so severe that an adjacent, unsurfaced road connecting the R322 to Heidelberg via the Duiwenhoks River valley collapsed. By Hans King, owner of Hans King SRS

The erosion of the riverbank and fill as a result of the 2013 flood

Stabilisation of severe bank erosion


or about 300 m, the unsurfaced road was about 10 m higher than the river itself, and was about 50 m from the edge of the river. The Duiwenhoks River started to meander with unnatural vigour due to upstream erosion supplementing the sediment load in the river. The unnatural meandering of the river was due to: • severe run-off events of 2008 and 2013 • rapid growth of alien invasive vegetation (black wattle – Acacia mearnsii) on the inside of the bend at the site, deflecting the flow of water into the opposite bank • massive amount of sediment washed out of a palmiet reed wetland at a site about 1 km upstream over a short period of time (about 250 000 m3 of sediment was washed out during three major floods from the late 1970s to 2013).


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Objectives of the project The main objective of the R10.5 million project was to help ensure the sustainability of agricultural land of the whole community downstream of the site (as the funding was sourced via the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act [No. 43 of 1983]). To do this, it would be necessary to limit the amount of sediment being washed away from the site unnaturally. Other objectives included the: • creation of job opportunities for the local community during the construction phase, and later during river maintenance • protection of the river environment by removing alien vegetation, stabilising the movement of sediment, and the reintroduction of indigenous wetland vegetation • protection of the public road from

Hans King, owner of Hans King SRS

undermining, so as to support the access of the local farming community to their markets. After the site was surveyed, a hydrological study of the catchment was performed, and historical aerial imagery studied; a new alignment for the river was planned more or less along the route it had been 10 years previously. The width and slope of the rehabilitated channel was designed to keep the flow velocity during floods low, and to mimic that which probably existed historically,


so that sediment movement during floods would be reduced. Groynes were chosen as river training structures (as opposed to riprap or other longitudinal protection), partly because this is a lot more economical, but also because the use of groynes promotes a wider and slowerflowing watercourse during floods, and that the spaces between the groynes are used for trapping sediment and the establishment of indigenous wetland vegetation. The height of the groyne structures above the riverbed was kept low so that large sections of the groynes would be overtopped during moderate floods and double the river’s flow width. Rock-filled gabions were selected as the construction material because they are flexible enough to accommodate foundation

movements, should they occur during an extreme flood. They are also easy to work with, and this facilitated the use of 70% local (unskilled) persons.

Design and construction challenges The bend where the river enters the site is very sharp (90 degrees) and this caused concern. The stabilisation of sharp bends is problematic because they can require many groyne structures to effectively turn the water. The problem was addressed by keeping the rehabilitated channel as close to the north bank (inside of the bend) as possible. This enabled the construction of very long groyne structures; they could therefore be spaced further apart and were fewer in number than The groynes finally installed to train the river away from the road fill and to trap sediment

A drone image of the completed project looking downstream from the top end

the short groyne alternative design. The economy of this approach is not so much because there are fewer groynes in number, but rather because less work is involved in constructing groyne tips. The groyne tips are excavated 2 m deeper than the rest of the structure and, because this is below the water table, it is very expensive. During construction, it was found that several islands of indigenous wetland vegetation existed along the route of the rehabilitated channel. The design of the rehabilitated channel called for this area to be dropped by between 0.5 m and 1 m. As the Department of Agriculture had not started establishing nursery facilities for these projects at that time (and supplies of indigenous plants were hard to obtain), it was decided to maintain these islands of vegetation in their current habitat without disturbance. This caused inconvenience for the contractor, but it was believed that the impact of the vegetation islands on the structures would be negligible. The project was one of the first large-scale river stabilisation projects in the Eden area. As a result, many people visiting the site were alarmed at the sight of the many large heaps of excavated soil in the riverbed during the construction phase. It took a lot to convince them that the disturbance was a shortterm necessity in order to achieve long-term stability. Once the project was complete, they all appreciated the work that was done.


WAYS THAT SMART PUMP SYSTEMS ADD VALUE Powering the Wastewater Renaissance, a research report commissioned by Xylem, finds that adopting energy-efficient wastewater management technologies can cut electricity-related greenhouse gas emissions by almost half. Such advantages are very timely for pump operations under pressure, says Chetan Mistry, strategy and marketing manager, Xylem Africa.


s the market faces pressure from rising energy costs and growing urbanisation, pump sites need to make the most of what they've got, as well as invest smartly in new pump innovations. They need to improve ageing infrastructure with retrofitted improvements and new designs that take less space at existing sites,” Mistry explains. “The savings come from improved operations, reduced maintenance and fewer breakdowns due to dry running and clogging. Then there is the massive leap provided by variable-speed motors that adapt to changing conditions. This is a fantastic time to leverage smart pump innovations,” Mistry continues.

Seven good reasons The following seven examples demonstrate how switching to smart pumps helps to drive down costs and optimise budgets: existing infrastructure 1 Retrofit Replacing older pumps is a daunting expense and a primary reason why sites avoid upgrades. Yet innovations in control systems bring new life to established pumping infrastructure. Sites can retrofit modern control systems to existing pumps, opening the door to features such as performance monitoring, emergency shutdowns and variable-speed controls.


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energy consumption 2 Reduce Modern pumps offer energy

savings of up to 70% (versus fixed-speed drives). New models of inverters and variable-speed drives manage usage to ensure optimal performance. Unlike traditional pumps that operate on a set level regardless of the conditions, smart pumps adjust accordingly. Some pumps adapt along a kilowatt field rather than a static curve – thus, one pump can act in various capacities that previously required several pumps.


Lower wear and tear Variable conditions can radically reduce a pump’s lifespan or maintenance intervals. Snoring and dry running are two examples of how prolonged exposure damages a pump, taking years off its lifespan. Smart pumps manage their speed based on inflow conditions, using modern sensors. Sensors and controls can also be fitted on to established pumps to manage inflow conditions.


Improved maintenance Smart pumps facilitate improved modular maintenance and repair conditions, reducing downtime and maintenance costs by as much as 50%. New pump designs often require fewer components, further lessening the chance of parts failure, and reducing spares inventory requirements.

continued operations 5 Improved Shutting down pumps can be

very disruptive and stop-start conditions can create unwanted pressure peaks and dreaded water hammers. New features such as adaptive modes enable smart pumps to run continuously as they adapt to factors such as inflow and variable particle sizes. Control systems and sensors enable smart pumps to turn off when not needed but stay online when operations require it. monitoring and planning 6 Integrated Smart pump infrastructure brings several benefits to operations planning while simplifying the environment. Smart motors can operate multipump environments, negating the need for external control panels or programmable logic controllers. Sensor data can be integrated into existing operations centres or sent to tablets and mobile phone apps for remote monitoring and control. space utilisation 7 Lower Traditional pumps are bulky and take up a lot of space. Modern smart pumps offer smaller profiles, which means there is more room for other equipment or additional pumps. Multipump controllers further reduce the space required for control boxes while providing additional features to both new and traditional pumps.


Chetan Mistry, strategy and marketing manager, Xylem Africa

Leading the smart pump revolution Xylem invests in the research and development of new smart pump technologies and control systems via a range of class-leading brands that include Flygt and Godwin. Prime examples of innovation include: - The Xylem Smart Motor, an ‘ultra-premium’

IE5 permanent magnet motor with built-in pump protection controls and monitoring, which can optimise pump operations and increase energy savings up to 70%. - Flygt Biboα dewatering pumps, which adapt automatically and only operate when needed, delivering energy savings of up to 60% compared to traditional dewatering pumps. - Godwin’s NC150S Dri-Prime dewatering pump, which features Xylem’s unique, self-cleaning, Flygt N-Technology nonclog impeller and Godwin’s Field Smart Technology for remote management even in rugged environments. - Flygt’s SmartRun intelligent control, which combines the advanced functionality of a VFD/drive with a simple and intuitive controller. SmartRun takes care of pump, pipe and sump cleaning, as well as water hammer reduction by intelligent soft starts and stops.

“Whether the goal is to acquire new equipment or increase the value of existing systems, study the choices available and make a smart investment today that will deliver value for decades,” Mistry concludes.

YOUR TOTAL SOLUTION FOR ASPHALT AND CONCRETE At Lintec & Linnhoff, we manufacture and distribute leadingedge solutions for the asphalt and concrete industries globally under the Lintec, Linnhoff and Eurotec brand names. Our products include asphalt mixing plants, concrete batching plants, pavement related technologies and machinery, and specialist concrete cooling solutions.


Shaun Wessels, regional sales manager, KSB Pumps and Valves

A ready-to-connect pressure booster system with the ability to assist municipalities struggling with water reticulation has been introduced to the South African market by pump manufacturer KSB Pumps and Valves.



he KSB Delta Macro type series is designed for large flow rates with a maximum rate per system able to perform at 960 m3/h and the maximum pump head of 160 m as standard. The ready-to-connect units operate fully automatically and are equipped with between two and six Movitec high-efficiency centrifugal pumps. According to Shaun Wessels, regional sales manager, KSB Pumps and Valves, the systems’ Booster Command Pro+ microprocessor control unit starts and stops the pumps in line with demand using either cascade control (F variant)

or a frequency inverter for speed control (VC and SVP). LEDs on the control panel indicate the system’s current operating status. A Modbus RTU interface, provided as standard, facilitates connection to external communication devices. For transmitting warnings or alerts to a higher-level control station, the standard configuration has two volt-free contacts on terminals, in addition to other optional signal terminals.

Clever operation “The pressure booster systems can be connected to the KSB Delta FlowManager app using a Bluetooth LE interface. The app shows the current status of the pumps, the pressures

on the suction and discharge side, and the programmed parameters. It also allows users to control and operate the system directly and change the settings,” Wessels explains. The SVP version is fitted with high-efficiency IE5 synchronous reluctance motors of the Supreme type series and the PumpDrive variable-speed system. The F and VC variants are equipped with IE3 motors. The first pump is started by a pressure drop in the piping when a consumer installation is opened. While the pressure booster system is in operation, the microprocessor control unit starts and stops the pumps in line with demand. “When water consumption stops, all pumps are ramped down one after the other once the stop pressure has been reached. This ensures that the individual pumps operate only in line with actual demand. If a pump has not been operated for over 24 hours, the microprocessor control unit initiates a test run for this pump. Should a lack of water occur in the inlet, the system stops automatically to prevent damage caused by dry running,” says Wessels.

Simple installation

KSB Delta Macro SVPs are ready-to-connect, fully automatic pressure booster systems for large-volume flow rates in building services

He adds that the factory assembles and tests all systems prior to sending them out, so all operators have their units delivered ready to connect. This makes commissioning easy and fast for the service personnel. Thanks to shutoff valves down- and upstream of each pump, replacing a pump does not require the piping to be drained beforehand. All parts in contact with the fluid handled are made of stainless steel or brass. Additionally, the sealing elements are made of EPDM that has been approved for drinking water, ensuring corrosion resistance and a long service life.

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The Executive Mayor of Tshwane, Alderman Randall Williams

Severe flooding in Centurion

A NET-ZERO AND CLIMATE-RESILIENT TSHWANE BY 2050 From improving waste management systems to constructing green buildings, Tshwane’s Climate Action Plan identifies a series of shifts required to become a net-zero-carbon and climate-resilient city by 2050. By Nombulelo Manyana


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ccording to statistics provided in the National Waste Management Strategy, South Africa currently generates about 122 million tonnes of waste per year – of which the vast majority (90%) goes directly to landfill. This waste has an estimated total resource value of R25.2 billion a year. Industry experts have also warned of an expected increase in solid waste generated by cities to reach 3.4 billion tonnes by 2050. Even though South Africa has made significant progress in developing its policy and institutional framework in response to the waste crisis, there is a need to develop comprehensive plans to deal with the effects of climate change. Cities will play a vital role in the global response to climate change by curbing their greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the effects of a changing climate.

A renewed commitment As the capital of South Africa and the second largest municipality in Gauteng, the City


of Tshwane has taken a firm step towards becoming a more sustainable city by launching its Climate Action Plan on 7 June 2022. The plan outlines what it will take for the city to become a net-zero-carbon and climate-resilient area by 2050. Climate action plans are comprehensive road maps translating cities’ efforts into specific activities to achieve sustainable development and low greenhouse gas emissions. This includes climate adaptation actions and ensuring access to clean, secure and affordable energy. Under its theme, ‘A net-zero carbon and climate-resilient city by 2050’, the Climate Action Plan shows the City’s commitment to addressing climate change impacts and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The plan was launched in partnership with the University of Pretoria, Future Africa, C40 Cities and the Tshwane Economic Development Agency. By becoming a sustainable city, the City of Tshwane hopes to be a global example of a city taking “climate change seriously while ensuring that its residents receive access to the services they need and reducing poverty and joblessness”.

Urgent action needed Speaking at the launch hosted at the University of Pretoria, the Executive Mayor of Tshwane, Alderman Randall Williams, said the devastating floods that wreaked havoc in parts of KwaZulu-Natal were a wake-up call to the reality of climate change and how it continues to be a threat. “We are starting to experience the real effects of climate change, ranging from severe droughts in parts of the country to

The City of Tshwane’s Climate Action Plan establishes a road map for carbon neutrality

devastating floods in other parts. Following the devastating KwaZulu-Natal floods, it is important that metros pay attention to climate change issues. The implementation of this Climate Action Plan will require extensive partnerships and support from colleagues and key stakeholders,” he said.

Ambitious goals Williams said that, in order to achieve the goals set out in the plan, emissions must be reduced by 15% in 2030, 45% in 2040, and 100% by 2050. The plan aims to protect natural resources, rehabilitate the natural environment and provide safe open spaces for residents’ health and well-being. Some key outcomes include: • Outcome 1: Create safe, healthy and climate-resilient communities • Outcome 2: Implement climate-smart urban planning and designs • Outcome 3: Promote clean, efficient and climate-smart transport and transitoriented development • Outcome 4: Develop climate-proof infrastructure • Outcome 5: Develop net-zero, carbonefficient and climate-resilient buildings and public facilities • Outcome 6: Promote climate-resilient agricultural infrastructure and protecting natural resources • Outcome 7: Provide access to clean and sufficient water, water security and water efficiency • Outcome 8: Implement an energy-smart and secure city with sustainable access to clean efficient and affordable energy for all • Outcome 9: Create a zero-waste capital city that promotes a circular economy. Williams further added that, in preparation for the Tshwane Climate Action Plan, the City has taken an evidence-based approach and

commissioned the identification of climate risk zones, with the view to update its climate risk and vulnerability assessment. These are areas that experience one or more climate-related hazards that could be worsened by the presence of various social or environmental stresses. Williams said that the plan crafts and directs actions to the climate risk zones with a view to “reduce the impact of the hazards or to build the coping capacity for the affected communities”.

Alignment with international goals Under Williams’ leadership, this progressive and ambitious agenda aligns with the City’s international peers, having signed the Compact of Mayors’ Declaration in 2014 (now known as the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy) and becoming a member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) – an international group of megacities committed to addressing climate change. The C40 organisation supports cities and their mayors to collaborate effectively, share knowledge and drive meaningful, measurable and sustainable action on climate change. The City of Tshwane is among the cities around the world that pledged to work on an action plan aimed at tackling climate change as well as addressing inequality and economic exclusion among disadvantaged communities.

Collaboration As the capital city of South Africa, Tshwane hosts many potential partners, including embassies and donor organisations, research organisations, private sector companies (some of which are striving to achieve global targets) and non-profit organisations. All of these have indicated their willingness to collaborate with the City on a variety of initiatives that will contribute to achieving the goals of its Climate Action Plan.

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A bankable, non-revenue water project using technology While reducing non-revenue water (NRW) is a high priority for most municipalities, the capital requirement to address this problem typically exceeds the available municipal budget. With this in mind, the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) assisted the City of Tshwane in preparing an NRW project from the concept phase to bankability. Konstant Bruinette, senior deal originator at the Development Bank of Southern Africa

Leaking pipe at Moreleta Reservoir


unicipalities often have to prepare an NRW programme and go to market for funding. However, financiers look for a holistic solution when tackling NRW, and municipalities usually focus on a single element like replacing meters or pipes,” says Konstant Bruinette, senior deal originator at the DBSA.

City of Tshwane With a 700 km pipeline and water infrastructure valued at R22 billion, the City of Tshwane loses millions of rand annually due to water losses in the transmission and distribution network, and has poor cost recovery (86%). Estimates of physical losses (leaks) in the municipality’s network range between 25% and 40%. The metro consumes approximately 1 000 Mℓ/day of water. The impact of deteriorating water distribution and transmission infrastructure was not limited to physical losses only. In an environment of limited maintenance, water meters were typically the type of device where maintenance falls short or is neglected completely. As a result, the proportion of non-functional water meters had grown rapidly. This had a direct impact on billing and cost recovery.


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Lesego Lekubu, programme manager: WC/WDM Programme, City of Tshwane

“We were fortunate to receive project preparation assistance from the DBSA. A lot of time and effort was directed towards identifying potential interventions to address water losses holistically with the NRW project,” explains Lesego Lekubu, programme manager: WC/WDM Programme, City of Tshwane.

Funding The City of Tshwane’s NRW project is designed to allow for phased financing and implementation. It is a hybrid between conventional balance sheet finance and project finance. The intention is to strengthen the financial position of the metro by increasing cash flows stemming from the interventions that are implemented on a sub-project level. Funding for future sub-projects will be Construction of new bunkers

progressively advanced to the municipality in tranches by the participating financiers against strict criteria for the achievement and maintenance of key performance indicators of the sub-projects already implemented. As the programme is rolled out, less debt will be required to finance the new subprojects, because the municipality will be able to fund a larger portion through its own funds generated from the savings and improved revenues stemming from already implemented interventions. “We received grant funding (R34 million) from the Investment Infrastructure Programme for South Africa (IIPSA) in 2019 to start a feasibility study for a water conservation and water demand management (WC/WDM) programme. Additional funding of R6 million Fixing PRVs




• System input volume (SIV) • Minimal night flows (MNF) • Pressure management: PRVs/Critical point/ Average pressures • SIV (integrated with Zednet/Ibis) • Authorised AADD (billed, unbilled) • Water loss (volume, %) • SIV saving (kℓ/day, ZAR/a) • Total billed amount (ZAR/a) • Customers with 60 days+ debt (%) • Total collected revenue (ZAR/a)

was received for programme management and R20 million for meter installations. A pilot project is being implemented in the Cullinan, Rayton and Refilwe region,” says Lekubu.

Programme preparation and implementation The programme is designed to consider: • climate adaptation initiatives, improving the City’s resilience • job creation and local economic development • enhanced service delivery • deferment of capital investment for new bulk infrastructure • affordable tariffs. According to Bruinette, the programme is implemented in phases, based on prioritised demand management zones (DMZs). “The performance of these zones will be continuously monitored and assessed for improvement. These prioritised zones will be financed through separate loan tranches. All funding is preceded by the confirmation of the financial model and agreed-upon performance indicators that are focused on the reduction of real loses within the network and the improvement of revenue collection.” The detailed feasibility study was completed a year ago; it took a programmatic approach that evaluated water resources, infrastructure and tariff modelling. It addressed all financial, social, institutional and legal issues. From there, a financial model was developed to determine if the WC/WDM project is bankable and feasible. “This is a basket of WC/WDM interventions. These interventions differ in all DMZs,” states Lekubu.

Zednet The City of Tshwane was already using an existing web-based system (Zednet) to monitor

parameters such as meter readings, flow, pressure and reservoir levels. Data storage is cloud based and backed up to the City of Tshwane’s server. Data is displayed in a graph or table format that is easily understandable. There was a further investigation to evaluate the possibility of using Zednet to measure the objectives set out by this project. These objectives include: • monitoring various parameters (flow, meter readings, pressure) • prioritising leakage repair activities by evaluating the minimum night flows • receiving alarm notifications (high/ low alarms) • integrating with other information systems used in the City of Tshwane, such as IMQS and Scada. Bruinette states that it is important that multiple users have access to Zednet on multiple devices. “For example, consumers can log in to view their monthly volume of water consumed and financiers can log in to view the performance of DMZs that have received funding. Furthermore, there is a functionality where all information gets timestamped and one can plot trends over time. From a financier’s point of view, this is great. If something starts to go wrong, one can focus in on the problem and make appropriate changes. “The idea was to help the City of Tshwane move away from a reactive to a more proactive response when addressing NRW, where we could prioritise the deployment of infrastructure and monitor the impact of waterloss initiatives. This is key for financiers who want to quantify the benefit of their funding,” notes Lekubu. The smart technology used in the programme is an enabler that reduced project risk and unlocked a larger NRW programme. “With this

project, we did not reinvent the wheel, but used existing technology that the municipality already had in place. We merely added some functionality and integrated all systems.

Conclusion “With the assistance received from IIPSA and the DBSA, we managed to create a clearly defined, bankable WC/WDM project that showed anticipated returns and benefits. This generated support from all stakeholders from the City’s Water and Sanitation Department, the City’s Finance Department, Revenue Collection Department, as well as from the Executive Mayor. IIPSA funding has built capacity within our municipality where training has been provided on the management and maintenance of pressure-reducing valves,” adds Lekubu. This WC/WDM project is ongoing; it has been implemented in 240 district metering areas. In terms of bulk metering, mechanical meters are being replaced by electromagnetic flow meters. These will help to accurately determine the metro’s water balance and quantify water losses.

KEY FEATURES OF A BANKABLE NRW PROGRAMME • Reduction of recoverable real losses (RRL) • Improvement of the infrastructure leakage index (ILI) • Reduction of over-consumption • Improved cost recovery • Strong support by politicians and management • Phased funding and implementation approach • Ability to monitor and verify benefits • Sectored demand management zone approach

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Environmental Douw Steyn, director: Sustainability at Plastics SA pollution poses one of the greatest threats to all forms of life on the planet. IMIESA speaks to Douw Steyn, director: Sustainability at Plastics SA, about the organisation’s role in promoting responsible waste management and recycling.

MUNICIPALITIES NEED TO LIFT THEIR WASTE GAME How is Plastics SA contributing to urban sustainability? DS Sustainability is one of the pillars of Plastics SA. We support and contribute to resource efficiency activities for our industry that impact aspects such as energy use, water usage and air quality. We also facilitate numerous projects such as recycling initiatives and clean-up campaigns for entrepreneurs and communities. Education and training initiatives form an important component. Is a ban on single-use plastics one of the solutions? No, there is no ‘silver bullet’ that will solve South Africa’s waste crisis. Banning singleuse plastics is, in our opinion, not the right approach to follow, although we do agree that we need to eliminate all unnecessary packaging (regardless of the material) and to reuse where possible. When used and disposed of responsibly, plastics have a major role to play in ensuring a more sustainable world. Unfortunately, South Africa’s current waste collection and recycling system is broken: 34% of households in South Africa still do not have access to formal waste collection, while 64% of recyclables still come from landfill and other post-consumer sources.


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In other words, there’s little to no formal separation-at-source. As a result, waste that could have been collected and recycled is either sent to landfill or ends up in the environment, where it becomes dirty and contaminated. Recyclers therefore have to invest in expensive wash plants to clean the material collected. Communities must become more serious about diverting waste from landfill and allow recyclers access to post-consumer waste streams if we are to improve our recycling rates and grow our circular economies. Our European counterparts have shown us that this is only possible if recyclables are removed from the waste stream as early as possible to ensure they retain their value. We need an effective separation-atsource system across South Africa in all municipalities to prevent valuable waste from being sent to landfill or, worse yet, ending up in our rivers or oceans because there is no effective waste management system in place. How is the EPR implementation progressing? We believe that government’s introduction of mandatory extended producer

responsibility (EPR) under Section 18 of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008), which came into effect in South Africa on 5 May 2021, is a major step forward in the right direction. EPR means that producers of packaged goods are responsible for not only health and safety issues associated with their products, but also the management of their post-consumer packaging waste, including collection, sorting and recycling. These policy objectives include changes for both upstream (e.g. design for recycling) and downstream (e.g. plans for increased collection and higher overall rates of recycling) aspects, which we are optimistic will soon begin to bear fruit in South Africa and have a significant impact on the amount of packaging waste that is collected and effectively recycled. It will therefore definitely have a positive impact on sustainability, as more funding will be generated to address plastics collection, improve sorting (where recycling facilities are already in place) and introduce separation-at-source mechanisms. This will result in cleaner and bigger volumes of recyclables that will be collected, as well as growing awareness about the correct way to dispose of waste

SMART CITIES (and the importance of recycling), thanks to more funds that will be made available for consumer education. Another benefit of the new Section 18 EPR is that it makes a concerted effort to integrate waste pickers into a working and shorter recycling chain. Producer responsibility organisations (PROs) must produce an interim performance report by the end of July 2022, specifically around waste minimisation targets (%), and compensate waste collectors, reclaimers or pickers for the environmental service they provide. This must be implemented by November 2022.

By 2027, all domestic solid waste will be banned from going to landfills in South Africa. Are municipalities prepared? Thanks to developments such as the new Section 18 EPR, the plastics and packaging industry is in a better position to handle this challenge than most local government operations. As mentioned earlier, the funds generated from the EPR process will allow us to invest in developing new recycling and collection mechanisms, technologies and the development of new end-of-life solutions for materials. The challenge lies in getting access to goodquality materials on a consistent basis.

Can the industry make greater use of recycled plastics for green building projects? Yes. There are already numerous building and construction applications that use recycled plastics with great success, such as lightweight concrete bricks, pavers and screeds that are made from recycled polystyrene. The Green Building Council South Africa has introduced a special Green Star materials category, which gives special credits for building materials that are reused, or where recyclable materials are specified.

What can Plastics SA do to change consumer behaviour when it comes to littering and recycling? We have launched various national and regional education/awareness campaigns that are continuing on an annual basis, such as our annual Clean-up and Recycle SA Week, International Coastal Clean-Up Day, National Recycling Day, plus various beach and community clean-ups taking place throughout the year. We also actively participate in Water Week, World Environment Week and World Oceans Day by supporting NGOs and communities with clean-ups and providing bags and other resources to coordinators. Plastics SA continues to work in close collaboration with national and provincial government, municipalities and environmental NGOs who have various activities aimed at educating consumers not to litter, the importance of recycling, the correct disposal of waste, and the value of creating a circular economy. For more information, visit our dedicated website at

Are MRFs taking off within our metros? There are various collection systems such as buy-back centres that are found all over South Africa. There are some MRFs (materials recovery facilities) in the larger metros – the largest currently being in Cape Town. To ensure their ongoing viability, however, it is vital for municipalities around the country to introduce mechanisms for separation-at-source to ensure a consistent, commercially viable supply of recyclable materials, as well as better quality and bigger volumes of plastics.

Community participation and education are crucial to combat plastic pollution and promote recycling and reuse

And in closing? The reality is that if we do not fix the ‘broken waste management system’ in South Africa, all other efforts will be less effective and even wasteful and fruitless activities. We can have the best redesigned product that is 100% recyclable; however, if it is not separated at household level and moved to a central place where it can be sorted for recycling, then (with the current system) it will just end up in a landfill or the environment. We need to stop cherry-picking and collect all waste to combat pollution.

Beach clean-up operations in Durban

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In April 2021, Egis was awarded the contract for the O&M of the Kampala-Entebbe Expressway – Uganda’s first toll road – linking the capital with its international airport

An integrated approach to transport infrastructure For more than 50 years, the Egis Group development has designed, built and managed hundreds of flagship urban and transit projects “In line with its ‘Impact the Future’ strategic worldwide. Alastair Currie speaks plan, Egis aims to to Laurent Bouchacourt, CEO, Egis make this project a real Operation South Africa, about the showcase for its O&M organisation’s work locally activities in the region. The Group is fully committed and across the African to the development of continent. strategic infrastructure for the


gis operates across the transportation and mobility spectrum – from engineering, project structuring publicprivate partnerships (PPPs), all the way through to operations and maintenance (O&M), and asset management. Recent landmark projects include the engineering, project and construction management of the entire Tangier-Kenitra line in Morocco – Africa’s first high-speed rail line – for the Office National des Chemins de Fer. The completion of this project has significantly reduced journey times between Morocco’s main cities from around 2 hours to 45 minutes. The project also provided an opportunity for upskilling and knowledge exchange between local engineers and the Egis project team.

O&M developments In April 2021, Egis was awarded the contract for the O&M of the KampalaEntebbe Expressway – Uganda’s first toll road – linking the capital with its international airport. This is also the Egis Group’s first contract awarded in Uganda.


IMIESA June 2022

people of Uganda, thus opening up promising prospects in the countr y,” says Bouchacourt. He adds that Egis is also part of a consortium currently bidding for the Kampala-Jinja Toll Road PPP. O&M contracts for cross-countr y or crosscontinent bridge and tunnel infrastructure are further areas of specialisation for Egis, particularly in Europe and North America. On the African continent, Egis led the design of the recently unveiled Kazungula bridge between Botswana and Zambia, and is involved in the development of numerous one-stop border posts. Egis is also actively pursuing O&M opportunities in South Africa with Sanral, as well as provincial and municipal roads authorities within the SADC region. “O&M contracts at provincial and municipal level – on similar standards to those developed by Sanral at national level – would be most beneficial. These types of contracts would provide the much-needed standardisation, as well as economies of scale, to deliver real value-for-money opportunities for expanded skills transfer programmes and support to SMMEs,” Bouchacourt explains.

Concessions and PPPs For any countr y, the ability to successfully

roll out transportation projects hinges on available funding. This makes the PPP route a highly viable option to maximise infrastructure investments that ser ve as a catalyst for socio-economic development. Internationally, the toll road model is well established for PPP transportation projects. “Toll roads are as old as the Roman Empire! For greenfield projects, they enable public financers to leverage their balance sheets,” says Bouchacourt, adding that there are various options available. “Public entities can pay an annuity to a concessionaire – rather than incurring the full brunt of the capital expenditure – and instead allocate capital to social infrastructure, such as housing, schools or hospitals, or shift the entire fiscal burden on to a private concessionaire for 20 to 30 years while collecting an agreed-on fee, escalated annually,” he continues. “At the end of the concession period, the state can elect to have the road

Laurent Bouchacourt, CEO, Egis Operation South Africa


asset transferred and only outsource the collection of toll fees to private operators, or assign fiscal allocations from taxes for the maintenance and upkeep of the road.” Egis is involved on PPP road ventures worldwide. Within Africa, an example is a 30-year concession concluded with the Republic of Congo in 2019. Egis signed the agreement as a co-sponsor of the La Congolaise de Route and has started operating the first 540 km of road on the RN1 between Pointe Noire and Brazzaville. “Elsewhere in Africa, concessions in Cameroon are also at an advanced stage of development. Additionally, Egis has positioned itself as a participant in future transportation PPPs (rail or road) in South Africa,” says Bouchacourt. In parallel, Egis is also growing its presence in the aviation sector. Currently, Egis is a co-investor and the operator of the Abidjan Airport in Ivory Coast, as well as three airports in the Republic of Congo.

“Efficient passenger rail asset management, infrastructure protection and improved operational outcomes such as punctuality, cleanliness, safety, as well as security, can possibly be better achieved through active management of per formance indicators within a PPP framework. They bring the right tension and balance between risks and rewards, and – ultimately – better value for money for public transport utilities,” he continues. “As regards freight rail, which is capital intensive, adequate alignment of interest between public and private stakeholders is also required – and routes carefully selected. Concession tenures long enough to offer the requisite hurdle rate to private investors and operators are necessar y. If correctly framed, such PPPs can revitalise the productivity and output of our major export-driven coal line and ports, for instance.” Egis’s value proposition is to focus on the improved integration of infrastructure and ser vices to ensure better and safer outcomes. In addition to rail, this includes

all other forms of public transport, as well as their potential impact on pedestrians.

Safe travels and smart mobility Road safety is central to Egis Smart Mobility solutions. In South Africa, for example, Egis works with schools, communities, police and SMMEs to improve the security of pedestrians and pupils. A typical example is Egis’s community initiative in Katlehong, Gauteng. Here, Egis, Sekgutlong Primar y School and the Ekurhuleni Metro Police joined forces to improve road infrastructure adjacent to the school, safety equipment and procedures. “The future will be one of smart mobility dovetailing with the quest for zero-carbon emissions. Countr y references from around the globe – such as in Brazil, China and the UAE – present interesting potential crossover applications for South Africa in terms of smart mobility and public transport in large peri-urban areas,” adds Bouchacourt. “The ‘greening’ of a number of cities and central business districts in Europe and the East Coast of the USA could also inspire major metros like Johannesburg, Pretoria and Cape Town to do more – especially for pedestrians, bicycles and communities. Transportation is a holistic discipline and it’s there to deliver the optimal socioeconomic solutions that sustain lives and livelihoods,” Bouchacourt concludes.

Revitalising South Africa’s passenger and freight rail network Since January 2022, South Africa features firmly at the core of Egis’ ecosystem in Africa – and Southern Africa in particular as a regional hub – with significant growth expected in 2022/23 in various sectors. Alongside roads, railways are potential growth areas. “PPPs can certainly be a powerful contributor to the revitalisation of South Africa’s passenger rail network and infrastructure by ensuring efficient allocation of capital and improved levels of service to commuters,” Bouchacourt explains.

Egis, Sekgutlong Primary School and the Ekurhuleni Metro Police joined forces to improve road infrastructure adjacent to the school, safety equipment and procedures

IMIESA June 2022



HIGHWAYS THAT CONNECT NAMIBIA WITH THE WORLD Namibia is investing in strategic road upgrades that will serve as a catalyst for socio-economic growth. IMIESA speaks to Heiko Klink, MD of VKE Namibia, about the company’s involvement in strategic projects that include Phase I and II of the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade and parallel infrastructure works.


amous for its desert landscapes, Namibia’s land area covers some 823 290 km2 and shares borders with Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. This makes Namibia an important international road transit route, as well as in terms of sea and air connections via the Port of Walvis Bay and Hosea Kutako International Airport, situated some 40 km from Windhoek. Since its establishment in 1958, VKE Namibia has performed feasibility studies and designed and supervised the construction of over 2 000 km of roads on behalf of the country’s Roads Authority. Iconic projects include VKE’s appointment as the consultant for a major portion of the Trans-Caprivi Highway Upgrade, completed in 2000.

An expansive network Namibia’s current network comprises around 48 900 km, with national paved arterial routes covering some 8 035 km and

interconnecting with all border points. Two of the key commercial transit routes are the Trans-Zambezi Corridor – connecting Walvis Bay with Lusaka in Zambia and extending up northwards to the DRC border – and the Trans-Kalahari Corridor, extending from Walvis Bay through to Windhoek and onwards to Gauteng in South Africa via Botswana. Namibia remains at the forefront in the region in terms of delivering world-class road infrastructure, with the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2019 ranking the country as the best in Africa. Namibia scored 5 out of a possible 7 and was listed in 31st position out of 137 countries surveyed globally. Driving this ranking is the Roads Authority of Namibia’s ongoing investment in support of the country’s Harambee Prosperity Plan II (2021 to 2025) and Vision 2030 objectives. “We are working on a wide range of projects in Namibia, where one of the key features is the large number of river and interchange bridges that need to be constructed or

upgraded. This is very exciting for our VKE team, especially our young engineers, who are gaining invaluable experience,” Klink states. Current VKE projects include the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade, as well as upgrades on the Windhoek to Okahandja freeway section (approximately 74 km), and Swakopmund to Walvis Bay (approximately 30 km) route. The Okahandja project is at an advanced stage of completion, with the Swakopmund to Walvis Bay freeway scheduled for completion in 2025. In total, some 80 bridges will have been constructed or reconstructed on these three projects, with approximately 150 km of new freeway established.

Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport VKE Namibia was appointed by the Roads Authority in April 2014 for the initial detailed design, tender documentation and

A section of the upgraded Swakopmund to Walvis Bay route


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A new interchange on the Swakopmund to Walvis Bay section

The new Gobabis Interchange on the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade section

contract administration of the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade. The geometric and bridge designs were carried out by SMEC South Africa’s Transportation and Structures divisions in Cape Town, with VKE Namibia carrying out pavement design, drainage design, project management, contract administration and site supervision. In December 2019, the scope of the project was increased (at a cost of N$104 million) with the addition of the Mandume ya Ndemufayo Interchange Bridge, together with 1.7 km of interchange ramps, 1 km of crossroads and an extension of 1 km of the freeway to the north. The final construction cost of this phase of the freeway amounted to N$950 million. “The geometric design includes 9 km of freeway and 16 km of ramps and crossroads, as well as four interchanges of varying complexity,” Klink explains. The road between Windhoek and the airport traverses flat to hilly terrain; the first phase alone required the construction of over 1.2 million m3 of cut-to-fill over a 10 km long section. Also included was the structural design and supervision of seven twin-spine post-tensioned bridges, three river bridges, two road-over-rail bridges and two voided slab bridges.

“Life-cycle costing was a foremost focus in the various pavement designs, taking into account future maintenance requirements. These routes have a cape seal at present, with the option of an asphalt overlay in future,” Klink continues.

Major milestones VKE Namibia recently celebrated the opening of the Mandume Ya Ndemufayo Interchange – the final interchange forming part of Phase I of the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade

New dual-carriageway river bridges connecting Windhoek with Okahandja

project. Running on the Windhoek Western Bypass, the interchange provides access to Windhoek eastward and feeds the major road to Sossusvlei westward. Since its opening, the interchange has substantially improved traffic flow and reduced traffic congestion on the Western Bypass. Once the entire Western Bypass Freeway is complete, it is anticipated that there will be a significant reduction in longdistance traffic through Windhoek, with major cargo and passenger transport on the northsouth corridor having a free flow route around the city centre. Phase I is estimated to be completed by August 2022. Phase II of the Windhoek to Hosea Kutako International Airport Freeway Upgrade is split into stages, namely IIA and IIB. Phase IIA is scheduled for completion in early 2024, and Phase IIB towards the end of September 2024, entailing the completion of the final dual-carriageway links to the east of the airport. “It’s a real privilege to work on these Roads Authority projects. You can see how these developments are uplifting and empowering communities; as an engineer, there’s nothing more satisfying than to see this happen in practice,” Klink concludes.

IMIESA June 2022



IMESA Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING PIARC (the World Road Association) has asked HDMGlobal to continue technical support, training and sales for the Highways Design and Maintenance (HDM) software, which is used to appraise investment in road networks across the world.

A section of the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project in South Africa

The quest for low-carbon and resilient road transport systems


his extension is within the framework of the current concession from PIARC and precedes a major upgrade, which will be led by the World Bank Group. This upgrade comes at a time when countries are considering the necessity of transport networks that will improve resilience, enable economic recovery, and support the switch to low-carbon transport. “Effective road networks can be the lifeblood for regions and entire continents. They are essential for connecting communities, enabling access to education and healthcare, and for trade and economic development,” explains Dr Eric Stannard, CEO of HDMGlobal. Now in its fourth iteration (HDM-4), the software was initially developed at the University of Birmingham as part of the International Study of Highway Development and Management, which was supported by UKAid. “UKAid is further supporting the upgrade of HDM4 to provide improved climate resilience

South Africa

and road safety capabilities, to ensure it remains a relevant and valuable tool to help countries assess the full costs and benefits of road investments and make the software more accessible on modern tech platforms,” says Anne Joselin, infrastructure advisor: Transport Research at the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.

Far-reaching benefits The influence of the HDM software is immense. It is regularly used in decisions over the funding of major infrastructure projects such as the 8 600 km African NorthSouth Corridor Road network, and emerging transport corridors in South America. Its regular users include the World Bank Group, the Asian Development Bank, as well as governments and other organisations involved in roadbuilding. “The World Bank Group has been involved in the development of the HDM suite since its gestation and through its development, and

we look forward to leading the upgrade of the HDM software,” comments Richard Martin Humphreys, lead transport economist for the World Bank. “We will work in partnership with the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, the Asian Development Bank, PIARC and other key stakeholders to ensure the HDM-4 model remains fit for purpose in 2022 and onwards.” Adds Patrick Mallejacq, secretary general of PIARC: “PIARC is proud to support HDM-4 as it has done since the 1990s, as it is convinced that this tool is essential to ensure that road projects are well planned and that proper maintenance needs are identified. “Since road transport usually represents about 80% of all inland transport, all advances that are made on that transport mode contribute to good service for users, to better allocation of funds, and to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals,” Mallejacq concludes.

Asphalt construction on the Grootrivier Pass

Hatch Africa was tasked by the Western Cape Government (WCG) to do maintenance on 23 km of Trunk Road 2, Section 12 (TR2/12), also known as the R102. The route stretches between Kurland and the Eastern Cape border, traversing through the famous Grootrivier and Bloukrans passes in the Garden Route District Municipality.

Article authors: • Craig Bradley – project manager, Hatch • Niel Claassens – project engineer, Hatch • Peter Henderson – contract engineer, Hatch • Louwrens Mostert – contract coordinator: Roads Branch, Western Cape Government • Azni November – chief engineer asset management: Roads Branch, Western Cape Government

Maintenance of historic route within Tsitsikamma Nature Reserve


onstructed in the 1800s by Thomas Bain (a prolific roadbuilding pioneer), both the Grootrivier Pass and the Bloukrans Pass were strategic in opening a roadway between Plettenberg Bay and Port Elizabeth, thereby unlocking the economic development of the then Cape Colony. These iconic and highly revered passes are situated within the Tsitsikamma Nature Reserve and are historically relevant due to the early pioneering and expansion of the timber industry in this area. This is a key tourism route in the Garden Route region of the Western Cape. In addition to maintaining the historically significant passes, the R102 route provides the main access to the town of Nature’s Valley from the N2. Along with the village, Nature’s Valley is a popular tourist destination and is surrounded by the Garden Route National Park. The maintenance of the road is important


IMIESA June 2022

in providing safe access to Nature’s Valley and in turn boosting tourism in the area.

Scope and evaluation phase Minor structural defects were observed along the route – most notably surface cracks, ravelling and general surface fatigue due to ageing of the surfacing over time. A surface overlay with pre-treatment works to the road surface – including crack sealing, rut filling, asphalt scratch coat and asphalt base patches – was required in some areas and deemed to be the appropriate maintenance approach required to restore the integrity of the roadway. As the road is situated on the steep slopes of the valley gorges of the Groot and Bloukrans rivers, slope failures in four specific areas were identified. This required rehabilitation to stabilise the road embankment slopes in the passes. Slip repairs would be undertaken simultaneously with the surface pre-treatment works.

The project also included the upgrading of two community access roads: • upgrading of the DR1797 (also known as Redford Road) from gravel to a surfaced standard, over a length of 4.6 km • rehabilitation of the minor road (OP7220) that provides a short access (1.5 km) for the residents of Kurland from the N2 to their town. Four rest areas and a scenic viewpoint are strategically located along the R102 to afford the public the opportunity to stop and engage with the dense indigenous forest. The rest areas had fallen into disrepair, and these will be refurbished, with furniture being replaced and repaired. This must be done without impacting negatively on the natural beauty of these environmentally sensitive areas. The upgrading of these facilities will provide the public with suitable stopping places to experience the unique offerings of the mountain passes and indigenous forest while taking in the scenic beauty of the area.


Challenges The resurfacing of the Grootrivier and Bloukrans passes provided an interesting challenge in selecting the appropriate surfacing type. Significant sections of the road pass through timber plantations and dense indigenous forest. This keeps the road in almost permanent shade yearround. A relatively light traffic load and an undulating surface caused by the many years of differential settlement in the steep terrain created a scenario where conventional surface seal selection was not ideally suited. This required a trade-off in terms of surfacing requirements. The relatively light traffic volumes would have indicated that a seal was perhaps most appropriate, yet the microclimate and environmental considerations, as well as the surface undulations, would have made this option difficult to implement. The anticipated future maintenance requirements and location led to the decision to use an asphalt wearing course as a resurfacing mechanism. A rubber modified asphalt overlay was specified due to the topography and geometric alignment of the road and the existence of microclimatic areas. In particular, a 30 mm COLTO, continuously graded medium A-R2 asphalt surfacing was specified as the preferred option, as this mix type provides improved flexibility of the binder due to the presence of the elastomeric polymer in the rubber crumb. This allowed the asphalt to tolerate higher deflections and offer greater resistance to reflective cracking. This mix was characterised by the increased resilience and toughness

of the binder, and rendered the mix more resistant to deformation. It also provided reduced susceptibility of viscosity changes due to temperature, leading to improved fatigue resistance.

Safety With the slip repairs, the existing road material and fill had to be excavated to a depth of 2.1 m. This was then replaced with three 510 mm thick reinforced earth layers, followed by 600 mm thick pavement layers and an asphalt surfacing. In 2010, the WCG appointed Hatch to undertake slope stabilisation repairs on the Grootrivier and Bloukrans passes, where numerous slips had occurred over time. This is a delicate and sensitive area, and fortunately Hatch gained valuable insight and experience into the required repair methodology. The slip repairs were constructed under half-width construction, with one lane closed to traffic. Concrete barriers were erected to protect construction workers inside the deep excavations. Traffic control was maintained using a Stop/Go system during the day, with traffic signals throughout the night. On the valley side of the road, the exposed face of the reinforced earth embankment layers was protected by a 500 mm wide gabion structure that was 70 degrees to the vertical. A reinforced concrete balustrade, extending 450 mm above the final road level, was also constructed to provide a protection barrier for vehicles negotiating the notoriously winding roadway down to Nature’s Valley and up and over to the Bloukrans River.

Construction of reinforced concrete retaining wall

All road surface pre-treatment works were undertaken using half-width lane closures to allow the public to access Nature’s Valley. Similarly, the asphalt overlay was also constructed under half-width closures using daily short-term lane closures. No nighttime lane closures were permitted, as it was deemed a risk to have long stretches of roadway closed off at night, given the limited


Upgrade of DR1797 in Bloukrans Pass

TR2/12 casting concrete parapet wall at slip repair

sight distance, tight geometric constraints in the passes, and restricted roadway width. As an aside, baboons and snakes were persistent visitors to the sites, and efforts were put in place to ensure awareness of the indigenous fauna.

Social aspects and community involvement The employment of local labour from the local communities in the Kurland and Covie areas was a project objective. Contract participation goals – a portion of the contract value targeted towards local labour, communities and businesses – were set out. However, most of the works of this project focused on the asphalt overlay, so construction activities that required the involvement of local labour were limited. With this in mind, the upgrades to the DR1797 and OP7220 were designed to incorporate construction activities that would maximise the

Slip repair

use of local labour. Actophambili Roads was awarded the contract for the works and construction began in August 2021. The project is progressing according to the contractual programme and within the allocated budget. It is anticipated that construction will be completed towards the end of February 2023. The access road (OP7220), which connects the town of Kurland with the N2, requires upgrading due to its narrow width and regular flooding, which makes access into the town difficult for the residents. Further to this, the provision and formalisation of infrastructure to accommodate the increased pedestrian movements to and from the N2 are also included in the project. This includes a surfaced pedestrian walkway with barrier kerbs for increased pedestrian safety, dedicated crossing points and road signage. Similarly, Redford Road in The Crags (DR1797) will be upgraded to a surfaced road to provide improved access and usage, and to alleviate

View over Nature’s Valley


IMIESA June 2022


interested and affected parties, the EIA application was submitted. One of the major impacts identified is the upgrading of the existing pipe culvert, carrying a tributary of the Whiskey Creek under the DR1797, to a cast-in-situ portal culvert. This culvert upgrade requires significant vertical realignment to improve sight distance and increase culvert capacity, as well as registration with the DWS. Further vertical and horizontal realignments along the route, as well as localised drainage improvements, led to the encroachment of existing properties in certain places. Land acquisition was thus required, and specific protected fauna species were identified for relocation, including a few mature milkwood trees. Following the submission of the basic assessment report to the WCG’s Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning, environmental authorisation was received and the project was set to go out to tender for construction. Constant liaison with the environmental control officer appointed by the WCG ensured that the requirements of the EMP were fulfilled and that the contractor complied with the approved environmental constraints of the contract.


Completed asphalt surfacing of Grootrivier Pass

dust pollution for the active farming communities adjacent to the road. These upgrades allow for additional inflow of expenditure into the area in terms of the employment of labour and use of local small, medium and micro enterprises. The early engagement with the local communities and enterprises on the project is vital in mitigating possible community risks within the project. Since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, maintaining critical supply chains and community connections has become more important than ever.

The resurfacing of the R102 will preserve and enhance access to the two historic passes for the public enjoyment of the spectacular scenery of the indigenous forests and pristine waterways located in the Tsitsikamma National Park. The OP7220 and DR1797 upgrades will provide an increased level of service, all-weather access, and safety to the surrounding communities as well as agricultural and forestry businesses.


Environmental aspects The R102 traverses the Garden Route National Park, which puts the project in a highly environmentally sensitive area. Hatch’s internal environmental consultants were appointed to undertake a screening exercise to identify the applicability of the National Environmental Management Act (No. 107 of 1998; NEMA) EIA Regulations of 2014 to the project and to ascertain if environmental authorisation would be required. Freshwater and botanical studies were also undertaken along the R102 to support the general authorisation application to the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) for the registration of the project for water use in terms of the National Water Act (No. 36 of 1998) – National Register of Water Use under the auspices of the Breede-Gouritz Water Management Area. In terms of the NEMA regulations, the upgrade of the DR1797 triggered certain listed activities and the project thus required an environmental authorisation by means of a basic assessment process. Through this process, and together with meaningful stakeholder engagement with

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SATBinderrr 2022

will be bigger and better

Following the success of the inaugural SATBinderrr conference in 2021, the Society for Asphalt Technology (SAT) is proud to announce that the 2022 SATBinderrr conference will take place on 21 and 22 September 2022 as a hybrid event.


he success of our first conference in 2021 clearly demonstrated the need for SAT to host an annual industry conference,” says Herman Marais, president, SAT. “We are delighted to be able to host a physical conference this year, while the hybrid model gives everyone a chance to get involved and recognises the need to contain costs in the difficult economic climate.” Delegates will be able to attend the live conference at the CSIR in Pretoria or access the event remotely via the Zoom platform. Audrey Copeland, president and CEO of the National Asphalt Pavement Association in the USA, will be the keynote speaker at SATBinderrr 2022. Copeland has a PhD in Civil Engineering from Vanderbilt University, is a founding member of the Women of Asphalt Council, and has served as president of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. She sits on the boards of the National Center for Asphalt


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Technology at Auburn University and the National Transportation Research non-profit to improve the American road network. “SAT is committed to levelling the industry playing field by attracting more women to our ranks, and we are honoured that Audrey will be helping us to drive home this commitment and instil renewed interest among young women in our sector,” says Marais.

Focus areas This year, the conference is being broadened from four to seven focus areas. The initial four focus areas represent the core of the asphalt and bitumen sector, namely Asphalt, Seals, Pavement Design and Binders. The three additional focus areas for the 2022 event are: • Recycling for Flexible Pavements • Chemistry for Roads • Industry Disruptors. “These topics, very significant today and in

Audrey Copeland, president and CEO of the National Asphalt Pavement Association in the USA, will be the keynote speaker at SATBinderrr 2022

Herman Marais, president, SAT


the future, will help us to provide a more inclusive and compelling view of what is important for the sustainability of the asphalt and bitumen sector in Southern Africa,” Marais adds. “We are very pleased with the quality of the presentations that are being submitted within our focus areas and have made the abstracts available on the SAT website.” He adds that the Industry Disruptors focus area will endeavour to include issues such as building information modelling (BIM) for asphalt and seals, the rapid development of an online asphalt industry value chain, including laboratory tools and services, and the online management of asphalt and seals operations. Marais adds that competitive sponsorship packages are being offered to SAT’s industry partners, with excellent returns in terms of visibility prior to and during the conference.


The focus area chairs are talented young professionals who bring fresh perspectives and energy to their roles:

Seals: Nishaat Mowzer, iX engineers

Developing current and future capabilities SATBinderrr 2022 continues to give young, passionate practitioners a platform among the stalwarts of the industry – a strategy that proved successful in the inaugural event in 2021. “The conference aims to provide value for all participants in the asphalt and bitumen sector at all levels, so input and advice are also being sought from our older, seasoned experts to ensure that we present an event that has something worthwhile for everyone,” Marais concludes. Look out for more information on SATBinderrr 2022 on the SAT website at

Pavement Design: Dr Elaine Goosen, Stellenbosch University

Asphalt: Tafadzwa Mafuma, AECI Much Asphalt

Binders: Kele Makamu, CSIR

Chemistry for Roads: Gretchen Weber-Cherry, Sanral

SPONSORS TO DATE SILVER: • KBK Engineers • Specialised Testing Laboratory BRONZE: • Anton Paar Southern Africa • Liesen • Roadlab FOCUS AREAS: • BVi Consulting Engineers – Recycling Focus Area • Colas Africa – Seals Focus Area • National Asphalt – Asphalt Focus Area • ROMH – Pavement Design Focus Area • Tosas – Binders Focus Area

Recycling for Flexible Pavements: Tumelo Thothela, ROMH Consulting

Industry Disruptors: Trevor Zumani, Sanral

IMIESA June 2022



2022 FULTON AWARDS showcase SA concrete construction quality

Ingenuity, innovation and the high-quality workmanship of the South African concrete industry were distinctive features of all 24 entries in the 2022 Fulton Awards, says Bryan Perrie, CEO of Cement & Concrete South Africa (CCSA).

The winner in the Fulton Awards 2022 ‘Infrastructure of over R100m’ category is the impressive new Ashton Arch road bridge in the Western Cape, entered by design consultants AECOM. The project also won a Commendation in the Fulton Awards’ ‘Innovation and Invention in Concrete’ category (Photo: Nelis Engelbrecht/AECOM)

he prestigious Fulton Awards, held ever y two years, recognise and honour “excellence in the design, use and innovation in concrete.” Originally scheduled for last year, the awards were postponed to 2022 because of the disruptive pandemic lockdowns and economic pressures. The winners were announced at a gala function in Johannesburg on 10 June, and the event was, for the first time, streamed live to satellite functions in Durban and Cape Town. Perrie says he and his fellow judges – Stephen Humphries, director of Nyeleti Consulting, and Daniel van der Mer we, founder member of LEAF Architects –

by design consultants AECOM. The client for the project, hailed by the judges for its “unique bridge engineering technique,” was the Western Cape Government’s Department of Transport and Public Works. Stretching 22 m above Ashton’s Main Road, the spectacular bridge features five 15.5 m overhead wishbone beams. The main contractor was Haw & Inglis Civil Engineering. Commendations: Fulton Award Commendations in this categor y are a Namibian government project, Neckartal Dam in the Keetmanshoop/Kharas region, entered by Knight Piésold Consulting; and the Vlakfontein Reser voir in Benoni, a Rand Water project entered by admixture supplier Chr yso SAF.

T 48

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were immensely impressed by how the entrants for the Fulton Awards overcame the odds during the Covid-19 restrictions. “Included in some of the challenges were screening up to 400 workers daily on ver y congested sites and having to deliver 150 m3 of readymix concrete in 1 m3 loads due to congestion in an inner-city location,” says Perrie.

FIVE CATEGORIES The winners and commendations for the five entr y categories for this year’s Fulton Awards are:

Infrastructure of over R100m Winner: The winner is the new Ashton Arch in Ashton in the Western Cape, entered


The winner of the 2022 Fulton Award for ‘Infrastructure of under R100m’ category is the modification to the Umhlatuzana River Bridge in Durban, entered by the eThekwini Municipality’s Roads Provision Department

Infrastructure of under R100m Winner: The winner in this category is the modification of the Umhlatuzana River Bridge in Durban. Entered by the eThekwini Municipality Roads Provision Department’s Structures Branch, which undertook the project for the municipality’s Engineering Unit, the bridge won the judges’ praise for “the unique solution that overcame extensive challenges to save a large part of the bridge while causing limited damage to the existing habitat.” The road bridge – severely damaged in the 2019 KwaZuluNatal (KZN) floods – links Seaward Road in Clairwood with Sarnia in Pinetown. Commendation: The commendation in this category is another KZN bridge modification: the Durban Essex Terrace/ M13 Bridge widening, also entered by the eThekwini Municipality Roads Provision Department’s Structures Branch following commissioning by the eThekwini Transport Authority.

The 2022 Fulton Award for ‘Buildings of more than R50m’ has been won by The Onyx apartment block in Johannesburg’s Maboneng precinct. The project was entered by Engineering Design Services

Buildings of more than R50m Winner: Top honours in this category go to The Onyx apartment block in Johannesburg. The 13-storey structure in the Jewel City condominium precinct in Fox Street, the ‘main street’ of Johannesburg’s regenerated Maboneng precinct, was entered by Engineering Design Services (EDS). The judges were impressed by “the innovative

design of the building, which has provided a very cost-effective structure in a part of the city that is being transformed.” The clients for this project are Divercity Urban Property Fund, Ithemba Property and Atterbury Property Fund. Commendations: There are two commendations in this category: the

Newlands Cricket Ground Development in Cape Town, entered by Stefanutti Stocks Western Cape, and the Sol Tech Training College in Pretoria, submitted by Jeremie Malan Architects.

Buildings under R50m Winner: The judges were intrigued and

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The innovative KleinJAN restaurant in the Tswalu Private Game Reserve in the Kalahari Desert won the 2022 Fulton Award for ‘Buildings under R50m’. The builders of celebrated chef Jan Hendrik van der Westhuizen’s new upmarket restaurant, Kobus Duvenhage Bouers, entered the project

impressed enough by the quaint KleinJAN restaurant, in the vast Tswalu Private Game Reserve in the Kalahari, to make it the recipient of the Fulton Award in this categor y – not so much for its “objective visible concrete inter ventions, but rather its concealed, hidden innovation in the vast open Kalahari Desert.” The unusual project was entered by the builders, Kobus Duvenhage Bouers. KleinJAN – owned by South African Michelin Star-awarded chef Jan Hendrik van der Westhuizen – was created on the site of a centur y-old farmhouse and is one of

the smallest concrete structures to win any categor y in the Fulton Awards’ 43-year-old histor y. The intimate restaurant features an underground dining room.

Innovation and Invention in Concrete Winner: The Old Cape Quarter, an apartment building in the trendy Cape Quarter Lifestyle Precinct in De Waterkant, Cape Town, harnessed the Fulton Award in this categor y. The judges’ citation hailed the many and “hugely innovative” techniques employed in the redevelopment

of an existing heritage building by adding four storeys while still preserving and protecting the outer walls of the historic structure. AfriSam entered the project, owned by The Cape Quarter Property Company’s Tower Property Fund. Commendations: The Ashton Arch bridge in Ashton, winner of the Fulton Award in the ‘Infrastructure of over R100m’ category, also received a Fulton Commendation in this special category, and Durban’s Essex Terrace/M13 Bridge, already commended in the ‘Infrastructure of under R100m’ category, received another judges’ Commendation in this category. In an exciting addition to the biennial Fulton Awards, the winners in the five categories have been entered into the American Concrete Institute’s Excellence in Concrete Construction Awards. CCSA, as an International Partner of ACI, was invited to nominate Fulton Award winners for the ACI awards, which honour exceptional concrete construction from around the world. The winners of these awards will be announced on 24 October 2022, during the ACI Concrete Convention in Dallas, Texas. The impressive manner in which four storeys were added to a Cape Town heritage building while still preserving its historic outer walls earned the Old Cape Quarter the 2022 Fulton Award for ‘Innovation and Invention in Concrete’. The project was entered by AfriSam


IMIESA June 2022


Special-use culverts with windows


recast concrete culverts are typically designed and installed under bridges and roads to enable the free passage of stormwater. So, when a mining operation from the North West province contacted Rocla for culverts for a smelter tunnel that required windows, the Rocla technical team gathered around the drawing board. Rocla’s technical team has extensive experience in customising precast concrete solutions. This specialised request, while having its own unique challenges, drew upon the team’s in-depth capabilities. “The customised culverts were designed to offer operators at the smelter plant a safe passage by eliminating direct exposure to intense heat from metals and sparks at the smelter site, while still providing some

source of natural light,” explains Muhammad Bodhania, civil engineer at Rocla. Rocla designed and manufactured five 1.5 m x 2.0 m walkway culverts (100s) and two 1.5 m x 2.0 m walkway culverts (100s), with 200 mm thick reinforced back panels and 450 mm x 450 mm window inserts. “This project highlights how Rocla can overcome any application challenge through innovative design. Sometimes one size does not fit all, and that is where our expertise comes to the fore – when a customer requires a solution that is of a more specialised and customised nature,” adds Bodhania. The units will be delivered to site during the forthcoming winter shutdown months. Rocla has also been commissioned to deliver a further six special windowed culverts.

INFRASTRUCTURE REFURBISHMENT BEYOND THE EXPECTED Sika’s comprehensive refurbishment solutions prolong the lifetime and increase the safety of buildings and structures. This provides a more sustainable and cost-saving alternative to demolition and reconstruction. By reducing material flows and refurbishment frequency we keep life cycle costs and the environmental impact to a low level.

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CTRACK LAUNCHES CRYSTAL Users will be able to choose from a variety of functionality packages, and add functionality as their particular needs change, including innovative features like voice commands and live in-cab camera views. As with many of the functions of Ctrack Crystal, the in-cab camera system can be paired with artificial intelligence software. As an example, this clever software sifts through the data gathered by in-cab cameras and only reports on the transgressions defined by the fleet manager, instead of every transgression.

Ctrack has 35 years’ experience in vehicle tracking and fleet management. During that time, the company has developed a variety of innovative solutions for efficient fleet and asset management services.


track has completely redesigned and consolidated its offering into a new product, with a big focus on how data is managed and presented. Utilising proven hardware, Ctrack Cr ystal allows the management of movable assets, no matter how big or small, in a new and innovative way. “In this day and age, the usefulness of data is determined by how easy it is to make decisions based on that data. Ctrack Cr ystal takes the guesswork out of fleet and asset management by offering cuttingedge tools and functionality in an easyto-use format,” says Hein Jordt, CEO of Ctrack Africa.

Cloud-based By integrating with hardware installed in vehicles, data is now transmitted to the cloud and hosted within the Microsoft Azure environment, a much faster and more secure solution. An advantage is that there is no software located on devices such as computers or tablets, as the platform runs from the device browser. This means added security and a seamless transition between


IMIESA June 2022

a variety of devices using the same user credentials.

Real-time web interface For fleet managers and business owners, this enables tracking and tracing in real time, with live updates ever y 15 seconds. It is no longer necessar y to wait for data to refresh.

Interactive functionality Ctrack Cr ystal is user customisable and features improved functionality, such as a live map with traffic views, the ability to send a message to the driver, and the setting up of user-defined locations – among a myriad of other options – from one location, all designed to save time and costs. Analytics generated by Ctrack Cr ystal offer a graphical representation of large data sets, giving insight into your business through prediction models and trends analysis.

Simplifying operations Fleet managers are often inundated with data and Ctrack Cr ystal aims to simplify operations.

New management reports and dashboards

As part of the improved user experience, users will need to make fewer inputs to reach the desired outcome. Best of all, the entire solution is fully customisable by the user and according to their own preferences. The snapshot dashboard offers a highlevel overview and highlights the most important areas where attention is needed at that time, resulting in quick and decisive decision-making. This is done by focusing on critical parameters, such as what needs to be done today, which assets worked and which did not, presented with graphics, detailing jobs scheduled, jobs remaining, jobs completed, unscheduled jobs, fleet alerts and geofence visits, among others.

Better driver engagement and fleet performance The optimal management of a fleet of vehicles or moveable assets has a direct bearing on factors such as collision, insurance and fleet costs, as well as total cost of ownership, which in turn results in better utilisation of vehicles and increased profitability. Similarly, a fleet health summary gives an easy-to-understand status on assets and allows fleet managers and business owners to keep a handle on maintenance, servicing and regulatory issues.


The executive dashboard allows decisions to be made more rapidly by highlighting trends based on 72-hour data, selected from any date on the platform, as opposed to the 24-hour view that was given previously. This display allows users to keep an eye on their fleet, with read-outs of the most pertinent data presented in a manner that makes it easy to understand and utilise in making relevant decisions. This functionality ensures a 24-hour, 365-days-a-year view of assets prescribed by the user from anywhere on the planet.

New driver app A new native mobile app, released alongside Ctrack Crystal, now combines

Ctrack Crystal allows the convenient tracking and tracing of multiple assets, and the generation of clear and precise data, all on one easy-to-use platform

the functionality of Ctrack Mobi, Driver Mobi, Drive and OTR (On-The-Road) into one app that is easy to use yet offers more extensive functionality. The use of this app gives fleet managers true control of their operation from any location. The new Ctrack Crystal app will be available for both Android and iOS devices. Features include two-way messaging, business/private use selection, userconfigurable settings, driver behaviour scorecard, pre-trip inspection with photos, jobs (To Do/Completed) with navigation, trip information, and an integrated camera solution. This app allows drivers to manage themselves from their smartphone and see their own scores and driver behaviour on journeys. In the interests of safety, certain functionality can only be accessed while the vehicle is stationary. Voice-activated

commands similar to Apple Siri add an extra layer of safety for use while on the move.

Conclusion “Ctrack Crystal is an all-new data processing platform that places operational performance, vehicle utilisation and key result figures – based on precise clear data – in the palm of your hand, on the platform you choose, or on the device you prefer,” concludes Jordt. Ctrack Crystal will be implemented in a phased roll-out, culminating during Q4 2022. Phase 1 will see the migration of customers using the Light product followed by those that rely on the Assist product offering. Customers who sign up for the new Crystal platform will enjoy a seamless transition from their existing solution.

IMIESA June 2022




AECOM AFI Consult Alake Consulting Engineers ARRB Systems Asla Construction (Pty) Ltd BMK Group Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd BVI Consulting Engineers CCG / Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa Dlamindlovu Consulting Engineers & Project Managers EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EMS Solutions ERWAT GIBB GIGSA GLS Consulting Gorman Rupp Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd HB Glass Filter Media Herrenknecht Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises Infrachamps Consulting INFRATEC IQHINA Consulting Engineers & Project Managers iX engineers (Pty) Ltd JBFE Consulting (Pty) Ltd JG Afrika KABE Consulting Engineers Kago Consulting Engineers Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers KSB Pumps and Valves (Pty) Ltd KUREMA Engineering (Pty) Ltd Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd Maragela Consulting Engineers Mariswe (Pty) Ltd Martin & East M & C Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd Mhiduve Mvubu Consulting & Project Managers Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Prociv Consulting & Projects Management Rainbow Reservoirs Re-Solve Consulting (Pty) Ltd Ribicon Consulting Group (Pty) Ltd Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA SAFRIPOL SAGI SALGA SAPPMA / SARF SBS Water Systems Sembcorp Siza Water Silulumanzi SiVEST SA Sizabantu Piping Systems (Pty) Ltd Sky High Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd Smartlock SMEC Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Star Of Life Emergency Trading CC Syntell TPA Consulting V3 Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd VIP Consulting Engineers VNA Water Institute of Southern Africa Wam Technology CC Wilo South Africa WRCON WRP WSP Group Africa Zutari

VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT The Powerscreen CT100 has a conveyor length of 30 m and a maximum discharge height of 13.1 m at 25 degrees

Efficiency, productivity and increased stockpile capacity


he latest range of Powerscreen mobile conveyors offers reduced crushing and screening costs, and can replace more costly loading equipment in many applications. Wakefield Harding, “The range has tracked conveyor national sales manager: mobile machines ranging from Mining, ELB Equipment 21 m to 30 m and from 500 to 1 000 tonnes per hour (tph). The tracked radial mobile conveyors range from 20 m to 24 m and 500 tph to 1 000 tph with stockpile capacities of up to 7 500 m3 at 180 degrees,” explains Wakefield Harding, national sales manager: Mining at ELB Equipment, which supplies and supports the Powerscreen range. “The fully mobile tracked hopper feeder series ranges from 15 m to 23 m with hopper capacities from 4 m3 to 10 m3 with a low-level feeder option that can be fed via loader or excavator directly and has a capacity of 7 m³. We also have lattice frame and telescopic conveyors up to 50 m,” Wakefield continues. “The advantage of this range of Powerscreen mobile conveyors is that it prevents degradation and segregation of materials, meaning that it does not separate fines and heavy materials during the stockpiling process and prevents degradation of material as it is stockpiled,” he adds. In addition, the pin-less deployment feature allows the operator to adjust the stockpile angle ‘on the fly’, which in turn reduces downtime and the chances of blockages at the head drum. This also results in the machine having a faster setup time. “Any company looking to maximise productivity and efficiency would naturally opt to add these conveyors to their fleet,” Harding concludes.

Powerscreen’s pinless deployment feature allows the operator to adjust the stockpile angle ‘on the fly’

IMIESA June 2022


VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT The Lokotrack ST2.3 is suitable for heavy-duty scalping, fine screening and recycling


ow available locally from Pilot Crushtec International, Metso Outotec’s Lokotrack ST2.3 is a multi-use mobile scalping screen perfectly suited for heavyduty scalping, fine screening and recycling. The machine is designed to process a range of materials, from topsoil and recycled concrete waste, to road base material and fine aggregates. The ST2.3 can be used as a standalone unit or as part of a multistage crushing and screening process. Its versatility is enhanced by various screen media options, including grizzly, punch plate, finger grizzly and wire mesh. Despite its compact build, the machine punches above its weight with a 4.6 m² screening area – the widest in its class. This is complemented by an aggressive stroke

NEW HIGH-PERFORMANCE SCALPER UNVEILED up to 13 mm with 5G acceleration, resulting in high screening performance.

Mobility and fuel efficiency Contract crushing is a nomadic venture by nature. With that in mind, Metso Outotec paid particular attention to ease of transportation during the development of the Lokotrack ST2.3.

With its compact screen box size (3 040 mm x 1 520 mm) and optimised weight (17 000 kg), the machine can be moved from one site to another using a standard trailer, helping contractors cut back on transport costs. Amid record high fuel prices, fleet owners will also benefit from the machine’s fuel efficiency. Powered by a CAT C3.6 diesel engine, the ST2.3 consumes as little as seven litres of fuel per hour, translating into lower total cost of operation.

Remote control and automation With Metso Outotec’s IC automation system, fleet managers can monitor, remotely control and automate the screening process for better performance. Additionally, information on upcoming maintenance requirements enables fleet managers to effectively plan services to minimise machine downtime. IC automation also makes the work of operators safer with the remote-control features.

The Lokotrack ST2.3 can be used as a standalone unit or as part of a multistage crushing and screening process


APE Pumps AfriSam South Africa


Keller Nederland

20 28


Lintec & Linnhoff Holdings

Cement and Concrete SA



Gabion Baskets IMESA

IMIESA June 2022

IBC 43 4, 40 & 54

2 Sizabantu Piping Systems

KSB Pumps & Valves

Bloc Contractors




SMEC South Africa

OFC Technicrete

PPC Cement SA





51 Wirtgen SA


IFC 41 27 17 45

Ctrack Crystal

Clear and precise fleet data in the palm of your hand.

Crystal’s Innovative Solutions supports managers with Intelligence on Safety and Risk Mitigation

Efficient Planning with tailored Data Summaries

Advanced Driver Assistance

Inventory & EPOD* Integration

Vehicle Safety Inspection

Asset Efficiency and Replacement Planning

Daily Jobs & On-Route Tasks

Identify Fleet Risk with Heatmaps*

Camera AI Data Intelligence

Voice Commands via Mobile Device*

* Some product functions not immediately available in Africa. Image for illustration purposes only. | | Call Centre: +27 (0)860 333 444

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ASKFORAFRISAM ASK AFRISAM Roadstab Cement is a specially engineered composite cement designed to reduce plasticity and enhance the strength and stability of road-based materials. Made with our advanced formulation, you can be sure that with all the time and effort you put in, this superior quality cement will go the distance. Ask for AfriSam.

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