Graphics By Jessie Cheong 5G (10)
Jamie Lai 3C
Medieval Russian Architecture
Unique features in Russian Orthodox churches v Their emphasis on a vertical design v Their frequent use of bright colors v Their construction of multiple domes The number of domes in a Russian Orthodox Church was important, as they have different representations: v One dome symbolizes the single God; v Three domes represents the Trinity, and v Five domes represents Christ and his four evangelists. At first the baptistery, narthex and choir gallery (as shown from left to right respectively in the pictures on the next page) were the common feature of early Russian Orthodox churches, but gradually they disappeared.
Jamie Lai 3C The Major Churches of Kievan Rus (11 century)
If we trace the origins of the Russian Orthodox Churches, it dates back to the time of Kievan Rus'. In A.D. 988 Prince Vladimir made Christianity the state religion of Russia. The churches built at that time were considered as the pioneers of monumental architecture in the East Slavic region. Early Eastern Orthodox Churches were mainly made of wood and were known as cell churches. Major cathedrals often included many small domes, which have led some historians to suggest that may be how the pagan Slavic temples appeared. Here are some of the most famous churches in Russia: Dormition Cathedral (Built in 1158) Basic info: This church is built in Moscow, and is considered to be the mother church of the medieval Russian architecture. It covers an area of 1178 square meters. It is a 6-pillared building and has 5 apses and 5 domes in total.
Jamie Lai 3C
The Katholikon of Yuriev Monastery (built in 1119). Basic info: It was commissioned by Prince Vsevolod and designed by Master Peter, one of the few architects in Russia at that time. Special features: Narrow windows and doublerecessed niches, its interior walls reach a height of 20m. Its pillars are closely packed, emphasizing the height of the arched ceilings. The interior contains frescoes from the prince’s workshops, depicting some of the rarest Russian paintings. Church of the Intercession on the Nerl (Built in 1165). Special features: This church is made of white stone, has one dome and four columns in the interior. The architect deliberately tried to lengthen the church so as to make its outline seem more slim and slender. During spring, the area around the church would be flooded, hence the church would then seem as though it was floating on water, which is one of the special features of this church that is worth introducing. The famous Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior Basic info: This church was a memorial to Ilya Muromets (a folk hero of Kievan Rus’). During the Mongol invasion, Ilya was famous to have saved the city. Special features: The windows in this church are more detailed and the niches are deeper when compared to other churches.
Jamie Lai 3C The Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Kozhevniki (Built in 1406). Special features: The primary difference of this church from the others is in its building material. Brick is mainly what this church is built of, as you may see from the picture on your right. This church went under restoration once, as it was damaged in World War Two. It has only one dome, and its apse faces towards the river, which provides tourists travelling on ships a welcoming sight. The walls were built from quarry stone, which is a stark contrast with the red bricks.
The Tolchkovo Church (also St. John the Baptist Church) (Built in 1671) Basic info: Built on the bank of the Kotorosl River, it is representative of the last phase of medieval Russian architecture. Special features: It is unique for its elaborate brick tracery and the vertical ascent of its 15 domes. Five of these domes are on the main church and another five are on each of the two side chapels. The 7-storey, 45-metre high bell tower was built later than the church itself in the mid-1690s. The churchâ€™s walls and dome drums are covered with shiny tiles, while the entire interior of the church is filled with frescoes with biblical themes. Â
Jamie Lai 3C There is one church in particular that differs from all the above Russian Orthodox churchesSt. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (Built in 1044) Basic info: It is the oldest cathedral and oldest building that is still being used. Special features: It expressed a new style with thicker walls, narrow windows and helmeted cupolas, which had a strong influence on Russian church architecture.
A History of Russian Architecture By William Craft Brumfield Published initially in 1993, the book A History of Russian Architecture is written by William Craft Brumfield. The author had done a large amount of research and fieldwork before he started writing the book in remote areas of the Russian north and Siberia. This book defines the main components and sources for Russia’s architectural traditions in their historical context, dating from the early medieval times to present modern Russia Illustrated with photographs taken by Brumfield, "The History of Russian Architecture" is divided into four parts: the early medieval period up to the Mongol invasion; the revival of architecture in Novgorod and Muscovy from the 14th to 17th centuries; Peter the Great's cultural revolution; and the advent of modern, avant-garde and monumental Soviet architecture.
Reference List: http://books.google.com.hk/books/about/A_History_of_Russian_Architecture.html?id=LsLnHAAACA AJ&redir_esc=y http://www.buzzle.com/articles/russian-architecture.html 6
Ariel Ng 5G
The Reign of Peter the Great Pyotr Alexeyevich, also known as Peter the Great, Peter I (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-‐ brother. He expanded the Tsardom to a great empire in several victorious wars and Russia rose to become a major European power. James Cracraft said he led a cultural revolution, replacing certain traditionalist and medieval political and social systems with one that was scientific, rationalist and contemporary.
Baroque Architecture- Petrine Baroque Baroque architecture was the building style that begun in Italy from the late 16th-‐century, often to convey the triumph of the absolutist state and the Catholic Church. It is characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity. Baroque architecture in Russian went through the stages of: the early Moscow Baroque (On the red-‐brick walls of traditional churches, elegant and white embellishments developed), the mature Petrine Baroque (imported from the Low Countries by majority) and the late Rastrelliesque Baroque (in William Brumfield’s terms ‘extravagant in design and execution, yet ordered by the rhythmic insistence of massed columns and Baroque statuary’). The name Petrine Baroque was applied by art historians, referring to a specific style of architectural Baroque and decoration favored by Peter the Great, much used in the design of buildings that lay in the newly founded Russian capital Saint Petersburg, under the monarch and his immediate successors. It is to be differentiated from Naryshkin Baroque that was favored in Moscow at the same time. Petrine Baroque represented a drastic rupture with Byzantine traditions that was dominant in Russian architecture for nearly a millennium. Inspirations were drawn, at the time, from the Danish, Dutch and Swedish architecture modestly, practiced most famously by Mikhail Zemtsov, Andreas Schlüte , Domenico Trezzini and others. Some of the best examples of Petrine Baroque architecture include the Peter and Paul Cathedrall in St Petersburg, also the Menshikov Tower in Moscow.
Ariel Ng 5G
An overview of Saint Petersburg as a city
The Peter and Paul Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress of St. Petersburg, Russia. It was built between 1712-‐1733 along the Neva River on Zayachy Island, serving as the first and oldest landmark in the area. The cathedral and the fortress were initially built in the reign of Peter the Great, designed by Domenico Trezzini and the cathedral’s bell tower is the tallest Orthodox bell tower in the world. Secondly, since the belfry does not stand alone, but acts as an integral part of the main building, the Peter and Paul Cathedral is sometimes considered the highest Orthodox Church worldwide too.
Peter and Paul Cathedral in a cold winter morning
Ariel Ng 5G
As suggested by its name, this very cathedral was dedicated to the saints Peter and Paul, the patron saints of the fortress. The cathedral we see today is the second one on this site, for the first, built soon after Peter I’s founding of the city, was consecrated in April 170 4by Archbishop Iov of Novgorod the Great. The cathedral has a golden spire that reaches a height of 404 feet, or 123 meters and on the top; an angel stands holding a cross. The angel is one of the most symbolic characters of St. Petersburg.
The golden Angel that is on the top of the Cathedral
The colorful and magnificent ceiling of the Peter Paul Cathedral. Another thing is the bell tower-‐ another dominant feature of this cathedral and the fortress. It is an architectural symbol as an important part of the fortress physically. Secondly, it is a part of the imperial tomb, which is on the ground floor. Also, it serves as a lightning rod protecting the building. Nowadays, excursions to the bell tower’s viewing platform are The biggest bells in the Bell available from 12:00-‐18:00. Last but not least, it houses tower of the Peter and Paul a carillon where periodical concerts are performed. Cathedral Reference List: Bushkovitch, Paul. Peter the Great (Rowman and Littlefield, 2001) Bushkovitch, Paul. Peter the Great: The struggle for power, 1671-1725 (Cambridge University Press, 2001); 485pp online edition John felming, Hugh Honour, Nikolaus Pevsner. “Russian Architecture” in the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture, 5th ed., 1998, pp. 493-498, London: Penguin. Russian art and architecture, in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05.
Michael Leung 5G
As the communist party took power in Russia 1917, communism replaced monarchy, and thus led to revolutionary changes in politics, society and economy. Among these changes, there was also the transformation of architectural style, with the introduction of Stalinist architecture. Buildings in this style frequently employed stone masonry, with the products typically having small glass windows and grand facades. Employing intensive labor, these constructions despite introducing new technologies, had significantly slowed down the progress of other construction works, thus possibly adversely affecting the economic growth within USSR at that time period. Pre-war Stalinist Architecture Stalinist architectures in Russia begin with some single block constructions, considering the initial lack of resources for commitment to large-scale projects, and also the experimental nature of Stalinist constructions, before it being fully adopted as an element of the new order. Constructions at the early part of this time period included the Moskva Hotel constructed as one of the best hotels in Moscow. Through its use of detailed mosaics in the interior design, it reflected the extravagance of Stalinist architecture as shown in the buildings in this style throughout the post war era.
The Moskva Hotel-‐ then (1955) and Now(2012)
Michael Leung 5G
The Moscow Master plan in 1935 showed approval for further development of Stalinist architecture, while outlining several directions and requirements for this form of architecture, mainly expanding it to a greater scale in terms of height, size, and density, thus paving way for the future large scale projects such as the Stalinskie Vysotki and the Palace of the Soviets (on paper only). One example of pre-war large-scale Stalinist constructions would be the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, formed by pavilions of different Soviet Socialist Republics and Russian cities. Opened in 1939, it aimed to act as both a conference center and trade fair, with A photo depicting the All-‐Union achievements of the USSR presented Agricultural Exhibition in 1939 in the exhibition. In this example, Stalinist architecture is used to demonstrate the success of the Soviet Union, and to facilitate cooperation between Soviet Republics, showing the relationship between architecture and politics.
Post-war Stalinist Architecture: After the war, the destruction brought to cities such as Stalingrad and Moscow allowed large-scale reconstruction work. Considering that the Central Committee supported Stalinist Architecture, it was widely used in reconstruction work. Residential apartments such as the House on Embankment in Moscow had showed details on the façade with grand pillars at the entrance, showing how such architectural style were employed in a greater diversity of constructions.
A comparison of the House on Embankment during post war period and modern times
Michael Leung 5G
Residential functions Stalinist architecture was also used to demonstrate the strength of the USSR, and to compete with the technological advancements of the west. The Stalinskie Vysotki, also known as the seven sisters, were seven skyscrapers constructed in Moscow. Different from other buildings built of the same style, they were aimed to rival the Western skyscrapers representing capitalism. Despite such, they retained the Stalinist style, to a certain extent. These buildings tend to have a grand façade, consisting of a main tower surrounded by concrete complexes, bearing a similarity to gothic architecture. In addition, the placement of a spire on top of each of these skyscrapers distinguished them from their American counterparts, which seems to be an aim of the government as mentioned by Stalin that “Foreigners will come to Moscow, walk around, and there are no skyscrapers. If they compare Moscow to capitalist cities, it will be a moral blow to us.”
Moscow State University
Red Gates Administrative Building
Kudrinskaya Square Building
Warsaw culture palace
Kotelnicheskaya Moscow Leningradskaya Hotel Hotel Ukraina Ministry of foreign Embankment Building affairs
To conclude, Stalinist architecture had became one of the major architectural styles in Russia, especially after the war. These buildings apart from their functional role as offices, hotels, conferences centers, or residential apartments, had established a new artistic order within Russia, and also demonstrated its strength in competition with Western capitalist states.
Reference List: Architecture of The Stalin Era, by Alexei Tarkhanov (Collaborator), Sergei Kavtaradze (Collaborator). Mikhail Anikst (Designer), 1992
Michael Leung 5G
Hong Kong has long had an excellent railway network covering most urban areas, with the Western District being an exception for long. In 2002, the Western Island Line has been proposed, extending rail to this relatively old residential district, with four stations: Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong University, and Kennedy Town. In the earlier colonial days, the Western district was the first organized built-up area in Hong Kong Island for Chinese locals, with Westerners occupying the central district, and thus leading to a high population density, with the people living in traditional tong laus. As the plans of Western Island line are being proposed and executed, changes, both favorable and detrimental to the district had been created over several aspects. Railway is essential to allow efficient transport to and from a district. With the construction of the Western Island Line, transportation between western district and other districts would be made more convenient, with the MTR being one more option to buses. Considering that Western district is mainly allocated as residential land use, citizens living there might encounter difficulties in commuting to work. With the construction of MTR, such problem can be solved as the accessibility of the Western district can be improved, considering the extensive network of MTR linking several districts. Thus it will allow citizens living in that district to access their workplaces easier, making life more convenient for them. For citizens living outside the district, or even visitors overseas, the MTR provides easier and direct means to access the district. So far, Western district has certain historic sites such as the Lo Pan Temple and the Old Mental Hospital (currently the Western Community Complex), which despite having a certain cultural value, are not frequently visited. With the construction of the MTR, it is expected that some of these historical sites can become more attractive to local tourists and overseas visitors. Therefore, this allows a deeper understanding of the district, and also potential
Michael Leung 5G
revenue generated from visitors to the district, as they might visit local restaurants or hotels in the district. The above seem to indicate that the extension of the MTR benefits the Western District to a great extent. Yet it might create some negative externalities to the district, or even some spillover results that affect other areas. Considering the improved transportation, it is true that traveling between western district and other districts would be made more convenient, yet at the same time it implies that bus companies may consider canceling routes that previously run from the district to other locations. This might render travelling more difficult for some, with bus routes being more flexible than the MTR system, considering the fact that bus routes can make use of the well-developed road network to access less populated areas or locations that MTR would not be able to reach due to uneven terrain, such as the mid-levels. Furthermore, a large portion of the bus routes intended to be cut originally pass through the mid-levels, which without bus service, would become quite inaccessible, forcing citizens to rely on private cars, which is a less environmental friendly outcome in comparison to the role of the MTR in conserving energy and reducing pollution. Finally, the extension of the MTR leads to a rapid increase in property prices in the Western district, due to the increasing convenience in accessing the district. Indeed, the rise in property prices benefits some of the residents there, and yet it also happens that the rental costs of shops are rapidly increased as well. This effectively forces some of the stores out of business, where shopkeepers that own the store might consider selling the store or renting the store out to bring a greater return. Therefore, local life is disturbed to a certain extent already due to some of the spillover effects of MTR, and it is impossible to evaluate what direct results the district will face after the construction of the extension is being done. Â To conclude, the MTR extension undeniably catalyzes the development of the district in both the economy and tourism, and it does happen to bring benefits in this way. Yet it should also be considered whether the district that maintained rather static for these many years would be able to cope with such rapid changes brought by the extension. Reference List: Construction of mtr est island line project commenced. (2009, August 10). News Release. Retrieved Â 14 Â from http://www.mtr.com.hk/eng/corporate/file_rep/PR-09-093-E.pdf West Island Line and south island line. (2005, February 25). Legco.gov.hk. Retrieved from http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr04-05/chinese/panels/tp/papers/tp0225cb1-1011-1ce.pdf
Jessie Cheong 5G
In the past few years, Soviet Russian Reversal jokes made a strong come back, flooding the Internet with hundreds and thousands of funny posts, bringing Internet entertainment to a whole new level. They made such a blast that it even blended into our daily lives. However, despite her great popularity not everyone knows about the history of this cultural phenomenon. Yakov Smirnoff, a Ukraine-born American, creates this popular joke. It brought a great hit in the 80s but waned in the 90s together with the creator’s popularity. The essence of Russia Reversal memes is the reversal of common logic, from that bringing out the randomness and backwardness of Soviet Russia where everything can happen under any circumstances. Russian reversal jokes can exist in word form or picture form, these are some of our the all time favorites
V T , sia s u R u t e o i y ov hes S n c I wat
ia, s s u R iet v o S ts n a I e m ea Ice cr u yo
In Ameri ca, You Break La w… In Soviet Ru Law Brea ssia, ks You!
In America, you r work determin es your marks; In Soviet Russia , Marx determin es your mark
Reference List: Menning, C. (2010). In soviet Russia.. Retrived from http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/in-soviet-russia 15 Russian reversal. (2014. February 25). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 04:07, March 6, 2014, from x http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russian_reversal&oldid=597144787
The field trip to Ma Shi Chau is both enjoyable and educational. Besides having fun during the hike, the trip allowed me to have a deeper understanding towards the geological history of Hong Kong. At Ma Shi Chau, there are different types of sedimentary rocks and features like faulting, folding, weathering landforms. The most memorable feature for me would be the quartz veins, which are dykes on rocks distributed like the network of blood vessels in the human body. Ma Shi Chau is an island without much human modification. As a result, the rock features have retained their natural properties and are worth studying. Being able to see the rocks in person and touch them, the visit to Ma Shi Chau enriched my knowledge of rocks besides what I have learnt during geography lessons. The leaders of the Geography-History Society certainly did a great job in introducing the rock features at Ma Shi Chau and answering our questions about them. -5E (31) Rachel Yiu
Although we have to hike for around 30 minutes to go to Ma Shi Chau from Sam Mun Tsai, Ma Shi Chau is a place worth going. Ma Shi Chau has a wide variety of landforms and other features like faulting and folding. I was really excited to be able to apply my knowledge from Geography lessons to what I can really see in Ma Shi Chau. Besides, there are landforms that I have not learnt before like kink band and quartz veins. At last, it was a wonderful opportunity to learn and relax with my friends. -5E (16) Christy Ho
I joined the field trip to Ma Shi Chau organized by the Geography-History Society on 29th January. I had never been to or heard of Ma Shi Chau before the field trip. I really enjoyed and learnt a lot from it. Ma Shi Chau is one of the Geoparks in Hong Kong and we can find various landform features and types of rock there. During Geography lessons, we learnt about the formation of landforms and different types of rocks. It was indeed exciting to see them in person in Ma Shi Chau. During the field trip we were able to identify rocks like granite and sedimentary rocks including sandstone and mudstone. Not only can we see them, but we can also touch the rocks and feel the difference in the texture. For example, sandstone is coarse while mudstone is very smooth. This cannot be taught in school and we have to “feel” them ourselves. Also, it helps to consolidate my knowledge of rocks. Other than those I have learnt before, there are also some unique features in Ma Shi Chau like quartz veins. I was mesmerized to see these features, which are solely made by the nature. All in all, the field trip expands my geological knowledge and arouses my interest towards geology. -5E (24) Rachael Lee
Interested in Russian history? Want to know more about the newly extended Western Island Line of the MTR Corporate? Then you will definitely...