Girl STEMinist Digital Journal Issue 1: Technology

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A letter to the reader Thank you picking up Girl STEMinist's first Digital Journal! We've had an absolute blast putting together this amazing resource which includes information on careers in technology, features on amazing STEMinist, articles on personal and career development, and amazing artwork. Essentially every aspect of our lives is influenced by innovations in STEM. This means that diverse perspective are essential to solving scientific problems. But, with a large divide between the number of men involved in the STEM fields to women, this number needs to change.

Girl STEMinist was founded to help contribute to bridging the gender gap in the STEM fields through empowering young women to pursue careers in STEM throgh career exploration, collaboration, and community.

We hope this journal acts to empower and inspire young women interested in STEM, or discovering the amazing world of STEM for the first time. Without further ado, we hope that you have as much fun reading the Issue as we had putting it together.



1 Computer Programmer 2 Apps For and By STEMinists 3 Data Scientist 4 Imposter Syndrome as a Female in STEM 5 The Complexities of Nanotechnology 6 Database Administrator 7 App Spotlight: Notion 8 Bioinformatics Scientist – Interviews 9 Women in Tech History 10 Computer and Information Research Scientist

11 Impacts of Digital Tools 12 Product Designer 13 Dr. Kristina Kipp former NASA Engineer Interview

14 Web Developer 15 5 Strategies to Improve Your Tech-Savvy Skills

16 Technical Writer 17 How to Code 18 Building a Professional Network 19 Hardware Engineer 20 Leader in Tech: Rana el Kaliouby 21 Grace Hopper Art Piece 22 Partners Page

Computer Computer Programmer Programmer Research by Althea Ocomen, Layout by Sarah Bargfrede

Salary Salary

Job Job Demand Demand

There are currently an estimated 294,900 computer programmers in the United States. The computer programmer job market is expected to shrink by -7.2% between 2016 and 2026.

Computer Programmers made a median salary of $84,280 in 2018. The bestpaid 25 percent made $109,120 that year, while the lowest-paid 25 percent made $64,410 (U.S.News Money) .

Skills Skills Needed Needed Proficiency with programming languages Code is generally composed in numerous programming dialects such as SQL, Java, C++, or Python. Having more involvement in utilizing any of these programming dialects can be exceptionally advantageous for expanding your work and career. It is way better to decide on a range of specialization, and then learn the programming dialect most suitable for you. Mathematical Skills Numerous parts of programming require an understanding of calculations and computations. To become more capable within the field, it is basic to have an intensive understanding of polynomial math and arithmetics. Communication skills Programmers spend most of their time working solo in front of a computer. Be that as it may, numerous circumstances require them to communicate with other programmers and group members, particularly when working on huge or complex ventures that require collaboration and cooperation. Amazing communication aptitudes will empower them to work successfully with others and to share thoughts and solutions, resulting in a remarkable output.

Qualities suited for a Computer Programmer Self Motivated You may need to have a certain degree of motivation to develop your aptitudes and capabilities. No matter how much experience you've got, there's continuously something new to memorize and some new way to achieve errands more productively. The capacity to motivate yourself will keep you on the way to constant learning and discovery. Detail Oriented As a computer programmer, you won't be able to depend on spelling correction devices to capture your mistakes. Even little mistakes within the code can have noteworthy impacts on the outcome, so you will be mindful of the littlest details. You ought to moreover make it a habit to proofread and double-check your code, which can decrease the number of possible mistakes you may make.

Diversity rates in the career field 78.1% of Computer programmers are Male, making them the more common gender in the occupation. (DATA USA: Computer programmers) 67.7% of Computer programmers are White (Non-Hispanic), making that the most common race or ethnicity in the occupation. Representing 19.5% of Computer programmers, Asian (Non-Hispanic) is the second most common race or ethnicity. (DATA USA: Computer programmers) Responsibilities Systems programmers make the operating frameworks for the computer - the operating framework lets the computer run appropriately based on the hardware sets and provides a platform on which all other computer software runs in a productive way. Application programmers center on the computer program that's required to do specific jobs. For case, they might compose a program just to play audio files or to program a certain object.

New Inventions Inventions New First Widely Used High Level Programming Language: FORTRAN (1957) Thought up by John W. Backus who disliked writing programs and decided to create a programming system to help make the process efficiently, the use of FORTRAN greatly reduced the number of programming statements required to get a machine running. By 1963, more than 40 FORTRAN compilers were already available. First Autocode: Glennie’s Autocode (1952) An Autocode is a high-level programming language that uses a compiler. The first autocode and its compiler appeared at the University of Manchester to make the programming of the Mark 1 machine more intelligible. It was created by Alick Glennie, hence the name Glennie’s Autocode.



Analyze data with Python Data is everywhere. That means more companies are tracking, analyzing, and using the insights they find to make better decisions. In this Skill Path, you’ll learn the fundamentals of data analysis while building Python skills.

Learn HTML You will learn all the common HTML tags used to structure HTML pages, the skeleton of all websites. You will also be able to create HTML tables to present tabular data efficiently. Learn JavaScript You will learn programming fundamentals and basic object-oriented concepts using the latest JavaScript syntax. The concepts covered in these lessons lay the foundation for using JavaScript in any environment.

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career Best computer programming internships to pursue Front End Engineering Intern Interns in front end engineering focus on what users see in a web application. Front end engineers write code and build user interfaces using languages such as JavaScript and CSS, along with markup languages like HTML. Backend Engineering Intern Back end engineering interns focus on writing code with Java, Ruby, and Python to connect the server to the database. Back end engineering interns write code and ensure that the code is working properly. Likewise, they debug and fix any problems with the system. Data Scientist Intern Data Scientists take a very effective approach to computer science, focusing on statistical and quantitative analyses. For example, data scientists work to better understand consumers by using statistical analyses and models to evaluate social trends in information systems and social media.

Companies that Employ the Career

CSC AppLabs General Dynamics Microsoft Deloitte

5 Trends in Computer Science Research. (2019, June 07). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from Top women programmers in history. (2019, May 19). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from The Salary Range for a Software QA Manager. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from Computer programmers. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from What Type of Companies Hire Someone with a Computer Science Degree? (2020, September 20). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from See Computer Programmer Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from How Much Can a Computer Programmer Expect to Get Paid? (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from, L. (2020, October 02). Best Computer Science Internships for College Students. Retrieved November 27, 2020, from Computer Programmer Skills: Definition and Examples. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2020, from

Data Data Scientist Scientist Research By: Althea Ocomen Layout By: Sarah Bargfrede

Companies Companies that that Employ Employ the the Career Career

Apple, Amazon, Facebook

Salary Salary

The average data scientist salary is $100,560, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. However, this figure can differ depending on the size and sector of the enterprise. Additional factors include a data scientist’s educational level, years of experience, location, certifications, and the involvement one has in professional organizations.

Skills Skills Needed Needed Technical Skills Python programming. As the foremost well known and most adaptable programming dialect within the data science industry nowadays, Python can handle everything from information mining to site development and running embedded frameworks. Pandas, the Python data analysis library, is utilized for everything from bringing in information to plotting it. The library is designed for easy reading, manipulating, aggregating, and visualizing data. R programming R is an integrated suite of software offices for information control, calculation, and graphical display. R is more predominant in scholarly contexts than Python. The program can implement machine learning algorithms rapidly and simply gives an assortment of statistical and graphical techniques, such as linear and non-linear modeling, classic statistical tests, time-series investigation, classification, and clustering. Interpersonal Skills Communication Good communication skills are crucial in most data scientist roles. As a data scientist, you will need to understand business requirements or the problem at hand, probe stakeholders for more data, and communicate key data insights with your coworkers and peers. Learning Data science technologies and frameworks evolve so fast that it's futile to try to master any single one. Rather than aiming for perfection, you are better off cultivating the patience and discipline to teach yourself new things and learn new concepts quickly. There is always a new skill to learn, and more lessons to explore.

Demand Demand for for the the Job Job For four years in a row, a data scientist has been named the number one job in the U.S. by Glassdoor. What’s more, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that the demand for data science skills will drive a 27.9 % rise in employment in the field by 2026. Data science experts are needed in almost every field, from government security to dating apps. Numerous businesses and government departments rely on big data to succeed and better serve their customers. Data science careers are in high demand and this trend will not be slowing down any time soon.

Notable Notable Female Female Professionals Professionals Emily Glassberg Sands In her role as the Head of Data Science at Coursera, her mission is to build a better learning platform through data-driven decisions and products. She has a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University and an impressive list of awards and honors she won during her studies.

Monica Rogati

Monica is an independent data science and AI advisor. She assists large corporations to make the most out of their data – both technically and strategically. She has previously worked as the VP of Data at Jawbone and as a Senior Data Scientist at LinkedIn; currently, she is a guest lecturer at Stanford University.

Diversity Diversity in in the the Field Field

A recent article in Forbes notes, “Women hold only about 26% of data jobs in the United States. There are a few proposed reasons for the gender gap: a lack of STEM education for women early on in life, lack of mentorship for women in data science, and human resources rules and regulations not catching up to gender balance policies, to name a few.” Moreover, federal civil rights data further demonstrate that “black and Latino high school students are being shortchanged in their access to high-level math and science courses that could prepare them for college” and for careers in fields like data science.

Responsibilities Responsibilities

(EDA)Evaluating and interpreting EDA results Model building Model testing Model deployment Model optimization

Data collection Data preparation Exploratory data analysis

Journey to the Career

Steps To Become A Data Scientist Complete undergraduate studies. The foremost sought-after majors for data science are statistics, computer science, data technologies, mathematics, or data science. Minoring in one of the previously mentioned areas is additionally suggested. Proceed to memorize programming dialects, database architecture, and include SQL/MySQL to the “data science to-do list.” Now is the time to start building proficient networks by searching for connections inside college communities, hunting for internship openings, and inquire teachers and advisors for guidance. Obtain an entry-level job. Companies are regularly energetic to fill entry-level information science occupations. Hunt for positions such as Junior Data Analyst or Junior Data Scientist. System-specific training or certifications in data-related areas (e.g., commerce intelligence applications, relational database management systems, data visualization software, etc.) might offer assistance when searching for entry-level data science jobs. Earn a Master’s Degree or a Ph.D. Data science may be a field where career openings tend to be better for those with advanced degrees. The in-demand graduate degrees for data science incorporate the same specifications as those for an undergraduate degree: data science (if available), computer science, information technology, math, and statistics. In any case, numerous companies also acknowledge STEM degrees such as biotechnology, engineering, and physics (among others). More important, data researchers ought to understand how to utilize enterprisegrade data administration programs and how distributed storage and computation work (e.g., Hadoop, MapReduce, and Spark) when producing models and predictive analytics.

Works Works Cited Cited Pranav DarSenior Editor at Analytics Vidhya.Data visualization practitioner who loves reading and delving deeper into the data science and machine learning arts. Always looking for new ways to improve processes using ML and AI. (2019, May 06). 29 Inspiring Women Blazing a Trail in the Data Science World. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from, S. (2018, November 13). Top 10 data science master's degree programs. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from (2017, September 28). The Data Science Diversity Gap. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from, K. (2020, December 16). 11 Data Science Careers Shaping the Future. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from,in%20the%20field%20through%202026.How to Become a Data Scientist: Data Scientist Salary Information. (2020, December 07). Retrieved January 10, 2021, from is a data scientist? (n.d.). Retrieved January 10, 2021, from (2020, July 08). What Skills Do You Need to Become a Data Scientist? Retrieved January 10, 2021, from



(educational resources, internships, etc) Disney (Internship) Interns in Disney Streaming Services will focus on improving business results through the combination of statistical rigor, data analysis, fast-paced execution, driving actionable business recommendations, development of prototype solutions, mathematical models, algorithms, machine learning models, and robust analytics.

Coursera Coursera offers a 12-week internship for those with a passion for data who are pursuing a degree in Computer Science, Software Engineering, or Info-Systems.

Verkada Verkada is looking for software engineering interns to work with the Backend Engineering team across the full software stack and build the latest iterations of their flagship software. Interns may: Work with computer vision engineers to experiment with machine learning and AI data * Maintain the offline processing queue for reliably generating video exports in the face of unreliable remote connections * Maintain high-performance, multiplexing video transcoding services * Or work cross-functionally to solve problems outside of your normal scope.

Imposter Syndrome

Database Administator Research by Karen Lin, Layout by Sarah Bargfrede

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career

Notable Colleges DePaul University St. John’s University Pace University Arkansas State University Salary Average salary in the United States is $97,330 per year

Four-year college degree (Bachelor’s degree) in an IT (information technology) field or ICT (information and communications technology) field College degree in a computer-related field, such as engineering, computer science, or management information systems Technical training and database administrator certifications Database administrators are often certified for a specific database platform, such as MySQL Database Administrator, Oracle DBA and Microsoft Certified Database Administrator Work in another role within IT before the database administrator role Work full time for at least two to four years to master more advanced concepts, such as performance tuning and database replication and mirroring

Responsibilities Responsibilities

Creating users and profiles, and ensuring system security by careful allocation of user permissions Monitoring technical support for both database systems and related applications Installing and upgrading the database server and/or application tools Modifying the database structure using information provided by application developers Creating a backup and recovery strategy for the database, and regularly testing the backups to ensure usability Monitoring and optimizing the database's performance using either manual or automated tools Migrating database instances to new hardware and new versions of software from on premise to cloud based databases and vice versa

Notable Notable Female Female Professionals Professionals Tracy Hamlin

Demand Demand for for the the Job Job

Employment of database administrators is projected to grow 10 percent from 2019 to 2029. The number of people employed as Database administrators has been growing at a rate of 2.19%, from 113,345 people in 2016 to 115,827 people in 2017.

Diversity Diversity Rates Rates Race & Ethnicity Globally 65.9% white (non-Hispanic) 18.5% Asian (non-Hispanic) 7.51% Black (non-Hispanic) 1.3% other (Hispanic)

Companies Companiesthat that Employ Employ Computer Computer Programmers Programmers

United States 62.5% white (non-Hispanic) 5.98% Asian (non-Hispanic) 11.6% Black (non-Hispanic) 4.79% other (Hispanic)

Yahoo Dell Technologies Intel Corporation J.P. Morgan

Gender 54% female 46% male

SpaceX Google Apple

Skills Skills Needed Needed Excellent troubleshooting skills/problem-solving skills Backup, restore, and troubleshoot database sets and system access, updating and integrating old programs to implement the latest technology The capacity to identify, test, and eliminate potential problems and their causes is extremely valuable to database administrators, who spend a considerable amount of time troubleshooting Creativity also comes into play, as database administrators often need to generate new solutions to new problems Logical thinking, common sense, and above-average memory Detail oriented Analytical skills The ability to systematically analyze data or statistics helps database administrators identify and meet their companies’ data management needs Database administrators often conduct updated analyses of their databases, as well Communication skills Database administrators often supervise other IT staff, and good communication skills prove valuable to IT teamwork and leadership Database administrators also communicate with executive management, suppliers, and technology professionals at other organizations Organizational skills Databases require considerable organization, and database administrators organize data to make database decisions and create reports

Works Works Cited Cited “Database Administrators.” Data USA, “Database Administrator Careers.” Get an Education the World Needs |, 17 Nov. 2020, “The Ultimate Guide on How to Become a Database Administrator.” Pluralsight, 13 Feb. 2020,



Online programs that teach computer programming languages (Python, HTML5, CSS, C++)

Coursera - Coding for Everyone: C and C++ - UC Santa Cruz Coursera - Python for Everybody University of Michigan Coursera - Learn to Program: The Fundamentals - University of Toronto Coursera - Introduction to Programming in C Specialization - Duke University Coursera - Computer Science: Programming with a Purpose - Princeton University

Ruth McCole Bioinformatics Scientist Research By Michelle Wu, Layout By Sarah Bargfrede

About Dr. Ruth McCole was educated in west Wales, UK, at state-funded comprehensive schools. She then studied Natural Sciences at Downing College, Cambridge, UK, and then worked as a research technician in the laboratory of Dr Clare Baker, also at the University of Cambridge. Their research involved rearing dogfish (small shark) embryos in buckets of seawater and studying their developing sense organs. Dr McCole then studied for a PhD in epigenetics and genomic imprinting in the laboratory of Dr Rebecca Oakey, at King's College London, UK. She then moved to Boston to pursue postdoctoral research in evolutionary biology with Dr Chao-ting Wu, Harvard University. Finally, Dr McCole left academic science in July 2019, after taking 9 months off work to care for her newborn baby. She is now a Bioinformatics Scientist at Guardant Health, living in Seattle and working on developing a blood-based screening test for colorectal cancer.


What are some high school courses that you suggest students take if they are aspiring to become a bioinformatics scientist? Having been educated in the UK, the landscape of high school education in the USA is a little mysterious to me. I can say that any courses in biology, chemistry, computer science, and math (particularly statistics) will be very valuable in pursuit of a career in bioinformatics.


What is the most enjoyable part of your career?

Q2 My current job! I find that working in an industry setting suits me extremely well. I enjoy the fast pace, it keeps me engaged. Also, I have such a wonderful group of gifted and hardworking scientists as colleagues.


What does an average workday look like for you?

Q3 Usually it's a combination of meetings, both to plan future work and to present and discuss data, coding and investigating data, and working with my team 1:1. I work completely from home at the moment, due to the pandemic.


Is there any advice you would offer to high school students aspiring to become a bioinformatics scientist?


Get coding experience! Python is a great introductory language, and the internet is full of free datasets for you to play with. It needn't be questions directly related to biology that will help you learn to code. The other piece that's really important is to get research experience as early as possible, and to keep building your research portfolio through college. Connect with internship programs and build a network of people who are actively involved in research that you might work with. The beauty of bioinformatics is that it is not hazardous (there is no chance of spilling a caustic chemical on your hand while you type on your couch!) and can be done from home, collaborating with people anywhere on the internet.



At what point in your life did you realize that bioinformatics scientist was the job for you to pursue?

I realized this quite late, when I was ready to begin my postdoc. Before that, I had been a bench scientist and had done a little bit of coding. I realized I didn't like the repetitive nature of lab work and wanted to automate everything. I also really like doing things that I'm not that good at yet. So a switch rather late in my career was invigorating. I couldn't be happier with where it's taken me!


Erin Piazza Bioinformatics Scientist Research By Michelle Wu, Layout By Sarah Bargfrede

About Erin Piazza is the lead scientist for gene expression panel development at NanoString. She received her PhD from Stanford University in Cancer Biology, where she studied the final member of the tubulin superfamily in Xenopus and investigated genes differentially expressed during ciliogenesis in mouse. Erin joined NanoString in fall 2015 and enjoys mixing her deep background in oncology with her love of solving problems computationally.


What is the most enjoyable part of your career?

I’ve always enjoyed learning and thinking about many things, and being able to help people as I do that. My career is the perfect blend of those passions. I get to learn about a new area of biology all the time, and go just deep enough to enjoy it and conceptualize it, without spending so much time that I become bored. I am able to work on a lot of different projects, and enjoy the company of a broad set of people within the company while doing so. Bioinformatics is incredibly helpful in so many ways across the company and can answer a variety of questions, everything form how to design experiments to what kinds of products we should make next.


What specific skills have helped you in preparing for this career?

Q2 No training is ever wasted. Even though I spent most of my training at the bench doing experiments, that experience gave me a good handle on how research works and a foray into many different kinds of research. It’s incredibly helpful in bioinformatics to have good empathy for how bench research works, and to understand beyond the basics in biology. The different labs I interned in during high school & college really broadened my ability to learn a new topic quickly and become fluent in multiple research areas. The computer programming classes I took in undergrad and grad school definitely helped me learn the basics, but learning to program is all about practice and good practice problems!



Has being a female impacted your professional or academic career? If so, were the effects adverse?

Fortunately not. I think we are fortunate in biology that it’s not a male-dominated sport except at the top of academic science & business. At least 50% of graduate students in biology were female, so there were plenty of peers that experienced what I did.


If anything, I found the culture of academic science to be unfriendly to women, but mostly in the way things were communicated and dealt with rather than in any sort of systematic fashion. There is so much attention now given to how women are treated in business and academia that I think things are truly improving. While it is always important to advocate for equality, I have found that doing quality work and working hard to be the only prerequisites to getting where I have wanted to go. As I said, I’m fortunate in that experience as I don’t believe all have had the same one.



Were there any female role models you looked up to when you were deciding on becoming a bioinformatics scientist? If so, who?

I didn’t really quite decide to be a bioinformatics scientist, I decided to be a research scientist and then just developed a love of bioinformatics that ended up with a career. My mentors in the lab have been the most helpful, but I’ve had both male and female role models that have been inspiring. My very first research mentor was Angela Seliga, who now teaches at Boston University. She is (and was at the time) a great educator with fantastic patience for a rising high school senior who made plenty of mistakes. When I was in grad school, Miriam Goodman was on my thesis committee.


She had absolutely nothing to do with my project, and she made that pretty clear to me when I asked her to join my committee, but she had such a fantastic mind and was an amazing mentor. I think she’s the only one on my thesis committee that actually read my thesis. She found a typo, and I am forever grateful to know someone read it that closely. In the broad sense though, I think Christiane Nusslein-Volhard and Marie Curie were inspiring. Christiane actually came and spoke during my graduate school days at Stanford and talked about all the ways in which her university sought to help women scientists juggle a demanding career and a life outside the lab. If anything, I believe that to be the largest challenge for women in the workplace and in academic science. It’s not so much getting to the top, but the balance of doing that while being a balanced woman with family or home responsibilities.



Is there any advice you would offer to high school students aspiring to become a bioinformatics scientist? Careers are long, and it’s unlikely you’ll know exactly what you want to do with a job until you’re farther into your education. The important thing is that you identify as much as you can the broad area of interest when you enter college – enough to give you a major.


I recommend you try as many things as you can during those years – I even tried biochemistry against my own desires because one of my professors thought I’d be good at it. I learned what I liked about it, but that I didn’t want to go that far down the rabbit hole! My school was one of the only ones where I could have actually taken bioinformatics as a major, but I took just generic “biology” instead. Sometimes I think that was a mistake, but honestly I wouldn’t give my experiences up for anything, and I wouldn’t have received the broad-based biology training that has been such an asset in my current role. Sometimes people over-emphasize the depth of experience you get in college, but I think breadth can be just as important.


Computer and Information Research Scientist Research by Karen Lin, Layout by Sarah Bargfrede

Notable Colleges Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stanford University California Institute of Technology Carnegie Mellon University Harvard University Yale University

Have you ever wondered what contributes to software writing in computers? As computer and information research scientists, they design new programming languages that improve existing languages, such as Java, which are used to write software and helps make software writing more efficient. Additionally, when creating and improving softwares, these scientists also work with algorithms. This includes simplifying algorithms, making computer systems more efficient, and algorithms also allow advancements in different types of technology.

Skills Skills Needed Needed Analytical skills Computer and information research scientists must be organized in their thinking and analyze the results of their research to formulate conclusions. Gain insights into problems and issues related to computing through collecting data and breaking down complex problems and concepts. Communication skills Must communicate well with programmers and managers and be able to clearly explain their conclusions to people with no technical background. Furthemore, they often write for academic journals and similar publications. Critical-thinking skills Work on many complex problems. Create new algorithms that become the foundation for advancements in technology such as machine learning systems and cloud computing. Detail oriented Must pay close attention to their work, because a small error can cause an entire project to fail. Ingenuity Continually come up with innovative ways to solve problems, particularly when their ideas do not work as initially intended. Logical thinking Computer algorithms rely on logic. Computer and information research scientists must have a talent for reasoning. Use logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of solutions when approaching problems. Mathematical skills Must have knowledge of advanced math and other technical topics that are critical in computing. This includes arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, and statistics.

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career Most jobs for computer and information research scientists require a master’s degree in computer science or a related field, such as computer engineering. In the federal government, a bachelor’s degree may be sufficient for some jobs. A master’s degree usually requires 2 to 3 years of study after earning a bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field, such as computer science or information systems.

Responsibilities Responsibilities

Help other computer and information research scientists and engineers solve complex computing problems. This includes computing problems in business, science, medicine, and other fields. Develop new methods and tools for computer use and design experiments to test the capabilities of systems. Invent new computing languages, tools, and methods to improve the ways in which people work with computers. Simplify algorithms to make computer systems work more efficiently. Design new computer architecture, which improves the performance and efficiency of computer hardware. Leads to technological advancements, such as better networking technology, faster computing speeds, and improved information security. Design computer chips using new materials and technology to make processors and chips work faster and gain more computing power. Develop and improve the software systems that form the basis of the modern computing experience. Design new programming languages that are used to write software, making software writing more efficient and improve software systems by improving an existing programming language. Analyze the results of their experiments. Publish their findings in academic journals and present their findings at conferences.

Diversity Diversity Rates Rates Race & Ethnicity (2017 Data) Globally White: 68% Asian: 21.2% Black: 6.98%

Companies Companiesthat that Employ Employ Computer Computer Programmers Programmers

United States White: 62.5% Asian: 5.98% Black: 11.6% Hispanic: 4.79%

Gender (US 2017 Data) 72.4% male 27.6% female

University of Chicago University of Southern California University of Virginia Health System Intel California Institute of Technology Sony Corporation



Coursera - Python for Everybody - University of Michigan Coursera - Java Programming and Software Engineering Fundamentals - Duke University Coursera - Intro to Java Programming - San Jose State University Coursera - HTML, CSS, and Javascript for Web Developers - Johns Hopkins University

Demand Demand for for the the Job Job // Salary Salary

2019-29, projected to grow 15% (much faster than average) 2019 median pay: $122,840 per year, $59.06 per hour

Works Cited “Computer and Information Research Scientists : Occupational Outlook Handbook.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Computer or Information Research Scientist.” Truity, 15 May 2020,“Computer & Information Research Scientists.” Data USA, “2021 Best Colleges for Computer Science.” Niche, “What Does a Computer and Information Research Scientist Do?” CareerExplorer, CareerExplorer, 5 May 2020, “Information Researcher Careers.” Get an Education the World Needs |, 23 Nov. 2020, “Computer and Information Research Scientists: Salary, Career Path, Job Outlook, Education and More.” RaiseMe,

PK Priya Khokher Computer Research Scientist Research By Karin Lin, Layout By Sarah Bargfrede

What degree did you obtain to become a computer research scientist?

My masters is in Urban informatics from New York University, from a program named CUSP which stands for Center of Urban Science+Progress. My undergraduate degree is in Electronics and Telecommunications from Mumbai University.

What skills do you have that helped you prepare for this career?

It’s definitely important to know your craft – and by that, I mean the fundamentals of your domain. You would become subject matter expert in technical areas of your interest as you work on them. But what gets overlooked in school are the communication skills and collaboration. Can you present your work to various audiences (from your peers to organizational leaders) and can you work with different people? Fortunately, I experienced these in smaller proportions during my time at NYU because I white-knuckled my way through them and much later I realized the value of these skillsets. I would definitely recommend HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations and Radical Collaboration to the younger generation joining the workforce.

What responsibilities do you have as a computer research scientist?

I am in charge of identifying challenges and proposing solutions and working across teams to execute them.

Ideating is crucial in the process - as choosing the right problem simplifies everything downstream. Once a concept is formed and sealed to work on, the next phase is in the implementation of a proposed solution. Often there are iterations during the modelling phase and after multiple testing of the quality and scalability of the model, it gets launched.

Why and how did this specific field of study appeal to you?

I enjoy being a research scientist because I find it extremely creative. Some days it’s like writing poetry. Nothing seems to fit and once you keep glaring at the problem and many constraints while keeping an eye on the solution, different concepts that we hear about or studied back in school fall into place. I enjoy building machine learning models and I enjoy implementing it in the real world where ML frameworks can add value to the business.

What was your journey like to become a computer research scientist?

I am originally from Mumbai, India. I did my undergraduate studies in electronics and telecommunications engineering. Back then, I got really interested in sensors and being in Mumbai which is one of the most densely populated cities in the world I would wonder how sensors (the data they collect and their applications) could help in the functioning of cities and this lead me to pursue the idea of Smart Cities. I got the opportunity to do my masters on a scholarship to New York University in Urban informatics, which answered the similar question of how to use data to make cities work better. It was a blend of policy, civic governance and technology. I leaned into the tech branches and learnt a lot about modelling problems in general. I got an offer from Amazon after my masters completed and I have been here for 4 years!

My first team was Supply Chain - I am really proud of my experience there as I learnt a lot about actually applying my knowledge in real world problems at scale and delivered really cool projects, which generated huge savings for the company. After that I moved into Alexa, again, a great experience, worked with really smart people and learnt a lot from them while managing to research some of the problems a bit more, in the context of Alexa.

Product Product Designer Designer

Research by Michelle Wu, Layout by Sarah Bargfrede

Companies Companies that that Employ Employ the the Career Career

Job Job Demand Demand

Apple, Amazon, Google

There will be a high demand for the job because there will always be a need for efficient products to make lives more convenient.

Salary Salary An annual salary is on average $83,000. The starting salary is anywhere around $50,000 to $60,000.

Skills Skills Needed Needed

One must be able to operate design applications, such as Photoshop and Sketch, and must have knowledge about color theory. One must have a high degree of technical knowledge with creative abilities and computer literacy, including three-dimensional conceptual ability and Computer-aided design (CAD). One must have visual and spatial awareness. One must also have commercial awareness, as he or she is aware of what would sell the best in the markets at that time. One must have knowledge of industrial processes, techniques, and standards.

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career Possible Majors product design industrial design engineering architecture major (need a minimum education requirement of a bachelor’s degree)

College Classes to Take Basic art and design courses

Internships Google, Apple, Spotify

Universities Known for their Design Majors Stanford University, Carnegie Mellon University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Virginia Tech, Swarthmore College, Rhode Island School of Design As a disclaimer, there is not only one correct way to advance and obtain this career. This serves as an example of what one could do to get to this career!


suited for a Product Designer

A product designer must be creative, extroverted, and curious. They must also be good at time-management, self-motivated, logical, and openminded.


One must be creative, as product design is all about producing an unseen item that will captivate the public into purchasing it. Product design is also about art and sketching original ideas and bringing them to life. The more creative one is, the easier it will be for them to envision new inventions.


One must be curious, not only about their own creation, but also about what issues they should research. They should question the world around them and explore what needs improving. From there, the product designer can decide what invention they can create to alleviate this issue. Not only will this be beneficial for their company’s profits but also for the world.

Open Minded

Open-minded/Extroverted: One must be open-minded, especially to criticism. Although a product designer might believe that their item is life-changing and innovative, there are multiple rounds of reviews that must come before the item is finalized. A product designer should understand that critiques will only make their product better and more practical for public-use. This also goes hand in hand with being outgoing. A product designer must be able to interact with other companies to share his or her designs. One must be able to talk to their buyers for reviews and/or advice for future product suggestions.

Diversity rates in the career field 78% of the UK’s design industry is male, with 80% in digital design, 85% in architecture, and 95% in product design. Only 22% of the UK’s design industry is female. According to DataUSA, in the United States, men lead this industry with 54.7% and women behind at 45.3%. There is little representation of women in the product design field! Responsibilities Present New Ideas Investigate and analyze user experience research Create product prototypes Work hand in hand with product managers and lead developers throughout the discovery, design, and development process to bring great ideas to life Stay on top of industry trends Lead the experience design and communicate validated concepts to product owners, engineers, leadership, and customers.

New Inventions Inventions New Dyson products - new haircare products (Dyson Airwrap™ styler, Dyson Corrale™ straightener, Dyson Supersonic™ hairdryer), new vacuums (Dyson V11, Dyson Cyclone V10, Dyson Cinetic Big Ball) Samsung products - foldable phones (Galaxy Fold, Galaxy Z Flip) Apple products - new iPhones, Apple A14 Bionic chip (appears in fourth-generation iPad Air, iPhone 12 Mini, iPhone 12, iPhone 12 Pro, and iPhone 12 Pro Max) Wireless charging - Samsung’s Wireless Charger Pad Slim, Apple’s MagSafe Charger, Mophie, Native Union Drop Wireless Charging Pad, Belkin BOOST CHARGE Bose Wearable Smart Glasses - plays audio through sunglass frames

Works Cited

“Average Product Designer Salary.” PayScale, Beneyto, Carlos. “The Job of the 'Product Designer' and Its Importance in a Startup.” UX Collective, 31 July 2018, Hamburger, Ellis. “THE BEST GADGET DESIGNERS ALIVE: They Created IPhone, RAZR, Wii, And More.” Business Insider, 16 Aug. 2011, “Here's How To Become A Product Designer In 2021.” Zippia, 2 Oct. 2020, “Industrial & Product Design.” Data USA, Kunis, Leigh. “Product Designer vs. UX Designer.” Springboard Blog, 29 May 2019, Stylus, Scriba. “19 Most Famous Examples of Influential Product Design.” Medium, 16 Jan. 2017, Wu, Henry. “Explain It like I'm 5: What Is a Product Designer?” HubSpot Product, 26 Nov. 2017,


Developer Developer Research By: Michelle Wu Layout By: Sarah Bargfrede

Job Job Demand Demand There are currently an estimated 294,900 computer programmers in the United States. The computer programmer job market is expected to shrink by -7.2% between 2016 and 2026.

Salary Salary

Computer Programmers made a median salary of $84,280 in 2018. The best-paid 25 percent made $109,120 that year, while the lowest-paid 25 percent made $64,410 (U.S.News Money) .

Notable Notable Female Female Web Web Developers Developers Jina Anne Jina Anne is a website designer and an HTML/CSS developer. She has been creating websites for over 22 years and has been working professionally in this industry for over fifteen years. During her time working for Amazon, Anne was the Senior Design Systems Lead. At Salesforce, she was the lead designer on the Lightning Design System and acted as the Editor-in-Chief for the Salesforce UX blog. At Apple, she led the CSS architecture and sustained the visual and interaction design guidelines for Apple’s Online Store.

Sara Soueida

As an independent remote lead design engineer, speaker, and author, Sara Soueidan enjoys working on a web platform and aspires to make it a better experience for everyone. She was voted Developer of the Year in the net awards in 2015 and was shortlisted for the Outstanding Contribution of the Year award. She has also won an O’Reilly Web Platform Award for “exceptional leadership, creativity, and collaboration in the development of JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and the supporting Web ecosystem.” She is the author of the Codrops CSS Reference and has work recognized by organizations, such as Adobe, Google, Microsoft, Apple, and more.

Responsibilities Responsibilities

The daily tasks of a web developer are determined based on their position, project, and other factors. However, developers often find themselves discussing with their clients about upcoming projects. With this also comes planning website layouts, writing codes, adding visuals to make the site more appealing to their clients, and troubleshooting. After the site is completed, web developers must also assure that their site is functioning properly.

Skills Skills Needed Needed Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) HTML is the most utilized markup language across the internet, which provides everything from the structure to the content appearing on the website. It provides web developers with the ability to format content into paragraphs, headings, lists, or other element types.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Being a web developer also requires one to style their website to appeal to their audience. CSS allows the creator to alter the layout, colours, spacing among elements, fonts, and font sizes to their liking. JavaScript While HTML is a markup language, JavaScript is a high-level programming language that implements complex features onto the developer’s website. Such features include search bars, videos, moving elements, and interactive maps on a webpage. JavaScript allows web developers to bring their webpages to “life,” making them more modern and interactive to younger audiences. It also determines an element’s response to user clicks, which are customizable by the developer.

Diversity Diversity Rates Rates

According to Data USA, there are 66.5k males in web development with only 36.3k females. 70.7% of web developers are White and following are Asians, representing 11.4% of web developers.

Companies Companies that that Employ Employ the the Career Career Because the media is so accessible in today’s times, there are many companies seeking to promote their products through websites and thus, must hire web developers to create them. For example, Squarespace is always hiring new web designers and developers to build websites using clean codes. What this position looks for is an individual who

understands how captivating sites are built and is experienced in JavaScript and Git. NBCUniversal is also hiring digital web developers with a basic knowledge of HTML and CSS. This company looks for individuals who are passionate about social and digital media and interested in creating a wide variety of web assets and page layouts.

New New Inventions Inventions in in the the Field Field

One major invention in web development is artificial intelligence (AI). Bots are being integrated into Progressive Web Apps, regular websites, and any internet-connected app. These bots can be trained to learn algorithms and can serve as a virtual assistant, aiding others on apps like Facebook Messenger, Skype, and WhatsApp. The global AI software market is predicted to increase from ten billion US dollars in 2018 to approximately 126 billion by 2025. Another development is virtual reality and expanded reality. Major companies, such as Google, Microsoft, and Samsung, have recently been spending more of their income on these advances. Beginning as a web developer will build those crucial skills needed in creating more VR softwares, as both depend on programming skills. Another development is a single page application (SPA). With high-speed Internet standards, today’s people are not met with one more webpage when they perform actions on the page, such as clicking buttons. SPA allows individuals to avoid intruding on client collaborations between sequential pages.

Qualities suited for a Web Developer One should be self-motivated. Most projects are time-consuming, and being able to drive oneself to continue working and not to procrastinate is a skill that all web developers should have. One can not afford to delay work sessions if they want to meet their clients’ deadlines or find new projects to take on. One should also be able to multitask. This skill involves being able to attend to several tasks at once. Under tight deadlines, some web developers often find themselves working on multiple projects to increase efficiency. One should also be curious about the technological world and developments that are on the rise. They should yearn for new inventions, such as new softwares or virtual reality. They should question how they can make their projects better in order to attract a younger audience. One should also be creative. Web developers not only must make their websites function properly but also be pleasing to the eye. CSS allows a web developer to change many elements of the webpage, and JavaScript brings it to “life.” With all of this taken into consideration, web developers should focus on how to leave the audience in awe of their creation. One must also pay extreme attention to detail. With advance and intricate programming languages, it is inevitable that there will be mishaps along the way. Web developers must be able to pay painstaking attention to detail in order to identify the issue as soon as possible and produce professional work for their clients.

Works Cited Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Web Developers and Digital Designers: Occupational Outlook Handbook.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 7 Jan. 2021, “Jina Anne.” Women Talk Design, Martin, Sophia. “Top Technologies That Will Transform The Web Development in 2020.” Quick Code, 20 Aug. 2020, Soueidan, Sara. “About.” SaraSoueidan, Staff Writers. “Becoming a Web Developer.” Web Developer, 18 Nov. 2020, Stevens, Emily. “What Qualifications Do You Need To Become A Web Developer?” These Are The Qualifications You Need To Become A Web Developer, CareerFoundry, 8 Jan. 2020, “The Best Computer Science Programs in America, Ranked.” U.S. News & World Report, “Web Developer Ranks Among Best Jobs of 2021.” U.S. News & World Report, “Web Developers.” Data USA, Zaikis, Leslie. “These 4 Companies Are Hiring Web Designers.” Skillcrush, 8 May 2018,

Technical Writer Research By: Michelle Wu Layout By: Sarah Bargfrede

Job Job Demand Demand

Salary Salary

The average salary for a technical writer is approximately $55,000 to $70,000, with a starting salary of around $40,000 to $45,000.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment of technical writers is expected to increase by 7 percent from 2019 to 2029, faster than the average for all occupations. The cause may be the continuing expansion of and need for scientific and technical products in the world. With more Web-based products comes more support and increased demand for technical writers.

Notable Notable Female Female Technical Technical Writers Writers Lisa Melonçon

Working at the University of Southern Florida, Dr. Melonçon writes about the need to integrate technical communication into the English department and often speculates on the place tech comm should occupy in the education system. She focuses on the rhetoric of health and medicine (RHM), studies of disability, and programmatic issues in technical communication. Her research has made appearances in journals such as Technical Communication Quarterly, Technical Communication, and the Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, as well as numerous other journals and edited collections.

Karen Schriver As an expert in Information Design, Plain Language, Writing, Technical Communication, Assessment, and Design Strategy, Ms. Schriver has all the necessary skills required in being a technical writer. She implements research-based principles to inform the design of everyday communications. She combines the latest research on how individual engagement with websites, reports, forms, instructions, and marketing communications. She has taught at notable universities, such as Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Washington. She is the first recipient of the STC’s Ken Rainey Excellence in Research Award for "outstanding research contributions to information design, exceptional service as an international ambassador for research, and passion for consumer advocacy.”

Kesi Parker As a freelance technical writer living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Parker aspires to assist beginners and teach them about the basics of technical writing. On her blog with six thousand followers, she discusses everything from reducing the stress that arises from being a technical writer to finding out if one’s documentation is even valuable.

Opportunities Opportunities

Some creative writing program opportunities for high school students include Iowa Young Writer's Studio, Interlochen Summer Writing Program, Creative Writing Workshops at Columbia University's Summer Program for High School Students, and Princeton University Summer Journalism Program. Some engineering and computer science opportunities include MIT Beaver Works Summer Institute, MIT Women’s Technology Program (WTP), Google Computer Science Institute, and AI Scholars 2020.

Personality Personality One should be naturally curious. Two of the documentations produced by technical writers are instruction manuals and how-to guides. A technical writer should be eager to learn about how the product works. Not only will this strengthen the writer’s piece, but it will also allow the writer to personally gain insight into how the product was manufactured and how it may be employed in daily life. One should be communicative and cooperative because this career heavily focuses on being able to communicate effectively with other internal teams and to work together to attain the best final product. One should be a critical thinker or logical because once again, technical writers produce instruction manuals. One must already know the full potential of a design and how convenient it truly is. Gathering information, analyzing it, and systematizing it is only a small portion of being a logical technical writer.

Diversity Diversity Rates Rates According to the Census Bureau, in 2018, there were 24.8k males and 36.1k females in the United State’s technical writers’ workforce. From 2014 to 2018, females have led this occupation.

Companies Companies that that Employ Employ the the Career Career Google Microsoft

Mathwork, Salesforce Apple

Cisco Systems, Dell Technologies

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career The journey to becoming a technical writer can begin as early as high school. Students should enroll in English and journalism classes, as well as computer science and science classes. Participating in the school newspaper is another great way to gain experience in writing for a publication. Students should also look into applying to journalism and computer science programs. While most technical writing jobs require a Bachelor’s degree in journalism, English, and/or communications, it is also important to note that a university degree in engineering or computer science is recommended. Some top universities that are

well-known for their English and journalism major are Columbia University, Stanford University, Princeton University, University of California Berkeley, and Brown University. Some elite universities known for their computer science and engineering majors are Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University, and University of California Berkeley. As a disclaimer, there is not only one correct way to advance and become this career. This serves as an example of what one could do to become that career!


A technical writer should be able to… Express complicated written material into simpler terms for the general public Oversee the preparation of illustrations, photographs, diagrams, and charts Produce and revise technical materials and high-quality documentation Collaborate with other internal teams to obtain a deeper understanding of the product and the documents required Work under a deadline Write easy-to-understand user interface text, developer guides, and online help Create tutorials or instructions to help users operate a variety of applications

Skills Needed One should have basic familiarity with programming languages and software development. Technical writers typically work with computer support specialists, computer hardware engineers, and software developers during the development and testing stages of a specific product. Therefore, it is encouraged that technical writers have a basic understanding of software development. Technical writers also tend to produce their own websites using HTML or CSS, so it is recommended that these basic skills are met. One must be able to write in a clear and cohesive manner. Whether it is verbal or written, the main obligation of a technical writer is to be able to communicate complex technical information in simple terms to a variety of audiences. The technical writer must also be prepared to edit material written by other writers or staff members. Proficiency in the language at hand is a must. One must be able to collaborate with others. A technical documentation team is only a small part of the large network of editors, developers, and designs. Being able to work with the internal teams on documentation and production is a must. The conferences held between the departments require a sense of teamwork in order to communicate instructions clearly to the others, such as the customers and manufacturers. One must have interviewing and listening skills. Technical writers should know how to ask questions to people, such as product designers, to gain more knowledge on the subject at hand. By effectively communicating with these individuals, the technical writers can produce instructions that are easier to use for the public.

Works Cited Anastasia. “11 Skills of a Good Technical Writer.” ClickHelp, 6 Sept. 2017, “Average Technical Writer Salary.” PayScale, “How To Become a Technical Writer (A Step by Step Guide).”, 17 Nov. 2020, “Technical Writer.” Truity, 20 May 2020, “Technical Writers.” Data USA, “Technical Writer Job Description Template.” TalentLyft, “Technical Writers: Occupational Outlook Handbook.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1 Sept. 2020, WAI Editor. “Which Skills Are Important for a Technical Writer?” Writing Assistance, Inc., 5 June 2020,

Jessica Hewitt Technical Writer Research By Michelle Wu, Layout By Sarah Bargfrede

About Jessica Hewitt currently works as a Technical Writer for Amazon Web Services but was a biomedical research scientist in a past life. She lives in Seattle and enjoys rock climbing, mountaineering, and trail running with her dog in her free time.

At what point in your life did you realize that being a technical writer was the right job for you?

A friend suggested it as a good fit based on my technical background and strong writing skills. I started by taking freelance projects and realized they were right!

What is the most difficult part of your job?

It can be particularly challenging to translate the technical languages from Subject Matter Experts(SMEs) into a language that is accessible to customers and follows the stylistic guidelines of your organization. You're often writing to a diverse audience (potentially a global one). As such, the writing should help everyone from data engineers to product managers understand what your product is and how they can use it in their workflow.

What are some high school courses that you suggest students take if they are aspiring to become a technical writer?

Technical writers have to be able to write and code well enough to generate examples, so experience in both English composition and computer science is very useful. Additionally, any classes in experimental science that involve generating a step-by-step report of a procedure is great!

Can you describe what an average workday would be like?

The average workday is a mix of researching a new product or service, writing and reviewing content, and generating examples to help illustrate the uses of the product. These steps often involve meeting with other members of the team to collaborate.

What advice would you offer to anyone wanting to become a technical writer themselves?

I recommend you see writing skill development as a lifelong process and spend time reading how-to-manuals and documentation. When you find yourself confused by how-to's, ask what would make it better and vice-versa: when you find a good description, try to analyze what made it so effective.

Hardware Engineer

Research by Karen Lin, Layout by Sarah Bargfrede

Journey Journey to to the the Career Career

Companies Companies that that Employ Employ This This Career Career Apple Intel Corporation Google NASA Oracle IBM

Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree Degrees include: computer engineering, electrical engineering, & computer science Employers may prefer candidates who have graduated from an accredited program. To prepare for a major in computer or electrical engineering, students should have a solid background in math and science. Become familiar with computer programming and this can be obtained through computer science courses.Some large firms or specialized jobs may require a master’s degree in computer engineering. (Some experienced engineers obtain a master’s degree in business administration). Some who attain a master’s degree in computer engineering choose to advance to a higher level, especially for more specialized roles and jobs with large firms.

Responsibilities Responsibilities Design new computer hardware, creating schematics of computer equipment to be built. Test the computer hardware designedAnalyze the test results and modify the design as needed. Update existing computer equipment so that it will work with a new software. Oversee the manufacturing process for computer hardware. Design devices used in manufactured products that incorporate processors and other computer components, that also connect to the Internet.

Skills Skills Needed Needed Analytical Skills Computer hardware engineers use computer programming tools to analyze the digital circuits in hardware to determine the best design. Critical Thinking Skills Use logic and reasoning to clarify goals, examine assumptions, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions. Problem-solving Skills Identify complex problems in computer hardware, develop and evaluate possible solutions, and figure out the best way to implement them. Comminication Skills Engineers often work in teams and must be able to communicate with other types of engineers, software developers, and programmers, as well as with nontechnical team members.

Notable Notable Colleges Colleges Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ranked as the #1 best engineering school Stanford University Harvard University

University of California, Berkeley Carnegie Mellon University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) California Institute of Technology (Caltech)



Coursera - Python for Everybody - University of Michigan Coursera - Java Programming and Software Engineering Fundamentals - Duke University Coursera - Intro to Java Programming - San Jose State University Coursera - HTML, CSS, and Javascript for Web Developers - Johns Hopkins University

Salary Salary According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in May 2019, the median annual wage for computer hardware engineers was $117,220 with the top industries as following: Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing: $140,840 annually Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences: $132,450 annually Federal government: $113,430 annually Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing: $113,050 annuallyComputer systems design and related services: $111,610 annually

Diversity Diversity Rates Rates Race & Ethnicity Globally White: 56.9% Asian: 31.9% Black: 9.06%

United States White: 62% Asian: 6.11% Black: 11.7% Hispanic: 4.68%

Gender 86% male 14% female

“Computer Hardware Engineers.” Data USA, “Computer Hardware Engineers : Occupational Outlook Handbook.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “The Best Computer Engineering Programs in America, Ranked.” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report, 2020,

Natalie Ruth Pilar Hardware Engineer Research By Karen Lin, Layout By Sarah Bargfrede


My name is Natalie Pilar and I am currently a Hardware Design Engineer. I graduated from Oregon State University majoring in Electrical and Computer Engineering with a minor in Business and Entrepreneurship. In my spare time, I co-host a podcast called "How To Work It" talking about my experience being in my early career and talking about some tips to help those in college to help achieve their goals.

What degree did you obtain to become a hardware engineer?

I obtained a degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering emphasis on Electrical Engineering.

What responsibilities do you have as a hardware engineer?

As a hardware engineer I contribute to designing different types of boards for various projects. I also do a lot of testing to make sure the boards and products are operating properly. I do this by writing scripts to make automated tests or by physically checking each part.

What skills do you have that helped you prepare for this career?

In college, I took a lot of power classes to help me understand power distribution. This has helped me in my career to better understand how to design different types of boards. Other technical skills that have helped me are PCB design and electronics classes. Through my business classes and extracurricular activities I picked up on some soft skills that allows me to better understand the business side of the industry and the marketing behind the products I am helping to create.

Why and how did this specific field of study appeal to you?

What was your journey like to become a hardware engineer?

I was exposed to engineering through my junior year of physics. We were learning about resistors and I thought the math behind resistance equivalence was really cool. At this time, I applied for an engineering internship to explore electrical engineering. During this internship I learned about Arduinos and the different types of applications it can do. From this internship I knew I wanted to pursue an electrical engineering degree. Throughout college and internships I learned that I liked being hands-on with projects and didn't like coding as much. I focused more of my classes on a route that could allow me to become a hardware engineer. Searching up skills a hardware engineer should have was my driving force on the classes I decided to take.

Works Cited “Dr. Rana El Kaliouby, Emotion AI Pioneer.” Dr. Rana El Kaliouby, 13 July 2020,“Humanizing Technology.” Affectiva, 3 Feb. 2021,

Grace Hopper by Sarah Bargfrede







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