Dairy Heifer Rearing Programme

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Dairy Heifer Rearing Programme


CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION 3 BIRTH – WEEK 1

4

WEEK 1 – WEANING

8

FIRST SEASON AT GRASS

11

FIRST WINTER

12

SECOND SEASON AT GRASS

14

SECOND WINTER

16

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INTRODUCTION

Dairy heifer calves, as the milking cows of the future, are a priority group of animals on the farm. Their management in the first weeks and months of life will have a significant impact on both their lifetime production and on the long-term profitability of the dairy herd. The focus of this brochure is about getting the basics right when it comes to heifer rearing. By adopting best practice across the areas of nutrition and animal health, optimal performance will be achieved leading to target growth rates and heifers that calve down at 24 months with the ability to realise their full genetic potential in the herd. Minimum average daily gain of 0.75 - 0.8kg/day from birth to calving is required to achieve target weights to calve heifers down at 24 months. Teagasc highlights calving heifers at 22 - 26 months of age as a key performance indicator to improving lifetime production and increasing farm profit. The difference in output in a 100 cow herd equates to a loss of €30,700 when calving heifers at 32 months compared to calving heifers between 22 - 26 months. This brochure has been compiled using the best technical guidance from our team of technical specialists in Glanbia Ireland. These specialists also play a supporting role to our sales and advisory teams that work closely with our farmer members to get the best performance on their farm. It is set out through the stages of development from newborn calf to calving down and entering the milking herd. Whether it be colostrum and milk feeding guidelines or vaccinations and parasite control, following the best practice guidelines in this booklet will ensure that dairy heifers get the best start, leading to a long and productive life in the milking herd. Shane McElroy Head of Technical Development Glanbia Ireland

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BIRTH – WEEK 1

ANIMAL NUTRITION

Colostrum is vital to calf wellbeing as it provides both a source high in energy as well as essential immunoglobulins. After the first 24 hours, cow's transition milk should be fed for 2 - 5 days to fulfil the calf's energy demands and provide further immune support locally in the calf's digestive system.

Good quality colostrum is essential to ensure an easier life for the calf as well as the farmer. Just follow the 1-2-3 rule:

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1

1st milk the cow produces after calving

2

Feed within 2 hours after birth

3

Feed at least 3 litres

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Colostrum is crucial At birth, the calf's immune system is unprepared for the challenges it is likely to face. Colostrum is crucial in providing the calf not only with vital nutrients, but also with the necessary immunoglobulins to protect the calf against common infections during the first months of life.


The 3 Q’s of colostrum feeding: Quantity

● At least 3 litres is given in first feed ● Second feed within first 8 hours

Quality To test for quality use a colostrometer or refractrometer

● If it reads green, it is adequate colostrum to feed to newborn calves. ● If it reads orange or red the colostrum is of inadequate quality to feed to newborn calves. ● Carefully take the colostrometer out of the container and clean. Care should be taken as the colostrometer is fragile.

Why? Not all colostrums are the same. Test the colostrum and only use or freeze the highest quality. Do not take any colostrum in from another farm. Firstly, you don’t know how good it is and secondly, you are potentially bringing in diseases. Only use colostrum from the first milking as the calf’s first feed, as it will be far too diluted by the next milking.

Measuring colostrum quality: Using the colostrometer: ● Put fresh warm colostrum into a container, fill the container to the rim. ● Ensure there is no foam floating on top, as this will distort the reading. ● Gently lower the colostrometer in the full container. ● Take a reading from the rim of the container looking to the traffic light diagram on the neck of the floating colostrometer.

Quickly

Feed in the first 2 hours of life. Why? The calf’s ability to absorb the necessary immunoglobulins significantly reduces after 12 hours of life.

DID YOU KNOW? The calf’s ability to absorb the necessary immunoglobulins significantly reduces after 12 hours of life and stops completely by 20 - 24 hours of life. If thawing frozen colostrum, thaw at a max temperature of 50ºC (Boiling water will denature proteins and reduce effectiveness).

FEEDING GUIDELINES ● Transition milk should be fed from days 2 - 5, thereafter calf milk replacer should be introduced into the diet. ● Introduce concentrates from 3 days of age to kick start rumen development. GAIN Startacalf should be offered ad-lib until consuming ≥250g/head/day. ● Fresh water and clean long roughage must be available to calves at all times.

Milk Only

Milk & Concentrate

Milk & Hay

Milk only or milk and hay diets will not achieve sufficient rumen development. It takes starch derived from concentrates to develop the rumen from an early age.

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BIRTH – WEEK 1

ANIMAL HEALTH

Pre-calver mineral Providing cows with a protected/organic mineral source over the dry period (GAIN Pre-calver Gold, 120g/day for 6 weeks), will increase immunoglobulin content of colostrum, increasing passive immunity. Calving box hygiene Ensure an adequate number of calving boxes, at least 1 per 15 cows; clean out and replace bedding often to reduce cow/calf infections. Rota/Coronavirus Vaccinate pregnant cows and heifers 3 to 12 weeks before calving to increase colostrum quality and provide additional protection against calf scour. Salmonella Vaccinating cows and breeding heifers will not only protect them from salmonella, it will also boost a calf's immunity against these bacteria through improved colostrum quality.

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Johne's Disease Young calves are the most susceptible to pick up this disease from their environment and through contaminated colostrum and milk. See AHI guidelines on controlling Johne's disease in your herd. www.animalhealthireland.ie Pneumonia Calves can be vaccinated against several causes of pneumonia from a young age. Intranasal vaccines are available for calves of 1 week old. Coccidiosis If you suspect a problem with coccidiosis then consult your vet to discuss an appropriate plan. Maintaining good hygiene standards of calf pens and feeding equipment will reduce the exposure of calves to coccidia. Disinfection of calf housing with an amine based compound such as Kenocox is needed to eliminate coccidian from the environment.


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Calf housing should support good health and welfare, which ultimately benefits the farm business financially. Key elements to assess in your calf housing are outlined below.

● Sufficient air space - Air space is critical. There should be a minimum of 7m3/calf total house cubic air capacity provided per calf at birth, increasing to 10m3 by two months of age. The greater the number of calves in a single air space, the greater the risk to health.

● Creating a draught-free environment - Draughts hitting calves causes them to lose heat energy. A comfortable draught-free climate must be provided in the first week of life with ambient temperatures >15°C.

● Do not over stock calf pens. The space required for calves in group pens will vary according to weight. Grouped calves require 1.8m2 of pen area and a total floor space of 2.3 to 2.5m2/calf floor area.

● Creating and maintaining a dry bed - Calves spend 80% of their time lying down so the type and depth of bedding used is important. ● Adequate manure disposal - The flooring/bedding needs to facilitate easy cleaning and removal of waste. Drainage systems of calf houses is key. Waste should not drain away from one pen through another as this can spread disease. ● Regular house and personnel disinfection - The shed should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with a broad-spectrum disinfectant before calves arrive. While in use, pens should be frequently disinfected to prevent the build-up of disease organisms. Ideally, calves should be bedded every day and pens cleaned out weekly. ● Adequate feeding and drinking space - The correct feeder and drinking space must be provided to encourage feed and water intake. For bucket feeding, calves require 350mm of feed face each.

Dry looking beds may be wet. To check if beds are adequately bedded and dry, kneel with all your weight on the bedded floor. If the knees of your trousers are wet, the house is not bedded sufficiently.

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WEEK 1 – WEANING

TARGETS: calves should double their birth weight by weaning at 8 - 10 weeks of age - e.g. 80kg target for 40kg calf at birth.

ANIMAL NUTRITION ● Offer concentrates and fresh water to calves ad-lib at all times. Renew concentrate allocation daily. ● Provide clean long roughage (straw or hay, no silage) to calves at all times. ● Including a fibre source such as chopped straw in the pre-weaning diet improves starter concentrate consumption and overall increased dry matter intake (DMI), resulting in greater ADG in the post-weaning stage. ● Once calves are consuming ≥250g/head/day of GAIN Startacalf, introduce GAIN Goldgrain 18% or GAIN Calf Crunch 18% ad-lib until 2 weeks post weaning. ● Calves can only be weaned once they consistently consume 1 - 1.5kg (1.5kg grouped pens, 1kg individual pens) of concentrates per day. ● Weaning on a weight basis results in a more uniform group of calves. ● Concentrates can be limit-fed in two daily feeds from two weeks post weaning, but not earlier. Prior to this concentrates must be freely available at all times. Inadequate long forage and restricted concentrate feeding are the main causes of digestive upsets. 8

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Calf Milk Replacer (CMR) ● Feed calves 12.5 - 15% of their body weight daily in milk replacer (approx. 6 litres for Friesian calves), divided into two feeds. ● Accurate weighing and mixing of CMR is strongly advised. Always follow instructions carefully. ● Introduce abruptly rather than mixing with cows’ milk. ● Ensure mixing utensils and feed equipment are clean at all times. Wash with hot water regularly. ● Once-a-day feeding should only be considered from 4 weeks of age. ● Where using computerized feeders, follow instructions for selected feeding plan.


Mixing Milk Replacer

1.

2.

Add powder to ½ the warm water (max. 40ºC), mix thoroughly.

Add the remaining warm water (max. 40ºC) and mix again.

3. Twice-a-day Mix at 12.5% powder

Add powder to ½ the warm water (max 40oC), feeding mix thoroughly.

Add powder to ½ the

warm water (max 40 C), 4. Once-a-day feeding o

Mix at 20% powder

mix thoroughly.

125g powder makes 1L

200g powder makes 1L

125g powder + 0.9L water = 1.0L milk

200g powder + 0.8L water = 1.0L milk

1kg makes 8L

1kg makes 5L

20kg bag makes 160L

20kg bag makes 100L

GAIN Feeding Guidelines Add the remaining warm water (max 40oC) and mix again.

Feeding System

TWICE-A-DAY 125g/L mix

ONCE-A-DAY 200g/L mix

CALF BIRTH WEIGHT

Medium 35 - 40kg

Calf Age

Add the remaining warm water (max 40oC) and mix again.

Small 30 - 35kg

Large 40 - 45kg

Powder g/day

Milk L/day

Powder g/day

Milk L/day

Powder g/day

Milk L/day

1 week

500g

2 x 2.0L

400g

2 x 1.6L

625g

2 x 2.5L

3 weeks

625g

2 x 2.5L

500g

2 x 2.0L

750g

2 x 3.0L

1 week pre-weaning

313g

1 x 2.5L

250g

1 x 2.0L

375g

1 x 3.0L

4 weeks

600g

3.0L

500g

2.5L

600g

3.0L

1 week pre-weaning

300g

1.5L

250g

1.25L

375g

2.0L

● Suitable for general rearing systems for dairy heifer calves. ● 20% higher feeding rates can be used for higher growth rates (Accelerated growth rate systems). ● Increase feeding rate by 0.5L/day for every 5ºC drop in air temperature below 20ºC at 125g/L mix.

● Increase feeding rate by 0.4L/day for every 5ºC drop in air temperature below 20ºC, at 150g/L mix. ● Increase feeding rate by 0.3L/day for every 5ºC drop in air temperature below 20ºC, at 200g/L mix.

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WEEK 1 – WEANING

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Disbudding The only method of disbudding of calves that is legally permissible in Ireland is disbudding by thermal cauterization up to 28 days old. It is illegal to disbud or dehorn calves over 14 days old without using a local anaesthetic. The use of local anaesthetic in combination with a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug when disbudding calves of any age is best practice.

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Stressful events Stressful events such as disbudding or mixing of age groups should not take place in the weeks before or after weaning to prevent a growth check. These additional procedures will cause excess stress for the calves, which could lead to immunosuppression and increased likelihood of disease.


FIRST SEASON AT GRASS TARGETS: Target 60% of mature body weight at 6 months.

ANIMAL NUTRITION ● Feed GAIN Wean ‘N’ Build Nuts at 1 - 2kg/day to calves at grass from one month after weaning. Concentrates can be phased out on good grass 4 - 6 weeks after weaning. ● Calves are selective grazers, they should be offered fresh grass but should not be left in the same paddock for long periods. ● Ideal pre-grazing grass covers for calves are 1,000 1,400kg DM/ha.

● If calves are below target weight, a good response to autumn supplementation can be achieved. ● With autumn born calves or calves housed above 12 weeks of age, offer GAIN Calf Rearer 18% Nuts. ● In some cases calves can display wasting symptoms post weaning and after turnout. This is often linked to the consumption of short leafy grass, with high levels of sugars and protein post-weaning and a lack of fibre consumption. Where issues such as this arise, GAIN Calf Ruminator Blend and long fibre should be offered, offering a chopped fibre inclusion in the concentrate.

ANIMAL HEALTH Control of parasite burden

The control of stomach worms, lung worm and fluke is based on: 1. Grazing management First grazing season animals should be turned out to clean pasture. Clean pasture is land not grazed by young cattle since the mid summer/early autumn the previous year and implementing an appropriate treatment protocol to keep pasture contamination low.

2. Good nutrition Good quality grazing and appropriate concentrate supplementation can partially offset the negative effects of parasite infestation and the associated reduced appetite. Well-nourished cattle are also better at building up immunity against parasites and limit parasite reproduction.

3. Appropriate use of anthelmintics Anthelmintic resistance is a key consideration in sustainable control of parasites. Monitor calf and heifer performance during the grazing season and use faecal egg count (FEC) testing to treat when appropriate. Grazing these animals

Leptospirosis To protect heifers from the negative effects of leptospirosis during their first breeding season, the primary vaccination course of two shots should be completed before heifers are turned out.

on aftergrass pasture will reduce the need for repeated treatment. In case of identification of rumen fluke eggs in dung samples, treatment is certainly not indicated if animals are thriving. When calves are at grass, a ‘dose and move’ strategy is highly selective for resistant worms and is not recommended. If FEC after more than 3 weeks of grazing indicates an increased worm burden, strategic dosing (3-week, 8-week and 13-week strategy using ivermectin or the 0-week and 8-week strategy using doramectin) may be used. Seasonlong products would also work in this situation. Calves dosed in this strategic manner should remain set-stocked on the same fields for maximum effect. A vaccine against lung worm is available to give to heifers before turn-out.

Clostridial diseases Diseases such as Blackleg and Tetanus can be prevented by vaccinating calves from 2 weeks of age. The primary vaccination requires 2 doses 4 to 6 weeks apart.

Coccidiosis wet areas such as beside streams and around water troughs form high risk areas for build-up of coccidia in the calf's environment.

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FIRST WINTER

TARGETS: target average daily live weight gain of 0.5 - 0.7kg/heifer/day over the first winter period.

ANIMAL NUTRITION ● GAIN Wean ‘N’ Build should be offered alongside grass silage. Feeding rates will be dependent on silage quality.

First Winter Target Growth 0.5 - 0.7kg

● Typically, silage and 1.5 - 2kg concentrate/day will result in weight gain of 0.5 - 0.7kg/day

Poor 60% DMD

Average 65% DMD

High 70% DMD

Very High 75% DMD

Silage +3.2kg

Silage +2.5kg

Silage +1.4kg

Silage +0.7kg

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Prior to the first winter period, heifers must be weighed to ensure targets are being met, in order to achieve the desired weight at breeding. Daily live weight gains can be recorded using a electronic weigh scales or using a weight tape.

How to use a weight tape

Make sure the animal is adequately restrained and that your safety is not at risk.

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Drop the tape down the far side of the animal and pull around the chest, making sure the tape is just behind the elbow of the calf.

GAIN – HEIFER REARING PROGRAMME

Bring the end of the tape up to the side of the animal and align with the measurement markings to obtain a reading.


ANIMAL HEALTH

Leptospirosis To protect heifers from the negative effects of leptospirosis, the primary vaccination course of two shots should be completed before heifers are turned out. If heifers received the primary course during their first grazing season, a single booster shot is needed ahead of turn-out for the second grazing season. Salmonella To protect heifers against the negative effects of salmonella infection, the primary vaccination course of two shots should be completed before heifers are bred. Parasite control Usually it is not necessary to dose calves for liver fluke until housing. The bulk tank herd disease screening can be used to gauge the fluke risk in your herd. Lice and mites Some anthelmintics will also eliminate lice and mites, however, specific treatments during housing may be required.

Pneumonia Pneumonia is often referred to as a ‘multi-factorial disease’. Besides infectious agents, nutritional, environmental and management factors may also be responsible for the outbreak of disease. Viruses associated with pneumonia include IBR, RSV and PI3; bacteria include Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Veterinary advice should be sought on the treatment and control of pneumonia. Start treatment as early as possible in the course of the disease and treat for the necessary period of time; by failing to do so, the calf may relapse with recurrent bouts of pneumonia. Prevention of pneumonia is better than treating outbreaks. Ensuring good colostrum intake and nutrition, controlling scour and avoiding stress plays an important role. Highrisk periods for pneumonia outbreaks coincide with stress inducing conditions, such as at grouping or mixing of groups, housing, transport, weaning, or unfavourable weather. To prevent pneumonia it is important that every effort is made to minimize stress among calves, provide access to plenty of fresh and clean air, without draughts, and a good, clean, dry, well-bedded lying area.

Viruses Poor nutritional status

Bacteria

Poor colostrum intake

Pneumonia

Presence of BVD virus

Poor housing / ventilation

Overcrowding Presence of older animals

DID YOU KNOW? Testing a group of 8 - 12 month old unvaccinated heifers will give a good indication about the circulation of pneumonia and poor fertility causing viruses such as IBR in the herd.

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SECOND SEASON AT GRASS

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TARGETS: 60% of mature body weight at breeding at 15 months of age (e.g. 600kg mature cow = 360kg target breeding weight).

ANIMAL NUTRITION ● Turn heifers out to pasture in early spring, at least 6 weeks before breeding occurs.

● Heifers should be offered an all-grass diet throughout this period.

● Weight gains of more than 1kg/day are achievable in early spring at pasture.

● Heifers below target weights should be prioritized, separated and offered concentrates in early spring if required.

ANIMAL HEALTH

Early pregnancy scan To monitor conception rates and predict accurate calving dates. Parasite control plan Second season grazers are not fully immune to stomach worms and lung worm and can experience production losses and occasionally disease. Lack of exposure to infection during the first grazing season, as seen in late-born calves or under intensive anthelmintic treatment protocols may result in lower levels of immunity at the start of the second grazing season. Use the FEC testing service to determine the need for dosing and to check the effectiveness of the products used. Treat against lungworm when signs of coughing appear. Keep in mind that many products used for dosing calves cannot be given to pregnant heifers. Always read product labels or check the GI Anthelmintic Usage Guide.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Treat heifers on a group average basis, there can be up to 100kg difference in genetic mature live weight in the same herd. In an un-uniform herd, this must be taken into account when selecting a target 15 month breeding weight.

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SECOND WINTER TARGETS: Growth rates of 0.7 - 0.8kg/day are recommended during first pregnancy. Heifers should be 440 - 450kg at housing, or approximately 80% of mature live weight. Heifers must achieve 90% of mature body weight at calving at a Body Condition Score of 3.0 - 3.25.

ANIMAL NUTRITION ● Achieving target weights at calving dictates first-lactation performance, lifetime performance of the heifer and ultimately the milking herd. ● Where heifers are below target weight at the point of calving, growth continues during the first lactation at the expense of milk production. ● Avoid heifers becoming over fat during this period.

● Good quality silage and a high quality pre-calver mineral (GAIN Pre-calver Gold @ 120g/head/day) is generally sufficient during the second winter provided they are housed at target weights. ● Spring born in-calf replacement heifers will eat approx. 1.1t of 20% DM silage/month over the winter period. ● Heifers below target weights should be offered concentrates (GAIN Pre-calver Activator) pre-calving.

ANIMAL HEALTH Salmonella Where heifers have not been vaccinated against salmonella yet, now is the time to start with the primary course of two injections 3 weeks apart to prevent abortions. Rota/coronavirus and E-coli Vaccinate pregnant heifers 3 - 12 weeks before calving to increase colostrum quality and provide additional protection against calf scour for the newborn calf. Parasite control Usually it is not necessary to dose heifers for liver fluke until housing. Bulk tank herd disease screening can be used to gauge the fluke risk in your herd. Based on heifer growth rates and fecal egg count results there may not have been a need to dose late in the grazing season for stomach worms. Dosing at housing will clear any remaining parasites and prevent problems during the winter and in early spring. Pay attention to the products used as not all products are allowed in pregnant heifers. Lice and mites Some anthelmintics will also eliminate lice and mites, however, specific treatments during housing may be required.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ● Clipping tails over the first winter period is recommended to ensure heifers have a clean, dry udder at the point of calving. ● Training heifers to the parlour & cubicles over this period is also recommended to avoid issues in early spring. 16

GAIN – HEIFER REARING PROGRAMME

● Heifers should be included in the herd’s footbath routine to control mortellaro.


DAIRY STOCK WEIGHT TARGETS & TRACKER

Holstein x Friesian

New Zealand x Friesian

Jersey x (Holstein x Friesian)

Birth Weight Kgs

41

38

34

6 Weeks

63

56

52

3 Months

90

80

75

6 Months

155

148

138

8 Months

175

170

160

9 Months

220

210

196

12 Months

280

267

250

15 Months

330

315

295

18 Months

410

398

366

21 Months

490

470

437

25 Months

550

525

490

Comments

30% of mature weight

60% of mature weight

Pre-Calving Weight (90% of mature weight)

Target performance for Dairy replacement heifers (Kgs) of different genetics (based on Spring Calving and a mean calving date of mid-February). NB: These targets are considered minimum. Heavier weights at mating tend to produce significantly more milk in the first lactation.

Holstein x Friesian

New Zealand x Friesian

Jersey x (Holstein x Friesian)

Comments

Birth Weight Kgs 6 Weeks 3 Months 6 Months 8 Months 9 Months 12 Months 15 Months 18 Months 21 Months 25 Months Target performance for Dairy replacement heifers (Kgs) of different genetics (based on Spring Calving and a mean calving date of mid-February). NB: These targets are considered minimum. Heavier weights at mating tend to produce significantly more milk in the first lactation.

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THE GAIN CALF MILK REPLACER RANGE GAIN EASI-MIX CALF MILK REPLACER (25% Protein) 25% protein milk replacer formulated specifically for high performance dairy heifer rearing systems.

Gardion® (Garlic oil) added to aid immunity and performance.

High quality milk proteins promote maximum growth and performance with the lowest risk of nutritional or metabolic upset.

Yoghurt Powder, directly adds lactic acid bacteria to the calf’s stomach. This lactic acidic bacteria reduces pH in the abomasum, making it a more hostile environment for scour causing bacteria such as E-Coli to thrive.

Can be introduced abruptly from 7 days of age. Ideally, do not mix with whole milk. Suitable for bucket, teat, ad-lib machine and computerised feeding systems.

Mix at 12.5% (500g makes 4L). Can be fed once-a-day from 28 days of age, mixed at 20% solids (200g makes 1L).

Digest VO® and BioMos® added to support immune function, and help against Coccidiosis and Cryptosporidium.

GAIN EASI-DUAL CALF MILK REPLACER (23% Protein) 23% protein milk replacer suitable for high performance dairy heifer and beef calf rearing systems.

Digest VO® helps against Coccidiosis and Cryptosporidium.

Maximum levels of quality milk products promote trouble-free performance with young calves.

Yoghurt Powder, directly adds lactic acid bacteria to the calf’s stomach. This lactic acidic bacteria reduces pH in the abomasum, making it a more hostile environment for scour causing bacteria such as E. coli to thrive.

Can be introduced abruptly from 7 days of age. Ideally, do not mix with whole milk. Suitable for bucket, teat, ad-lib machine and computerised feeding systems. Butyrate® added for extra performance.

Mix at 12.5% (500g makes 4L). Can be fed once-a-day from 28 days of age, mixed at 20% solids (200g makes 1L).

Gardion® (Garlic oil) added to aid immunity and performance.

GAIN SHINE ONCE-A-DAY A low heat skim-based milk replacer formulated to ensure slow digestive rate occurs throughout the day. Contains a blend of plant oils and buttermilk to increase digestion and dry matter intake.

GAIN Shine Once-a-day fed calves receive the same amount of milk powder as twice-a-day calves, but in a smaller volume. Labour saving option.

GAIN SHINE Contains low heat skim milk to provide high levels of protection & performance.

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GAIN – HEIFER REARING PROGRAMME

Contains a blend of skim milk buttermilk and plant oils, to encourage dry matter intake and rumen development pre-weaning.


THE GAIN CALF FEED RANGE GAIN STARTACALF MUESLI (18% Protein) Highly palatable cooked early starter muesli for young calves. Feed until calves are eating greater than 250 grams per head per day, moving onto GAIN Goldgrain Calf Nut or GAIN Calf Crunch 18.

Coated with Molasses and Vegetable Oil to encourage early intake and coat shine.

Based on cooked flaked materials including Maize, Wheat, Barley, Soya and Peas.

Vitamin E included at 200iu/kg to help support the calf against disease.

Includes buffers (Acidbuf) to aid a stable rumen environment.

Protected Minerals are included.

Yea-Sacc® live yeast improves performance naturally.

GAIN CALF CRUNCH (18% Protein) Cooked palatable coarse feed for calves, suitable for pre and post weaning feeding, following on after GAIN Startacalf, if a coarse feed is fed during the rearing period.

Vitamin E included at 150iu/kg to help support the calf against disease.

Includes Flaked Maize and a palatable Molasses coating.

Protected Minerals are included.

Acidbuf included to aid a stable rumen environment.

Yea-Sacc® live yeast improves performance naturally.

GAIN GOLDGRAIN CALF NUT (18% Protein) Wholegrain calf feed combining the benefits of coarse and nuts in pelleted form, for pre and post weaning feeding, following on after GAIN Startacalf, if a pelleted feed is fed during the rearing period. Includes Flaked Maize and a palatable Molasses coating.

Yea-Sacc® live yeast improves digestion and performance naturally. Vitamin E included at 100iu/kg to help support the calf against disease. Acidbuf included to aid a stable rumen environment.

GAIN CALF REARER NUT (18% Protein) High-energy calf nut for calves, following on after GAIN Goldgrain Calf Nut or GAIN Calf Crunch 18, ideally suited for follow-on feeding after weaning.

Cereal based including Native Cereals and Maize. Yea-Sacc® live yeast improves performance naturally.

GAIN WEAN 'N' BUILD NUTS (16% Protein) GAIN Wean 'N' Build Nuts is a strong, versatile feed that is perfect for encouraging frame growth. It can be fed to dairy heifers on high forage diets from one month after weaning until calving at grass or as a supplement to grass silage.

16% protein suits heifers on grass, silage or maize silage.

These nuts are best suited for weanlings, yearlings and dairy heifers, fed at 0.5 - 1.25kg/100kg BW/day.

Specifically formulated for use on high forage diets, at max 1.25kg/100kg BW/day.

Native Cereals and Maize based to provide readily available energy.

Yea-Sacc® live yeast improves performance naturally.

Mineral levels have been increased to compliment forage.

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Note: Information contained in this leaflet may change from time to time to meet departmental regulations, for the most up to date product information please see the product label. All feeding guidelines should be strictly followed.

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Email

0818 321 321 info@gainanimalnutrition.com

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