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GALIT LURYA


By Galit Lurya A thesis submitted to the faculty of Parsons The New School for Design, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts in Design and Technology Thesis Faculty: Katherine Moriwkai and Andrew Zornoza, Spring 2015 Anezka Sebek and Barbara Morris, Fall 2014 Thesis production website: galitluryathesis.wordpress.com Š Copyright 2015 Galit Lurya All Rights Reserved


“Books help us understand who we are and how we are to behave. They show us what community and friendship mean; they show us how to live and die� Anne Lamott


Contents

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Introduction and Purpose

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Audience and User Research

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Precedents Prototyping and User-Testing

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Prototype 1

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Prototype 2

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Branding

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Prototype 3 Prototype 3 User Testing

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Artist Statement

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Thanks

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Works Cited Appendix

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Reader Questionnaire Results

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Usability Testing Script

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Usability Testing Background Questionnaire

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Usability Testing Questionnaire


“In books I have traveled, not only to other worlds, but into my own. I learned who I was and who I wanted to be, what I might aspire to, and what I might dare to dream about my world and myself� Anna Quindlen


Introduction and Purpose

I have been an avid reader from a young age, spending years building up my personal library; the bookcases slowly taking up more space in the apartment, the books carefully organized. The books I read helped me form my own point of view and define my character as a person. As Anne Lamott phrases it “For some of us, books are as important as almost anything else on earth. What a miracle it is that out of these small, flat, rigid squares of paper unfolds world after world after world, worlds that sing to you, comfort and quiet or excite you. Books help us understand who we are and how we are to behave. They show us what community and friendship mean; they show us how to live and die.1” Throughout my readings, I would mark with small bits of paper and post-it notes passages I found meaningful or beautifully written, words that have touched me in some way. I would copy these passages to notebooks and later on to blog posts, write them out on notes to give to friends on happy or sad occasions. So why do we mark books? What do we mark, and how? One of the most popular reasons to mark books is because they move us. Another reason is our belief that what we mark will be useful in the future. And lastly, we mark books in order to share with others. Maria Popova phrases this beautifully “In many ways, books are the original internet — each fact, each story, each new bit of information can be a hyperlink to another book, 1 Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life (New York: Anchor Books) 1995 15

another idea, another gateway into the endlessly whimsical rabbit hole of the written word. Just like the web pages you visit most regularly, your physical bookmarks take you back to those book pages you want to return to again and again, to reabsorb and relive, finding new meaning on each visit.”2 In short, we mark major points in important or forceful statements, words that moved something inside us and made an impact. We use various ways to mark books. Mortimer J. Adler lists a number of ways to mark physical books3. We underline or highlight, draw vertical lines at the margin, stars or asterisk at the margin, circle keywords or phrases and write in the margin, or at the top or bottom of the page. To these we can add the traditional “dog ear” corner fold of a page and the use of various scrap papers and sticky-notes. Books metadata has evolved and grown as e-books developed and customers took more interest in the information. Building on the traditional library cataloging, including the books ISBN, title, author, subject matter, and a brief plot synopsis, metadata has evolved to include copyright year, price and subject category, sub2 “Does My Goldfish Know Who I Am? Scientists and Writers Answer Little Kids’ Big Questions about How Life Works.” Brain Pickings RSS. Accessed March 11, 2015. http://www.brainpickings.org/2013/11/26/does-my-goldfish-know-who-i-am. brainpickings.org/2013/11/26/does-my-goldfish-know-who-i-am 3 How to Mark a Book by Mortimer J. Adler, Ph.D. www.tnellen. com/cybereng/adler.html 7


Image 1 | Photograph of Spark for the Fire: How youthful thinking unlocks creativity� by Ian Wharton. 8


ject codes, cover image, availability, excerpts, reviews and keywords. Even more than that, ebooks offer a possibility that print books do not; the ability to extract metadata directly from the files themselves and readers markings. Apple’s iBooks offers highlighting, sharing and notes possibilities. Amazon’s Kindle adds to these and includes viewing popular highlights in books from other users, as well as metadata such as people and terms mentioned throughout the book. Reading books is not a solitary action. Reading connects us to others creating a shared experience; when we see a favorite book in a friend’s bookcase, or see someone on the train reading the same book we just finished- these discoveries create opportunities for us to discuss, to learn, to connect. “The Web is quickly antiquating

the notion that a book is a physical object you buy, read in solitude, and never think (sic) of again. A book is now an image on your profile, connecting you to anyone else with that image. It’s an organizing topic for a virtual group or a badge on your blog, a vessel for topical conversation, a record of your education. It’s now tweetable from a dozen different virtual places. Now, as books not only go digital, but move online, the natural dialog that already exists around them (and always has) can be amplified in ways we could never before imagine.4”

4 “Book: A Futurist’s Manifesto.” Book A Futurists Manifesto Above the Silos Social Reading in the Age of Mechanical

But metadata and markings are not sufficient in creating a change. They lack the important step of reflection. Ellen Rose defines reflection as “the creation of new ideas, perspectives, possibilities.” This is achieved by “mulling over ideas that

have no necessary connection and eventually producing from them, and from the perceived interconnection among them, new meanings and ideas.” However, this is a process that takes time “reflection unfolds slowly, in its own good time, during periods of stillness seized from the bustle and busyness of everyday life. And because it takes place over time- or even, I might say, outside the demands and constraints of timereflection entails a depth of understanding quite contrary to the superficial grasp of a situation or idea to which we are limited by snap decisions and split second thinking.5”

But how do we help this reflection process take place? How do make sure the marking in the books that touched us in some way are looked at again and do not remain hidden and forgotten? One of the recent books I finished reading was “Spark for the Fire: How youthful thinking unBarriers Travis Alber Aaron Miller Comments. Accessed March 15, 2015. http://book.pressbooks.com/chapter/above-the-silostravis-alber-aaron-miller.

locks creativity” by Ian Wharton. The book is full of insights and motivational passages that I marked off with sticky notes. Reaching the last pages, I was delighted to find six pages, each one featuring a principle featured in the book. My first reaction was a need to tear the pages out from the end of the book to hang them on my wall so that I would be surrounded by them. In my thesis, I am helping readers capture book quotes that have touched them by turning them into beautiful prints that can be hung or shared with others. The process is simple— choose quotes that inspire you from the books you love, pick a design that makes them shine, share with others, and receive the printed quotes to keep you motivated. I believe the reading experience can become far more engaging and satisfying. This can be achieved by building micro-communities that naturally connect the digital and physical world. These communities would be strengthened by the creation of an intuitive model for collecting, sharing, organizing and discovering connections from the knowledge and insights gained from reading. This would assure that these bits of wisdom remain relevant even after the reading is complete. 1

5 Rose, Ellen. On Reflection: An Essay on Technology, Education, and the Status of Thought in the Twenty-first Century. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 2013. 9


Audience and User Research

The audience for Lit Sparks are people who really love reading. They love the tactility of physical books but see the value in e-books and have switched to doing most of their readings on Kindle. They use services like Goodreads and Library Thing to record and share a history of the books they read and discover new ones, they mark inspiring passages and take digital notes within the electronic books or create separate blogs. However, they are all frustrated by the fact that quotes they mark remain hidden and hard to access. They are interested in having a richer and more accessible experience with their marked book quotes which they can surround themselves with and share with other. In an effort to better understand potential users and their relationship with books and quotes, in particular, I created a twelve question online survey. In addition, the questionnaire introduced the idea of Lit Sparks, asking an additional five questions, gathering initial reactions. The questionnaire was distributed as a linked Google form on Goodreads and Facebook reading groups as well as through my own social circles, with a request to pass it as far as they saw fit. The survey was a bigger success than I’d expected, with responses from 79 potential users. The insights gathered confirmed some of my instincts and highlighted areas for me to take into consideration and place emphasis on the planning and design of the platform.

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A majority of the responders read between 11-30 books in the past six months, a large portion of them digital. They own an e-book reader, most popularly kindle. About half the participants make marking in physical books using corner folds, highlighters, post-its, underlining, margin notes, pieces of paper and asterisks. About half of the participants make marking in digital books by highlight, notes, saving to Evernote and bookmarking. However, almost all the participants stated they rarely return to the markings. When asking participants what they liked most about the new platform participants stated they loved the idea of having something physical, which can be easily personalized. They were also excited about having easily accessible quotes and sharing with others. They saw themselves using the quotes to decorate or use in journals with the option of gifting them to friends and loved ones. Participants also saw this as an opportunity for changing their behavior providing motivation, inspiration, and positive thinking and potentially making them read and mark more in books. In my thesis I am focusing on three main personas— a high-school student, a working professional, and a book club mom.


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Precedents

I began my research exploring precedents that touch on the way we read and the future of reading. The first two projects I looked at were Rooster and iTap Reader, both focusing on the breaking down of readings to manageable chunks. Rooster1 is a mobile reading application created by San Francisco-based Plympton. The service, which costs $4.99 a month, is designed to help busy people fit great fiction into their lives by helping them select what to read and making those titles easily consumable on a device they always carry with them.

down into chunks and adding a clear and feasible time frame, Rooster has managed to convince many that they do indeed have the time to read. While not dealing with reflective reading and inspiration directly, the breaking down of a book into portions offers much needed time to reflect on a reading. This reflection time creates a deeper understanding and connection to the reading, eventually making the book more valuable to the user.

Rooster makes reading easy in three ways. First, by curating and recommending books. Each month a two-book pairing is delivered to users phones, one contemporary, and one classic. Second, Rooster breaks down its books into short installments that can be read during small breaks throughout the day. Each chunk takes just 15 minutes or so to read. Third, Rooster pushes the installments to readers on a schedule they set. Titles offered so far include I Was Here by Rachel Kadish and The Kreutzer Sonata by Leo Tolstoy. Looking to encourage reading and fitting itself to a fast paced lifestyle, Rooster has found a way to make reading an achievable action item on a persons to-do-list in easy way. By using technology that users already have handy, breaking content 1 "Great Fiction That Fits Your Day." Rooster. Accessed March 10, 2015. https://readrooster.com/ 14

Image 2 | Rooster iPhone screens

iTap reader flow


that the swiping or scrolling interactions that blur the type momentarily create an opportunity to lose focus. When testing the app, users said it felt “fun,” “easier,” “faster,” to tap read on their phones. They all thought they read less text than they actually had. When asked to guess how much they had read, all the students underestimated the amount of text by 50%.

Image 3 | iTap reader flow

The iTap Reader2 is a mobile application designed by Barbara deWilde as part of her thesis work at the School of Visual Arts Interaction Design MFA program in 2013. The iTap Reader application helps users break reading material into small self-determined quantities, style its appearance, and then tap through the text at a self-determined pace. The goal of the application is to lessen the anxiety and fatigue felt by dyslexic readers confronted with large text quantities, by giving them control of portioning and appearance of the text and focusing their attention on a single screen that advances on tap. DeWilde discovered that using the tap gesture to advance prevents scanning ahead while matching the pace of the reader’s cognition. This was particularly highlighted when she discovered 2 "ITap Reader - Barbaradewilde.com." ITap Reader Barbaradewilde.com. Accessed March 10, 2015. http:// barbaradewilde.com/iTap-Reader

The personal customization of the appearance of the text using type size, line-spacing, word-spacing, and letter-spacing plays an important factor in the understanding of the text. This is something that I want to take forward when working on my thesis— empowering users to design the book quotations in a way that is most meaningful to them. An additional precedent I looked into was Bookish, created by Jeff Kirsch for his MFA thesis in Interaction Design program at the School of Visual Arts3. Bookish helps avid readers consider their reading in the larger context of their lives, and to capture a personal history of reading experiences. Bookish builds a layer of functionality on top of an existing e-book application. It encourages readers to reflect on a moment of insight by pairing it with an image and sound at the time and place where the insight occurs, creating a visible history of life with books. The readers can then return to these visual insights 3 "Bookish." Bookish. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://bookish. jeffkirsch.com/

and browse through them. What I appreciate and take from Bookish, is the understanding of the importance of the reflection process in reading and the addition of visuals and sound in creating a stronger connection between the reader and the text. I also like that the solution is not a custom-made application that ignores the existing strong e-book solutions out there, but is rather thought-out as a layer on top of existing platforms.

Image 4 | Bookish interface screen

Lastly, I looked into the social aspect of reading combined with reflection in ReadUp. ReadUp is a web-based platform designed for people to “meet up” inside a book/URL/personal writing sample and read together for a limited time. Once a ReadUp group is created, participants can message each other in real time, and leave 15


Image 6 | Touchka Fashion Tales Scarf number 3, Rudyard Kipling, The jungle book

Image 7 | Holstee Mindful Art Subscription 16

Image 8 | Obvious State Book quotes poster examples


shared comments and responses on the text. When the scheduled time runs out, the ReadUp is deleted. What I love about ReadUp is the social layer built on top of the reading experience, while still being connected to the original text. This conversation around the text offers an opportunity to reflect and consider the content read in a deeper and more meaningful way. The time limit is on one hand liberating, allowing people to present their thoughts without a permanent commitment. However, this deletion of the conversation around the text, also makes it one that is less permanent. As there is no way to go back to it at a later time to see your thoughts or others and if they evolved.

Image 9 | Readups website

I next focused on a service offering inspiration, Holstee4. Holstee is a design company co-found4 "Holstee | Live Mindfully." HOLSTEE. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://www.holstee.com/

ed by brothers Dave and Mike Radparvar in 2009. The company offers a range of products and services, all centered around the mission of helping the design community remember what’s important in their lives, and supporting them in living a mindful and inspired life. The company is mostly known for their “This is your life” manifesto, which they wrote when launching the company as a guide. With the launch of their WorkShop in Brooklyn, Holstee is bringing its community together in real life though monthly Potluck Dinners, Yoga and classes. One of the products offered on the company’s website is the “The Mindful Art Subscription.” At the beginning of every month, the user receives an envelope with an inspiring piece of art. The artwork is a letterpress card which is delivered alongside a description of the art, why it was chosen, and a pre-stamped envelope to share last month’s art with a friend. Past art pieces include sayings such as “Do No Harm but take no shit” and “You are not a drop in the ocean. You are the entire ocean in a drop.” While the inspiration Holstee brings is not from literature, their goal of creating a mindful and inspired life is one that we have in common. In my case, the inspiration comes from books read, and the prints surrounding the user are to enhance mindfulness and reflection while inspiring. I continued exploring companies creating tactile

products inspired by books. The first company I looked at was Touchka Fashion Tales5. Touchka Fashion Tales is a company founded by Jenny Lumelsky & Tomer Ronen based in Israel. The duo founded the company out of their love for storytelling. The company features a narrative collection of scarves, creating a wearable art collection. Each scarf is illustrated and inspired by a favorite quote from a story or fairytale: Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan, The Little Prince, The Jungle Book and The Happy Prince. All the designs are painted by hand, using watercolor and gouache, then scanned and refined in Photoshop, making the final composition. All the scarves are digitally printed in Italy, on a fine lightweight Italian (silk and modal) fabric. An additional section on their website asks users to send their favorite quotes from stories and fairytales. Each week, they choose one of the quotes and create a tiny illustration to match. If the quote is chosen for their new selection, the contributor will receive a scarf featuring the illustration. What I love about this company is the new take on book quotations, creating something usable and wearable that the user can take with him and continue being inspired by. The use of wellknown books and fairytales as a common starting point is a smart choice, making it easy for others to recognize and relate. Another part of the project that I like is the community built 5 "Touchka | Fashion Tales." Touchka. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://touchka.com/ 17


around the creating process— letting users suggest quotes that inspire them and then creating new designs based on them gives the users a sense of participation and creates a delightful experience for them. An additional company I looked at is Obvious State6, a multi-disciplinary creative studio based in New York, co-founded by Evan and Nichole Robertson in 2011. The studio creates art prints, paper goods and gifts for bibliophiles and language lovers. Their products are crafted in the USA, with the highest quality materials and papers. They are available through their online shop and through retail and publishing partners worldwide. The bibliophile series began with Evan taking snippets of text and ideas from some of his favorite authors and creating illustrations that incorporate and interact with the text. The illustrations are black and white and have a strong graphic style to them. Once the designs are complete, they are applied to art and canvas prints, notebooks and greeting cards. The website does not offer the user creation or customization of the posters based on his readings and highlights. However, the project offers a glimpse into one way that a reader can personalize and reflect on readings.

6 "Obvious State." Obvious State. Accessed March 10, 2015. http:// www.obviousstate.com/ 18

oculars inside a fine-leather case engraved with Patterson’s initials and an unforgettable 5-course dinner with Mr. James Patterson.

Image 10 | The Self-Destructing Book advertisement

I then continued researching solutions that enhance reading. One of the projects I looked at was “James Patterson Self-Destructing Book Experience7.” ‘James Patterson created a promotion for his book “Private Vegas,” offering readers two interesting experiences. The first is an early preview of the book before its official release. For a period of five days, Patterson offered 1000 e-book copies of the book for free to fans. The catch? The book vanishes from the users e-reader 24 hours after it was downloaded. Readers with the self-destructing copies of Private Vegas were able to chart their progress against other readers using the book’s application. Patterson offered an additional unique experience for the price of $294,038. The reader paying the price would receive a first-class flight to an undisclosed location, two nights stay in a luxurious boutique hotel, a splendid reading space including perfectly chilled Champagne, a well-trained bomb squad to handle the self-destructing book, gold bin7 "The Most Thrilling Experience Money Can Buy, by James Patterson." The Self-Destructing Book : Private Vegas by James Patterson. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://themosthrillingreadin gexperiencemoneycanbuybyjamespatterson.com/.

What I love about this project is the additional layers of information added to reading. For the free experience offered, Patterson adds a layer of time. The time limit of 24 hours creates a sense of urgency in the reader. The prestige of being one of the 1000 receiving a free copy of the book creates a community which is further enhanced by a competition between the readers on their progress. In the paid experience, Patterson builds a physical world surrounding the book, creating a multi-sensory adventure that enhances the reading experience and creates a stronger connection between the reader and the book. 1


“Stories are not mere flights of fantasy or instruments of political power and control. They link us to our past, provide us with critical insight into the present and enable us to envision our lives not just as they are but as they should be or might become.� Azar Nafisi


Prototyping and User-Testing

I began the prototyping process by selecting a quote from three books, each matching one of the personas: For Nicole, the high school student, I selected the quote “People, I have discovered, are layers and layers of secrets. You believe you know them, that you understand them, but their motives are always hidden from you, buried in their own hearts. You will never know them, but sometimes you decide to trust them.” This quote is from the book Allegiant, the third book of the Divergent Trilogy by Veronica Roth. For Jason, the working professional, I selected the quote “The true work of a business leader, like that of a mother, is to help others to be the best they can be,” from Lee Cockerell’s book Creating Magic: 10 Common Sense Leadership Strategies from a Life at Disney. For Megan, the book club mom, I selected the quote, “Fear, to a great extent, is born of a story we tell ourselves, and so I chose to tell myself a different story from the one women are told. I decided I was safe. I was strong. I was brave. Nothing could vanquish me,” from, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail, by Cheryl Strayed. Once the quote selection phase was completed, I began designing the prints. I was inspired by the “dog ear” page fold used by readers to mark pages in a book. A “dog ear” resembles a triangle, so I used that shape as a reference point in an abstract way throughout the designs. I began working with three color schemes: red, teal and purple, with the intention of furthering the color

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range later on in the process. While designing, it was important to remember that the solution produced needs to be systematic and work with various quotes. Once the mock-ups were completed, I printed them out to size to see how others would react to them. I then turned to designing a general flow of the interface, showing the overall process of creating and ordering the prints. Upon arriving at the website, the user sees an invitation to “get inspired” by “surrounding [himself] with prints featuring quotes from [his] favorite books.” Following the invitation, is a short explanation of how the website works in three steps: the user chooses quotes from books, selects a design and receives the printed cards. After the user clicks on the “start now” button, he is prompted to select between connecting to amazon Kindle, from which his highlights are pulled, or to type in his own. If the user selects “connect to Kindle,” the user connects to his amazon account. Once connected, the user is presented with images of the books he has read. The user then selects which books he would like to use quotes from. Once completed, cards are automatically created and displayed to the user. The user can then browse through the cards, select them and edit the typography as well as the background. The next step is to order the prints, and they are then mailed to the user.


Image 11 | Computer screen shot of the quote prints in process 21


Image 12 | Interface user flow from creation to print ordering 22


Prototype 1 Feedback

other than Kindle, such as iBooks and brainyquote.

I first presented the prototypes for testing on demo day. It was great to get feedback on my idea at such an early stage and hear what people loved about it, what they want and their questions, making my project stronger. Below is a summary of the things I heard and learned:

Another idea people liked was pairing up with book illustrators and designers to create backgrounds.

Also, pairing up with authors or Oprah’s reading club to create ready-made sets of postcards they selected from books.

People really loved the idea and could relate to it. This is a good sign of interest.

Some of the questions that arose were regarding the format of the postcard. The format confused them and they saw it as a means of passing the prints on to someone else and less of collecting and surrounding yourself with them. Once I introduced the idea of using the back side of the postcard as room to write personal reflections, people loved the idea. They suggested that it could be improved by adding additional layers of information; for example, tags and comments to create greater meaning.

People really loved the idea of gifting the postcards and asked about options for personalizing the backside of the postcards, as well as packaging.

People also really loved the idea of having the option to purchase the wooden block to display the postcards.

One of the things that kept coming up was the quality of the prints and the want for something luxurious, which will be reflected in the paper stock of the postcards.

People repeatedly asked to add a social layer, so that the designed quotes could also be shared with friends on social media, specifically Instagram and Facebook.

Regarding the design interface of the postcards, people asked for the option to upload their own backgrounds and add an undo/reset button.

People asked about connecting to services

Image 13 | Presenting prototype 1

Prototype 2 Following the feedback I received from user testing prototype 1 and the insights I gained from the user survey I returned to the drawing board. I decided to add a social layer to the creation of the quotes so that the website serves as a community for book quote lovers with the ability to create and share book quotes. Image 14 | Testing prototype 2 23


I began the process of the second prototype by creating a site map, stating all the pages the website will have and how they relate to one another. I then continued listing what elements need to be included on each page. Once I had that information mapped out I began creating wireframes for each of the website pages. The next step was to create a fully clickable prototype of the website using axure. The goal of the prototype was to let people explore the website and get a general understanding of its functionality.

Prototype 2 Feedback I presented the reading questioner results1 and the second clickable prototype for testing on demo day. The main feedback I received surrounded the reading survey, regarding additional questions to what readers would like to do with quotes and what activities rise from them. An additional area of feedback regarded the forming of a business plan for the product which pitches the idea and its benefits. I was also asked to emphasise the thesis portion stating what roles books play in our lives, how they relate to us as people and create a discussion around these in relation to my thesis.

1 See Appendix 24

Image 15 | Presenting prototype 2


Image 16 | Site map homepage 25


Image 17 | Site map user collection 26


Image 18 | Site map friend collection 27


Image 19 | Site map explore and create quote 28


Image 20 | Wireframes create quote 29


Image 21 | Wireframes add to cart 30

Image 22 | Wireframes explore and friend view


Image 23 | Wireframes profile view

Image 24 | Wireframes quote and book view 31


Branding Completing the wireframes, I began working on the branding of Lit Sparks. I starting with searching for a name using the method introduced by product designer Tom Cavill2. I began with listing the key attributes of the product. I then listed under each attribute a list of words associated with it. I also created two additional lists; other which listed words that were related, and a modifiers column with words and letters that can be pre- or appended. From these lists, I then selected the words that stood out the most and played around with creating combinations. The name I selected was Lit Sparks. Following the naming, I selected a typeface, generated a color pallet and designed a logo. The typeface I choose to work with was Adobe Garamond. Adobe Garamond is a digital interpretation of two roman types designed by Claude Garamond and Robert Granjon. The font was released in 1989 and became one of the essential typefaces throughout the world of desktop typography and design. I then generated a color pallet focused on a shade of yellow as the main color and building a secondary pallet based on that shade. I next designed a logo that features elements of sparks and combines the typeface and color pallet. 2 "How to Name Your Product." Medium. January 08, 2015. Accessed April 06, 2015. https://medium.com/@tomcavill/howto-name-your-product-876f78b959d4 32

Image 25 | Naming Process


Image 26 | Branding Style Guide 33


Prototype 3 With the product name and the style guide in hand, I began designing the wireframes and filling in missing screens and elements. During the process, I created different design solutions for various elements, searching for a solution that works best. For example, one of the first debates was around the best way to represent the quote and book information. I designed two layout options— the first (image 27 left) placing the focus on the designed quote with a small amount of meta data beneath it. The second option (image 27 right) showcased the designed quote but also placed a larger emphasis on the book information and metadata. After debating between the two options, I decided to move forward with the first option, placing the main focus on the designed quotes and leaving the additional layers of information discoverable once selecting the quote. Another element that I debated on was the best way to present a person in the follow/following list. I created two design options; the first (image 28 left) placed the person information on the top with a selection of designed prints on the bottom. The second (image 28 right) flipped the hierarchy and placed the person name on the bottom with the quotes on top. I decided to move forward with the first option, which offered a better hierarchy and provided a more airy layout. 34

Image 27 | Quote print view desgin options

Image 28 | Followed/following person design options


Image 29 | Homepage desgin options 35


Images 30-31 | Profile page your quotes desgin , Quote view design 36


Images 32-33 | Book page desgin , Style quote page design 37


User Testing Using the designs from prototype 3, I created a fully clickable prototype of the website using Axure. The prototype let users explore the website experience on their own; signing up, creating a quote print, purchasing it, exploring other quote prints, profiles and various pages of the website. With this completed I set out to user test the website. I created a user test plan; writing a script, setting up basic tasks for users to complete and 2 questioners (see appendix.) The objective of the evaluation was to asses the usability of the website. The methodologies used to test were a background survey gathering information about the users , interview questions regarding the participants reading habbits and web usage, real-world tasks combined with a think aloud protocol including creating a quote print and purchasing it, viewing quotes from a specific book, viewing information about a specific quote and viewing quotes that someone else created and an exit question asking about their experience. 1

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Artist Statement

I grew up in two worlds. One a dream world, built from The Jetsons and Inspector Gadget, The Phantom Tollbooth and The Twenty-One Balloons; a world that opened my appetite to imagination, technology, different cultures, problem solving, learning and exploration. The other world, Judaism, built from tradition, stories, the written word, responsibilities and restrictions. Combined, these two worlds shaped the principles of my design practice. Judaism believes that we were put in this world to improve it, to build and create in it. This is a clear call of empowerment to humans to make an input in this world, and through this impact refine their character1. As a designer, I believe I am here to solve problems and create solutions. Lauralee Alben writes “caring about people, discovering and responding to their needs and tasks, is not an option. Interaction design is design that people participate in long after our job is done.”2 I aim to create work that empowers others, to create platforms in which people participate in, express themselves and grow. Technology offers a rich world. As Norton Juster puts it, “So many things are possible just as long as you don’t know they’re impossible.”3 Bringing with it exciting opportunities to explore the relations between the 1 Midrash Tanhuma tazria 19 2 Lauralee Alben, “At the Heart of Interaction Design” Design Management Journal Volume 8, Issue 3 (1997): 9–26 3 Juster, Norton, and Jules Feiffer.The Phantom Tollbooth. New York: Epstein & Carroll, 1961. Print.

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physical and digital world; create a connection between the old and the new, between the traditional and the digital. However, it is important at the same time to understand that technology “isn’t an individual pursuit, it’s something we do with each other.”4 With this power to rule the world comes the responsibility of not only not damaging but to improve it. “See My creations, how beautiful and praiseworthy they are. And I have created all of it for your sake. Contemplate this and be watchful that you do not damage or destroy My world. For if you damage it, there will be no one else to repair it after you.”5 This responsibility and accountability is one that I find critical as a designer. The designs I create are woven into day to day life, shaping the work and personal relationships of others and of our environment. It is a powerful role, creating tools that aim to connect people and improve their life.6 One way to guarantee this crucial step is to create room for reflection. One of the tools Judaism offers to learning reflection is the Sabbath. Abraham Joshua Heschel says the Sabbath is a day reminding us that our tools are just that- tools. “to have them and to be able to do without them. On the Sabbath we live, as if we’re, 4 I’m still here: back online after a year without the internet” The Verge, accessed May 1, 2013, http://www.theverge. com/2013/5/1/4279674/im-still-here-back-online-after-a-yearwithout-the-internet 5 Kohelet Rabbah, 7:28 6 Clay Shirky, Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (Penguin, 2010), 14


independent of technical civilization: we abstain from any activity that aims at remaking or reshaping the things of space.”7 Combining reflection is a major part of the design process. Taking a step back from creating allows important questions to be asked. Taking the time to answer these questions ensures that there has been thought behind and throughout the design process, that I am accountable and answerable for the consequences of my work. In Judaism, reflection is incorporated with another important practise- restriction. Judaism is full of boundaries aimed at protecting humans from getting into situations in which they accidentally violate or are tempted to violate the law. It is the balance between the possible and the understanding that just because something is possible it does not make it right. The challenges we are faced with today as designers are not technological, they are human- as Jamer Hunt states, “The technological challenges are, perhaps, the easiest to resolve; it will be the ethical, moral, political and emotional ones that we will continue to wrestle with”8. These challenges are very similar to the ones faced with in Judaism, and the an7 Abraham Joshua Heschel, "The Sabbath," in The Earth Is the Lord's and The Sabbath (Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books), 1963, 27 quoted in Manfred Gerstenfeld and Avraham Wyler, “Technology and Jewish Life” Jewish Political Studies Review 18:1-2 (2006): 119-150

swer provided by it is similar to the one offered by Bill Joy: one of boundaries9. “In a world that has endless potential, we must decide how to ethically channel our discoveries, when to perform our medical miracles, and when to restrain ourselves from applying the awesome power in our hands because it is simply not the right thing to do. We must subdue the world, but not each other.”10 I believe it is my role as a designer to draw the line and make sure that the work I produce is one that will do me proud in the long run- one that answers to these challenges of ethics and morals. This is my promise as a designer- to create design that is ethical and responsible; Design that makes room for questions, reflection and evaluation; Design that knows to put boundaries protecting our human qualities and values; And, most of all, design that empowers us as humans, providing room within it for meaningful creation and participation. 1

9 Bill Joy, “Why the future doesn't need us” Issue 8.04 | Apr 2000, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html 10 Daniel Eisenberg, M.D., “Judaism and Modern Technology”,aish.com, accessed Oct 15, 2004, http://www.aish. com/ci/sam/48949821.html?tab=y

8 Jamer Hunt, “Nervous Systems and Anxious Infrastructures ” in Talk to Me: Design and the Communication Between People and Objects, ed. Paola Antonelli (The Museum of Modern Art, 2011), 52 41


“You get to feel things, visit places and worlds you would never otherwise know. You learn that everyone else out there is a me, as well. You’re being someone else, and when you return to your own world, you’re going to be slightly changed” Neil Gaiman


Thanks

I owe my thanks to so many people who have contributed to my thesis along the way. Without their support, none of this would have been possible. My thesis advisors, Katherine Moriwaki and Andrew Zornoza, for their confidence in me, their strong support, guidance and encouragement to focus on creating the best experience for Lit Sparks. Andrew Osborne, who read and re-read this paper countless times, listened to my thoughts and aspirations and helped me form them into words. Niamh Parsley, Marta Molina Gomez and Niki Selken for being there for the ups and downs, for acting as a sounding board and providing valuable feedback, suggestions and insight along the way. My friend, Honey Farber, who sparked my fire with a birthday present book that helped bring this project to life. And who, although physically far, has been here for me along the way cheering and supporting. And finally, to my parents, Hava and Eshel Lurya, for making this dream come true. For believing in me and encouraging me to work hard and put my best out there. And for surrounding me with stories and books growing up, instilling in me a love for the written word. 43


Works Cited

“How to Mark a Book By Mortimer J. Adler, Ph.D.” Web. 11 Mar. 2015. <http://www.tnellen. com/cybereng/adler.html>. “Book: A Futurist’s Manifesto.” Book A Futurists Manifesto What We Talk About When We Talk About Metadata Laura Dawson Comments. Web. 11 Mar. 2015. <http://book.pressbooks. com/chapter/metadata-laura-dawson>. “Book: A Futurist’s Manifesto.” Book A Futurists Manifesto Above the Silos Social Reading in the Age of Mechanical Barriers Travis Alber Aaron Miller Comments. Accessed March 15, 2015. http://book.pressbooks.com/chapter/above-thesilos-travis-alber-aaron-miller. “Bookish.” Bookish. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http:// bookish.jeffkirsch.com/>. “Does My Goldfish Know Who I Am? Scientists and Writers Answer Little Kids’ Big Questions about How Life Works.” Brain Pickings RSS. Web. 11 Mar. 2015. <http://www.brainpickings. org/2013/11/26/does-my-goldfish-know-who-iam>. “Great Fiction That Fits Your Day.” Rooster. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <https://readrooster.com/>. “Holstee | Live Mindfully.” HOLSTEE. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://www.holstee.com/>.

"How to Name Your Product." Medium. January 08, 2015. Accessed April 06, 2015. https:// medium.com/@tomcavill/how-to-name-yourproduct-876f78b959d4. Juster, Norton, and Jules Feiffer. The Phantom Tollbooth. New York: Epstein & Carroll, 1961. Print. Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. New York: Anchor, 1995. Print. “Obvious State.” Obvious State. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://www.obviousstate.com/>. “ReadUps.” ReadUps. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://www.readups.com/>. Rose, Ellen. On Reflection: An Essay on Technology, Education, and the Status of Thought in the Twenty-first Century. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2013. “Touchka | Fashion Tales.” Touchka. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://touchka.com/>. “ITap Reader - Barbaradewilde.com.” ITap Reader - Barbaradewilde.com. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://barbaradewilde.com/iTap-Reader>. “The Most Thrilling Experience Money Can

44


Buy, by James Patterson.” The Self-Destructing Book : Private Vegas by James Patterson. Web. 10 Mar. 2015. <http://themosthrillingreadingexperiencemoneycanbuybyjamespatterson.com/>. Midrash Tanhuma tazria 19 Lauralee Alben, “At the Heart of Interaction Design” Design Management Journal Volume 8, Issue 3 (1997): 9–26 Juster, Norton, and Jules Feiffer.The Phantom Tollbooth. New York: Epstein & Carroll, 1961. Print.

Jamer Hunt, “Nervous Systems and Anxious Infrastructures ” in Talk to Me: Design and the Communication Between People and Objects, ed. Paola Antonelli (The Museum of Modern Art, 2011), 52 Bill Joy, “Why the future doesn’t need us” Issue 8.04 | Apr 2000, http://www.wired.com/wired/ archive/8.04/joy.html Daniel Eisenberg, M.D., “Judaism and Modern Technology”,aish.com, accessed Oct 15, 2004, http://www.aish.com/ci/sam/48949821.html?tab=y

I’m still here: back online after a year without the internet” The Verge, accessed May 1, 2013, http://www.theverge.com/2013/5/1/4279674/ im-still-here-back-online-after-a-year-withoutthe-internet Kohelet Rabbah, 7:28 Clay Shirky, Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (Penguin, 2010), 14 Abraham Joshua Heschel, “The Sabbath,” in The Earth Is the Lord’s and The Sabbath (Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books), 1963, 27 quoted in Manfred Gerstenfeld and Avraham Wyler, “Technology and Jewish Life” Jewish Political Studies Review 18:1-2 (2006): 119-150 45


Appendix

46


Reading Questionnaire Results

Do you read digital books? Yes

No

N/A

60

18

1

Do you own an e-book reader? Yes

No

N/A

48

28

3

If yes, which kind?

N/A

3

What websites do you currently use to keep up to date with books? Amazon, goodreads, Google, NPR, Twitter, Bookpub, Facebook, Author Blogs, Bookdepository, shelfari, librarything, Scribophile, Whatshouldireadnext, Audible, The New York Times, Huffington Post, Slate, The Guardian, Book Riot, Wattpad, Chapters, Bit torrent, SYKM (Stop Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re Killing me!), Barnes&Noble, Simon & Schuster, Public Library, NYPL, PW, Free Library of Philadelphia

Kindle Device

28

Kindle Application

7

iPad

11

Nook

9

Yes

No

N/A

Kobo

2

32

40

7

Other

8

Do you take part in a reading community/ book club?

Do you follow any authors? How many books have you read in the past 6 months? 0-5

20

6-10

11

11-30

27

31-50

9

51-100

8

100+

1

Yes

No

N/A

43

33

3

If yes, how do you keep up to date? Amazon, Author Website, goodreads, Twitter, Facebook, Blogs, Newspapers, Newsletter, Google Alerts, Bookstores, Barnes & Noble, Tumblr, audible, NYPL

47


Do you read digital books? Yes

No

N/A

60

18

1

Do you own an e-book reader? Yes

No

N/A

48

28

3

If yes, which kind? Kindle Device

28

Kindle Application

7

iPad

11

N/A

Do you make markings (for example underline text, fold pages) in physical books?

3

What websites do you currently use to keep up to date with books? Amazon, goodreads, Google, NPR, Twitter, Bookpub, Facebook, Author Blogs, Bookdepository, shelfari, librarything, Scribophile, Whatshouldireadnext, Audible, The New York Times, Huffington Post, Slate, The Guardian, Book Riot, Wattpad, Chapters, Bit torrent, SYKM (Stop Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re Killing me!), Barnes&Noble, Simon & Schuster, Public Library, NYPL, PW, Free Library of Philadelphia

Nook

9

Kobo

2

32

Other

8

No

N/A

40

7

No

N/A

37

41

1

If yes, in what way? Corner folds, highlighters, post-its, underline, margin notes, pieces of paper, asterisk Do you make markings (for example highlights, notes) in e-books? If yes, in what way?

Do you take part in a reading community/ book club? Yes

Yes

Yes

No

N/A

37

35

7

If yes, in what way? Highlight, notes, evernote, bookmark

Do you follow any authors? How many books have you read in the past 6 months? 0-5

20

6-10

11

11-30

27

31-50

9

51-100

8

100+

1

48

Yes

No

N/A

43

33

3

If yes, how do you keep up to date? Amazon, Author Website, goodreads, Twitter, Facebook, Blogs, Newspapers, Newsletter, Google Alerts, Bookstores, Barnes & Noble, Tumblr, audible, NYPL

How often do you go back to look at passages you marked in books? Never

19

Rarely

27

Sometimes

16

Frequently

3

N/A

14


How do you share inspiring passages you read in books? Word of mouth, Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook, email, goodreads, youtube, blog, text message, note, print out

What would make you more likely to use the new platform?

• •

Did someone ever share an inspiring passage they read in a book with you? If yes, how did they share it with you? Yes

No

N/A

53

19

7

• Have you ever read a new book based on a quote from the book? Yes

No

N/A

35

42

2

What is your first reaction to this new platform idea? Very Positive

15

Somewhat Positive

29

Neutral

27

Somewhat Negative

1

Very Negative

2

N/A

2

• • • • • •

flexibility in the design of the physical cards “Perhaps if there is some sort of way to purpose them? I don’t know how many postcards I could get before being overwhelmed. Am I meant to send them on to other people? Or display them in my room/on my desk? Because that would be limiting. Even just a few would start to lose their impact and I might not read them anymore. Is there a digital component? Like desktop wallpapers, collages? A way to increase the intellectual import of gifs? Mini motion graphic type things? A way to bring the beauty of analog books into our daily digital lives.. (so many buzzwords in that last one I may have just died inside)” If all the books I read were available. Maybe a digital copy? If I had a use for it. :P The idea that I can keep favorite quotes and look back to them, and I also like the idea of sharing them Perhaps if it weren’t depended on Kindle. It seems like a sweet idea, I do wonder if there could be any copyright issues with using other people’s quotes without permission...

If I’ll see it chooses good quotes I can identify with

• •

i don’t know

• •

TRYING IT OUT FIRST

• • •

i dont do quotes...

• • • • •

Peer pressure.

To see it on action and if it was kobo as well as Kindle and others

If it could connect to other devices besides

I’d have to start reading more.. And reading more on an ereader as physical book passages and markings are clearly not included Free..available on tablet and phone (both android and iphone) If it was free I don’t keep quotes using Kindle, but I love looking for them in books I’ve read (mostly in physical books. I would like to be able to add quotes manually without connecting my reader. Ease of use and immediate results “I’m not big on facebook sharing. I would prefer pinterist” As I don’t have a e-reader - I use my android phone it would need to be able to be use with this format

49


kindle.

I can’t think of how this would help me in a positive way.

I don’t want them to clutter my reading experience.

Between watching my 16 month old daughter and trying to work on my next book, having a sitter would be about the only way I could find the time.

• • •

Not likely for myself. Possibly as a gift.

If it is really easy to use, emailed to me, and private

I’m not sure if I would get tired of the quotes and then not want the printed post card. However, I would love to share this as a gift to someone.

It doesn’t sound like something I would use.

If it could be done from a device other than an e-reader.

Since I do not have a kindle and would rather not be forced to have an Amazon account. I’d rather that an account should not be required to make the postcards, but if it is a must, I’d rather have it allow more sign-ins with other accounts, such as how Goodreads lets you have multiple options on signing in using

Disconnect the marking/printing service from the design. I imagine more than aesthetic use, it would be useful for writing papers, having all your source material on cards. I would use it for that purpose much more likely than anything decorative/inspirational.

If you could simply get PDFs of the design and print them yourself! (Cheaper that way :) )

I’m not interested in “inspiring” quotes, the kinds of things I highlight in books are more technical and not the kinds of things I would post to a wall.

Not personally interested, but if other people will read that way then it is a good thing.

If I was the kind of person that got back to quotes. The idea sounds great.

• •

probably nothing...

• • •

Making it as simple for the user as possible.

a reasonable price - possibility as an inexpensive but thoughtful gift

really not something i’d be interested in personally but I know some friends that might be interested in it

If those quotes were linked to purchase venues for the book. That way if I shared it on Facebook or another social site, the reader would be given the option to purchase it. Help indie authors out.

• •

10% off the book it was from

More quotes that inspire me and make me

A reason to print them. Right now seems arbitrary.

50

your Google, Amazon, Facebook account.

I might want to use this platform to print out quotes and display them above my computer to inspire myself. I might also want to gift the printed format of these quotes to my off-line friends.

• •

I’m seeing no need for it at all.

• • •

Availability on Barnes & Noble’s Nook.

Low cost, easy user interface, manually inputting quotes from physical books instead of just inputting them from an ebook. If it doesn’t cost extra I don’t use my Kindle very much as I prefer to hold an actual book. I think it’s a great idea, though. Perhaps for me I would maybe send in a quote from a book instead of finding them in a Kindle book. I probably wouldnt

If I had a kindle Nothing, sounds awesome. If it’s 3.99 or under, I’m in.

Easy access to the new platform would make me want to use it frequently.


want to share.

• • • • •

The attachment to Kindle is less attractive. Not procrastinate! !!!

What are the things that you like most about this new platform?

what new platform? Magnet. I like typing out the quote, it helps me remember and appreciate it. It takes some effort to find the passage and write it word for word. Writing and reading go hand in hand for me.

Price, but I don’t see myself using many of them in real life.

I would use it of course if I had a kindle. Try not to limit it to one device.

I would possibly use it if there was complete integration into a platform I already use.

I wouldn’t

If this platform were available today, how likely would you be to recommend it to others? Not Likely

30

Maybe

28

Yes

15

N/A

6

Having a further plan for the project. What people can do with them after their first order? What will make them want to order again, that the postcards won’t just become “clutter.” Make it able to print quotes onto t-shirts and such.

What if I don’t like the designs that are used in this platform?

it should be possible to feed quotes manually and not only from kindle (since I don’t use any e-reading tools)

• •

If it could connect to other devices besides kindle.

• • • •

I can’t think of anything -

• •

Don’t know

• •

Good luck with your thesis! “

Not interested in what seems to me to be one of the primary use case scenarios

The need to consider that there might be more than one use for it.

• • • • • •

I don’t know.

i need to see it It should have an ability to input passages manually

• • • •

I HAVE NOT SEEN IT YET

the devices that it can be used on. If it was on android phones then I would most likely try it.

Don’t know...haven’t used it Get an App! The immediacy of the product. Can it be sent directly to someone else, or printed out?

Include more digital options

Still can’t think of anything. I think you have a handle on it. Different presentations. See it instead of read about it. “Again, without an e-reader/Kindle, access to this platform within a different forum. For me, it would probably just be the sign-in. I’d also like to be able to custom decorate the quotes and at the same time have the option of having pre-made templates to use as well.

Not sure. Availability on more than Amazon. Not having to go through Kindle. i dont know I like the sharing/social media aspect more 51


than the postcard aspect, so maybe focusing more on that?

Something that could connect to my Kindle, collate all the quotes and put them on a single page would be useful because it would aid me in copying the data out to Evernote. However, as I said, I don’t highlight things to be “inspired”.

I don’t know, need more info. & to use it directly to find any faults.

Sounds good to me. Maybe ability to upload my own pics/backgrounds.

That it could be done without buying a kindle - online?

• •

Access to other applications besides Kindle.

• •

make it a magnet.

• • • •

I’d have to use it first.

52

I don’t know. I am sometimes inspired by books, but not usually by quotes. I tend to remember what I read. just a note: when answering the question about if I read digital books. Yes I do, I also read print books. I think there’s more mix of platforms than one or another. Do you plan to monetize it? Integration nothing


Usability Testing Script

My name is Galit Lurya, and I’m going to be walking you through this session. Before we start, if you can fill out a brief background questionnaire. Give them the background questionnaire and a pen Thank you I have some information for you, and I’m going to read it to make sure that I cover everything. You probably already have a good idea of why I asked you here, but let me go over it again briefly. I’m asking people to try using the Lit Sparks prototype site so I can see whether it works as intended. The session should take about twenty minutes. The first thing I want to make clear right away is that I am testing the site, not you. You can’t do anything wrong here. So don’t worry about making mistakes- there is no wrong answer or mistake. As you use the site, I’m going to ask you as much as possible to try to think out loud: to say what you’re looking at, what you’re trying to do, and what you’re thinking. This will be a big help. Also, please don’t worry that you’re going to hurt my feelings. I’m doing this to improve the site, so

I need to hear your honest reactions. If you have any questions as we go along, just ask them. I may not be able to answer them right away, since I’m interested in how people do when they don’t have someone sitting next to them to help. But if you still have any questions when we’re done I’ll try to answer them then. And if you need to take a break at any point, just let me know. With your permission, I’m going to record what happens on the screen and our conversation. The recording will only be used to help me figure out how to improve the site, and it won’t be seen by anyone except the people working on this project. And it helps me, because I don’t have to take as many notes. If you would, I’m going to ask you to sign a simple permission form. It just says that I have your permission to record you, and that the recording will only be seen by the people working on the project. Give them a recording permission form and a pen While they sign it, START the SCREEN RECORDER Do you have any questions so far? OK. Before we look at the site, I’d like to ask you just a few quick questions.

53


First, what’s your occupation? What do you do all day? Do you read digital books? Which reader do you use? How many books do you estimate you read in the past 6 months? Do you make markings (for example underline text, fold pages, highlight) in physical or digital books? If yes, in what way? How often do you go back to look at passages you marked in books? How do you share inspiring passages you read in books? What was the last thing you purchased online? Was it for yourself or as a gift? OK, great. We’re done with the questions, and we can start looking at things. For this test, you’ll be looking at a mockup (a preliminary version of the site that hasn’t been completed). I’d like you to imagine how it would be to use these pages in real life. Don’t worry if the design seems unfinished. You’ll probably click on something that doesn’t work. If this happens don’t worry, just tell us what you expect it should do. 54

open the web browser to Lit Sparks prototype First, I’m going to ask you to look at this page and tell me what you make of it: what strikes you about it, whose site you think it is, what you can do here, and what it’s for. Just look around and do a little narrative. Allow this to continue 3-4min at the most

5.

like How would you view quotes that someone else created

Thanks, if you can fill out a brief questionnaire about your overall impression of the website Give them the background questionnaire and a pen

Thanks. Let sign up to the site and then I’m going to ask you to try doing some specific tasks. I’m going to read each one out loud and give you a printed copy.

Thanks, that was very helpful.

And again, as much as possible, it will help me if you can try to think out loud as you go along.

Give them their incentive (gift) Stop the screen recorder and save the file. Thank them and escort them out.

Hand the participant the first scenario, and read it aloud. Allow the user to proceed until you don’t feel like it’s producing any value or the user becomes very frustrated. After each task, ask the participant to rate the task on a 5-point Likert Scale Repeat for each task

1. 2. 3. 4.

How would you create a new quote print and purchase it How would you view all quotes from a book you like How would you view information about a quote How would you purchase a print that you

Do you have any questions for me, now that we’re done?


Usability Testing Background Questionnaire

Your Name: _________________________ 1. What is your Gender?  Male  Female 2. Which of the following best describes your age?  12-17  18-25  26-39  40-59  60+

5. Which of the following best describes your personal income?  under $25,000  between $25,000 to $60,000  more than 60,000 6. Which of the following describes your highest level of education?  Less than high school  High school  Some college  2 year college degree (associate)  4 year college degree (BS, BA)  Masters degree  Doctoral degree  Professional degree (MD, JD)

3. Which of the following best describes your race or ethnic group?  White / Caucasian  Black or African American  Asian  American Indian or Alaska Native  Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander  Other ____________________ 4. What language do you speak at home?  English  Spanish  Asian or Pacific Islander  Other __________________

55


Usability Testing Questionnaire

The website navigation keeps letting me know where I am  strongly disagree  disagree  neutral  agree  strongly agree The website makes me want explore more of it  strongly disagree  disagree  neutral  agree  strongly agree I would like to revisit this website  strongly disagree  disagree  neutral  agree  strongly agree I am attracted by the visual elements of the website  strongly disagree  disagree  neutral  agree  strongly agree

56

If you were the developer what would be the first thing you would do to improve the website? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ______________________________


57


â&#x20AC;&#x153;It was books that taught me that the things that tormented me most were the very things that connected me with all the people who were alive, or who had ever been aliveâ&#x20AC;? James Baldwin

Lit Sparks  

Lit Sparks helps readers capture book quotes that have touched them by turning them into beautiful prints that can be hung or shared with ot...

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