is it time to reassess a high performance agri-feed ingredient? by Neil Auchterline
(Mallotus villosus), sandeels (Ammodytes sp.), boarfish (Capros aper) and blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou). Peruvian anchovy dominates global production, and was the top ranking species produced in 2012 (FAO, 2014). That species, and many of the other species utilised tend to have a relatively high level of fish oil, which is another important product from the marine ingredients industry a large proportion of which goes into aquafeed production or for direct human consumption. In most cases exploitation of the fishery is through a quota management system, where annual recruitment of the stock is assessed, and an allowable catch calculated and set, based on long-term sustainable management goals.
Fishmeal used to hold an important position as a constituent of pig and poultry diets, but use in the sector declined as the aquaculture sector developed and sourced an increasing proportion of global supply of this marine ingredient. With fishmeal now regarded as less of a commodity and more of a strategic protein, another look at the benefits of this high value material is warranted.
ishmeal is a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient, possessing both excellent digestibility and comparatively high protein levels with good amino acid profiles. It is a resource that plays a key role in global food security, supporting both aquaculture and agriculture production systems. As well as having a valuable macronutrient profile, fishmeal also contains some important micronutrients such as the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both of which have been linked to immune-competence in pigs, see Palmer, (2002). Fishmeal is also a good source of selenium, iodine, calcium and phosphorus.
The global annual supply of fishmeal currently is approximately 5m MT, with approximately 68 percent going into aquaculture feeds, 25 percent into pig feeds, 5 percent into chicken feeds and 2 percent classified as â€œotherâ€? (e.g. turkey, game birds), see Fig.1. It is produced principally from reduction fisheries exploiting fast-growing, small, pelagic fish species such as anchovy or menhaden, although a significant and increasing proportion of global supply comes from the byproducts from the processing of fish for human consumption. Species typical of reduction fisheries include the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tryannus), Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), capelin 58 | April 2016 - Milling and Grain
Global fishmeal usage by market
Annual production of fishmeal is estimated by IFFO to be approximately 5m MT, and that of fish oil to be close to 1million MT, per annum, although there are often differences in supply when looked at from a longer time period (Fig.2.). The productivity from fisheries may vary to a degree, with the effect of El Nino events on South American Pacific Ocean fisheries largely responsible for inter-annual variability, especially noteworthy in 1998, 2003 and, more recently, 2015. Increasingly, the annual production volume comes from certified sources, with the IFFO Responsible Sourcing scheme currently accounting for approximately 40 percent of the total global volume. The species typically used for reduction tend to be short-lived, early maturing, and fast growing. The population dynamics of stocks of fish showing these kind of life history strategies are relatively straightforward to model and are, at least hypothetically, less complicated than multi-species fisheries to manage.