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TH 2.0

TOWNHOUSE

2.0 RIPPLE PATEL | NEHA KALOKHE | GENCI SULO

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TH 2.0 TOWNHOUSE 2.O

Team Ripple Patel Neha Kalokhe Genci Sulo Tutors Shajay Bhooshan Alicia Nahmad

Architectural Association School of Architecture

September 2017

AADRL

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6


CH 1.0

Research Framework Studio Brief Thesis Statement Introduction 1.1 1.2

Data Analysis Target group

CHAPTER 1

1.3

Architectural precedents

CH 2.0

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Primitive Layout Site Proposal Primitive Layout Rigid Body Physics Generating Communities User Mixing Profiles

2.6

Functional Organisation

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Architectural Geometry Introduction to Curve Crease Folding Application of Curve Crease Folding Scope of Application Geometry and Architectural Applications

3.5

Conclusion

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Digital Fabrication Initial exploration of curve folding Case study Fabrication machines Curve folded frames exploration Curve folded surface exploration

CHAPTER 2

CH 3.0 CHAPTER 3

CH 4.0 CHAPTER 4

Biliography

CONTENT

INDEX

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Studio Brief Housing trends are in continuous change trying to adapt to the social and economic needs of people. Co-living appears as a new housing solution where people in exchange of small and limited-occupancy units can share amenities and the most important they can create and be part of a community. With its origin as early as 1972 in Denmark, co-living is developed and extended further and provides the potential of being the living model of the future. The studio is motivated by trends in contemporary living and digital fabrication technologies. The aim of the studio is the creation of a new housing model through the exploration of the shared living concepts. Considering the introduction of new technological tools in architecture, the studio also aims to investigate new fabrication methods by exploring new challenging territories and their potential in the architectural discipline. Specifically, the studio will utilise emerging fabrication systems which will be investigated through digital tools for their transcription to architectural scale applications.

CHAPTER 1.0

STUDIO BRIEF

Tutors: Shajay Bhooshan Alicia Nahmad Bhooshan Assistant: Henry Louth

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Thesis Statement The aim of our research is the creation of an innovative form of shared living, designed around the lifestyle of working professionals in London, offering a living model that has as its priority the community. London holds highly divergent residential and employment densities with significantly higher employment density. Using it as an argument, the proposed architectural system aims to provide shared living spaces for working people near traditional working areas in London. Our version 2.0 aims to reinterpret the townhouse which combined with concepts of co-living, can be the place to live, not only temporary as it has historically been for people living in the periphery. The proposed model is mostly addressed to early career professionals, from single people to small families and the combinations of people and spaces are considering diverse mixtures which would empower and emphasize the community. In paralel, the research seeks to explore and incorporate novel architectural geometries and fabrication methods for delivering mass customization. The emerging field of curve folding is the focus of our design approach. Our contribution to the architectural discourse is the new way of creating possible livable spaces through intricate shapes deriving from folding single flat sheets. By investigating curve folding and its digital fabrication possibilities, we envision its potential application to larger architectural scale.

CHAPTER 1.0

THESIS STATEMENT

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TOWNHOUSE 2.0 Historically, townhouses were terraced houses serving as the second residence of wealthy families which used to live in country houses. A townhouse was mostly used during weekends and temporary during the year. Nowdays, people live in peripheral parts of the city but the reason is quite different, the high cost of housing. Our version 2.0 of the townhouse proposes to bring people from the periphery to the center. A reinterpreted townhouse combined with concepts of co-living, can be the place to live forever, not only temporary.

Figure 1 Traditional townhouses in London

Figure 1

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London’s divergent densities Housing trends are in continuous change trying to adapt to the social and economic needs of people. Co-living appears as a new housing solution where people in exchange of small and limited-occupancy units can share amenities and the most important they can create and be part of a community. With its origin as early as 1972 in Denmark, 1 co-living is developed and extended further and provides the potential of being the living model of the future. At the heart of co-living is convenience and comunity as two attractive features. 2 The background for our research project is London as a city where housing possess challenges in many terms, mainly economic but also in what they offer for making social impact atractive. A multidimensional study of data of London provide insides for lower population density (Figure 2) which indicates the potential for the city to accommodate more housing developments and paired with the high demand for rented living spaces, create an ideal environment for situating our proposal.

1 Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durrett, Creating cohousing: Building sustainable communities. (Gabriola Island, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2011), 5. 2 Erin Talkington, “The rise of co-living: moving beyond the college dorm,” accessed September 3, 2017, www.rclco.com. 3 “Urban Age: Data,” London School of Economics Cities, accessed April 3, 2017, https://urbanage.lsecities. net/data.

Figure 2 Population density [data source: Office for National Statistics]

Figure 2

Renting household are an ever-increasing trend of living spaces in central London with figures of 60-80% of the households serving this purpose. 3 The avergave size of the household which, moving towards the central boroughs of the city is narrowed to two people are indicators of the trend of small living spaces.

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

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Residential / employment density disparity Referring to information provided from data analysis for London, there are two findings which will serve as the starting problems that the housing proposal will address: • the big ratio of the residential and employment density • long commuting times from outer London to the central part Residential and employment densities show a big disparity in London, bringing the need for intense commuting patterns. • The residential density in London (Figure 3) is 27,100 pp/km2 on its peak . • The employment density has a peak of 141,600 jobs/km2 . (Figure 4)

Figure 3

Figure 4 Residential Density [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]

Figure 4

The big number of people using London as their workplace commute daily from the suburbs of the city or from other nearby cities. Living in inner London apperas as an expensive alternative for most of the working people which results in commuting daily to work. According to data from surveys, long commuting time is one of the factor of people’s unhappiness. 4

14

Figure 3 Peak Employment Density

4 “Urban Age: Data,” London School of Economics Cities, accessed April 3, 2017, https://urbanage.lsecities. net/data.


Co-living - an old concept of a new trend Community shared living concepts date back into early 19-th century and referring to historic precedents, Narkomfin building in Moscow can be considered an avantgarde and pioneer example of the emerging new living approach. (Figure 5) Its main aim was to reinvent the everyday life of people by acting as a social and architectural laboratory. Women emancipation was an important ideology behind Narkomfin. Providing shared amenities would encourage them to engage more in activities outside of their everyday house routine and to participate into the wide community. 5

5 Athlyn Cathcart-Keays, “Moscow’s Narkomfin building: Soviet blueprint for collective living – a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 29,” accessed April 5, 2017, https://www.theguardian. com/cities/2015/may/05/ moscow-narkomfin

Figure 5

Important feature which can be relevant even today is the way that the living units was organized. Kitchen was removed from the rest of the living spaces and positioned as a shared area would serve as a social catalyst for encouraging community interactions. (Figure 6) Nowdays, with the busy lifestyle of working people, kitchen can be the center of the shared experience where the most of social exhange can happen.

Figure 5 Narkomfin building in Moscow Figure 6 Axonometric view of the main block of the apartments and the separate block of the shared spaces

Figure 6

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RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

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Objectives The aim of the research is to reinterpet the concept of co-living in London by providing housing near working areas as the main target are the young working professionals. •

The housing system will rely on creating compact spatial and geometric configurations for living considering its positioning in working areas of central London. It aims to reinterpret the townhouse as a community generator through emphasizing and creating spaces around the shared experience. Creation of living communities that value their privacy but mostly are open to exchanging social-cultural backgrounds in return of experiences

The research focus will be developed through three different layers of exploring architectural, social and economic territories: • Architecturally, it aims to explore novel digital fabrication methods in pursuit of mass customization which would allow for an application of the system in various sites across the city. Exloring the potential of curve folding to be used in architectural applications for both structural and spatial configurations •

Socially, the opportunity relies on creating an active catalyst which would attract young professionals to be part of the ongoing almost-established experiment of shared communities

Economically, the shared housing system aims to be viable because of better compact and efficient way of using the space

Figure 7 Community creation in spaces generated from curve folding

Figure 7

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Strategies The research will be framed around three layers for delivering the objectives: primitive layout, architectural geometry and digital fabrication. Primitive layout will create the foundations for the two followimg aspects. Informed by data analysis for London, it will explore: • community creation through considering different user profiles and ways to create interactions among them • use of compact primitives which allow for good connectivity and aggregations and efficient space usage • a generative primitive based system through a set of rules which would provide a distributive system in the city • rigid body physics for testing stability of primitive arrangements and for potential future expansion of the system by attaching additional units (Figure 8)

A Figure 8

B

6 Aline Vergauwen, Niels De Temmerman, and , Lars De Laet, “Digital modelling of deployable structures based on curved-line folding,” Proceedings of the IASS-SLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints” (September 2014): 1.

C

For investigating novel fabrication methods, architectural geometry will explore the emerging field of curve folding which possess the potential of creating 3D shapes from folding a flat sheet of material along a curved crease pattern. 6 Architectural applications of curve folding are rare being mostly focused on artistic expressions, pavilions or industrial design. The digital fabrication of the proposals in curve folding will be materialized through the use of CNC machines, water jet and laser cutting. (Figure 9) Figure 8 A - Compact primitive combination B - User profile mixing C - Rigid body physics for generating primitive aggreagtions Figure 9 Water jet cutting for digital fabrication Figure 9

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Creating communities The first part of the reasearch explores functional organization strategies based on the creation of a community which stands at the core of the housing model that we propose. Communities are created by people and they can be defined by the shared attributes of the people in it, and by the connections among them. The most useful definition of a community is the shared attribute. Assumptions are made based on real user profiles, their timing and interest mapping which would later serve as the base for mixing them in the living clusters. (Figure 10) Combining different users for sharing common spaces would enhance community interactions.

Figure 10 User profiles interest mapping Figure 11 Creation of rules for functional arrangements Figure 12 Expressions for the rules of functional organization

Figure 10

Based on combinations of users in different living clusters, a generative system for functional organization is created. The system is developed around the expression of the relation between shared and private spaces. (Figure 12) The three significant shared spaces, shared kitchen, living space and kids area, are situated first on the system from where all the private and semi-private spaces will be distriuted. The kitchen will form the core of the shared spaces which will serve as the main interaction center for most of the users. The maximum distance from the common spaces will be the changing variable of the system which would result in different possible configurations. The rule set aims to generate various spatial arrangements. CS KS CK

X= Maximum Distance from CK

X

Figure 11

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Figure 12


The system will be unit based. Various primitives are studied based on face connections, surfaces, space qualities that they offer and possibilities of stacking for providing compact arrangements. The aggregation system of the primitives considers various parameters such as: • site, infill or corner sites relatively in small dimensions • rules of functional distribution of living and shared spaces • physics concepts of rigid body simulation Rigid bodies are basically solids which don’t deform or changes its shapes, when acted upon by forces such as gravity, viscosity, friction and collision and the resultant simulation would case change in position or orientation. The force in this case would be gravity.

Figure 13

Figure 13 Primitives of the same mass Figure 14 Primitives of different mass Figure 15, 16 Primitives of different mass and change of the gravity center

Figure 14

Applying rigid body physics would test stability in the case of expansion of the system in the future by attaching additional units to the existing. The rigid body simulation considers three changing parameters: - number of primitives (Figure 13) - mass of primitives (Figure 14) - center of gravity Outcomes of the studies also provide indications for the primitives with more mass which are neccessary for balancing the arrangement and translated in geometric operations they would be formed of heavier curve-folded elements.

Figure 15

Figure 16

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Curve folding exploration Architectural geometry is a new area of research which has as its main objective to provide construction-aware design tools and encouraging an entirely digital design-manufacturing workflow. It aims to find applications especially in very complex geometries.7 In terms of architectural geometry, the research explores curve folding and its potential for architectural scale applications. Curve folding is the process of folding a flat sheet of material along a curved crease for creating 3D shapes by combining folding as plastic deformation and bending as elastic. (Figure 17) In most of the applications, only the use of the final result state of the folding is used, a static solution derived from folding a curved crease pattern.8

7 Helmut Pottmann, (2010), Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge. Archit Design, 80: 77. doi:10.1002/ ad.1109. 8 Aline Vergauwen, Niels De Temmerman, and , Lars De Laet, “Digital modelling of deployable structures based on curved-line folding,” Proceedings of the IASSSLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints” (September 2014): 1. 9 Shajay Bhooshan, “Interactive Design of Curved Crease Folding” (MPhil diss., University of Bath, 2015), 14.

Figure 17

The known start of curve folding is the work of Joseph Alber in 1927 at Bauhaus. Mathematician David Huffman has an important contribution in expanding it artistically. 9 (Figure 18) The work of Erik Demaine and his father are successful attempts in undertstanding curve folding through mathematical expressions and also expressing its sculptural aesthetic qualities in various forms and materials for achieving complex shapes. (Figure 19) Figure 17 The folding process Figure 18 David Huffman cusp folding Figure 19 Concentric circles by Erik Demaine Figure 18

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Figure 19


Applications of curve folding in architecture are rare. It can mostly be found in pavilions, artistic expressions such as sculptures, industrial design and small architectural prototypes. Arum pavilion by Zaha Hadid Architects (Figure 20) and ZHA Code workshop’s outcomes (Figure 21) have successfuly challenged the geometrical and physical difficulties that this method bears.

Figure 20

Figure 21

Frames exploration The research is exploring curve folding in two different approaches which have opposite geometric and computational methods. The first approach explores frames formed of joined which result from curve folding after several geometric operations computationally. The process of generating these frames for fabrication includes operations like chamfer, bevel, deleting faces, edge extrusion and smothness of the geometry. (Figure 22) Each of the nodes is then extracted for unfolding. However, the unfolding process causes errors to the geometry.

Figure 20 Zaha Hadid Architects Arum pavilion

Primitive

Chamfer vertices

Delete half of the primitive

Figure 21 ZHA Code - AAVS workshop India Figure 22 Digital process of modelling curve folding frames

Bevel edges and chamfer

Extrude edges

Smooth

Figure 22

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The errors result in inaccuracies in fabrication. However, by running surface relaxation, in most of the cases these issues can be solved. The curve folded frames, combined with internal elements are explored for their potential to be used as the structure of the building. (Figure 23, 24)

Figure 23

Figure 24

Surface exploration The second approach in curve folding is surface exploration. The process is the opposite of the frames as it starts from physical models investigations. Unfolding digital models is challenging and it is almost impossible to provide precise results. Thus, understanding different curves is done manually by paper models. Figure 23, 24 Curve folded frames and internal elements modelling Figure 25, 26 Digital models of curve folded surfaces

Figure 25

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Figure 26


2D patterns are first created (Figure 27) and after folding the models they are refined continuously to achieve better results. In most of the cases the results are unpredictable, bringing often unexpected interesting 3D shapes. (Figure 28)

Figure 27

Figure 28

Figure 29

The computational model (Figure 30) comes at a later stage after the physical is refined and the curved are tested several times how they fold and the shapes that they can create. Modelling the curve folded surfaces digitally is more an approximation of the physical model rather than the exact one but it is neccessary for being used to understand spatial and geometric relations with other parts of the system. Figure 27 2D drawing / unfolded for fabrication Figure 28 Folded physical model Figure 29, 30 Digital model created based on the physical

Figure 30

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

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Digital fabrication Digital fabrication attracts a high interest for manufacturing at many scales. For architects, an important part of the design concept and process is expressed physically through models and prototypes. Different materials from plastic to metal are used to materialize designs. 10 Our research in terms of materializing and improving the explored curve folding studies is using different machines for fabrication.

Figure 31

10 Lawrence Sass, “Synthesis of design production with integrated digital fabrication,� Automation in Construction 16, (June 2006): 298.

Figure 32

CNC router, (Figure 32) water jet cutter (Figure 31) and laser cutter are all alternatives that can provide successful results. Each of the fabrication methods have their own limitations, mostly consisting on the size of the sheets they can cut. Different materials are being tested for fabricating frames models, starting from paper which is important for understanding the folds before scaling to plywood, polypropyplene and aluminium which is the material that we aim our structures to be fabricated from.

Figure 31 Water jet cutter Figure 32 CNC router Figure 33 Curve folded frames in dfferent materials Figure 34 Folded aluminium frame

Figure 33

24

Figure 34


For performing structurally the curve folded frames need internal enclosures and casted material that would ensure stability of the whole frame. For the later, various tests have been conducted with the most possible option material for casting being polyurethane foam. It appears to be strong enough and lightweight contributing to an overall light structure. (Figure 35, 36) The same fabrication principles apply also for the curve folded surfaces. Three different materials are tested for surface exploration: • paper, • polypropylene • aluminium sheets Paper is used for small test models and refining before scaling. Polypropylene is laser cutted while for the aluminium CNC is used mostly.

Figure 37

Figure 38

Mixing: - component A 20 ml - component B 20 ml Figure 35

Figure 36

Figure 39

Polypropylene is easier then aluminium to fold as its properties allow for some elasticity while metal under some applied force tends to tear. The scale of the model and the ease to fold are related together. The bigger the scale, the folds are bigger and aluminium can reduce the risk of tearing. However, scaling the models and folding from a single sheet is limited due to the sizes of the material and the sizes that machines can fabricate. Thus, cutting in some pieces and connecting them through interlocking would be a solution.

Figure 35 Polyurethane mixing for casting Figure 36 Casted joint strength test Figure 37, 38, 39 Curve folded surface study models in polypropelene Figure 40, 41 Curve folded surface study models in aluminium

Figure 40

Figure 41

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Discussion and conclusions Curve folding exploration in terms of frames provide indications that it holds the potential for being scaled for construction use by bringing the benefit of minimizing the effort for manufacturing due to the ease that folding offers. However, limitations arise on the translation of the computational models to fabrication due to inaccuracies deriving from the unfolding process. These inaccuracies appear mostly in the connection parts of the joints that form the frames and on the back enclosure part which after surface relaxation makes it difficult to achieve precision in the assembly process. Curve folding, computationally can be approached in two different ways. • First, in the case of frame model, they can initially be modelled on computer and then fabricated. • The other case, which can mostly be used in exploring curve folded surfaces, is creating first physical models and then translating into 3d computer models. Surface exploration proved to give unexpected results through physical models investigations which possess architectural and aesthetic qualities due to the intricate shapes resulting from curve folding. The results differ from material to material because of their properties, however translation from one to the other can help in refining the curves for folding. These investigation outcomes can accommodate also spatial configuration making them potentially human scale spaces. Limitations can be considered on the scaling of the models in a real scenario of a room or even more ambitious, of a whole living unit. Metal sheets have maximum sizes which can’t provide full model from a single sheet and also, the digital fabrication can question the size of the pieces that can be manufactured. In the present concern, breaking the models into smaller pieces would be a solution which would at the same time result in the 3d curve folded geometries and be digitally fabricated and folded. As in the case of the frames, connections are to be explored through interlocking possibilities. The outcomes of the two different fields of exploration raise the question of using them separately for ensuring structure-space results and mass-customization or combining them together in a system. Both the cases need decisions on how they can perform together spatially, structurally but also harmonize aesthetically.

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Further explorations The research presents several challenges to be addressed in the next phase of it, related to all the three layers of exploration. • • • •

Refining the generative system of functional and primitive layout Integration of curve folded frames-surfaces Exploration of the connections of joints through interlocking patterns which would provide scaling of the models (Figure 42) Refining of casting materials for the frames which would reinforce their structural performance (Figure 43)

Figure 42 Connection detail Figure 43 Casting materials mixture Figure 44 Unfolded drawing for fabrication

Figure 42

Figure 44

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Figure 43


• • •

Scaling models for testing the extend that their potential for being used in architectural scale reaches (Figure 44, 47) Exploring how geometry responds to the spatial configurations deriving from the users (Figure 45) Exploring more variations of curves which would result into non symetric geometries (Figure 46)

Figure 45

Figure 46 Figure 45 User-geometry relation

Figure 46 Catalogue of surface studies Figure 47 Test for scaling the model

Figure 47

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30


CH 1.0

Research Framework 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7

Data analysis Population density Projected growth Household size Household tenure - renting Residential and employment density Lowest dense best connected areas Happiness mapping

1.2

Target group

1.3 Architectural precedents 1.3.1 Narkomfin building 1.3.2 Diogene 1.3.3 Kasita 1.3.4 Mirador 1.3.5 Conclusions 1.3.6 Existing shared models

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Net residential density (number of people per hectare) 19-70 70-90 90-120 120-285 Figure 1.1

Projected Housing Growth 2016 4.5% or lower 4.6% to 6.2% 6.3% to 9.6% 9.7% to 14.9% 15% or higher Figure 1.2 32


1.1: Data Analysis 1.1.1: Population Density Following decades of post war decline, the city’s population began to grow in the 1980s and surpassed its 1939 historic peak, of 8.6 million people, in early 2015. Projection is for London’s population to reach 11.3 million in 2050. While densities in inner London are high compared to the Greater London average (Figure 1.1), they are not high compared to other city centers. The highest proportions of land are taken not by buildings but by green space and domestic gardens. Even in the densest boroughs, there is still considerable green space.1

Left: Figure 1.1 Population density [data source: Office for National Statistics] Figure 1.2 Housing Growth Projections [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]

1.1.2: Projected Growth By looking at projections for housing in London, the data show an increasing trend spread throughout all the boroughs of the city. (Figure 1.2) Among the areas with the highest percentage of 15% or more are: • City • Tower Hamlet • Newham • Greenwich • Redbridge

1 Savills, “Redefining Density, Making the best use of London’s land to build more and better homes,” September 2015, p.4, available from www. savills.co.uk, accessed April 2, 2017.

In terms of job growth, (Figure 1.3) the boroughs with the highest growth projections of 15% or more are: • Kensington and Chelsea • City • Tower Hamlet

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Projected job Growth 2016 -12.5% to 0% 0% to 5.6% 5.7% to 10.9% 11.0% to 14.9% 15.0% to more Figure 1.3

Household size (average person per household) 1.10-1.90 1.90-2.30 2.30-2.70 2.70-3.20 3.20-5.00 Figure 1.4

34


1.1.3: Household Size The map is a representation of the household size in London, providing information on the average number of people per household. (Figure 1.4). The key trends imply that the central part of the city is dominated by small households with an average of maximum two people. The figures are increasingly changing towards the suburbs with the maximum household size being five people. These trends can be indicators of an increasing demand for small living arrangements.

Left: Figure 1.3 Job Growth Projections [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age] Figure 1.4 Household size [data source: Office for National Statistics]

1.1.4: Household Tenure - Renting The data provide information about household tenure and specifically renting. (Figure 1.5) In almost all the central boroughs of London, 60 to 80% of households are rented. The areas with the highest percentage of rented households, exceeding 80% are Camden, City and Hackney.

Figure 1.5 Household Tenure: Renting [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]

Figure 1.5 Household Tenure - Renting 14.9% or less 15.0% to 24.9% 25.0% to 34.9% 35.0% to 44.9%

45.0% to 59.9% 60.0% to 79.9% 80.0% or more n/a

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As indicated by the two graphs (Figure 1.6), private renting has increased from 13.9% in 1990 to 24.1% in 2015 while the percentage of owner occupied households is decreasing. 1

1 “Urban Age: Data,� London School of Economics Cities, accessed April 2, 2017, https://urbanage. lsecities.net/data.

1990

13.9%

57.2%

28.9%

2015

24.1%

49.5%

26.5%

Figure 1.6 Renting Trend Changes from 1990 - 2015 Private rented Social Rented Owner Occupied

36

Figure 1.6 Renting Trend Changes [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]


1.1.5: Residential and Employment density The diagrams explore the issues of residential and workplace densities, and the extent to which they overlap or not. They show the number of people living and working in each square kilometer of London’s metropolitan region. Residential and employment densities are highly divergent in London, bringing the need for intense commuting patterns. • The residential density in London (Figure 1.7) is 27,100 pp/km2 on its peak . • The employment density has a peak of 141,600 jobs/km2 . (Figure 1.8)

Figure 1.7 Residential Density Figure 1.8 Peak Employment Density [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]

The big disparity observed from the data is an indicator of the large

Figure 1.7

Disparity between Housing and Employment Density Residential Density Peak 27,100 pp/km2 Employment Density Peak 141,600 jobs/km2 Average 3,300 jobs/km2 Figure 1.8

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Employment Density Higher density, Relative to city average

Lower density, Relative to city average Development Site Crossrail Figure 1.9

London Urban Development (2004-2011) Office floorspace Retail & Leisure Floorspace Residenrial Floorspace Major Public Transport development

Figure 1.10 38


number of workforce making their journey to work by commuting daily from different parts of outer London or from other nearby cities.1 The data presented on the map (Figure 1.9), show the employment density in all areas of London. The boroughs with the highest density are: • Camden • Westminster • City • Islington They show a significant difference from the city average. The reason behind the high concentration of jobs in the particular central areas is the urban development strategy from 2004 and on. 2 (Figure 1.10) The most of the developments during this period were office floor spaces, especially in the City borough of London which contributes to the high employment density.

CHAPTER 1.0

Left: Figure 1.9 Employment Density Figure 1.10 Urban Development [source: LSE Cities / Urban Age]

1 Dmitry Sivaev, “Inner London’s Economy, a ward-level analysis of the business and employment base,” October 2013, p.2, available from www. centreforcities.org, accessed April 3, 2017. 2 “Urban Age: Data,” London School of Economics Cities, accessed April 3, 2017, https://urbanage. lsecities.net/data.

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1.1.6: Lowest Dense best connected areas The map presents the relationship between density and connectivity in London. (Figure 1.11).The data provide an overview of the lowest dense areas of London that have a good connectivity with the rest of the city. Analyzing the density - connectivity relationship would potentially help deliver more and better homes if a well-connected area with low housing density were to conservatively increase its overall density.1

1 Savills, “Redefining Density, Making the best use of London’s land to build more and better homes,� September 2015, p.20, available from www.savills. co.uk, accessed April 2,

Figure 1.11 The lowest dense best connected areas [data source: Savills analysis / PTAL data / Census

Relationship between density and connectivity Bottom 10% least dense best connected Figure 1.11

40

Top 10% dense despite lower connectivity


1.1.7: Happiness Mapping Since 2011, the Office for National Statistics has asked UK residents to rank their feelings of life satisfaction, purpose, happiness and anxiety on a scale from zero to ten. The residents of London stand in the middle. (Figure 1.12) The best performing boroughs, according to the survey are: Kensington, Chelse and Tower Hamlets. There are two main reasons for people’s satisfaction level: commuting time and higher education stress. By looking at the information leads us at considering the live-work distance and commuting factor on the housing strategy.

Figure 1.12 Average Personal Well-being by Borough [data source: Office for National Statistics]

1.2: Target Group

A

B

C

D

A- Overall satisfaction? B- Worthy lifestyle? C- Happiness level? D- Anxeity level?

Figure 1.12

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42


The observed employment-residential density patterns will serve as the ground of our housing strategy. Working people will be the focus on which the shared housing model will be addressed. The main target group are early-career professionals, particularly of the age 25-40. More specifically, the housing will provide living spaces for: • single people • couples • small families There are a number of reasons informed by the data analysis that

Generation Z Post millenials

Single/ Independent

Early-career professionals Couples

Particularly belonging to the age group 25-40

Small families

Generation X People born in the early 1960s till 1980s

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People

Figure 1.15

44 Figure 1.13

Age 64+

50-64

35-49

25-34

16-24

Age

Share of residents (%)

9%

46%

68.60%

81.40%

82.40%

A B 50

40

30

20

10

City Center

Figure 1.14 Suburbs


lead us to addressing this age group for our housing model: • people of the age from 20 to 40 years old count for the largest percentage of the city’s population with 30 years old having the highest number (Figure 1.16) • projections for 2021 indicate an increase on these age groups. • the employed people among the age group of 25-34 represent 82.4% • on the age group of 25-49 there are 81.4% employed. (Figure 1.13) • the age group of 20-30 years old constitute the largest proportion of people migrating to London from other parts of the UK. (Figure 1.15) The data for living arrangements for inner London imply that: (Figure 1.16) • 48% of people are single • 18% are married

Left: Figure 1.13 Employment rates inLondon by age group in 2015 to 2016 Figure 1.14 Living arrangements in London Figure 1.15 Domestic (UK) migration to London by single year of age year to mid-2012 [data source: Office for National Statistics]

1.3: Architectural Precedents

175

Figure 1.16 London population age, 2011 and projections for 2021 [data source: Office for National Statistics]

150

125

100

People (Thousand)

75

50

25

0 Age

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 1.16

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

45


46


The following part of the research consists of an overview of architectural precedents on housing and existing shared models. The case studies include: • historical precedent Narkomfin building as an early novel approach of communal living • contemporary examples of compact formal and spatial organization Diogene and Kasita • models of shared living that actually operate in different locations and with different directions like community, student or family oriented

1.3.1: Narkomfin building - Moisei Ginzburg

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

47


48


Narkomfin building was designed in 1928 by Moisei Ginzburg. (Figure 1.17) Its main aim was to reinvent the everyday life of people by acting as a social and architectural laboratory. Women emancipation was an important ideology behind Narkomfin. Providing shared amenities would encourage them to engage more in activities outside of their everyday house routine and to participate into the wide community. 1 An entirely glazed volume was dedicated to communal spaces like: • kindergartens • kitchens • libraries • gymnasiums The upper roof would also work as a communal recreative space.

Left: Figure 1.17 Exterior view of the building

1 Athlyn Cathcart-Keays, “Moscow’s Narkomfin building: Soviet blueprint for collective living – a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 29,” accessed April 5, 2017, https://www.theguardian. com/cities/2015/

Figure 1.18 The main building block

Figure 01

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

49


Legend Apartments ‘K’ type Apartments ‘F’ type Shared spaces Corridor Figure 1.19

Figure 1.20

50


(Figure 1.21) The communal spaces were an important part of the whole design and were visible on the exterior with transparent facades.2 The whole residential structures consists of two six-storey-high compounds destined to: • individual activities • collective activities The duplex flats were divided into two types: • the K Types which includes a kitchen • the F Types, where all the communal functions are located outside of the apartments (Figure 1.20)

1.3.2: Diogene - Renzo Piano

Left: Figure 1.19 First and fourth floor plan Figure 1.20 Plans of the apartments

1 Christina E. Crawford, “The Innovative Potential of Scarcity in SA’s Comradely Competition for Communal Housing, 1927,” Archi Doct 4-2 (2014): 41, accessed April 7, 2017. Figure 1.21 3D section - functional organisation

Collective Functions / spaces Volume containing Kindergarten, kitchens, library and Gymnasium

Penthouse / Rooftop Garden Few of higher class occupied the penthouse at the top of the building There was also acces to a rooftop garden

Type ‘F’ apartment Unit Type ‘K’ apartment Unit Contains only bedroom, Equipped with bedliving space and a room, living space, bathroom bathroom and a small kitchen

Figure 1.21

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

51


Figure 1.22

Figure 1.23

52

Figure 1.24


Diogene was launched on the Vitra campus during Art Basel 2013. It is not proposed as a finished product, but rather as an experimental arrangement for further testing. (Figure 1.25) In only 7.5 sqm, the house provides the minimal required space for living. (Figure 1.24) The space is divided into two areas which contain: • living space • kitchen • shower • toilet It is suitable for single occupancy and can be used as a workplace or weekend home. The saddle-roofed cabin measures: • 2.5m wide • 3m long • a ridge height of 2.3m. 1

Left: Figure 1.22 Sections Figure 1.23 Axonometric view Figure 1.24 Plan of the unit Figure 1.25 Prototype of the unit

1 “Diogene,” accessed April 5, 2017, http://www. rpbw.com/project/diogene.

1.3.3: Kasita

Figure 1.25

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

53


Figure 01 54


Kasita is a prefabricated house that can be used in different locations and configurations. (Figure 1.26) With its compact footprint and flexibility, it is a suitable solution for: • urban backyards • rooftop • rural context • It is an exceptional example of a small home that contains everything that a person needs. In 33 sqm it contains: • living that can transform in a sleeping area • kitchen • bathroom • the “cube”, a sitting area. 1 (Figure 1.28)

Left: Figure 1.26 Stacking of units

1 “Kasita,” accessed April 5, 2017, https://kasita. com

1.3.4: Mirador - MVRDV

Figure 1.27 Single prefabricated unit Figure 1.28 Plan of the unit

Figure 1.27

Figure 1.28

CHAPTER 1.0

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

55


Figure 1.29 56


The Mirador is a collection of mini neighborhoods stacked vertically around a semi-public sky-plaza. The housing units are grouped in small buildings. As these groups are stacked together, they create a vertical compact superblock which, acting as a big neighborhood, contributes to the creation of a community. (Figure 1.31) The 165 apartments are divided in a variety of different types for different life-styles which is reflected in the variety of formal expression. The sky-plaza sits at 40 meters above the ground which provides occupants with a community garden and space to contemplate the skyline. 1

1.3.5: Conclusions

Left: Figure 1.29 Mirador building

1 “Mirador,� accessed April 5, 2017, https://www. mvrdv.nl/projects/mirador.

Figure 1.30 Concept diagrams Figure 1.31 Blocks of various types of neighbourhoods in one building

Part-whole relationship Neighbours

Neighbouring

Neighbourhood Figure 1.30

CHAPTER 1.0

Threshholds-porosity

Access and circulation Figure 31

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

57


Narkomfin Building The importance of Narkomfin lies on: • being one of the first precedents of communal living • the daring ideology of women emancipation

Diogene • •

an exceptional example of minimal living compact organisation with all neccessary living amenities

Kasita •

organisational system to accommodate all living areas in less

• •

space compactness in functional and geometrical terms prefabricaed and combined in different arrangements

Mirador • •

small neighbourhood-like blocks creation of a community

1.3.6: Existing shared models

58


Vrijsbruch Amsterdam Vrijsbruch is organized around the concept of the creation of a community. It is a multipurpose live-work complex for all age groups offering many social amenities. 1 The shared concept is not only serving the people living in the building but the shared spaces are offered to the whole neighborhood. (Figure 1.32)

Tech Farm Stockholm

Figure 1.32

Figure 1.33 Tech Farm conecpt

Figure 1.33

Tech Farm is a co-living and co-working house for people in different phases of life but with a common interest of living in a shared community. (Figure 1.33) The building is organized in: • micro apartments for one person • apartments for two people • apartments for small families The shared spaces represent the core of the community. They consist of: • open office desks • meeting rooms • workshop space for professional use • living rooms The community is encouraged by participation in co-creating dinners, brunches, workshops, parties and trips. 2

CHAPTER 1.0

Figure 1.32 Vrijsbruch complex

1 “Vrijsbruch,” accessed April 5, 2017, http://www. architectureindevelopment. org/project.php?id=499. 2 “Tech Farm,” accessed April 5, 2017, https://www. techfarm.life/about-2

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

59


CH 2.0

Primitive Layout 2.1

Site Proposal

2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2

Primitive Layout Geometric Study of Primitives Volumetric study of Primitives

2.3

Rigid Body Physics

2.4

Generating Communities

2.5

User Mixing Profiles

2.6 2.6.1

Functional Organisation Distribution of Spaces

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT


2.1: London’s working areas The prototypical proposed housing model, which is focused on working people, will be distributed in close proximity to traditional working areas of London. The six most popular working boroughs are: • City • Westminster • Camden • Islington • Lambeth • Southwark.1

Islington

Camden

City

Southwark

Lamberth

Figure 2.1.1

3

1 Sivaev, Dmitry, “Inner London’s Economy, a ward-level analysis of the business and employment base,” October 2013, p.6, available from www.centreforcities.org, accessed April 3, 2017.

Figure 2.1.1 London’s traditional working areas


A number of sites are considered accross London based on three parameters: • the sites should be located near traditional working areas as the housing is addressing working people • the surrounding area should be of residential character • the sites should be close to transport stations

Figure 2.1.2 Potential sites accross London Figure 2.1.3 Site proposal

Euston Russell Square

South Kensigton Clerckenwell Road

Shoreditch

Figure 2.1.2

Figure 2.1.3

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

4


5


2.2 Primitive Layout Primitive Layout is formed by three parameters : Compact Geometry, Rigid body physics and User Profile Mixing. Different types of geometrical shapes including platonic solids, archimedian solids are studied and analysed based on their configurations. They are further classified based on number of faces, connection, ways of stacking, voids and number of possible arrangements. Later, they are analysed with the rigid body physics. The outcome of this study helped us to understand different geometries and their organization, which generated certain rule sets to establish the unit on different sites. Primitive layout will create the foundations for the two followimg aspects. Informed by data analysis for London, it will explore: • community creation through considering different user profiles and ways to create interactions among them • use of compact primitives which allow for good connectivity and aggregations and efficient space usage • a generative primitive based system through a set of rules which would provide a distributive system in the city • rigid body physics for testing stability of primitive arrangements and for potential future expansion of the system by attaching different units.

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

6


Primitive Cube (CB)

(CB) Subdivision (S) 1

1

4

6

2

2

5 3

(CB) (S) 2

Number of Faces 6

2

4

2

4

(CB) (S) 3 Linear and Diagonal Connection

5 5

6

5

6

3

3

6

(CB) (S) 4

3

5 1

1

5

6

5

6 6

Packing of Solids with Face Connection

7

(CB) (S) 5

Stacking

Sub-Division


Figure 2.2.1 Primitive Study for Evaluation of Primitives by studying stacking and subdivison properties of a solid Cube (Left), Icosahedron (Right)

Primitive Icosahedron (IC)

16 17

7

8

9 10

19

15

18 20 1 13

6

2 14 11 5 12

3

4

Number of Faces 19 B A 10

17

(IC) Subdivision (S) 1

Linear and Diagonal Connection

20 11

2 10

(IC) (S) 2

14 4 10 1 10

6

16

Packing of Solids with Face Connection

Figure 2.2.1

CHAPTER 2.0

Stacking

Sub-Division

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

8


Primitive Octahedron (OC)

3 2

4

1

8

7

6

5

Number of Faces 7

6

8

(OC) Subdivision (S) 1

3

4

5 3

7 1

Diagonal Connection

(OC) (S) 2

Packing of Solids with Face Connection

Stacking

9

Sub-Division


Figure 2.2.2 Primitive Study for Evaluation of Primitives by studying stacking and subdivison properties of a solid Octahedron (Left), Truncated Octahedron (Right)

Primitive Truncated Octahedron (TO)

1 2

12

11

13 3

10 9

6

8

4

5

14 7

Number of Faces 14 C

B

A 2

8

(TO) Subdivision (S) 1

6 12 4

10

Linear Connection

(TO) (S) 2 7

7

1 1

Packing of Solids with Face Connection Figure 2.2.2

CHAPTER 2.0

Stacking

Sub-Division

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

10


Primitive Hexagonal Prism (HP)

(HP) Subdivision (S) 1

1

6

7

2 8

5

3 4

(HP) (S) 2

Number of Faces 8 B

5

A

4

(HP) (S) 3

2 1 3

6

C

Diagonal Connection

(HP) (S) 4

8

7 3

6

2

5

7 8

(HP) (S) 5

Packing of Solids with Face Connection

Stacking

11

Sub-Division Subdivisions


Figure 2.2.3 Primitive Study for Evaluation of Primitives by studying stacking and subdivison properties of a solid Hexagonal Prism (Left), Dodecahedron (Right)

Primitive Dodecahedron (DD)

8

7 12

2

11

5

9

1

6

10

3

4

(DD) (S) 2

Number of Faces 12

A

A

C

10 B 3

12

7

5

(DD) (S) 3

8

B

Vertical and Diagonal Connection

3 6

7

2

(DD) (S) 4 10 12

Packing of Solids with Face Connection Figure 2.2.3

CHAPTER 2.0

Stacking

Sub-Division Subdivisions

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

12


2.2.1: Geometric Study of Primitives

Primitive

Number of Faces

8 - square faces

Base Area

Volume - 27 cu.m Base area - 9 sq.m

Ways of Stacking

13

Icosahedron

Cube

Linear , vertical, diagonal - Stable

20 - triangular faces

Octahedron

8 - triangular faces

Volume - 14 cu.m Base area - 8 sq.m

Volume - 7 cu.m Base area - 3 sq.m

With faces - Unstable

Linear - edge connection - Unstable

Voids Created

No Voids Created

Larger Empty Voids

Larger Empty Voids

Possible Arrangements

More than 2 - Stable

More than 2 - Unstable

More than 2 - Unstable


Truncated Octahedron

Hexagonal Prism

8 - hexagonal faces 6 - square faces

2 - hexagonal faces 6 - rectangular faces

Volume - 15 cu.m Base area - 4 sq.m

Volume - 23 cu.m Base area - 9 sq.m

Connected with all faces, vertical, horizontal, diagonal

Linear, vertical wstacking - Stable

No Voids Created, but structural stability helps creating voids

More than 2 - Stable

No Voids Created different arrangement helps creating voids

More than 2 - Stable

Dodecahedron

12 - pentagonal faces

Volume - 12 cu.m Base area - 3 sq.m

Vertical, connected with faces - Unstable

Larger Empty Voids

More than 2 - Unstable

Table 2.2.1 Evaluation of Primitive based on their Geometric study

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

14


2.2.2: Volumetric Study of the Selected Primitive Primitive Cube (CU) Parameter Scale Volume - 27 cu.m Base Area - 9 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 1

Primitive Truncated Octahedron(TO) Hexagonal Base Parameter Scale, Orientation

Volume - 20.8 cu.m Base Area - 7.8 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 1

Primitive Truncated Octahedron(TO) Square Base Parameter Scale, Orientation

Volume - 15 cu.m Base Area - 4.5 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 0

Figure 2.2.4 Volumetric Study of a Cube and Truncated Octahedron

15


Volume - 243 cu.m Base Area - 81 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 10 Volume- 108 cu.m Base Area - 36 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 5 Volume -108 cu.m Base Area - 36 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 5

Volume - 243 cu.m Base Area - 81 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 10 Volume - 243 cu.m Base Area - 81 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 10

Volume - 164 cu.m Base Area - 76 sq.m Number of Occupancy

Volume - 84 cu.m Base Area - 35.074 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 5 Volume - 68 cu.m Base Area - 15.58 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 2

Volume - 158 cu.m Base Area - 76 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 9 Volume - 129 cu.m Base Area - 35.074 sq.m Number of Occupancy

Volume - 81 cu.m Base Area - 52.85 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 9 Volume - 46 cu.m Base Area - 31.5sq.m Number of Occupancy - 5

Volume - 46 cu.m Base Area - 4.5 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 0

Volume - 135 cu.m Base Area - 52.85 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 6 Volume - 82 cu.m Base Area - 10.5 sq.m Number of Occupancy - 1

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

16


17


Gravity

Mass Addition

Center of Gravity

Figure 2.3.1

2.3 Rigid Body Physics Rigid Bodies basically solids which doesn’t deform or changes its shapes, when acted upon by forces such as gravity, viscosity, friction and collision and the resultant simulation would case change in position or orientation. The force in this case would be gravity.

Figure 2.3.1 Illustration of Rigid Body Physics

Applying rigid body physics would test stability in the case of expansion of the system in the future by attaching additional units to the existing. The rigid body simulation considers three changing parameters: - Number of primitives - Mass of primitives - Center of gravity Outcomes of the studies also provide indications for the primitives with more mass which are neccessary for balancing the arrangement and translated in geometric operations they would be formed of heavier curve-folded elements.

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

18


2.3(A): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of similar mass

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:2 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:3 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2)

Result (2)

Result (2)

Figure 2.3.2

19

:5 : 1 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.1 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of similar mass Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s) Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:7 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

: 10 : 1 unit

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2)

Result (2)

Result (2)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

20


2.3(B): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:4 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (1) Figure 2.3.3

21

:5 : 1 unit : 5 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.2 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of different mass Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s)

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:8 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

: 10 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (1)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

22


2.3(C): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass and Changing the Centre of Gravity

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:7 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Figure 2.3.4

23

Result (1)

: 10 : 1 unit : 5 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.3 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of different mass and changing the center of gravity Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s) Number of Primitives : 10 Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Mass of the Primitive : 5 unit Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Number of Combined Primitives : 5 x 1

Number of Primitives : 11 Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Mass of the Primitive : 5 unit Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Number of Combined Primitives : 5 x 1

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

24


2.3(A): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass and Changing the Centre of Gravity

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:3 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:5 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2) Figure 2.3.5

25

Result (2)

:6 : 1 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.4 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of similar mass

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

:8 : 1 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive

: 10 : 1 unit

Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s)

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2)

Result (2)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

26


2.3(B): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:5 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Figure 2.3.6

27

Result (1)

:5 : 1 unit : 5 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.5 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of different mass Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s)

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:6 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:8 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

28


2.3(B): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

: 10 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Figure 2.3.7

29

Result (1)

: 10 : 1 unit : 5 unit


Left: Figure 2.3.6 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of different mass Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s)

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:3 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:3 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

30


2.3(C): Checking the stability by arranging primitives of Different Mass and Changing the Centre of Gravity

Number of Primitives Mass of the Primitive Mass of the Primitive

:5 : 1 unit : 5 unit

Number of Primitives : 10 Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Mass of the Primitive : 5 unit Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Number of Combined Primitives : 3 x 1

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

Result (1)

Result (2) Figure 2.3.8

31


Left: Figure 2.3.6 Checking the stability by arranging primitives of different mass and changing the centre of Gravity Force on each Primitive by Gravity (-9.8m/s) Number of Primitives : 9 Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Mass of the Primitive : 5 unit Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Number of Combined Primitives : 3 x 1

Number of Primitives : 8 Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Mass of the Primitive : 5 unit Mass of the Primitive : 1 unit Number of Combined Primitives : 3 x 1

Addition / Subtraction of Primitives

Primitive Arrangement

Result (1)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

32


2.4 Generating Communities Community creation is done through considering different user profiles and the ways they interact with each other. hared spaces and common amenities are focussed mainly for generation of a community. These type of spaces lead to social awareness and interaction with the surrounding. These spaces are further divided by defining spaces based on the user. People with similar interest come together and share these spaces. These spaces are further categorised as common spaces. There are different types of common spaces such as communal space, interactive pace, casual spac, uiet space, seasonal space.

33


Visual Connection

External View

Acoustics

Thermal Comfort

Figure 2.4.1

CHAPTER 2.0

Figure 2.4.1 Spatial Qualities for any Space required to form a community

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

34


2.4.1 Five Kind of common spaces for Generating a Community Communal Space (CO) The space is a bustle of interaction and movement. Individuals can occupy the space as part of a group or can join other individuals, enabling them to become part of the broader community.

Interactive Space (IN) People look for a space where they can adapt to suit their needs. Engaging with other people of the community is encouraged mostly because of the activity which is the primary focus of the space.

Casual Space (CA) The casual space is a comfortable spot where people can spend an indeterminate period of time. The space an inviting sometimes informal environments such as living space or kitchen.

Quiet Space (QU) A quiet space is intended for working people or those who prefer to study but still remaining part of the community.

Seasonal Space (SE) It is organized around community activities but with a change of pace from the usual interior space. The space can be an outdoor area.

35


DayLight

Visual simulation

Passive engagement

Scale

Physical Barrier

Figure 2.4.2 Spatial Qualities for any Space required to form a community

Figure 2.4.2

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

36


Space Type

37

(CO)

(IN)

(CA)

(QU)

(SE)

Table 2.4.1

High importance of space type

Low importance of space type Physical Barrier

Passive Engagement

Daylight

Visual Simulation

Scale

Thermal Comfort

External View

Acoustics

Visual Connection

Spatial Qualities


Left: Table 2.4.1 Spatial Qualities of Common Spaces

Living Room

Kitchen

Common Area

Game Area

Kids Area

Study Area

Outdoor Area

Fitness Area

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

38


Space Living Area

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Thermal Comfort Scale

Space `Kitchen

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Thermal Comfort Scale

Space Common Room

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Passive Engagement

Space Games Area

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Passive Engagement Visual Simulation

Figure 2.4.3

39


Space Kids Area

Left: Table 2.4.3 Spatial Qualities of Spaces

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Passive Engagement Visual Simulation

Space Study Area

Spatial Qualities Acoustics Daylight

Space Kids Area

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Passive Engagement Visual Simulation

Space Fitness Area

Spatial Qualities Visual Connection Passive Engagement External View

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

40


2.5: Mapping user’s interests

Reading

s

-06

04

20

-22

Sp

Co ok ing

02 -04

Ar t

-24 22

00-02

Assumptions are made based on real user profiles, their timing and interest mapping which would later serve as the base for mixing them in the living clusters. Combining different users for sharing common spaces would enhance community interactions.

s

06-08

Travelling

Music

18-20 08

em

ing pp

Sp

ok

02

s

-22

s

06-08

Travelling

Music 08

em

g pin op

Sp

ok

02

s

-22

s

06-08

Travelling

Music 08

kin g

02

Travelling

Music -10

g pin

-16

op Sh

Kitchen

Private space / Bedroom

e tlif

14

em

Cycling

41

12-14

Figure 2.5.1

-12

10

Shared Living

Cin

ing

m Ga

a

h Nig

-18

g

isin

s

08 16

D. / 30 years old Teacher / Living alone

erc Ex

ort

06-08 18-20

a

Co o

-04

Reading

-16 14

00-02

s Art

Sp

Cycling

12-14

-12

-22

em

fe htli Nig

10

-24

22

-06

04

20

Cin

g

min

Ga

Sh op pin g

-10

-18

16

g

isin

erc Ex

ort

18-20

D. & F. / 28 & 26 years old Self employed / Couple

ing

Reading

Sh -04

00-02

Art

-24

22

-06

04

20

a

e tlif

Cycling

-12

-16

10

12-14

14

Cin

g

min

Ga

h Nig

-18

16

Co

-10

g

isin

erc Ex

ort

18-20

R. / 28 years old Banker / Living alone

ing

Reading

Sh o -04

00-02

Art

-24

22

-06

04

20

a

e tlif

Cycling

-12

-16

10

12-14

14

Cin

g

min

Ga

h Nig

-18

16

Co

-10

g

isin

erc Ex

ort

G. & A. / 30 & 28 & 5 years old Architect & Self Employed /


Reading

s

-22

Sp

Co ok ing

02 -04

00-02

Ar t

-24 22

-06

04

20

s

06-08

Travelling

Music

18-20 08

-10

ing pp Sh o

Sp

ing ok Co

-04

Reading

-16 14

02

s

-22

s

06-08

Travelling

Music 08

-10

g pin op Sh

-22

Sp

ok Co

s

06-08

Travelling

Music 08

g

g kin

-04 02

s

-24

Sp

Co o

pin Sh

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14 -16

00-02

Art

22

-06

04

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Travelling

Music 08

-10

g pin op Sh

-16

a

E. & T. / 33 & 27 years old Lawyer & Engineer / Couple

e tlif

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em

Cycling

12-14

-12

10

CHAPTER 2.0

Cin

ing

m Ga

h Nig

-18

16

g

isin

erc Ex

ort

06-08 18-20

a

e tlif

Cycling

12-14

-12

Ga

20

F. / 25 years old Photographer / Living alone

em

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10

1

Cin

g min

Reading

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g

isin

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18-20

A. & M. / 35 & 30 & 3 years old Chef & Student / Family

ing

Reading

-04

s

02

Art

-06

04

20

a

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14

em

Cycling

-12

-16

10

12-14

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00-02

Cin

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min

Ga

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-18

16

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ort

18-20

a

e tlif

Art

-06

04

20

N. / 32 years old Fitness Trainer / Living alone

em

Cycling

12-14

-12

10

-24

22

00-02

Cin

ing

m Ga

h Nig

-18

16

g

isin

erc Ex

ort

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

42


43 Couple Couple Shared Space Family

Single Couple Shared Space Single

Couple Couple SIngle Shared Space

Single

Couple

Shared Space

Family

Shared Space

Single

Single

Family

Shared Space

Single

Couple

Family

Priviate and Shared Living Spaces

Sin gle

Figure 2.5.2 Co up

he

d are Sh ing Liv c Kit le m Fa ily

+

n/ he

d are Sh ing Liv c Kit n/

Possible user Combinations


Figure 2.5.2 Modules of Living Spaces For Single Couple and Family Possible Shared Combinations(Left) Private (Right)

le

g Sin

it

Un

le up

it

Un

Co

ly mi

it

Un

Fa

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

44


Private Units

Compacted Units

le

g Sin

it

Un

t ac

mp Co it Un

le up

gle

Sin

it

a mp Co it Un

Un

Co

ple

ou

C ct

ily

t ac

mp Co it Un

ly

mi Fa

Figure 2.5.3

45

it

Un

m Fa


Compact Sharing Units

Compact Single Unit + Shared Space + Compact Family Unit

Compact Couple Unit + Shared Space + Compact Single Unit

Compact Family Unit + Shared Space + Compact Single Unit

Figure 2.5.3 Hierarchy of Compactness, Reducing Spaces for Minimal Living Requirements(Left) Compact Shared Living Clusters(Right)

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

46


2.6 Functional Organization Rule 1 65% of Arrangements near Communal Kitchen/Dinning (CK) 5

X X= Maximum Distance from CK

3 2

1

Communal Kitchen

Fixing the Points defining Spaces

Rule 2 35% of Arrangements near Common Space (CS) 6

CS

8

Y

7

5 CK

KS 4 3

CK: Communal Kitchen/ Dinning CS: Communal Spaces

2

Y=Maximum Distance from CS Y= X/2

1

Common Space

KS: Kids Space Changed Parameter Rule 3 Kids Space (Families should be in close Proximity) 7 6 8 5

3 1 Kids Space Table 2.6.1 Rules of functional Organization

47

Z Z= Maximum Distance from KS Z= (X+Y)/2


Changing Parameters

Final Arrangements

5

5

X

4

3 2

X= Maximum Distance from CK

X

4

X= Maximum Distance from CK

3

1

2

1

6 6 8

8

Y

Y

7

5

7

5

4

4 3 2

1

Y=Maximum Distance from CS Y= X/2

3 2

1

7

Y=Maximum Distance from CS Y= X

7 6

6

Z

8 5

Z

8 5

3 1

Z= Maximum Distance from KS Z= X+Y

CHAPTER 2.0

3 1

Z= Maximum Distance from KS Z= (X+Y)/2

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

48


2.6.1 Distribution of spaces To generate a community different types of arrangements of users are done based on their profession as well as the way they use their shared spaces. To generate a community 8 basic combinations of working population people are done. Further these the spaces are divided and the maximum probability of shared spaces which provides compact shared living are generated. Shared spaces are categorised based on three main spaces communal kitchen, common space and kids area. Certain ratio is set to provide private spaces of these modules around them based on their probability of the use of those spaces on daily basis.

User Arrangements (S= Single, C= Couple, F= Family) 1. CC

6. FCS

2. CCS

7. FC

3. SSC

8. FS

4. CS 5. FF

Social Zone

4

60% of the users share communal Kitchen (CK)

5

3

KS

CK

2

CS

6

1 8 Communal Zone Private Zone

Figure 2.6.2

49

7


Functions are divided mainly into private spaces and shared spaces. To enhance the growth of the community these shared spaces are located at shortest distance from the private spaces for the users to easily commute . These spaces are usually shared by the entire community.

Left: Figure 2.6.2 Illustration of Functional Organization Figure 2.6.3 Illustration of Functional Organization with given Rule sets

Flexible plans are generated based on the user profile mixing depending on their usage of space.These type of functional organisation suits the changing situations depending upon the number and type of people. With these type of organisation users such as families who leave the city to meet their increasing needs can be satisfied in these type of flexible module planning.

Communal Kitchen/ Dinning

6 8

5

7

2 1

3 4

Common Space

Kids Space

Figure 2.6.3

CHAPTER 2.0

PRIMITIVE LAYOUT

50


1


CH 3.0

Architectural Geometry 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

Introduction to Curve Crease Folding Application of Curve Crease Folding Arum pavilion - Zaha Hadid Architects Curve folded car - Kyungeun Ko AAVS Bangalore - ZHA Code Hyper threads workshop - ZHA Code

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2

Scope of Application Exploration of Curve Folded Frames Exploration ofCurve Folded Surfaces

3.4

Geometry and Architectural Applications

3.4

Conclusion

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

2


3


3.0: Architectural Geometry Architectural geometry is a new area of research which has as its main objective to provide construction-aware design tools and encouraging an entirely digital design-manufacturing workflow. It aims to find applications especially in very complex geometries.

Figure 4.1.1 Curve Folded Geometry

In terms of architectural geometry, the research explores curve folding and its potential for architectural scale applications.

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

4


3.1: Introduction to Curve Crease Folding Curve folding is the process of folding a flat sheet of material along a curved crease for creating 3D shapes by combining folding as plastic deformation and bending as elastic. In most of the applications, only the use of the final result state of the folding is used, a static solution derived from folding a curved crease pattern. The known start of curve folding is the work of Joseph Alber in 1927 at Bauhaus. Mathematician David Huffman has an important contribution in expanding it artistically. The work of Erik Demaine and his father are successful attempts in

Figure 3.1.1

Figure 3.1.2

5

Figure 3.1.1 Curve Folding of Frames Figure 3.1.2 Curve Folding of Sheet


understanding curve folding through mathematical expressions and also expressing its sculptural aesthetic qualities in various forms and materials for achieving complex shapes. Curve-crease folding (CCF) could be viewed as a special extension of developable surfaces. In particular CCF can be viewed as intersection of two or more developable surfaces, subject to additional geometric constraints

Figure 3.1.3 David Huffman cusp folding Figure 3.1.4 Sculpture by Richard Sweeney

Until now, most applications of curved-line folding in architecture only make use of the end state of the folding process. Starting from a flat sheet of material three-dimensional shapes with a geometrical stiffness are obtained, finding applications in sculptures, faรงade, industrial design and pavilions.

Figure 3.1.5 Concentric circles by Erik Demaine

Figure 3.1.3

Figure 3.1.5

Figure 3.1.4

Figure 3.1.6 Curve folded model

Figure 3.1.6

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

6


3.2: Applications of Curve Crease Folding 3.2.1: Arum pavilion - Zaha Hadid Architects The pavilion was designed and fabricated for the Venice Biennale in 2012 by Zaha Hadid Architects. The installation is composed of pleated aluminum sheets. Each of the pieces is curve folded and joined together with bolts to create an intricate shape lightweight structure. The folding process of each of the pieces is done by using the robotic arm.

Figure 3.2.1(A) Arum pavilion Figure 3.2.2(B) 3D view of the model Figure 3.2.3(C) Detail of the aluminium folded pieces

Figure 3.2.1(B)

Figure 3.2.1(A)

7

Figure 3.2.1(C)


3.2.2: Curve folded car - Kyungeun Ko The car is part of a thesis project at Royal College of Arts. The projects was initially explored in paper models which enabled the creation of organic and sculptural aesthetic for a car. For translating the refined paper models in real scale in metal, the robotic arm was used.

Figure 3.2.2(A) Paper models of the car Figure 3.2.2(B) Final fabricated model Figure 3.2.2(C) Unfolded drawing of the car Figure 3.2.2(D) Rendered view

Figure 3.2.2(A)

Figure 3.2.2(B)

The low cost manufacturing system employs robots to fold sheets of aluminum, which alleviates the need for castings and molds – ideal for creating a one-off vehicle. The system is also devoid of waste, and the aluminum can also be recycled at the end of its practical use.

Figure 3.2.2(C)

Figure 3.2.2(D)

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

8


3.2.3: AAVS Bangalore - ZHA Code The curve folded structure is the result of the ZHA Code workshop in Bangalore. It explores the creation of curve folded skeleton structures. The form was the result of a basic low poly geometry transformed through various geometric operations. Fabrication was done by using laser cutter and the pieces were folded and then connected together to form the whole model.

Figure 3.2.3(A)

Figure 3.2.3(B)

9

Figure 3.2.3(A) Process of creating the geometry Figure 3.2.3(B) Final models


3.2.4: Hyper threads workshop - ZHA Code The structure was designed and fabricated during the ZHA Code workshop in India. The structure is an exploration in curve-folded structures that would be used for casting concrete. The material used were aluminum sheets that were curve folded in pieces and joined together to provide the full structure. After the frame was installed, concrete was casted. Unfolding the pieces was done after dynamic relaxation of the surfaces. The metal sheets were cut by laser cutter.

Figure 3.2.4(A) Components foled and unfolded Figure 3.2.4(B) Design development Figure 3.2.5(C) Final casted model

Figure 3.2.4(A)

Figure 3.2.4(B)

Figure 3.2.4(C)

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

10


Primitive

Geometric Operations

Low-Poly Mesh

(1)

(2)

Chamfer (C)

Bevel Edges (B)

High Resolution Mesh

(3)

Delete Faces

Extracting Node Gaussian Curvature Solver (4)

Figure 3.3.1(A)

11

Developable Surface

Extrude Edges (E)


3.3 Scope of Application Curve crease folding holds the potential to provide intricate 3D shapes that can accommodate interesting spatial configurations. - Advantages of Curve Crease Folding A surface can be folded or unfolded from just few patterns depending upon the material which is being folded. The method can create forms from a single sheet of material and minimize effort. - Limitations of Curve Crease Folding Limitations are mostly related to the scalability of the prototypes and the digital creation of curve folding which instead starts more as a manual physical process. Computational models lack precision. - Applications in Architecture Applications in architecture are limited and in small scales. Interesting results from curve folding were achieved in pavilions like Arum from ZHA and skeleton explorations in curve folded metal in several workshops. Primary Exploration of Curve Crease folding are done particularly in two ways 3.3.1 Exploration of Curve Folded Frames 3.3.2 Exploration ofCurve Folded Surfaces

3.3.1 Exploration of Curve Folded Frames Curve folding is explored in two different directions, as frames and as surfaces. In terms of frames, investigations are focused on testing their potential for being used as structural elements. In terms of digital generation, the frames can mostly be created through geometrical operations. The base primitive is transformed by operations that include in sequence: chamfer vertices, bevel edges, delete faces, extrude border edges, translating the low poly geometry in a smooth one. Each of the nodes is then extracted for unfolding which would later be fabricated. During the unfolding process, the resulting 2D surface is deformed. This requires an additional step, surface relaxation which minimizes the errors and makes it possible for the surface to be unfolded. After the process, there are still minor inaccuracies which can be fixed manually. The generated nodes are mostly formed of three joints as it is the easiest to be unfolded. Increasing the number of edges in each of the nodes, increases the difficulty of the fabrication process of the precise pieces.

CHAPTER 3.0

Left: Figure 3.3.1(A) Process of Generating a Developable surface from a Platonic Solid/ Polyhedra

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

12


Chamfer (C) 0.1

Chamfer (C) 0.3

Following is the process of obtaining a developable surface for a frame of a Cube

Chamfer (C) 0.4

Primitive Cube Number of Faces 4 Number of Edges 12 Number of Vertices 8

Primitive 13

Chamfer (C) 0.5

Chamfer (C) 0.1, 0.3

Chamfer (C) 0.3, 0.1

Changing the Wireframes

Chamfer (C) 0.3

Chamfer (C)


(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.2

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.4

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.8

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 1.0

(C) 0.4 Bevel (B) 0.4

(C) 0.4 Bevel (B) 0.6

(C) 0.4 Bevel (B) 0.8

(C) 0.4 Bevel (B) 1.0

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 0.4

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 0.6

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 0.8

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 1.0

(C) 0.3, 0.1Bevel (B) 0.1 (C) 0.3, 0.1Bevel (B) 0.4 (C) 0.3, 0.1Bevel (B) 0.5 (C) 0.3, 0.1Bevel (B) 0.6

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.1

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.2

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.4

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.6

Bevel Edges (B)

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

14


(C) 0.3 (B) 0.2

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.5 (B) 0.4

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.3, 0.1 (B) 0.5

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.5 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.3 (B) 0.6

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.6 Extrude (E) 0.3

Delete Faces

15

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.8 Extrude (E) 0.3

Extrude Edges (E)


(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.5 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.5 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.6 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.6 (E) 0.3

Low-Poly Mesh

High-Poly Mesh

CHAPTER 3.0

Extracting Nodes

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

16


17

Unrolled Surface

Unrolled Surface

Surface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Surface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Unrolled developable Surface

Unrolled developable Surface


Left: Figure 3.3.1(B) Creating a Developable surface by using Gaussian Curvature Solver. (Cube)

Unrolled Surface

ยงSurface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Figure 3.3.1(B)

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

18


Chamfer (C) 0.1

(C) 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.2

Chamfer (C) 0.3

(C) 0.4 Bevel (B) 0.4

Chamfer (C) 0.4

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 0.6

Chamfer (C) 0.5

(C) 0.5 Bevel (B) 0.8

Following is the process of obtaining a developable surface for a frame of a Truncated Octahedron

Primitive Truncated Octahedron Number of Faces 14 Number of Edges 36 Number of Vertices 24

(C) 0.1, 0.3 Bevel (B) 0.2

Primitive 19

Chamfer (C)

Bevel (B)


(C) 0.3 (B) 0.2 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.4 (B) 0.4 (E) 0.3

(C) 0.5 (B) 0.6 Extrude (E) 0.3

(C) 0.5 (B) 0.8 Extrude (E) 0.2

(C) 0.1, 0.3 (B) 0.2 (E) 0.3

Delete Faces

(C) 0.1, 0.3 (B) 0.2 (E) 0.3

Extrude Edges (E)

CHAPTER 3.0

High-Poly Mesh

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

20


Unrolled Surface

Surface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Extracting Nodes 21

Unrolled developable Surface


Left: Figure 3.3.1(C) Creating a Developable surface by using Gaussian Curvature Solver. (Truncated Octahedron)

Unrolled Surface

Unrolled Surface

Surface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Surface Relaxation by correction of Gaussian Curvature

Figure 3.3.1(C)

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

22


11

Flooring Curve Folded Flooring Pattern for Structural

12

Internal Frames Internal Framing for Structural Stability

Stability Solidified with stuffning material

11

Figure 3.3.1(D)

The base primitives are transformed geometrically for achieving curve folded structural skeletons. Based on combinations created and tested in rigid body simulations, the architectural geometry is a result of a structural hierarchy. Each of the primitives is formed by structural elements of different sizes. The parameters of computing the curve folded frames change from case to case in alignment with the structural needs.

23

22


Primitive

(C) 0.15, 0.2,0.3 (B) 0.7 (E) 0.3

Stacking Primitive

Primitive

(C) 0.15, 0.2,0.3 (B) 0.7 (E) 0.3

Stacking Primitive

Primitive

(C) 0.15, 0.2,0.3 (B) 0.7 (E) 0.3

Base Primitive

The primitives in the base of the arrangements which need to be heavy have bigger folded elements while the more towards the top of the system the lighter the units and the smaller the elements. Other structural elements like internal horizontal frames and flooring patterns are combined with the frames for structural stability. Generating these elements is done through the same principles.

CHAPTER 3.0

Left: Figure 3.3.1(D) Application of Curve Folded Frames in a System

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

24


25


Figure 3.3.1(E) Final Scene of the Geometry derived from Curve Folded Geometry

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

26


27


Figure 3.3.1(F) Final Scene of the Geometry derived from Curve Folded Geometry

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

28


Primitive

Deforming the Geometry with Planar Faces

Cutting the Geometry into Half

Chamfering the Vertices

Bevelling the Edge

Extruding the Edges

29

High Poly Mesh


Figure 3.3.1(G)

Increasing the number of joints is directly linked to the increase of difficulty to fabricate the nodes. The frames that consist of nodes of four joints result in more stable and interesting result. The modelling of these type of frames includes the same steps with the difference consisting in the unfolding process. Manual fixes are necessary for ensuring an accurate unfolding and later a precise connection of the overall structure.

CHAPTER 3.0

Figure 3.3.1(G) Process of deriving a Deformed Geometry from a cube (Left) Obtained Geometry with Four nodes in the frames(Right)

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

30


Figure 3.3.1(H) Paper Model of Four Node Frame of a Deformed Cube 31


CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

32


Figure 3.3.1(I) Paper Model of Joint Node Frame of a Deformed Cube

33


Primitive (Cube)

Top (Deformed Cube)

Right (Deformed Cube)

Perspective

34


Figure 3.3.1(J) Paper Model of Five Node Frame of a Icosahe-

35


Primitive (Icosahedron)

High Poly Mesh

Cutting the Solids

CHAPTER 3.0

Extracting Node

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

36


Point of Forces

Pattern 1

P1 Point of Forces

Pattern 2

P2 Pinching

Major Crease P3

Pattern 3 Point of Forces

Pattern 4

P4 Pinching

Major Crease Pattern 5

P5 Point of Forces

P6

Pattern 6 Initial Paper Tests Figure 3.3.2(A)

37

Folding Results

Developing Folding Lines


P5

P5 (A) Rotating 90 Degrees

P5 (B) Rotating 120 Degrees

P5 (C) Mirror Pattern+ Rotation 120 Degrees

P5 (C) Paper Model

Figure 3.3.2(B)

3.3.2 Exploration of Curve Folded Surfaces Explorations in curve folded surface hold the potential of creating intricate 3D shapes that can perform spatially. For exploring surfaces the opposite process of frame structures apply. The process is mostly based on physical models explorations which help in understanding and improving curves for achieving complex space-oriented results. Small paper models are produced and refined a number of times with conclusion deriving every time.

Figure 3.3.2(A) Initial Paper Folding Analysis Figure 3.3.2(B) Developing paper models based on the initial studies

The digital representation comes at a later stage when the models conclude in curves that ensure curve folding. Modelling the shapes computationally is based on the physical models, which result more in an approximate geometry rather than an accurate one.

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

38


Pattern 7

Pattern 8

Pattern 9

Point of Forces

Pinching Points

Observed Surface Fold

Point of Force

Observed Surface Fold

Observed Surface Fold

Major Crease

Application of Forces

P7

P8

Figure 3.3.2(C) Developing Paper models from intial Paper Study

39

P9


Pattern 10

Pattern 11

Pattern 12

Point of Force

Major Crease

Point of Force Point of Force

Application of Forces

P10

P11

CHAPTER 3.0

P12

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

40


Finger Joint

Pattern 13

P13(A)

P13(A)

P13(B) Paper Fold

P3

P3 Paper Fold

Figure 3.3.2(C) Developing Paper models from intial Paper Study

41

Observed Surface Fold


Point of Force

Pattern 14

P14(A) Making Similar Attachments

Major Crease

P14(B)

P14(B) Paper Model

P6

P6 Paper Model

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

42


Pattern 15

Refining Curves

P15(B)

P15(B) Paper Fold

P9 (A)

P9(A)- Paper Model

Figure 3.3.2(C) Developing Paper models from intial Paper Study 43

P15(A)


Pattern 16

P16(A) Rotating 90 De-

P16(B) Rotating 120 De-

P16(C)

P16(C)- Paper Model

Pattern 17 (P17)

P17 Paper Model

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

44


P11

P16

P17

P6

P9

P5

P12

P8

45

P2


P15

P13

P14

P15

P16

P17

P13

P14

P11

P7

P10

CHAPTER 3.0

P18

P4

P3

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

46


P4

Figure 3.4.1

47


Starting with a Pipe and making subdivisions> Dividing tit into half

Moving the Vertex with respect to the Blueprints

Extruding the Edges and shaping the model with respect to the Blueprint

Making a Low Poly Model for further Smoothening

Obtained High Poly Mesh

3.4: Geometry and Architectural Applications The modelling process is done in Maya. It starts from the blueprints of the physical models which help for achieving as much accurate 3D models as possible. The process starts with the creation of a pipe as a primitive which is transformed through deleting faces and moving vertices to align with the physical model. Other transformation include extruding edges for achieving the 2D shape of the model before moving the vertices in different directions until it gives the most approximate model to the physical one.

CHAPTER 3.0

Figure 3.4.1 Process of Obtaining a high poly Mesh of the initial Folded models (Right) Obtained High Poly Mesh (Left)

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

48


Figure 3.4.2 Computational Model of Pattern 15, Replicating Paper Folded Model

Pattern 15

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.2

49


Figure 3.4.3 Computational Model of Pattern 8 (Top) Spaces creation through Curve Folded Geometry (Bottom)

P8

Figure 3.4.3

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

50


Figure 3.4.4 Computational Model of Pattern 7

Pattern 7

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.4

51


Figure 3.4.5 Computational Model of Pattern 15

Pattern 15

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.4

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

52


Figure 3.4.4 Computational Model of Pattern 7 (Left) Spaces creation through Curve Folded Geometry (Right)

Pattern 12

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.4

53


CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

54


Figure 3.4.5 Computational Model of Pattern 13

P13(A)

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.5

55


Figure 3.4.6 Computational Model of Pattern 13

P14(B)

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.6

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

56


Figure 3.4.7 Computational Model of Pattern 11 (Left) Spaces creation through Curve Folded Geometry (Right Bottom)

Pattern 11(A)

Perspective Views

Figure 3.4.7

57


3.4 Conclusion Curve folding exploration in terms of frames provide indications that it holds the potential for being scaled for construction use by bringing the benefit of minimizing the effort for manufacturing due to the ease that folding offers. Limitations mostly consist on the correlation of the digital process with the physical fabrication. Curve folding, computationally can be approached in two different ways. First, in the case of frame model, they can initially be modelled on computer and then fabricated. The other case, which can mostly be used in exploring curve folded surfaces, is creating first physical models and then translating into 3d computer models. Surface exploration proved to give unexpected results through physical models investigations which possess architectural and aesthetic qualities due to the intricate shapes resulting from curve folding. These investigation outcomes can accommodate also spatial configuration making them potentially human scale spaces.

CHAPTER 3.0

ARCHITECTURAL GEOMETRY

58


1


CH 4.0 Digital Fabrication 4.1

Initial exploration of curve folding

4.2

Case study

4.3

Fabrication machines

4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.4.8 4.4.9 4.4.10

Curve folded frames exploration Material tests for frames Joints exploration Flipped connection joints Frame internal enclosure Joints connection detail Four edges joint Five edges joints Water jet cutting Material tests for casting

4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5

Curve folded surface exploration Component based surface Integrated frame-surface Integrated frame-surface Polypropylene sheets folding Aluminium sheets folding Scaling the model

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Figure 4.1.1

3


4.1: Initial exploration of curve folding The initial paper tests were done for exploring curve folding. Operations such as mirror, rotation and applying forces help in undersanding how paper behaves and by refining the curve creases from one model to the other, we realize which folds work better than the others for applying in more complex models.

Figure 4.1.1, 4.1.2 Catalogue of initial studies

Figure 4.1.2

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4.2: Case study - Prefabricated bathroom / B. Fuller In 1940 Buckminster Fuller received the patent for the prefabricated bathroom. The aim of the prefabricated unit was to lower the cost of the building. The unit was compiled of four metal pieces. The materials used were rustproof metal sheets or moulded plastic and the area of the bathroom was 15 sqm. Each of the pieces were lightweight and could be carried by two people and were bolted together permanently when installed making it very easy to be assembled. The bathroom could be installed in a building under construction or in an existing dwelling.

Figure 4.2.1

Figure 4.2.2

5

Figure 4.2.3

Figure 4.2.1 Prototype of the bathroom Figure 4.2.2 Axonometric view Figure 4.2.3 Plan of the unit


4.3: Fabrication machines Water Jet Cutter The water jet cutter used for fabricating aluminium frames has a bed size of 3x1.8 m which among all the three used machines can help producing the biggest elements. The limitation for fabrication in small scale is the small thickness of the sheets, 0.9mm. The minimal thickness that it can cut are sheets of 4mm. Other limitation is its inability to score the metal sheets, providing only cutting through a dashed line.

Figure 4.3.1 Water Jet Cutter Figure 4.3.2 Laser Cutter Figure 4.3.3 CNC router

Laser Cutter The machine has been used so far mostly for cutting paper and polypropylene sheets. Limitations are mostly related to the bed size of the laser cutter which does not exceed 1x1.2m. CNC Router CNC machine can cut sheets of 2.4x1.8m size which provides the opportunity to fabricate big models. Limitations are related to scoring and drill sizes for cutting metal which are more than 3mm making it difficult for detailing.

Figure 4.3.1

Figure 4.3.2

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Figure 4.3.3

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4.4: Curve Folded Frames Exploration The first part of the research in architectural geometry and digital fabrication focuses on frames formed of curve folded joints. The studies aim to explore the potential of curve folded metal frames to be used in a construction scale. The physical models go into different stages by exploring variations in geometric operations of the joints, different materials for folding and casting. The outcomes of the investigations aim to refine and propose the features that are closer to the main objective of mass customization.

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4.4.1: Material Tests for Frames Hard paper Paper was used initially for understanding curve-folding and later for testing and refining all the models before being fabricated in other materials. Paper is easy to fold and to connect in pieces which makes it a good material for small scale models. Plywood Plywood of 1.5mm thickness was used for making several joints tests. After laser cutting the material was put in water before folding. Folding is difficult and the material tends to break.

Figure 4.4.2

Polypropylene Sheets of 1.5mm thickness were easy to fold and shape better while increasing the thickness to 3mm makes the folding lines break.

CHAPTER 4.0

Figure 4.4.2 Hard paper Figure 4.4.3 Plywood

Figure 4.4.3

Aluminium sheets Tests were done with aluminium sheet of 0.9mm which is easy to fold and it doesn’t deform easily. Increasing the thickness of the material results into more effort to fold.

Figure 4.4.4

Left: Figure 4.4.1 Materials tested for the frames

Figure 4.4.4 Aluminium sheet Figure 4.4.5 Polypropylene

Figure 4.4.5

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4.4.2: Joint exploration Different frame components were explored: joint, edge and flap based on varying geometric parameters like chamfer, bevel and smoothness. Initially the explored joints were formed of three edges.

A

B

Figure 4.4.6 Joints variations

Figure 4.4.7 Parameters of exploration: A- Joint B- Edge C- Flap

C

Figure 4.4.6

> Chamfer > Bevel < Smooth

< Chamfer < Bevel < Smooth

> Chamfer < Bevel < Smooth

> Chamfer > Bevel < Smooth

> Chamfer < Bevel < Smooth

> Chamfer < Bevel < Smooth

Figure 4.4.7

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Joints of four edges are more challenging in terms of fabrication with precision due to deformations deriving from the unfolding of the computer generated geometry. Translating them from 3D model to fabrication includes also manual work for refining the curvature. The same applies to the two joints combined in one which would bring the reduction of the connections in between.

Figure 4.4.8 Joints variations

>> Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth >> Flap

>> Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth > Flap

Two joints combined as a single >> Chamfer / << Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth

Two joints combined as a single >> Chamfer / << Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth > > Flap

Joint 1 << Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth >> Flap Joint 2 >> Chamfer < Bevel >> Smooth >> Flap Figure 4.4.8

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Figure 4.4.9 Plywood frame model 16


4.4.3: Flipped connecting joints The following model is an attempt to break the regularity of an enclosed frame. By flipping the direction of connecting joints, the aim is to create a branched spatial system that could result in more options. However, the difficulty is in the precise connection of two opposite joints. Also, digital modelling of them and the unfolding process has limitations due to innacuracies deriving from software to fabrication.

Figure 4.4.10

Figure 4.4.11

17

Figure 4.4.12

Figure 4.4.10 Paper model of flipped joints Figure 4.4.11, 4.4.12 Pentagon frame formed of flipped enclosed joints


4.4.4: Frame internal enclosure The joints after being folded are potentially strong enough but for being used structurally they need to be completed with internal enlcosures or other methods to ensure stability. The first enclosure test provides the same material connected to the internal part of the joints which after being completed results in a very strong structural element. The next test is lasing the flaps of the joints for ensuring them from unfolding.

Figure 4.4.13 Enclosure pieces Figure 4.4.14 Enclosed joint Figure 4.4.15, 4.4.16 Frame lasing for stability

The two methods proved to be successful to some extend with the first one being the most stable example. However, its limitation stand on fabricating the precise enclosure which comes with changes after the unfolding process, resulting in problems during assembly.

Figure 4.4.13

Figure 4.4.14

Figure 4.4.15

Figure 4.4.16

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Figure 4.4.17

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4.4.5: Joints connection detail As the structure will be the frame for each unit/primitive, connection details are important structural issues to be solved. The following model was a test of creating connections for three units which would rely on a wired system which goes through all the perimeter of the frames. The three joints connection created is stable but the two systems, curve folding frames and the cable connection system are very different from each other.

Figure 4.4.17 Connection of three joints Figure 4.4.18 The wired connection Figure 4.4.19 Detail of the connection of the wires

Figure 4.4.18

Figure 4.4.19

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The model is a test of completing a whole frame for one of the primitives for understanding the scale of precision from the digital model to fabrication. Considering that the pieces undergo surface relaxation before unfolding, the joints could fit perfectly with each other proving that curve folding can work for this type of geometry. The internal frames, which would serve as supporting elements for the slabs were modelled and fabricated with the same principles like the joints and frames.

Figure 4.4.21

Left: Figure 4.4.20 Folded model

Figure 4.4.22

Figure 4.4.21 2D drawing of the internal frames Figure 4.4.22 2D drawing of the joints Figure 4.4.23 Paper model

Figure 4.4.23

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Figure 4.4.24

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4.4.6: Four edges joints Four edges joints are challenging in terms of fabrication. The digital model, afer being split into parts/joints and after unfolding it provides a very different result. The joints do not unfold and even surface relaxation provides unfolding results with high error scale. The model proves to successfully surpass these limitations by combining the results from unfolding with manual refining of the curves.

Figure 4.4.25

Left: Figure 4.4.24 Folded paper model

Figure 4.4.25 2D drawing Figure 4.4.26 Folded model

Figure 4.4.26

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4.4.7: Five edges joints The same issues apply also for the joints that are formed from five joints. Similarly, the computational model is combined with 2D modifications of the curves to make the unfolding - fabrication process possible. A perfect connection of the whole frame can be ensured only in this way.

Figure 4.4.27

Figure 4.4.28

Figure 4.4.27 2D drawing of the two basic joints Figure 4.4.28 2D drawing of the unfolded model Figure 4.4.29, 4.4.30 Folded paper model

Figure 4.4.29

25

Figure 4.4.30


Attempt to reduce the number of connections between joints result in the fabrication of two joints as one single piece. The number of joints in the model are reduced in half.

Figure 4.4.31 Assembled paper model Figure 4.4.32 Detail of the model Figure 4.4.33 2D drawings for fabrication

Figure 4.4.31

Figure 4.4.32

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Figure 4.4.33

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Figure 4.4.34 Connection between two joints Figure 4.4.35 Cutted pieces Figure 4.4.36 Assembled joints

Figure 4.4.34

Figure 4.4.36

27

Figure 4.4.35


4.4.8: Water jet cutting The proposed material for the structural frames is metal sheets. The first test of translating the joints from paper models to aluminium was done by using water jet cutter for fabrication. The thickness of the sheet is 0.8mm making it very easy for folding. The required time for fabricating two joints with all the details of connection was 1hour 40min, a relatively long time for the small scale of the joints. The delay was mostly caused by the high number of dashed lines to be cut which are the folding lines. For connecting the pieces together there are used screws.

Figure 4.4.37 2D detailed drawing for water jet cutting Figure 4.4.38 Water jet preparation Figure 4.4.39 Water jet cutter during operation

Figure 4.4.37

Figure 4.4.38

Figure 4.4.39

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Figure 4.4.40 Part of the aluminium frame water jet cutted

30


4.4.9: Material tests for casting For performing structurally the curve folded frames need internal enclosures and casted material that would ensure stability of the whole frame. For the later, various tests have been conducted with different materials, from resin-fiber glass to different mixtures of concrete.

01

Resin 500 ml

Fiber Glass 20 g

Drying time 6 hours Figure 4.4.41

Figure 4.4.41 Resin - Fiber glass mixture Figure 4.4.42 Polyethylene mould Figure 4.4.43 Casted joint

Figure 4.4.42

Figure 4.4.43

02

Cement (1)

Sand (2)

Water

Figure 4.4.44 Figure 4.4.44 Concrete mixture Figure 4.4.45 Casted joint Figure 4.4.46 Strength test failure

Figure 4.4.45

31

Figure 4.4.46


Resin casted piece is strong and lightweight but the cost is high. The normal concrete is very heavy so other components were introduced to reduce its weight, like fiberglass and foam. The added components helped in creating a light piece but easily breakable. Thus, none of the options could serve the purpose of providing strength and lightness to the structure. 03

Sand (2)

Cement (1)

Fiber Glass (100g)

Water

Figure 4.4.47

Figure 4.4.47 Concrete - Fiber glass mixture Figure 4.4.48 Casted joint Figure 4.4.49 Strength test failure Figure 4.4.48

Figure 4.4.49

04

Sand (2)

Cement (1)

EPS Foam (20 g)

Water

Figure 4.4.50 Figure 4.4.50 Concrete - EPS foam mixture Figure 4.4.51 Casted joint Figure 4.4.52 Strength test failure Figure 4.4.51

Figure 4.4.52

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Other test were done by casting mixtures of coolmorph with EPS foam and polyurethane foam. The first material is very strong and light but it is difficult to cast because it does not reach a very liquid phase so it can be poured. The polyurethane is the most efficient material in terms of strength, lightness and cost. Its expandability quality makes it easy to be casted.

Left: Figure 4.4.54 Coolmorph - EPS casted frame

05 Figure 4.4.55

Mixing: - component A 20 ml - component B 20 ml

Polyurethane mixture Figure 4.4.56 Casted joint

Figure 4.4.54

Figure 4.4.57 Strength test Figure 4.4.58 Coolmorph - EPS mixture Figure 4.4.59 Casted joint Figure 4.4.60 Casted frame

Figure 4.4.55

Figure 4.4.56

06

Coolmorph (1)

EPS Foam (1)

Water

Mixing Coolmorph with boiled water and EPS

Figure 4.4.57

Figure 4.4.58

Figure 4.4.59

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Figure 4.4.60

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4.5: Curve Folded Surface Exploration The previous studies investigated structural properties of curve folding through frames generation with the method. The other study focuses on exploring entirely folded surfaces which could be used in the scale of living spaces or even more ambitious to the scale of the building. The fabricated models study different curves that can be folded and provide geometric and spatial properties, materials that can possibly be used and connection details which would be neccessary for scaling the models in real size.

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4.5.1: Component-based surface Initial studies of curve folded surfaces consisted in small components connected together. The components are of hexagonal and pentagon shapes. The folded pentagon components after being connected start to create a curved surface. The models remain in study level as their application to the structural frames seems limited.

Left: Figure 4.5.1 Curve folded hexagon component

Figure 4.5.2 Unfolded piece Figure 4.5.3 Unfolded and folded pentagon component Figure 4.5.4 Components combination Figure 4.5.6 Pentagon components combination Figure 4.5.2

Figure 4.5.3

Figure 4.5.4

Figure 4.5.6

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4.5.2: Integrated frame-surface The other study is exploring the possibility to integrate a curve folded surface with the frames. The patterns result in interesting and harmonious folds but the method does not ensure folding of the whole surface. The repetitive folds reach to a point where there is no more possibility to fold due to lack of material. Other restrictions is the precise connection among the other pieces.

Figure 4.5.7 Unfolded piece Figure 4.5.8 Lasser cut paper Figure 4.5.9, 4.5.10 Folded joint-surface

Structural

Surface Figure 4.5.7

Figure 4.5.8

Figure 4.5.9

Figure 4.5.10

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4.5.3: Polypropylene sheets folding After several tests with small paper models, they are scaled and tested next in polypropylene sheets which can be folded without breaking if they are less than 3mm thick. The model is fabricated from a single sheet of material with thickness of 1.5mm. Applying force is neccessary to prevent the surface from unfolding.

Figure 4.5.12

Left: Figure 4.5.11 Detail of the model

Figure 4.5.12 2D drawing Figure 4.5.13 Folded model

Figure 4.5.13

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The model is a combination of more complex curves that can provide intricate 3D shape. The same sheet of polypropylene was used for fabrication. Cutting time was short but the folding process was difficult due to the complexity of the curves. Applying force in certain points of the model and using screws for connections helped in keeping the whole model folded.

Figure 4.5.15

Left: Figure 4.5.14 Folded model

Figure 4.5.15 2D drawing Figure 4.5.16 Folding process

Figure 4.5.16

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Similarly, the model is a continuity of tests for refining the curves in search of spatial qualities. There are eight points of applying force and connection which provide a perfectly folded 3D shape. The critical points are where many curves meet at the same point which due to the material properties tend to tear.

Figure 4.5.18

Left: Figure 4.5.17 Folded model

Figure 4.5.18 2D drawing Figure 4.5.19 Folding process

Figure 4.5.19

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Figure 4.5.20 Polypropylene model 48


Figure 4.5.21

Figure 4.5.21 2D drawing Figure 4.5.22 Detail of the connection of pieces Figure 4.5.23 Folded model

Figure 4.5.22

Figure 4.5.23

49


Figure 4.5.24 Figure 4.5.24 2D drawing Figure 4.5.25 Folded model Figure 4.5.26 Detail of the model

Figure 4.5.25

Figure 4.5.26

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Figure 4.5.27

Figure 4.5.27 2D drawing Figure 4.5.28, 4.5.29 Details of the model Figure 4.5.30 Folded model

Figure 4.5.28

Figure 4.5.30

51

Figure 4.5.29


Figure 4.5.31

Figure 4.5.31 2D drawing Figure 4.5.32 Folded model Figure 4.5.33 Detail of the model

Figure 4.5.32

Figure 4.5.33

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4.5.4: Aluminium sheets folding The next tested material is aluminium. The sheet has a thickness of 0.8 mm which can be cutted and scored easily in a CNC machine. The cutting time was around 15 minutes. The folding process had certain difficulties resulting mostly from the scoring depth of the material. The two highlighted points of the model where the most force was applied were torn.

Critical tearing parts

Figure 4.5.35

Left: Figure 4.5.34 Folded model

Figure 4.5.36

Figure 4.5.37

Figure 4.5.38

Figure 4.5.39

CHAPTER 4.0

Figure 4.5.35 2D drawing Figure 4.5.36 CNC router scoring Figure 4.5.37, 4.5.38 Detail of the model Figure 4.5.39 Folded model

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The second test in aluminium sheet was more successful despite the higher complexity of the curves. The model was folded from a single sheet of material. The highlighted critical points derived from the polypropylene model were improved for avoiding tearing. However, small tearings were present because of the scoring and material thickness. These indicate that a thicker material and less scoring depth would perform better in terms of folding. After assembly the material does not unfold, thus connections are not provided.

Figure 4.5.41

Left: Figure 4.5.40 Folded model

Figure 4.5.41 2D drawing Figure 4.5.42 Folding process

Figure 4.5.42

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4.5.5: Scaling the model The first attempt to scale one of the models was not very successful. Considering the limitations of the sheet sizes that the machines can cut, the model was divided in smaller part that could be accommodated in the available 60x80 cm sheets. The polypropylene sheets were 3mm thick and the pieces were lasser cutted in around 20 minutes per sheet. The problems were present in the folding process. Due to the thickness of the material folding the pieces was very difficult resulting in most of the cases in breaking them. The connection between the pieces was done with flaps and screws which considering the thickness of the material could leave gaps in between. Also, during folding, the flaps were broken. Even the most successfully connected pieces after applying force could tear the rest of the connections. All the restrictions indicate that material thickness and connection between pieces should be reconsidered.

Left: Figure 14.5.43 Scaled part of the model

Figure 4.5.44 Identifying the division lines for the fabrication in pieces

Figure 4.5.44

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Figure 01

59


Left: Figure 4.5.45 Laser cutted pieces

Figure 4.5.46 2D drawing of the unfolded pieces Figure 4.5.47 Assembled model, critical

Figure 4.5.46

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points of break

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Curvature not clear

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Unsuccessful connections

Connection problems

Flaps easily breakable

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Bibliography Bhooshan, Shajay. “Interactive Design of Curved Crease Folding” (MPhil diss., University of Bath, 2015), 14. Cathcart-Keays, Athlyn. “Moscow’s Narkomfin building: Soviet blueprint for collective living – a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 29.” Accessed April 5, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/ cities/2015/may/05/moscow-narkomfin-soviet-collective-livinghistory-cities-50-buildings. Crawford, Christina E. “The Innovative Potential of Scarcity in SA’s Comradely Competition for Communal Housing, 1927.” Archi Doct 4-2 (2014): 32-53. Accessed April 7, 2017. “Creased Shell Structures.” Accessed April 8. 2017, http://www.johnklein.com/Creased-Shell-Structures. “Diogene.” Accessed April 5, 2017. http://www.rpbw.com/project/ diogene. “Elytra: Filament Pavilion.” Accessed April 8, 2017. http://icd.unistuttgart.de/?p=15826. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16.” Accessed April 8, 2017. http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=16220. “Kasita.” Accessed April 5, 2017. https://kasita.com/. McCamant, Kathryn, and Charles Durrett. Creating cohousing: Building sustainable communities. Gabriola Island, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2011. “Mirador.” Accessed April 5, 2017. https://www.mvrdv.nl/projects/ mirador. Pottmann, H. (2010), Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge. Archit Design, 80: 72–77. doi:10.1002/ad.1109. Savills. “Redefining Density, Making the best use of London’s land to build more and better homes.” September 2015. Available from www. savills.co.uk. Accessed April 2, 2017.

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Sass, Lawrence. “Synthesis of design production with integrated digital fabrication,” Automation in Construction 16, (June 2006): 298. Sivaev, Dmitry. “Inner London’s Economy, a ward-level analysis of the business and employment base.” October 2013. Available from www. centreforcities.org. Accessed April 3, 2017. “Tech Farm.” Accessed April 5, 2017. https://www.techfarm.life/ about-2. “Third Door, Workhub and Nursery.” Accessed April 5, 2017. http:// www.third-door.com/. “Urban Age: Data.” London School of Economics Cities. Accessed April 2, 2017. https://urbanage.lsecities.net/data. Vergauwen, Aline, Niels De Temmerman, and , Lars De Laet. “Digital modelling of deployable structures based on curved-line folding,” Proceedings of the IASS-SLTE 2014 Symposium “Shells, Membranes and Spatial Structures: Footprints” (September 2014): 1. “Vrijsbruch.” Accessed April 5, 2017, architectureindevelopment.org/project.php?id=499.

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Talkington, Erin. “The rise of co-living: moving beyond the college dorm,” accessed September 3, 2017, www.rclco.com.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Architectural Association School of Architecture Design Research Laboratory London, September 2017

Profile for Genci Sulo

TH 2.0 | AADRL  

Ripple Patel | Neha Kalokhe | Genci Sulo Nahmad Bhooshan Studio An architectural research project exploring curve crease folding for mass cu...

TH 2.0 | AADRL  

Ripple Patel | Neha Kalokhe | Genci Sulo Nahmad Bhooshan Studio An architectural research project exploring curve crease folding for mass cu...

Profile for gencisulo
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