Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2023

Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information: Florida Water Resources Journal

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BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc.

President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

Secretary: Mish Clark Mish Agency


The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions

FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions

FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com

FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information

DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500

FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820

Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751

FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org

FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318


Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com

FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org

FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org

FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org

Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org

Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.


24 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Greg D. Taylor

30 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak

36 FWEA Focus—Sondra W. Lee

38 C Factor—Patrick “Murf” Murphy

54 Let’s Talk Safety: Trenching: Don’t Dig Into Trouble!


52 New Products

55 Classifieds

58 Display Advertiser Index

Ishii, and Andre Dieffenthaller

Education and Training

ON THE COVER: Center pivots at the Southeast Farm on the outskirts of the City of Tallahassee have been used to irrigate nonedible crops using reclaimed water since 1981. For more information, see page 36. (photo: Randy Bond) Volume 74

April 2023 Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711 News and Features 4 EPA Proposes Adding PFAS to National Enforcement and Compliance Initiatives 6 Water Conservation in Florida: A Utility/Customer Partnership 26 WateReuse Association Announces 2023 Awards 28 Process Page: JEA Monterey Wastewater Treatment Facility: Sequencing Success Through Simplified Controls—Alexander Gex 46 Latest WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Sales Increases for the Industry
Articles 10 Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: A New Incentive for Potable Reuse?—Viraj deSilva and Justas Rutkauskas 40 Preparing Water Conservation Plans for Florida’s Public Water Supply Utilities: Water Management District Guidance—Josh Madden, Cassidy Hampton, Deirdre Irwin, Gretchen Smith, James Harmon, and Rosines Colon 48 Potable Reuse in Florida: How City of Plant City is Making it Happen— Carlyn Higgins, Paul Biscardi, Stephanie
Resources Conference 25 CEU Challenge 32 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship 33 AWWA Membership 34 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 35 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 45 FWPCOA Training Calendar 53 TREEO Center Training
16 Florida Water
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 3

EPA Proposes Adding PFAS to National Enforcement and Compliance Initiatives

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced that it’s seeking public comment on its proposal to address environmental justice, climate change, and perand polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contamination in its current National Compliance Initiatives (NCIs).

Every four years, EPA selects national initiatives to focus resources on serious and widespread environmental problems where federal enforcement can make a difference. The primary objective of these initiatives is to protect human health and the environment by holding polluters accountable through enforcement and assisting regulated entities to return to compliance.

The EPA proposes to continue four of the six current national initiatives during the fiscal year (FY) 2024-2027 cycle and return two of the current national initiatives to the core enforcement and compliance program. In addition, EPA proposes to address environmental justice concerns in all NCIs, and to add the two new NCIs—on mitigating climate change and PFAS pollution—in the FY 2024-2027 cycle.

“The national enforcement and compliance initiatives identify serious environmental challenges where EPA can make a difference through a coordinated national approach,” said Larry Starfield, acting assistant administrator for the EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. “We look forward to receiving public comment on our proposals, which include both familiar and emerging issues. Of particular importance, we have built environmental justice considerations firmly into every initiative in order to protect vulnerable communities.”

Criteria for Selecting Initiatives

In selecting initiatives for the FY 2024-2027 cycle, EPA will consider the following three criteria to evaluate the existing and proposed new initiatives:

S Address serious and widespread environmental issues and significant violations impacting human health and the environment, particularly in overburdened and vulnerable communities.

S Determine where federal enforcement can help ensure national consistency and promote a level playing field and achieve compliance.

S Align the initiatives with the agency’s strategic plan.

Proposed Initiatives

The EPA is proposing to continue the following four current NCIs:

S Creating cleaner air for communities by reducing excess emissions of harmful pollutants.

S Reducing risks of accidental releases at industrial and chemical facilities.

S Reducing significant noncompliance in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program.

S Reducing noncompliance with drinking water standards at community water systems.

It’s also proposing to return these two current NCIs to the core enforcement and compliance programs:

S Reducing toxic air emissions from hazardous waste facilities.

S Stopping aftermarket defeat devices for vehicles and engines.

Comments are also being solicited by EPA on whether to add an NCI to address coal combustion residuals pollution and/or lead contamination. The agency is also accepting additional suggestions from the public.

Name Change for Initiatives Program

While formal enforcement remains the key tool to address serious environmental problems and significant violations, as well as create general deterrence, EPA also uses a variety of compliance assurance tools to achieve this objective. To reflect this comprehensive approach, EPA has changed the name of its priority initiatives from National Compliance Initiatives to National Enforcement and Compliance Initiatives (NECIs).

For more information and to comment on the proposal go to www.epa.gov. S

4 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Conservation in Florida: A Utility/Customer Partnership

Water conservation is the most important action to take to sustain Florida’s water supplies, meet future needs, and reduce demands on the state’s water-dependent ecosystems, such as springs, rivers, lakes, and wetlands.

Utilities can implement water conservation activities by utilizing cost-share programs of the water management districts and through regulations, such as landscape irrigation restrictions. Most importantly, however, water conservation can be implemented by your water customers.

Here, the focus is on residential customers.

Water Conservation Works

Water conservation measures, adoption of year-round landscape irrigation restrictions,

increased use of reclaimed water, and the use of Florida-Friendly landscaping techniques have all resulted in significant lowering of the per capita water use rates. For example, in 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the statewide public supply per capita at 170.2 gallons per capita day (gpcd) and the public supply residential per capita at 103 gpcd. By 2010, the public supply gross per capita average dropped to 134 gpcd, a 21 percent reduction, and the public supply residential per capita dropped to 84 gpcd, a reduction of 18 percent. During 2022, the median residential use was 41 gpcd.

In addition to customers saving money on their utility bills, water conservation helps prevent water pollution in nearby lakes, rivers, and local watersheds. Conserving water also

prevents greenhouse gas emissions associated with treating and distributing water.

Conserving water can also extend the life of a septic system by reducing soil saturation and pollution due to leaks. Overloading municipal sewer systems can also cause untreated sewage to flow to lakes and rivers; the smaller the amount of water flowing through these systems, the lower the likelihood of pollution. In some communities, costly sewage system expansion has been avoided by communitywide water conservation.

Here are some water-saving ideas you can share with your customers. Many of them are already aware of these, but the many people who are moving to the state every year may not be aware of the importance of water conservation—

Continued on page 8

6 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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to the environment and to their household budget!



S Run full loads of laundry.

S When purchasing a new washing machine, buy a water-saving model that can be adjusted to the load size.

In the Kitchen

S When cooking, peel and clean vegetables in a large bowl of water instead of under running water.

S Fill the sink or basin when washing and rinsing dishes.

S Only run the dishwasher when it’s full. Opt for the dishwasher over handwashing.

S When buying a dishwasher, select one with a “light-wash” option.

S Only use the garbage disposal when necessary (composting is a great alternative).

S Install faucet aerators.

S Keep a bottle of drinking water in the refrigerator.

In the Bathroom

S Take short showers instead of baths. Turn off the water to soap up, then rinse. Better yet, install a low-flow showerhead.

S Turn off the water while brushing teeth.

S Fill the sink to shave instead of rinsing the razor in running water.

S Repair leaky toilets. Add 12 drops of food coloring into the tank, and if color appears in the bowl one hour later, the toilet is leaking.

S Install a toilet dam.

S Don’t use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket.


Lawn and Plantings

S Maximize the use of natural vegetation and establish smaller lawns. For portions of a lot where a lawn and landscaping are desired, ask the local nursery for tips about plants and grasses with low water demand. Consider planting more trees, shrubs, and groundcovers, and less grass. Shrubs and groundcovers provide greenery for much of the year and usually demand less water.

S Use native plants in flower beds. Native plants have adapted to rainfall conditions and often provide good wildlife habitat. Cluster plants that require extra care together to minimize time and save water.

S When mowing the lawn, set the mower blades to 2 to 3 inches high. Longer grass shades the soil, improves moisture retention, and has more leaf surface to take in sunlight, allowing it to grow thicker and develop a deeper root system. This helps grass survive drought, tolerate insect damage, and fend off disease.

S Apply mulch around shrubs and flower beds to reduce evaporation, promote plant growth, and control weeds.

S Add compost or an organic matter to soil as necessary to improve soil conditions and water retention.

Water Use

S Only water the lawn when necessary, usually once a week if rainfall isn’t sufficient. Avoid watering on windy and hot days. Water the lawn and garden in the morning or late in the evening to maximize the amount of water that reaches the plant roots (otherwise most of the water will evaporate).

S Use soaker hoses to water gardens and flower beds. If sprinklers are used, take care to be sure they don’t water walkways and buildings. When watering, put down no more than 1 inch each week (set out small, shallow empty cans to determine how long it takes to water to that depth). This watering pattern will encourage healthier and deeper grass roots.

S Overwatering is wasteful, encourages fungal growth and disease, and results in the growth of shallow, compacted root systems that are more susceptible to drought and foot traffic.

S If an automatic lawn irrigation system is used, be sure it has been properly installed, is programmed to deliver the appropriate amount and rate of water, and has rain shutoff capability.

S Collect rainfall for irrigation in a screened container (to prevent mosquito larvae growth).

S Harvest rain to water flower beds, herb gardens, and potted plants. Rain is free, and it’s beneficial for plants because rain doesn’t contain hard minerals.

S Check hose and sprinkler connections for leaks. A drop wasted each second can add up to a couple of gallons each day.

S On slopes, plant native species that will retain water and help reduce runoff.

S Irrigate lawns with reclaimed water.

S When washing a car, use a hose with a shutoff nozzle. Wet the car quickly, then use a bucket of water and a sponge or rag to wash the car. Turn on the hose for the final rinse.

S Always use a broom to clean walkways, driveways, decks, and porches, rather than hosing off these areas.

8 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: A New Incentive for Potable Reuse?

Florida’s rapid growth has alarmed water utility authorities because increased demand for potable water is quickly depleting the Sunshine State’s natural aquifer system. The population of Florida has increased by approximately 3.4 million people over the last 12 years, stretching the state’s finite freshwater resources (Census, 2023). Meanwhile, Florida, like the rest of the United States, is increasingly monitoring water resources for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) due to their widespread detection and adverse health effects (Florida Department of Environmental Protection [FDEP], 2022). The confluence of these two trends creates opportunities to rethink traditional water supplies and expand on new ones.

Both federal and state regulatory landscapes continue to evolve. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established PFAS health advisories and is developing new regulations and maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Also, states such as California have established

strict concentration levels, requiring a response by water suppliers. Simultaneously, drought-prone states seeking alternative water supplies increasingly see potable reuse as an option. Several states have already established regulations for indirect potable reuse (IPR), while others are developing frameworks for both IPR and direct potable reuse (DPR) to incentivize municipalities to add potable reuse as a resource.

Florida has implemented the use of reclaimed water for nonpotable uses, but has no utility-scale operational IPR or DPR facilities. Nonetheless, multiple utilities across the state have started potable reuse pilot studies to demonstrate innovative advanced treatment methods using this alternative water source. The advanced water treatment technologies used in potable reuse facilities, primarily reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC), are two of the three currently commercially available technologies that have shown high removal efficiencies of PFAS compounds. These pilot studies, along with results from other states, can help Florida tap further into the promise of potable reuse.

Viraj deSilva, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, is chair of the Water Environment Federation PFAS Task Force. He is senior treatment process leader, and Justas Rutkauskas is an engineer, with Freese and Nichols Inc. in Tampa and Austin, Texas.

Federal Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Guidance

The EPA has taken the initial steps of regulating PFAS compounds due to the increasing rates of detection across the U.S. The agency established a health advisory limit of 70 ng/L in drinking water for the sum of PFOA and PFOS in 2016 (EPA, 2016), and that was superseded in June 2022 by 0.004 ng/L for PFOA, 0.02 ng/L for PFOS, 10 ng/L for GenX chemicals, and 2,000 ng/L for perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) (EPA, 2022).

The PFAS Strategic Roadmap, released in October 2021, summarized actions that EPA plans to take through 2024 in a multifaceted approach to mitigate the widely spread PFAS contamination of water and land throughout the U.S.

A draft of national primary drinking water regulations for PFOA and PFOS is planned to be released in April 2023, with the final regulation projected to be finalized before the end of 2024. A related regulation, the proposed Fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5), requires all public water systems serving 3,300 or more people to collect samples that will be tested for 29 PFAS chemicals from January 2023 through December 2025 (EPA, 2021).

Most states are following EPA’s current health advisory limits, but aren’t taking additional action before federal regulations are adopted. A few states, however, are moving faster, with stricter health advisories and regulations for PFOA, PFOS, and added additional PFAS chemicals. Notably, California has set response levels of 10 ng/L for PFOA, 40 ng/L for PFOS, 5000 ng/L for PFBS, and 20 ng/L for perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). Under state law, a community water system must take the water source out of use or provide public notice within 30 days of the listed PFAS chemical detection if the constituent concentrations exceed the response levels (State Water Resources Control Board [SWRCB], 2023).

10 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
FWRJ Water Quality Parameter Specification Sampling Monitoring Requirements Total Organic Carbon (TOC) ≤5 mg/L (maximum) ≤3 mg/L (monthly average) Daily Total Suspended Solids (TSS) ≤5 mg/L (any one sample) Measured prior to application of the disinfectant Total Organic Halogen (TOX) ≤0.3 mg/L (maximum) ≤0.2 mg/L (monthly average) Daily Turbidity Monitoring only Continuous online monitoring Disinfection Byproducts Monitoring only Continuous online monitoring Total Chlorine Residual ≥1.0 mg/L Following 15 minutes contact time at peak hourly flow Fecal Coliform <detection limit organisms (75% of samples over a 30-day period/monthly) ≤25 organisms per 100 mL (any one sample) Not specified Other Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards Must meet the Florida drinking water standards (Fla. Admin. Code r. 62550.310) Not specified
Table 1. Florida Potable Reuse Requirement Summary per Florida Administrative Code r. 62-610; 62-600.445

In January 2023, Pennsylvania approved 14 ng/L PFOA and 18 ng/L PFOS limits, requiring water companies and municipalities to treat the water if these limits are exceeded.

Florida Potable Reuse Guidelines

Strict wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall restrictions were established in Florida by Senate Bill 64, which requires all domestic wastewater utilities to eliminate nonbeneficial effluent discharge into surface water bodies by 2032. Utilities that did not meet the November 2021 deadline to provide a plan for eliminating effluent discharges will have to meet the requirements by 2028. The bill provides an incentive for potable reuse project development, as it specifies potable reuse as an alternative water supply (provides potable reuse project eligibility for alternative water supply funding) and considers treated WWTP effluent discharges associated with IPR projects as beneficial discharge (Florida Senate, 2021).

The FDEP is currently undergoing a potable reuse rulemaking effort to address both DPR and IPR within state regulations. The proposed framework indicates that treated reused water must meet all drinking water standards and be treated for contaminants of emerging concern (FDEP, 2021).

Currently, the Florida Administrative Code defines surface water augmentation, a form of IPR, as the approved planned potable use of recycled water. A summary of potable reuse requirements is provided in Table 1.

Award-Winning Direct Potable Reuse Pilot Project in Florida

The City of Altamonte Springs, serving 45,000 residents, has been successfully operating a DPR demonstration pilot, called pureALTA, since 2017. The project is exploring DPR as a more-sustainable alternative than IPR due to reduced costs of additional stages of pumping and treatment, providing data to FDEP for future DPR regulatory framework development, and demonstrating a potable reuse technology alternative that does not produce a concentrate discharge like RO-based facilities (Martz et al., 2019). The facility won the 2017 WateReuse Innovative Project of the Year award and was ranked in the top three at the International Water Association Project Innovation Awards (Altamonte Springs, 2017; 2018).

The 28,000-gal-per-day (gpd) pilot facility takes treated tertiary effluent before the chlorination stage from the Altamonte Springs Regional Water Reclamation Facility, treats it in a GAC-based treatment train, and returns it to the city’s reclaimed water system to be used

Process Design Parameters


Biological Activated Carbon


Granular Activated Carbon

Ultraviolet Light

Contact time = 3 min

Hydraulic loading = 2.9 gpm/ft2

Empty bed contact time (EBCT) = 15 min

Surface area = 775 ft2

Pore size = 0.01 μm

Media size = 0.8-1 mm

EBCT = 14.3 min at 17 gpm

UV dose = 900 mJ/cm2

for irrigation during the study phase of the pilot (Altamonte Springs, 2017). The pureALTA pilot consists of ozonation and biological activated carbon {BAC) filtration, followed by ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, GAC, and an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that involves hydrogen peroxide injection and ultraviolet (UV) light, as shown in Figure 2. Design parameters of different processes are outlined in Table 2 (Kumar et al., 2021).

A year-long study was conducted to test PFAS and their precursors in the pureALTA facility influent at different stages of the treatment processes and the effluent. The study showed that the GAC treatment step contributed to the largest removal percentage of various PFAS constituents,

with the GAC bed change-out becoming the controlling parameter of the treatment train. The PFOS and PFOA have been removed to levels below the measuring limits, with up to 10,000 bed volumes (BV), while short-chain PFAS reached complete breakthrough at approximately 2,000 BVs. The influent concentrations and measuring limits of PFOS and PFOA are provided in Table 3 (Kumar et al., 2021).

Florida IPR requirements indicate a 3-mg/L TOC limit, which was determined to be the controlling factor of the bed change-out in this pilot, as the PFOS and PFOA feed concentrations were below EPA’s 70-ng/L total or individual

Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 11
Figure 1. Potable reuse regulations in Florida, Texas, and California. Figure 2. Process flow diagram of pureALTA facility. Table 2. The pureALTA Process Design Parameters

Continued from page 11

constituent health advisory limit (superseded in 2022) that was used as the basis for PFAS removal in this study (Kumar et al., 2021). Potentially lower PFOA and PFOS concentration limits in the future, or short-chain PFAS regulations, could drive the GAC change-out requirements.

Successful Pure Water San Diego Demonstration

The City of San Diego has started implementing its Pure Water San Diego program, which will provide one-third of the public water supply by 2035 (San Diego, 2016). In addition to numerous improvements to the water distribution system, the North City Water Reclamation Plant (NCWRP) will be expanded and the North City Pure Water Facility (NCPWF) will be constructed (San Diego, 2019). With the allocation of $1.5 billion to complete the entire system, the city aims to produce 30 mil gal per day (mgd) by 2025 (San Diego, 2021).

The reclamation facility will pump treated effluent to the NCPWF. The water will then be treated through a multistep train that begins with ozonation, then flows through both BAC and low-pressure and RO membranes. The treatment process is finished with UV/advanced oxidation. The purified product will be pumped to the Miramar Reservoir for additional environmental filtration. With construction underway, the NCPWF serves as the first IPR project in California to augment the reservoir, and completion is anticipated for 2025 (San Diego, 2019).

In an effort to involve the public in the Pure Water program, the city began operation of a 1-mgd demonstration facility in 2011. The facility successfully treats tertiary effluent from the NCWRP with a train consisting of microfiltration (MF) and RO filtration and UV/ AOP. Both the tertiary effluent and demonstration facility product were monitored for one year; during this time, samples were taken on four occasions to test for six PFAS compounds, and

only perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and PFOA were detected. All four sampling events encountered PFOA concentrations exceeding the existing California PFOA notification level of 5.1 ng/L. Both PFAS compounds were treated by the demonstration facility to nondetectable levels, as indicated in Table 4 (San Diego, 2012).

Water Quality Enhancement With Direct Potable Reuse in Texas

The communities of West Texas have struggled with multiple severe drought events over the last few decades. In the wake of diminished water supplies, the Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) recognized the need for alternatives to sufficiently provide water for its approximately 500,000 customers. To supplement the water supply for the City of Big Spring, Texas, CRMWD, in conjunction with the Ward County Well Field project, constructed the Big Spring Raw Water Production Facility (RWPF) in May 2013 (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016).

12 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
PFOA[1] PFOS[2] Tertiary Effluent (ng/L) Purified Water (ng/L) Tertiary Effluent (ng/L) Purified Water (ng/L) 8.8 <5.0 3.4 <0.25 [1] Detection Limit = 5.0 ng/L [2] Detection Limit = 0.25 ng/L
Sample Taken Tertiary Effluent (ng/L) Purified Water (ng/L) Tertiary Effluent (ng/L) Purified Water (ng/L) 8/24/2011 32 <3.1 170 <3.5 11/8/2011 36 <3.1 290 <3.5 3/8/2012 23 <3.1 210 <3.5 5/1/2012 26 <3.1 230 <3.5 [1] Detection Limit = 3.1 ng/L [2] Detection Limit = 3.5 ng/L
Table 3. The pureALTA Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid Influent and Effluent Concentrations
PFHpA[1] PFOA[2}\]
Table 4. Pure Water San Diego Demonstration Facility Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Removal Results (San Diego, 2012) Figure 3. Treatment process steps at the Big Spring Raw Water Production Facility (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016).

The RWPF produces 1.7 mgd of advancedtreated reclaimed water that is directly blended with water pumped from Moss Creek Lake, making it the first DPR facility in the U.S. (SteinleDarling et al., 2016). The RWPF receives the secondary effluent of the Big Spring WWTP. The RWPF treatment train includes two MF skids, two RO trains, UV/AOP process of hydrogen peroxide injection, and high-intensity UV light. All membrane backwash and waste streams are returned to the WWTP, RO concentrate is discharged to Beal’s Creek, and product water is blended with water from Moss Creek Lake at less than 50 percent of the total flow.

Figure 3 shows a diagram of the treatment process and blending with the surface water (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016).

Beal’s Creek contains approximately 20,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), on average, indicating a significantly high salinity. As such, the CRMWD was authorized to obtain an industrial discharge permit from the Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (TPDES) to expel the RO concentrate into Beal’s Creek. Although the RO concentrate is known to contain significant PFAS contamination, raw water reservoirs downstream of the RWPF discharge point are protected via stream redirection. The primary purpose of the redirection is to deposit the dissolved salts of Beal’s Creek into an evaporation pond, thus protecting the downstream reservoirs (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016). As a result, the RO concentrate is also redirected to the pond.

To ensure compliance with potable water

quality standards, the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) conducted a study to sample and test for PFAS concentrations in the product at the RWPF. From July 2014 to September 2015, samples from six locations were obtained during four major sampling events. The average concentration of the various PFAS compounds tested at five of the six locations is provided in Figure 4. As shown, PFAS concentrations achieved nondetect levels for both RO permeate and product water.

The figure indicates elevated PFAS concentrations at the Moss Creek Lake sampling location, which suggests that the RWPF product water enhances the water quality of blended water, in terms of PFAS concentrations (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016).

Engaging the Community

The major potable reuse deterrent is public perception, as the general public perceives reused water as contaminated and of lower quality (Hartley et al., 2019). This means that engaging the community is one of the most important steps to successfully implement any potable reuse project. Multiple utilities across the U.S. have undertaken extensive public outreach programs to educate the public about the advanced treatment processes used in potable reuse facilities and overall benefits of recycling water. Additional steps can be taken to emphasize how potable reuse facilities are improving water quality by tackling emerging contaminants (such as PFAS) that are prevalent in the environment and often in local water sources.

The communications and outreach plan provides the initial elements of a successful potable reuse project. Formulating such an outreach program will include several steps, outlined in Figure 5.

San Diego’s public outreach to educate residents about the safety and benefits of recycled water includes community tours of the Pure Water San Diego demonstration facility, workshops explaining the benefits of potable reuse, and distribution of educational material, such as brochures and videos. The city has a dedicated website that provides information about the program, answers frequently asked questions about potable reuse, and allows the general public to access the engineering reports generated through different stages of the Pure Water San Diego program implementation (San Diego, 2023).

In Texas, the CRMWD actively engaged the public in Big Spring through television, newspaper, and radio, and in public meetings. Residents were encouraged to reach out to the district and ask questions or request presentations to various clubs and associations (Scruggs et. al, 2020). The public outreach program generated public acceptance and support for the first DPR facility in the U.S.

Summary: New Incentives for Potable Reuse

Florida’s rapidly increasing population and diminishing freshwater sources are forcing

Continued on page 14

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 13
Figure 4. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances sample data from the Big Spring Raw Water Production Facility (Steinle-Darling et al., 2016). Figure 5. Steps of developing a public outreach program for potable reuse.

Continued from page 13

utilities to search for new alternative water supplies. In addition, PFAS chemicals are widely spread in conventional water sources across the U.S. Utilities in Florida and other states have successfully demonstrated the reliability and effectiveness of potable reuse treatment systems, while the regulators are moving toward establishing guidelines and regulations for potable reuse projects.

Public perception of recycled water for drinking is still a major hurdle that requires extensive public outreach and education programs to be overcome; however, information about PFAS removal, in addition to demonstrating the safety and water quality of potable reuse systems, might help communities accept this alternative water source more willingly.

Potable reuse facilities are well-suited to treat PFAS compounds because they already use the same advanced water treatment technologies that are effective against PFAS. Future MCLs on PFAS might motivate more utilities to choose recycled water as their new drinking water source to reap the benefits of a droughtresilient and environmentally sustainable water supply that will ensure compliance with future regulations.


• California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). (2018, December 11). Water Quality Control Policy for Recycled Water. State Water Resources Control Board. https:// www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/ programs/recycled_water/policy.html.

• City of Altamonte Springs. (2017, August). The City of Altamonte Springs Explores Ways to Combat Future Water Shortages With its New pureAlta Water Project. https:// altamonte.org/DocumentCenter/View/6960/ Altamonte-Springs-pureALTA-ProjectPress-Release.

• City of Altamonte Springs. (2017, October). pureALTA Wins National Award for Water Treatment Project. https://altamonte. org/DocumentCenter/View/6961/2017pureALTA-WateReuse-Award-Press-Release.

• City of Altamonte Springs. (2018, September). City of Altamonte Springs Ranks Top in the World for Innovative Water Project. https://altamonte.org/DocumentCenter/ View/6959/2018-pureALTA-IWA-AwardPress-Release.

• City of San Diego (2016). San Diego’s Pure Water Program. https://www.sandiego.gov/ sites/default/files/pure_water_brochure_v9_ final_0.pdf.

• City of San Diego (2021). The City of San Diego, Pure Water San Diego. 2021 Annual Report: A Year in Review. https://www.sandiego.gov/sites/ default/files/2021_annual_report_a_year_in_ review-final.pdf.

• City of San Diego (n.d.). Informational Material. Retrieved February 12, 2023. https://www. sandiego.gov/public-utilities/sustainability/ pure-water-sd/information.

• Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). (2021). Potable Reuse Rulemaking Public Workshop. https:// floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/PotableReuse_ PublicWorkshopPresentation01142021_ ForWebsite.pdf.

• Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). (2022, March). Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) Dynamic Plan. floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/Dynamic_ Plan_March_2022.pdf.

• Florida Potable Reuse Commission. (2020, January). Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida. http://www. watereuseflorida.com/wp-content/uploads/ Framework-for-Potable-Reuse-in-FloridaFINAL-January-2020-web10495.pdf

• Florida Senate (Fl Senate), 2021. Senate Bill 64 Summary. https://www.flsenate.gov/ Committees/billsummaries/2021/html/2320.

• Hartley, K., Tortajada, C., & Biswas, A.K. (2019, November) A Formal Model Concerning Policy Strategies to Build Public Acceptance of Potable Water Reuse. Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 250. 109505. ISSN 0301-4797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jenvman.2019.109505.

• Kumar, P., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, L., Salveson, A., Ammerman, D., & Steinle-Darling, E. (2021, September). Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance Removal in Carbon-Based Advanced Treatment for Potable Reuse. AWWA Water Science, e1244. https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1244.

• Martz, F., Torres, E., & Jackson, J.A. (2019, January). A Safe and Cost-Effective Alternative Water Supply for Potable Reuse. https:// meetingoftheminds.org/a-safe-cost-effectivealternative-water-supply-for-potablereuse-29464.

• Public Utilities Department (San Diego). (2012, November). Advanced Water Purification Demonstration Facility Preliminary Water Quality Monitoring Results. https://www. sandiego.gov/sites/default/files/legacy/water/ purewater/pdf/finalawpdfwebdata121101.pdf.

• Public Utilities Department (San Diego). (2019, April). Final Draft Title 22 Engineering Report North City Pure Water Project. City of San Diego. https://www.sandiego.gov/sites/default/ files/north_city_pure_water_project_final_ draft_title_22_engineering_report.pdf.

• Scruggs, C.E., Pratesi, C.B., & Fleck, J.R. (2020, July) Direct Potable Water Reuse in Five Arid Inland Communities: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Public Acceptance. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 63:8, 1470-1500, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640 568.2019.1671815.

• State Water Resource Control Board. (n.d.). Drinking Water Notification Levels. Retrieved February 10, 2023, from https://www. waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/ drinkingwater/NotificationLevels.html.

• State Water Resource Control Board. (n.d.). PFAS: Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2023, from https://www. waterboards.ca.gov/drinking_water/certlic/ drinkingwater/pfas.html.

• Steinle-Darling, E., Salveson, A., Sutherland, J., Dickenson, E., Hokanson, D., Trussell, S., & Stanford, B. (2016, December). Testing Water Quality in a Municipal Wastewater Effluent Treated to Drinking Water Standards (Vol. 1). Texas Water Development Board. https:// www.twdb.texas.gov/publications/reports/ contracted_reports/doc/1348321632_vol1. pdf?d=460646.9000000004.

• Steinle-Darling, E., Salveson, A., Sutherland, J., Dickenson, E., Hokanson, D., Trussell, S., & Stanford, B. (2016, December). Testing Water Quality in a Municipal Wastewater Effluent Treated to Drinking Water Standards (Vol. 2). Texas Water Development Board. https:// www.twdb.texas.gov/publications/reports/ contracted_reports/doc/1348321632_vol2. pdf?d=460646.9000000004.

• United States Census Bureau (Census). QuickFacts. Florida. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2023, from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/ table/FL/PST045221.

• U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2016). FACT SHEET: PFOA and PFOS Drinking Water Health Advisories. Office of Water Health and Ecological Criteria Division. https://www. epa.gov/sites/default/files/2016-06/documents/ drinkingwaterhealthadvisories_pfoa_pfos_ updated_5.31.16.pdf.

• U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2021). PFAS Strategic Roadmap: EPA’s Commitments to Action 2021 –2024. https://www.epa.gov/system/files/ documents/2021-10/pfas-roadmap_final-508. pdf.

• U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2022). EPA Announces New Drinking Water Health Advisories for PFAS Chemicals, $1 Billion in Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Funding to Strengthen Health Protections. https:// www.epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-announcesnew-drinking-water-health-advisories-pfaschemicals-1-billion-bipartisan. S

14 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
16 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
31 - June 3, 2023
Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL
Subject to Change

Thursday AM

Did you know you can sponsor a technical track?

For $750, sponsor an entire track for Thursday or Friday, AM or PM. You get to distribute materials, logo included on signage, plus mentions at each session.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 17
*Tentative, Subject to Change
18 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal Thursday PM Have you bought your tickets? Go to www.fwrc.org. Prices go up May 1, 2023! *Tentative, Subject to Change
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 19 Friday AM Did you know your lunches are included? Register as a full-conference attendee or one-day attendee to enjoy the FWRC lunch, FWEA lunch or both. See Attendee information at www.fwrc.org *Tentative, Subject to Change

Friday PM

Be on the lookout for the FWRC app!

This year, the FWRC will have an app to network, make personal schedules, play scavenger hunt and much, much more!

20 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
*Tentative, Subject to Change

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL



Prices increase on May 1, 2023!

Prices increase on May 1, 2023!

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL 2 ADDITIONAL HOTELS NOW AVAILABLE

2 ADDITIONAL HOTELS NOW AVAILABLE Find links to book your hotel at www.fwrc.org

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 21
Ticket Type Includes Exhibit Hall Includes Technical Sessions Includes FWRC &/or FWEA Lunch(s) Price (valid thru 4.30.23) Price (valid 5/1/23 - 6/3/23) Full Registration YES YES YES MEMBER: $425 NONMEMBER: $500 RETIRED: $100 SPOUSE: $100 MEMBER: $500 NONMEMBER: $575 RETIRED: $100 SPOUSE: $100 Exhibit Hall Only YES NO NO $15 $25 1-Day Registration (Thur OR Fri) YES YES Thursday: FWRC Friday: FWEA MEMBER: $275 NONMEMBER: $325 MEMBER: $325 NONMEMBER: $375 1-Day Contestant (Thur OR Fri) YES NO NO $105 $145 1-Day Speaker (Thur OR Fri) YES YES NO $90 $130 Booth Staff (4 free/booth) YES NO NO FREE $10 EACH ADD'L TIX $10 Retired / Lifetime Member YES YES YES $100 $100 Student Tickets YES NO NO FREE FREE
Find links to book your hotel at www.fwrc.org Ticket Type Includes Exhibit Hall Includes Technical Sessions Includes FWRC &/or FWEA Lunch(s) Price (valid thru 4.30.23) Price (valid 5/1/23 - 6/3/23) Full Registration YES YES YES MEMBER: $425 NONMEMBER: $500 RETIRED: $100 SPOUSE: $100 MEMBER: $500 NONMEMBER: $575 RETIRED: $100 SPOUSE: $100 Exhibit Hall Only YES NO NO $15 $25 1-Day Registration (Thur OR Fri) YES YES Thursday: FWRC Friday: FWEA MEMBER: $275 NONMEMBER: $325 MEMBER: $325 NONMEMBER: $375 1-Day Contestant (Thur OR Fri) YES NO NO $105 $145 1-Day Speaker (Thur OR Fri) YES YES NO $90 $130 Booth Staff (4 free/booth) YES NO NO FREE $10 EACH ADD'L TIX. $10 Retired / Lifetime Member YES YES YES $100 $100 Student Tickets YES NO NO FREE FREE

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL


May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL


Only 73 booths still available!


Only 73 booths still available!

Only 73 booths still available!

Have you reserved your 4 free Booth Staff Tickets?

Have you reserved your 4 free Booth Staff Tickets?

Have you reserved your 4 free Booth Staff Tickets?

All booths include four free Booth Staff tickets. Must be registered by 4.30.23 to be free. Go to www.fwrc.org to register today.

All booths include four free Booth Staff tickets. Must be registered by 4.30.23 to be free. Go to www.fwrc.org to register today.

All booths include four free Booth Staff tickets Must be registered by 4.30.23 to be free. Go to www.fwrc.org to register today.




22 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL

May 31 - June 3, 2023 @ Gaylord Palms in Kissimmee, FL




Only 73 booths still available!

Hurry, before they are all sold.


Hurry, before they are all sold.

Only 73 booths still available!

Platinum Sponsor(s): $7,500 each

Platinum Sponsor(s): $7,500 each



Overall Meal Events

Overall Meal Events

Silver Sponsor(s): $3,500 each

Silver Sponsor(s): $3,500 each

Network Lounge (3 still available)

Network Lounge (3 still available)

Charging Tables (1 available) Overall Scaven

Charging Tables (1 available) Overall Scaven

Bronze Sponsor(s): $1,500 each

Bronze Sponsor(s): $1,500 each

Tour bus

Tour bus

Water Station (4 still available)

Water Station (4 still available)

Supporting Sponsor(s): $1,000 each (19 still ava

Supporting Sponsor(s): $1,000 each (19 still avail

Individual Technical Session(s): $750 each (21

Individual Technical Session(s): $750 each (21 st

Have you reserve free Booth Staff T

Have you reserve free Booth Staff T

DON'T miss out on all the sponsorship benefits!

DON'T miss out on all the sponsorship benefits!

All booths include four free Boo tickets. Must be registered by free. Go to www.fwrc.org to reg

All booths include four free Bo tickets. Must be registered by free. Go to www.fwrc.org to re




Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 23

Save Every Drop and Innovations for New Water

S Use drought-tolerant landscaping.

S Use reuse water for irrigation to preserve freshwater supplies.

appy Water Conservation Month! April is historically one of the driest months for Florida and a great time for us all to remember to conserve water. Remember, “No Water, No Life!” It’s a simple quip, but an accurate portrayal for the importance of water.

On average, we can only live about three days without water, and while over 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is water, only 3 percent is freshwater, as most of the water is contained in our oceans. Freshwater is a precious resource that requires the utmost care in its use and our efforts to manage it wisely.

Water Conservation

Conservation gives us the “best bang for our buck” as each gallon of water not used is a gallon of water preserved. If we can keep tabs on how much water we use, that is a great first step for our society for conserving water.

Other ways each of us can help conserve water are:

S Maintain your irrigation system to prevent leaks and don’t overwater.

S Take shorter showers.

S Use water-efficient appliances.

Our freshwater sources are finite and we have to give them the time needed to replenish. Lakes need time to gather rain and stormwater drainage. Groundwater aquifers need time to let water percolate through the layers of sand, soil, and rock. When the freshwater sources become too stressed, we look to other sources, such as brackish groundwater, rivers, and even the ocean. Our industry is constantly innovating for new technologies and techniques for providing fresh, potable water for drinking from many different sources:

S Membranes, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis have been used to treat brackish and salt water.

S Ion exchange is being used to lower salt and organics concentrations from brackish water.

S Lime softening uses chemistry to reduce calcium and magnesium hardness.

S Traditional (or advanced) sedimentation/ flocculation processes remove organics and other impurities from water.

Reuse Water

Reuse water is a tool that will help us protect our freshwater supplies by offsetting potable water use in many ways. Using reuse water for irrigation instead of freshwater is a popular

option that also helps comply with Florida Senate Bill 64 (2021), as a means to reduce surface water discharges. Reuse water can be used for toilet flushing and other nonpotable uses. Industrial customers are using reuse water for coolingtower water to prevent losing freshwater to evaporation. Reuse water can also be used to help replenish our aquifers through rapid infiltration basins.

While reuse water has many indirect paths to offset potable water use, Florida is in the middle of rulemaking to allow direct potable reuse (DPR). Municipalities across the state have been, and are currently, testing technologies for treating reuse water to meet drinking water standards. Industry experts are testing reuse water for contaminants to comply with current regulations and potential future regulations, such as personal care products, hormones, pharmaceuticals, and contaminants of emerging concern.

Our industry plays a vital role in the health of our community and going above and beyond the current standards is one way we show that we care about Florida, turning reuse water into new water to drink.

Resources to Learn More

How can you learn more about water conservation and water reuse? Check out these resources in our great state of Florida:

S www.fsawwa.org

S www.watermatters.org

S www.waterlessflorida.com

S www.watereuseflorida.com


24 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge!

Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Conservation and Reuse. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Potable Water Reuse in Florida: How One Small Utility is Making it Happen

Carlyn Higgins and Andre Dieffenthaller (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS/WW02015416)

1. Of the treatment processes piloted, which was assumed to be the most effective in reducing viruses?

a. Membrane filtration

b. Reverse osmosis

c. Ultraviolet/advanced oxidation processes

d. Storage with chlorination

2. The pilot- and full-scale potable reuse facilities are designed to treat reclaimed water to meet all regulated chemical and pathogen drinking water standards except

a. total dissolved solids.

b. chloride.

c. color.

d. there are no exceptions.

3. The city must seek alternative drinking water sources because

a. current water withdrawals are unsustainable.

b. contamination has been detected in the existing source water.

c. the existing treatment facility cannot treat to emerging standards.

d. the current supply is within a designated Water Use Caution Area.

4. Direct potable reuse eliminates the _____________ associated with indirect potable reuse.

a. filtration b. ozone treatment

c. natural buffer d. detention time

5. Flow was applied to the selected treatment processes

a. in series.

b. in parallel.

c. separately, then in sequence.

d. in a split format, allowing differing treatment combinations to be evaluated.

Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: A New Incentive for Potable Reuse?

Viraj DeSilva and Justas Rutkauskas (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS/WW02015417)

1. Drinking water regulations on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are expected to be finalized

a. in April 2023. b. in October 2024.

c. by December 2024. d. by December 2025.

2. The Florida potable reuse requirement for total suspended solids is a maximum concentration of 5 milligrams per liter

a. for any one sample.

b. as a monthly average.

c. as a weekly maximum.

d. in 75 percent of samples taken over a 30-day period.

3. A year-long pureALTA study revealed that _________ contributed to the largest removal percentage of various per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) constituents.

a. granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration

b. ultrafiltration

c. ozonation

d. chlorination

4. The first direct potable reuse facility in the United States serves

a. Altamonte Springs, Fla.

b. Big Spring, Texas.

c. San Diego, Calif.

d. Plant City, Fla.

5. The controlling factor in the pureALTA pilot GAC bed change-out was the Florida indirect potable reuse limitation for

a. total organic carbon.

b. total suspended solids.

c. disinfection byproducts.

d. fecal coliform.

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

Preparing Water Conservation Plans for Florida’s Public Water Supply Utilities: Water Management District Guidance

Josh Madden, Cassidy Hampton, Deirdre Irwin, Gretchen Smith, James Harmon, and Rosines Colon (Article 3: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS02015418)

1. Which of the following is not listed as a reason why a utility might require a particularly robust water conservation plan?

a. Consumptive use permit application is the utility’s first.

b. Withdrawal is located near an impacted water resource.

c. Utility has experienced an increasing per capita water use trend.

d. Utility is seeking a large increase in water supply allocation.

2. Florida Water StarSM is a

a. sample plumbing code.

b. water conservation certification program for new buildings.

c. section of the water management district’s water use allocation regulations.

d. program for sustaining water distribution system water quality.

3. Between 1999 and 2016, nationwide per capita water consumption

a. declined to 69.3 gallons per day.

b. increased to 69.3 gallons per day.

c. did not change.

d. declined to 58.6 gallons per day.

4. Water rate structures in which the price per unit increases with increasing consumption is known as a(n) ______________ rate system.

a. vertically integrated b. progressive

c. regressive d. increasing block

5. With respect to consumptive use permitting, Florida is divided into ____ regulatory regions.

a. three b. four

c. five d. six

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 25
SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print) Article 1 LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded Article 2 LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded Article 3 LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
___________________________________ (Credit Card Number) (Expiration Date)

WateReuse Association Announces 2023 Awards

The WateReuse Association announced its slate of award winners as part of the 2023 WateReuse Symposium that was recently held in Atlanta. The awards went to candidates that are advancing water recycling knowledge and practice, exemplifying the symposium’s theme: Reimagining Water Together.

The awards granted included the WateReuse Awards for Excellence (multiple categories), the WateReuse President’s Awards and Service Awards, and Student Art Contest winners.

The WateReuse Awards for Excellence recognize people, projects, and partnerships that demonstrate exceptional leadership toward building more resilient communities through water reuse. Award recipients use water recycling in novel ways to solve water management challenges, advance policies that facilitate greater adoption of water recycling, and inspire others through their innovation and leadership.


The award winners are:

Advocacy Achievement

S The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Reuse Program

This award recognizes individuals and organizations for significant achievements in advancing policy, legislation, or regulations that facilitate greater adoption, implementation, or acceptance of recycled water.

Community Water Champion

S City of Plant City (Fla.) and its utilities director, Lynn Spivey

S Mike Britt, City of Winter Haven, Fla.

S San Antonio Water System, Texas

This award recognizes the accomplishments of utilities and local government entities that ensure a safe, reliable, locally controlled water supply through the development of water recycling treatment facilities, infrastructure, and/or other water reuse projects.

Excellence in Action

S Eastern Municipal Water District, Calif.

S Gulf Coast Authority, Texas

This award recognizes community leaders that demonstrate a commitment to water resiliency through the innovative use of recycled water for commercial operations, watershed restoration projects, irrigation, or other projects.

Outreach and Education

S Irvine Ranch Water District and Discovery Cube, Orange County, Calif.

S Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Southwest Florida Water Management District, WateReuse Florida

This award recognizes significant success in advancing public acceptance of recycled water, including short-term campaigns, educational programs, and events.

Transformational Innovation

S City of Santa Monica, Calif.

S Norman Utilities Authority (Okla.) in partnership with Garver

This award recognizes technological advances, research breakthroughs, and innovative practices that advance the adoption, implementation, or public acceptance of recycled water.

26 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Up and Comer

S Anya Kaufmann, P.E., senior engineer, Trussell Technologies Inc.

This award recognizes a professional with less than 10 years of experience in the recycled water industry for leadership in the industry and commitment to pursuing water recycling as a career path.

President’s Awards

S Karen Pallansch

S Cindy Wallis-Lage

This award recognizes individuals who have significantly contributed to the advancement of water reuse through exceptional service and leadership. This award is given at the discretion of the WateReuse Association president.

Service Awards

S Robert Beltran, vice president, Dewberry

S Elizabeth Dawson, engineering manager, El Dorado (Calif.) Irrigation District

S Robert McCandless, vice president, Stantec

S Joe Vesey, global business leader

The WateReuse Association recognized these individuals for their service on the board of directors. Their leadership and vision have helped drive the national adoption of water reuse policies and programs.

Champion for Reuse

The WateReuse Association is the only trade association in the United States solely dedicated to advancing laws, policy, funding, and public acceptance of recycled water. Its membership includes utilities that recycle water, businesses that support the development of recycled water projects, and consumers of recycled water.

For more information go to www.watereuse.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 27
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Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This month’s column will highlight the JEA Monterey Wastewater Treatment Facility, which won the 2022 Earle B. Phelps Award in the secondary treatment category for facilities with clarification followed by disinfection.

JEA Monterey Wastewater Treatment Facility: Sequencing Success Through Simplified Controls

The Monterey Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) was recognized in 2022 by the Florida Water Environment

Federation (FWEA) as the Earle B. Phelps Award winner in the secondary treatment category. This award is presented annually to wastewater treatment facilities that demonstrate excellent secondary treatment throughout the year and maintain the highest removal of major pollutioncausing constituents.

Facility Overview

The WWTF is a 3.6-million-gallon-perday (mgd) average annual daily flow (AADF) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) domestic wastewater treatment facility consisting of three SBRs in parallel with sequencing feed. There is a fourth SBR basin that currently operates as an aerobic digester for waste activated sludge (WAS) from the other basins.

Raw wastewater enters an influent channel where an automatic bar screen removes debris prior to pumping at the master influent pump station. Influent is pumped to three parallel SBRs that operate in a sequence. While one basin is accepting influent flow, another basin is treating

influent, settling solids, and discharging treated influent. The timing of each step in an SBR’s cycle depends on the type of treatment that is desired.

After decanting a previous batch of treated influent, the liquid level and retained biomass in one of the SBRs is near the bottom level. As influent flow is redirected to fill this basin, no aeration is provided. This fill step mimics an anoxic selector, promoting the proliferation of floc-forming bacteria during anoxic conditions, while the concentration of readily biodegradable substrate is highest. By not running blowers to provide supplemental oxygen during this step, when the biological oxygen demand (BOD) is high, significant energy and cost savings result.

During the react phase, aeration and mixing are provided to create aerobic conditions, facilitating nitrification and allowing BOD to be rapidly consumed. During this phase, aeration can be cycled off to leave nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, facilitating denitrification. Once sufficient biomass has accumulated in the form of activated sludge, aeration and mixing are both turned off to form quiescent conditions, allowing mixed liquor suspended solids to settle and clear supernatant to remain at the top. The supernatant will then discharge as effluent from the basin through the decant valve to the disinfection process.

At this point in the process, the SBR acts as a secondary clarifier with two protocols for settled sludge:

S The settled sludge can be retained in the basin for the next cycle, simulating return activated sludge (RAS).

S Excess settled sludge can be wasted for further solids handling in an idle cycle. This is typically performed at lower flow periods during the day.

Once the effluent has been discharged and the basin has emptied, influent flow will be diverted to fill the basin, starting the cycle again. Sludge wasted during an idle cycle from the SBRs goes to the aerobic digester (SBR #4) where solids are treated to meet Class B pathogen standards. Supernatant from the digester is discharged through the decant valve to the plant drain system and digested sludge is discharged to a sludge storage tank via sludge transfer pumps. Sludge is dewatered via polymer and centrifuge to approximately 15 percent solids prior to loading into trucks below the centrifuge canopy. Effluent from the SBRs goes through two parallel concrete ultraviolet (UV) disinfection channels, each containing five, 40-lamp modules in series.

During the time of the award, the UV system was undergoing upgrades while operating the old equipment during construction. Today, the new UV disinfection channels have six, 10-lamp modules with three modules per channel (two duty/one standby). This upgrade eliminated the need for a chemical cleaning system in favor of

28 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal PROCESS PAGE
Master influent pump station, October 2021. Sequencing batch reactor #1 with influent piping and blower, October 2021. Top view of sequencing batch reactors, December 2020.

a wiper and gel cleaning system, and included a hydraulic lift system, which removed the need for a jib crane to lift the equipment out of the channels. Disinfected effluent flows into the effluent pump station where it’s discharged to the St. Johns River.

Table 1 summarizes the typical plant loadings and effluent quality from January to December 2021.

Sequencing Batch Reactors: A Complex Operational Challenge

Sequencing batch reactors are the most flexible biological treatment system currently available for wastewater treatment, capable of changing their sequence, timing, and duration of cycle steps, and type of treatment, to achieve the desired pollutant removal. An SBR can achieve aerobic, anoxic, and even anaerobic conditions for BOD and biological nutrient removal (BNR), while still acting as a secondary clarifier for solids removal; however, an intimate knowledge of cycle operation is needed to alter treatment in order to meet permit requirements. As noted in their application, the Monterey operations team described the original, complicated SBR process control system as follows:

“The original control scheme was set up using run timers and multipliers based off of percentages of calculated tank capacities. This system was so specialized and complex you almost needed an engineering degree to understand the controls.”

In 2019, WWTF operators designed a simplified program to control the SBR treatment process for BNR. This involved developing a written process protocol utilizing the SBR instrumentation and backup timers as a fail-safe if a given process set point was not reached in a given cycle time for optimal treatment. This protocol significantly reduced the learning curve needed to operate the SBRs at peak performance, resulting in the best overall performance in the plant’s history in 2020 after it was developed.

Two Class A operators and one Class B operator are responsible for the treatment facility and its success. The operations team consists of Josh Williams, Robert Graves, and Jackson Robertson. If there was ever a treatment facility award attributed to the excellent operational skills of its staff, JEA’s Monterey WWTF would be it.

Congratulations to the Monterey operations team for winning the 2022 Earle B. Phelps Award!

Alexander Gex is an engineering associate with Ardurra in Jacksonville. He is secretary of the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee and webmaster for FWEA’s First Coast Chapter. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 29
cBOD (mg/L) TSS (mg/L) Nitrate (mg/L) Fecal (CFU) Turbidity (NTU) TN (mg/L) TP (mg/L) TKN (mg/L) NH3 (mg/L) Annual Average Influent 177.65 171.30 .07 N/A N/A 37.24 4.55 37.21 29.38 Annual Average Effluent 2.013 3.029 1.73 1.020 N/A 3.195 1.906 1.210 .359 Number of Occurrences Out of Compliance 0 0 0 0 N/A 0 0 0 0
New ultraviolet channels, December 2022. Dewatering facility, December 2020. Monterey Wastewater Treatment Facility process flow diagram. Table 1. Plant Loadings and Effluent Quality From left to right are operators Jackson Robertson, Josh Williams, and Robert Graves.

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Potable Reuse?

it’s possible to further treat reclaimed water to standards that make it safe for drinking?

a. 20 percent b. 35 percent

1. Per the Florida Potable Reuse Commission (PRC) report, “Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida” (PRC Potable Reuse Framework), the introduction of advanced treated water into a raw water supply immediately upstream of a drinking water treatment facility or directly into a potable water supply distribution system is defined as

a. de facto potable reuse.

b. direct potable reuse (DPR).

c. indirect potable reuse (IPR).

d. reclaimed water.

2. Per the PRC Potable Reuse Framework, IPR is planned delivery or discharge of reclaimed water to

a. a potable water supply distribution system.

b. an irrigation system.

c. groundwater or surface waters.

d. wetlands.

3. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, what is the minimum system size for reclaimed water treatment facilities where reclaimed water is used for groundwater recharge or IPR?

a. 0.1 million gallons per day (mgd)

b. 0.5 mgd

c. 1 mgd

d. 3 mgd

4. Per FAC 62-610, discharges of reclaimed water to Class I waters shall be considered as being reuse for indirect potable purposes. What is the limit for total organic carbon (TOC) for these discharges?

a. 1 mg/L monthly average, no single sample to exceed 3 mg/L

b. 3 mg/L monthly average, no single sample to exceed 4 mg/L

c. 3 mg/L monthly average, no single sample to exceed 5 mg/L

d. 5 mg/L monthly average, no single sample to exceed 10 mg/L

5. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) One Water Florida presentation, Recycled Water: Public Sentiment, what percent of survey respondents believe

c. 40 percent d. 58 percent

6. Per the FDEP Jan. 14, 2021, presentation, Potable Reuse Rulemaking Public Workshop (Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop), potable reuse will require various means to protect drinking water quality that includes the collection system, wastewater treatment facilities, and advanced treated water. This is called

a. advanced protection.

b. discharge monitoring and control.

c. multibarrier protection.

d. overlapping controls.

7. Per the FDEP Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop, which potable reuse projects will be required to conduct pilot testing as detailed in the draft revisions to FAC 62-610?

a. All potable reuse projects

b. Projects for direct potable reuse only

c. Projects using new or yet unapproved technologies

d. Projects exceeding a capacity of 1 mgd

8. Per the FDEP Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop, draft revisions to FAC 62-610 include additional requirements for pretreatment/source control. Industrial or commercial businesses that discharge to a utility’s collection system must ensure all power-operated equipment associated with controlling or monitoring such discharges are connected to a continuous power source. They must also have in place a(n)

a. early warning system for event detection.

b. online connection to the utility receiving the waste.

c. monthly equipment inspection program.

d. permit from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

9. Per the FAC 5/26/21 Coded Draft Rule 62555, Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, prior to placing a potable reuse system into service, each wastewater facility and public water system participating in the potable reuse system shall submit to FDEP for approval a(n)

a. emergency response plan.

b. joint operations plan.

c. risk management plan.

d. water testing and analysis plan.

10. Per the FAC 5/26/21 Coded Draft Rule 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, what must the pilot testing program include to

demonstrate the wastewater facilities are capable of producing pathogen-free reclaimed water?

a. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and viruses

b. Legionella, Pseudomonas, helminths, turbidity, and total suspended solids

c. Enterovirus, Nocardia, Salmonella, virus, and E. coli

d. Viruses, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Legionella, and turbidity

Answers on page 58

References used for this quiz:

• Florida Potable Reuse Commission - Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida: http://prc.watereuseflorida.com/wp-content/uploads/ Framework-for-Potable-Reuse-in-Florida-FINALJanuary-2020-web10495.pdf

• Florida Administrative Code 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application: https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome. asp?Chapter=62-610

• Florida Administrative Code 5/26/2021 Coded Draft Rule 62-655, Permitting, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Public Water Systems: https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/62-555%20 Proposed%20Rule%205-26-2021%20coded_0.pdf

• Florida Administrative Code 5/26/2021 Coded Draft Rule 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application:


• Florida Department of Environmental Protection, One Water Florida – Recycled Water: Public Sentiment:

https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/Recycled%20 Water%20Public%20Sentiment%20Presentation.pdf

• Florida Department of Environmental Protection –Potable Reuse Rulemaking Public Workshop: https://floridadep.gov/sites/default/files/PotableReuse_ PublicWorkshopPresentation01142021_ForWebsite. pdf

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

30 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
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Scholarships valued up to $7,000 will be awarded in both undergraduate and graduate categories by the Florida Section American Water Works Association.


• Must be a student enrolled (not online) in a Florida university and living in Florida

• Must be a full-time student or part-time student enrolled and completing a minimum of 6 credits during the current semester. Student must remain registered for 6 credits and pass them successfully.

• Must be a student within 60 credits of graduation with a bachelor’s degree. Note: Seniors who are pursuing a graduate degree may apply and use the scholarship for their graduate studies, but must provide proof of acceptance to their graduate degree program.

• Maintain good standing in academic status with a GPA of 3.0 or higher based on a 4.0 system

• Must intend on pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field with a plan to remain in Florida to pursue their career (outlined by the applicant in the application)

• Or enrolled in one of the CIP educational codes (for a list visit fsawwa.org/2023Likins) and have indicated an interest in pursuing a career in the water/wastewater field

Added Value:

• All applicants receive 1-year free student American Water Works Association (AWWA) membership.

Key benefits of Student Membership:

• Jump-Start Your Career

• Gain Experience

• Stay Informed


Apply by June 30, 2023

For application, please visit: fsawwa.org/2023likins


For Your Day-to-Day Challenges as a Water Professional, AWWA Membership is the Solution.

Water Professionals Face Greater Challenges Than Ever Before

From finding ways to fund infrastructure improvements to water quality and distrubution best practices, keeping up with everything in the water sector can be overwhelming. AWWA supports members with knowledge, guidance, and a great peer network, so you don’t have to tackle these challenges alone.

➤ Stay informed on what’s next in the water sector

➤ Connect with water professionals

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About AWWA

Established in 1881, the American Water Works Association is the largest nonprofit, scientific and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world’s most vital resource. Through membership, AWWA creates products, services, and information that help utilities with day-to-day operations, inform the public, improve public health, protect the environment, strengthen the economy and enhance our quality of life.

Join online at awwa.org/join
Join AWWA Individual Membership is for: ➤ Utility Employees ➤ Public Officials ➤ Public Health Professionals ➤ Engineers ➤ Scientists ➤ Educators ➤ Consultants ➤ Others interested in water
34 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 35

Unique Water Reuse Path in Tallahassee

Across Florida there are a variety of water concerns, and thus, different methods of managing water resources, including how reclaimed water is utilized. The City of Tallahassee area seems to stand out from most of Florida’s larger cities when it comes to reuse. With an abundance of annual rainfall and accessibility to the Floridian aquifer, Tallahassee has avoided the water scarcity that other parts of the state are concerned with. This has led Tallahassee down a different path when it comes to water reuse.

Pioneers in Reclaimed Water

Tallahassee began experimenting with effluent irrigation in 1966 on 16 acres of land located at the current Thomas P. Smith Water Reclamation Facility (TPSWRF) site. It’s believed that only the Penn State University project has a longer history of scientific investigation regarding the effects of treated wastewater effluent on crops, soils, and groundwater.

Over the years the Southwest Sprayfield, which uses treated or reclaimed water for effluent spray irrigation, was expanded, eventually reaching 121 acres. In 1971 Dr. Allen Overman, professor with the department of agricultural engineering at the University of Florida, began

work on an project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at the city’s sprayfield, which investigated nutrient uptake by forage crops, effects of effluent irrigation on groundwater quality, plant/soil/nutrient interactions, cation transport, and phosphorous removal. The EPA issued its report titled, “Wastewater Irrigation at Tallahassee, Florida,” (EPA-600/2-79-151) in August 1979.

Following this study, the city implemented a full-scale irrigation operation. In 1981 the city completed work on the first phase of a sprayfield in the southeast area of Tallahassee, along with holding ponds, a pumping station, and an 8-mile-long force main at a total cost of $9,711,895. Because the sprayfield was considered “innovative technology,” a federal grant was received covering 85 percent of the cost.

The city continued to expand the Southeast Farm reuse irrigation areas so that, by 1984, the city stopped all surface water discharges, sending effluent only to the two sprayfields, becoming one of the first sites to beneficially reuse 100 percent of its water. The last expansion at Southeast Farm was completed in 1999, with a total of 2,160 acres under irrigation providing capacity for 26.3 million gallons per day (mgpd).

Award-Winning Reuse Facility

With Tallahassee’s early work in reuse, the Southeast Farm has won a few prestigious awards: S Outstanding Infrastructure Award from American City and County magazine in 1994 S First Place for the Most Effective and Innovative Reclamation and Reuse Program from EPA, Region IV, in 1995

Public Access Reuse Facility Comes to Tallahassee

In 2004 Tallahassee began to design and construct a small public access reuse facility near a new subdivision on the southeast boundary of the city. The facility delivers reclaimed water to a nearby golf course, state office complexes, and school grounds. Due to the cost of implementation, operation, and maintenance, the city was not interested in providing service to individual residences. Although sized to handle 1.2 mgpd, with plenty of room to double the capacity if needed, average annual flows have remained less than 0.7 mgpd since it was put into service in 2008.

Tallahassee Holds Course

Years later, not much has changed with the city’s reuse distribution system path. It would have been cost-prohibitive to supply reclaimed water throughout areas that were already developed. Then, since the sprayfield provided plenty of affordable distribution of effluent, the city’s infrastructure was expanded without including distribution piping for reclaimed water. There were, however, a few other factors that kept Tallahassee from changing direction.

Abundant Rainfall

The amount of rain in the area is one factor in the city’s decision to not heavily pursue a widespread distribution of reclaimed water.

36 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
S Dr. David W. York Water Reuse Award from the Florida Water Environment Association in 1998
Crop irrigation on one of the center pivots at the Southeast Farm. Public access reuse water in Tallahassee is supplied by the Tram Road Reuse Facility.

Tallahassee receives approximately 60 inches of rain each year, providing a good source for the potable drinking water supply and a significant amount of water needed for landscaping purposes.

Beneficial Geography

The geography of the area also plays a factor in Tallahassee’s reuse course. The Southwest Sprayfield and the Southeast Farm are located south of the Cody Escarpment, the approximate location of an ancient shoreline. Clay layers were eroded away by wave action, creating areas that are incredibly sandy, providing intense recharge of surface water to the Floridan aquifer system. Also, the local geography has allowed easy access to the Floridian aquifer, contributing to an abundant water supply for Tallahassee.

Nutrient Runoff Concerns

Another factor is the concern of some water industry professionals that stormwater runoff from users that overspray their irrigation of reclaimed water could negatively affect local water bodies by delivering too many nutrients. This may have been a valid issue prior to the facility upgrade that began in 2009 when total nitrogen levels were above 14 mg/L.

on providing reclaimed water to larger, but fewer, entities, as opposed to residential use. In fact, the city added language to the code of general ordinances stating that residential areas are not included as part of the allowable users for reclaimed water.

The Path Ahead

Tallahassee is still successfully operating the small reuse facility and the two sprayfields. Wastewater flows from the city’s collection system have remained very consistent for many years, so

the city has not had to expand facilities since the 1990s, and capacity is expected to be adequate until beyond 2050.

The city is actually in a fortunate position to still have plenty of time to develop a plan on how to accommodate future flow increases. Some conceptual plans exist that will be further developed over the next few years to expand methods of using reclaimed water.

Although Tallahassee does not have an expansive, citywide, public access reuse distribution system like the rest of the state, the current reuse system is serving the city and the surrounding community well. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 37
The Southwest Sprayfield at the current site of the Thomas P. Smith Water Reclamation Facility, shown in 1970.

eah, that’s me—an April fool!

Two months after writing my column about opposing House Bill 23, Water and Wastewater Facility Operators, as written, I was still concerned that gratuitous reciprocity was going to be given to any licensed operator that has not first demonstrated the training and experience acceptable to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and passed a Florida operator licensing exam. In the column I posed comments and questions about parts of the bill, and solicited feedback from anyone reading the article.

I heard from six operators; each agreed with opposing the reciprocity section as it was written and a couple of them really wanted first-responder status. The bill did pass.

Two months after reaching out to the Florida House of Representatives and the Water Quality, Supply, and Treatment Subcommittee, the Hon. Yvonne Hayes Hinson was the only one who responded to me. I was very appreciative that she took the time to make that effort and I felt a little better about banging the drum.

If Ignorance is Bliss, Then Why Ain’t I Happy?

Being ignorant that I could have been at the meeting to discuss the bill and voice my

April Fool

opinion in person just makes me sick. I never take vacations and have over 1,000 hours of sick time (not that I would have used it to drive to Tallahassee, but if you knew my driving skills, it’s always questionable that I would have needed the sick time to recuperate from an accident), so I could have gone. Why didn’t I?

I’m not an eloquent speaker, or a brainiac, so maybe that’s why. I am very concerned, however, that the operators program established in Florida is going to take a hit for this. With the growth that is happening in the state, which will continue, we must not go backward. The health and safety of the citizens of Florida and the protection of our natural resources is paramount.

I found out that several of the representatives at the meeting questioned the first-responder provision of the bill, and the bill sponsor could not answer any of the questions that we posed. Foolish Murf; I was thinking that with the number of people who worked on this bill, they were going to make it foolproof. I do hope that the representatives who indicated they would help work on that portion are successful, without having unwanted impacts to our utilities.

It was very interesting to watch the proceedings, and if you didn’t see it, here is the link: https://thefloridachannel.org/videos/222-23-house-water-quality-supply-treatmentsubcommittee.

Skunk at the Garden Party

A much wiser man than I warned me about being the skunk at the garden party. So, I’m done stinking up the place, but I’ll wait and pray that I’m wrong about the outcome of this bill for our future. It gives me little encouragement

when I see the daily news about water-related issues (some of it fake news!), like a man dying from flesh-eating bacteria from water out of the tap. The real story, and despite the sadness that someone died from something like this, will never overcome the shock of that clickbait article. The fact is that lobbyists and politicians can shut down positive source water alternatives for decades, i.e., the toilet to tap discussion.

Another sad story is the water contamination in Jackson, Miss., and other cities across the United States. Along with fielding disastrous water calamities, they’re also experiencing operator shortages. Wait— if 48 states allow reciprocity, why is there a workforce shortage of operators in other states?

If you haven’t seen the video on Jackson, you should look at it, and ponder the consequences. It’s 20 minutes long, but worth it: https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=xOdF7A1ry7E.

As seen in the video, Ted Henifin, the manager appointed by the U.S. Department of Justice to help fix the long-troubled water system in Mississippi, must be one of the bravest people in the world; either that or he could give me a run for my money for the April Fool Award of the Year.

Last Chance for Continuing Education Units: Tag the FWPCOA Online Training Institute

By the time this column comes out, you only have a few weeks to get any needed continuing education units (CEUs) to maintain your licensure. If you haven’t taken advantage of the training yet, you can access the online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course.

This is a great way to get those needed CEUs for your license renewal. For more information, contact the Training Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@fwpcoa. org or the FWPCOA training office at training@ fwpcoa.org.

Thank you to all the hard-working people in our industry. Let’s keep that water clean and work safe! S

38 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 39

Preparing Water Conservation Plans for Florida’s Public Water Supply Utilities: Water Management District Guidance

Water conservation contributes to the sustainability of water supply resources. The Florida Legislature recognized in Section 373.227, Florida Statutes (F.S.) “...that the proper conservation of water is an important means of achieving the economical and efficient utilization of water necessary, in part, to constitute a reasonable, beneficial use. The overall water conservation goal of the state is to prevent and reduce wasteful, uneconomical, impractical, or unreasonable use of water resources.”

Water conservation should be a critical element in all water supply strategies. Conservation and efficiency measures should be maximized to the extent that is economically, environmentally, and technically feasible, regardless of the water source, before more-costly water supply development options are implemented. Water conservation can reduce and defer the need to develop new

water supply sources to meet current or future demands. Moreover, conservation and demand management have been shown to reduce costs to utilities and rate payers over the long term (Chesnutt et al., 2018; Feinglas et al., 2013). Florida public water supply utilities are required to have a permit for the consumptive use of water. Florida is divided into five regulatory regions, each governed by a water management district (WMD), which issue consumptive use, or water use, permits, i.e., consumptive use permits (CUPs) or water use permits (WUPs). All five WMDs have a specific Water Use Permit Applicant’s Handbook (handbook) that needs to be followed to obtain a permit. Per these handbooks, a water conservation plan (WCP) is required when applying to obtain, modify, or renew a CUP for a public supply utility. The specific criteria for permit issuance vary among WMDs; however, the WCP requirements are nearly identical

Josh Madden is a senior environmental project manager, and Cassidy Hampton is an environmental project manager, with Southwest Florida Water Management District in Brooksville. Deirdre Irwin is a water conservation coordinator, and Gretchen Smith is a water conservation coordinator, with St. Johns River Water Management District in Palatka. James Harmon, P.G., is a principal scientist, and Rosines Colon is a senior water conservation analyst, with South Florida Water Management District in West Palm Beach.

among them. After application submittal, the WMDs may need to request additional information related to the WCP due to outdated information, lack of critical elements, or lack of a schedule and frequency for implementation of the proposed measures and programs.

In this article, utilities will find recommendations on WCP structure and content that will make the plan more effective and readily acceptable to the WMDs.

The WMD staff members consider several factors when reviewing a WCP to determine if it’s effective, including utility size; volume of withdrawals; the historical, current, and projected per capita trend; if adverse impacts to the water resource are present or expected; and compliance status, among others. For example, a utility with a high per capita rate, or one that has an increasing per capita trend, is also located near an impacted water resource, and is requesting a large increase in quantities, would need a very robust WCP to quickly provide assurances that the water resources are being efficiently utilized and that the permit will be in compliance.

Another factor for consideration is that larger utilities and local governments have more resources available to implement morecomplex and costly initiatives and programs. Local governments and utilities are encouraged to take advantage of WMD cooperative funding (that covers up to 50 percent of

Continued on page 42

40 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Josh Madden, Cassidy Hampton, Deirdre Irwin, Gretchen Smith, James Harmon, and Rosines Colon
Base Charge Tiers (gal) Volumetric Charge Bill for 4,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal* Bill for 12,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal** Rate for Utility No. 1 $30.00 0–10,000 $1.00 $34.00 $8.50 $42.50 $3.54 10,001–20,000 $1.25 20,001–40,000 $1.60 >40,001 $1.90 Rate for Utility No.2 $5.35 0–2,000 $0.50 $9.75 $2.44 $37.20 $3.10 2,001–5,000 $1.70 5,001–10,000 $3.15 10,001–20,000 $5.00 >20,001 $7.50
bill cost for 4,000 gal divided by 4.
bill cost for 12,000 gal divided by 12. Base Charge Tiers (gal) Volumetric Charge Bill for 4,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal* Bill for 12,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal** Rate for Utility No. 1 $30.00 0–10,000 $1.00 $34.00 $8.50 $42.50 $3.54 10,001–20,000 $1.25 20,001–40,000 $1.60 >40,001 $1.90 Rate for Utility No.2 $5.35 0–2,000 $0.50 $9.75 $2.44 $37.20 $3.10 2,001–5,000 $1.70 5,001–10,000 $3.15 10,001–20,000 $5.00 >20,001 $7.50
for 4,000 gal divided by 4.
for 12,000 gal
by 12. Base Charge Tiers (gal) Volumetric Charge Bill for 4,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal* Bill for 12,000 gal Amount paid by Kgal** Rate for Utility No. 1 $30.00 0–10,000 $1.00 $34.00 $8.50 $42.50 $3.54 10,001–20,000 $1.25 20,001–40,000 $1.60 >40,001 $1.90 Rate for Utility No.2 $5.35 0–2,000 $0.50 $9.75 $2.44 $37.20 $3.10 2,001–5,000 $1.70 5,001–10,000 $3.15 10,001–20,000 $5.00 >20,001 $7.50
for 4,000 gal divided by 4. **
for 12,000 gal divided by 12.
Table 1. Hypothetical Increasing Block Rates
* Total
** Total
* Total bill cost
** Total bill cost
* Total bill cost
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 41

Continued from page 40

costs) to implement a robust conservation program that may include plumbing fixture rebates, irrigation enhancements, irrigation evaluations, and other eligible measures.

In the WCP, utilities are encouraged to mention if WMD funding was received for conservation measures, along with quantified water savings rates. It’s also beneficial to partner with other entities that provide similar services, such as the University of Florida (UF) Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension.

A utility has the option to submit either a standard WCP or a goal-based WCP. A standard WCP includes five prescribed elements, while a goal-based WCP can include fewer or additional customized elements.

Standard Water Conservation Plan

The standard WCP is the most common option currently used by utilities. The standard WCP must contain the five elements listed in the handbook:

1. Water Conservation Public Education Program

2. Outdoor Water Use Conservation Program

3. Rate Structure (that promotes water conservation)

4. Water Loss Reduction Program (if water loss is over 10 percent)

5. Indoor Water Conservation Program

The plan should be structured so that each of the five elements has a clear section header in the document to avoid confusion. According to the handbook, the proposed WCP shall allow no reduction in (i.e., maintain) and increase (where environmentally, technically, and economically feasible) overall utility-specific water conservation effectiveness. The WCP should be a forward-looking document and outline the conservation measures, programs, and actions the utility plans to implement in the future.

Presenting past programs and measures can serve as historical documentation for

items, such as local water conservation-related ordinances that have been adopted in the past or as references or examples of similar activities that the utility plans to repeat into the future. Calculating the estimated savings for initiatives and programs can help demonstrate the effectiveness of a program; however, past programs or actions should not make up the bulk of a WCP unless they are current programs that are expected to continue. The requirement is for a water conservation plan, not a report of past action.

For each element, utilities should explain how the proposed measures and program will effectively promote water conservation. Activities should include frequency and duration, and an implementation schedule. Sometimes a measure (activity) might be difficult to classify because it can fit into more than one element from the handbook, especially if it’s a multifaceted program; however, utilities should avoid repeating information under multiple elements.

Public Education Program

Public education and outreach programs can be powerful tools to help develop a conservation ethic within a community. Public education program benefits are not readily quantifiable, but are essential to building public awareness and support for water conservation programs.

Providing examples of the educational materials used by the utility is highly encouraged. State the schedule and frequency of the measures to be implemented. Public education examples include, but are not limited to:

S Outreach events and exhibits with water conservation speakers at schools and community organizations

S Website information

S Direct outreach and mailers to high-volume water users

S Sharing comparative and granular usage data with customers

S Bill stuffers

Outdoor Water Conservation Program

An effective outdoor water conservation program primarily addresses water use for irrigation. For some residential customers, more than 50 percent of their utility-supplied water is used for irrigation. Given that most new homes built in the last decade have inground irrigation systems resulting in more outdoor water use, reducing irrigation use should be the priority—now and in the future. It’s highly recommended that utilities focus their efforts on high-volume water users as they represent the greatest potential for water savings, and these measures tend to be more cost-effective. Ordinances implementing yearround irrigation restrictions (day per week limitations) and their subsequent enforcement are critical components of outdoor conservation. Utilities should coordinate with local code enforcement entities to maximize effectiveness of the restrictions.

Adoption of landscape and irrigation design ordinances/requirements for new construction, such as Florida Water StarSM, can also significantly curb future water demand and should be strongly considered for any utility or local government expecting significant growth. Additionally, utilities should consider landscape irrigation evaluations, irrigation timer resets, Florida-Friendly Landscaping® (FFL) demonstration gardens, and rebates for WaterSense-labeled irrigation controllers and/ or high-efficiency spray nozzles.

Water conservation refers to increasing the efficiency of use of any water source. While the WMDs encourage and fund alternative water supply projects (including reclaimed water), changing water sources is not considered a conservation measure. Inclusion of alternative water supply projects in a WCP is not appropriate.

Rate Structure

The primary goal of a utility’s water rate structure is to generate the revenue needed to continue providing water supply services, but also encourage water conservation. Rate structures that encourage water conservation

42 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
• Data gathering • Meter accuracy test • Quantify loss Water audit • Prioritize • Is loss real or apparent? Review results • Implemnet new SOPs • Upgrade infrastructure • Leak detection Develop action plan Implement and Repeat
Figure 1. Steps of an effective water loss reduction program.

should send a price signal to high-volume water users to encourage them to reduce their water use. Pursuant to section 373.227(3), F.S., the WMDs shall afford the utility wide latitude in adopting a rate structure; however, some rate structures are more effective than others at promoting water conservation. The most common and effective water conserving rate structure is an increasing block rate (i.e., inclining tiered rate) structure.

In increasing block rate structures, the price per unit of water rises as consumption increases; in other words, the more water a customer uses, the higher the cost per unit of water. These rate structures are most effective at promoting water conservation if the cost difference between tiers is substantial and the volumes between tiers are close enough to send the desired signals to the average water user. Furthermore, if a large percentage of the total bill is comprised of the base charge, the volumetric conservation charge is less impactful.

When setting water rates, utilities are encouraged to consider setting pricing, tiers, and base charges in such a way that it sends an effective conservation signal, while still recovering adequate operational revenue. If a utility hires a consultant to develop its water rates, the utility should specify that sending an effective conservation signal is one of its water rate goals.

Table 1 presents hypothetical increasing block rates that have different levels of effectiveness in promoting water conservation. Even though the rate for Utility No.1 is an increasing block rate, once the base fees are factored in, customers that use 12,000 gal per month are paying less per 1,000 gal (Kgal) of water (i.e., $3.54 per Kgal) than customers using only 4,000 gal of water per month ($8.50 per Kgal). Furthermore, the total difference between the bill for 4,000 gal and the bill for 12,000 gal is only $8.50, even though one customer uses three times more water than the other. The high base charges, combined with larger tiers and small price increases, cause the average cost per unit (Kgal) to be less for the higher users, making the rate for Utility No. 1 less effective in promoting water conservation.

In contrast, the rate for Utility No.2 uses a lower base charge, smaller tiers, and moresignificant price increases to affect the amount paid by high users. In this case, customers using 4,000 gal of water are only paying $2.44 per Kgal, and customers using 12,000 gal are paying $3.10 per Kgal. The customers that use 12,000 gal pays almost four times more in their total bill ($37.20) than the customers using 4,000 gal ($9.75).

Tiers should be visible on the bill so that

customers can easily recognize that water gets more expensive per unit as more water is used. A copy of an example water bill should be included as an appendix to the utility’s WCP.

Water Loss Reduction

Utilities with water losses greater than 10 percent are required to present a water loss reduction program as part of their standard WCP. Water losses should be calculated in accordance with the handbook guidance. It’s recommended to develop a water loss reduction program, even if loss is less than 10 percent, because keeping water loss low has financial benefits for a utility when considering underreading customer meters and chemical costs.

The steps of an effective water loss reduction program are shown in Figure 1.

Documenting this process with a schedule that works for the utility is important. If possible, include activities such as completing a water audit by April 2023 and each subsequent year thereafter, implementing a meter testing program, replacing 10 percent of customer meters per year, repairing 95 percent of leaks within one week of notification, installing meters on all water line flushing locations by 2024, and optimizing water line flushing quantity each quarter.

Indoor Water Conservation Program

Indoor water use efficiency has increased steadily over the last 20 plus years in the United States, from 69.3 gal per capita per day (gpcd) in 1999 to 58.6 gpcd in 2016 (DeOreo, Mayer, Dziegielewski, & Kiefer, 2016). Even as old

and inefficient plumbing fixtures, like 3.5-galper-flush (gpf) toilets, are becoming scarce, opportunity still exists to save water indoors thanks to innovation with more-efficient fixtures (e.g., replacing 1.6-gpf toilets with 0.8-gpf toilets). The indoor element of a WCP should consider leak alerts to customers using advanced metering infrastructure systems, conservation kit giveaways, and in-home evaluations.

Applicants should not include adhering to federal manufacturing standards or state building code standards as part of their WCP, as these standards do not reflect the utility’s active conservation program.

Examples of how water conservation activities should be shown in the plan are in Table 2.

Goal-Based Water Conservation Plans

While the majority of utilities prepare standard plans, goal-based WCPs are encouraged to establish a measurable goal and document the measures to be implemented, along with associated savings. Some examples where goal-based plans are highly encouraged are:

S If a utility’s current or projected demands are or will impact water resources or existing users.

S If there is a regulatory requirement to reduce per capita water use below a specific amount.

Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 43

Continued from page 43

S If the utility’s water use is nearing its permitted allocation and new infrastructure will need to be constructed to meet future needs.

S If customer demands periodically exceed the water system’s peak supply capacity, resulting in low system pressure.

When compared to developing new alternative water supply sources or constructing new facilities, conservation is typically less expensive, and therefore, more economically sound. Setting a measurable goal tied to implementation of identified active measures and programs helps to ensure success. The goal may be a reduction in per capita use, a percent reduction of overall demands, a reduction in frequency and magnitude of production peaks, or some other metric.

Utilities may choose to submit a goalbased WCP as part of their application. A utility should select plan elements that are appropriate to its service area, even if they are different from, and/or inclusive of, those in the standard water conservation plan described.

The plan should contain the following:

S A description of water conservation measures and programs selected and an implementation schedule for each.

S An explanation of why alternative elements included in the goal-based WCP are more appropriate to achieve effective water conservation in the utility’s service area if any of the five elements in the standard WCP are not selected.

According to Section 373.227(4), F.S., progress toward the goal must be measurable. Recommended methods to measure progress include calculating the reduction in residential per capita, gross per capita, or per service connection water use; number of participants in the program; households included in the initiatives, etc. For example, an applicant might include a goal to decrease its gal per capita demand by 5 percent by the end of the permit duration. This goal will be accomplished by implementing several water conservation initiatives and measures that will target indoor and outdoor water use. In this case, the applicant should provide measurable progress toward the goal by tracking a reduction in use annually and explain any variables that delayed progress (such as droughts).

A goal-based WCP allows the utility to tailor its conservation measures to meet its objectives. Meeting water conservation goals can result in lowering operating costs, delaying the development and expansion of water sources, reducing nonrevenue water, etc. Utilities can target specific areas and users where water can be used more efficiently. For example, a utility with the appropriate infrastructure and software might collect data that suggest if industrial users with cooling towers engage in better practices, they could reduce cooling tower water use by 30 percent. The utility could include a goal to save a specific amount of water by reaching out to these specific water users and implementing measures to reduce their water use with retrofits, rebates, and evaluations.

A goal-based WCP requires detailed planning, but also allows more flexibility. It also showcases a utility’s commitment to water conservation by providing measurable milestones and goals.


According to Dr. Nicholas Taylor, manager of the UF IFAS H2OSAV Program (Taylor, 2023), a water conservation program’s success can be attributed to four key factors:

S Effectiveness – has measurable water savings

S Significance – size and scale of program is impactful to service area

S Reliability – savings are consistent and reliable every time they are implemented

S Persistence – long-term program, water savings continue over time

A water conservation plan should be scaled to the size and needs of a utility, forwardlooking, include an implementation schedule, and maintain or improve water efficiency among customers. The plan should include standard elements outlined in the applicant handbooks or appropriate alternatives in a goal-based plan.

As Florida approaches the limits of traditional water supplies, a goal-based WCP is preferred and, as mentioned, can delay costs associated with alternative sources of water. Finally, WMD conservation staff members are available anytime to advise and guide utilities with water conservation matters, including WCP development, and during permit preapplication meetings.

Additional water conservation information is available on all of the WMD websites.


Public Education

Bill stuffers containing water conservation information and tips are sent to customers with each monthly bill. Examples are included in appendix A.


Ongoing activity Irrigation evaluations with zoneby-zone recommendations, timer reset, and rain sensor provided by a licensed irrigation contractor Focused on high water users and includes education with homeowner on FFL and controller operation.

Water loss

Install meters on all water line flushing locations. Complete by 2024


Ongoing activity – Toilet rebate (up to $100) to replace older, pre-1994 toilets with new 0.8 gpf units. Program is currently WMD-cofunded. It’s promoted with bill stuffers, digital ads, and the county’s social media account.



• DeOreo, W., Mayer, P., Dziegielewski, B., & Kiefer, J. (2016). Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2. Water Research Foundation.

• Taylor, N. (2023, February 2). Trends in Water Use [meeting presentation]. Quarterly Water Conservation Forum, Kissimmee, Fla., United Sates.

• Chesnutt, T.W., D. Pekelney, and J.M. Spacht. 2018. Lower Water Bills: The City of Los Angeles Shows How Water Conservation and Efficient Water Rates Produce Affordable and Sustainable Use. California Water Efficiency Partnership, Sacramento, Calif., and Alliance for Water Efficiency, Chicago, Ill.

• Feinglas, S., C. Gray, and P. Mayer. 2013. Conservation Limits Rate Increases for a Colorado Utility. Alliance for Water Efficiency, Chicago, Ill. S

44 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Frequency/Schedule Expected Water Savings
300/annually 30,000 gal per day for program
200 rebates/ annually until
4,000 gal per day for program
Table 2. Water Conservation Activities Shown in the Plan
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 April 11-14 Region IX Water Distribution Level 2 Deltona $325 May 2-5 Region IX Water Distribution Level 3 Deltona $325 15-18 Region IX Wastewater Collection B Deltona $325 June 6-9 Region IX Water Distribution Level 2 Deltona $325 July 11-14 ..............Region IX Water Distribution Level 1 ..................................................... Deltona ...................$325 11-14 ..............Region IX Wastewater Collection A ...................................................... Deltona ...................$325 13-17 ..............2023 Spring State Short School

Latest WWEMA Member Market Survey Reflects Sales Increases for the Industry

The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) has released the results of its 2022 WWEMA Member Market Indicators Survey. The survey tracks business activity and anticipated activity of manufacturers and their representatives within the water and wastewater market for two annual periods in the following eight business areas:

S Design Work

S Quotations

S Bookings/Orders

S Domestic Sales

S International Sales

S Company Employment

S Materials Costs

S Industry Market Growth

Positive Growth

The results of the survey show strong overall industry performance, with growth of approximately 80 percent or greater in seven of the eight business areas. The lowest performing area was international sales, which grew, but at a more moderate pace of 28 percent in the September 2021 to August 2022 base survey period.

This widespread industry growth spans the range of technologies and products supplied by WWEMA members, despite the challenging economic conditions posed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, rising inflation, supply chain delays, and workforce challenges.

Respondents reported robust domestic sales, with 88 percent noting an increase over the prior annual reporting period, and an overwhelming majority (82 percent) reporting sales growth in the 5 to 10 percent ranges. These strong results generally met the high expectations for this period projected in last year’s survey.

Looking ahead to the September 2022 to August 2023 period, domestic sales are expected to continue at a solid growth pace, with 88 percent of respondents expecting positive growth and nearly three-quarters of that group (71 percent) estimating growth to reach the 5 to 10 percent ranges.

Costs and Other Impediments

Not surprisingly, the survey confirmed across-the-board industry cost escalation for most materials, with nearly three-quarters of respondents reporting increases of 10 percent.

Several factors are likely contributing to cost increases:

S Wage growth

S Supply chain delays and disruptions

S Overall inflationary environment

The survey also included a question regarding the greatest impediment to business growth. The number one concern, noted by 47 percent of respondents, was supply chain challenges; this was the same issue cited most frequently in last year’s survey by respondents for this question. Other issues cited include staffing, Buy America requirements contained in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, and inflation, with 21, 18, and 15 percent of respondents, respectively, noting these challenges.

Future Challenges

This year’s survey added a question regarding whether respondents plan to adjust their business plans due to the new Buy America requirements. Exactly half of the manufacturers surveyed indicated they would and the remaining half noted they would not be making any adjustments. Several of those that

46 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to tell if they would eventually modify their plans.

The survey collected detailed responses about the modifications, some of which include:

S Purchasing companies that have manufacturing based in the United States.

S Establishing or expanding manufacturing for products normally produced outside of the U.S.

S Entering additional markets with new equipment.

S Downsizing the overseas workforce.

Using alternative and more-costly domestic supply sources.

The full survey report, which includes detailed data for each market indicator with specific growth rates for the current and future evaluation timeframes, differences between data reported by manufacturers and manufacturers’ representatives, and a comparison with results from other related industry and national economic data, is available exclusively for WWEMA members.


Since 1908, WWEMA has informed, educated, and provided leadership on the issues that shape the future of the water and wastewater industry. Its member companies supply the most sophisticated leading-edge products and technologies, offering solutions to every water-related environmental problem and need facing today’s society.

For more information, and to obtain the report, visit www.wwema.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 47

Potable Reuse in Florida: How City of Plant City is Making it Happen

The City of Plant City (city) is a small, agricultural-based community on the eastern outskirts of the greater Tampa Bay area faced with both water supply limitations and effluent management challenges. The city launched an integrated water management plan, which includes increased water supply through potable reuse as part of its recommendations. To evaluate the feasibility of using treated wastewater effluent as a potential alternative source for drinking water, the city is conducting a potable reuse pilot study consisting of membrane filtration (MF), reverse osmosis (RO), and an ultraviolet/advanced oxidation process (UV/ AOP). The year-long pilot study demonstrated that the purified water quality met current and anticipated pending regulations.

The pilot study also identified several key design parameters for the full-scale potable reuse design. The city’s comprehensive public outreach program, aimed at educating and receiving feedback from the community, was successful in gaining support in favor of the city utilizing potable reuse as an alternative drinking water supply.


The city is known for abundant berry production and the annual Strawberry

Festival, which brings thousands to the area to engage in rodeo-like activities, listen to music from national headliners, and enjoy strawberry shortcake. The city also owns and operates an integrated water, sewer, and reclaimed utility. Plant City is projected to have significant population growth within the next 20 years, prompting increased water demand that will eventually surpass the existing water supply.

The city has limited expansion opportunity with its current groundwater potable supply due to the location within the Dover Plant City Water Use Caution Area and is faced with identifying alternative drinking water sources to satisfy increasing demand. Plant City intends to remain water secure, while also acknowledging the potential for mutually shared resources.

As a unified water management approach, the city developed a holistic project that incorporates stormwater treatment, mitigation of localized flooding, rehabilitation of a natural habitat park, and increased water supply through potable reuse. The overall program objectives are to increase water supply while providing restoration of hydrologically impacted wetlands and enhancing the beneficial reuse of high-quality reclaimed water.

Carlyn Higgins, Ph.D., P.E., is an engineer; Paul Biscardi, Ph.D., P.E., is an associate; Stephanie Ishii, Ph.D., P.E., is an associate; and Andre Dieffenthaller, P.E., is a vice president, at Hazen and Sawyer in Tampa.

As a part of the feasibility phase, the city evaluated potable reuse by investigating the effectiveness of technologies to further treat reclaimed water, with the goal of augmenting its drinking water supply.

Current regulations in Florida require a pilot to demonstrate performance for intended potable reuse. Florida has been a “hot spot” for testing of potable reuse, with more than a dozen Florida utilities having conducted pilots or demonstrations in the last decade. The city is unique, as it’s one of the few in Florida to pilot while still adhering to a set of draft Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) statewide potable reuse regulations. Continued discussions with FDEP have confirmed that the city is collecting the appropriate data for future permitted full-scale implementation. These discussions with FDEP will continue to help shape and finalize the statewide potable reuse rules.

Although the city has a smaller utility that may not have been originally thought of as being in the forefront of implementing a full-scale potable reuse process, it’s paving the way for potable reuse in Florida and providing an example of a small community’s holistic water management strategy for the future.

Potable Reuse Considerations

The pilot- and subsequent full-scale potable reuse facility is designed to treat reclaimed water to meet all regulated chemical and pathogen concentrations for drinking water, while also providing monitoring for unregulated contaminants. The city considered both membraneand nonmembrane-based potable reuse treatment types. Both treatment approaches have been studied and utilized at other pilotand full-scale facilities in Florida and the United States. Criteria in the potable reuse

48 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Figure 1. City wastewater effluent historical conductivity.

treatment selection included treatment efficacy, regulatory unknowns, waste stream disposal, operation and maintenance, and life cycle cost of the facility.

One of the first efforts included examining the city’s wastewater effluent water quality over time, which would determine appropriate treatment techniques. The average conductivity of the effluent was close to 900 microsiemens per centimeter (μS/cm) with seasonal variation, including concentrations as high as 1200 μS/cm, as shown in Figure 1. Elevated conductivity levels correspond to a total dissolved solids concentration of greater than 500 mg/L, which would constitute an exceedance of the secondary drinking water standard in Florida; therefore, the higher salt content in the source water drove the need for salt removal using high-pressure membrane technology, such as RO.

To permit a potable reuse treatment facility, the process train must reliably achieve a certain log inactivation of pathogens. Although the pathogenic log removal requirement for potable reuse treatment in Florida has not been finalized, the piloted unit process was chosen based on the draft FDEP regulations and other regulations from California and Texas. The log removal requirements for the membrane-based potable reuse treatment system, consisting of MF, RO, and UV/AOP, are shown in Table 1.

Using the credit given by other state regulations (i.e., California), the potable reuse process achieves log removal of 12, 12, and 15 for Virus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia, respectively. The potable reuse treatment train provides barriers against both chemical constituents and pathogens to protect human health. This multibarrier train is recognized as a validated treatment approach for potable reuse and has been piloted elsewhere in the state of Florida. The RO-based technology approach is recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for potable reuse treatment, and has been implemented successfully and verified in potable reuse treatment facilities throughout the U.S., Europe, Africa, and Australia.

The pilot treatment was selected to treat water suitable for either indirect potable reuse (IPR) or direct potable reuse (DPR). The IPR consists of advanced treatment followed by a natural buffer, such as groundwater recharge or surface water augmentation; the DPR eliminates the natural buffer and sends treated water directly to the potable distribution system. Based on the finalization of the Florida regulation, additional treatment may be required for DPR.

To better characterize the near- and longterm implications of IPR versus DPR at the city, the pilot study was coupled with groundwater modeling to determine optimal location and sizing for recharge and withdrawal wells, should the aquifer be included as an environmental buffer. The potential of recharged water to not only supply the city, but also be shared with other local authorities in the area without the need for interconnecting infrastructure, may drive the project in the IPR direction. The purpose of the pilot, however, was to validate the current treatment; the terminus of the alternative water supply will be decided after the pilot has concluded.

Pilot Plan Goals and Objectives

The city’s pilot testing program was designed to achieve the following goals:

S Meet the regulatory requirements of the FDEP Florida Administrative Code 62-610.564, in its existing form and proposed draft form in the potable reuse rulemaking process.

S Establish preliminary design and operating criteria for the full-scale process.

S Provide an educational demonstration for public officials, regulators, schools, community groups, and the public.

S Provide operator training for operation and maintenance of the process.

A water quality sampling plan and treatment process operational guide were established to outline the procedure required to meet the piloting goals.

Piloting Results

To achieve the pilot goals, an MF, RO, and UV/AOP pilot was procured and installed in series to represent advanced potable reuse treatment. Each pilot unit was prefabricated by a vendor and contains appropriate meters, gages, valves, instrumentation, etc., required to monitor and adjust performance. The pilots also have sample panels to appropriately collect samples as water goes through each treatment stage. The process mimics that of a potential full-scale purification facility, but is scaled down to receive only a fraction of the flow. In this application, the wastewater treatment plant diverts approximately 40 gal per minute

Continued on page 50

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 49
Process Virus Cryptosporidium Giardia Trace Organics MF 0 4 4 RO 2 2 2 ü UV/AOP 6 6 6 ü Storage with Cl 4 0 3 Total 12 12 15
Table 1. Assumed Log Removal Values for Potable Reuse Processes

(gpm) of wastewater effluent from the city’s sand filter effluent to the pilot process, which is 1/40th of the expected full-scale flows.

The process flow diagram of the pilot is shown in Figure 2 and images of the city’s pilot installation are shown in Figure 3.

As part of the pilot, water quality entering both the wastewater treatment facility and the pilot was closely monitored to identify seasonal trends and variability in character. Throughout the study, the pilot influent conductivity and temperature varied seasonally and did not have an impact on pilot performance; however, as the wastewater treatment facility receives flow from industrial users, it was important to closely observe the quality and quantity of their discharges to confirm they are within permitted limits and determine the potential impacts on the pilot.

Although the city currently monitors industrial waste flows, conductivity, and pH, additional parameters may be better suited to identify waste character changes. As result of the pilot, the city is intending to conduct a collection system investigation to further characterize unique sewer sheds to identify additional constituents for prioritized monitoring.

To achieve the goal of meeting FDEP requirements in existing and proposed

draft form, water quality samples were taken consistently and analyzed for primary standards, secondary standards, and unregulated constituents, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and other contaminants of emerging concern.

Table 2 presents pilot influent and treated water parameter water quality concentration, compared to their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Each constituent was present in the finished water at concentrations less than the existing or potential MCLs. Each constituent in the existing FDEP primary and secondary standards was sampled, which confirmed that the UV/AOP-treated water met the required water quality standards, and in many cases, several of the constituents were undetected. The current water quality data demonstrate that the MF, RO, and UV/AOP treatment train yields water quality in compliance with existing and anticipated future regulations.

A critical and important function of a pilot program is the investigation, documentation, and demonstration of performance of the individual and combined processes. The city’s potable reuse pilot was used to identify set points that would yield the most sustainable operation for potential full-scale design. Real-time data

from each pilot unit were incorporated into a PowerBI dashboard, which displayed trends in performance. Operators monitored processes daily to facilitate informed decisions regarding set point changes for optimal performance. In addition to performance, the dashboard included monitoring the critical control points (CCPs) of the process, which are points that have a direct impact on the quality of finished water as it relates to public health. Performance data were used to validate that each process was operating as intended and producing adequate water quality, but they also have the capability to alert an operator if the system is not operating as intended, thus requiring corrective action.

For example, the RO process is a CCP and was validated through permeate water conductivity. Sensors on the pilot are constantly measuring RO permeate conductivity and sending data to the human-machine interface (HMI) every 10 minutes. The RO permeate conductivity was consistently below 30 µS/cm throughout the pilot study, but exceeded the limit once in June 2022, indicating a breach of performance. The breach was immediately investigated and determined to be due to a scaling event from a change in water quality from an industrial contribution to the wastewater treatment plant. As a result of this incident, the RO pilot experienced moderate scaling in the second stage of the process; the scaling was deemed primarily to be calcium phosphate and organics.

The pilot unit was restored to previous performance after conducting a clean-in-place procedure. The event further verifies the need to consistently monitor wastewater influent and effluent water quality, as well as performance, in each pilot process. This and other events from the pilot will be used to create operational bounds and alarms at a full-scale facility.

Table 3 presents preliminary design parameters, which were optimized based on performance. For example, continuously injecting a low dose of chloramines prior to

50 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Figure 2. Plant City pilot process flow diagram.
Continued from page 49
Figure 3. Plant City pilot (microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet/advanced oxidation process are shown left to right).

MF and RO treatment significantly improved biofouling and aligns with pretreatment strategies for potable reuse noted elsewhere; furthermore, operating at a RO recovery of 85 percent and flux of 11.4 gal per square foot per day (gal/ft2/d) was sustainable, and thus will guide the membrane surface area requirements for the full-scale treatment facility in the design phase. Preliminary criteria developed for fullscale implementation will contribute to the overall size, layout, and cost determination of the facility. Such design-based activities are planned to take place after the conclusion of the piloting period.

Public Outreach Program

The city has engaged in a comprehensive public outreach program to educate the surrounding community about the future of its water supply. Public education and outreach efforts were developed with the goal of increasing public acceptance of potable reuse by educating stakeholders on the quality and safety of alternative potable water supplies. Components of the program included branding of the overall program, development of user-friendly graphics and educational materials, and hosting public tours to educate the community and gather feedback.

The branding effort encompassed the creation of a name, logo, and tagline to communicate the city’s availability of highquality recycled water accurately and succinctly. A creative brief was initially conceived, which documented information about the city to successfully produce a logo in accordance with its essence and community values.

Aligning with the city logo of “Preserving the Past, Embracing the Future,” the creative brief emphasized the city’s historic and patriotic roots. Once a logo was narrowed down to a few finalists, the city engaged in a staffwide survey to gain feedback regarding the logo that would best represent the community. The final logo

Table 2. Potable Reuse Train Constituent Average Removals

Table 3. Design Parameters for Full-Scale Implementation

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 51
Standard Class Analyte Units Pilot Influent Concentration UV/AOP Treated Concentration Maximum Contaminant Level Primary; Microorganisms Giardia cysts/L 0.231 <0.09* zero/TT Primary; Inorganic Chemicals Barium mg/L 0.011 <0.002* 2 Primary; Organic Chemicals Benzene ug/L <0.5* <0.5* 5 Primary; Radionuclides Beta Particles pCi/L 18.6 <0.99* 50 Secondary Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 675 30.6 500 Secondary Sulfate mg/L 120 <5.0* 250 Unregulated; EPA HAL Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) ng/L 15 <1.9* 0.004 Unregulated; EPA HAL Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) ng/L 4.0 <1.9* 0.02 Unregulated; CEC Hexazinone ug/L 0.11 <0.097* N/A Unregulated (Disinfection Byproduct [DBP] Indicator) Total Organic Carbon mg/L 4.06 <0.500* N/A Unregulated 1,4-Dioxane ug/L 3.61 0.09 0.351 Unregulated NNitrosodimethyla mine (NDMA) ng/L 57.1 <2* 102 1 EPA Health Advisory Level 2 CA Notification Level *not detected Standard Class Analyte Units Pilot Influent Concentration UV/AOP Treated Concentration Maximum Contaminant Level Primary; Microorganisms Giardia cysts/L 0.231 <0.09* zero/TT Primary; Inorganic Chemicals Barium mg/L 0.011 <0.002* 2 Primary; Organic Chemicals Benzene ug/L <0.5* <0.5* 5 Primary; Radionuclides Beta Particles pCi/L 18.6 <0.99* 50 Secondary Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 675 30.6 500 Secondary Sulfate mg/L 120 <5.0* 250 Unregulated; EPA HAL Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) ng/L 15 <1.9* 0.004 Unregulated; EPA HAL Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) ng/L 4.0 <1.9* 0.02 Unregulated; CEC Hexazinone ug/L 0.11 <0.097* N/A Unregulated (Disinfection Byproduct [DBP] Indicator) Total Organic Carbon mg/L 4.06 <0.500* N/A Unregulated 1,4-Dioxane ug/L 3.61 0.09 0.351 Unregulated NNitrosodimethyla mine (NDMA) ng/L 57.1 <2* 102 1 EPA Health Advisory Level 2 CA Notification Level *not detected
Process Parameter Value Pretreatment Pretreatment Chemical Chloramines; 2.5 mg/L Total Chlorine Residual MF Flux 40 gal/ft2/d, (68.6 l/m2/h) Cleaning Chemicals Citric acid, bleach, caustic, sulfuric acid RO Flux 11.4 gal/ft2/d (19.3 l/m2/h) Recovery 85% Scale Inhibitor Yes UV/AOP Oxidant Chlorine UV Dose 900 mJ/cm 2
Figure 5. City educational content example. Figure 4. Plant City Water logo. Continued on page 52

to brand the larger “One Water”-based effort is seen in Figure 4.

Important aspects within the logo are:

S The water drop shape representing the continuity of recycled water and its importance to the community.

S The upper “water wheel” logo representing the many uses for water in the community and the ability to expand those uses in the future. The feature creates a “hidden” star feature in the center as a nod to the city’s patriotic character.

S The lower waves representing the positive ripple effect that Plant City Water will have both locally and in the larger “One Water” effort.

S “Our Water, Our Future” tagline representing the city’s commitment to water independence.

The team developed a full campaign of supporting graphics and educational materials for public education and outreach. A series of easy-to-read and user-friendly signs were created and housed at the pilot to portray information regarding the motivation behind the city engaging in potable reuse, how water cycling works, and the piloted technology and individual process descriptions.

Figure 5 presents an example of the sign created for the MF process. Elements incorporated into the signs included a simple color scheme, basic process description and indicated treatment flow path, and fun facts to generate interest, arouse curiosity, and increase understanding of the process.

Touring efforts also took place and included

the branding materials, demonstration models, and informative signage to engage and educate the local community about potable reuse. The city’s public outreach plan commenced with a ribbon-cutting ceremony to gather support and spread awareness of the efforts to continue to provide safe drinking water to the community. Along with materials used to educate the community, a survey was created to gather feedback on the public’s opinion of the city’s potable reuse efforts.

Multiple tours have occurred since the ribbon cutting, with each tour group encouraged to complete a short survey after the conclusion of the tour. Initial responses from the tour groups have been encouraging, with 100 percent of individuals in support of the city using recycled water to sustain its water supply. Delivering effective communication is critical to change public perception about the safety of the city’s water supply.


The MF-RO-UV/AOP process as applied to potable reuse treatment paradigms has been investigated for decades. The process consists of the most advanced and comprehensive water treatment technologies available for drinking water treatment. The city engaged in an integrated water management program, which includes investigating the feasibility of gaining alternative water supplies through potable reuse.

The city piloted a MF, RO, and UV/ AOP treatment train over a year-long study. Understanding that it’s important to verify that the pilot water quality performance meets regulatory requirements for drinking


water quality, the city monitored primary and secondary standards, as well as unregulated constituents, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, and other contaminants of emerging concern.

Current data suggest that the piloted process meets current and anticipated future regulations. Frequent communication with regulatory bodies has provided assurance that the proposed treatment elements and approach will provide public health protection and environmental benefits. Initial public outreach methods have been successful, with the community in support of identifying additional potable supplies.

The city will pilot the potable reuse train through April 2023 to gain a full understanding of the process performance over a year of seasonal variation. Once the full suite of pilot data have been analyzed and reported, the design engineer will continue with the preliminary design of the full-scale facility. Post-treatment considerations, waste disposal, end use of the potable water, capacity, location, and cost elements will all be evaluated and determined at this stage in the facility design.


This project was jointly funded by the City of Plant City and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The authors would like to thank Lynn Spivey, Hye Kwag, Mike Darrow, Patrick Murphy, and Tony Bauer of Plant City. The authors would also like to thank Arcadis and Dewberry for their support as subconsultants on the work, as well as Harn R/O, Xylem, and American Water Chemicals for providing pilot equipment and assistance. S

The C-Press screw press from Andritz provides high performance combined with compact design and a low operating cost in the sludge dewatering process. With its direct drive system and conical shaft with constant screw pitch, it has a feed capacity ranging from 4 to 418 gpm, with an outlet capacity from 44 to 2,866 lbs/h. In addition to a long life cycle, the press also offers easy operation, low maintenance, and reduced water consumption. The screw speed is automatically adjusted according to the input oscillation, ensuring a continuous flow with optimized performance in drying and capture rate, even during the washing phases. It complies with all regulations on such issues as safety, hygiene, and environmental protection. (www.andritz.com)

The AquaPrime cloth media filtration system from Aqua-Aerobic Systems is designed as an economical and efficient solution for the treatment of primary wastewater and wet weather applications. This system utilizes a disk configuration and the exclusive OptiFiber PF-14 pile cloth filtration media to effectively filter highsolids waste streams without the use of chemicals. This system is ideal for primary wastewater treatment and wet weather applications due to its proven removal efficiencies and high-quality effluent, even under varying influent conditions.

The system is designed to handle a wide range of flows in a fraction of the space, compared to conventional primary clarifiers. The system’s high solids removal, in comparison

to conventional treatment, puts the technology in the advanced primary treatment category. AquaPrime provides reduced carbon loads to the downstream secondary treatment process, resulting in aeration energy savings of approximately 20 to 30 percent, increased capacity in existing secondary treatment processes, reduced basin size for the secondary process (footprint savings), increased primary solids for anaerobic digestion for increased biogas production up to 30 to 40 percent to be used for energy production or heating within the facility, and a dramatically reduced footprint (75 to 90 percent less) in comparison to conventional sedimentation. (www.aqua-aerobic.com)

Continued on page 57

52 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Continued from page 51
Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 53

Trenching: Don’t Dig Into Trouble!

If you’re involved with water utility maintenance or construction, sooner or later you’re going to be involved in trenching operations. And, despite all the classic slapstick movie routines you may have seen through the years, safely excavating and working in an open trench is serious business.

Not all holes in the ground are trenches. A trench is defined as a narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than the width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) does not exceed 15 feet. A wider excavation can be considered a trench if forms or other structures are installed such that the distance from the edge of the form or structure to the side of the excavation is less than 15 feet.

Working in an unprotected trench is dangerous. The walls can collapse suddenly and without warning. When this happens, workers do not have time to move out of the way. A small amount of dirt may not seem dangerous, but one square yard can weigh more than 3,000 pounds—the weight of a compact car. This small amount of dirt is enough to fatally crush and suffocate workers.

Numerous precautions should be taken when excavating or working in trenches. If you work for a utility that is covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), specific regulations (29 Code of Federal Regulations 1926, Subpart P) govern most subsurface excavations.

Requirements for Trenches and Excavations

A complete and detailed rundown of all the rules and regulations for trench and excavation safety would be far too

lengthy to tackle here or in a tailgate safety meeting, but the following are a few points to remember:

S Before beginning any subsurface work such as trenching, contact 811 or One Call Center for the local utility alert service to establish the location of other underground service lines, such as natural gas, sewer, telephone, electric power, and cable.

S Every trench must have a safe and ready means of exit. If a trench is deeper than 4 feet, a stairway, ramp, ladder, or other means of exit must be available within 25 feet of a worker in the trench.

S Don’t expose workers in trenches to overhead loads handled by lifting or digging equipment.

S If it’s possible that an oxygen deficiency or hazardous atmosphere may exist in a trench or excavation, the air in the excavation must be tested before employees enter and while work is being conducted. If necessary, adequate ventilation must be provided.

S If hazardous conditions exist (or may exist), emergency rescue equipment, including a breathing apparatus, safety harness and line, and basket stretcher must be readily available near the trench.

S Unless the excavation is made in stable rock, any trench greater than 5 feet in depth must be inspected by a qualified person, and if conditions warrant, a protective system (such as shoring) must be installed.


For more information go to the OSHA website at www.osha.gov/publications/ trench/trench_safety_tips_card.pdf. S

54 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal LET’S TALK SAFETY
This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column. Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $22 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Multiple Positions Available

US Water Services Corporation is looking to fill a variety of different positions throughout the state of Florida. To see a full list of openings please visit our website: https://www.uswatercorp.com/ careers/?src=1&keyword=&city=&state=FL

Orange County Government is an employer of choice, embracing innovation, collaboration and inclusion. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Orange County continues to build a thriving economy and a welcoming community that works for everyone.

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility service providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We have over 1,000 employees and own and operate 4 regional and 8 satellite water supply facilities; 4 regional water reclamation facilities; over 4,700 miles of pipelines; over 12,000 fire hydrants; 834 wastewater pump stations; the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; 2 solid waste transfer stations; and manage the garbage, recycling, yard waste and large item collection of over 230,000 residents. Orange County Utilities provides water, wastewater and reclaimed water services to a population of over 800,000 citizens and 75 million annual guests. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, innovation, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development.

This position requires a minimum of 10 years of experience in a leadership role with focus on utilities management and strategic initiatives.

We are seeking a highly qualified individual with great leadership and communication skills that can assist the Director with planning and execution of organizational priorities and policies. This position

Clay County Utility Authority

- Multiple Positions Available Senior Design Engineer /project manager, GIS & Asset System manager, Water treatment plant operator trainee, Wastewater Mechanic, and electrician. Apply at WWW.CLayutility.org

requires a high-energy individual with self-initiative, vision, strategic thinking and creative problem-solving abilities. The Deputy Director is expected to:

- Provide technical support and direction to managers as well as mentoring and engaging employees in the organization

- Prepare and review budgets and capital improvements priorities

- Attend public meetings, prepare and make presentations, and create a culture of public confidence

- Build strong relationships with internal and external stakeholders

- Identify challenges for the organization and develop solutions and recommendations

- Actively engage in regulatory processes by participating, evaluating and drafting language for proposed rules and regulations

- Have strong technical competence in water resources to create and implement innovative and environmentally feasible projects

- Show proficiency in developing, reviewing and negotiating complex contracts

- Lead the preparation and submittal of permits and negotiation of permit conditions

- Lead and implement innovative and sustainable projects

- Responsible for personnel matters including hiring, training, employee development, disciplinary actions and performance appraisals

- Have a passion for public service and community engagement

- Other duties requested by the Director

This is an appointed position that serves at the pleasure of the county mayor.

Deputy Director

Annual Salary

$123,427 Min, $191,297 Max

Starting salary of external candidates is based on qualifications

Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 55

We are Hiring! The Corix team has an opportunity for a Field Tech II based in Longwood, FL. Learn more and apply at bit.ly/FieldTechII

Water Plant Operator

Technical work in the operation of a water treatment plant and auxiliary facilities on an assigned shift. Performs quality control lab tests and other analyses, monthly regulatory reports, and minor adjustments and repairs to plant equipment. Applicant must have State of Florida D.E.P. Class “A”, “B”, or “C ” Drinking Water License at time of application. Excellent benefits package. To apply and/or obtain more details contact City of Temple Terrace, Chief Plant Operator at (813) 506-6593 or Human Resources at (813) 5066430 or visit www.templeterrace.com. EOE/DFWP.


$22.13 - $35.42 per hour • w/”C” Certificate

$24.34 - $38.96 per hour • w/”B” Certificate (+10% above “C”)

$26.77 - $42.86 per hour • w/”A” Certificate (+10% above “B”) $1,000 Hiring Bonus!

We are Hiring! The Corix team has an opportunity for a Project Manager based in Altamonte Springs, FL. Learn more and apply at bit.ly/FLProjManager

The Coral Springs Improvement District – A GREAT place to further your career and enhance your life! CSID offers…

Salary levels are at the top of the industry Health Insurance that is unmatched when compared to like sized Districts

Promotions from within for qualified employees

Continuing education courses to develop your skills and further your growth

Retirement plans where an employee can earn 18% of their salary by contributing toward their future

The Coral Springs Improvement District is seeking a qualified employee in the following field:

Lead Wastewater Plant Operator:

Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater Treatment license and a minimum of three (3) year’s experience

Experienced in the operation of sewage treatment, sludge processing, and disposal equipment in wastewater. This lead position is responsible for keeping within permit discharge limits and routinely monitoring the flow of wastewater and chemical levels. Employee in this class receives minimal supervision and reports to the Chief Waste Operator.

Salary range: $70.720. – 83.200. Salary to commensurate relative to level of experience in this field.


Excellent benefits which include health, life, disability, dental, vison and a retirement plan which includes a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match up to 6%. EOE. All positions require a valid Florida Driver’s license, high school diploma or GED equivalent, be COVID-19 vaccinated and must pass a pre-employment drug screen test

Salaries for the above position based on level of licensing and years of experience.

Submit resume to jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax resume to 954-7536328, attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources.

Water and Wastewater Team Leader Orlando, FL Area (Tavares)

Halff has a position open for a Water and Wastewater Senior Project Manager, with the intention of transitioning to a Team Leader within 6-12 months, in our Tavares, FL location. Halff Associates is an Employee-Owned Firm, and all associates are eligible for ownership, through the ESOP program, as well as having the opportunity to purchase stock in the firm. This position requires strong design experience and technical background working with public utilities, districts, and authorities. This position offers an excellent career development opportunity for someone looking to grow with Halff, with potential for business and personal growth, and ownership in the firm. The successful candidate should have experience managing multiple - multi-discipline project teams, coordinating with clients, and leading project delivery on Water and Wastewater Infrastructure projects. In addition to project responsibilities, candidates must demonstrate the ability to manage personnel, budgets, schedules, sub consultants and client interaction. The candidate will also assist the region’s business development activities including proposal preparations and client presentations. Team Leaders/Senior Project Managers are expected to be active in their profession and contribute to assisting Directors in developing the careers of the employees on their team. Apply Now at https://jobapply.page.link/cNcza

Water Treatment Plant Operator

The Water Treatment Plant at Village of Wellington is currently accepting applications for a full-time Water Operator. Apply online. Job postings and application are available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/ employees/EmploymentOpportunities/JobDetail. aspx?req=34&sreq=6&form=WTO3&desc=OPERATOR%20 III,%20WATER%20TREATMENT%20PLANT

We are located in Palm Beach County, Florida. The Village of Wellington offers great benefits. For further information, call Human Resources at (561) 753-2585.

56 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Reclamation Facility Operator III

(IRC58876) This is skilled technical work, with supervisory responsibilities, in the inspection and operation of a water reclamation plant. The person in this position fills the role as the shift leader. Work involves responsibility for the safe and efficient operation of a water reclamation facility, routine adjustments to equipment and machinery operating controls, inspection of equipment inside and outside the plant site. An employee in this class exercises considerable independent judgment in adjusting machinery, equipment, and related control apparatus in accordance with established procedures and standards to produce a high-quality reclaimed water product. An employee in this class must be able to report to work outside of normally scheduled work hours at the discretion of management.

Required Qualifications:

♦ Possess a valid high school diploma or GED equivalency.

♦ Possess and maintain a valid Driver License.

♦ Possess and maintain a State of Florida Wastewater Operator “B” License.

♦ Must be able to perform shift work.

♦ Acknowledge this position is designated as Emergency Critical (EC) and if hired into the position, you must be immediately available to the department before, during, and after a declared emergency and/or disaster.

Salary: $29.97 - $39.90 hourly


The Department of Environmental & Engineering Services (DEES) is currently accepting job applications at: https://www.margatefl.com/207/Job-Opportunities

New Products

Continued from page 52

Veolia has introduced a new version of its ZeeWeed 500 MBR for larger municipal applications, which is designed to enable expansion of capacity at low capital expense, reduce energy costs, and provide long membrane life with simplified maintenance.

The product has a record of longevity and reliability and has some 2,500 users worldwide. It reduces the membrane tank footprint by up to 50 percent and is designed to minimize plant construction or expansion costs. It also reduces energy costs by 20 percent, cuts usage of cleaning chemicals, has fewer parts to maintain, and has a robust membrane that meets the requirements of water reuse regulators. (www.veolianorthamerica.com)

Broward County - Water and Wastewater Services

Engineering Division –

Construction Project Management Supervisor

Water and Wastewater Engineering Division is seeking a highly motivated leader for its Capital Projects Management section. Location: Pompano Beach, FL

Salary: $97,994.21 - $156,398.94 Annually

To view and apply for this position, please visit: https://www. governmentjobs.com/careers/broward/jobs/3943945/constructionproject-management-supervisor-wws-engineering-division

Water Distribution Manager

$76,650 - $118,639/yr.

Reuse Outreach-Water Conservation Coordinator

$54,473 - $84,315/yr.

Utilities Compliance Coordinator

$54,473 - $84,315/yr.

Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I or Trainee

$53,924 - $75,875/yr. or $48,910 - $68,821/yr. Field Sampling Specialist

$51,356 - $72,262/yr.

Utilities System Operators II & III

$44,362 - $62,424 or $48,910 - $68,821/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

The Sentinel PRO from Sensaphone provides water and wastewater facility operators easy, costefficient, around-the-clock remote monitoring of equipment and environmental conditions. The system seamlessly interfaces with any water or wastewater processing equipment that uses a programmable logic controller and the system is ideal for water and wastewater professionals because it easily integrates devices, polls Modbus registers from other equipment, and delivers critical systemwide data.

Supporting both Modbus RTU-485 and TCP protocols, the system can monitor up to 64 Modbus registers. In addition, the system accommodates 12 universal external, digital, or analog status sensors to monitor conditions, including power, pump status, tank level, turbidity, flow rate, pressure, temperature, humidity, and water leaks. It sends immediate notification via text, email, or phone when sensor readings move outside of preset parameters, which can indicate

potential costly threats to pumps and systems, along with environmental and safety impacts. If treatment systems are left unattended and the equipment malfunctions, it could be some time before someone realizes the system failed, which could result in releasing untreated effluent, contaminating the environment, and receiving fines and citations from regulators—as well as public scorn.

The cloud-based system is also a data acquisition device that lets users log information quickly and easily. Operators review data, set alarms, acknowledge alerts, and generate reports from a mobile device, tablet, or computer via the dedicated website or free app.

Sensaphone manages and provides its own secure cloud platform via its in-house engineering and information tehcnology team services. For remote locations without internet or Ethernet connectivity, a 4G cellular Sentinel PRO system is available. (www.sensaphone.com) S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2023 57

Editorial Calendar

January Wastewater Treatment

February ........... Water Supply; Alternative Sources

March ................ Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship

April .................. Conservation and Reuse

May Operations and Utilities Management

June .................. Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production

July ................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies

August .............. Disinfection; Water Quality

September Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management

October ............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades

November ......... Water Treatment

December ......... Distribution and Collection

Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue).

The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue).

For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index

Test Yourself Answer Key

Continued from page 30

1. B) direct potable reuse.

Per the PRC Potable Reuse Framework, Terminology, “Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) - Introduction of advanced treated water into a raw water supply immediately upstream of a drinking water treatment facility or directly into a potable water supply distribution system.”

2. C) groundwater or surface waters.

Per the PRC Potable Reuse Framework, Terminology, “Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) - The planned delivery or discharge of reclaimed water to groundwater or surface waters for the development of, or to supplement, potable water supply.”

3. A) 0.1 mgd

Per FAC 62-610.553, Groundwater Recharge and Indirect Potable Reuse, Minimum System Size, “Reclaimed water from treatment facilities with a design average daily flow of less than 0.1 mgd shall not be used for groundwater recharge or indirect potable reuse under the provisions of Part V of this chapter.”

4. C) 3 mg/L monthly average, no single sample to exceed 5 mg/L

Per FAC 62-610.554(4), Discharge to Class I Surface Waters, “The reclaimed water shall meet the principal treatment and disinfection requirements contained in subsection 62-610.563(2), F.A.C.

The reclaimed water shall meet the drinking water standards as described in paragraph 62-610.563(3)(b), F.A.C. . . Total organic carbon (TOC) shall not exceed 3 mg/L as the monthly average limitation. No single sample shall exceed 5 mg/L.”

5. C) 40 percent

Per the FDEP One Water Florida presentation, Recycled Water: Public Sentiment, slide 6, “40 percent of respondents believe it’s possible to further treat reclaimed water to standards that make it safe for drinking.”

6. C) multibarrier protection.

Per the FDEP Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop, slide 8, “Multibarrier (Layered) Protection:

• Collection System -

• Enhanced source control program

• Early warning system for spill/slug control

• Wastewater Treatment Facility -

• Advanced waste treatment and


• Diversion of off-spec reclaimed water

• Advanced Treated Water -

• Control of unregulated wastewater constituents of emerging concern

• Additional removal of pathogens

• Treat, control, or manage chemical peaks (rapid, short-lived increases in concentration) passing through an advanced treated water facility.”

7. B) All potable reuse projects

Per the FDEP Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop, slide 41, “Pilot testing—pilot- or full-scale in pilot mode—is required for all potable reuse projects”

8. A) early warning system for event detection.

Per the FDEP Potable Reuse Rulemaking Workshop, slide 18,

• “All power-operated equipment associated with controlling and monitoring discharges to the collections system must have a continuous power source.

• An early warning system with real-time monitoring shall be in place for event detection.

• A continuous improvement plan for performance and reliability shall be in place.”

9. B) joint operations plan.

Per the FAC 5/26/21 Coded Draft Rule 62-555.316(4), Public Water Systems

Using Direct or Indirect Potable Reuse, “Prior to placing a potable reuse system into service, each wastewater facility (WWF) and each public water system (PWS) participating in the potable reuse system shall submit a joint operations plan to the department for review and approval.”

10. D) Viruses, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Legionella, and turbidity

Per the FAC 5/26/21 Coded Draft Rule 62-610.564(6)(c), Pilot Testing Program, “The pilot testing program shall include the following: . . . An evaluation of Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Legionella, and turbidity as referred to by subsection 62-550.817, F.A.C., in order to demonstrate that the wastewater treatment facilities are capable of producing a reclaimed water that is pathogen-free (concentrations of pathogens are less than detection).”

58 April 2023 • Florida Water Resources Journal AWWA Membership 33 Blue Planet Environmental Systems 59 CEU Challenge 25 Data Flow ............................................................................................. 37 FJ Nugent 15 Florida Water Resources Conference 16-23 FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers 34 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitor Registration 35 FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship 32 FWPCOA Training Calendar ............................................................... 45 Gerber Pumps 9 Hazen & Sawyer 49 Heyward 2 Hudson Pump 39 Hydro International 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation 7 PolyProcessing ................................................................................... 47 Smith & Loveless 41 UF TREEO Center 53 US Submergent Technologies 31 Xylem 60