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Countryside Building

Publishers: Ghyll House Publishing Ltd ATSS House Station Road East Stowmarket Suffolk IP14 1RQ Tel: 01449 677500 Fax: 01449 770028 E-mail: chris@ghyllhouse.co.uk

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Editor: Tony Hutchinson National Secretary Rural Design and Building Association ATSS House Station Road East Stowmarket Suffolk IP14 1RQ Tel: 01449 676049 Fax: 01449 770028 Email: secretary@rdba.org.uk

Cover: A typical Cornish farm with a fabulous selection of structures, snapped on holiday this spring. Countryside Building has been carefully prepared but articles are published without responsibility on the part of the publishers or authors for loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of any view, information or advice included therein. The articles published do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Rural Design and Building Association. The publishers do not accept any responsibility for claims made by advertisers

Contents Secretaries column VOLUME 3 ISSUE 1

1 3

SECRETARY S COLUMN GOOD VENTILATION FOR LIVESTOCK HOUSING WHY DOES IT REMAIN ELUSIVE ? 5 NOTES ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ALL›WEATHER RIDING ARENAS. (MANEGE) 10 ROOF REFURBISHMENT TO AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS › REPAIR OR REPLACE? 13 OBITUARY 15 MEMBERS NEWS REPRODUCED FROM THE FBA 1983 JOURNAL (NUMBER 32) 17 ARE YOU LIVING IN A GREEN HOUSE?! 18 DAIRYING › ADDING VALUE 20 THE ROYAL SHOW JULY 2002 25 AMENDMENTS TO MEMBER S DIRECTORY 25 DIARY DATES 28 READER ENQUIRIES AND SUBSCRIPTION REQUEST 29 NIMBYISM IS THREAT TO RURAL COMMUNITIES , SAYS HOUSING ASSOCIATION CHAIRMAN 30 THE VAT MAN 32 HOW TO SURVIVE THE VAGARIES OF THE PLANNING SYSTEM 34 UNDER COVER STORES 37 THAT WAS THE YEAR THAT WAS 40 PRECAST CONCRETE IN THE COUNTRYSIDE 46 STONE›SLATE QUARRIES OR DELPHS 50 UTILISING REDUNDANT FARM BUILDINGS 51 HISTORY BELOW THE FARMING LANDSCAPE

Secretary s Column The changes and upheavals in the agricultural market are continuing a pace. With more and more smaller, family farms giving up and either selling off or renting out their land to their larger or richer neighbours, who to remain competitive are having to become more efficient and so are reorganising their buildings, plant and machinery. The result is that the agricultural construction industry is almost too busy with many contractors having full order books until well into next year. Although being busy is better than being quiet too many contractors have taken on too much work and are not able to provide the service that they should, with the result that corners are being cut. These changes in the market are probably going to cause changes in other areas. It is obvious that the Agricultural shows that the farmers believe are worth attending are changing and this may mean that some of the shows will stop being agricultural but will become ‘Country fairs’. I was lucky enough to be invited to a debriefing on the Royal Show by the RASE. It was obvious that they take this possibility very seriously and so plans are afoot to attract back those exhibitors who have not attended in recent years, plus extra exciting events during the show to attract a greater number of farmers. A large number of new, old and interesting ideas were discussed. I will not steal their thunder and give details of the discussions but it will be interesting to watch which of the ideas are taken forward.

In Association with the

RDBA RURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING ASSOCIATION

Main Features in our next issue Case Study on an Environmental Impact Assessment Ventilation VAT issues Planning issues Planning and design Nat news, Construction Group, Branch News, Diary Dates, Membership Application, Membership changes, Secretary’s Column. The Bleasdale Column Revised Asbestos Regulations All Weather Riding Arena Lighting Countryside Building 1


IF YOU ARE CONTEMPLATING AN IMPROVEMENT, CONTACT US FOR EXPERT ADVICE AND FREE CONSULTATION

Customer Enquiry 41

Customer Enquiry 42

Customer Enquiry 43

Customer Enquiry 44

Countryside Building 2

Customer Enquiry 45


Technical Good Ventilation for Livestock Housing Why does it remain elusive ? Mike Kelly MSc PhD FIAgrE FRAgS Mike has been an active member of the RDBA for may years, he is presently on the Council and is a past Chairman E-mail mkelly.builddesign@btinternet.com www.mkbuilddesign.co.uk Many livestock buildings are badly ventilated, despite the fact that excellent design information has been available since the early 1980’s. A survey of 20 beef buildings in Aberdeenshire, in the late 1970’s, indicated that 10 [50%] had poor to bad ventilation. For 4 [20%] of the buildings, the ventilation was barely adequate, and only 6 [30%] had good ventilation. Little has changed, in that an ongoing series of visits to livestock buildings by the author, as part of a drug promotion campaign team, confirms that the majority of buildings are poorly ventilated. Every building visited has scope for some ventilation improvement. Some are chronically under ventilated. What are the reasons for this? Typically, the agricultural construction industry functions on a very tight cost basis, with frame suppliers providing no frills products in order to secure the contract. This often involves a cheap unventilated, or inadequately ventilated, ridge cappings, which takes no account of the stocking of the building. Farmers often do not specify what type of ridge or openings they prefer, and the contract is secured primarily on the lowest price. The building is erected, usually with inadequate ridge outlet. From day one, it poses a serious risk to cattle health. No-one has bothered to calculate out the ventilation needs of the housed stock. The crown-cranked ridge for example, only provides a fraction [30%] of the outlet area normally required for a building used to house mature cattle. The ridge opening is equivalent to a continuous slot of only 60mm, when over 200mm is often required for good ventilation. It is however a popular ridge with contractors, since it is easy to fix, and cheaper than a capped, or protected ridge construction. Cutting out openings later, as shown in Figure 1, can dramatically improve building ventilation, but it is extra work, and expense, which must be done with great care, on a fragile roof such as cement fibre sheeting. This solution is neater, with less rain penetration, than removing the complete capping. Bad ventilation is a major cause of pneumonia especially for younger

Figure 2 A poorly ventilated cattle building. stock. The situation is getting worse as we experience wetter and muggier conditions, especially at the back-end of the year, coinciding with periods of high stress, as animals are grouped up and housed. Larger complexes, with a range of group sizes from young stock to adult cattle pose an even greater risk. Indications are that both dairy and beef cattle units will continue to get larger, with more and more cattle per stockperson, and less opportunity to spot and nip trouble in the bud. The potential exists for the situation to get worse, not better. Figure 2 shows a typical situation within a poorly ventilated building, with severe condensation on the underside of the roof. Sadly this is all too common and leads to conditions which puts the health of animals at risk, as well as decreasing the life of the structure. The benefits of good ventilation can be summarised as follows:  Removes moisture vapour from the stock.  Aids evaporation from dung, bedding and water spillage.  Minimises condensation, so protecting the building fabric.  Maintains a fresh air supply.  Keeps down microorganisms.  Lessens the risk of animal diseases, including pneumonia.  Keeps down dust levels.  Helps to prevent wet coats.  Less stress.  Better working environment for staff. The highest risk to cattle health occurs on still, muggy days when there is no wind to assist airflow through the building. Based on extensive research work carried out at The Scottish Farm Building Investigation Unit in the 1980’s, now SAC, it is possible to calculate out ventilation openings to cope with such conditions. The factors involved are shown below, with the ventilation rate a function of:    

Inlet and outlet areas [Ai and Ao], Height difference between inlet and outlet [H], Inside and outside temperature difference [TD], Heat generation from the animals [Q], which depends primarily on liveweight and stocking numbers.

These relationships are complex, and are best expressed as a series of design charts, or as a computer program. The latter is lodged with SAC Building Design Services, and a contact address is given at the end of this article. The calculations are based on stack effect theory. On a still day, the heat produced by the animals due to the metabolism of energy warms up the air. This warm air rises due to stack effect, to be replaced by fresh air coming in at eaves level. The absence of an outlet will prevent stale air from escaping, and its replacement by fresh air. This leads to a spiralling of moisture build-up, excessive dampness and condensation, hence a health risk to cattle. Figure 1 Crown-cranked ridge modified to improve ventilation

Any building designer who fails to provide the openings required to Countryside Building 3


Technical

Figure 3 effective

Simple upstand outlet ridge which is cheap and

create stack effect in the absence of wind is putting livestock at risk. These openings function on a still day, but perform better when there is wind blowing around the building. This is especially true of any ridge opening, which is always an outlet, due to the negative pressures induced when the wind blows over a building apex. Smoke tests in buildings never show smoke entry at the ridge, which is always an outlet. A simple solution such as open ridge with an upstand, as shown in Figure 3, is often the best. This shows the upstand set back from the edge of the sheet, which is the correct detail. Rain hitting the inside edge of the upstand runs down the roofsheet, rather than into the building. Hence the amount of rain entering the building is minimal. This is insignificant anyway, compared with the moisture generated by housed stock. Why have we moved away from such an effective, low cost solution, which can allow for openings in excess of 250mm?

Customer Enquiry 46

Good ventilation design is a vital and integral part of the design process of any livestock building. The openings should be designed to cope with the ‘worst case’ scenario, which is maximum stocking on a still day. Outlet areas must be balanced by inlets, and a good ‘rule of thumb’ is to have twice the inlet area to outlet area, and to dissipate the inlet air through spaceboarding or spaced sheeting. Draughts can be avoided by setting the inlets above solid wall height, say 1.5m min above floor level, and avoiding fully-open sides or doors, when conditions are exposed. There is no substitute for a detailed ventilation calculation to suit the circumstances of a specific building, in order to work out ventilation requirements. The SAC program for example, copes with different pitches of roof, building shapes, stocking densities etc. In his next article in the next issue Mike will write about the practicalities of providing good ventilation in livestock buildings, including fan ventilation. For a more detailed ventilation check and calculations on any building, contact the author, Mike Kelly, on tel. 01563 830147, or SAC Building Design Services on tel. 01292 525168. Good ventilation is too important to get wrong. Countryside Building 4

Customer Enquiry 47


Technical of the retaining boards) 40.000 m long x 20.000m Notes on the construction base wide, whilst an International Dressage arena should measure 60.000m long x 20.000m wide. of Indoor and Outdoor All› 2.02 However, as a general rule, it is not advisable to construct an arena with less than 15.000m width as Weather Riding Arenas. the bends become too sharp if taken at the center. 2.03 In view or the excessive 'wear' to the perimeter path on (Manege) an arena, particularly where the arena is to be used for Dressage and competition it is wise, if your budget will allow, to increase the dimensions to at least 43.000m long x 23.000m wide. This will allow a perimeter path of at least 1.200m width and for the Dressage markers to be placed within the worn perimeter track.

By David Wood NDA MiMgt of Agriquestrian Consultants The purpose of these notes is to provide those intending to construct an indoor or outdoor all-weather riding arena/.manege with an idea of what is involved with the design and construction and why it is important to follow the correct procedures and to specify and use the correct materials. The scope of these notes does not provide a specification since each site must be treated individually. No two sites are identical and no two requirements are the same. The pitfalls of constructing an all-weather surface are manifold many people fall in to the trap of believing the task is straightforward. The most common fault is to underestimate the forces and surface loadings sustained by a riding surface with a horse which may weigh well in excess of 1,000 kg., pounding over the same area of surface day after day, year after year, in all weathers.

3.0. Base construction 3.01.Generally.,... A decision as to which riding surface is to be used must be made before specifications for the base construction can be decided. The arena must always be constructed above ground level to facilitate drainage. 3.02.Sloping sites. Where the arena is to be built on sloping ground it will be necessary to level the site, This is usually carried out using the "cut & fill' method, where the soil from the upper side is transported to the lower side and then compacted until both sides are reasonably level

The point load created by a horse is probably greater than that of any other domestic animal and with the kind of repetitive actions carried out on a surface, coupled with the necessity for that surface to be serviceable in all extremes of weather, makes this a very specialized construction indeed for which there is no real comparison in civil engineering terms.

A.

For this reason especially it is strongly recommended that independent advice should be sought prior to starting the construction of your all-weather arena.

B.

General considerations C. 1.0. Siting. 1.01.The siting and placing of an arena will require careful thought and planning and there are many points to be considered before construction can begin..... A. The gradient or slope of the land. (The more level the site, the more likely the cost of construction may be less.) B. The prevailing wind factor and natural shelter from trees and the surrounding land features. C. The availability of services ... water for irrigation and electricity for floodlighting. D. Proximity to stables, for reasons of convenience. (A hard road or track to the entrance gate is essential to prevent mud being brought on to, and contaminating the surface, on the horses feet.) E. Vehicular access to the entrance road for tractors, maintenance equipment and heavy vehicles F. Scope for enlargement in both length and possibly width at a later date. G. Proximity to visual and audible distractions to both horse and rider H. An adjacent ditch, land drain or waterway in which to discharge drainage waters from the perimeter drains. I. Visual amenity in Town and Country Planning terms, and its likely effect upon the landscape and the environment 2.0. Size. 2.01 There is no set rule for the size of a riding arena except for competition work where a Standard Dressage arena must measure, (internally between the

D.

E. F.

It is important that the soil making up the 'fill' is placed in layers no thicker than 150mm and is compacted using a 360 deg tracked excavator and a twin roll/ride-on vibratory roller of at least a 20 tonne capacity. The banks formed by the cut & fill' are sloped at the natural angle of repose for the material and are graded smoothly. Top soil, as opposed to sub-soil, should be stockpiled separately and used to cover the sloping banks for eventual seeding. This is important in stabilising the banks to prevent erosion and then eroded soil clogging the perimeter drainage area. The area levelled should be at least 1.500m wider on all sides to allow for the perimeter drainage, etc. i.e. A 40.000m x 20.000m arena will require a level area of at least 43.000m x 23.000m The finished site must be level. The perimeter 'cut-off' drains are excavated to prevent the ingress of surface and subsurface waters on to the site from the upper excavated sides and to carry away the surface water from the arena on the lower side.

3.03.Drains and drainage channels. When the arena is constructed above ground and on a level site, then drains are not normally required inside the arena perimeter as rainwater falling on to the arena will flow through the riding surface and out of the sub-surface drainage bed. A perimeter drain will be required to carry this water away and will normally be constructed using a 'V’ shaped bucket to form a drain which will then fail to the lowest point on the site. This ditch should be lined with a geo-textile membrane. A slotted uPVC pipe laid to the correct falls and of at least 150mm diameter should be bedded on and surrounded with clean 20mm pea-shingle, covered with a further geo-textile membrane and backfilled up to ground level with clean quarry rejects. Countryside Building 5


Technical Drains within the perimeter of an arena are normally only required where the water table is exceedingly high or water is oozing out of the ground. (Artesian water.)

reputable tarmac-laying contractor using the correct machinery. B.

Sharp sand.

3,04.Sub-base drainage membrane This is a porous polypropylene or similar material often used in the construction of roads and similar engineering works to separate the soil, or the excavated earth, from the aggregate drainage bed. It acts as a barrier to prevent the intermixing of the soil beneath and the drainage bed above. The membrane should be laid longitudinally down the arena, stretched tightly, with side and end laps as recommended by the manufacturers, but never less than 300mm. Geo-textile membranes vary in both price, qualify and Gauge/thickness. Those in common use include..,, Terram, Polyfelt, Biddim and others

As an alternative, and before the laying of a riding surface, at least 50mm of sharp sand may be used. The drainage bed should first of all be blinded with at least 38mm of well consolidated 20mm clean crushed stone, no fines.. This helps prevent the sand particles percolating through to the drainage bed. C.

Polypropylene fibres. Loose polypropylene fibres may be purchased in bulk and laid over the drainage bed to a depth of approximately 50mm. These fibres will compress when the riding surface is laid on the top to about 25/30mm thick,

4.0. Surface retaining boards 3.05.Drainage bed. The Object of the drainage bed is to provide a level and stable foundation for the structure and to provide a space in which water falling on and flowing through the riding surface can collect and drain away freely to be intercepted by the perimeter drains. The aggregate, preferably crushed angular stone, (not rounded stones or pebbles), must be completely free of fines, dust, dirt or clay. The optimum size being of 50/60mm. The depth of the drainage bed will be determined by the nature and properties of the subsoil together with the estimated loading factor lo allow for the discipline and activities being carried out on the riding surface above. The aggregate should be spread carefully, levelled, then well consolidated with a vibrating roller The longer the rolling takes place the more stable the base will be and will therefore be less likely to suffer from differential settlement. If there are soft spots within the perimeter then these should be filled with similar aggregate As a general rule it should be no less than 20mm thick. 3.06.Surface membranes A further geo-textile membrane will be required above the drainage bed. This separates the riding surface from the drainage bed beneath and acts as a filter allowing water to pass freely through it. This membrane should be laid transversely, secured at one end to the perimeter drainage boards with a pressure treated timber batten, stretched tightly, removing all creases, then secured at the other end similarly. It is strongly recommended that the overlaps of the membrane are either stitched or heat welded. This will prevent the riding surface penetrating between the laps of the membrane and in to the drainage bed and, worse still the membrane rising through the riding surface. 3.07.Alternatives. A.

Open textured tarmac. A minimum of 50mm of base coarse open textured 20mm tarmac, (clean, no fines, aggregate passing through a 20mm screen), may be used as a 'membrane' between the drainage bed and the riding surface Lightly rolled, this provides a porous substrate with a high degree of permanency. This must be laid directly on to the aggregate bed, care must be taken to ensure it is perfectly level. This work is best carried out by a

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4.01.These should be at least 2 No x 150 x 38 mm pressure treated timber perimeter retaining boards supported at minimum 1.823m centres by the fencing posts. (See 7.00 perimeter fencing.) The top of the retaining boards should be at least 100mm above the finished riding surface level. This will help prevent spillage of the surface out of the arena. 4.02.If the total depth of the riding surface were, for example. 300mm then 3 No boards would be required. 4.03.In some instances these boards are sloped inwards by the introduction of a timber wedge fixed at the base of each fencing post. 5.0.Riding surfaces - Organic. 5.01.Wood fibre - (sometimes referred to as wood chips.) This material derived from both hard and softwood trees has successfully been used as a riding surface for many years for both gallops and arenas. It is a strong and stable surface and comparatively cheap but, being organic, will decompose over a period of years making it necessary to top-up frequently. 5.02.Some woods are less prone to decomposition than others, the most favoured of the conifer species being larch, together with hardwoods of oak and elm, though sapwood of the species should be avoided. Some of the species are prone to more rapid decomposition these include, Birch, Beech and Scots Pine. 5.03.Of the many sizes of wood fibre used for riding purposes most successful is the I5mm Chip, i.e.- it passes through a 15mm screen. Larger wood chips, up to 30mm may be used on bridleways and tracks. 5.04.As with all riding surface materials the surface must be raked and levelled regularly. Topping-up may be necessary after 18 months to 2 years of use and most likely annually thereafter. 5.05.Such a surface may last for six to seven years, depending upon its use, with regular topping-up and maintenance. 5.06.There are some excellent exotic hardwood fibres obtainable, sold mostly as a proprietary brand, which give a firm ride with some "bounce'. These can last over ten years or more without replacement. 5.07.Sapwood, barks and wood waste containing wood sap must be avoided at all costs since they are unstable and being full of sap the horse may easily slip on the surface, 6.0.

Riding Surfaces -Inorganic


Technical Equestrian Sand

with the surface layer of the sand by the action of the horses hoof and regular raking and maintenance.

6.01.Of all riding surfaces, equestrian sand are probably one of the most commonly used artificial riding surfaces in the world. It is comparatively cheap, relatively easy to maintain and is virtually indestructible. 6.02 Some sands contain a high percentage of clay/fines which must be extracted and reduced by washing, sometimes two or more times to reduce this content to less than 0.5%, without its removal it will appear as rising dust in use in very dry conditions and may eventually clog the membrane causing ponding on the surface in wet weather. 6.03.The characteristics in terms of grain size, uniformity and grain shape of sand particles control the physical behaviour of sand all of which must be considered when specifying a sand for use in a riding arena. The uniformity of sand grains has an important influence on the density to which the sand will pack and the stability of the material when ridden upon. 6.04.Two main parameters are generally used to describe the shape of sand grains. The sphericity of the grain indicates its closeness to a perfect sphere with elongated grains being described as having low sphericity. 6.05.The angularity relates more to the microscopic roughness of the grain walls with sands ranging from well rounded to highly angular. 6.06.in selecting sands for use as a riding surface we therefore need to define the attributes required from the surface in terms of drainage rate, water retention and stability and to select a size and shape range which most closely satisfies these criteria. 6.07.In general the higher the angularity and the lower the sphericity combined with a high percentage of grains sized between 125 through to 250 microns will contribute towards the ideal riding surface providing firm 'going' and good reaction to the hoof. 6.08.The retention of water within a porous sand media is directly related to the size of the pore channels and is therefore controlled by grain size. Therefore the larger the grain size the higher the hydraulic conductivity, (the speed of the passage of water through the sand). The smaller the grain the higher the retention of water, an important factor in dry weather or where water is metered and irrigation of the surface may prove to be costly. 6.09.An ideal specification for an equestrian silica sand may therefore read something like‌ Degree of parity. Clay/silt contentAverage grain size. Grain shape.

97.5% Silica oxide. ( Si02). Less than 0.5% 175 microns. Angular with medium to low sphericity.

6.10.If a sand or sand mix riding surface is to be used it is vitally important that it be left, after laying, for at least 14 days, preferably longer, to settle and bed in. If the surface is irrigated with the equivalent of 50mm rainfall or a similar amount of natural rainfall then this time may be reduced. Granulated P.V.C. 6.11.This material is a soft granular plastic, about the size of coffee granules they are more often from a reclaimed source such as the outer covering of electric cabling. The particles are large enough to give good drainage performance and therefore are less likely to freeze in frosty conditions. 6.12.At least 50mm of PVC granules are normally spread on top of an existing equestrian sand surface and will mix in

Rubber granules and chippings 6.13.These may be derived from reclaimed rubber tyres or other rubber materials. They often contain tyre cord. Similarly they may be spread over an existing sand riding surface to a depth of up to 50mm. Proprietary premixed riding surfaces 6.14.They are normally delivered to site and are ready mixed in the necessary proportions they may contain a mixture of rubber, plastic and polypropylene fibres. Many of these surfaces are offered with a petroleum jelly or latex pre-treatment which allegedly sheds rain and irrigation waters very quickly maintaining the all-weather use claim Such surfaces often require re-treatment, insitu, after a number of years due to solar degradation and acid rainfall. Fuel ash 6.15.Care should be taken when choosing this type of surface or surface mix to establish the fines, (dust), content and whether the surface may contain carcinogenic materials. Millstone grits. 6.16. Often sold under a proprietary name. Again care should be taken to check the fines content. Reclaimed foundry sands. 6.16.A check should be made on the chemical analysis for carcinogenic residues, the particle sizes, the grain sizes and shapes and the fines content. 7.0.

Perimeter fencing

7.01.The riding arena should be completely enclosed with a well constructed pressure treated timber post, (150 x 75), and 3 rail, (100x38). fence which will also support the previously mentioned surface retaining boards. The height of the top rail and intermediate posts should be no less than 1.400m above the finished riding surface level and the lower rail no higher than 0.600m above the surface. Allowance should be made in the post lengths to accommodate any made up ground with a minimum penetration into undisturbed ground of 0.700m, All posts should be concreted in to position. 7.02.Check the length of the timber rails before setting out the post centres since some rails are at imperial centres, ( 1.823m), and some at metric centres, (2.000m) 7.03.The entrance gate(s), of either treated softwood or hardwood, should be a minimum of 3.660m wide and hang from 200 x 200 posts concreted in to position. The gate should swing through 180 deg and be fitted with a lower adjustable hinge. A propriety hunting/swing latch should be provided which may be operated from horseback 7.04.A useful addition is for a 'squeeze-through' opening at the side of the gate for the entry/exit of pedestrians.

8.0.

Summary-

Choice of specialist contractor or D I Y ?

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Technical 8.01.The construction of an outdoor arena represents a substantial capital investment and care in the choice of specialist contractor or materials supplier must be taken. Check, in particular, the specification and the materials to be used. As with all such building operations there are many 'cowboys' in the trade who will try to use reclaimed materials in the baseworks for example. 8.02.Ask to see and visit other arenas constructed by the specialist from whom you have received quotations. Speak to the owner/user about the performance of their particular arena over a period of at least a year and in all weathers before placing an order with your chosen specialist. 8.03.If in doubt or, alternatively, you wish to construct the arena on a D.I Y basis, then it is essential to seek advice from a qualified and neutral source. 8.04.Just remember that once an arena is constructed it may be very expensive to reconstruct the arena or to replace the riding surface. Costs. (As at 2002). 8.05.Costs will vary according to the size of the arena, the amount of excavation and drainage necessary, the proximity in haulage terms of the materials required and the final choice of the riding surface. 8.06.As a general guide, (at 2002 prices), a specialist contactor will charge at least ÂŁ 18.50 per square metre 8.07.D.I.Y. prices will again be controlled by the proximity of the correct materials, together with the availability of the specialist machinery and experienced operators, etc., where the cost is likely to be at least ÂŁ 13.30 per square metre. Planning permissions. 8.08.The construction of a riding arena represents an engineering operation and therefore requires planning consent from your Local Authority under the Town & Country Planning Act-1990, (As amended). 8.09.Planning forms may be obtained from your LPA offices, plans must be prepared and submitted, together with a fee based upon the area of the works, which is payable with the application. 8.10.It is wise to consult your LPA Planning Officers on the siting of the arena and to discuss any hard and soft landscaping of the arena to the benefit of the visual amenity of the area. Trees and shrubs should not be planted or an arena constructed no closer to existing trees than 10.000m from the perimeter of the arena for two reasons... a.

b.

9.03.The surface must be levelled frequently. This will be governed by the amount of use of the arena. The greater the use the more frequent the levelling must take place. 9.04.It is important that the arena surface be raked back from the perimeter boards regularly to prevent spillage and loss of the riding surface over the perimeter boards. Many arena 'grooming' implements are available include a grading blade to carry out this operation. 9.05. Specialised tractor drawn and 3 point linkage mounted machinery is available to level and scarify the Surface. The tines of these implements, if fitted, should never penetrate more than 75mm in to the surface. 9.06.The frequency of irrigation will depend upon how quickly the top 75mm of the surface dries out completely. An important factor with irrigation is that the whole surface receives the same amount of water Otherwise there will be a noticeable difference in the 'going' as the surface dries out. 9.07.Topping-up of surfaces may be required, particularly organic surfaces and where the arena is on a severely exposed site where some wind loss of the surface may occur. 10. Conclusions. 10.01.The construction of an indoor or outdoor riding arena represents a valuable and expensive asset which deserves regular and thorough maintenance throughout its life which may extend for between fifteen and twenty years. It will probably represent the second largest capital investment on an equestrian establishment after the construction of the loose boxes and associated buildings. 10.02.Do not attempt to cut corners in the specification of the necessary and correct materials if you intend to build your arena on a D.I Y basis. 10.03.Do not be misled by the many 'cowboys' who blatantly advertise in the equestrian press for the construction of an arena at a price often less than the cost of the correct materials! 10.04.Do always seek advice from a professional person experienced in the design and the construction of riding arena and gallops.

David Wood is the principle of Agriquestrian Consultants, who are Agricultural and Equestrian Building Design Consultant. He has strongly supported the RDBA for many years, is a past National Chairman and an active Council Member. He can be contacted on 0208 393 0516

Leaves will fall on to the surface, will be trodden-in and decompose with a risk, after many years, of clogging the membrane, Wind, blowing branches, leaves, plastic bags. etc., in the undergrowth may easily 'spook' a horse with risks of injury to both rider and horse

8.11.Once again it is important to seek advice from a qualified source at the design stage to assist with the smooth passage of a planning application and the securing of a consent. 9.

Maintenance.

9.01.Many of the problems experienced with riding arenas may be traced bade to a poor maintenance schedule 9.02.Manure/droppings and leaves must be removed from the surface regularly before they become tracked-in. Countryside Building 8

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Customer Enquiry 1

Customer Enquiry 2

Customer Enquiry 3

Countryside Building 9


Technical Roof Refurbishment to Agricultural Buildings › Repair or Replace?

curved metal roof but could be curved asbestos cement. These sheets were manufactured with the built-in curve to the required radius. Obtaining such sheeting today in metal or fibre cement would be very difficult, if not impossible, or very expensive. There will also be other considerations, such as :-

By Chris Pearce, Managing Director of Filon Products Limited. One of the benefits of asbestos cement sheeting is that it appears to last for ever and is virtually maintenance-free so Farm Managers and Estate Surveyors rarely have the need to think about roof repairs. One of the other benefits of asbestos cement is that it will readily absorb moisture allowing internal moisture to migrate through the roof without causing any roof decay, making it an ideal material for stock buildings. The net result of these two factors is that virtually every farm steading in the country will have some asbestos cement roofing and cladding in place and many will have most of their stock buildings so covered. Thus the need for roof and cladding repair on farms is something that doesn’t happen very often - but when it does, most farmers and agents will not be very familiar with what are the suitable options for repair.

(d) Continued use of the building whilst the roof is off. (e) Possible requirement for Planning Permission if roof appearance is changed. (f) Cost - removal and disposal will have considerable cost implications. So the obvious solution of strip and re-sheet will generally not be the best or cost effective solution. Is there a better way ? I give below 3 case studies of agricultural buildings where specific technical problems have been overcome using a very versatile over-roofing system using glass reinforced polyester (g.r.p.) sheeting. The principal of the system is that whatever the roof profile is in place on the original roof, the roof is completely over-clad with g.r.p sheeting of exactly the same profile and either laid direct onto the original sheet or placed onto spacers shaped to the same profile which lifts the new over-roof above the exposed bolt ends of the original hook bolts.

The obvious solution is just to remove what is in place and reroof with new material - but are there any issues with this? The unwary need to consider the following which could affect the way forward. (a) Asbestos cement is now regarded by some as a health concern. There are clear guidelines from the H.S.E on how asbestos cement should be removed and although you do not require a licensed contractor, the work must be carried out with due and careful consideration by people trained to do so. However, the problem does not stop with taking it off the roof - it then needs to be disposed of. It is illegal to sell the sheeting. Under the right conditions a farmer may bury the sheets on his own land but beware this facility could be withdrawn in the near future. The only other solution is to take the sheeting to a landfill site but you must use licensed hauliers, the disposal site must be advised in advance with appropriate forms and there is likely to be a hefty charge. The H.S.E recommendation on asbestos cement is that wherever possible to leave it in place repairing as necessary with the least amount of disturbance. It is recognised by the H.S.E that asbestos cement sheeting, when left undisturbed does not provide any hazard to health to any person or stock. (b) Many older agricultural buildings use concrete frames and roof purlins. Sheets were fixed with hookbolts using a “fiddling stick” from above the roof by leaning down under the sheets being fixed. Such practice is now rarely seen and considered very dangerous. Modern fixing practice is to direct fix from above through the sheeting directly into the purlin using self-drill fixing bolts. This is not easily achieved when direct fixing into reinforced concrete purlins and generally not advised since a bolt failure in the concrete purlin will leave a hole in the roof sheet. (c) Many agricultural buildings used curved roof construction - typically the old hay barn, frequently a Countryside Building 10

Underside to roof of Dutch Barn metal sheets - heavily corroded with many leaks The first case study is an old Dutch Barn in Cambridgeshire. The barn was roofed with curved metal sheets to 3” Iron profile. A typical construction that had been in place for 10s of years. The metal roof was badly rusting despite being treated with paint and bitumous compound on numerous occasions to stem the decay process. The problem was that the barn was being used to store grain which was being damaged by the water ingress through the rusty roof. A secondary issue was that they didn’t have an alternative storage point for the grain whilst the roof was repaired. The contractor Nu-Cladd Ltd. put forward the concept of a g.r.p Over-roof system. G.R.P sheets, by the very make up, are a very strong, durable and flexible sheet and a 3” Iron profile will naturally flex to a minimum radius of 4m without the need to manufacture it as a curved sheet. Most Dutch Barns will have a curved roof designed to a radius well in excess of 4m. The other advantage of g.r.p sheets is that it can be manufactured in very long lengths yet light enough still to be manhandled on site by a couple of people. Thus the sheets can be ordered to a length to run from eaves to eaves, with no end laps, placed on the crown of the roof and fixed back to the purlins in curved format.


Technical

Filon overroof over 3” iron profile on the grain store end only, the old roof is visible over the open store area. In this instance an EPDM profiled spacer was used along the purlin lines to separate the old metal roof from the new g.r.p roof and keep the new roof clear of the existing hook-bolt stub ends. The client was delighted with the result, particularly as he only wanted to carry out the roof repair where it really mattered - over the grain store area. The other end of the building was only being used to house plant and machinery and not vital to remain dry. So the over-roof was fitted to only one end of the barn and being only raised by 25 mm the new roof can be feathered into the old roof at any point thereby minimising the costs and focusing on the parts that really matter. The tractors may not stay dry next winter but the grain store will be good for another 30 years !

The ‘before’ asbestos cement vertical cladding and Profix spacers ready to receive the G.R.P. overcladding. The second case study is a redundant agricultural building being converted into storage/industrial use. There was a need to improve the appearance of the “tired” asbestos cement cladding and when the client looked into the cost and procedures to remove and dump the a.c. cladding he decided on a rethink. The local distributor John Hickens Ltd. was called in to discuss the options and recommended a g.r.p. Over-roof system using a patented PROFIX spacer. The spacer is made from g.r.p and designed to match the shape of the original profile and accommodate the original hook-bolt. For roofing work the spacer does not need to be prefixed prior to over-roofing but for cladding work it clearly does need to be fixed prior to the over-cladding and can be seen in situ on the “before” photograph. One of the real benefits of g.r.p over-cladding is that it is very light to handle such that two people working from a scissors lift can easily fix the cladding without expensive crane hire.

The ‘result’ overcladding in G.R.P. coloured sheeting. As with the previous case study, sheet lengths can be designed to minimise the need for end laps and sheet colour can be any colour you like - subject to planning considerations. Another major consideration is that with the change of use there is a requirement to improve the insulation of the building. Rather than remove the old asbestos cement and replace with a twin skin insulated system, the old asbestos cement can be used as the inner skin. The PROXFIX spacer system used will accommodate an 80 mm Rockwall/fibreglass insulation mat to be fitted prior to the g.r.p over-cladding sheets. The net results is shown in the “after” shot with the client very satisfied with a very cost effective solution. The third case study is one where many will have had cause for concern and relates to the practice of applying spray insulation foam to the underside of asbestos cement. Many owners now know to their cost that this idea to increase the insulation level of uninsulated buildings has been heavily flawed. The expansion and contraction rates of the foam and the asbestos cement are significantly different such that with the internal stresses that build up within the composite, the asbestos cement cracks leading to a leaking roof. My third case study was one such building but further complicated by the fact that the asbestos cement was fixed to concrete purlins by means of hook bolts with the purlins, bolts and sheets now all covered in sprayed foam. Whether you strip and re-sheet or over-roof you are still left with the problem of how to fix back to a concrete purlin. The g.r.p sheeting manufacturers were able to come up with a solution with the use of Peel Rivets. By leaving the existing leaking roof intact and over-roofing with the g.r.p system the outer g.r.p sheets are fixed back to the asbestos cement sheets (not the purlins) by means of expanding peel rivets that open up on the underside of the asbestos cement. Experiments were carried out to determine that the rivets would open out within

Foamed insulation to underside of Asbestos cement with concrete purlins (yes, they really are concrete) N.B. Taken after overroof completed, no visible sign of the Peel rivets. Countryside Building 11


Technical

filon overroof over existing Asbestos cement sheets fixed by Peel rivets back to the underside of the Asbestos cement sheets. weight of the asbestos cement sheet c.f. the dry weight of asbestos cement is around 2.5 kg/m². Thus the g.r.p. Overroofing system weighs less than the weight of water that the asbestos cement would otherwise take up after a prolonged downpour ! Peel rivet. the thick layer of sprayed foam on the underside of the sheets. The result was very successful and pull out values on the fixing were found to be very satisfactory. So a new Over-roof was fixed despite all the problems of foam insulation and concrete purlins. The building in question was the offices of Tripp Batt & Co Agricultural Engineers at Stanton, Suffolk. Over-roofing with g.r.p and particularly the use of peel rivets was a new

Finally, with the new Part L Regulations when refurbishing heated buildings it is necessary to replace components with products that meet the new U-value requirements. Although this will provide you with a better insulated building, the upfront costs will be far greater. Over-roofing with a g.r.p sheet of the same profile as the original roof is regarded as a “repair” and as such there is not a requirement to comply with the new insulation requirements. All in all, over-roofing with g.r.p sheets of the same profile as the original roof, provides many technical benefits and considerable cost savings. FOOTNOTE: Filon Products has been an active member of R.D.B.A. for 16 years and a Founder Member of the Construction Group. Chris was the National Chairman in 1992 and has been on R.D.B.A. Council for the past 18 years. If you need any guidance on roof work or non-fragility issues give him a call. Telephone: 0121 3530814

Asbestos cement roof (in the background) prior to overroof. concept to Trevor Crack at Tripp Batt but, on studying the detail of the system, he decided this was work they could handle themselves - which they did with considerable success and surprised themselves on the ease with which the over-roof was assembled. And there was one other benefit. Foam was originally used to upgrade the building - (1) because it was easy and cost effective to apply and (2) because the building was designed as a single skin roof, the building would have been under considerable design stress if an additional roof skin had been applied using asbestos cement or steel. With the g.r.p. Overroofing system the roof load does not increase when overroofing over asbestos cement ! The g.r.p. Over-roof system weighs around 2 kg/m². Asbestos cement, as mentioned earlier, by its very nature and design takes up water which migrates through the sheet as a vapour. The fully saturated Countryside Building 12

We were expecting revised regulations on working with asbestos containing products and a revised code of practice to be published by the time of going to press at the end of August, but they have not yet been published. They are expected to reduce the control limits and to clearly set out a duty that all buildings should be surveyed for asbestos containing products, which should be listed and recorded and a management plan set in place. With farm buildings, where the majority of asbestos containing materials are asbestos cement roof sheets or asbestos cement flat sheets, the management plan will probably need to say that where they are in good condition and not being abraded the best course of action is to leave in place and monitor on an annual basis, to ensure that their condition has not changed. Where the products are in poor condition then they should be repaired or replaced; the repair option given above may in many instances be the preferred option. Since the majority of agricultural holdings will have buildings, manufactured with asbestos containing products, once the revised regulations are published I will ensure that there is an article published giving the detailed implications for agricultural buildings. ED


RDBA Obituary Following the death of our Honorary President, Sir Pat AstleyCooper it was decided by Council that we would ask David Wood to write the main obituary and a couple of members who had known Sir Pat over the years to also contribute.

Sir Patrick Graham Astley-Cooper, Bart (1918 2002.) ‘Pat’ was born in Sheringham, Norfolk in to an Army family, (his Mother was Scottish). He was one of two Brothers who grew up in Camberley, Surrey. Pat was educated at Marlborough but did not relish the prospect of an Army career choosing a future influenced by farming and the countryside. During the war he was invalided out of the Army but joined the Home Guard and particularly enjoyed his time with the River Patrol at Maidenhead. In 1942 Patrick and Audrey were married in Farnborough and after a few years in Sussex and Kent they finally settled in Monks Risborough with their three children, Alex, Patricia and Helena. He qualified as a Land Agent and joined the then Ministry of Agriculture, during a particularly challenging period when there were great pressures on farmers to produce more food for the nation. As a young Land Service Officer Pat’s friendly diplomacy came in useful in persuading reluctant farmers to comply with government policy and on one occasion was greeted at the farmhouse door by an angry farmer with a shotgun! Pat joined the Crendon Concrete Company in 1959 as Sales Director at a time when there was substantial government support in the form of capital grants for the construction of new buildings and facilities. I first met Pat as our local MAFF Land Service Officer when he came to our farm outside Princes Risborough to advise on the

design and construction of our new covered yard and milking parlour and assist with the filling-in of the many forms. What a surprise a few weeks later after I had contacted Crendon Concrete when Pat turned up to prepare a scheme and quotation for the new buildings, etc! A few months later I joined Pat’s team at Crendon and a friendship began which has lasted over forty years. He was a person who inspired loyalty in his work colleagues as well as his friends. All who have known Pat have been drawn by his sense of humour, his patience and gentleness. He was a life enhancing person, fun to be with and who adored being surrounded by his family and his ‘Farm Building’ friends. His other great love was the countryside where he enjoyed walking and occasionally beating in the Chilterns with his spaniels. A great pleasure in his later years was his involvement, as an active Trustee, with his cousin’s deer park and nature reserve in Haybridge, Cumbria. Pat took an active part in local life with a Presidency of the Monks Risborough Horticultural Society and was a sidesman at his local Parish Church. He was also the President of the local branch of The Council for the Protection of Rural England. Pat joined the Farm Buildings Association in its very early days and there began an ‘association’ which has spanned over almost forty five years. After his retirement from Crendon he became the National Secretary of the then Farm Buildings Association, (The FBA), and was also Chairman of the Agricultural Construction Industry Federation with Offices at The Farm & Rural Buildings Centre at Stoneleigh. Among his many achievements was the joint production of the Farm Buildings Pocketbook by the F.R.B.C., which replaced the original MAFF Farm Buildings pocketbook. His was a busy ‘retirement’, he dreaded getting tangled up in the Hoover leads and so got out and about doing much work for Muscular Dystrophy, with PACE, the charity for the education of children with cerebral palsy, and he was also a school governor - all of this in his seventies and early eighties!

Sir Pat, 2nd from left, front row Countryside Building 13


RDBA Over the last nine months he bore his illness with courage and dignity. He will be greatly missed by all and much remembered.

of its membership to his end. We shall all miss him.

The following is from Honorary Member Maurice Barnes.

The Following Is from our Honorary Treasurer Jim Loynes:-

Sir Pat Astley-Cooper

Sir Pat Astley-Cooper

In the farm buildings world Sir Pat Astley-Cooper was Crendon Concrete and Crendon Concrete was Sir Pat Astley-Cooper (or Sir Pat and Pat to his friends) everybody knew that and in consequence nobody spoke about it. That was one of the understated ways that Pat had of selling!

I can’t remember exactly when I first met Sir Pat – but I am sure that it would have been in late 1979 or early 1980. At that time I had just taken up the position of Assistant Information Officer at the Farm Buildings Information Centre (FBIC), NAC. I recall that Sir Pat was involved with the Agricultural Construction Industry Liaison Group (ACILG), which was set up to help the farm buildings industry get to grips with the new farm buildings standard, BS5502, which was introduced in 1980.

But Pat was much more than the quiet salesman. To my mind he was one of the true English gentlemen charming, sincere, honest, reliable and to me, as young recruit to the concrete and farm buildings world in the mid sixties hugely supportive. Did anybody have a bad word for Pat? I doubt it. Not even the salesmen of Atcost, the now defunct concrete framed building Company that was Crendon’s main rival in the sixties and seventies, would not have said harsh words about Pat. Pat had a brilliant memory for names and faces. I well remember visiting farmers with Pat to whom he had sold buildings many years prior to our visit. He remembered them all and they remembered him with respect and often with affection. Pat was always a staunch supporter of the FBA and RDBA both Nationally and Regionally. He seldom missed a meeting and certainly did not want it to fail. So when I was asked to be Chairman in 1976, and felt very apprehensive about the idea, after all I was still a relatively young and inexperienced member of the FBA in those days. Pat was extremely supportive. Together with the late Dick Hollins and Bill Marshall, Pat encouraged me to go ahead and indeed guided me through a second term of office. Pat was almost like a father to me in those days. In fact he remained a fatherly figure to the RDBA and to many

I offer my sincere condolences to all his family.

From then on I came across Sir Pat fairly regularly at FBIC and through the FBA. I left the FBIC in 1984 but continued to meet Sir Pat through FBA events and my new job with the ADAS Farm Buildings Group. Eventually I had the real pleasure of working much closer with him during my year as Chairman of the FBA, when at that time he was Manager of the Farm and Rural Buildings Centre (formerly the FBIC) and, at the same time, FBA National Secretary. I recall feeling slightly apprehensive of meeting a ‘Sir’ for the first time – but I needn’t have worried. Sir Pat was a real gentleman – in every sense of the words - he was a quietly spoken, unassuming sort of character, who enjoyed a joke now and again but was always prepared to listen to your ideas before putting across his point of view. I feel sure that he enjoyed life and his family a great deal, but most of all he was passionately involved in farm buildings and the FBA. I enjoyed his company and working with, and will miss his cheery banter and guidance. His passing is a sad loss for the RDBA but one, I am sure, that he would wish us to build on, rather than dwell on. Cheers ‘old boy’. The following pages are re-prints from the FBA 1983 Journal (Number 32)

An early group meeting with Sir Pat 2nd from the left standing up. Countryside Building 14


RDBA MEMBERS’ NEWS…Reproduced From the FBA 1983 Journal (Number 32) SIR PATRICK ASTLEY-COOPER Bt Sir Pat Astley-Cooper Bt, who takes over as Secretary of the. Association from temporary Secretary Christine Smith in August, outlines his aspirations for the FBA to Michael Gaisford of Farmers’ Weekly. THE FARM BUILDINGS ASSOCIATION MUST WIDEN ITS HORIZONS The interests of the new Secretary of the Farm Buildings Association stretch way beyond bricks and mortar and of course concrete, with which he has been closely associated since he joined Crendon Concrete in 1959, and retires from later this year. Sir Pat Astley-Cooper brings to the job of FBA Secretary a wealth of experience in all (Photo by kind permission of Farmers Weekly) aspects of the rural scene, and a determination to use it to widen the range of activities in which the Association is involved. "The FBA must still cover all the basics in building, but should now be widen ing its interests into the field of animal welfare, conservation, access, roads and services and the conversion of redundant farm buildings into other uses" says Sir Pat. "My one main aim is to widen the scope of the Farm Buildings Association. To some extent this is already happening, but I want to encourage it even more" he says. Sir Pat also plans to give more help to the Branches of the Farm Buildings Association and attend more of their meetings, to continue to try and run conferences as efficiently as his predecessor, the late Bill Marshall MBE, and to attract a wider membership into the Association. "By widening our interests beyond the building structure we should be able to attract people like vets, conservationists and planners" says Sir Pat. "Although we must always continue to encourage the pure building Countryside Building 15


RDBA experts, we have got to get away from thinking no further than how to fix a gate" he says. He also sees the Association working closer with the County Landowners Association, National Farmers Union and other countryside organisations,as some branches are now doing at regional level. "Branches are terribly important, and are now putting on much better events than they were a few years ago. The Farm Buildings Association club atmosphere is also still, very important, particularly at conferences" says Sir Pat, who this summer is busy moving house in Buckinghamshire and hunting for new local office accommodation for the Association. But when he retires from Crendon this summer, he has no intention of severing his connections with the commercial farm buildings world. Sir Pat is currently Chairman 'of the Farm Buildings Manufacturers Trade Association, the Agricultural Construction Industry Federation, an organisation the helped found from the now ?defunct Ministry backed Agricultural Construction Industry Liaison Group. He hopes to continue this work, and keep up campaigns on behalf of farm building manufacturers to influence government and European economic community policy on building standards, grants, prior approval, planning and all the other requirements with which farm building manufacturers, 'designers, advisers and farmers are involved. His wider countryside, interests include being a Trustee of a 225 acre Nature Reserve and Deer Museum in the Lake District, and Presidency of the local branch of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England, On the sporting scene, Sir Pat has now gracefully retired from the tennis court and golf course, but on Saturdays enjoys beating with his 12 year old Cocker Spaniel for a rough shoot in the nearby Chiltern Hills. "I believe in regular, but not violent exercise" says Sir Pat, who has lived in Buckinghamshire for 32 years, where before joining Crendon in 1959, he worked for the Ministry of Agriculture as a Land Agent. He was born at Sheringham, Norfolk in 1918, educated at Marlborough and trained as a Land Agent by a firm at Maidenhead. Sir Pat is married with three children, and so far, one grandchild. His inherited title has been passed down from his Great-great Uncle" Astley Paston Cooper, a famous 19th century surgeon who was made a Baronet by King George IV after successfully removing a cyst on his head. His famous ancestor is also well known for establishing a hospice at Hemel Hempstead, dissecting elephants and removing bullets from horses wounded at the Battle of Waterloo. "He was a great teacher and particularly noted for deep surgery. He even has a ligament in the shoulder named after him" says Sir Pat, who is looking forward to taking on his new Farm Buildings Association responsibilities over the next few months. "Although a lot of the detail is in the air at the moment, I expect to be settled into a new office somewhere' in the Aylesbury area by the Autumn" says Sir Pat. Until then, the Association secretariat will stay at its temporary home in Banbury. Countryside Building 16


Technical a highly efficient double glazed unit could be fitted into a Are you living in a Greenresult frame, which leaked heat like a sieve. The new regulations now require all the separate parts of a House?! window to reach the same degree of thermal efficiency. That By Paul Trace Group Development Manager, Clement Windows Group Ltd

Windows are one of those essential elements of a house that can easily be taken for granted but which can have a dramatic effect on the end result. Factors to bear in mind, then, in your window choice are likely to include design, performance, the materials used, the type of glazing used and last but not least the new Building Regulation requirements. Recent changes to the later are currently having a dramatic effect on window manufacture and could make a significant difference to your choice.

The large windows on the left need to have a low U-value The recently imposed revisions to Building Regulations represent a radical re-think in both the way we use and waste energy. Aimed at cutting carbon dioxide emissions, in line with the Kyoto protocol, the tightening of the legislation affecting Part L of the building regulations will have a significant impact on the installation of new and replacement windows in households throughout the UK. There has been much speculation and confusion as to what the new regulations will affect and to whom they will apply. But the simple fact of the matter is that anyone using windows in either new build or refurbishment projects must comply with the new standards of u values set out by the Government as of April 1st 2002. The regulations set an upper limit on the amount of heat, which can be lost through a window. Heat loss is measured in U-values – the lower the number the less heat is lost. Until April, windows were required to have a U-value no larger than 3.3. The easiest way of achieving this was to use windows with 14mm thick double-glazing, which is why double glazing is universal in all new homes, conversions, renovations and extensions. But since April the U-values have been lowered to just 2.0 for timber and PVC framed windows and 2.2 for aluminium and steel frames. This applies not just to new building but also to replacement windows in existing homes. Even more significantly, the U-values are being assessed in a new, more stringent way. Previously manufacturers and builders were able to reach the U-value of a window by adding together the separate U-values of the glazing and the window frame. As a

includes the glazing, the frame and the points at which they join. Double glazing units are commonly fixed together with metal strips, which can act as cold bridges, allowing heat to escape from one side of the frame to the other. Double glazing units are more likely to be filled less with air with unit manufactures opting to use similarly transparent gases like argon and krypton. This is because heat passing through double-glazing creates convection currents within the gas inside, which help to transfer heat through the window. Thicker gases slow this process down and so reduce the heat loss. Building Control Departments, however, will insist on proof that your windows are compliant – a process that requires you to apply for Building Regulations approval. You can do this by completing a Building Notice form and returning it to your local Building Control Department – with the appropriate fee at least two days before you fit your windows. But you can also avoid the fee and any administrative logjam by using an installer registered under the FENSA or Fenestration Self Assessment Scheme. This was set the Glass & Glazing Federation to provide a form of certification acceptable to Building Control Departments. To date, around 2,000 companies have registered. You can find a listing on the Glass & Glazing Federation website www.ggf.org.uk. The UK is in plentiful supply of beautiful old period buildings, and if you are renovating or converting a period property then you will want to keep the new windows the same as the originals. Building Regulations are fairly lenient when it comes to historic buildings, where energy efficient windows are likely to detract from the quality of the building. But there is an obligation to bring all other aspects of the building up to the appropriate standards of energy efficiency. There are exceptions to the new regulations, whereby buildings of historic importance i.e those that are Grade Listed, are treated with leniency in terms of the new thermal efficiency levels. Fortunately, there are now even steel windows available that comply with the new regulations. This will save the increasing number of discerning homeowners who are determined to retain the appearance and character of their homes from disaster, as the legislation would have prevented them from renewing their windows with like for like replicas.

New windows in keeping with the property. Countryside Building 17


Branch News Dairying › Adding Value Yorkshire Branch Visits - Tuesday 18th June 2002 There seems to be a widespread assumption in many circles that the future of the rural economy is in “thinking the unthinkable” to develop new businesses or concentrating in co-operative enterprises. The main lesson from two visits south of Huddersfield was that good farmers can build on existing strengths as dairy farmers to extend their businesses. A limit of 30 delegates had been imposed for the day and this resulted in several late bookings having to be rejected. There was nevertheless a balanced group including some farmers who were actively considering new added value enterprises. The morning was spent at Barkhouse Farm, Shelley where the Dearnley family have constantly developed their business over the last 40 years. Gordon and Betty Dearnley bought the farm in 1961 when it had 6 acres and a cottage with no electricity or inside sanitation. The buildings consisted of a wooden shed and the lane and roads were stone and mud.

to start making ice cream. She was at the time working as a civil servant, but took the view that an enterprise on the farm would fit in better with her new role as a mother. The original idea was to supply restaurants and hotels with a high quality product, but it soon became clear that this was never going to be able to sustain a large enough business. The necessary planning permission was obtained to allow sales to the public to be made from the farm. The tea room soon followed. This has already had to be expanded and work will shortly start on another extension. The tea room now accounts for over 50% of the ice cream/tea room sales. An additional attraction for the public is the chance to see livestock, including the milking from a viewing platform above the parlour. The ice cream/tea room now employs 15 staff and there are 4 in the dairy in addition to family labour. The plans were seen for new cubicle housing for 200 cows with a physical separation from the dairy.

The visit to Dry Hill Farm, Denbydale

Visiting Barkhouse Farm, Shelley Gordon went to work in the building trade and Betty continued to work as a secretary until they started a family. Their first stock was pigs, followed by cattle. Betty returned to work when Gordon gave up full time building work. After acquiring a further 10 acres in 1972 they started milking with 10 cows, selling the milk wholesale. They soon started to bottle the milk. Gordon milked and Betty bottled the milk before going to work. The business continued to expand as did the buildings, most of which were built by Gordon. They started farm pasteurising milk as it became clear that the health fears about raw milk would reduce demand for that product. It was very soon apparent that, in order to meet customer demand, there would be a need to start processing low fat milk. The decision was made to build a new dairy in order to accommodate the extra equipment and ensure that the buildings and the final product would meet the changed food regulations. The dairy, together with a new Gascoigne12/12 auto tandem parlour and cow housing, were completed in 1992. The farm now consists of 245 acres, plus 4 acres of woodland and 50 acres rented. The dairy herd is about 240, with young stock reared away. The milk is processed into whole, skimmed and semi-skimmed. It is mainly packaged in bottles supplying both their own retail rounds and some bottled milk buyers. Six years ago their daughter, Janet Cartwright, had the idea Countryside Building 18

After a first class lunch in the tea room the party moved a few miles to Dry Hill Farm, Denby Dale to see the latest building erected by the Buckley family. The driving force behind the business is Hector Buckley, now in his 80’s, but still bursting with ideas after a lifetime in farming. The large dairy and arable farming enterprise is now based on two sites and supports a dairy herd of over 200. A corner stone of the business has always been supplying milk to the local community. As at Barkhouse Farm, there was an early move into on-farm processing, and the introduction of low fat milk when this was demanded by customers. But Hector Buckley has always been an advocate of co-operation and was one of the driving forces behind the setting up of Hilldale Dairies which had a central processing dairy in the valley. When this was sold to Northern Dairies some years ago he once again concentrated on his own dairy. Like many similar farms, the milking parlour and dairy were along side the road and adjacent to houses. The dairy was also far too small to accommodate all the equipment needed for modern milk processing. The decision was therefore taken to build a large new dairy on a nearby grass-field site. This came into operation in 1994 allowing an expansion of processing. The throughput gradually increased to meet the demand generated by organic growth and the purchase of gallonage from other processors. The day-to-day management of this part of the business was undertaken by Stephen Buckley, Hector’s grandson. All went well until the night of 25th August 2001 when a disastrous fire, caused by an electrical fault, almost completely destroyed the dairy. Most 80-year olds would have given up, but Hector led the family team to get back in


Branch News business. He was talking to the planners within days and Stephen kept the business going, with friends undertaking the processing, and at the same time worked on the details of the building construction and equipment requirements. Rebuilding work was almost complete by the time of the visit. The processing of all types of milk into glass, plastic and bag-in-the box was in full swing in a bright airy building. Stephen Buckley gave a clear and open explanation of the principles he had followed in planning the dairy including the flow of materials and the segregation of “clean” and “dirty” areas. Work had still to start on an area for yogurt production, offices, laboratory and outside cladding. Members and guests appreciated the chance to see a large farm based dairy before completion. One or two members were even taken aside by Hector Buckley to be shown the pie dishes in which the giant Denby Dale pie was baked two years ago. This had taken place on the farm as a major charity fund raising event.

DAVID MARSTON Yorkshire Branch Secretary

Correction Volume 2 issue 4 Summer 2002: In the article “The design and construction of a large timber framed farmhouse” it was stated that the contractor, Wavell Cooper Ltd was not NHBC registered. We are advised that this is incorrect Wavell Cooper (Property) Ltd has been NHBC registered for a number of years. We apologise for any inconvenience this error may have caused.

Customer Enquiry 8

Customer Enquiry 48

Countryside Building 19


RDBA The Royal Show July 2002

The RDBA stand at a quiet time

Customer Enquiry 9

Despite the weather on the first two days of the show and the fact that visitor numbers were down, the RDBA Stand was fairly busy throughout and we had some good enquiries, which we were able to pass on to our members and gained two new members to the Construction Group. The enquiries were mostly concerned with the conversion of redundant farm buildings to alternative use, but we also had enquiries for new housing and agricultural buildings on green-field sites. We only had two enquiries for new agricultural buildings and a conversion of an existing building to alternative agricultural use, but that is probably because the stands of the Construction Group Members were very busy and had a successful show. We are very grateful to John Davis of Rombull UK Ltd, Neil Lloyd of Ellard Ltd and Carl Sutcliffe of Readymixed Concrete Bureau, who put on displays and supported us on the RDBA Stand and to new members Onduline Building Products Ltd, who also took stand space. I also took the opportunity to make appointments to meet a number of different people during the show. One of the most interesting was Mark Hopkins the sales Director for Unimog. He advised that the Unimog is a very flexible fully all terrain vehicle, with the ability to have different implements mounted on it. He gave examples of mowers, branch cutters, chippers,

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A Unimog with a crane mounted.


RDBA sweepers etc. He felt that as lifting machines were required during the erection of most agricultural buildings, for lifting steel work, lifting materials to the roof, etc as well as lifting man baskets for men to work safely at height the Unimog, with the correct machine mounted on it, is a cost effective way of providing this capability. I advised that he needed to join the RDBA so that he could meet with the Construction Group and find out what they wanted to fill the roles discussed. It was agreed that he would join and that he would attend the next Construction Group meeting on the 3rd September to demonstrate a Unimog with a crane mounted on to it. With the loss of the Royal Show last year due to the foot and mouth epidemic, it was always going to be interesting to see what changes there would be and how it would compare with previous years. The cattle sheds were full, with prime examples of beef and dairy cattle and we were pleased to see a local farmer from Suffolk take three rosettes for his Simmental cattle. The pigs performed well in the ring, with some very amusing comments coming from the commentator who seemed to forget he had a microphone in his hand i.e. “he b****xed that up” and ”who called me a silly old fart?” booming out across the show ground. The highlight for Robert, a young visitor to our stand, was seeing a litter of piglets being born. On the machinery side, it was very evident that a number of firms had stayed away and the tractor companies hardly had a presence at all. They perhaps prefer to concentrate on the specialist events, such as the Cereals Event, which only allows companies into the show whose products are pertinent to the show. We heard several complaints from farmers about the lack of agricultural content at the Royal. This lack was highlighted even further in the new exhibition hall where a very extravagant display entitled Towards Tomorrow’s Countryside by DEFRA and others had been put on to show how diverse rural England is, farming aside, with displays featuring a full size barge, a steam engine and other diversification for farmers such as woodland management, featuring a chipper imported from Finland, when we manufacture high quality chippers in the UK. Unfortunately, none of these enterprises will keep the countryside looking the way it is, or the way the tourist may wish, let alone feed the population with food where quality and traceability are key. We know that a large percentage of farmers’ income comes from money generated outside of farming and so information and support for diversification is required, but this should not be at the expense of support for bulk food production. Our impression was that DEFRA had got the mix wrong, with not

The start of the Eternit Bar BQ, Bernard Lancaster of Farmplus with Mary Gibson of Eternit.

Our table at the Eternit Bar BQ. From L-R, Jeannie Hutchinson, Tony Hutchinson, Bernard Lancaster (Farmplus), John Davis (Rombull) and Neil Lloyd (Ellard). enough support for traditional farming. For those that exhibit at the show, there is life beyond the show hours. Many of us, to save costs, stay on site from the Saturday prior to the show start. This year the weather was kind and so it was a B B Q most nights. On Sunday and Monday we joined with Jim, Adam and Bernard of Farmplus and John from Robinson Construction, each night following the wine and beer a new bottle of malt whisky being found. Tuesday was paella night when traditionally Noel Robinson cooks up a massive authentic paella and Robinson Construction invite customers and friends. A great night and thanks to Robinsons for looking after us so well. Wednesday is the Eternit B B Q. Eternit invites a large number of their frame manufacture customers up for the day and then as the show closes a range of B B Qs are lit, soon to be laden with steaks, chops, sausages, beef burgers, etc. A great night was had by all; I have vague memories of a Welsh choir in Eternit’s caravan in the early hours of the morning being ably led by Lorna Sufflebottom, this was then followed by a visit to another stand where there was a party in progress, more vague memories of half dressed students hanging from the rafters, but maybe that was too much whisky. A great night! Thank you Eternit for once again putting on such a great evening.

The Future On to a more serious note, what is the Royal Show going to be about in the future? It must not be allowed to become another countryside living show. There was a reduction in the number of exhibitors this year, I heard a number of farmers saying that there was not the range that they expected and so they would have to seriously consider whether it was worth attending next year. With a further reduction in farmers there will be a further reduction in the number of exhibitors, a very slippery slope. We all know that because of the problems in farming; the number of farmers and suppliers of agricultural equipment, chemicals, services, etc are reducing year on year but the Royal must ensure that it manages to exhibit a good selection of all sectors so that farmers can expect to be able compare products and services. I believe that the Royal is at a cross roads, either it attracts back many of those exhibitors and in particularly the machinery suppliers that it has lost or the number of farmers will be down again next year and even more exhibitors will pull out. The specialist shows such as the Cereals and the European Dairy event will increase in importance, as will the Royal Welsh, the Highland and some of the better County Shows. With the Royal ending up as a countryside living show. Countryside Building 21


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Barneys Customer Enquiry 37

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To promote your products or services to our 20,000 readers, contact Chris on 01449 677500 Customer Enquiry 39

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Diary Dates Diary Dates 9th October 2002: Wessex Branch Meeting, Visit to a Modern Dairy Unit, Nunton, Near Salisbury. Contact Ian Everitt on 01308 898248 for more information. 15th October 2002: Council Meeting, Leicester. More details from the Secretary on 01449 676049 29th October 2002 Probable Yorkshire Branch visit to Yorkshire Water developments in Scarborough and a possible visit to the National Trusts coastal work and sea defences. Contact David Marston the Yorkshire branch secretary for more information on 01943 874564 20th November 2002 Yorkshire Branch Committee Meeting, 18.30 at the Harwood Arms. Contact David Marston the Yorkshire branch secretary for more information on 01943 874564 20th November 2002, Construction Group AGM Venue to be agreed. Contact the Secretary on 01449 676049 Spring 2003 Probable Yorkshire Branch visit to farm buildings in upper Wharfdale, which will possibly include sheep handling facilities and initiatives by the Environment Agency in Upper Wharfdale. Contact David Marston the Yorkshire branch secretary for more information on 01943 874564 23rd , 24th, & 25th April 2003: The RDBA Spring Conference 2003 in Scotland and the RDBA National AGM, Venue and theme to be confirmed. More details from the National Secretary 01449 676049 June 2003 Possible visit to Alnwick Castle by the Yorkshire Branch. Contact David Marston the Yorkshire branch secretary for more information on 01943 874564 Autumn 2003 Possible Yorkshire Branch visit to a Rotary goat milking parlour and a dairy unit. Contact David Marston the Yorkshire branch secretary for more information on 01943 874564

Amendments to Member s Directory Additions Mrs R Buckingham-Howard, Individual East Anglia Estate Management & Building Services, 74 Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1RW Phone: 01223 337787, Fax: 01223 765632, E-mail cn219@admin.cam.ac.uk Estate Management. Mr I T Ellacott, Construction, Wessex Crown Steel Buildings Ltd, Green Park, Burnards House, Holsworth, Devon, EX22 7JA Phone: 01409 253315 Fax: 01409 254224 Steel framed agricultural and industrial buildings. Mr G T Chaplin, Individual, Yorkshire 106 High Street, Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, HG5 0HN Phone: 01423 860322, Fax: 01423 860513 Chartered surveyors, auctioneers, valuers and land agent

Mr G T Williams FRICS FAAV NDA, Individual, Wales Branch Trefadog, Llanfaethlu, Holyhead, Anglesey LL65 4PF Phone: 01407 730464 Fax: 01407 730995 E-mail gwynforwilliams@ricsonline.org Mr G S Wilson, Corporate, Construction, Yorkshire Glendale Engineering (Milfield) Ltd, Berwick Rd Ind Est, Wooler, Northumberland NE71 6AH Phone: 01668 281464, Fax: 01668 281622 E-mail Glendale.eng@btinternet.com Fabricators and erectors of agricultural and industrial buildings & manufacturers of agricultural feeding and handling equipment. Amendments Mr G J Carter amend address to read: Graham Carter Associates, Laburnum Cottage, Stelling Minnis, Canterbury, Kent, CT4 6AE, Phone: 01227 709723 Mr Ian D Gill amend address to read: 6 Saxton Court, Saxton, Tadcaster, N Yorkshire, LS24 9TB. Phone/Fax: 01937 557148

Mr P H Collins, Corporate, Construction, Wessex Collins Engineering, Unit 5, Westwood Industrial Estate, Pontrilas, Hereford, HR2 0EL Phone: 01981 240682 Fax: 01981 242926 e-mail p.collins@colleny.co.uk Steel framed buildings plus associated concrete, brickwork, site preparation, drainage, etc

Mr Rob Harris, Rombull (UK ) Ltd. Amend address to read: Unit 1 Field End Road Crendon Industrial Estate, Thame Road, Long Crendon, Bucks, HP18 9EJ Phone 01844 203870, Fax 01844 203871

Mrs R A Kimber BscHons, MRICS FAAV, Individual, Wessex David James & Partners, Congresbury, North Somerset, BS49 5DY Phone 01934 876777, Fax: 01934 830000, E-mail: bex@davidjames.org.uk Web site www.davidjames.org Rural Chartered Surveyors

Mr Melvin Rose amend to read to Mr Mervyn Rose, Change fax no to 01258 471005

Mrs Melanie Lawrenson, Individual, North West Pinet house, Sandholme Lane, Barnacre, Preston, PR3 1QE Phone/fax: 01995 605562 Planning Services Mr G M Pugh, Corporate, Construction, Wales Gareth Pugh Steel Framed Buildings, Agrimont Depot, Station Yard, Abermule, Montgomery, Powys, SY15 6NH Phone: 01686 630500, Fax: 01686 630441, E-mail: gpughsfb@aol.com, Web site: www.garethpugh.co.uk Agricultural & Industrial steel framed buildings and claddings Mr J B Shaw BSC Post Grad Dip Ag, Retired, Yorkshire 72 Norton Lees Crescent, Sheffield, S8 8SR Phone: 0114 2582535 Mr C L Walters, Corporate, Construction, Wales Celtic Profiles, Llandybie, Ammanford, Carmarthenshire, SA18 3JG Phone: 01269 850677, Fax: 01269 851081, E-mail: charles.walters@corusgroup.com Manufacturers of agricultural roof and wall profiles

Mr Richard Langley amend address to read: Landsdown, 22 Queens Rd, Chelmsford, Essex CM2 6HA. Phone: 01245 252032

Mr A Roberts amend phone number to 01244 409660 Anne Scothern amend to Kevan Thompson, RMC Readymix, RMC House, Evreux Way, Rugby, CV21 2DT, Phone 01788 542111 Fax 01788 564404 Mr John Scott-White amend address and phone to read Tamara, Inverinate, Kyle, Rosshire, IV 40 8HE. Phone 01599 511361 Retired rural surveyor Mr M Scott amend phone number to 01244 409660 Mr David Tysoe amend to Mr Simon Bottomley Deletions Mr M J O’Lone FRICS FAAV, Sandringham Estates, The Estate Office, Sandringham, Norfolk PE35 6EN Ms Janet McKenna, Hartington Conway Ltd, Sandford Close, Aldermans Green Ind Estate, Coventry, CV2 2QU

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RDBA Construction Group Members The Main aims of the Construction Group are to promote good safe working practices within the industry, to raise the profile of agricultural building manufacture and construction as a skilled industry, to discuss and exchange views and information within the industry, to ensure that clients realise their responsibilities under the Construction Health & Safety Regulations, to promote a Safety & Quality Scheme to the highest standards within the industry and to liaise with the Government and other bodies, including suppliers. Membership is open to all agricultural builders and their suppliers who have the same aims.

It is the responsibility of anyone employing a contractor to ensure that the contractor is competent in health and safety matters, because RDBA Construction Group Members sign up to the above aims you can be confident of their competence. Classification 1. Steel frame 2. Timber frame 3. Concrete frame

Categories A. All types F. Grain stores B. Cattle buildings G. Machinery stores C. Sheep buildings H. Repairs D. Vegtable stores I. Renovations E. Vegtable processing J. Barn conversions

M D Anthony Ltd Unit 20, The Dock Business Park, Angek Drove, Ely, Cambs, CB7 4DT Phone 01353 666201 Fax 01353 662999 1 BCDEFGHI EA A C Bacon Enginerring Ltd Norwich Rd, Hingham, Norwich Norfolk, NR9 4LS Phone01953 850611 Fax 01953 851445 1, B D E F G I, EA Balsham Buildings Ltd 7 High street, Balsham, Cambs, CB1 6DJ Phone 01223 894404, Fax 01223 892818 1 A EA Browns of Wem Ltd Four Lane Ends, Wem Shropshire, SY4 5UQ phone 01939 232382 Fax 01939 234032 1 2, A B C D E F G H I, UK

Geographical area UK. All UK W. West Country SE. South East EA. East Anglia M. Midlands WS. Wales South

Crown Steel Buildings Ltd Green Park, Burnards House, Holsworth, Devon, EX22 7JA Phone: 01409 253315,Fax: 01409 254224 1 W Curtis Engineering Ltd Marston Trading Estate, Frome Somerset, BA11 4BH Phone 01373 462126 Fax 01373 451981 1 BCDEFGHI W Deville & Lear Ltd Mill lane Works, Rosten, Ashbourne, Derbyshire, DE6 2EE Phone 01335 324302 Fax 01335 324568 1, A, UK Divine IAC Ltd The Farthings, Ripplesmore, Sandhurst. Berks GU47 8PE Phone 020 86410071 Fax 01344 777696 1, 2 & 3 A W SE EA M WS WN

Collins Engineering Unit 5, Westwood Ind Est, Pontrilas, Peter Dowsland Hereford, HR2 0EL Phone 01981 240682 Fax 01981 242926 Stone Bank Farm, Rosedale Abbey 1 A M WS WN Pickering, North Yorkshire, YO18 8RB Phone & fax 01751 417887 1 BCDEFGHI UK Countryside Building 26

WN. Wales North NW. North West NE. North East SL. Scotland Lowlands SH. Scotland Highlands

Duraframe Structures Ltd 84 Mile Barn Road, Wrexham, LL13 9JY Phone 01978 356164 Fax 01978 362499 1&3 A UK G & T Evans Dulas Mill, Ffordd Mochdre Newtown, Powys, SY16 4JD Phone 01686 622100 Fax 01686 622220 1&2 BCDEFGHI UK Farmplus Constructions Ltd Shay Lane, Longridge Preston, PR3 3BT Phone 01772 785252 Fax 01772 782944 2 BCG UK Farmstead Engineering Acorn Farm, Nether Whitacre, Coleshill Birmingham, West Midlands, B46 2DT Phone 01675 481314 Fax 01675 481314 1, 2, 3, A B C D E F G H M Glendale Engineering (Milfield) Ltd Berwick Road Industrial Estate, Wooler, Northumberland, NE71 6AH Phone 01668 281464 Fax 01668 281622 1 ABCFGH NW NE SL SH

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RDBA Construction Group Members Cont. D A Green & Sons Ltd Whaplode, Spalding, Lincs, PE12 6TKL Phone 01406 370585 Fax 01406 370766 1 BCDEFGHI EA & M A J Griffiths Greenacre, Suckley, Worcs, WR6 5EH Phone 01886 884294 Fax 01886 884294 1 BCDEFGHI M Knapp Farm Buildings QuarryKnowe, Inchture Perthshire, PH14 9SW Phone 01828 686265 Fax 01828 686265 2 A SL & SH Ernest Leng & Son Friars Hill Farm, Friars Hill, Sinnington York, YO62 6SL Phone 01751 431774 Fax 01751 431774 1 BCDEFGHI NE A J Lowther & Son Ltd The Factory, Whitchurch, Ross On Wye, Herefordshire, HR6 6DF Phone 01600 890482 Fax 01600890930 1, A, W SE M WS S A Mogg Fox Pits Farm, Blazie Lane, HuntEnd, Redditch, Worcs B96 6QA Phone 01527 892570 Fax 01527 892712 1, B C F G, M Phillips Contractors 4 Westside, Tillington, Petworth Surrey, GU28 9AL Phone 01798 343392 Fax 01798 342899 1 2, A, W SE EA M Gareth Pugh Steel Framed Buildings Agrimont Depot, Station Yard, Abermule, Montgomery, Powys, SY15 6NH Phone: 01686 630500, Fax: 01686 630441 1 ABCFGH WS R E Buildings Ltd Spout House, Bay Horse Lancaster, Lancs, LA2 9DE Phone 01524 792247 Fax 01524 791890 1 ABCDEFGH UK William Ramsay (Engineers) Townfoot, Elsrickle, By Biggar Lanarkshire, ML12 6QZ Phone 01899 810200 Fax01899 810301 1 A, NW NE SL SH Red Alce Steelwork Barcombe, Lewis, East Sussex, BN8 5ED Phone 01273 400780 Fax 01273 400744 1 BCDEFGH SE Redwing Structures (Marlow) Ltd 1 The Square, Church Road Lane End, Bucks, HP14 3JE Phone01494 880857 1, A, SE EA M

Redwing Structures Ltd Barons Keep, The Mount, Highclere Newbury, Berks. RE20 9PS Phone01635 255299 Fax 01635 255302 1 A SE S Robinson & Sons (Engineers) Ltd Wincanton Cls, Ascot Drive Ind Estate Derby, Derbyshire, DE24 8NJ Phone 01332 574711Fax 01332 861401 1. ABCDEFGH UK Mervyn Rose Engineering Ltd Paradise Farm, Bagber Sturminster Newton, Dorset, DT10 2HB Phone 01258 472866 FAX 01258 471005 1, A, W Shufflebottom Ltd Cross Hands Business Park, Cross Hands, Carmarthenshire, SA14 6RS Phone 01269 831831 Fax 01269 831031 1, A, UK Simpson & Allinson Ltd Harmire Enterprise Park, Barnard Castle, Co Durham, DL12 8EH Phone 01833 690379 Fax 01833 690040 1 B C D E F G H I, NW NE SL Supercraft Structures Ltd Shobden Airfield, Shobden, Nr Leominster, Herefordshire, HR6 9NR Phone: 01568 708456 Fax: 01568 708212 1 A UK Sutcliffe Construction Ltd Goal Farm, Hellifield, Skipton North Yorkshire, BD23 4JR Phone 01729 850817 Fax 01729 850323 1, BCDFG NW & NE Tucket Farm Services 15 Schorne Lane, North Marston, Buckingham, MK18 3PJ Phone 01296 670646 Fax 01296 670606 1, A SE J Wareing & Son Ltd Wrea Green, Preston Lancashire, PR4 2NB Phone 01772 682159 Fax 01772 671071 1 2, B C D E F G H, UK

Associate Members Brett Martin Roofing Products Ltd Langley Road, Burscough Ind Estate Burscough, Lancs, L40 8JB Phone01704 895345 FAX 01704 894229 Supplier of rooflights Briarwood Products Ltd Unit 10, Weston Europark, Winterstoke Rd, Weston-super-Mare, BS23 3YT Phone 01934 641446 Fax 01934 641214 Fibre cement sheets & fittings supplier

Celtic Profiles Llandybie, Ammanford, Carmarthenshire, SA18 3JG Phone 01269 850677 Fax 01269 851081 Manufacturers of agricultural roof and wall profiles Ellard Ltd Dallimore Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Wythenshawe, Manchester, M23 9NX Phone 0161 9454561Fax 0161 9454566 Manufacture sliding door gear Eternit (UK) Ltd Meldreth, Nr Royston, Herts, SG8 5RL Phone 01763 260421 Fax 01763 262531 Fibre cement sheets & fittings manufacturer Fibre Cement Manufacturers Association Ltd ATSS House, Station Road East, Stowmarket, Suffolk, IP14 1RQ Phone 01449 676053 Fax 01449 770028 Association of fibre cement manufacturers Filon Products Ltd Aldridge Rd, Streetly, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, B74 2DZ Phone 0121 3530814 fax 0121 352 0886 Supplier of rooflights Health and Safety Executive The Pearson Building, 55 Upper Parliament street, Nottingham, NG1 6AU Phone 0115 971 2400 Fax 0115 971 2802 Contact David Gould Milbury Systems Ltd The Long Barn, Clevedon Road Tickenham, Bristol, Avon, BS21 6RY Phone 01275 857799, Fax 01275 853123 Pre-stressed concrete, silos, walling, etc. MJC Lower Stones, Bar Lane, Rippondon, Sowerby Bridge, W Yorkshire, HX6 4EY Phone & Fax 01422 825992 Health and Safety Consultant Polypipe Civils Ltd Bishop Meadow Road, Loughborough, LE11 5RE Phone 01509 615100 Fax 01509 236726 Ducting, drainage and environmental systems Rombull UK Ltd Unit 1, Field End, Crendon Industrial Estate, Thame Road, Long Crendon, Buckinghamshire, HP18 9EJ Phone 01844 203870 Fax 01844 203871 Safety net manufacturers United Roofing Products Ltd 1 Scotts Yard, Haslingfield, Cambridge, CB3 7NB Phone 01223 871135 Fax 01223 874443 Suppliers of Composite and built up metal systems, slates and tiles.

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As you would expect Countryside Building’s circulation is increasing every issue, we now have a readership of over 17,000. Countryside Building is of course free to RDBA Members; the normal annual subscription cost for nonmembers with UK address is £20.00 and for overseas Countryside Building Subscription address £25.00 READER DETAILS Special offer UK address £20.00 for 1 years  FULL NAME JOB TITLE COMPANY ADDRESS

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Opinion village, it builds small – between six and 12 homes NIMBYISM is individually designed developments, sympathetic with their location and only lets its properties to people with strong village threat to Rural connections. Communities , The right to buy council houses has meant there are very few says Housing low cost homes to rent and this, coupled with rising house prices, has forced youngsters who have grown up in villages Association across the county to move away because they cannot afford to buy properties. Chairman By Mathew Dick Head of Warwickshire Rural Housing Association Village communities already hard hit by the foot and mouth epidemic could face a further crisis because of people’s prejudices about social housing. Here is an example of a successful project and one, which shows the problems that can occur. Matthew Dick, who heads Warwickshire Rural Housing Association, is urging parish councils to stand up to people who oppose social housing developments without understanding the principles involved. “Quite often the people who are the most vociferous in complaining are the new inhabitants in a village. They are people who have moved into an area in the last 10 years and then want to pull up the drawbridge behind them with the idea that no-one else is permitted to live there,” said Matthew.

“People move into these rural areas saying they like the community spirit but they don’t understand that without the full mix of age groups and backgrounds, the whole social structure of a village disintegrates,” Matthew explained. “We want to work with parish councils to maintain these communities but we need them to be brave enough and understand that they are there to meet the needs of all members of their communities not just those that make the most fuss. “We sit down with the parish council and with the local community to discuss proposals and plans. In many ways, they get far more influence on what we do when compared with other developers. If we can’t find something suitable we will walk away rather than build something that is not

“It is puzzling and frustrating. They hear the word development and, without even finding out more, they are instantly opposed, organising protests, filling the village hall for meetings. We are trying to meet the needs of a very small proportion of people and unfortunately these protesters are always going to be in the majority. In the village of Ansty, where WRHA recently undertook a housing needs survey, all it took for the opposition to rise up and protest against any development was the reporting of the conclusion that there was a need for affordable housing in the village.” Warwickshire Rural is a not-for-profit organisation managing around 300 homes in 29 villages and small towns across the county and letting them at affordable rents. After carrying out an in-depth survey of the housing needs in a

Delighted residents with their keys.

acceptable.” On many other developments, Warwickshire Rural has overcome people’s initial reluctance to build small-scale developments that are now welcomed by residents. “Quite often, it’s only when they are built and people realise that they know the people who move in that they understand what we are all about,” said Matthew.

A typical small housing development.

One village where they have so far been unable to overcome the initial resistance is Lapworth – despite the fact that a local landowner has offered to donate a one-acre plot to Warwickshire Rural. Countryside Building 29


Technical “I lived in Lapworth for 18 years until moving away about four years ago but my children still have friends in the village and it has become obvious they will not be able to afford to buy homes there even though they have grown up in the village,” said Peter Dodd, who still owns three and a half acres of land on the edge of Lapworth. “When they first did a survey of housing needs in the village and said they needed to build some affordable housing I offered an acre of my land for the development. “But then I heard that the parish council said it had not got any land and when that was challenged they said they only wanted to provide housing for the elderly not the young people.” Mr Dodd was so annoyed he wrote to the Prime Minister to complain and he has since been told that a change in Government guidelines means the development at Lapworth could be re-considered. “WRHA has undertaken detailed research work in Lapworth which has proven a definite need for social housing in the village, particularly for the younger members of the community,” said Shaun Fielding, development services officer at Warwickshire Rural. “However, we need support from the local community before we can attempt to provide affordable housing for the local people of Lapworth

The VAT Man By John Crawford Before founding The VAT Consultancy in 1991, John Crawford spent 19 years with Customs & Excise and several years as a VAT consultant with Arthur Andersen. He specialises in VAT advice and planning for a wide variety of clients, including land and property, charities and international services. An Associate of the Institute of Indirect Tax, John oversees the professional direction of the Consultancy. John will provide a column for each issue of Countryside Building, explaining the complexities of V.A.T. regulations in regards to conversions. He will also be explaining any new rules and regulations that may be come into force. This is his first instalment. Russell Harris is currently renovating a Grade 2 listed 1870 water tower in Lymn, Cheshire. Russell Harris purchased the 130 year old property over five years ago, with the intention of rescuing the derelict building and creating a unique family home and at the same time make a unique contribution to their community. Because of the complexities of this property conversion, I was brought in by Russell Harris to advise on the VAT

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“I know there is a tower around here somewhere”


Technical element of the project. As the VAT laws are open to interpretation, it was crucial that, before this project started, the understanding of the Customs & Excise were taken into consideration. With the renovation costs in the region of £500,000 this meant the VAT liability was potentially into three figures. The project is very complex from the VAT point of view: how its rated, as well as how its reclaimed. It is fundamentally a renovation that requires change of use from a building with an industrial past to a residential home of the future. This, coupled with the fact the structure is listed and is over 130 years old, throws up issues immediately. Furthermore, the project fits into the ‘self build’ category, which in its self throws another slant on the whole issue of VAT and its reclamation.

“Understanding VAT legislation is the responsibility of the individual. It is our duty to seek the information and be up to speed on all changes as they happen. As VAT law is a minefield, this is where the use of an independent consultant is crucial and no different to employing the services and expertise of an architect or structural engineer”. A team of over 60 consultants have been brought together to work on the project. With full planning now granted and the VAT set at 5% the renovation is underway. We shall be following this project over the next issues of Countryside Building don’t miss out. Acknowledgements Little Planet Pictures, 55 Rosebank, Lymn, Cheshire, WA13 0JH The VAT Consultancy Since its conception, the VAT Consultancy has gained a reputation for being one of the leading independent consultancies providing first-class advice on all aspects of VAT. The consultancy has built is reputation by offering a service that is quality lead, efficient, with a high level of integrity. Three key attributes that apply in all client negotiations.

“I always wanted to be John Travolta”

The VAT Consultancy offer a no obligation enquiry service, if you have any VAT questions then log onto www.thevatconsultancy.com

Three pieces of VAT legislation come to bear on the Lymm Water Tower. They are: 1. VAT recovery is allowed on material purchases on all self-build projects, which is on a par with zero rating for all new property builds. VAT relief has been extended for those going down the self build route. 2. VAT is zero rated on all approved alterations to listed domestic properties. The reasoning here is that Customs is encouraging owners of such properties to keep their property in good order. This ruling however does not extend to repairs. 3. Under the Governments ‘Urban Regeneration Scheme’ property conversion works where change of use is sought only attract 5% VAT. In the case of the Lymn Water Tower, the objective is to pay only 5% VAT on all conversion services, pay zero VAT on all alterations and reclaim all VAT under the DIY refund scheme for Self Build projects. Russell Harris comments: “The whole issue of VAT was a real headache to us and being a Yorkshire man I am never too keen to part with my money. I spent a great deal of time trying to come to terms with the legislation, making sure I knew what I was doing. The fact is I ended up more confused than ever! Fortunately John Crawford and his colleagues at The VAT Consultancy were on hand to bring light, where previously there was darkness”.

Customer Enquiry 10

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Technical How to survive the vagaries of the Planning System and Increase your chances of obtaining Planning Consent By Alison Rowland Alison is an experienced planner who has agreed to provide a quarterly article on planning matters. She will be picking the subjects for future articles but if you would like to see an article on a particle subject relevant to planning then please let me know and we will see what we can do. ED

Although currently working as s self employed Planning Consultant, I have spent over 10 years with the Planning Departments of three different local Authorities. This has given me a valuable insight into the inner workings (bureaucracy and all), of Council Planning Departments. This article will focus on the process of submitting a planning application and the things you can do to increase the prospects of obtaining an approval. None of the advice is rocket science, and much of it is common sense, but it is surprising how often the procedure is misunderstood. Firstly be realistic in your objectives, don’t expect the Planning Officer to be rapturously enthusiastic about your plans for a residential “conversion” in your crinkly tin or blockwork shed. A building predominantly constructed of such materials is unlikely to be convertible without major reconstruction. After all, nobody wants to live in a tin shed. The important thing to have in mind with residential conversions is that the building must be capable of accommodating the new use without major rebuilding. This is because Government policy generally frowns upon new houses outside of settlements in the open countryside and hence only true conversions are permissible. Having said that, buildings of modern construction (steel sheets, blockwork etc) can lend themselves well to commercial uses such as workshops, and if this is the type of use you are pursuing, the aesthetics and build quality of the building intended for conversion, generally tend to be less important. The policies relating to conversion of redundant buildings vary from Council to Council. In more rural authorities it is common for Councils to resist residential conversion altogether, in favour of a business reuse or holiday lets. This is because the Government are actively pursuing employment uses in rural areas to diversify the rural economy and offer alternative sources of income for impoverished agricultural enterprises. Another potential sticking point relates to isolated field barns. If your building is isolated from the main farmstead and has no curtilage or farmyard around it, the prospects of obtaining planning consent are very much reduced. This is because the formation of a curtilage area, parking, vehicular access etc will be viewed by the Planning Officer as suburbanisation of the countryside, which will detract from the setting of the building. Buildings which form part of a cohesive farmyard group, generally fare much better in terms of obtaining planning permission. Countryside Building 32

It is more difficult to secure permission on isolated field barns such as this. Your objectives may also need to be refined if you live in a “sensitive area” such as Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), Green Belt or Conservation Area. The intentions of these designations are all quite different. For example, in Green Belts, there is a presumption against new development unless it is for agriculture, forestry, or essential facilities for outdoor sport and recreation. This is because Green Belts were conceived as a strategic tool to prevent towns and villages from merging together. Whilst it is all to easy to say that one particular proposal would be inconsequential in terms of its effects on the Green Belt, the Local Authority are more likely to have regard to the precedent which could be set by allowing a proposal which conflicts with green Belt policy. Contact with the Planning Department is the best way to establish whether you live in a designated area, and the planning implications arising from it. Don’t rely on local hearsay; I’ve lost count of the number of visitors to Planning reception who believe their property lies within the Green Belt, when in fact it simply lies within undesignated open countryside. Enough said of objectives. Your first port of call should in any event be with the Planning Officer at the Council. It’s often best if you don’t arrive unannounced. Although many Council’s have a duty Planning Officer in the morning or afternoons, many are not receptive to on spec visits. The best approach is to first telephone and arrange to make an appointment. That way, the Planning Officer is likely to be able to devote more time to your enquiry. If your proposals are a little more complicated than the norm, (say converting an entire farmyard group to business use), the Officer would probably welcome the initial contact to be made in writing. This gives them time to mull over your proposal before meeting you in person. If you follow this approach, above all be patient! Planning Departments in the main, tend to be under staffed and the Officer will certainly not appreciate receiving a daily call from you, requesting feedback on your letter. Wait at least a week and preferably two, before chasing a response or meeting. The more information you can give with your letter the better. Photographs are invaluable in this regard and an ordnance survey extract of the site of the proposal will help the Officer to locate the site. The Officer may chose to carry out an initial site visit having received your letter, in which case they won’t necessarily announce the time of their visit. As well as a visual appraisal of your proposal, the Officer will be checking to ensure that it complies with the relevant policies of the Local Plan. The latter document is akin to a “bible” for Planning Officers and sets out the Council’s approach to all types of development. A copy should be available on the Planning Reception and it may help if you look at the appropriate policies before writing your letter. If your proposal does not comply with the Planning Policies for the area, or if you anticipate problems, it may be sensible to


Technical your neighbours in advance of submitting the planning application. Nothing arouses more contempt, than a neighbour whose first knowledge of your proposals is a notification letter from the Planning Department. Even if you anticipate an objection, it may be possible to overcome any concerns at the outset, for example through repositioning a building or offering screen planting. If you cannot appease your neighbours, but the Planning Officer still supports your proposal, all is not lost. Neighbours can only object to an application on “material planning grounds”. Loss of a view or decline in property values, are not material planning considerations and won’t be taken into account by the Planning Officer. Similarly, the Parish Council will be consulted on your application and you may be able to attend the meeting at which the application will be discussed. Barns attached, or close, to the farmstead have better prospects of securing permission. commission an appropriate professional, to present your proposals in the best light to the Local Authority. This could either be a Planning Consultant or appropriately qualified draughtsperson depending on the nature of the development. If you are seeking permission for a new “agricultural” building on a small holding, it helps if any non agricultural activities (unauthorised commercial uses, caravans, piles of rubble, tyres etc) are removed from site or at least from view! If you are really seeking consent for a building to house horses then say so from the beginning. Councils are often particularly sensitive to “agricultural” buildings which later become employed for housing horses. It should be remembered that horses are not classed as agricultural animals,(unless they are used for pulling ploughs, which is virtually unknown of), and are usually perceived as recreational beasts. Hence, any building used to house horses or ponies will automatically require planning permission. There are some exceptions for stables within the curtilage of a house and for the so called mobile field shelters on sleds. What can be undertaken without consent will be covered in a subsequent article. Horse related development such as stables, conversion of existing buildings to livery use and the provision of outdoor maneges are a common form of application. Wherever possible, such development should be sited near to existing buildings and not in isolated positions where it would appear intrusive in the landscape. The visual effects of such development can be militated by appropriate landscape planting (native species), and the use of dark surfacing. The rubber surfacing for maneges for example, can now be obtained in a dark colour, which is less intrusive than a light sandy surface. If any sort of commercial use is proposed, a good access is essential. It is usual for Planning Departments to require widening of accesses and/or the removal of hedges/walls to facilitate good visibility splays. If your existing access is known to be poor, it may be that it could be improved, perhaps through acquiring some land owned by an adjacent owner. If this is the case, the detail should be shown on your submitted plans. One misapprehension, which many people have of the planning process, is the apparent inconsistency in decision making. However, it is important to be alive to the fact that the Planning Officer will assess each proposal on its merits. It may well be that a similar proposal was approved down the road, but the circumstances that led to its approval are unlikely to be identical to your proposal. For example, it may have received approval many years ago when planning policies were different, or it may have been approved by the Committee, contrary to the recommendation of the Planning officer. If the initial response from the planning Officer is favourable, then the prospects are good. However, don’t forget to liase with

Most applications are dealt with under “delegated powers”. That means a decision is taken by the Planning Officer, usually in conjunction with the head of the Planning Department. Only more controversial applications or those which attract neighbours objections are reported to Planning Committee. In this case, the Officer writes a report either recommending approval or refusal of the application and the final decision is taken by the Members of the Planning Committee. The Councillors have the final say, and hence even if your application is recommended negatively, they have the right to issue an approval. You may be entitled to speak at the meeting and if this is the case you should prepare your case carefully. Time is usually limited to between 3 and 5 minutes. Make sure you time yourself, since if you run over, you will be asked to sum up. Don’t ramble, but speak clearly and get across the salient points. For example, if your proposal is for a commercial use, stress the benefits such as local employment opportunities. The Officer report to Committee is usually available for public viewing several days in advance of the meeting. If you find your application is recommended for refusal, one option is to contact one or more Members of the Committee to advance your case, before the Committee meeting. Contact details are available from the Planning Department of Committee Section of the Council. Remember however, that although you are entitled to contact your local Councillor, if they sit on the Planning Committee, they must remain impartial. In addition, different Planning Committee Members differ in their receptivity to direct lobbying and Councillors may be particularly unreceptive to a call from you late at night or at the weekend. If your application is recommended favourably, there is no need to speak at the meeting, although you may be interested to attend to listen to the debate. Above all, make sure that you keep in contact with the Planning Officer after submitting your application. By that I do not mean several calls a week, but sufficient contact to make sure you are aware if the application is to be reported to Planning Committee and at what date. The Officer is under no legal obligation to keep you notified and occasions where the first an applicant has heard from the Council, is the refusal of permission, are not uncommon. If all else fails and the application is refused, you have a right of appeal to the Secretary of State. This must be submitted within 6 months of the date of refusal. Success rates vary, but the national average is for approximately one third of appeals to be successful. The rates vary for different types of appeal and increase for example, with horse related development. You do not have to pay for the appeal itself but it is sensible to be professionally represented. The process takes at least 3 months but can be longer if you elect for your appeal to be dealt with by an informal hearing. Alison Roland, Chartered Town Planner, operates across Countryside Building 33


Construction Group Under Cover Stores Even the very best designed farm slurry stores will usually be managed more by the weather than the farmer. Pictures of stormy, winter nights with the slurry tank already full come swiftly to mind. But is all that about to change? In many countries covers on slurry tanks have been the norm for many years but they have not yet proved as popular in the UK despite our wet weather. However, the combined environmental, financial and operational benefits of covers in the UK are likely to show very real rewards that we should no longer ignore. Providing a store cover means that we do not have to allow for the extra storage required for direct winter rainfall. There will be less slurry to spread too - amounting to the whole annual rainfall falling on the tank summer and winter. Obviously the precise amounts saved vary from farm to farm but they will usually be between 15% to 25% of the total storage capacity required. On a new system the saving in storage costs alone will go quite some way towards paying for a cover. If you then include the labour and equipment cost of saving about 20% off all the spreading for the next 20 years or so and we begin to see why covers are often the more sensible option. Alternatively, if you are looking to achieve more slurry storage for an existing system then a cover may well be the answer. A cover can be added instead of an extra ring to a steel tank to achieve much the same result. The effective storage period can be expanded but with no need for extra storage or spreading. Clean rainwater from the top of the cover must be diverted into a clean water run off system and not just back into the dirty water system. There are now several tank manufacturers and suppliers offering covers as an option. The most popular types seem to be made from heavy gauge polyester with a PVC coating. The material is pulled down over webbing straps, which are in turn supported on a central stainless steel pole. The most surprising aspect of the design of these ‘lightweight’ covers is the enormous increase in loads that they can impose on top of the tank. Any sloping roof will of course bring new positive and negative wind pressures, and the increased height of the structure will also bring even higher wind loads. The weight of the roof and potential snow load must also be added. The design loads around the top of the tank can nearly double, so advice should be taken from a suitably qualified structural engineer. Many of the suppliers of covers have this structural design service included in their offer. Fortunately the practical solution does appear easier than the theory. The usual method is to reinforce the top of the tank. This can be with thicker plates and coatings on new tanks or with a circular, angle or channel section ring around the top, which is well suited to retro-fitting covers. Circular concrete tanks are inherently more rigid and will often need less reinforcement. Even retro-fitted systems will need to have a 20 year design life to comply with the ‘Control of Pollution Regulations’ so a thorough inspection by an experienced engineer is recommended at an early stage. But what about environmental performance? The reduction in odours is very significant and the ammonia reduction is likely to be in the order of 80 to 90%. This can help when developing new sites especially when an Environmental Impact Countryside Building 34

Assessment is called for as part of a planning application. Costs of covers will be from about £10,000 and upward depending largely on the size of the tank, but this can be offset against the savings in storage and spreading costs. Slurry store covers are included as eligible items for the 40% grant in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones - Farm Waste Grant Scheme. See the DEFRA web site for all NVZ information and guidance, including maps at www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/quality/nitrate . For further help on the grant scheme telephone DEFRA at Nottingham on 01159 291191.

BS 5502 Part 50 is being revised to include covers on slurry stores. ADAS has produced a new technical note (Construction Guidance Note number 011) on covers, which is reproduced here in ‘pull out format’. The whole series of ‘CGN’ technical notes, as listed below, are available free from ADAS on 01626 892638 or by e-mailing building.design@adas.co.uk. Or from the RDBA on 01449 676049 CGN001

Above-ground circular concrete and rectangular weeping-wall slurry stores

CGN002

Earth-banked slurry stores

CGN003

In-situ concrete slurry stores

CGN004

Above-ground circular steel slurry stores

CGN005

Silage clamps and effluent tanks

CGN006

Sheep dip handling facilities and drainage yards

CGN007

Chemical and pesticide stores

CGN008

Separation of clean and dirty water. Dirty water storage. Yard area construction

CGN009

Bunds for agricultural fuel oil tanks

CGN010

Sluice valves on steel and concrete circular above-ground slurry stores

CGN011

The Use of Covers on Circular Steel and Concrete Slurry Stores

CGN100

Organising contracts for farm waste structures

For details of these and other publications, visit the ADAS web site at www.farmbuildings.co.uk. All the above documents should be available to print off free of charge from this web site soon. David Hughes Building Design Manager ADAS


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RDBA That Was the Year That Was A review of the Farm Building Journals 1957 to 1991 OVERSEAS TOURS One of the aims of the Founders of the Association was to help ourselves to a better understanding of the problems of layout, design and erection of farm building, and it was in pursuit of these aims that the Association organised the first Overseas Tour in 1961 so that members could exchange ideas with colleagues in other countries. It was such a success that between 1961 and 1971 the Association visited 10 countries - some of the highlights of the tour reports are given here. Extracts from the reports are shown in italics. 1961 Norway Sweden and Denmark Peter Buckler in the conclusion of his report wrote, Undoubtedly many of us were impressed by the cheap and practical gadgets we saw. These included calf boxes that folded up (presumably without calf) a cattle grid into a cattle yard that eliminated gates and heated water bowls. The most revolutionary building was a circular piggery with troughs along the outside wall filled mechanically with slop and with ventilation from eaves to fan extraction at the centre of the building (fig 1). Another novelty was a heat exchanger where the exhaust air from a piggery warmed the cold incoming air. In discussion the visitors were very interested in the use of Danfoss Differential thermostats in ventilation systems and (wait for it) they were told that the thermostats could now be bought in the UK. However the most unique building was a silo holding banana silage that Ted Fellows said was the best

Figure 2. I suggest there are some Health and Safety precautions missing. In West Germany forty years ago the population had swollen by 14 million refugees to a total of 55 million. It was calculated that, if all were to be fed with home grown food, 100 acres of land were needed for every 151 persons living there compared with 107 persons living in the UK, 46 in France, and only 12 in the USA. In general the visitors considered that, as far as farm buildings were concerned, the British farmer was one jump ahead of his West German counterpart. But there was plenty to see (fig 2) if you knew where to look. There were no pre-fabricated buildings and there were very few for intensive pig production whilst the visitors did not see a single battery poultry house. Dairy cows were housed in single row buildings with no stall divisions or yokes, hay, even in new buildings, was stored in lofts over the cows, whilst the walls of the buildings were of solid construction and the roof trusses made of timber. Forage was mostly stored in small timber or concrete tower silos. The tour was not without its problems for the engaging coach driver drove like a dodgem car veteran in the bone shaking transport provided, and one host farmer caused some confusion by serving brandy with a drink of milk - most of the milk was left. 1965 Holland and Switzerland

Figure 1. Swedish circular feeding piggery for 120 pigs silage he had ever tasted. The coach was also a subject of much comment. One visitor was impressed by everyone’s politeness with architects ushering farmers into the foetid interior of the coach, farmers standing back for land agents who, naive soul, wondered what they wanted to borrow. It was so hot in there that the first man in was a fool and the last man out dead lucky. 1963 West Germany

For the first time visits were made to building manufacturers, one of them made curved laminated timber roof trusses (fig 3) and the other calf food. A speaker for the latter company maintained that draughts were bad for calves and ventilation should be kept to a minimum. A little ammonia does no harm, but 1% carbon dioxide causes a serious setback. Of interest was a hay barn with under floor ducts for drying the crop. The building was filled by a forage blower and had a roof that was raised as the building was Countryside Building 37


RDBA

Figure 3. Laminated Timber portal frames being made at Verbeco. filled. Details of other buildings were of interest but were similar to buildings in the UK. At a research institute the visitors were gratified to learn that the staff, after a visit to the UK, had been encouraged to experiment with the design of cubicles and they had shown that lengthening the bed to 7ft. was beneficial but raising the lower bar of the cubical division to 2ft. was unnecessary. The move from Holland to Switzerland was something of a topographical, as well as a culture sock. The farms visited had a little bit of everything. One 75 acre farm, for example, had 40 acres of grassland, 15 of arable, 10 of steep slopes, and 10 of woodland, together with 22 dairy cows, 1 bull, and 28 followers. The visitors found the expenditure on another farm almost impossible to comprehend as it had a dairy with a terrazzo floor equal to

Figure 5. Shur Gain farm, Maple. size of the buildings they saw, designed for herds far greater in number than those in the UK at that time. One building had an annual through put of 1200 cattle, whilst several piggeries held over 2000 pigs. In all the livestock buildings great care was taken to keep them clean and where necessary disinfect them. Unlike the UK grass and maize silage was stored in tower silos (fig 5) and was mechanically unloaded and

Figure 6 Boone County farm, Missouri

Figure 4. Mr Baldensberger’s farm, Oeschgen

the standard of the gents cloakroom at London Hilton. The excessively high standard on another farm included bathroom and shower for the two workers. Although Swiss farming makes a contribution to the national economy, the tourist trade is so important that great care is taken to ensure that farm buildings do not spoil the landscape and subsidies for improvements are available (fig 4). (This in 1965 - the shape of things that have come in UK). 1967 Canada and the USA Today we are a puny lot, for our predecessors would seem to have had a more robust and enduring constitution. About forty of them spent 22 days in North America, visited a dozen or more commercial farms, six University Experimental farms, inspected two manufacturers premises and travelled some 13,000 miles. As an extra they visited the British Pavilion at Expo 67 in Canada. In both countries the visitors were impressed by the Countryside Building 38

conveyed to troughs. This push button feeding greatly impressed the visitors, and it was noted that although one farmer and his wife had eleven children they mechanised chores where possible. Likewise arable farming was on a larger scale than in the UK. On one farm 60,000 bushels of cereals were stored in bins. One bin wall had buckled and the author of the Report wrote, with true British reticence, I like to think that we British are somewhat ahead here in both design and practice. When visiting the universities it was found that they were researching several problems common to both countries, such as the environment in piggeries and the handling and treatment of manure. One way of handling pig manure was to build a slatted floor piggery over a lagoon (fig 6), although this was not thought to be general practice! Ways of reducing odour from livestock buildings included an oxidation ditch, and the use of chemicals, but as in UK aeration was considered the most efficient way of controlling the smell from livestock buildings. Then the manufacturers had their moment when visiting the largest farm building manufacturer in Illinois. The party were impressed at the speed at which roof trusses were assembled (fig 7), and even more so when told that of the labour force of 70, only 5 worked on the shop floor and another 5 in the office leaving 60 to work on site. It was estimated that only 7% of the staff were employed in selling, designing, drawing, and estimating. The report of this visit is 27 pages long so this summary does no more than skim the surface of what was seen and heard. But there were other activities. Some of the party went ten-pin bowling, whilst others became baseball enthusiasts. It would appear that the greatest diversion occurred on the Braniff Airline flight from St Louis to Des


RDBA It was all well worth all the trouble. Some 5400 fattening pigs were housed in 10 PAL buildings, each with central feeding passage with pens on either side. Feeding was automated, and ventilation was from eaves to extractor fan at the ridge. Part of each pen was slatted and the slurry passed to an underground tank. To quote judging from the delicious melons that members of the Party picked up and had been left after harvest, the high concentration of slurry had no deleterious effect on the crop. The next surprise was the appearance of the coach driver with the coach, and without further mishap the visitors went to two more pig units, one of which entailed lengthy French hospitality. With all the delays the party were late in arriving at Avignon, a beautiful town well known for its bridge - but later the only thing Oulton Wade could recall to mind was the most memorable set meal I can remember - What better way to end a report on a visit to France? 1973 Denmark

Figure 7. Moore farm buildings. Moines in a BAC 111. During the flight one of the stewardesses appeared in exotic stockings and proceeded to remove some of her outer garments. This caused a minor furore and certain members had to be restrained by their safety belts. The tour reporter noted that this semi-strip was a feature of this particular airline and although harmless it certainly helped to pass the time. 1971 France During the first five days of the tour the 41 participants visited 18 farms, and it is little wonder that it was unfortunate that we were unable to obtain a full picture of farming in France due to the complexities of the grants, taxation and so on. It was noted that corrugated aluminium and galvanised steel sheets were used to a greater extent than in UK and the visitors saw some beautiful laminated timber arches that were said to be competitive in price with steel - a point hotly disputed by steel building designers in the visiting party. The visitors were impressed by the considerable investment in beef buildings especially those where the cattle were housed on slats. These appeared to be successful although it was noticed that some of the buildings had the same problems of inadequate ventilation as had similar buildings in the UK. But the tour was not all about buildings. Moving south to the costal region between the River Rhone and the Pyrenees the visitors saw the reclamation of 625,000 acres of what had been sun-baked olives and vines. Assisted by the French Government, a new 60m/gal/h canal fed water by gravity from the Rhone into dams. This water was pumped into mains that followed the route of the newly laid out roads and so to the farms. Each farm had two dwellings and, although mainly arable they were equipped with one general purpose building and others buildings for either beef or pigs. At Arles the visitors expected to be picked up at 7am to see some pig buildings but the coach had broken down in the Camarge, so it was not until several brandies later that they set off. The first visit was to a pig fattening unit. Unfortunately there seemed to be no direct route to the unit, but the driver turned up a long newly made drive only to find he had to reverse. Misjudging a bend he backed into a ditch. The combined efforts of the visitors failed to move the coach so, leaving the driver to his own devices, the visitors set off across a field of melons to the farm.

The 60 Members visited over 20 farms and a research institute, but it was the visits to three building and equipment manufacturers that were of the greatest interest. Mr Aage Jacobson farmed 40 acres and kept 300 sows and their progeny. On a visit to Sweden he saw some Protecta buildings, (fig 8), made with laminated roof trusses, hardboard wall panels and aluminium roof sheeting with four inches of glasswool insulation. Mr Jacobson decided to build two of these buildings on his farm and so satisfied was he with their performance he started to manufacture them under licence. So started Dansk Proteka that at the time of the visit employed about 70 people and made 3 piggeries each week, besides recreation halls, schools and other buildings. Truly Mr Jacobson’s overseas tour was a very profitable one. The name of the second manufacturer might today raise an eyebrow, but the visit to the Funki works was of considerable interest. Started in1933 by two partners making incubators in a small workshop, the company had at the time of the visit 145 employees and an annual turnover of £2.25 m. Production was 25% incubators, 25% ventilation

Figure 8. Protecta buildings. Countryside Building 39


RDBA equipment, and 50% automatic feeding equipment. There was hardly a farm visited that did not have some Funki equipment. The third manufacturer made timber trusses, beams and arches. George Heyworth, a manufacturer of timber buildings in GB told the party how the buildings were made and in his report in the Journal he wrote In all, the visit made a very welcome change from piggeries, and the sweet smell of pine a pleasant change from dung passages and cow houses. It was greatly appreciated by the Ladies of the Party and the more enlightened members of the tour. 1974 West Germany and Holland The principal purpose of this tour was to study the appearance of farm buildings. In West Germany the visitors found that red or grey integrated asbestos sheeting, and fully compressed white sheeting, made with white cement was being used extensively. It was claimed that architects designed 90% of farm buildings, a comment that made the author of the report wonder if he had heard correctly. The visitors were also surprised to learn that there was no legislation on the control of pollution or smell in West Germany. Moving to Holland the party were most interested in a visit to a polder - land reclaimed from the sea. The reclamation process was outlined and the visitors were told that when the reclaimed land had settled down architects designed the farmhouses and steadings. All buildings were erected on a foundation of 4m long steel piles laid out in a 4m grid. The buildings were of a standard design and built with prefabricated units. Thru-tone asbestos sheeting was used extensively and concrete cobble size pre-cast paving blocks used around the yards and even for the roads. There were two buildings per holding – the farmhouse and either a large storage or a large cattle building. When the site of the buildings had been selected, landscape architects positioned belts of trees for shelter and to screen the buildings. In addition, the main room of the farmhouse had a large picture widow so orientated that from it one could see the buildings of the nearest neighbour, and this, together with the growing trees, gave the flat and empty landscape the sense of being a community. The party then visited 6 units on an experimental farm, each unit designed for a specific use, eg for dairy, young stock or for beef. There was considerable interest in pre-cast concrete panels used for silos and the walls of slurry stores. Maurice Barnes of the then Cement and Concrete Association, who wrote the report on this visit explained that he hoped British manufacturers would take up this idea. Sadly that was the last Overseas Tour. Travel broadens the mind and in just over 10 years the interest in farm buildings had changed from seeing cheap and practical gadgets to an interest in new building materials and new ways of building, many of which are taken for granted on farms today. So Association Overseas Tours helped to achieve the aims of the Association But sometimes there was too much to take in.

Precast Concrete in the Countryside By Patrick Edwards of Tarmac Topblock Ltd

Introduction I think it’s safe to assume that, for most people, concrete is a less than inspirational topic of conversation. Unsurprising therefore, that few people truly appreciate the contribution it makes to our infrastructure and built environment. Not that the industry should be resentful, nor over zealous in its attempt to win greater plaudits, but the opportunity to provide some appreciation of how and why concrete is such a uniquely valuable construction material is always welcome. In some applications, concrete performs its task unseen in a utilitarian way, hidden underground or behind other materials. In others, such as masonry and hard landscaping it is more visible and, can be highly aesthetic. It has wide-ranging properties and performance characteristics and, in a precast form, is produced in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes, as well as in more familiar standardised units, such block pavers and masonry blocks. Precast concrete is thus, extremely versatile, providing cost effective solutions in many areas of application.

Precast Concrete Properties Concrete is a composite material made, in its simplest form, from cement, aggregates and water. There is a range of cements with different properties, and a variety of different aggregates, and other ingredients, such as admixtures and “latent hydraulic binders” are frequently used. This allows concrete mixes to be “designed” to optimise particular performance characteristics depending on its intended use. Strength and durability are perhaps its more obvious properties, offering maintenance free long life, even in relatively harsh conditions and extremes of climate. In buildings and structures, concrete is a genuinely environmentally sound material. It produces no emissions, needs no toxic preservatives and, because of its inherent fire resistance, needs no additional applied protection. It can give efficient acoustic insulation and in its lightweight aerated form possesses excellent thermal properties. Moreover its thermal capacity – the ability to store and re-radiate heat – makes control of internal climates far easier and can reduce or even eliminate the need for expensive airconditioning.

Precast Concrete Manufacture Precast concrete units are manufactured under factory conditions in a favourable environment with rigorous production control. This readily facilitates production of quality products in terms of their performance, appearances and dimensional accuracy. Quality assurance regimes also play their part by ensuring the correct batching and mixing of raw materials; the accurate placement of any reinforcement steel, when used; the correct placement, compaction and curing of wet mixes; and the appropriate handling, testing and storage of finished products. Over 100 British companies produce around £1.6 bn worth of precast concrete a year, from over 800 factories. The industry covers a broad church: Masonry blocks; paving blocks & decorative slabs; roof tiles; flooring & stairs; large pre-stressed

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Technical and structural elements; pipes; kerbs, channels & grey paving; cladding and cast stone; railway sleepers; box culverts; tunnel segments; and a whole host of bespoke products. Its diversity is too vast for any one company to effectively operate in all sectors, since most are very specialised, but larger manufacturers are able to offer a relatively broad product mix, none more so than Tarmac Concrete Products. Blocks constitute the largest sector of the industry, and by reason of employment, is an area with which I have close involvement. I shall therefore consider its products in greater detail, but I will also explore, albeit more briefly, some examples of the products available from sister companies.

Newmarket. Paint Quality blocks were used to provide closer textured surface. This meant that an appropriate paint can be directly and easily applied without need of any additional plaster finish. It is also interesting to note the design of the openings for the stable doors, which incorporate special half bull-nose blocks. This produces a gentle curve rather than a “sharp” edge against which a horse could potentially graze itself. The manufacturing process for autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (aircrete) is substantially different to conventional

Precast Concrete In Use Concrete blocks have been, and continue to be, a staple building component, in both urban and rural environments. They have been used extensively, for example, in the construction of agricultural building for many years. Typically: General purpose buildings; dairy units; pig buildings; live stock breeding units & stables; storage & retaining areas for sugar beet, potatoes and silage; not forgetting of course, residential buildings. Their attraction as a walling material is not difficult to appreciate. Most block types are economically priced, readily and widely available, relatively easy to handle and place, and if correctly installed will provide maintenance free service for many, many years. Precast concrete blocks must conform to British Standard 6073: Part 1: 1981 (to be replaced by a harmonised European Standard), and depending on the nature of the application may be of solid, hollow or cellular format. Blocks manufactured from dense aggregate are for general use including below ground, and since they can be easily produced to high compressive strengths, are well suited to high load bearing conditions.

Figure 2. concrete blocks, resulting in a product with quite unique properties. Although only available in solid units, aircrete is very lightweight, therefore easy to handle and quick to work with, yet strong and durable, being resistant to damp, frost and difficult soil conditions. It offers excellent thermal insulation and therefore proves overwhelmingly successful for use in housing and other dwellings, see figure 2 where aircrete blocks have been used in new housing. Concrete blocks may be used for the construction of load bearing or non-load bearing walls, a typical example of the latter being to create infill panels to a precast or steel frame building. In either case, the block walls should be founded on solid bases capable of transferring its self-weight and any imposed loading safely to the ground. Walls one block thick of solid, hollow or cellular format are adequate for many farm construction projects. If hollow blocks are used, weight and strength may be added by filling the holes with wet mixed concrete. This should be done a few courses at a time and the wet mix should be well compacted. Hollow blockwork may also be reinforced by inserting steel rods vertically into the core holes of the blocks, prior to filling with wet mixed concrete. This is particularly useful at points where lateral loads may be imposed on the wall or where the wall needs strengthening, as at door jambs.

Figure 1 .

Although single leaf walls are never quite impervious to moisture, walls of hollow blocks, which have been “shell” bedded, are usually more resistant than walls of solid blocks. External cement rendering will improve moisture resistance, as will two coats of cement paint.

Lightweight aggregate blocks, manufactured from by-product materials such as furnace bottom ash or blast furnace slag, can also be used in certain applications, but most are not suitable for exposed walls unless protected from the weather by, for example, cement rendering or an appropriate paint. In figure 1 we see the extensive use made of Topcrete dense concrete blocks from Tarmac Topblock, for the construction of stables at the Princess Ann Animal Hospital Trust at

In many farm buildings, slight moisture penetration may not be of great consequence, but if an absolutely impervious wall is required, cavity construction should be considered. This consists of two separate leaves (walls) with an air space, usually 50mm wide, between them. The outer leaf protects the inner one from weather, keeping it dry. The two leaves are held together with metal ties, set at about 1m intervals, in alternate horizontal bedding joints.

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Technical When building a cavity wall, the cavity must be kept free from mortar. If mortar is allowed to fall and collect at the bottom of the cavity or lodge on the ties, it may provide a bridge over which water can track from the outer to the inner leaf. Both leaves should have a damp-proof course (dpc) and the cavity should extend from 150mm to 200mm below the level of the dpc so that water cannot bridge the gap above the dpc. Precautions should also be taken at door and window openings where the cavity is “closed” to avoid the same sort of problem. Here a strip of damp-proofing material should be inserted vertically. Sills and lintels should also be treated in a similar manner. The design and construction of concrete masonry walls is an extensive subject, too much so to be covered in any real detail within in a short article. However Tarmac and other block manufacturers, offer a free technical service to specifiers and users of their products which includes advice on:    

Properties of the product, such as strength, density, weight,thermal conductivity and acoustic performance Recommended site practice including correct choice of mortar Wall design including stability and provision of movement joints Suitability and specification of applied finishes such as render and cement paint

Block paving has a long history, dating back as least as far as the Romans, who in forging an empire across Europe needed to create a network of sophisticated roadways. Strong and durable, many of these roads still survive today, a testimony to the strength of the interlocking paving from which they were built.

Figure 4 variation and individuality can be achieved when these are combined with a range of decorative paving slabs. Figure 3 shows TopPave Antique, it has a distinctive “tumbled” texture and subtle colouring that gives it an attractive aged or weathered finish, ideal for older properties or new buildings of a more traditional design. It is suitable for drives, courtyards, patios, stables, etc. Figure 4 shows Tennyson slabs, which are a concrete (and cheaper) alternative to authentic Victorian flagstones, available in 9 sizes, they are suitable for both the country kitchen or conservatory or externally for patio areas. Precast flooring is a popular design solution in many types of building, not least because of its inherent fire resistance, acoustic performance, and ability to span wide areas without the need of central support. Tarmac Topfloor has been manufacturing and installing prestressed concrete flooring units for more than 50 years, in two basic types: Wide span (hollowcore); and beam and block. The latter has seen considerable success in housing where it now accounts for more than 50% of ground floors, and an increasing share of the market for upper floors, particularly in high spec, luxury homes.

Figure 3

In a beam and block floor, the cross sectional profile of the beam is akin to an inverted ‘T’ shape. Beams are supported by the external walls of the house and laid in parallel at set distances apart. Concrete blocks are then used to infill between the beams. This produces a suspended floor, ideal for overcoming difficult ground conditions, but also valued for its speed of installation and the immediate provision of a working platform allowing construction to progress more rapidly.

The Romans discovered that blocks laid in an interlocking pattern on a granular material have a unique load bearing capability, allowing the weight of even heavy objects to be distributed across the surface of the paved area.

Structural precast is a convenient and catch-all term for a diverse range of highly engineered, usually large, structural elements, in which the use of reinforcing steel bars and prestressing plays a significant role.

By replacing the original material with concrete, present day block paving manufacturers combine the same sort of strength and utility, with a high degree of aesthetics, to provide very versatile, cost effective paving solutions. Solutions not merely confined to patios and driveways, because such is the popularity of block paving that it is put to use in many places, in of our towns, villages and countryside.

The Civil business concentrates predominantly on the larger components used in infrastructure developments including bridge beams, sign gantries, parapets and box culverts, as well as a comprehensive range of RCC safety barriers, retaining walls and bulk storage units. The later are used extensively in agricultural applications, key component for specialised storage facilities for a variety of crops and produce, they function immediately without having to wait for concrete cure.

We offer an extensive range of shapes colours and textures, which can be laid in a variety of designs. Significantly greater Countryside Building 42


Conclusion Precast concrete offers significant advantages over other materials for the entire construction team. It enables units to be manufactured to precise tolerances and, where required, tested prior to installation. Precast units are quick and easy to install, often minimising onsite labour time and enable construction elements to perform They can also achieve significant cost savings, not only in terms of initial construction costs and accelerated build programmes but also through the low levels of maintenance required over its long in-service life. Indeed, whole life costing of components such as prestressed concrete bridge beams has highlighted the materials value when compared to alternatives.



The notice must contain details of the current use of the premises, the nature of the use of the access, a map and the dimensions of the width of the way.



Once the notice has been served the landowner has 3 months to either serve a notice agreeing to the application, or to serve a counter-notice setting out the basis on which the application is opposed.



In the event of a counter-notice being served, the applicant has 2 months to serve an amended application addressing the objections raised. The landowner then has a further 2 months to either serve a notice agreeing to the amended application, or to serve an amended counter-notice. In the event that agreement cannot be reached the matter can be referred to the Lands Tribunal.



The rates of compensation set down by the Government and payable to the Landowner are as follows:Properties in existence before 31 December 1905 0.25% of the property value; Properties built between 1 January 1906 and 30 November 1930 - 0.5% of the property value All other premises - 2% of the value of the property.

Precast concrete has long been, and will continue to be, an indispensable ingredient of our economic and social growth. Contact for further information: Tarmac Topblock Ltd:

01902 382732

Legislation Brings an end to Uncertainty

Over Countryside Rights of Way. New legislation came into force on 4th July 2002 which brought an end to uncertainty faced by hundreds of people whose only access to reach their homes had been to drive illegally across common land.

Pitmans has established a specialist unit for dealing with applications under the Act headed by senior solicitor Julia Mactear.

Historically, to obtain legal access individuals have been required to purchase the right of way from the local landowner. This often proved an expensive exercise with landowners sometimes charging a sum equating to 10% of the value of the property. The new legislation means that where a person has used vehicular access to premises across common land for a period of time (usually over 20 years) in such a manner (not secretly, by force or with permission) that had it not been an offence to drive across the land, a prescriptive right would have been acquired. Section 68 of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act now declares that, in such instances, a statutory easement confirming this right can be acquired. Under the new legislation the Government has set down prescribed rates of compensation that are payable to the landowner and thus has sought to strike a fair balance between acknowledging the rights of landowners and those who have for many years driven across the land to get to their homes. David Archer, Partner at Pitmans Solicitors in the Thames Valley has considerable experience of this issue having worked for a number of clients on Bucklebury Common. "This change in the law provides a sensible compromise for both homeowners and landowners." The new Section 68 provides a clear and straightforward procedure for homeowners to obtain legal rights of access. In the event of a landowner refusing consent, the application is referred to the Lands Tribunal for a decision. 

Persons wishing to apply for legal right of access must serve a notice on the landowner within 12 months of the date on which the legislation comes into force or, if later, the date on which the relevant use of the way has ceased.

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RDBA RURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING ASSOCIATION

Membership Application Form (Includes information for the Membership Register) Please give your details below in block letters. If you do not want your details to be published please mark a cross here ( ) We/I wish to become members of the Rural Design & Building Association and agree to pay the annual subscription on 1 October each year. Name of Company or College (if applicable) Address

Post Code

Tel No

Fax No

Initials

Surname

E-mail Web address Title Mr./Mrs./Miss. Position Professional or other qualifications (abbreviations) Home Address

Post Code

Tel No

Fax No

Business, please describe materials, products or services offered, including Trade Names. If a College please describe courses available.

Signed

Date

The following prices are inclusive of VAT. Membership (circle)

Corporate - £258.50,

College - £129.25,

Individual - £45.83,

Retired -£20.00,

Student - £15.00.

Construction Group Membership is open to Corporate Members of the RDBA plus a £117.50 annual fee. Tick the box if you wish to join the Construction Group and you will be invoiced for the £117.50 fee once you are a Corporate Member. There is a special concessionary rate for small firms with less than 6 employees, who wish to join the Construction Group of £176.25. The cheques should be made payable to the RDBA Construction Group. Please return to the National Secretary with your cheque made payable to RDBA. A VAT receipt will be provided. National Secretary, Tony and Jeannie Hutchinson ATSS House, Station Road East, Stowmarket, Suffolk IP14 1RQ Tel: 01449 676049, Fax: 01449 770028, E-mail: secretary@rdba.org.uk Countryside Building 45


Technical Stone›Slate Quarries or Delphs A guide to making a mineral planning application for stone-slate production - Part 4 and final

the surrounding topography; and, - The position of any watercourses, culverts, drainage ditches or ponds within or bounding the site, showing the direction of flow (where appropriate). 3. Working Plans:- These should be at the same scale as the site plan(s) and include the following information:

In this issue Appendix 3 - Detailed Information to Submit with your Application Appendix 4 - Environmental Assessment Appendix 5 - Addresses and Further Information

- any areas of land to be excavated and any areas to be filled. These may be shown by use of a coloured edge or hatching. The boundaries to these areas should allow a sufficient safety margin to protect public rights of way, railway lines, water courses, services, buildings and trees etc. which are to remain undisturbed;

Appendix 3 - Detailed Information to Submit with Your Application

- proposals for the storage of topsoil, subsoil and overburden (other than bunds (earth mounds or banks) built to screen the site);

The precise nature and extent of the information that must be submitted with your application is in part defined in law. However, it will also depend on what your proposal consists of, where it is and the specific requirements of your MPA.

- proposals for screening and landscaping the operations, including details of screening bunds and tree planting;

Forms: Your application will need to be made on a form obtained from the MPA. This will either be a special form for quarry applications or a shorter, more basic form with an additional minerals questionnaire attached. All forms include standard questions about you, your agent and a description of what your application is for. In addition, they require some or all of the following information as it applies to stone-slate quarries. Plans, Sections and Drawings: Full details on what is required by way of plans, sections and drawings should be included with the application forms you obtain from the MPA. Read these carefully. You will also need to supply several copies, so make sure you know how many the MPA want and supply that number. In most cases, applications involving mineral extraction require the following plans, sections and drawings. All plans should ideally be on an Ordnance Survey base and clearly titled, numbered and dated: 1. Location Plan:- Normally on a scale of 1:50,000, but no larger than 1:10,000. 2. Site Plans:- Normally on a scale not smaller than 1:2500. These may need to show the following information: - The land to which the application relates should be edged in red. The access route from the public road, any landscaping works and any other works to be undertaken must be included within the area; -

Any adjoining land under your control not included in the application should also be shown. This should usually be edged in blue;

- Any existing buildings, roads, structures, underground services, overhead power or telephone lines and public rights of way on or adjacent to the site;

- the location of any processing plant or equipment, buildings, offices etc; -

the method, direction and phasing of working/landfilling;

- the position of any diverted watercourses, lagoons, sources of water, means of drainage and the position of any water discharges going to existing watercourses; - the vehicular access route from the site to the public road. The detailed design of the access junction with the public road (if works to this are required). This should be submitted on a separate plan at a much smaller scale, e.g. 1:100. It should show the width of the road, its means of construction, the turning radius and sightlines in each direction; - If required, details of proposed measures to divert, remove or avoid overhead lines and other services or stop up, remove or divert public rights of way. 4. Restoration, Aftercare and After-use Plans: - These should be at the same scale as the site plan(s) and show how the site will be restored during and/or following the completion of extraction. They should include the following: - the final contours of land (with typical gradients indicated). The contours should normally be extended for a distance beyond the boundaries of the area of extraction to illustrate the relationship of the restored land to the surrounding topography; - the replacement depths of soils and their sources; - proposals for the drainage of the land, if known, including the position of any field drains, ditches and watercourses; - the position of existing trees, shrubs and hedges to be retained on site following the completion of extraction and details of trees etc. to be planted. 5. Sections and Profiles: - These should include the following:

- The positions of any existing walls, hedges and trees within and adjacent to the site; - Existing contours at appropriate intervals, within and normally for a short distance beyond the boundaries of the area of extraction, to illustrate the relationship of the site to Countryside Building 46

- representative sections showing existing and final restoration surface levels, and the maximum depth of excavation in areas of extraction; - representative sections which differentiate between topsoil, subsoil overburden, the stone to be extracted and any


Technical interbedded waste materials which need to be removed, the underlying geology and if necessary the position of the water table. This should include a description of characteristics and thickness of each. 6. Plans for Buildings Plant and Equipment: - Although small stone-slate quarries are unlikely to require substantial buildings, plant and equipment, detailed plans of any of these must be included. These should be at a scale of 1:100 and include ground plans, elevations, and the type and colour of external materials to be used on any new buildings. 7. Other Information you may be asked to provide details of any existing Planning Permissions for the site or any previous Planning Permissions which have been granted. If so, give reference numbers, details and dates. 8. Details of anyone else who is an owner or who has an interest in the land or mineral rights 9. Geological, geo-technical and hydrological information, including details of: - the geology; - the total quantity of saleable material to be extracted (in metric tonnes); - the type of products to be produced - it may be that you intend to produce more than just stone slate in which case you should state what other products there will be; - the area of excavation (in hectares); - the duration of operations, including start and end dates (if extraction is not going to be continuous, state this); - the end use of the site; - the geographical area within which the extracted material will be used; - the wastes arising, including quantities; - the proportion of wastes to be retained on site; - the depth of the workings; - details of the position of the local water table; - the quantities of top soil, sub-soil and other overburden that are to be excavated; - the agricultural land classification of the site. 10. Details of any processing to be undertaken on and off the site, including details of the type and quantities of material to be processed, the working capacity of the plant, annual figures for the production of processed products, and the type, quantity and methods of disposal of any processed wastes (such as water). 11. Details of any ancillary buildings, plant or other structures to be erected on the site in association with the development. If you intend to process your excavated material on site, you will almost certainly require some kind of building within which to cut, dress, store and pallet finished slates. You may also need an office and additional workshop space. If you intend to use an existing building, this should be included in your application. If the building is remote from the quarry, you may need to make a separate application for its use. 12. Transport and Access Arrangements: You will need to include details of the access to the site, the method of transporting slates and any other products or materials from the site and the number, size of vehicles and the frequency of journeys. The MPA must be satisfied that the access proposed, whether new or existing, is adequate for the purpose and that junctions with the public road are safe. The MPA will also need to assess whether the local public road network is capable of handling the volumes of traffic and the size of vehicles involved. Fissile rock suitable for stone-slate production is often found in rural areas where the road network comprises small lanes and single track roads. If this is the case in your area, the MPA must be sure that the size of vehicles

and volume of traffic does not create unacceptable danger, disturbance or damage to the roads. 14. The Environmental Effects of your Proposal: The MPA will need to assess the environmental affects of your proposal. Large parts of the country are covered by statutory designated landscape and nature conservation areas, archaeological sites, Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas. Public rights of way and Tree Preservation Orders may also be important considerations. More generally, the effect of noise, dust, traffic movements, hours of working, visual considerations, and the impact on any nearby water courses and land stability may also be relevant. These are concerns even in areas not covered by statutory designations. In practice, most of these are unlikely to be major issues for very small stone-slate quarries, but the MPA will still have to assess them and you will need to provide all the necessary information. So when assessing a site, you should investigate any statutory designations in the area and potential environmental problems. Such matters are worth raising in initial pre-application discussions: this will demonstrate that you take such issues seriously and want the MPA's advice on them. In some cases, these issues may need to be considered by submitting an Environmental Statement, although this is unusual for very small quarries.

Appendix 4 - Environmental Assessment In some areas, MPA planning policies will only permit proposals for mineral workings if the likely environmental impact is acceptable regarding local communities, agriculture, water supplies, landscape, topography, wildlife, geology, the built environment, rights of way, recreation, visual effect and transport. Although formidable, this list does not require special pleading on behalf of stone-slate production. Applications to develop a quarry must usually be accompanied by an Environmental Assessment (EA) to ensure that the likely effects on the environment are fully understood and taken into account, although one may not be required for a small stone-slate delph. The full details are set out in the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999 (SI 1999 No. 293) and the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 1999 (SSI 1999 No. 1) - (available from the HMSO). These implement European Council Directives 85/337/EEC and 97/11/EC. General guidance on preparing environmental statements can be found in the HMSO publication "Preparation of Environmental Statements for Planning Projects that require Environmental Impact Assessment: A Good Practice Guide" [ISBN 0-11-753207-X]. It should be read in conjunction with the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999 (SI 1999 No. 293) and the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 1999 (SSI 1999 No. 1), since the guidance predates these revised requirements. The regulations apply to two separate lists of projects: Schedule 1, for which an EA is required in every case, and Schedule 2 for which an EA is required only if the particular project is judged likely to give rise to significant environmental effects. The quarrying of stone slates falls within Schedule 2. For Schedule 2, the significance of a development will essentially be assessed on the following criteria; (i) whether the project is of more than local significance, principally in terms of physical scale; (ii) whether the project is intended for a particularly sensitive location, for example, a national park or a site of special scientific Countryside Building 47


Technical interest (SSSI), and for that reason may have significant effects on the area's environment even though the project is not on a major scale; (iii) whether the project is thought likely to give rise to particularly complex or adverse effects, for example, in terms of the discharge of pollutants. For a stone-slate quarry, criteria 1 and 3 are unlikely to be significant but criterion 2 may well apply, given the location of many old quarries. For Schedule 2 projects in the extractive industry, specific reference is made to "extracting minerals ... such as marble". These will require an EA if they are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue of factors such as their nature, size or location. If you do need to undertake an Environmental Assessment, this will need to be presented in the form of an Environmental Statement. It must include a description of the likely effects (direct and indirect) on the development's environment, explained by reference to its possible impact on human beings, flora, fauna, soil, water, air, climate, the landscape, the inter-action between any of the foregoing, material assets and the cultural heritage. Recent changes in the law mean that the MPA must now screen or assess your application on the need for an EA. Even if it is only a small-scale proposal, they may require you to submit an EA. If you are required to do so, then you are likely to have to employ a specialist consultant to undertake this for you. If you do not agree with the MPA that an EA should be submitted, you may apply to the Secretary of State for a direction to consider the matter. Whether or not you think you are likely to need an EA, you should try to establish at an early stage, in your pre-application discussions with the MPA, whether they are likely to require one.

Appendix 5 - Addresses & Further Information The following list gives details of the national offices of each authority, agency or organisation. Many have local offices that may be more appropriate for you to contact, depending on where you are. If this is the case, particularly for organisations that are statutory consultees, your MPA should be able to supply you with details of the local office or contact name. Most now also have websites giving details of local offices. Ancient Monuments Society:- St Ann's Vestry Hall, 2 Church Entry, London EC4V 5HB - Tel: 020 7236 3934 - Fax: 020 7329 3677 Architectural Heritage Society of Scotland:- The Glasite Meeting House, 33 Barony Street, Edinburgh, EH3 6NX - Tel. 0131 557 0019 - Fax: 0131 557 0047 - E-mail: glasite@ahss.org.uk Website: http://www.ahss.org.uk/ British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG. Tel: 0115 936 3241 - Fax: 0115 936 3488 E-mail: sales@bgs.ac.uk - Website: http://www.bgs.ac.uk/ Cadw:- PO Box 353, Cardiff, CF1 5XA Tel: 029 2050 0200 - Email cadw@wales.gsi.gov.uk - Website: http://www.cadw.wales.gov.uk/ Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales (CPRW)/Ymgyrch Diogelu Cymru Wledig (YDCW), Ty Gwyn, 31 High Street, Welshpool, Powys SY21 7YD - Tel/Ff么n: 01938 552525/556212 Fax/Ffacs: 01938 552741 - Website: - http://www.cprw.org.uk/ Email/ Ebost: cyfarwyddwr@cprw.org.uk Civic Trust:- The Civic Trust, 17 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AW - Tel: 020 7930 0914 - Fax: 020 7321 0180 Website: http://www.civictrust.org.uk/ Council for the Protection of Rural England, Warwick House, 25 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W 0PP - Tel: 020 7976 Countryside Building 48

6433 - Fax: 020 7976 6373 - Website: - http://www.cpre.org.uk/ Countryside Agency (In England):- John Dower House, Crescent Place, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL50 3RA - Tel: 01242 521381 - Fax: 01242 584270 - Website: http://www.countryside.gov.uk/ For details of the regional office in your area ask your MPA. Countryside Council for Wales:- Plas Penrhos, Ffordd Penrhos, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2LQ - Tel: 01248 385500 - Website: http://www.ccw.gov.uk District Land Registry for Wales: - Ty Cwm Tawe, Phoenix Way, Llansamlet, Swansea, SA7 9FQ Tel: 01792 355000 - E-mail: hmlr@dial.pipex.com - Website: http://www.landreg.gov.uk English Heritage: - 23 Saville Row, London, W1X 1AB - Tel: 020 7973 3000 - Fax: 020 7973 3001 Website:- www.englishheritage.org.uk/ English Nature:- :- Northminster House, Peterborough, PE1 1UA Tel: 01733 455000 - Fax: 01733 568834 - Website: www.englishnature.org.uk/ - Ask your MPA for details of the local office in your area. Environment Agency:- Website:- http://www.environmentagency.gov.uk/ - Ask your MPA for details of the local office in your area. Farming and Rural Conservation Agency:- Ask your MPA for details of the local office in your area. Forestry Commission: - Country Services, 231 Corstorphine Road, Edinburgh, EH12 7AT Highways Authority:- :- Ask your MPA for details of the local contact in your area. Historic Scotland:- Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh, EH9 1SH - Tel: 0131 668 8600 Website: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ HM Land Registry:- For details of local offices contact HM Land Registry, 32 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PH. - Tel: 020 7917 8888 - Fax:020 7955 0110 - GTN:3504 - DX No: 1098 London/Chancery Lane WC2, Email: hmlr@dial.pipex.com Website: http://www.landreg.gov.uk National Trust:- 36 Queen Anne's Gate, London, SW1H 9AS - Tel: 020 7222 9251 - Fax: 020 7222 5097 - E-mail: enquiries@ntrust.org.uk - Website: http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/ National Trust for Scotland:- 5 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, EH2 4DU - Tel: 0131 226 5922 - Fax: 0131 243 9501 - E-mail: information@nts.org.uk - Website: http://www.nts.org.uk/ Registers of Scotland Executive Agency (For the Land Register and the Register of Sassiness):- Meadow bank House, 153 London Road, Edinburgh, EH8 7AU - Tel: 0131 659 6111 - Fax: 0131 459 1221 - DX ED 555300 Edinburgh OR 150 St Vincent Street, Glasgow, G2 5UU - Tel: 0141 306 4400 - Fax: 0141 306 4424 - DX 501750 Glasgow (Counties of Renfrew, Dumbarton and Glasgow) Scottish Civic Trust: The Tobacco Merchants House, 42 Miller Street, Glasgow G1 1DT - Tel: 0141 221 1466 - Fax: 0141 248 6952 Website: http://www.scotnet.co.uk/sct/ Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA):- Ask MPA for details of the local office in your area. Scottish Natural Heritage: - 12 Hope Terrace, Edinburgh EH9 2AS - Tel: 0131 447 4784 - Fax: 0131 446 2277 - Website: http://www.snh.org.uk/ - Ask your MPA for details of the local office in your area. Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings:- 37 Spital Square, London, E1 6DY - Tel: 020 7377 1644 - Fax: 020 7247 5296 Stone Roofing Association: - Ceunant, Caernarfon, Gwynedd, LL55 4SA. - Tel: 01286 650402. Website: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/geology/stoneroof/ If you have lost any of the preceding parts they can be downloaded from www.brookes.ac.uk/geology/stoneroof/ Terry Hughes & Andrew Sierakowski 2001-2


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Technical Utilising Redundant Farm Buildings By Simon Hay of Sialdesign

Disused or underused farm buildings can be a profitable area for consideration for development by the farmer or his advisor. Most of the membership of the RDBA will already be aware of this but it is worthwhile recounting some recent case histories, which show what can be achieved in the face of local Authority opposition. The first step is to achieve planning permission for a change of use. Planning permission is in two forms. Outline permission, which is a very easy way of testing the ground with an outline plan often at a large scale, and detailed or full planning permission, which gives full details of materials and the form of the building. The first port of call for investigating development opportunities should be the local plan. This is held at the local authorities planning department and is available for inspection by the public at the planning offices. The plan may be current, or in draft open for discussion before adoption. Either plan is relevant though the closer to the adoption date the more important is a draft plan. The plan may well have a specific policy on redundant farm buildings. If the plan is against reuse the landowner is immediately on the back foot. Other difficulties may be if the building is listed grade 1 or 2 or in the vicinity of listed buildings. Or if the proposals involve changing the character of a property in a conservation area. Other difficulties can be increased traffic or difficult access conditions. All these problems may be overcome but they well may be raised as initial objections by the planning department. Some planning officers by the nature of their position have a prejudice against development, which has to be overcome On the other hand the plan may well support any proposals for reuse. Most local authorities have policies which support employment and support local rural industries, also the local conservation officer who is part of the planning department will be involved if the property is listed or in a conservation area they can be very supportive of sensitive conversions. We recently visited a farmer in West Sussex who had made a small unviable 200-acre farm profitable by exploiting the redundant buildings. The farmer had no farming experience prior to purchasing the holding but had come from a commercial background. He quickly discovered that farming such a small acreage was difficult. The farmhouse was separated from the bulk of the farm by a road. His solution was to sell off the farmhouse, this he did. He then moved his family into a mobile home and applied for planning permission for a new farmhouse in the centre of his holding. Not coming from a construction background he was shocked to discover permission was firmly refused. Not daunted he then embarked on a public appeal using his architect for professional advice. He did much of the research himself to restrict costs and presented his case to the planning inspector personally. The inspector is independent of the local authority and is a planner, architect or surveyor employed by The Department of the Environment. He sought help from his neighbours, researched local precedents and used the local plan itself against the local authority. He also discovered a little known fact that the opposing planning officer has a duty to assist him with detailed information, this he insisted on. Inevitably Planning permission was gained, in a very Countryside Building 50

affluent area. Many professionals may have given up at the first refusal but the farmer’s perseverance gave a just reward. This success then gave our farmer a taste for battle with the local authority. He had a large redundant pig unit with attached modern barn. The buildings were of no architectural interest, this unit was not used for the farm business. He applied to turn this property into light industrial units. On the face of it this was a reasonable option providing local employment and not adjoining any residential properties. Permission was refused the authority siting full local employment and increased traffic movements. Perhaps their decision was coloured by the very poor personal relationships that had resulted from the previous case. Nothing daunted our farmer, he went to appeal and using his new found skills and assisted by seductive perspectives by his architect won the appeal. The units are now all fully let and host a variety of companies from a packaging company to a small firm making hand built replica classic cars. No doubt further battles with the planning authority will occur in the future. The farmer has now achieved massive notoriety with the authority, all calls from him are taken by a very nervous chief planning officer due to his success in beating the system. Some landowners may not have any suitable buildings. This was the case with a small Kent fruit farmer who again found his farm was not viable. Nothing daunted he decided to open a very impressive farm shop selling both produce and craft items. This time working with the full agreement of his local county councillor and the authority he decided to import a redundant barn from Herefordshire. Aided by his daughter who was taking a building degree he bought the barn drew every structural and cladding member, labelled them, and hiring several containers dismantled the structure and re-erected the building on his own land. This was a triumph of co-operation with the statuary authority who in this case were glad to have such a fine building erected in their locality. The building received an award from the Country Landowners Association. Both the above case studies show what enterprise can achieve with energy and dedication. Simon Hay RIBA, FCIArb. a member of the RDBA Is an Architect specialising in rural buildings in the South East. He is based in Hertford and can be contacted on 01992 583871


Opinion The Bleasdale Column

History below the Farming Landscape

When the field behind my house was ploughed and harrowed this spring (it is more usually semi-permanent pasture) I was interested to note the strong red stain spreading down it – see photo. This records the Haematite mining which was carried-on here over 150 years ago. It is either down-slope washings from the iron-ore stored near one of the mine shafts; or it records the route by which the ore was brought down to the public road which lies just below this field. I think the latter is the more likely explanation.

Note the red stain in the field running from left to right. tower or other vantage point. There is a whole panoply of secret history under those acres and one is wise to think of this as one ploughs, or more importantly, as one is deciding where to locate your next steel barn, silage pit or whatever. IKB 28/08/02

See Radcliffe, J.W. Mines in Maughold with particular reference to the Vicarage Glebe Mine, privately published but available in the Manx Museum, Douglas. 2 In the 19th. Century the Isle of Man did not enjoy as much independence as it does now and the English Crown claimed all the mining rights and royalties. Because this mine lay on Glebe land, the Vicar of the day said the royalties should come to him and found ancient texts to support his claim. The result was that he effectively took Queen Victoria to Court and, after a very long struggle, actually won! 1

The MAUGHOLD VICARAGE GLEBE MINE operated from about 1703, probably intermittently, but between 1836 and 1840 produced about 10,000 tons of ore, mainly haematite. In 1851 17 men were employed but by 1919 it seems to have fizzled-out.1 Apart from this fleeting exposure, which soon disappeared as the corn grew, the only visible remains of the workings including several shafts and adits, at least one of these down on the beach, are the little, square, stone building seen on the horizon in the photograph, the base of a mine-chimney on the cliff above Dhyrnane Beach and, strangely enough, the house in which I sit writing this article which was once the “Mines Office”. 2 All this serves to illustrate just how much HISTORY is lockedup under farmland. Everyone knows, I suppose, about CROP-MARKS and how these show during times of drought, especially from the air. From these archaeologists can deduce a very great deal of historical information. Easier to see, though, is the pattern of hedges, walls and ditches delineating the field pattern of our countryside. These can tell a story just as well as the ephemeral crop marks. One has only to look at a detailed map such as the OS 25,000 (2½inch) Pathfinder series, to see how modern intrusions such as motorways, railways, canals etc. cut across the pre-existing field systems. If one knows the dates of these constructions, one can tell how old the hedges etc. are. Some roads do the same thing and one can trace divided-off bits of former larger fields bisected by the later, superimposed, roadway. In England these are often turnpike roads and in Wales and Scotland Military Roads and the date of these can again be used to correlate the age of the field system. Other field systems can be seen which obviously relate to the roads themselves and these are often relatively late enclosures under one or other of the Enclosure Acts stretching from 1607 to 1854. Just as planned field systems such as those under many of the enclosure schemes can be detected by their regular sizes and straight boundaries, so can planned roads by their straight alignment. The alignment of all earlier roads is not necessarily winding despite the proverb which relates that “the rolling English drunkard built the rolling English road”. One has only to think of the Roman Roads and some of the even earlier Ridgeway Tracks. Nevertheless alignments, whether straight or deviant, can often be spotted when searching maps or sometimes even the countryside itself from hill-top, church

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Volume 3 Issue 1