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Man and his Symbols conceived and edited by

Carl G.Jung


The first and only work in which C a r l G. Jung, the world-famous Swiss psychologist, explains to the general reader his greatest contribution to our knowledge of the human mind: the theory of the importance of symbolism—particularly as revealed in dreams.

Man and his Symbols Carl G.Jung But for a dream, this book would never have been written. That dream — described by John Freeman in the Foreword—convinced Jung that he could, indeed should, explain his ideas to those who have no special knowledge of psychology. At the age of eighty-three, Jung worked out the complete plan for this book, including the sections that he wished his four closest associates to write. He devoted the closing months of his life to editing the work and writing his own key section, which he completed only ten days before his death. Throughout the book, Jung emphasizes that man can achieve wholeness only through a knowledge and acceptance of the unconscious—a knowledge acquired through dreams and their symbols. Every dream is a direct, personal, and meaningful communication to the dreamer—a communication that uses the symbols common to all mankind but uses them always in an entirely individual way, which can be interpreted only by an entirely individual key. (Continued on back flap)


i

Man and his Symbols


Man and his Symbols Carl G.Jung

and M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande J a c o b i , Aniela Jaffe'

Anchor Press Doubleday New York London

Toronto

Sydney

Auckland


Editor: Carl G. Jung and after his death M.-L. von Franz Co-ordinating Editor: John Freeman Aldus Editors Text: Douglas Hill Design: Michael Kitson Assistants: Marian Morris, Gilbert Doel, Michael Lloyd Research: Margery MacLaren Advisers: Donald Berwick, Norman MacKenzie

An Anchor Press book Published by Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 666 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10103 Anchor Press and the portrayal of an anchor are trademarks of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. © 1964 J.G. FERGUSON PUBLISHING except chapter 2 entitled «Ancient myths and modern man» by Dr. Joseph L. Henderson, where copyright in this chapter within the United States of America is expressly disclaimed. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-18631 ISBN 0 - 3 8 5 - 0 5 2 2 1 - 9 First published in the United States of America in 1964 Reprinted in 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 8 Printed and bound in Spain by TONSA, San Sebastian


Introduction: John Freeman

T h e origins of this book a r e sufficiently u n u s u a l to be of interest, a n d they b e a r a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to its c o n t e n t s a n d w h a t it sets o u t to d o . So let me tell y o u j u s t h o w it c a m e to b e w r i t t e n . O n e d a y in t h e s p r i n g of 1959 t h e British B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n invited m e to i n t e r v i e w for British television D r . C a r l G u s t a v J u n g . T h e interview w a s to b e d o n e " i n d e p t h . " I k n e w little e n o u g h a t t h a t time a b o u t J u n g a n d his w o r k , a n d I a t o n c e w e n t to m a k e his a c q u a i n t ance at his beautiful lakeside h o m e n e a r Z u r i c h . T h a t was t h e b e g i n n i n g of a friendship t h a t m e a n t a g r e a t d e a l to m e a n d , I h o p e , g a v e some pleasure to J u n g in t h e last years of his life. T h e television i n t e r v i e w has no further p l a c e in this story, e x c e p t t h a t it was a c c o u n t e d successful and t h a t this b o o k is by a n o d d c o m b i n a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n e n d product of t h a t success. O n e m a n w h o saw J u n g o n t h e screen was W o l f g a n g Foges, m a n a g ing director of A l d u s Books. Foges h a d b e e n keenly interested in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n psychology since his c h i l d h o o d , w h e n h e lived near the F r e u d s in V i e n n a . A n d as h e w a t c h e d J u n g t a l k i n g a b o u t his life a n d w o r k a n d ideas, Foges s u d d e n l y reflected w h a t a pity it was that, while the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of F r e u d ' s work was well k n o w n to educated r e a d e r s all over t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d , J u n g h a d n e v e r m a n a g e d to break t h r o u g h to t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d was a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d too difficult for p o p u l a r r e a d i n g . Foges, in fact, is the c r e a t o r of Man and his Symbols. H a v i n g sensed from t h e T V screen t h a t a w a r m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n existed b e t w e e n J u n g a n d myself, he asked m e w h e t h e r I w o u l d j o i n h i m in t r y i n g to persuade J u n g to set o u t s o m e of his m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d basic ideas in language a n d a t a l e n g t h t h a t w o u l d b e intelligible a n d i n t e r e s t i n g to non-specialist a d u l t r e a d e r s . I j u m p e d a t t h e i d e a a n d set off o n c e m o r e to Z u r i c h , d e t e r m i n e d t h a t I c o u l d c o n v i n c e J u n g of the v a l u e a n d i m p o r t a n c e of s u c h a work. J u n g listened to m e in his g a r d e n for two hours a l m o s t w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n — a n d t h e n said n o . H e said it in t h e nicest possible w a y , b u t w i t h g r e a t firmness; h e h a d n e v e r in the past tried to p o p u l a r i z e his w o r k , a n d h e w a s n ' t sure t h a t h e c o u l d successfully d o so n o w ; a n y w a y , h e was old a n d r a t h e r tired a n d n o t keen to take on such a l o n g c o m m i t m e n t a b o u t w h i c h h e h a d so m a n y d o u b t s . J u n g ' s friends will all a g r e e w i t h m e t h a t h e was a m a n of most positive decision. H e w o u l d w e i g h u p a p r o b l e m w i t h c a r e a n d w i t h o u t 9


h u r r y ; b u t w h e n h e did give his a n s w e r , it was usually final. I r e t u r n e d to L o n d o n g r e a t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , b u t c o n v i n c e d t h a t J u n g ' s refusal was the e n d of t h e m a t t e r . So it m i g h t h a v e b e e n , b u t for two i n t e r v e n i n g factors t h a t I h a d not foreseen. O n e was the p e r t i n a c i t y of Foges, w h o insisted o n m a k i n g o n e m o r e a p p r o a c h to J u n g before a c c e p t i n g defeat. T h e o t h e r was a n e v e n t t h a t , as I look back on it, still astonishes m e . T h e television p r o g r a m was, as I h a v e said, a c c o u n t e d successful. It b r o u g h t J u n g a g r e a t m a n y letters from all sorts of p e o p l e , m a n y of t h e m o r d i n a r y folk w i t h no m e d i c a l or psychological t r a i n i n g , w h o h a d b e e n c a p t i v a t e d by the c o m m a n d i n g p r e s e n c e , the h u m o r , a n d the modest c h a r m of this very g r e a t m a n , a n d w h o h a d g l i m p s e d in his view of life a n d h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y s o m e t h i n g t h a t could b e helpful to t h e m . A n d J u n g was very pleased, n o t simply at g e t t i n g letters (his mail was e n o r m o u s a t all times) b u t a t g e t t i n g t h e m from p e o p l e w h o would normally have no contact with him. I t was a t this m o m e n t t h a t he d r e a m e d a d r e a m of the greatest i m p o r t a n c e to h i m . ( A n d as you r e a d this book, you will u n d e r s t a n d j u s t h o w i m p o r t a n t t h a t c a n be.) H e d r e a m e d t h a t , instead of sitting in his s t u d y a n d t a l k i n g to the g r e a t d o c t o r s a n d psychiatrists w h o used to call on h i m from all over the w o r l d , h e was s t a n d i n g in a p u b l i c p l a c e a n d a d d r e s s i n g a m u l t i t u d e of p e o p l e w h o w e r e listening to h i m with r a p t a t t e n t i o n a n d understanding what he said. . . . W h e n , a week or t w o later, Foges r e n e w e d his request t h a t J u n g should u n d e r t a k e a n e w book d e s i g n e d , n o t for the clinic or the philos o p h e r ' s s t u d y , b u t for the p e o p l e in the m a r k e t p l a c e , J u n g allowed himself to be p e r s u a d e d . H e laid d o w n two c o n d i t i o n s . First, t h a t the book s h o u l d n o t be a s i n g l e - h a n d e d book, b u t the collective effort of himself a n d a g r o u p of his closest followers, t h r o u g h w h o m he h a d a t t e m p t e d to p e r p e t u a t e his m e t h o d s a n d his t e a c h i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h a t I s h o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d w i t h the task of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work a n d resolving a n y p r o b l e m s t h a t m i g h t arise b e t w e e n the a u t h o r s a n d the publishers. Lest it s h o u l d seem t h a t this i n t r o d u c t i o n transgresses the b o u n d s of r e a s o n a b l e m o d e s t y , let m e say at o n c e t h a t I was gratified by this second c o n d i t i o n — b u t w i t h i n m e a s u r e . F o r it very soon c a m e to m y k n o w l e d g e t h a t J u n g ' s reason for selecting m e was essentially t h a t he

I ()


regarded m e as b e i n g of r e a s o n a b l e , b u t n o t e x c e p t i o n a l , intelligence and w i t h o u t t h e slightest serious k n o w l e d g e of psychology. T h u s I was to J u n g t h e " a v e r a g e r e a d e r " of this b o o k ; w h a t I could u n d e r s t a n d would be intelligible to all w h o w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e d ; w h a t I boggled at m i g h t possibly b e too difficult or o b s c u r e for s o m e . N o t u n d u l y flattered by this e s t i m a t e of m y role, I h a v e n o n e t h e less s c r u p u l o u s l y insisted (sometimes, I fear, to the e x a s p e r a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r s ) o n h a v i n g every p a r a g r a p h w r i t t e n a n d , if necessary, r e w r i t t e n to a d e g r e e of clarity a n d directness t h a t e n a b l e s m e to say w i t h confidence t h a t this book in its e n t i r e t y is d e s i g n e d for a n d a d d r e s s e d to the g e n e r a l r e a d e r , and t h a t t h e c o m p l e x subjects it deals w i t h a r e t r e a t e d w i t h a r a r e a n d e n c o u r a g i n g simplicity. After m u c h discussion, t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e subject of this book was agreed to b e M a n a n d his S y m b o l s ; a n d J u n g himself selected as his collaborators in t h e w o r k D r . M a r i e - L o u i s e v o n F r a n z of Z u r i c h , perhaps his closest professional c o n f i d a n t e a n d f r i e n d ; D r . J o s e p h L. H e n derson of S a n F r a n c i s c o , o n e of the most p r o m i n e n t a n d t r u s t e d of A m e r i c a n J u n g i a n s ; M r s . A n i e l a Jaffe of Z u r i c h , w h o , in a d d i t i o n to being a n e x p e r i e n c e d a n a l y s t , was J u n g ' s confidential p r i v a t e secretary and his b i o g r a p h e r ; a n d D r . J o l a n d e J a c o b i , w h o after J u n g himself is the most e x p e r i e n c e d a u t h o r a m o n g J u n g ' s Z u r i c h circle. T h e s e four people w e r e chosen p a r t l y b e c a u s e of t h e i r skill a n d e x p e r i e n c e in the p a r t i c u l a r subjects a l l o c a t e d to t h e m a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e all of t h e m were c o m p l e t e l y trusted b y J u n g to w o r k unselfishly to his instructions as m e m b e r s of a t e a m . J u n g ' s p e r s o n a l responsibility was to p l a n the structure of t h e w h o l e book, to supervise a n d d i r e c t the w o r k of his collaborators, a n d himself to w r i t e t h e k e y n o t e c h a p t e r , " A p p r o a c h i n g the U n c o n s c i o u s . " T h e last y e a r of his life was d e v o t e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y to this book, a n d when he d i e d in J u n e 1961, his o w n section was c o m p l e t e (he finished it, in fact, o n l y s o m e 10 days before his final illness) a n d his colleagues' chapters h a d all b e e n a p p r o v e d by h i m in draft. After his d e a t h , D r . von F r a n z a s s u m e d over-all responsibility for the c o m p l e t i o n of the book in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h J u n g ' s express i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e subject m a t t e r of Man and his Symbols a n d its o u t l i n e w e r e therefore laid d o w n — a n d in d e t a i l — b y J u n g . T h e c h a p t e r t h a t b e a r s his n a m e is his work a n d ( a p a r t from s o m e fairly extensive e d i t i n g to i m p r o v e its intelligi11


bility to t h e g e n e r a l r e a d e r ) n o b o d y else's. I t was w r i t t e n , i n c i d e n t a l l y , in English. T h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s w e r e w r i t t e n b y t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r s to J u n g ' s d i r e c t i o n a n d u n d e r his supervision. T h e final e d i t i n g of the c o m p l e t e w o r k after J u n g ' s d e a t h has b e e n d o n e by D r . von F r a n z w i t h a p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d good h u m o r t h a t leave the p u b l i s h e r s a n d myself g r e a t l y in h e r d e b t . Finally as to t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e book itself: J u n g ' s t h i n k i n g has colored t h e w o r l d of m o d e r n psychology m o r e t h a n m a n y of those w i t h casual k n o w l e d g e realize. S u c h familiar t e r m s , for i n s t a n c e , as " e x t r a v e r t , " " i n t r o v e r t , " a n d " a r c h e t y p e " a r e all J u n g i a n c o n c e p t s — b o r r o w e d a n d s o m e t i m e s misused b y o t h e r s . B u t his o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to psychological u n d e r s t a n d i n g is his conc e p t of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s — n o t (like t h e u n c o n s c i o u s of F r e u d ) m e r e l y a sort of glory-hole of repressed desires, b u t a w o r l d t h a t is j u s t as m u c h a vital a n d real p a r t of the life of a n i n d i v i d u a l as the conscious, " c o g i t a t i n g " w o r l d of the ego, a n d infinitely w i d e r a n d richer. T h e l a n g u a g e a n d t h e " p e o p l e " of the u n c o n s c i o u s a r e symbols, a n d the m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d r e a m s . T h u s a n e x a m i n a t i o n of M a n a n d his S y m b o l s is in effect a n e x a m i n a t i o n of m a n ' s r e l a t i o n to his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d since in J u n g ' s view the u n c o n s c i o u s is the g r e a t g u i d e , friend, a n d adviser of t h e conscious, this book is r e l a t e d in the most direct t e r m s to the s t u d y of h u m a n beings a n d their s p i r i t u a l p r o b l e m s . W e k n o w t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h it (a t w o - w a y service) p r i n c i p a l l y by d r e a m s ; a n d all t h r o u g h this book ( a b o v e all in J u n g ' s o w n c h a p t e r ) you will find a q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m ing in the life of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t w o u l d b e a n i m p e r t i n e n c e o n m y p a r t to a t t e m p t to i n t e r p r e t J u n g ' s w o r k to r e a d e r s , m a n y of w h o m will surely b e far b e t t e r q u a l i fied to u n d e r s t a n d it t h a n I a m . M y role, r e m e m b e r , was m e r e l y to serve as a sort of "intelligibility filter" a n d by n o m e a n s as a n interp r e t e r . Nevertheless, I v e n t u r e to offer two g e n e r a l points t h a t seem i m p o r t a n t to m e as a l a y m a n a n d t h a t m a y possibly b e helpful to o t h e r n o n - e x p e r t s . T h e first is a b o u t d r e a m s . T o J u n g i a n s the d r e a m is n o t a kind of s t a n d a r d i z e d c r y p t o g r a m t h a t c a n be d e c o d e d by a glossary of s y m b o l m e a n i n g s . I t is a n i n t e g r a l , i m p o r t a n t , a n d p e r s o n a l expression of the i n d i v i d u a l u n c o n s c i o u s . It is j u s t as " r e a l " as a n y o t h e r

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p h e n o m e n o n a t t a c h i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l . The, d r e a m e r ' s i n d i v i d u a l unconscious is c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e d r e a m e r a l o n e a n d is selecting symbols for its p u r p o s e t h a t h a v e m e a n i n g to the d r e a m e r a n d to n o b o d y else. T h u s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s , w h e t h e r b y the analyst or by the d r e a m e r himself, is for the J u n g i a n psychologist a n entirely personal a n d i n d i v i d u a l business ( a n d s o m e t i m e s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d very l e n g t h y o n e as well) t h a t c a n by n o m e a n s b e u n d e r t a k e n by rule of t h u m b . T h e converse of this is t h a t the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of the unconscious are of the highest i m p o r t a n c e to the d r e a m e r — n a t u r a l l y so, since the unconscious is a t least half of his total b e i n g — a n d frequently offer h i m advice or g u i d a n c e t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from n o o t h e r source. T h u s , when I d e s c r i b e d J u n g ' s d r e a m a b o u t a d d r e s s i n g the m u l t i t u d e , I was not d e s c r i b i n g a piece of m a g i c or suggesting t h a t J u n g d a b b l e d in fortune telling. I was r e c o u n t i n g in the s i m p l e t e r m s of daily e x p e r i e n c e how J u n g was " a d v i s e d " by his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s to reconsider a n i n a d e q u a t e j u d g m e n t he h a d m a d e w i t h t h e conscious p a r t of his m i n d . N o w it follows from this t h a t t h e d r e a m i n g of d r e a m s is not a m a t t e r that the well-adjusted J u n g i a n c a n r e g a r d as simply a m a t t e r of chance. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , the ability to establish c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with the u n c o n s c i o u s is a p a r t of t h e w h o l e m a n , a n d J u n g i a n s " t e a c h " themselves (I c a n t h i n k of n o b e t t e r t e r m ) to be r e c e p t i v e to d r e a m s . W h e n , therefore, J u n g himself was faced w i t h the critical decision w h e t h e r or not to w r i t e this book, he was a b l e to d r a w on the resources of both his conscious a n d his u n c o n s c i o u s in m a k i n g u p his m i n d . A n d all t h r o u g h this book you will find the d r e a m t r e a t e d as a direct, personal, a n d m e a n i n g f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n to the d r e a m e r —a c o m m u n i c a tion t h a t uses the symbols c o m m o n to ajl m a n k i n d , b u t t h a t uses t h e m on every occasion in a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l w a y t h a t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d only by a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l " k e y . " 1

T h e second p o i n t I wish to m a k e is a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r g u m e n t a t i v e m e t h o d t h a t is c o m m o n to all the writers of this book p e r h a p s to all J u n g i a n s . T h o s e w h o h a v e limited themselves to living entirely in the w o r l d of the conscious a n d w h o reject c o m m u n i c a t i o n with the u n c o n s c i o u s b i n d themselves by the laws of conscious, formal life. W i t h t h e infallible ( b u t often meaningless) logic of t h e a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n , they a r g u e from a s s u m e d premises to i n c o n t e s t a b l y d e d u c e d

'3


conclusions. J u n g a n d his colleagues seem to m e ( w h e t h e r they k n o w it or not) to reject the l i m i t a t i o n s of this m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t . It is not t h a t t h e y i g n o r e logic, b u t t h e y a p p e a r all t h e t i m e to be a r g u i n g to the u n c o n s c i o u s as well as to t h e conscious. T h e i r dialectical m e t h o d is itself symbolic a n d often devious. T h e y c o n v i n c e not by m e a n s of t h e n a r rowly focused spotlight of the syllogism, b u t by skirting, by r e p e t i t i o n , b y p r e s e n t i n g a r e c u r r i n g view of the s a m e subject seen e a c h t i m e from a slightly different a n g l e — until s u d d e n l y the r e a d e r w h o has never b e e n a w a r e of a single, conclusive m o m e n t of p r o o f finds t h a t he has u n k n o w i n g l y e m b r a c e d a n d t a k e n i n t o himself some w i d e r t r u t h . J u n g ' s a r g u m e n t s ( a n d those of his colleagues) spiral u p w a r d over his subject like a b i r d circling a tree. At first, n e a r the g r o u n d , it sees only a confusion of leaves a n d b r a n c h e s . G r a d u a l l y , as it circles h i g h e r a n d h i g h e r , the r e c u r r i n g aspects of t h e tree form a wholeness a n d r e l a t e to their s u r r o u n d i n g s . S o m e r e a d e r s m a y find this " s p i r a l i n g " m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t o b s c u r e or even confusing for a few p a g e s — b u t not, I t h i n k , for long. I t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of J u n g ' s m e t h o d , a n d very soon the r e a d e r will find it c a r r y i n g h i m w i t h it o n a persuasive a n d profoundly absorbing j o u r n e y . T h e different sections of this book speak for themselves a n d r e q u i r e little i n t r o d u c t i o n from m e . J u n g ' s o w n c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e r e a d e r to the u n c o n s c i o u s , to t h e a r c h e t y p e s a n d symbols t h a t form its l a n g u age a n d to t h e d r e a m s by w h i c h it c o m m u n i c a t e s . D r . H e n d e r s o n in the following c h a p t e r illustrates the a p p e a r a n c e of several a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s in a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g y , folk l e g e n d , a n d p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l . D r . von F r a n z , in the c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T h e Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n , " describes the process by w h i c h t h e conscious a n d t h e unconscious w i t h i n a n i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n to k n o w , respect, a n d a c c o m m o d a t e o n e a n o t h e r . I n a c e r t a i n sense this c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s n o t only the c r u x of t h e w h o l e book, b u t p e r h a p s the essence of J u n g ' s p h i l o s o p h y of life: M a n b e c o m e s w h o l e , i n t e g r a t e d , c a l m , fertile, a n d h a p p y w h e n ( a n d only w h e n ) t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n is c o m p l e t e , w h e n t h e conscious a n d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s h a v e l e a r n e d to live a t p e a c e a n d to comp l e m e n t o n e a n o t h e r . M r s . Jaffe, like D r . H e n d e r s o n , is c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g , in the familiar fabric of the conscious, m a n ' s r e c u r r i n g interest i n — a l m o s t obsession w i t h — the symbols of the u n conscious. T h e y h a v e for him a p r o f o u n d l y significant, almost a nour-

14


ishing a n d s u s t a i n i n g , i n n e r a t t r a c t i o n — w h e t h e r t h e y o c c u r in the myths a n d fairy tales t h a t D r . H e n d e r s o n a n a l y z e s or in the visual arts, which, as M r s . Jaffe shows, satisfy a n d d e l i g h t us b y a c o n s t a n t a p p e a l to the u n c o n s c i o u s . Finally, I m u s t say a brief w o r d a b o u t D r . J a c o b i ' s c h a p t e r , w h i c h is s o m e w h a t s e p a r a t e from the rest of the book. It is in fact a n a b b r e viated case history of o n e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d successful analysis. T h e value of such a c h a p t e r in a b o o k like this is o b v i o u s ; b u t two w o r d s of w a r n ing are nevertheless necessary. First, as D r . v o n F r a n z points o u t , t h e r e is no such t h i n g as a typical J u n g i a n analysis. T h e r e c a n ' t b e , because every d r e a m is a p r i v a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d n o t w o d r e a m s use t h e symbols of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in t h e s a m e w a y . So every J u n g i a n analysis is u n i q u e — a n d it is m i s l e a d i n g to consider this o n e , taken from D r . J a c o b i ' s clinical files (or a n y o t h e r o n e t h e r e has ever been), as " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " or " t y p i c a l . " All o n e c a n say of the case of H e n r y a n d his s o m e t i m e s l u r i d d r e a m s is t h a t t h e y form o n e t r u e example of t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e J u n g i a n m e t h o d m a y b e a p p l i e d to a p a r t i c u l a r case. S e c o n d l y , t h e full history of even a c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n c o m p l i c a t e d case w o u l d t a k e a w h o l e book to r e c o u n t . I n e v i t a b l y , the story of H e n r y ' s analysis suffers a little in c o m p r e s s i o n . T h e references, for instance, to t h e / Ching h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t o b s c u r e d a n d lent a n u n n a t u r a l ( a n d to m e unsatisfactory) flavor of the occult b y b e i n g p r e sented o u t of t h e i r full c o n t e x t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we c o n c l u d e d — a n d I a m sure the r e a d e r will a g r e e — t h a t , w i t h the w a r n i n g s d u l y given, the clarity, to say n o t h i n g of the h u m a n interest, of H e n r y ' s analysis greatly e n r i c h e s this b o o k . I b e g a n b y d e s c r i b i n g h o w J u n g c a m e to w r i t e Man and his Symbols. I end by r e m i n d i n g t h e r e a d e r of w h a t a r e m a r k a b l e — p e r h a p s u n i q u e — p u b l i c a t i o n this is. C a r l G u s t a v J u n g was o n e of the g r e a t d o c t o r s of all time a n d o n e of t h e g r e a t t h i n k e r s of this c e n t u r y . His object always was to h e l p m e n a n d w o m e n to k n o w themselves, so t h a t b y self-knowledge a n d t h o u g h t f u l self-use they c o u l d lead full, rich, a n d h a p p y lives. At the very e n d of his o w n life, w h i c h was as full, rich, a n d h a p p y as any I h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d , he d e c i d e d to use the s t r e n g t h t h a t was left him to a d d r e s s his message to a w i d e r p u b l i c t h a n h e h a d ever tried to r e a c h before. H e c o m p l e t e d his task a n d his life in t h e s a m e m o n t h . T h i s b o o k is his legacy to t h e b r o a d r e a d i n g p u b l i c . '5


Contents

Part 1 Approaching the unconscious

18

Carl G. J u n g

Part 2

Ancient myths and modern man

104

Joseph L. Henderson

Part 3

The process of individuation

158

M.-L. von Franz

Part 4

Symbolism in the visual arts

230

Aniela Jaffe

Part 5

Symbols in an individual analysis

272

Jolande Jacobi

Conclusion: Science and the unconscious 304 M.-L. von Franz

Notes

311

Index

316

Illustration credits

319


Approaching the unconscious

Carl G. J u n g

The entrance to the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Rameses III


Approaching the unconscious

T h e i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m s

M a n uses the spoken or w r i t t e n word to express the m e a n i n g of w h a t he w a n t s to convey. His l a n g u a g e is full of symbols, but he also often e m p l o y s signs or i m a g e s t h a t a r e not strictly descriptive. S o m e a r c m e r e a b b r e v i a t i o n s or strings of initials, such as U N , U N I C E F , or U N E S C O ; o t h e r s a r e familiar t r a d e m a r k s , the n a m e s of p a t e n t m e d i c i n e s , b a d g e s , or insignia. A l t h o u g h these a r e m e a n i n g l e s s in themselves, they h a v e a c q u i r e d a r e c o g n i z a b l e m e a n i n g t h r o u g h c o m m o n usage or d e l i b e r a t e intent. Such things a r e n o t symbols. T h e y a r e signs, a n d they d o no m o r e t h a n d e n o t e t h e objects to w h i c h they a r e a t t a c h e d . W h a t w e call a s y m b o l is a t e r m , a n a m e , or even a p i c t u r e t h a t m a y be familiar in daily life, yet t h a t possesses specific c o n n o t a t i o n s in a d d i t i o n to its c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d o b v i o u s m e a n ing. It implies s o m e t h i n g v a g u e , u n k n o w n , or h i d d e n from us. M a n y C r e t a n m o n u m e n t s , for instance, a r c m a r k e d with t h e design of the

d o u b l e a d z e . T h i s is a n object t h a t we know, b u t w e d o not k n o w its symbolic implications. For a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , take t h e case of the I n d i a n w h o , after a visit to E n g l a n d , told his friends at h o m e t h a t the English w o r s h i p a n i mals, because he h a d found eagles, lions, a n d oxen in old c h u r c h e s . H e was not a w a r e (nor a r e m a n y Christians) t h a t these a n i m a l s a r e symbols of the Evangelists a n d a r e derived from the vision of Ezekiel, a n d t h a t this in t u r n has a n a n a l o g y to the E g y p t i a n sun god H o r u s a n d his four sons. T h e r e a r e , m o r e o v e r , such objects as t h e wheel a n d the cross t h a t a r e k n o w n all over t h e w o r l d , yet t h a t h a v e a symbolic significance u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Precisely w h a t they symbolize is still a m a t t e r for controversial speculation. T h u s a w o r d or a n i m a g e is symbolic w h e n it implies s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n its obvious a n d i m m e d i a t e m e a n i n g . It has a w i d e r " u n c o n s c i o u s " aspect t h a t is never precisely defined or


fully explained. N o r c a n o n e h o p e to define or explain it. As the m i n d explores the s y m b o l , it is led to ideas t h a t lie b e y o n d the g r a s p of reason. T h e wheel m a y lead o u r t h o u g h t s toward the concept of a " d i v i n e " sun, b u t at this point reason must a d m i t its i n c o m p e t e n c e ; m a n is unable to define a " d i v i n e " b e i n g . W h e n , with all our intellectual l i m i t a t i o n s , we call something " d i v i n e , " we h a v e merely given it a name, which m a y be based on a creed, b u t never on factual e v i d e n c e . Because there a r e i n n u m e r a b l e things b e y o n d the range of h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we constantly use symbolic t e r m s to represent c o n c e p t s that we c a n n o t define or fully c o m p r e h e n d . This is one reason w h y all religions e m p l o y symbolic language or i m a g e s . But this conscious use of symbols is only o n e aspect of a psychological fact of great i m p o r t a n c e : M a n also p r o d u c e s symbols unconsciously a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , in the form of d r e a m s .

It is not easy to g r a s p this p o i n t . But the point must be g r a s p e d if we a r e to k n o w m o r e a b o u t the ways in w h i c h the h u m a n m i n d works. M a n , as we realize if we reflect for a m o m e n t , never perceives a n y t h i n g fully or c o m p r e h e n d s a n y t h i n g c o m p l e t e l y . H e c a n see, h e a r , t o u c h , a n d t a s t e ; b u t h o w far he sees, h o w well he h e a r s , w h a t his t o u c h tells h i m , a n d w h a t he tastes d e p e n d u p o n the n u m b e r a n d q u a l i t y of his senses. T h e s e limit his p e r c e p t i o n of the world a r o u n d h i m . By using scientific instrum e n t s he can p a r t l y c o m p e n s a t e for the deficiencies of his senses. F o r e x a m p l e , he c a n e x t e n d the r a n g e of his vision by b i n o c u l a r s or of his h e a r i n g by electrical amplification. But the most elaborate a p p a r a t u s cannot do more than bring d i s t a n t or small objects w i t h i n r a n g e of his eyes, or m a k e faint s o u n d s m o r e a u d i b l e . N o m a t t e r w h a t i n s t r u m e n t s he uses, at some point he r e a c h e s the e d g e of c e r t a i n t y b e y o n d w h i c h conscious k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t pass.

Left, three of the four Evangelists (in a relief on Chartres Cathedral) appear as animals: The lion is Mark, the ox Luke, the eagle John. Also animals are three of the sons of the Egyptian god Horus (above, c. 1 250 B.C.), Animals, and groups of four, are universal religious symbols. 24


In many societies, representations of the sun express man's indefinable religious experience. Above, a decoration on the back of a throne belonging to the 14th-century B.C. Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen is dominated by a sun disk; the hands at the end of the rays symbolize the sun's life-giving power. Left, a monk in 20th-century Japan prays before a mirror that represents the divine Sun in the Shinto religion.

Right, tungsten atoms seen with a microscope that magnifies 2,000,000 times. Far right, the spots in center of picture are the farthest visible galaxies. No matter how far man extends his senses, limits to his conscious perception remain.


T h e r e are, m o r e o v e r , u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t s of

w h e r e it a p p e a r s n o t a s a r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t b u t

o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . T h e first is t h e f a c t

a s a s y m b o l i c i m a g e . A s a m a t t e r o f h i s t o r y , it

that e v e n w h e n o u r s e n s e s r e a c t t o r e a l p h e n o -

was

mena, sights, a n d s o u n d s , t h e y a r e

psychologists

somehow

translated from t h e r e a l m of r e a l i t y i n t o of t h e m i n d . W i t h i n

the mind

they

that

become

psychic e v e n t s , w h o s e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e is u n -

the

study

of d r e a m s

to

that

investigate

first

the

enabled

unconscious

a s p e c t of c o n s c i o u s p s y c h i c e v e n t s . It

is o n

such

evidence

that

psychologists

a s s u m e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h e

k n o w a b l e (for t h e p s y c h e c a n n o t k n o w its o w n

— t h o u g h m a n y scientists a n d philosophers d e n y

psychical s u b s t a n c e ) . T h u s

its e x i s t e n c e . T h e y a r g u e n a i v e l y t h a t s u c h a n

every

experience

contains a n i n d e f i n i t e n u m b e r of u n k n o w n fac-

a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t w o " s u b -

tors, n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y c o n c r e t e

j e c t s , " o r ( t o p u t it i n a c o m m o n p h r a s e )

object is a l w a y s u n k n o w n i n c e r t a i n

two

respects,

personalities within the same individual.

But

because w e c a n n o t k n o w t h e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e o f

t h i s is e x a c t l y w h a t it d o e s i m p l y — q u i t e

cor-

m a t t e r itself.

r e c t l y . A n d it is o n e o f t h e c u r s e s o f m o d e r n

T h e n t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n e v e n t s of w h i c h

we

m a n t h a t m a n y p e o p l e suffer from this d i v i d e d

have n o t c o n s c i o u s l y t a k e n n o t e ; t h e y h a v e r e -

p e r s o n a l i t y . I t is b y n o m e a n s a

m a i n e d , so t o s p e a k , b e l o w t h e t h r e s h o l d o f c o n -

s y m p t o m ; it is a n o r m a l f a c t t h a t c a n b e o b -

pathological

sciousness. T h e y h a v e h a p p e n e d , b u t t h e y h a v e

s e r v e d a t a n y t i m e a n d e v e r y w h e r e . I t is n o t

been a b s o r b e d s u b l i m i n a l l y , w i t h o u t o u r c o n -

merely the neurotic whose right h a n d does not

scious k n o w l e d g e . W e

k n o w w h a t t h e left h a n d is d o i n g . T h i s p r e d i c a -

can

become aware

of

such h a p p e n i n g s o n l y i n a m o m e n t o f i n t u i t i o n

m e n t is a s y m p t o m o f a g e n e r a l u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s

or by a p r o c e s s o f p r o f o u n d t h o u g h t t h a t l e a d s

t h a t is t h e u n d e n i a b l e c o m m o n i n h e r i t a n c e o f

to a l a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y m u s t h a v e h a p -

all m a n k i n d .

originally

M a n has d e v e l o p e d consciousness slowly a n d

ignored t h e i r e m o t i o n a l a n d v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , it

pened; a n d

though

we m a y

have

laboriously, in a process t h a t took u n t o l d ages to

later w e l l s u p f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s a s o r t

r e a c h t h e c i v i l i z e d s t a t e ( w h i c h is a r b i t r a r i l y

of a f t e r t h o u g h t .

dated

It m a y a p p e a r , for i n s t a n c e , in t h e f o r m o f a dream.

As a

general

rule,

the

unconscious

aspect o f a n y e v e n t is r e v e a l e d t o u s i n d r e a m s ,

from

the invention

of s c r i p t in

about

4 0 0 0 B . C ) . A n d t h i s e v o l u t i o n is f a r f r o m c o m p l e t e , for l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e h u m a n m i n d still s h r o u d e d

in d a r k n e s s . W h a t w e call

" p s y c h e " is b y n o m e a n s i d e n t i c a l w i t h

are the our

c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d its c o n t e n t s . W h o e v e r d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is i n f a c t a s s u m i n g t h a t o u r p r e s e n t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p s y c h e is t o t a l . A n d t h i s b e l i e f is c l e a r l y j u s t a s false a s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w e k n o w a l l t h e r e is t o b e k n o w n a b o u t t h e n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e . O u r p s y c h e is p a r t o f n a t u r e , a n d its e n i g m a is a s l i m i t l e s s . T h u s w e c a n n o t

define

either the psyche or nature. W e can

merely

state w h a t w e believe t h e m to be a n d describe, as best w e c a n , h o w they function. Q u i t e a p a r t , therefore, research

from has

the

evidence

accumulated,

that

there

are

medical strong

g r o u n d s o f l o g i c for r e j e c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s

like

" T h e r e is n o u n c o n s c i o u s . " T h o s e w h o s a y s u c h things merely express an age-old

"misoneism"

— a fear of t h e n e w a n d t h e u n k n o w n .

23


T h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s for t h i s r e s i s t a n c e to t h e i d e a of a n u n k n o w n p a r t of t h e

human

p s y c h e . C o n s c i o u s n e s s is a v e r y r e c e n t a c q u i s i t i o n o f n a t u r e , a n d it is still i n a n

"experimen-

that an individual m a y have such an

uncon-

scious identity with s o m e o t h e r person or object. T h i s i d e n t i t y takes a v a r i e t y of forms a m o n g p r i m i t i v e s . I f t h e b u s h s o u l is t h a t o f a n a n i m a l ,

t a l " s t a t e . I t is f r a i l , m e n a c e d b y s p e c i f i c d a n -

t h e a n i m a l i t s e l f is c o n s i d e r e d a s s o m e s o r t of

gers, a n d easily i n j u r e d . As a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e

b r o t h e r t o t h e m a n . A m a n w h o s e b r o t h e r is a

n o t e d , o n e of t h e m o s t c o m m o n

c r o c o d i l e , for i n s t a n c e , is s u p p o s e d t o b e safe

mental

de-

rangements that occur a m o n g primitive people

w h e n s w i m m i n g a crocodile-infested

is w h a t t h e y c a l l " t h e loss o f a s o u l " — w h i c h

t h e b u s h s o u l is a t r e e , t h e t r e e is p r e s u m e d t o

m e a n s , as the n a m e indicates, a n o t i c e a b l e dis-

h a v e s o m e t h i n g like p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e

river.

If

r u p t i o n (or, m o r e t e c h n i c a l l y , a dissociation) of

i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . I n b o t h cases a n

consciousness.

t o t h e b u s h s o u l is i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n i n j u r y t o

A m o n g s u c h p e o p l e , w h o s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s is

injury

the m a n .

a t a different level of d e v e l o p m e n t from o u r s ,

I n s o m e t r i b e s , it is a s s u m e d t h a t a m a n h a s

t h e " s o u l " ( o r p s y c h e ) is n o t felt t o b e a u n i t .

a n u m b e r o f s o u l s ; t h i s b e l i e f e x p r e s s e s t h e feel-

a

ing of s o m e p r i m i t i v e individuals that they each

" b u s h s o u l " as well as his o w n , a n d t h a t this

Many

primitives

assume

that

a

man

has

consist of several linked b u t d i s t i n c t units. T h i s

b u s h s o u l is i n c a r n a t e i n a w i l d a n i m a l o r a t r e e ,

m e a n s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h e is f a r

with which the h u m a n individual has some kind

b e i n g safely s y n t h e s i z e d ; o n

o f p s y c h i c i d e n t i t y . T h i s is w h a t

t h r e a t e n s to f r a g m e n t o n l y too easily u n d e r t h e

the

distin-

guished French ethnologist Lucien Levy-Briihl called a "mystical p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " H e later retracted

this

criticism, but

term

under

pressure

I believe that

w r o n g . I t is a w e l l - k n o w n

of

adverse

his critics

psychological

were fact

from

the contrary,

it

o n s l a u g h t of u n c h e c k e d e m o t i o n s . W h i l e t h i s s i t u a t i o n is f a m i l i a r t o u s f r o m t h e s t u d i e s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , it is n o t so i r r e l e v a n t t o o u r o w n a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n as it

might

s e e m . W e t o o c a n b e c o m e d i s s o c i a t e d a n d lose

" D i s s o c i a t i o n " m e a n s a s p l i t t i n g in the psyche, causing a neurosis. A f a m o u s f i c t i o n a l e x a m p l e of t h i s state is Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde ( 1 8 8 6 ) by t h e S c o t s a u t h o r R. L S t e v e n s o n . In t h e s t o r y J e k y l l ' s " s p l i t " t o o k t h e f o r m of a p h y s i c a l c h a n g e , rather t h a n (as in r e a l i t y ) an inner, p s y c h i c state. Left, M r . H y d e ( f r o m t h e 1 9 3 2 f i l m of t h e story) — J e k y l l ' s "other half."

P r i m i t i v e p e o p l e call d i s s o c i a t i o n " l o s s of a s o u l " ; t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t a m a n has a " b u s h s o u l " as w e l l as his o w n . R i g h t , a N y a n g a t r i b e s m a n of w e s t c e n t r a l A f r i c a w e a r i n g a m a s k of the h o r n b i l l — t h e b i r d t h a t h e i d e n t i f i e s w i t h his b u s h s o u l .

Far r i g h t , t e l e p h o n i s t s o n a b u s y s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d l e m a n y c a l l s at o n c e . In s u c h j o b s p e o p l e " s p l i t o f f " parts of t h e i r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e . B u t t h i s split is controlled and temporary, not a spontaneous, abnormal dissociation.

2 I


our i d e n t i t y . W e c a n b e p o s s e s s e d a n d

altered

by m o o d s , o r b e c o m e u n r e a s o n a b l e a n d u n a b l e to r e c a l l i m p o r t a n t

facts

about

ourselves

or

"loss of a s o u l , " or e v e n t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l c a u s e of a neurosis. Thus,

even

in o u r

day

the

unity

of

con-

o t h e r s , so t h a t p e o p l e a s k : " W h a t t h e d e v i l h a s

s c i o u s n e s s is still a d o u b t f u l

got i n t o y o u ? " W e t a l k a b o u t b e i n g a b l e

"to

e a s i l y b e d i s r u p t e d . A n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l o n e ' s

control o u r s e l v e s , " b u t s e l f - c o n t r o l is a r a r e a n d

e m o t i o n s that m a y be very desirable from o n e

remarkable virtue. W e m a y think we have our-

point of view w o u l d b e a q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c o m -

selves u n d e r c o n t r o l ; y e t a f r i e n d c a n e a s i l y tell

p l i s h m e n t f r o m a n o t h e r , for it w o u l d

us t h i n g s a b o u t o u r s e l v e s o f w h i c h w e h a v e n o

social i n t e r c o u r s e of v a r i e t v . color, a n d w a r m t h .

knowledge.

a f f a i r ; it c a n

It is a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d

Beyond d o u b t , e v e n in w h a t w e call a high level of c i v i l i z a t i o n , h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s

has

not yet a c h i e v e d a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f c o n t i -

deprive

that we

r e v i e w the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m s

too

must

t h o s e flimsy,

evasive, unreliable, vague, a n d uncertain

fan-

tasies. T o e x p l a i n m y p o i n t of view, I s h o u l d

nuity. It is still v u l n e r a b l e a n d l i a b l e t o f r a g -

l i k e t o d e s c r i b e h o w it d e v e l o p e d o v e r a p e r i o d

mentation. T h i s c a p a c i t y to isolate p a r t of o n e ' s

of y e a r s , a n d h o w I w a s led to c o n c l u d e

m i n d , i n d e e d , is a v a l u a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .

d r e a m s are the most frequent a n d

It

that

universally

e n a b l e s us to c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n o n e t h i n g a t a

a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e for t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m a n ' s

time, e x c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g else t h a t m a y c l a i m

symbolizing faculty.

our a t t e n t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o s p l i t off a n d

Sigmund tried

Freud

to e x p l o r e

was the pioneer who

empirically

the

first

unconscious

temporarily s u p p r e s s a p a r t of o n e ' s p s y c h e , a n d

b a c k g r o u n d of consciousness. H e w o r k e d on the

a c o n d i t i o n in w h i c h

general assumption that d r e a m s are not a matter

this h a p p e n s

spontane-

ously, w i t h o u t o n e ' s k n o w l e d g e o r c o n s e n t a n d

of c h a n c e

even a g a i n s t o n e ' s i n t e n t i o n . T h e f o r m e r is a

thoughts and problems. This assumption

civilized a c h i e v e m e n t ,

n o t in t h e least a r b i t r a r y . It w a s b a s e d u p o n t h e

the latter a

primitive

but

are associated

with

conscious was

25


c o n c l u s i o n o f e m i n e n t n e u r o l o g i s t s (for i n s t a n c e ,

a s t h m a : H e " c a n ' t b r e a t h e the a t m o s p h e r e at

Pierre J a n e t )

t h a t neurotic s y m p t o m s are re-

h o m e . " A t h i r d suffers f r o m a p e c u l i a r

para-

lated to s o m e conscious e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y even

lysis o f t h e l e g s : H e c a n ' t w a l k , i . e . " h e

can't

appear

conscious

go on a n y m o r e . " A fourth, w h o vomits w h e n

m i n d , w h i c h , at a n o t h e r t i m e a n d u n d e r differ-

h e e a t s , " c a n n o t d i g e s t " s o m e u n p l e a s a n t fact.

to b e split-off a r e a s of t h e

ent conditions, c a n be conscious.

I c o u l d cite m a n y e x a m p l e s of this k i n d ,

Before the b e g i n n i n g of this c e n t u r y ,

but

such physical reactions are only one form

Freud

in

and Josef Breuer had recognized that neurotic

w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t t r o u b l e us u n c o n s c i -

s y m p t o m s — h y s t e r i a , c e r t a i n t y p e s of p a i n , a n d

ously m a y express t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y m o r e often

a b n o r m a l b e h a v i o r — a r e in fact

find e x p r e s s i o n in o u r d r e a m s .

symbolically

m e a n i n g f u l . T h e y a r e o n e w a y in w h i c h unconscious

mind

expresses

itself, j u s t

the as

A n y psychologist w h o h a s listened to n u m -

it

bers of p e o p l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r d r e a m s

m a y in d r e a m s ; a n d t h e y a r e e q u a l l y s y m b o l i c . A p a t i e n t , for i n s t a n c e , w h o is c o n f r o n t e d

knows

that d r e a m symbols have m u c h greater variety

with

t h a n the p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s of neurosis.

an intolerable situation m a y develop a spasm

They

o f t e n consist of e l a b o r a t e a n d p i c t u r e s q u e fan-

w h e n e v e r h e tries to s w a l l o w : H e " c a n ' t swal-

t a s i e s . B u t if t h e a n a l y s t w h o is c o n f r o n t e d

low i t . " U n d e r s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s of p s y c h o l o -

this d r e a m m a t e r i a l uses F r e u d ' s o r i g i n a l t e c h -

gical stress, a n o t h e r p a t i e n t h a s a n a t t a c k

n i q u e o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , " h e finds t h a t d r e a m s

of

1 S i g m u n d Freud ( V i e n n a ) 2 Otto Rank (Vienna)

6 James J. Putnam

3 Ludwig Binswanger 4 A A Brill

7 Ernest J o n e s ( T o r o n t o ) 8 W i l h e l m Stekel (Vienna)

26

(Kreuzlingen)

5 Max Eitingon

(Berlin) (Boston)

9 Eugen Bleuler

(Zurich)

10 Emma J u n g (Kusnacht) 11 S a n d o r F e r e n c z i ( B u d a p e s t ) 12 C. G J u n g

(Kusnacht)

by


can e v e n t u a l l y b e r e d u c e d to c e r t a i n basic p a t -

of " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . " B u t after a t i m e I b e g a n to

terns. T h i s t e c h n i q u e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t

feel t h a t t h i s w a s a m i s l e a d i n g a n d

inadequate

in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t

use of t h e rich fantasies t h a t t h e

unconscious

enabled Freud

of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , for

to use d r e a m s as t h e

it

starting

p r o d u c e s in sleep. M y d o u b t s r e a l l y b e g a n w h e n

point from w h i c h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p r o b l e m of

a c o l l e a g u e told m e of a n e x p e r i e n c e he

the p a t i e n t m i g h t b e e x p l o r e d .

d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a long t r a i n j o u r n e y

had in

Freud m a d e the simple but penetrating obser-

Russia. T h o u g h he did not k n o w the l a n g u a g e

v a t i o n t h a t if a d r e a m e r is e n c o u r a g e d t o g o o n

a n d could not even d e c i p h e r the Cyrillic script,

talking a b o u t his d r e a m i m a g e s a n d t h e t h o u g h t s

he found himself m u s i n g over the strange letters

that these p r o m p t

in w h i c h the r a i l w a y notices w e r e w r i t t e n , a n d

in his m i n d ,

h e will

give

himself a w a y a n d r e v e a l t h e u n c o n s c i o u s b a c k -

h e fell i n t o a r e v e r i e i n w h i c h h e i m a g i n e d a l l

g r o u n d of his a i l m e n t s , in b o t h w h a t h e s a y s

s o r t s o f m e a n i n g s for t h e m .

and w h a t he d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t s s a y i n g . His ideas

O n e i d e a l e d t o a n o t h e r , a n d in h i s r e l a x e d

may seem i r r a t i o n a l a n d i r r e l e v a n t , b u t after a

m o o d h e found t h a t this "free a s s o c i a t i o n " h a d

t i m e it b e c o m e s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o s e e w h a t it is

stirred u p m a n y old m e m o r i e s . A m o n g

t h a t h e is t r y i n g

h e w a s a n n o y e d t o find s o m e l o n g - b u r i e d d i s -

to a v o i d ,

thought or experience

what

unpleasant

h e is s u p p r e s s i n g .

matter h o w he tries to c a m o u f l a g e

No

it, e v e r y -

agreeable topics get a n d

had

t h i n g s h e h a d w i s h e d t o for-

forgotten

consciously.

He

had

thing he says p o i n t s to t h e c o r e of his p r e d i c a -

fact a r r i v e d at w h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o u l d

m e n t . A d o c t o r s e e s so m a n y t h i n g s f r o m

h i s " c o m p l e x e s " — t h a t is, r e p r e s s e d

the

them

in call

emotional

s e a m y s i d e o f life t h a t h e is s e l d o m f a r f r o m t h e

themes that can cause constant

truth

d i s t u r b a n c e s o r e v e n , in m a n y c a s e s , t h e s y m p -

when

he

interprets

patient p r o d u c e s

the

hints

as s i g n s o f a n

that

uneasy

science. W h a t h e e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r s ,

his con-

unfor-

tunately, c o n f i r m s his e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h u s

psychological

t o m s of neurosis. T h i s e p i s o d e o p e n e d m v e v e s to t h e f a r !

thai

far,

it w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a d r e a m a s t h e p o i n t

nobody c a n say a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t F r e u d ' s t h e o r y

o f d e p a r t u r e for t h e p r o c e s s o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n "

of r e p r e s s i o n a n d w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t as a p p a r e n t

if o n e w i s h e d

causes of d r e a m s y m b o l i s m .

p a t i e n t . It s h o w e d m e t h a t o n e c a n r e a c h

Freud

attached

particular

importance

to

d r e a m s as t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e for a p r o c e s s

Left, m a n y of t h e great p i o n e e r s of modern p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p h o t o graphed at a C o n g r e s s o f Psychoanalysis in i 9 1 1 at W e i m a r , Germany. T h e key, b e l o w left, identifies s o m e of t h e m a j o r f i g u r e s .

Right, the " i n k b l o t " test d e v i s e d by the S w i s s p s y c h i a t r i s t H e r m a n n Rorschach. T h e s h a p e of t h e b l o t can serve as a s t i m u l u s f o r free association; in fact, a l m o s t a n y irregular free s h a p e c a n spark off the associative p r o c e s s . L e o n a r d o da Vinci w r o t e in his Notebooks: "It should not b e hard f o r y o u t o stop s o m e t i m e s a n d l o o k i n t o t h e stains of w a l l s , or ashes of a fire, or clouds, or m u d or like p l a c e s , in w h i c h . . . y o u m a y f i n d really marvelous i d e a s . "

to d i s c o v e r the c o m p l e x e s of a the

c e n t e r d i r e c t l y from a n y p o i n t of t h e c o m p a s s . One

could

begin

from

Cyrillic

letters,

from


meditations u p o n a crystal ball, a p r a y e r wheel,

n i q u e w a s o n e t h a t c o u l d t a k e a c c o u n t o f all

or a m o d e r n p a i n t i n g , or even from casual c o n -

the v a r i o u s w i d e r aspects of a d r e a m . A story

versation a b o u t s o m e q u i t e trivial event. T h e

told by t h e conscious m i n d has a b e g i n n i n g , a

d r e a m w a s n o m o r e a n d n o less useful in t h i s

d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a n e n d , b u t t h e s a m e is n o t

respect t h a n a n y o t h e r possible starting point.

t r u e of a d r e a m .

N e v e r t h e l e s s , d r e a m s h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r signifi-

s p a c e a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; t o u n d e r s t a n d it y o u

cance, even though

they often arise from

Its d i m e n s i o n s in t i m e

and

an

m u s t e x a m i n e it f r o m e v e r y a s p e c t — j u s t as y o u

e m o t i o n a l u p s e t in w h i c h t h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s

m a y t a k e a n u n k n o w n o b j e c t in y o u r h a n d s a n d

a r e also involved. ( T h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s a r e

turn

t h e t e n d e r spots of t h e p s y c h e , w h i c h r e a c t most

w i t h e v e r y d e t a i l o f its s h a p e .

quickly to a n external stimulus or d i s t u r b a n c e . )

it o v e r a n d o v e r u n t i l y o u a r e

familiar

P e r h a p s I h a v e n o w said e n o u g h to s h o w h o w

T h a t is w h y free a s s o c i a t i o n c a n l e a d o n e f r o m

I came

a n y d r e a m to t h e critical secret t h o u g h t s .

a s s o c i a t i o n a s F r e u d first e m p l o y e d i t : I w a n t e d

increasingly

to disagree with

"free"

A t t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , it o c c u r r e d t o m e t h a t

t o k e e p a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e d r e a m itself,

(if I w a s r i g h t so f a r ) it m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y f o l l o w

a n d t o e x c l u d e all t h e i r r e l e v a n t i d e a s a n d a s s o -

that d r e a m s h a v e s o m e special a n d m o r e signi-

c i a t i o n s t h a t it m i g h t e v o k e . T r u e , t h e s e c o u l d

ficant

lead one t o w a r d

function of their o w n . V e r y often d r e a m s

have a definite, evidently purposeful structure,

the c o m p l e x e s of a

patient,

b u t I h a d a m o r e f a r - r e a c h i n g p u r p o s e in m i n d that

cause

t h o u g h , a s a r u l e , t h e l a t t e r is n o t i m m e d i a t e l y

neurotic disturbances. There are m a n y

other

c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . I t h e r e f o r e b e g a n to c o n s i d e r

m e a n s by which these can be identified:

w h e t h e r o n e s h o u l d p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n to t h e

p s y c h o l o g i s t , for i n s t a n c e , c a n g e t a l l t h e h i n t s

a c t u a l form a n d c o n t e n t of a d r e a m , r a t h e r t h a n

h e n e e d s b y u s i n g w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n tests ( b y ask-

indicating an underlying idea or

than

intention

the discovery

of c o m p l e x e s

The

off

ing t h e p a t i e n t w h a t h e associates to a given

t h r o u g h a train of ideas to c o m p l e x e s that could

set of w o r d s , a n d b y s t u d y i n g h i s r e s p o n s e s ) .

as easily b e r e a c h e d by o t h e r m e a n s .

B u t t o k n o w a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h i c life-

allowing ""free"

association

to lead

one

T h i s n e w t h o u g h t w a s a t u r n i n g p o i n t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m y p s y c h o l o g y . It m e a n t t h a t I gradually gave u p following associations

that

l e d far a w a y f r o m t h e t e x t o f a d r e a m . I c h o s e to c o n c e n t r a t e r a t h e r o n t h e associations to t h e d r e a m itself, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r e x p r e s s e d s o m e t h i n g specific

that

the unconscious

was

trying to say. T h e c h a n g e in m y a t t i t u d e t o w a r d involved a c h a n g e of m e t h o d ;

dreams

the new tech-

T w o different possible stimuli of free a s s o c i a t i o n : t h e w h i r l i n g prayer w h e e l of a T i b e t a n b e g g a r ( l e f t ) , or a f o r t u n e teller's c r y s t a l ball ( r i g h t , a m o d e r n c r y s t a l gazer at a B r i t i s h f a i r ) .


process of a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y , it

f o r m itself tells u s w h a t b e l o n g s t o it a n d w h a t

is i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s d r e a m s a n d t h e i r

leads a w a y from

symbolic images h a v e a m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t

l u r e s o n e a w a y f r o m t h a t m a t e r i a l i n a k i n d of

role to p l a y .

z i g z a g l i n e , t h e m e t h o d I e v o l v e d is m o r e l i k e a

A l m o s t e v e r y o n e k n o w s , for e x a m p l e ,

that

it. W h i l e " f r e e "

circumambulation

association

w h o s e c e n t e r is t h e d r e a m

t h e r e is a n e n o r m o u s v a r i e t y o f i m a g e s b y w h i c h

p i c t u r e . I w o r k all a r o u n d t h e d r e a m

picture

the s e x u a l a c t c a n b e s y m b o l i z e d ( o r , o n e m i g h t

and disregard every attempt that the d r e a m e r

allegory).

m a k e s t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m it. T i m e a n d t i m e

E a c h of t h e s e i m a g e s c a n l e a d , b y a p r o c e s s o f

a g a i n , in m y p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , I h a v e h a d t o

say, r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m o f a n

association, to t h e i d e a of s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e a n d

repeat

to specific c o m p l e x e s t h a t a n y i n d i v i d u a l m a y

d r e a m . W h a t d o e s t h e dream

h a v e a b o u t his o w n s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s . B u t o n e

the words:

"Let's

get

back

to

your

say?"

F o r i n s t a n c e , a p a t i e n t of m i n e d r e a m e d of

could j u s t a s w e l l u n e a r t h s u c h c o m p l e x e s b y

a d r u n k e n a n d disheveled vulgar w o m a n .

d a y - d r e a m i n g o n a set o f i n d e c i p h e r a b l e R u s s i a n

t h e d r e a m , it s e e m e d t h a t t h i s w o m a n w a s his

In

letters. I w a s t h u s l e d t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a

wife, t h o u g h

dream can contain some message other than the

different. O n the surface, therefore, the d r e a m

sexual a l l e g o r y , a n d t h a t it d o e s s o for d e f i n i t e

was shockingly untrue, a n d the patient i m m e -

reasons. T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t :

d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d it a s d r e a m n o n s e n s e . I f I, a s his

in r e a l life h i s w i f e w a s t o t a l l y

A m a n m a y d r e a m o f i n s e r t i n g a k e y in a

d o c t o r , h a d let h i m s t a r t a p r o c e s s o f a s s o c i a -

lock, of w i e l d i n g a h e a v y s t i c k , o r o f b r e a k i n g

t i o n , h e w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y h a v e t r i e d t o g e t a s far

down a d o o r w i t h a b a t t e r i n g r a m . E a c h

of

a w a y as possible from (he u n p l e a s a n t suggestion

these c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s a s e x u a l a l l e g o r y . B u t

of his d r e a m . In t h a t case, he w o u l d h a v e e n d e d

the fact t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s for its o w n

w i t h o n e o f his s t a p l e c o m p l e x e s

pur-

a complex,

poses h a s c h o s e n o n e o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c i m a g e s

p o s s i b l y , t h a t h a d n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h his w i f e

it m a y b e t h e k e y , t h e s t i c k , o r t h e b a t t e r i n g

and we should have learned nothing about the

ram

s p e c i a l m e a n i n g of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m .

is a l s o o f m a j o r

task is to u n d e r s t a n d

significance.

The

why t h e k e y h a s

real been

preferred t o t h e s t i c k , o r t h e s t i c k t o t h e r a m . And s o m e t i m e s t h i s m i g h t e v e n l e a d o n e t o d i s cover t h a t it is n o t t h e s e x u a l a c t a t all t h a t is represented, b u t s o m e q u i t e different

psycholo-

gical p o i n t . F r o m this l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , I c o n c l u d e d t h a t only t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t is c l e a r l y a n d v i s i b l y p a r t of a d r e a m s h o u l d

b e u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g it.

T h e d r e a m h a s its o w n l i m i t a t i o n . I t s s p e c i f i c

One of the c o u n t l e s s s y m b o l i c or allegorical i m a g e s of t h e s e x u a l act isa deer h u n t : R i g h t , a d e t a i l from a p a i n t i n g b y t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y German artist C r a n a c h . T h e s e x u a l implication of t h e deer h u n t is underlined b y a m e d i e v a l E n g l i s h folk song called " T h e K e e p e r " : The first doe that he shot at he missed. And the second doe he trimmed he kissed,

And the third ran away in a man's heart. She's amongst green 0

young

the leaves of the


A key in a l o c k may be a s e x u a l s y m b o l — b u t n o t i n v a r i a b l y . Left, a s e c t i o n of an a l t a r p i e c e b y t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h artist C a m p i n . The door was intended to symbolize hope, the lock to symbolize charity, a n d t h e k e y to s y m b o l i z e t h e d e s i r e for G o d . B e l o w , a British b i s h o p d u r i n g the consecration of a c h u r c h carries o u t a t r a d i t i o n a l c e r e m o n y by k n o c k i n g o n t h e c h u r c h d o o r w i t h a s t a f f — w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y n o t a p h a l l i c s y m b o l b u t a s y m b o l of authority and the shepherd's crook. N o i n d i v i d u a l s y m b o l i c i m a g e c a n be said t o h a v e a d o g m a t i c a l l y f i x e d , generalized m e a n i n g .

The " a n i m a " is t h e f e m a l e e l e m e n t in t h e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s . (It a n d t h e " a n i m u s " in t h e f e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s are d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3.) T h i s i n n e r d u a l i t y is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by a h e r m a p h r o d i t i c f i g u r e , like the c r o w n e d hermaphrodite, above right, from a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y alchemical manuscript. Right, a physical image of m a n ' s p s y c h i c " b i s e x u a l i t y " : a h u m a n cell w i t h its c h r o m o s o m e s . A l l o r g a n i s m s h a v e t w o sets of c h r o m o s o m e s — o n e f r o m each parent.

,30


W h a t , t h e n , w a s his u n c o n s c i o u s t r y i n g

to

f e m a l e e l e m e n t s in all o f u s , it w a s s a i d

that

convey by s u c h a n o b v i o u s l y u n t r u e s t a t e m e n t ?

"every m a n carries a w o m a n within

C l e a r l y , it s o m e h o w

It is t h i s f e m a l e e l e m e n t i n e v e r y m a l e t h a t I

expressed

the idea of a

himself

degenerate female w h o w a s closely c o n n e c t e d

have

with t h e d r e a m e r ' s l i f e ; b u t s i n c e t h e p r o j e c t i o n

a s p e c t is e s s e n t i a l l y a c e r t a i n i n f e r i o r k i n d of

of this i m a g e o n t o h i s w i f e w a s u n j u s t i f i e d factually

untrue,

I

had

to

look

and

elsewhere

before I f o u n d o u t w h a t t h i s r e p u l s i v e

image

represented.

the

"anima."

This

"feminine"

relatedness to the s u r r o u n d i n g s , a n d

particu-

l a r l y t o w o m e n , w h i c h is k e p t c a r e f u l l y cealed

from

others

as well

as from

con-

oneself.

I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h o u g h a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s visible-

In t h e M i d d l e A g e s , l o n g b e f o r e t h e p h y s i o logists d e m o n s t r a t e d

called

that

by

reason

of

our

glandular structure there are both male

and

personality

m a y seem quite n o r m a l , he

well b e c o n c e a l i n g f r o m o t h e r s himself—the woman

deplorable

may from

or even

condition

of

"the

within."

That patient:

was

the

His

female

case

with

this

side w a s

particular

not

nice.

His

d r e a m w a s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g t o h i m : " Y o u a r e in some

respects

female,"

and

behaving thus gave

like him

a

degenerate

an

appropriate

shock. ( A n e x a m p l e of this k i n d , of c o u r s e , m u s t n o t be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is c o n c e r n e d

with

"moral"

injunctions.

d r e a m was not telling the p a t i e n t to

The

"behave

b e t t e r , " b u t w a s s i m p l y t r y i n g to b a l a n c e the l o p s i d e d n a t u r e of his c o n s c i o u s m i n d , was

maintaining

perfect g e n t l e m a n

the

fiction

that

he

which was

a

throughout.)

I t is e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y d r e a m e r s

tend

to i g n o r e a n d e v e n d e n y t h e m e s s a g e of t h e i r dreams.

Consciousness

naturally

resists

any-

thing unconscious and unknown. I have already pointed

out

peoples

of w h a t

the

existence

among

anthropologists

primitive

call

"miso-

n c i s m , " a d e e p a n d s u p e r s t i t i o u s fear of n o v e l t y . T h e p r i m i t i v e s m a n i f e s t all t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e wild

animal

against

untoward

events.

" c i v i l i z e d " m a n r e a c t s to n e w i d e a s in

But much

t h e s a m e w a y , e r e c t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to p r o t e c t himself from the shock of facing s o m e t h i n g n e w . T h i s c a n easily b e o b s e r v e d in a n y i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n to his o w n d r e a m s

when

obliged to a d m i t a surprising t h o u g h t .

Many

p i o n e e r s in p h i l o s o p h y , s c i e n c e , a n d e v e n l i t e r a ture h a v e b e e n victims of t h e i n n a t e atism

of t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .

conserv-

Psychology

is

o n e o f t h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e s c i e n c e s ; b e c a u s e it a t t e m p t s to d e a l w i t h t h e w o r k i n g of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , it h a s i n e v i t a b l y e n c o u n t e r e d m i s o n e i s m in a n e x t r e m e f o r m .

:5>


Past and future in the unconscious

S o far, I h a v e b e e n s k e t c h i n g s o m e of t h e p r i n -

c o n t e n t s of t h e m i n d a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . T a k e

ciples o n w h i c h I a p p r o a c h e d the p r o b l e m of

a n e x a m p l e w i t h w h i c h e v e r y o n e is f a m i l i a r .

d r e a m s , for w h e n w e w a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e m a n ' s

S u d d e n l y y o u find y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r w h a t

faculty to p r o d u c e s y m b o l s , d r e a m s p r o v e to b e

y o u w e r e g o i n g to say next, t h o u g h a m o m e n t

t h e m o s t b a s i c a n d a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l for t h i s

ago the t h o u g h t was perfectly clear. O r p e r h a p s

p u r p o s e . T h e t w o f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t s in d e a l -

y o u w e r e a b o u t t o i n t r o d u c e a f r i e n d , a n d his

ing w i t h d r e a m s a r e t h e s e : First, the

n a m e e s c a p e d y o u a s y o u w e r e a b o u t t o u t t e r it.

dream

s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a fact, a b o u t w h i c h

one

Y o u say y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r ; in fact, t h o u g h ,

must m a k e no previous assumption except that

the

it s o m e h o w m a k e s s e n s e ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e d r e a m

least

is a s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s .

n e s s . W e find t h e s a m e p h e n o m e n o n w i t h o u r

O n e could scarcely put these principles m o r e m o d e s t l y . N o m a t t e r h o w low a n y o n e ' s o p i n i o n

thought

has

become

momentarily

unconscious,

separated

from

or

at

conscious-

s e n s e s . If w e l i s t e n t o a c o n t i n u o u s n o t e o n t h e fringe of a u d i b i l i t y ,

t h e s o u n d s e e m s to

stop

concede

at r e g u l a r intervals a n d then start again. Such

t h a t it is w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

oscillations a r e d u e to a p e r i o d i c d e c r e a s e a n d

of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m a y b e , h e m u s t

is a t l e a s t o n a l e v e l w i t h t h e l o u s e , w h i c h , a f t e r

i n c r e a s e in o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n , n o t to a n y

all, e n j o y s t h e h o n e s t i n t e r e s t of t h e e n t o m o l o -

in t h e n o t e .

gist.

If s o m e b o d y

with

k n o w l e d g e of d r e a m s

little e x p e r i e n c e

and

t h i n k s t h a t d r e a m s arc-

just c h a o t i c o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h o u t m e a n i n g , is a t l i b e r t y t o d o s o . B u t if o n e a s s u m e s

he that

But

w h e n s o m e t h i n g slips o u t o f o u r

s c i o u s n e s s it d o c s n o t c e a s e t o e x i s t , a n y

h a s v a n i s h e d i n t o t h i n a i r . I t is s i m p l y o u t o f s i g h t . J u s t a s w e m a y l a t e r see t h e c a r

f a c t , t h e y a r e ) , o n e is b o u n d t o c o n s i d e r

that

so w e c o m e

they

is

p o r a r i l y lost t o u s .

either

causal

i.e.

that

r a t i o n a l c a u s e for t h e i r e x i s t e n c e

there

a

o r in a c e r -

tain way purposive, or both. w a y s in w h i c h t h e c o n s c i o u s a n d

across

thoughts

unconscious

that

were

again, tem-

T h u s , p a r t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c o n s i s t s of a m u l t i t u d e of t e m p o r a r i l y

L e t us n o w l o o k a l i t t l e m o r e c l o s e l y a t t h e

conmore

than a car that has disappeared r o u n d a corner

t h e y a r e n o r m a l e v e n t s ( w h i c h , as a m a t t e r of arc

change

obscured

thoughts,

i m p r e s s i o n s , a n d i m a g e s t h a t , in s p i t e o f b e i n g lost, c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s .


A m a n w h o is d i s t r a c t e d o r

"absent-minded""

will w a l k a c r o s s t h e r o o m t o f e t c h

something.

b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s is l i a b l e to u n p r e d i c t a b l e eclipse by a n i n t e r f e r e n c e from

He s t o p s , s e e m i n g l y p e r p l e x e d ; h e h a s f o r g o t t e n

t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . E v e n their skin s e n s a t i o n s m a y

what

reveal similar f l u c t u a t i o n s of a w a r e n e s s . At o n e

he was

after.

His

hands

grope

about

a m o n g t h e o b j e c t s o n t h e t a b l e a s if h e sleepwalking;

he

is o b l i v i o u s

of his

were

m o m e n t t h e h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n m a y feel a n e e d l e

original

p r i c k in t h e a r m ; a t t h e n e x t it m a y p a s s u n n o -

p u r p o s e , yet h e is u n c o n s c i o u s l y g u i d e d b y it.

t i c e d . If h i s a t t e n t i o n c a n b e f o c u s e d o n a c e r -

T h e n h e r e a l i z e s w h a t it is t h a t h e w a n t s . H i s

tain

unconscious has p r o m p t e d

completely anesthetized until the tension

If y o u o b s e r v e

him.

the b e h a v i o r of a

person, y o u c a n s e e h i m

neurotic

doing many

things

that h e a p p e a r s t o b e d o i n g c o n s c i o u s l y p u r p o s e f u l l y . Y e t if y o u a s k h i m a b o u t

and them,

you will d i s c o v e r t h a t h e is e i t h e r u n c o n s c i o u s of t h e m o r h a s s o m e t h i n g mind. H e h e a r s a n d

q u i t e different

does not h e a r ;

in

h e sees,

yet is b l i n d ; h e k n o w s a n d is i g n o r a n t .

Such

point,

the

whole

of

his

body

can

be that

c a u s e s this b l a c k o u t of t h e senses h a s b e e n relaxed.

Sense perception

is t h e n

immediately

r e s t o r e d . All t h e t i m e , h o w e v e r , h e h a s

been

u n c o n s c i o u s l y a w a r e of w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g . The

physician

can

see

this

process

quite

clearly w h e n he hypnotizes such a patient.

It

is e a s y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p a t i e n t h a s b e e n a w a r e o f e v e r y d e t a i l . T h e p r i c k in t h e a r m o r

e x a m p l e s a r e so c o m m o n t h a t t h e s p e c i a l i s t s o o n

the

realizes t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s o f t h e m i n d

s c i o u s n e s s c a n b e r e c a l l e d as a c c u r a t e l y as if

b e h a v e as if t h e y w e r e c o n s c i o u s a n d t h a t y o u

there had been no anesthesia or "forgetfulness."

can

never

be

sure,

in

such

cases,

whether

t h o u g h t , s p e e c h , o r a c t i o n is c o n s c i o u s o r n o t .

remark

made

during

an

eclipse of c o n -

I recall a w o m a n w h o w a s o n c e a d m i t t e d to t h e c l i n i c in a s t a t e of c o m p l e t e s t u p o r . W h e n s h e

so

r e c o v e r e d consciousness next d a y . she k n e w w h o

many physicians d i s m i s s s t a t e m e n t s by h y s t e r i -

she was but did not k n o w w h e r e she was. how

cal p a t i e n t s as u t t e r lies. S u c h p e r s o n s c e r t a i n l y

or w h y she h a d c o m e there, or even the d a t e .

produce m o r e u n t r u t h s t h a n

m o s t of us, b u t

Yet after I h a d h y p n o t i z e d h e r , she told m e w h y

" l i e " is s c a r c e l y t h e r i g h t w o r d t o u s e . I n f a c t ,

s h e h a d f a l l e n ill. h o w s h e h a d g o t t o t h e c l i n i c ,

their m e n t a l

and

It is this k i n d

state

of b e h a v i o r

causes

an

that

makes

uncertainty

of

who had admitted

h e r . All t h e s e

details

" M i s o n e i s m . " an u n r e a s o n i n g fear a n d h a t r e d of n e w ideas, w a s a m a j o r b l o c k to p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e of m o d e r n p s y c h S t o g y It also o p p o s e d D a r w i n ' s t h e o r i e s of e v o l u t i o n — as w h e n an American schoolteacher named S c o p e s w a s t r i e d in 1 9 2 5 for t e a c h i n g e v o l u t i o n . Far left, at t h e trial, t h e lawyer Clarence Darrow defending S c o p e s ; c e n t e r left, S c o p e s h i m s e l f E g u a l l y a n t e D a r w i n is t h e c a r t o o n , left, f r o m an 1 8 6 1 issue of B r i t a i n ' s m a g a z i n e Punch Right, a lighth e a r t e d l o o k at m i s o n e i s m by t h e American humorist James Thurber, w h o s e aunt (he w r o t e ) w a s afraid t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y w a s "leaking all over the place.''

33


c o u l d b e v e r i f i e d . S h e w a s e v e n a b l e t o tell t h e t i m e at w h i c h s h e h a d b e e n a d m i t t e d ,

because

ideas h a v e not ceased

io

exist. A l t h o u g h t h e y c a n n o t be r e p r o d u c e d

But t h e f o r g o t t e n

al

s h e h a d s e e n a c l o c k in t h e e n t r a n c e h a l l . U n d e r

w i l l , t h e y a r e p r e s e n t in a s u b l i m i n a l s t a t e

hypnosis, her m e m o r y

beyond

w a s as c l e a r a s if s h e

we discuss such m a t t e r s , we

threshold

of

recall

from

which

t h e y c a n rise a g a i n s p o n t a n e o u s l y a t a n y t i m e ,

h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y c o n s c i o u s all t h e t i m e . When

the

just

usually

h a v e to d r a w on e v i d e n c e s u p p l i e d b y clinical

often

alter

many

years

of

apparently

total

oblivion.

critics

I a m s p e a k i n g h e r e of t h i n g s w e h a v e c o n -

a s s u m e t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d all its s u b t l e

sciously seen or h e a r d , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y forgot-

manifestations

of

t e n . B u t w e all s e e , h e a r , s m e l l , a n d t a s t e m a n y

psychopathology. T h e y consider any expression

things w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h e m at the t i m e , either

observation.

For

this

reason,

many

b e l o n g solely to the s p h e r e

of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s as s o m e t h i n g

neurotic

or

b e c a u s e o u r a t t e n t i o n is d e f l e c t e d o r

because

psychotic, w h i c h has n o t h i n g to d o with a nor-

t h e s t i m u l u s t o o u r s e n s e s is t o o s l i g h t t o l e a v e

m a l m e n t a l state. But n e u r o t i c p h e n o m e n a a r e

a conscious impression.

b y n o m e a n s t h e p r o d u c t s e x c l u s i v e l y of d i s e a s e .

e v e r , h a s t a k e n n o t e of t h e m , a n d s u c h s u b l i m i -

They

a r e in fact

no more than

pathological

n a l s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t in

e x a g g e r a t i o n s o f n o r m a l o c c u r r e n c e s ; it is o n l y

our everyday

because they are exaggerations that they

they influence

more obvious t h a n their n o r m a l Hysterical

symptoms

can

are

counterparts.

be observed

in

all

The u n c o n s c i o u s , h o w -

lives. W i t h o u t

our realizing

it,

t h e w a y in w h i c h w e r e a c t

to

both events and people. A n e x a m p l e of t h i s t h a t I f o u n d

particularly

n o r m a l p e r s o n s , b u t t h e y a r e so s l i g h t t h a t t h e y

r e v e a l i n g was p r o v i d e d by a professor w h o h a d

usually pass u n n o t i c e d .

b e e n w a l k i n g in t h e c o u n t r y w i t h o n e o f his

F o r g e t t i n g , for i n s t a n c e , is a n o r m a l p r o c e s s ,

p u p i l s , a b s o r b e d in s e r i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n .

Sud-

in w h i c h c e r t a i n c o n s c i o u s i d e a s lose t h e i r s p e c i -

d e n l y h e n o t i c e d t h a t his t h o u g h t s w e r e b e i n g

fic e n e r g y

i n t e r r u p t e d b y a n u n e x p e c t e d flow of m e m o r i e s

deflected.

because When

one's attention

interest

turns

has

been

elsewhere,

it

from his e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . H e c o u l d not a c c o u n t

l e a v e s in s h a d o w t h e t h i n g s w i t h w h i c h o n e w a s

for t h i s d i s t r a c t i o n . N o t h i n g in w h a t h a d

p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d , just as a s e a r c h l i g h t lights

said s e e m e d to have a n y c o n n e c t i o n w i t h these

been

-

dark-

m e m o r i e s . O n looking back, he saw that he had

n e s s . This is u n a v o i d a b l e , for c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n

b e e n w a l k i n g p a s t a f a r m w h e n t h e first o f t h e s e

k e e p o n l y a few i m a g e s in full c l a r i t y at

childhood

up a

new

area

by

leaving another

time, a n d even this clarity fluctuates.

in

one

mind.

He

recollections had surged suggested

to

his

pupil

u p in that

his they

In cases of e x t r e m e m a s s h y s t e r i a ( w h i c h w a s in t h e past c a l l e d " p o s s e s s i o n " ) , the consci ous m i n d a n d o r d i n a r y sense p e r c e p t i o n s e e m e c l i p s e d . Left, t h e f r e n z y of a B a l i n e s e s w o r d dance causes the dancers to fall i n t o t r a n c e s a n d , s o m e t i m e s , t o t u r n their w e a p o n s a g a i n s t t h e m s e l v e s . R i g h t , rock a n d roll m u s i c in its h e y d a y s e e m e d t o i n d u c e an a l m o s t c o m p a r a b l e t r a n c e - like e x c i t e m e n t .


A m o n g primitives, " p o s s e s s i o n " i m p l i e s t h a t a g o d or d e m o n has t a k e n o v e r a h u m a n b o d y A b o v e left, a H a i t i a n w o m a n c o l l a p s e s in a religious ecstasy A b o v e center a n d right, H a i t i a n s p o s s e s s e d by t h e g o d G h e d e , w h o is i n v a r i a b l y m a n i f e s t e d in this p o s i t i o n , legs c r o s s e d , c i g a r e t t e in m o u t h .

Left, a r e l i g i o u s c u l t in T e n n e s s e e . U.S.A., t o d a y , w h o s e c e r e m o n i e s i n c l u d e t h e h a n d l i n g of p o i s o n o u s s n a k e s . H y s t e r i a is i n d u c e d b y music, singing, and hand clapping; t h e n t h e p e o p l e pass t h e s n a k e s f r o m h a n d to h a n d . ( S o m e t i m e s p a r t i c i p a n t s are f a t a l l y b i t t e n )


s h o u l d walk b a c k to the point w h e r e t h e

fan-

it, s h e h a s h e a r d t h e f o g h o r n o f a d i s t a n t s h i p ,

tasies h a d b e g u n . O n c e t h e r e , h e n o t i c e d

the

a n d t h i s h a s u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e m i n d e d h e r of a n

s m e l l o f g e e s e , a n d i n s t a n t l y h e r e a l i z e d t h a t it

unhappy

w a s t h i s s m e l l t h a t h a d t o u c h e d off t h e flow o f

b e e n d o i n g h e r best to forget.

memories.

Aside

In his y o u t h h e h a d lived o n a f a r m

where

p a r t i n g with a lover w h o m she has from

normal

forgetting,

Freud

d e s c r i b e d several cases t h a t involve the

has "for-

geese w e r e kept, a n d their characteristic smell

g e t t i n g " of d i s a g r e e a b l e m e m o r i e s

h a d left a l a s t i n g t h o u g h f o r g o t t e n

t h a t o n e is o n l y t o o r e a d y t o l o s e . A s N i e t z s c h e

As h e p a s s e d

the farm

impression.

o n his w a l k ,

he

had

remarked,

where

pride

memories

is i n s i s t e n t

enough,

n o t i c e d t h e smell s u b l i m i n a l l y , a n d this u n c o n -

m e m o r y prefers to give way. T h u s , a m o n g the

scious p e r c e p t i o n h a d called b a c k

long-forgot-

lost m e m o r i e s , w e e n c o u n t e r n o t a few t h a t o w e

t e n e x p e r i e n c e s of his c h i l d h o o d . The p e r c e p t i o n

their s u b l i m i n a l state ( a n d their i n c a p a c i t y to

was subliminal, because the attention was en-

be v o l u n t a r i l y r e p r o d u c e d ) to their d i s a g r e e a b l e

gaged

a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e n a t u r e . T h e p s y c h o l o g i s t calls

elsewhere,

and

the

stimulus

was

s t r o n g e n o u g h t o d e f l e c t it a n d t o r e a c h

not con-

s c i o u s n e s s d i r e c t l y . Y e t it h a d b r o u g h t u p t h e "forgotten"

memories.

t h e s e repressed

contents.

A case in p o i n t m i g h t b e t h a t of a s e c r e t a r y w h o is j e a l o u s o f o n e o f h e r e m p l o y e r ' s a s s o c i -

S u c h a " c u e " o r " t r i g g e r " effect c a n e x p l a i n

ates. S h e h a b i t u a l l y forgets to invite this person

the o n s e t of n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s as well as m o r e

t o m e e t i n g s , t h o u g h t h e n a m e is c l e a r l y m a r k e d

benign m e m o r i e s w h e n a sight, smell, or sound

o n t h e list s h e is u s i n g . B u t , if c h a l l e n g e d o n t h e

r e c a l l s a c i r c u m s t a n c e in t h e p a s t . A g i r l , for

point,

i n s t a n c e , m a y b e b u s y in h e r office, a p p a r e n t l y

"interrupted." She never admits

in g o o d h e a l t h a n d spirits. A m o m e n t l a t e r she

h e r s e l f — t h e r e a l r e a s o n for h e r o m i s s i o n .

develops a blinding h e a d a c h e a n d shows other s i g n s of d i s t r e s s . W i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s l y

noticing

she

Many

simply

people

says she

mistakenly

"forgot"

or

was

not even to

overestimate^the

r o l e of w i l l p o w e r a n d t h i n k t h a t n o t h i n g

can

T h e t o y cars f o r m i n g t h e V o l k s w a g e n t r a d e - m a r k in t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t may have a " t r i g g e r " effect o n a reader's m i n d , s t i r r i n g u n c o n s c i o u s m e m o r i e s of c h i l d h o o d . If t h e s e m e m o r i e s are p l e a s a n t , t h e p l e a s u r e m a y be a s s o c i a t e d ( u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) w i t h the product and brand name.

36


h a p p e n to t h e i r m i n d s t h a t t h e y d o n o t d e c i d e

I n t h i s t y p e o f c a s e t h e r e is g e n u i n e , if u n r e -

and i n t e n d . B u t o n e m u s t l e a r n to d i s c r i m i n a t e

alized, r e c o l l e c t i o n . M u c h t h e s a m e sort of t h i n g

carefully b e t w e e n i n t e n t i o n a l a n d u n i n t e n t i o n a l

may happen

c o n t e n t s of t h e m i n d . T h e f o r m e r a r e d e r i v e d

p e a s a n t t u n e o r p o p u l a r song in c h i l d h o o d a n d

from t h e e g o p e r s o n a l i t y ; t h e l a t t e r ,

f i n d s it c r o p p i n g

however,

to a musician w h o has h e a r d u p as t h e t h e m e of a

a

sym-

arise from a s o u r c e t h a t is n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e

p h o n i c m o v e m e n t t h a t h e is c o m p o s i n g i n a d u l t

ego, b u t is its " o t h e r s i d e . " I t is t h i s " o t h e r s i d e "

life. A n i d e a o r a n i m a g e h a s m o v e d b a c k f r o m

that w o u l d h a v e m a d e t h e s e c r e t a r y f o r g e t t h e

the unconscious into the conscious mind.

invitations.

What

I h a v e so f a r s a i d a b o u t t h e

uncon-

There are m a n y reasons w h y w e forget things

s c i o u s is n o m o r e t h a n a c u r s o r y s k e t c h o f t h e

t h a t w e h a v e n o t i c e d o r e x p e r i e n c e d ; a n d there-

n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g of this c o m p l e x p a r t of

are j u s t as m a n y w a y s i n w h i c h t h e y m a y

t h e h u m a n p s y c h e . B u t it s h o u l d h a v e i n d i c a t e d

be

recalled to m i n d . A n i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e is t h a t

the k i n d of s u b l i m i n a l m a t e r i a l from w h i c h the

of c r y p t o m n e s i a , o r " c o n c e a l e d

recollection."

symbols of o u r d r e a m s m a y be s p o n t a n e o u s l y

An a u t h o r m a y b e w r i t i n g s t e a d i l y t o a p r e c o n -

p r o d u c e d . T h i s s u b l i m i n a l m a t e r i a l c a n consist

ceived p l a n , w o r k i n g o u t a n a r g u m e n t o r d e -

o f all u r g e s , i m p u l s e s , a n d i n t e n t i o n s : a l l p e r -

veloping the line of a story, w h e n h e s u d d e n l y

c e p t i o n s a n d i n t u i t i o n s ; all r a t i o n a l o r i r r a t i o n a l

r u n s off a t a t a n g e n t . P e r h a p s a f r e s h i d e a h a s

thoughts, conclusions, inductions, deductions,

occurred to h i m , o r a different

a n d p r e m i s e s ; a n d all v a r i e t i e s of feeling. A n y

whole n e w

sub-plot.

If y o u

image, or

ask

him

a

what

prompted the digression, h e will n o t b e a b l e to tell y o u . H e m a y n o t e v e n h a v e n o t i c e d

the

change, t h o u g h he has n o w p r o d u c e d

material

t h a t is e n t i r e l y fresh a n d a p p a r e n t l y

unknown

o r a l l o f t h e s e ca n t a k e t h e f o r m #

of p a r t i a l ,

temporary, or constant unconsciousness. Such scious

material

has mostly

b e c a u s e — in

a

become

manner

uncon-

of s p e a k i n g —

t h e r e is n o r o o m for it i n t h e c o n s c i o u s

mind.

to h i m b e f o r e . Y e t it c a n s o m e t i m e s b e s h o w n

S o m e of o n e ' s t h o u g h t s

convincingly t h a t w h a t h e h a s w r i t t e n b e a r s a

e n e r g y a n d b e c o m e s u b l i m i n a l ( t h a t is t o s a y ,

lose t h e i r

emotional

striking s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e w o r k o f a n o t h e r a u t h o r

t h e y n o l o n g e r r e c e i v e so m u c h o f o u r c o n s c i o u s

—a w o r k t h a t h e b e l i e v e s h e h a s n e v e r s e e n .

a t t e n t i o n ) b e c a u s e they h a v e c o m e to seem u n -

I myself f o u n d a f a s c i n a t i n g e x a m p l e o f t h i s in N i e t z s c h e ' s

book

Thus

Spake

£arathustra,

where the a u t h o r r e p r o d u c e s a l m o s t w o r d

for

i n t e r e s t i n g o r i r r e l e v a n t , o r b e c a u s e t h e r e is s o m e r e a s o n w h y w e w i s h t o p u s h t h e m o u t of sight.

word a n i n c i d e n t r e p o r t e d i n a s h i p ' s l o g for

I t is, i n f a c t , n o r m a l a n d n e c e s s a r y for u s t o

the y e a r 1686. By s h e e r c h a n c e I h a d r e a d t h i s

" f o r g e t " in this fashion, in o r d e r to m a k e r o o m

seaman's y a r n in a b o o k p u b l i s h e d a b o u t

1835

i n o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s for n e w i m p r e s s i o n s a n d

(half a c e n t u r y b e f o r e N i e t z s c h e w r o t e ) ;

and

when I f o u n d t h e s i m i l a r p a s s a g e i n Thus ^arathuslra,

Spake

I w a s s t r u c k b y its p e c w l i a r s t y l e ,

which w a s d i f f e r e n t

from

Nietzsche's

usual

language. I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t N i e t z s c h e m u s t also h a v e s e e n t h e o l d b o o k , t h o u g h h e

made

no r e f e r e n c e t o it. I w r o t e t o h i s s i s t e r , w h o w a s still alive, a n d s h e c o n f i r m e d t h a t s h e a n d h e r brother had

in f a c t

read

the book

together

when h e w a s 11 y e a r s o l d . I t h i n k , f r o m

the

i d e a s . If this d i d n o t h a p p e n , e v e r y t h i n g

we

experienced would remain above the threshold of consciousness a n d o u r m i n d s w o u l d

become

impossibly cluttered. This p h e n o m e n o n

is so

widely recognized today that most people who know anything

about

psychology

t a k e it for

granted. But just

as c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s

can

vanish

into the unconscious, new contents, which have never

yet b e e n

conscious, can

arise

from

it.

context, it is i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t N i e t z s c h e h a d

O n e m a y h a v e a n i n k l i n g , for i n s t a n c e ,

any i d e a t h a t h e w a s p l a g i a r i z i n g t h i s s t o r y . I

s o m e t h i n g is o n t h e p o i n t o f b r e a k i n g i n t o c o n -

believe t h a t fifty y e a r s l a t e r it h a d u n e x p e c t e d l y

s c i o u s n e s s — t h a t " s o m e t h i n g is i n t h e a i r , " o r

slipped i n t o focus i n h i s c o n s c i o u s m i n d .

that one "smells a rat." T h e discovery that the

that

37


u n c o n s c i o u s is n o m e r e d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e p a s t ,

mathematician

b u t is a l s o full o f g e r m s o f f u t u r e p s y c h i c s i t u a -

K c k u l c o w e d i m p o r t a n t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s (as

tions

they themselves a d m i t i to s u d d e n pictorial " r e -

and

ideas,

led

me

to

my

own

new

Poincarc

and

the

chemist

a p p r o a c h t o p s y c h o l o g y . A g r e a t d e a l ol c o n t r o -

v e l a t i o n s " from the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e so-called

versial discussion h a s arisen a r o u n d this p o i n t .

"mystical" cxpcrienceofthc French philosopher

B u t it is a fact t h a t , in a d d i t i o n t o

Descartes involved a similar sudden

memories

in w h i c h

new t h o u g h t s a n d creative ideas can also pre-

sciences."

sent t h e m s e l v e s from the u n c o n s c i o u s

S t e v e n s o n h a d s p e n t y e a r s l o o k i n g for a s t o r y

thoughts

h e s a w in a flash

revelation

from a l o n g - d i s t a n t c o n s c i o u s past, c o m p l e t e l y

The

British

t h e " o r d e r o f all

author

Robert

Louis

a n d ideas that have never been conscious before.

t h a t w o u l d lit his " s t r o n g s e n s e o f m a n ' s d o u b l e

They

being," when

grow

up

from

the dark

d e p t h s of

m i n d like a l o t u s a n d f o r m a m o s t

the

t h e p l o t of Dr.

Jfkyll

and

Mr.

important

Hyde w a s s u d d e n l y r e v e a l e d to h i m in a d r e a m .

W e find t h i s in e v e r y d a y life, w h e r e d i l e m m a s

m a t e r i a l arises from the u n c o n s c i o u s , a n d I shall

are sometimes solved by the most surprising new

e x a m i n e t h e f o r m in w h i c h it is e x p r e s s e d . At

p a r t ol t h e s u b l i m i n a l p s y c h e .

I . a t e r I s h a l l d e s c r i b e in m o r e d e t a i l h o w s u c h

and

t h e m o m e n t I s i m p l y w a n t to p o i n t o u t t h a t the

e v e n s c i e n t i s t s o w e s o m e o f t h e i r best i d e a s t o

c a p a c i t y of t h e h u m a n p s y c h e to p r o d u c e such

propositions; m a n y artists, philosophers, inspirations

from

the

new

material

The a b i l i t y to t e a c h a rich

vein

one

is d e a l i n g

that

unconscious.

appear

suddenly

o f s u c h m a t e r i a l a n d to t r a n s l a t e it

effectively

is p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t with

dream

h a v e f o u n d a g a i n a n d a g a i n in my

i n t o p h i l o s o p h y , l i t e r a t u r e , m u s i c , o r scientific

work

c o n t a i n c a n n o t p o s s i b l y b e e x p l a i n e d solely in

is

find

c l e a r p r o o f ol t h i s fact

ideas that

t e r m s of m e m o r y . T h e y e x p r e s s n e w

commonly called genius. We can

the images a n d

for I

professional

discovery

is o n e of t h e h a l l m a r k s o f w h a t

that

when

symbolism,

in

the

h i s t o r y ol s c i e n c e itself, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e F r e n c h

lint

h a v e n e v e r vet r e a c h e d

dreams thoughts

the threshold

ol

consciousness.

The 19th century German chemist Kekule, researching into the m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of b e n z e n e , d r e a m e d of a s n a k e w i t h its tail in its m o u t h ( T h i s is an a g e - o l d s y m b o l : left, a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f it f r o m a t h i r d - c e n t u r y B . C . G r e e k m a n u s c r i p t . ) He i n t e r p r e t e d t h e d r e a m to m e a n that t h e s t r u c t u r e w a s a closed carbon ring as o n t h e p a g e , far left, f r o m his Textbook of Organic Chemistry (1861)

R i g h t , an o r d i n a r y E u r o p e a n h i g h w a y w i t h a familiar sign that means "look o u t f o r a n i m a l s c r o s s i n g . " But the motorists (their s h a d o w s a p p e a r In t h e f o r e g r o u n d as t h e y leave t h e i r c a r ) see an e l e p h a n t , a rhinoceros, even a dinosaur. This p a i n t i n g of a d r e a m ( b y t h e m o d e r n S w i s s artist Erhard J a c o b y ) accurately depicts the apparently i l l o g i c a l , i n c o h e r e n t n a t u r e of dream imagery.

|8


The function of dreams

I have gone into s o m e detail a b o u t the origins of o u r d r e a m

life, b e c a u s e it is t h e soil

which most s y m b o l s o r i g i n a l l y g r o w .

from

c a n i m p o s e o n o u r t h o u g h t s in w a k i n g life. Y e t anyone

w h o s t o p s for a m o m e n t

to recall

a

Unfor-

d r e a m w i l l b e a w a r e o f t h i s c o n t r a s t , w h i c h is

tunately, d r e a m s a r e difficult to u n d e r s t a n d . As

in f a c t o n e o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s w h y t h e o r d i n a r y

I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , a d r e a m is q u i t e

person

unlike a s t o r y t o l d b y t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d .

In

T h e y d o n o t m a k e s e n s e in t e r m s o f h i s n o r m a l

finds

dreams

so h a r d

to

understand.

e v e r y d a y life o n e t h i n k s o u t w h a t o n e w a n t s t o

w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e h e is i n c l i n e d

say, selects t h e m o s t t e l l i n g w a y o f s a y i n g it, a n d

e i t h e r to d i s r e g a r d t h e m or to confess t h a t t h e y

tries to m a k e o n e ' s r e m a r k s l o g i c a l l y c o h e r e n t .

baffle h i m .

For i n s t a n c e , a n e d u c a t e d p e r s o n will s e e k t o

P e r h a p s it m a y b e e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d

this

avoid a m i x e d m e t a p h o r b e c a u s e it m a y g i v e a

p o i n t if w e first r e a l i z e t h e fact t h a t t h e i d e a s

m u d d l e d i m p r e s s i o n of his p o i n t . B u t

w i t h w h i c h w e d e a l in o u r a p p a r e n t l y

dreams

disci-

have a different t e x t u r e . I m a g e s t h a t s e e m c o n -

p l i n e d w a k i n g life a r e b y n o m e a n s a s p r e c i s e

tradictory

as w e like to b e l i e v e . O n

and

ridiculous

crowd

in

on

the

the contrary,

their

d r e a m e r , t h e n o r m a l s e n s e o f t i m e is l o s t , a n d

m e a n i n g (and their emotional significance

commonplace things can assume a

us) b e c o m e s m o r e i m p r e c i s e t h e m o r e

fascinating

or t h r e a t e n i n g a s p e c t . It m a y s e e m s t r a n g e t h a t

for

closely

w e e x a m i n e t h e m . T h e r e a s o n for t h i s is t h a t the

mind s h o u l d o r d e r its m a t e r i a l so

unconscious differently

from t h e s e e m i n g l y d i s c i p l i n e d p a t t e r n t h a t w e

anything we have heard or experienced become subliminal

can

t h a t is t o s a y , c a n p a s s i n t o

t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d e v e n w h a t w e r e t a i n in

39


o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d a n d c a n r e p r o d u c e a t will

p s y c h i c e v e n t a n d as s u c h p a r t l y

has acquired

that

T h e v e r y n u m b e r s y o u u s e in c o u n t i n g a r e m o r e

w i l l c o l o r t h e i d e a e a c h t i m e it is r e c a l l e d . O u r

t h a n you t a k e t h e m to be. T h e y a r e at t h e s a m e

c o n s c i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s , in f a c t , q u i c k l y

assume

time

an

that

element

an

unconscious

of u n c o n s c i o u s

undertone

meaning

is

mythological

elements

(for

unknowable.

the

Pytha-

goreans, they were even divine); but you

are

p s y c h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t for u s , t h o u g h w e a r e n o t

c e r t a i n l y u n a w a r e of this w h e n y o u use n u m b e r s

consciously a w a r e of the existence of this s u b -

for a p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e .

l i m i n a l m e a n i n g o r o f t h e w a y in w h i c h it b o t h e x t e n d s a n d confuses the c o n v e n t i o n a l m e a n i n g .

Every

concept

in o u r

conscious

mind,

s h o r t , h a s its o w n p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s .

in

While

differ

such associations m a y v a r y in intensity (accord-

f r o m o n e p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r . E a c h of us r e c e i v e s

i n g to t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c o n c e p t to

a n y a b s t r a c t o r g e n e r a l n o t i o n in t h e c o n t e x t o f

o u r w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y , or a c c o r d i n g to t h e o t h e r

O f course, such

psychic

undertones

the individual m i n d , a n d we therefore stand

and

apply

it in o u r

under-

i d e a s a n d e v e n c o m p l e x e s t o w h i c h it is a s s o -

ways.

c i a t e d in o u r u n c o n s c i o u s ) , t h e y a r e c a p a b l e of

individual

W h e n , in c o n v e r s a t i o n , I u s e a n y s u c h t e r m s a s "'state," " m o n e y , "

"health,"

or "society,"

assume that m y listeners u n d e r s t a n d

I

more or

less t h e s a m e t h i n g a s I d o . B u t t h e p h r a s e " m o r e or less" m a k e s m y

point.

Each

word

means

s o m e t h i n g slightly different to e a c h p e r s o n , even a m o n g those w h o share the s a m e cultural backg r o u n d . T h e r e a s o n for t h i s v a r i a t i o n is t h a t a g e n e r a l n o t i o n is r e c e i v e d i n t o a n

individual

c o n t e x t a n d is t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t o o d a n d a p p l i e d in a slightly i n d i v i d u a l w a y . A n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f m e a n i n g is n a t u r a l l y g r e a t e s t w h e n

people

h a v e widely different social, political, religious or psychological experiences. As l o n g as c o n c e p t s a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h

mere

w o r d s , t h e v a r i a t i o n is a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e a n d plays n o p r a c t i c a l role. But w h e n a n e x a c t defin i t i o n o r a c a r e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n is n e e d e d , o n e can

occasionally

discover

the

most

v a r i a t i o n s , n o t o n l y in t h e p u r e l y

amazing

intellectual

u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e r m , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y in its e m o t i o n a l t o n e a n d its a p p l i c a t i o n . A s a r u l e , these variations are subliminal a n d never realized.

therefore

v

O n e m a y t e n d t o d i s m i s s s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s as r e d u n d a n t o r e x p e n d a b l e n u a n c e s of m e a n i n g t h a t h a v e little r e l e v a n c e to e v e r y d a y n e e d s . But t h e fact t h a t t h e y e x i s t s h o w s t h a t e v e n t h e m o s t matter-of-fact c o n t e n t s of consciousness h a v e a p e n u m b r a of u n c e r t a i n t y a r o u n d t h e m . the

most

carefully

defined

Even

philosophical

or

m a t h e m a t i c a l concept, which we are sure does n o t c o n t a i n m o r e t h a n w e h a v e p u t i n t o it, is nevertheless 4"

more

than

we

assume.

It

is

a


Le temps n'a p o i n t d e r i v e . 1 9 3 0 - 3 9 . O i l o n c a n v a s , 3 9 | " x 3 2 " . Collection.

On these pages, f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s of the irrational, f a n t a s t i c n a t u r e of dreams. A b o v e left, o w l s a n d bats s w a r m over a d r e a m i n g m a n in an e t c h i n g by the 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y Spanish artist G o y a .

The Museum

ol Modem

D r a g o n s or s i m i l a r m o n s t e r s are c o m m o n d r e a m i m a g e s Left, a d r a g o n , p u r s u e s a d r e a m e r in a w o o d c u t f r o m The Dream of Poliphilo, a fantasy written by a 1 5th-century Italian m o n k , F r a n c e s c o C o l o n n a .

Art New

York

A b o v e , a p a i n t i n g e n t i t l e d Time is a River without Banks b y t h e m o d e r n artist M a r c C h a g a l l . T h e u n e x p e c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e s e i m a g e s — f i s h , v i o l i n , c l o c k , l o v e r s — h a s all t h e s t r a n g e n e s s of a d r e a m .

,

4'


T h e m y t h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t of o r d i n a r y n u m b e r s a p p e a r s in M a y a n reliefs ( t o p of p a g e , c. A D 7 3 0 ) , w h i c h p e r s o n i f y n u m e r i c a l d i v i s i o n s of t i m e as g o d s T h e p y r a m i d of d o t s , a b o v e , represents t h e tetraktys

of

Greek P y t h a g o r e a n p h i l o s o p h y ( s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C.). It i n c l u d e s f o u r n u m b e r s — 1 , 2. 3, 4 — m a k i n g a t o t a l of 1 0 Both four and 10 were w o r s h i p e d as d i v i n i t i e s by the P y t h a g o r e a n s .

I-


c h a n g i n g t h e " n o r m a l " c h a r a c t e r ol t h a t c o n -

c o u l d n o t sec t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s fact

cept.

a n d h i s a t t e m p t in t h e d r e a m t o j u m p o n m e .

It

different

may

even

as it d r i f t s

become

something

quite

below

t h e level of

con-

sciousness.

In m y professional happened

These s u b l i m i n a l a s p e c t s of e v e r y t h i n g that

that

life, h o w e v e r , it h a s

someone

what I have said

has

often

misrepresented

so often t h a t I h a v e s c a r c e l y

h a p p e n s t o us m a y s e e m t o p l a y v e r y l i t t l e p a r t

b o t h e r e d to w o n d e r w h e t h e r this k i n d of mis-

in o u r d a i l y l i v e s . B u t in d r e a m a n a l y s i s , w h e r e

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n m a k e s m e a n g r y . N o w t h e r e is a

the p s y c h o l o g i s t is d e a l i n g w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s of

certain

the u n c o n s c i o u s , t h e y a r c v e r y r e l e v a n t , for t h e y

over one's e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s : a n d this. I soon

value

in k e e p i n g a c o n s c i o u s

arc the a l m o s t i n v i s i b l e roots of o u r c o n s c i o u s

r e a l i z e d , w a s t h e p o i n t t h e d r e a m h a d m a d e . It

t h o u g h t s . T h a i is w h y c o m m o n p l a c e o b j e c t s o r

had taken an Austrian colloquialism and trans-

ideas c a n a s s u m e s u c h p o w e r f u l p s y c h i c s i g n i f i -

lated

c a n c e in a d r e a m t h a t w e m a y a w a k e s e r i o u s l y

common

d i s t u r b e d , in s p i t e o f h a v i n g d r e a m e d o f n o t h i n g

kannst

worse t h a n a l o c k e d r o o m o r a m i s s e d

climb on my back), which m e a n s "I don't care

The images produced

train.

in d r e a m s a r e

much

it i n t o a p i c t o r i a l

control

enough

mir

auj

in

den

image. This

ordinary Bucket

phrase,

speech,

steigen

is

(You

w h a t you say a b o u t m e . " A n A m e r i c a n equiva-

more p i c t u r e s q u e a n d vivid t h a n t h e c o n c e p t s

lent, w h i c h

and experiences t h a t a r c their w a k i n g c o u n t e r -

d r e a m , w o u l d b e " G o j u m p in t h e l a k e . "

p a r t s . O n e ol t h e r e a s o n s for t h i s is t h a t , in a

Ihi can

could

easily a p p e a r

in a

similar

O n e c o u l d say t h a t this d r e a m p i c t u r e was

dream, such concepts c a n express their u n c o n -

symbolic,

scious m e a n i n g . I n o u r c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t s , w e

directly but expressed the point indirectly

l>v

restrain o u r s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e limits of r a t i o n a l

m e a n s of a m e t a p h o r t h a t I c o u l d not at

first

statements

s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a r e m u c h less c o l o r -

ful b e c a u s e w e h a v e s t r i p p e d t h e m of m o s t of their p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . I r e c a l l o n e d r e a m ol i m difficult

to i n t e r p r e t .

for

it

did

not

state

the

u n d e r s t a n d . W h e n this h a p p e n s

situation

as it so o f t e n

d o e s i it is n o t d e l i b e r a t e " d i s g u i s e " by a d r e a m ; it s i m p l v r e f l e c t s t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s in o u r

own that

I found

In this d r e a m , a c e r t a i n

under-

standing ofcmotionally charged pictorial langua g e . F o r in o u r d a i l y

experience

m a n w a s t r y i n g t o get b e h i n d m e a n d j u m p o n

state t h i n g s as a c c u r a t e l y

m\ b a c k . I k n e w

n o t h i n g of this m a n

except

have

that I w a s a w a r e t h a t h e h a d s o m e h o w

picked

fantasy

learned both

in

discard our

the

language

I

that

in

of our

thoughts

But

quality

and

we

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ol t h e p r i m i t i v e m i n d . M o s t o f us

meaning.

a

trimmings

u p a r e m a r k I h a d m a d e a n d h a d t w i s t e d it i n t o o f mv

losing

as possible, a n d

to

a grotesque

travesty

thus

to

we need

is still

Not o n l y n u m b e r s b u t s u c h f a m i l i a r objects as s t o n e s a n d trees c a n have s y m b o l i c i m p o r t a n c e f o r m a n y people Left, r o u g h s t o n e s p l a c e d on the roadside by travelers in India represent t h e linyam, t h e Hindu phallic s y m b o l of c r e a t i v i t y . Right, a tree in W e s t A f r i c a t h a t the t r i b e s m e n call a "|u j u " or spirit tree, a n d t o w h i c h t h e y ascribe m a g i c a l p o w e r .

43


14


have c o n s i g n e d t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s all t h e fan-

a s s u m e d t h a t n o o n e w h o is i n a s o u n d s t a t e o f

tastic p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t e v e r y o b j e c t o r

m i n d c o u l d suffer from s u c h t h i n g s , a n d

idea possesses. T h e p r i m i t i v e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

anyone

is still a w a r e o f t h e s e p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s ;

p a t h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d . A t h e o l o g i a n o n c e told

he

who

actually

sees a

vision

that

must

be

endows a n i m a l s , plants, or stones w i t h p o w e r s

m e t h a t Ezekiel's visions w e r e n o t h i n g

t h a t w e find s t r a n g e a n d

than morbid symptoms, and that, when Moses

unacceptable.

A n A f r i c a n j u n g l e d w e l l e r , for i n s t a n c e , s e e s

a n d o t h e r p r o p h e t s h e a r d " v o i c e s " s p e a k i n g to

a n o c t u r n a l c r e a t u r e b y d a y l i g h t a n d k n o w s it

t h e m , they w e r e suffering from

to b e a m e d i c i n e

man

who

has

more

hallucinations.

temporarily

Y o u c a n i m a g i n e t h e p a n i c h e felt w h e n s o m e -

t a k e n its s h a p e . O r h e m a y r e g a r d it a s t h e b u s h

t h i n g of this k i n d " s p o n t a n e o u s l y " h a p p e n e d to

soul o r a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t o f o n e o f h i s t r i b e .

h i m . W e a r e so a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y

A

tree m a y p l a y a v i t a l p a r t i n t h e life o f a p r i m i -

rational

tive, a p p a r e n t l y p o s s e s s i n g for h i m its o w n s o u l

scarcely i m a g i n e a n y t h i n g h a p p e n i n g that can-

a n d v o i c e , a n d t h e m a n c o n c e r n e d w i l l feel t h a t

not be e x p l a i n e d by c o m m o n sense. T h e p r i m i -

he s h a r e s its f a t e . T h e r e a r e s o m e I n d i a n s i n

tive m a n confronted

South A m e r i c a w h o will assure you t h a t

w o u l d n o t d o u b t his s a n i t y ; h e w o u l d t h i n k of

they

are R e d A r a r a p a r r o t s , t h o u g h t h e y a r e well

nature

of o u r

world

that

we

b y a s h o c k of this

can

kind

fetishes, spirits, or g o d s .

aware that they lack feathers, wings, a n d beaks.

Y e t t h e e m o t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t us a r e j u s t

the

For in t h e p r i m i t i v e ' s w o r l d t h i n g s d o n o t h a v e

s a m e . I n fact, t h e t e r r o r s t h a t s t e m from

our

the s a m e

e l a b o r a t e c i v i l i z a t i o n m a y b e far m o r e t h r e a t e n -

sharp

boundaries

they

do

in

our

" r a t i o n a l " societies.

ing t h a n those that primitive people attribute

W h a t psychologists call p s y c h i c i d e n t i t y , or

to d e m o n s . T h e a t t i t u d e of m o d e r n sometimes

man

o u r w o r l d of t h i n g s . B u t it is e x a c t l y t h i s h a l o

p a t i e n t in m y clinic w h o w a s himself a d o c t o r .

me

psychotic

One

and fantastic a s p e c t to t h e p r i m i t i v e ' s

replied t h a t he h a d h a d a wonderful night dis-

W e h a v e lost it t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t w e d o n o t

I asked him

of a

of u n c o n s c i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t g i v e s a c o l o r f u l world.

morning

reminds

civilized

" m y s t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " h a s b e e n s t r i p p e d oir

h o w he was.

infecting t h e w h o l e of h e a v e n w i t h

He

mercuric

us

c h l o r i d e , b u t t h a t in t h e c o u r s e of this t h o r o u g h -

such t h i n g s a r e k e p t b e l o w t h e t h r e s h o l d ; w h e n

g o i n g s a n i t a r y p r o c e s s h e h a d f o u n d n o t r a c e of

they o c c a s i o n a l l y r e a p p e a r , w e e v e n i n s i s t t h a t

God.

s o m e t h i n g is w r o n g .

w o r s e . I n s t e a d of G o d or t h e " f e a r of G o d , "

r e c o g n i z e it w h e n w e m e e t it a g a i n . W i t h

I have more t h a n once been consulted

by

well-educated a n d intelligent people w h o h a v e

Here

we

see a

neurosis or

something

t h e r e is a n a n x i e t y n e u r o s i s o r s o m e k i n d

had p e c u l i a r d r e a m s , f a n t a s i e s , o r e v e n v i s i o n s ,

b u t its o b j e c t h a s c h a n g e d b o t h its n a m e

which h a v e s h o c k e d t h e m d e e p l y . T h e y

n a t u r e for t h e w o r s e .

have

of

phobia. T h e emotion has r e m a i n e d the same, and

Left, a w i t c h d o c t o r f r o m Cameroon w e a r i n g a l i o n m a s k . He isn't p r e t e n d i n g to b e a l i o n ; he is c o n v i n c e d t h a t he is a l i o n . Like the N y a n g a t r i b e s m a n a n d his bird mask (p. 2 5 ) , he shares a "psychic identity"' w i t h t h e a n i m a l — an identity that exists in t h e r e a l m of myth and s y m b o l i s m . M o d e r n "rational" m a n has tried t o c u t himself off f r o m s u c h p s y c h i c associations ( w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s survive in the u n c o n s c i o u s ) ; t o him, a spade is a s p a d e a n d a l i o n is only w h a t the d i c t i o n a r y ( r i g h t ) says it is.

V

45


4

6


Left, St. Paul s t r u c k d o w n by t h e impact of his v i s i o n of Christ ( i n a painting by the 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y Italian artist C a r a v a g g i o ) .

A b o v e , Javanese farmers sacrifice a c o c k t o p r o t e c t their f i e l d s f r o m spirits. S u c h b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s are f u n d a m e n t a l in p r i m i t i v e life

I recall a professor of p h i l o s o p h y w h o o n c e

A b o v e , in a m o d e r n s c u l p t u r e by B r i t a i n ' s J a c o b E p s t e i n , m a n is seen as a m e c h a n i z e d m o n s t e r — p e r h a p s an i m a g e of t o d a y ' s "evil s p i r i t s . "

a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s y m b o l - m a k i n g

c o n s u l t e d m e a b o u t h i s c a n c e r p h o b i a . H e suf-

pensities of m a n , a n d of t h e p a r t t h a t

fered from a c o m p u l s i v e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h e h a d

play

a malignant

m a n y dreams present images and

tumor, although

kind w a s e v e r f o u n d

n o t h i n g of t h e

in d o z e n s o f X - r a y

pic-

in e x p r e s s i n g

them.

pro-

dreams

F o r o n e finds

that

associations

t h a t a r c a n a l o g o u s to p r i m i t i v e i d e a s , m y t h s ,

tures. " O h . I k n o w t h e r e is n o t h i n g . ' " h e w o u l d

and

say. " b u t t h e r e might

" a r c h a i c r e m n a n t s " by F r e u d ; the phrase sug-

be s o m e t h i n g . " W h a t was

it that p r o d u c e d t h i s i d e a ? It o b v i o u s l v

tame

rites. T h e s e

dream

images

were

called

g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e p s y c h i c e l e m e n t s s u r v i v i n g in

from a fear t h a t w a s n o t i n s t i l l e d b y c o n s c i o u s

the h u m a n m i n d from ages long a g o . I b i s point

deliberation.

suddenly

o f v i e w is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h o s e w h o r e g a r d t h e

o v e r c a m e h i m . a n d it h a d a p o w e r o f its o w n

u n c o n s c i o u s a s a m e r e a p p e n d i x of c o n s c i o u s -

The

morbid

though)

ness (or, m o r e p i c t u r e s q u e l y , as a trash c a n that

that he c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l . I I w a s far m o r e d i l l i c u l t

lor this

educated

man to m a k e a n a d m i s s i o n o f t h i s k i n d t h a n it

c o l l e c t s all t h e r e f u s e o f t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d I . F u r t h e r investigation suggested to m e

that

would h a v e b e e n l o r a p r i m i t i v e t o s a y t h a t h e

t h i s a t t i t u d e is u n t e n a b l e a n d s h o u l d

was p l a g u e d by a g h o s t . T h e m a l i g n

c a r d e d . I f o u n d t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d i m a g e s of

influence

be dis-

ol evil s p i r i t s is at least a n a d m i s s i b l c h y p o t h c s i s

this kind a r c a n

integral

in a p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e , b u t il is a s h a t t e r i n g e x -

scious,

be

p e r i e n c e lor a c i v i l i z e d p e r s o n to a d m i t t h a i h i s

w h e t h e r t h e d r e a m e r is e d u c a t e d o r i l l i t e r a t e ,

troubles a n n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a f o o l i s h p r a n k

i n t e l l i g e n t o r s t u p i d . T h e y a r e n o t in a n y s e n s e

ol the i m a g i n a t i o n . T h e p r i m i t i v e p h e n o m e n o n

lifeless o r m e a n i n g l e s s " r e m n a n t s . " T h e y still

ol obsession h a s n o t v a n i s h e d : il is t h e s a m e a s

f u n c t i o n , a n d they a r e especially

ever, li is only

and

D r . H e n d e r s o n s h o w s in a l a t e r c h a p t e r o f t h i s

interpreted

in a d i f f e r e n t

more o b n o x i o u s w a v .

and

can

part

of t h e

observed

uncon-

everywhere

valuable

as

b o o k I j u s t b e c a u s e of t h e i r " h i s t o r i c a l " n a t u r e .

I have m a d e several c o m p a r i s o n s of this kind

T h e y f o r m a b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e w a y s in w h i c h

between m o d e r n a n d p r i m i t i v e m a n . S u c h c o m -

we consciously express our thoughts a n d a more

p a r i s o n s , as I s h a l l s h o w l a t e r , a r e e s s e n t i a l t o

p r i m i t i v e , m o r e colorful a n d p i c t o r i a l form of

17


e x p r e s s i o n . It is t h i s f o r m , a s w e l l , t h a t a p p e a l s

f r i e n d s a r e h e r e , a n d t h e y a r e w a i t i n g for y o u . "

directly to feeling a n d e m o t i o n . T h e s e " h i s t o r i -

T h e hostess t h e n led h e r to t h e d o o r a n d o p e n e d

cal"

associations

are

the

link

between

the

rational w o r l d of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t h e w o r l d

it, a n d t h e d r e a m e r s t e p p e d t h r o u g h — i n t o a cowshed!

of instinct".

T h i s d r e a m l a n g u a g e w a s s i m p l e e n o u g h to

I have already discussed the interesting con-

be

understood

even

by

a

blockhead.

The

trast b e t w e e n t h e " c o n t r o l l e d " t h o u g h t s w e h a v e

w o m a n w o u l d n o t a t first a d m i t t h e p o i n t o f a

in w a k i n g life a n d t h e w e a l t h o f i m a g e r y p r o -

d r e a m t h a t s t r u c k so d i r e c t l y a t h e r s e l f - i m p o r t -

d u c e d in d r e a m s . N o w

a n c e ; b u t its m e s s a g e n e v e r t h e l e s s w e n t h o m e ,

reason

for

this

y o u c a n see

difference:

another

Because,

our

a n d a f t e r a t i m e s h e h a d t o a c c e p t it b e c a u s e

ideas

she c o u l d not h e l p seeing t h e self-inflicted joke.

really

S u c h m e s s a g e s from t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a r e of

in

civilized life, w c h a v e s t r i p p e d so m a n y of t h e i r e m o t i o n a l

energy,

we d o not

respond t o t h e m a n y m o r e . W e u s e s u c h i d e a s

greater i m p o r t a n c e than most people

in o u r s p e e c h , a n d w e s h o w a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e -

I n o u r c o n s c i o u s life, w e a r e e x p o s e d t o all k i n d s

action w h e n o t h e r s u s e t h e m , b u t t h e y d o n o t

of i n f l u e n c e s . O t h e r p e o p l e s t i m u l a t e o r d e p r e s s

realize.

make a very d e e p i m p r e s s i o n o n us. S o m e t h i n g

u s , e v e n t s a t t h e office o r i n o u r s o c i a l life d i s -

more is n e e d e d t o b r i n g c e r t a i n t h i n g s h o m e t o

t r a c t us. S u c h t h i n g s s e d u c e us i n t o

us effectively e n o u g h t o m a k e u s c h a n g e

w a y s t h a t a r e u n s u i t a b l e to o u r

attitude a n d

b e h a v i o r . T h i s is w h a t

l a n g u a g e " d o e s ; its s y m b o l i s m

our

"dream

h a s so

much

following

individuality.

W h e t h e r o r n o t w e a r e a w a r e o f t h e effect t h e y h a v e o n o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , it is d i s t u r b e d

by

psychic e n e r g y t h a t w e a r e f o r c e d t o p a y a t t e n -

a n d e x p o s e d to t h e m a l m o s t w i t h o u t

tion to it.

T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e w i t h a p e r s o n w h o s e

T h e r e w a s , for i n s t a n c e , a l a d y w h o w a s w e l l

defense.

e x t r a v e r t e d a t t i t u d e of m i n d lays all t h e e m -

known for h e r s t u p i d p r e j u d i c e s a n d h e r s t u b -

phasis u p o n external objects, or w h o

born r e s i s t a n c e

f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y a n d d o u b t c o n c e r n i n g his

to r e a s o n e d

could h a v e a r g u e d

with

argument.

h e r all n i g h t

One to

no

effect; s h e w o u l d h a v e t a k e n n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t notice. H e r d r e a m s , h o w e v e r , t o o k a

different

harbors

own innermost personality. T h e m o r e t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s is i n f l u e n c e d b y prejudices,

errors,

fantasies,

and

infantile

line of a p p r o a c h . O n e n i g h t , s h e d r e a m e d s h e

w i s h e s , t h e m o r e t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g g a p will

was a t t e n d i n g a n

w i d e n i nto a n e u r o t i c dissociation a n d lead to

important

social

occasion.

She was g r e e t e d b y t h e h o s t e s s w i t h t h e w o r d s :

a m o r e o r less a r t i f i c i a l life, f a r r e m o v e d

"How

healthy instincts, n a t u r e , a n d truth.

nice t h a t

you

could

come.

All

your

from

Left, t w o further v i s u a l i z a t i o n s of spirits: Top, hellish d e m o n s descend on St. A n t h o n y (a p a i n t i n g by the 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y G e r m a n artist Grunewald). B e l o w , in t h e c e n t e r panel of a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y J a p a n e s e triptych, the g h o s t of a m u r d e r e d man strikes d o w n his killer. Ideological c o n f l i c t b r e e d s m a n y of modern m a n ' s " d e m o n s . " R i g h t , a cartoon by A m e r i c a ' s G a h a n W i l s o n depicts the s h a d o w of t h e f o r m e r Russian leader K h r u s h c h e v as a monstrous d e a t h - m a c h i n e . Far r i g h t , a cartoon from the Russian m a g a z i n e Krokodilshows " c o l o n i a l i s m " as a demonic w o l f b e i n g d r i v e n i n t o the sea by the flags of v a r i o u s independent A f r i c a n n a t i o n s .

49


T h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n o f d r e a m s is t o t r y t o

s h a d o w e d h i s d e a t h in a m o u n t a i n a c c i d e n t . I t

restore o u r psychological b a l a n c e by p r o d u c i n g

w a s in v a i n . Six m o n t h s l a t e r h e " s t e p p e d

d r e a m m a t e r i a l t h a t r e - e s t a b l i s h e s , in a s u b t l e

into space." A m o u n t a i n guide watched

w a y , t h e t o t a l p s y c h i c e q u i l i b r i u m . T h i s is w h a t

a n d a friend letting themselves d o w n on a rope

I call t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y

in a d i f f i c u l t

(or

compensatory)

place. T h e friend

temporary

ideas

d r e a m e r was following him d o w n . S u d d e n l y he

o r t o o h i g h a n o p i n i o n of t h e m s e l v e s , o r w h o

let g o o f t h e r o p e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g u i d e , " a s

m a k e g r a n d i o s e p l a n s o u t of p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r

if h e w e r e j u m p i n g i n t o t h e a i r . " H e fell u p o n

real c a p a c i t i e s , h a v e d r e a m s of flying o r falling.

his f r i e n d , a n d b o t h w e n t d o w n a n d w e r e k i l l e d .

warns

personalities, them

and

at

the same

of t h e d a n g e r s

in

their

time

il

present

c o u r s e . If t h e w a r n i n g s of t h e d r e a m a r e dis-

a

ledge,

and

a

plains w h y people w h o have unrealistic

their

on

found

role of d r e a m s in o u r p s y c h i c m a k e - u p . It e x -

T h e d r e a m c o m p e n s a t e s for t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f

foothold

had

off him

the

A n o t h e r t y p i c a l case w a s t h a t of a l a d y w h o was living a b o v e

herself. S h e w a s

high

m i g h t y i n h e r d a i l y life, b u t s h e h a d

and

shocking

d r e a m s , r e m i n d i n g h e r of all sorts of u n s a v o r y

regarded, real accidents m a y take their place.

things.

When

T h e v i c t i m m a y fall d o w n s t a i r s o r m a y h a v e a

nantly

refused

motor accident.

dreams

then

I discovered to

them,

acknowledge

became

menacing,

she

indig-

them. and

full

The of

I r e m e m b e r t h e c a s e of a m a n w h o w a s i n e x -

r e f e r e n c e s to t h e w a l k s s h e u s e d to t a k e b y h e r -

t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d in a n u m b e r of s h a d y affairs.

self i n t h e w o o d s , w h e r e s h e i n d u l g e d i n s o u l f u l

He developed

fantasies. I saw her d a n g e r , b u t she w o u l d not

an almost

morbid

passion

for

d a n g e r o u s m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g , as a sort of c o m -

listen to m y m a n y w a r n i n g s . S o o n

pensation. H e w a s seeking " t o get a b o v e h i m -

she w a s s a v a g e l y a t t a c k e d in t h e w o o d s b y a

self." I n a d r e a m

himself

s e x u a l p e r v e r t ; b u t for t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f s o m e

mountain

people w h o heard her screams, she would have

one night, he saw

s t e p p i n g off t h e s u m m i t o f a h i g h

i n t o e m p t y s p a c e . W h e n he told m e his d r e a m , I i n s t a n t l y s a w his d a n g e r a n d tried to e m p h a -

afterwards,

b e e n killed. What

her

size t h e w a r n i n g a n d p e r s u a d e h i m t o r e s t r a i n

d r e a m s h a d told m e was t h a t this w o m a n

had

himself. I e v e n told h i m t h a t t h e d r e a m

a s e c r e t l o n g i n g for s u c h a n a d v e n t u r e — j u s t a s

50

fore-

There

was

no

magic

in

this.


Left, t w o i n f l u e n c e s t o w h i c h an individual's c o n s c i o u s n e s s is subjected: A d v e r t i s i n g (a 1 9 6 0 s American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t r e s s i n g "sociability") a n d p o l i t i c a l propaganda (a F r e n c h p o s t e r f o r a 1962 r e f e r e n d u m , u r g i n g a v o t e of " y e s " but plastered w i t h t h e opposition's " n o " ) . T h e s e a n d o t h e r influences m a y c a u s e us t o live in ways u n s u i t e d t o o u r i n d i v i d u a l natures: and the p s y c h i c i m b a l a n c e that can f o l l o w m u s t be c o m p e n s a t e d for by the u n c o n s c i o u s .

The l i g h t h o u s e keeper, r i g h t ( i n a cartoon by A m e r i c a ' s R o l a n d B Wilson), has a p p a r e n t l y b e c o m e a little d i s t u r b e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y by his isolation H i s u n c o n s c i o u s , in its c o m p e n s a t o r y f u n c t i o n , h a s produced a h a l l u c i n a t o r y c o m p a n i o n , to w h o m the keeper c o n f e s s e s ( i n thecartoon c a p t i o n ) : " N o t only that, Bill, but I c a u g h t m y s e l f talking to m y s e l f a g a i n y e s t e r d a y I "

the m o u n t a i n climber unconsciously sought the The Delphic o r a c l e , b e l o w , b e i n g consulted by K i n g A e g e u s o f A t h e n s (from a vase p a i n t i n g ) . " M e s s a g e s " from the u n c o n s c i o u s are o f t e n as cryptic and a m b i g u o u s as w e r e t h e oracle's u t t e r a n c e s .

s a t i s f a c t i o n of

finding

a d e f i n i t e w a y o u t o f his

difficulties. O b v i o u s l y , n e i t h e r of t h e m e x p e c t e d t h e stiff p r i c e i n v o l v e d : S h e h a d s e v e r a l b o n e s b r o k e n , a n d h e p a i d w i t h h i s life. T h u s d r e a m s m a y sometimes a n n o u n c e certain situations long before they actually h a p p e n . T h i s is n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a m i r a c l e o r a f o r m

of

p r e c o g n i t i o n . M a n y crises in o u r lives h a v e a long

unconscious

history.

We

move

toward

t h e m step by step, u n a w a r e of t h e d a n g e r s t h a t a r e a c c u m u l a t i n g . B u t w h a t w e c o n s c i o u s l y fail t o s e e is f r e q u e n t l y

perceived by our

scious,

pass

which

can

the

uncon-

information

on

through dreams. D r e a m s m a y o f t e n w a r n u s in t h i s w a y ; b u t j u s t a s o f t e n , it s e e m s , t h e y d o n o t . T h e r e f o r e , a n y a s s u m p t i o n of a b e n e v o l e n t h a n d r e s t r a i n i n g us i n t i m e is d u b i o u s . O r , t o s t a t e it m o r e p o s i t i v e l y , it s e e m s t h a t a b e n e v o l e n t a g e n c y is sometimes

at work

mysterious h a n d

and

sometimes

not.

The

m a y even point the way

to

p e r d i t i o n ; d r e a m s sometimes prove to be traps, o r a p p e a r to b e so. T h e y s o m e t i m e s b e h a v e like the D e l p h i c oracle t h a t told K i n g Croesus that if h e c r o s s e d t h e H a l y s R i v e r h e w o u l d d e s t r o y a large k i n g d o m . It was only after he h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y d e f e a t e d in b a t t l e after t h e crossing


that he discovered that the k i n g d o m m e a n t by

understanding

t h e o r a c l e w a s his o w n ! One cannot

afford

n o t i c e d o r u n c o m p r e h e n d e d . I n n o r m a l life, t h e

to b e n a i v e in

dealing

o f d r e a m s is o f t e n

considered

superfluous. I c a n illustrate this by m y experi-

w i t h d r e a m s . T h e y o r i g i n a t e i n a s p i r i t t h a t is

e n c e w i t h a p r i m i t i v e t r i b e in E a s t Africa.

not quite

my amazement,

human,

but

is r a t h e r

a breath

n a t u r e — a spirit of t h e beautiful a n d

of

generous

these tribesmen denied

To that

t h e y h a d a n y d r e a m s . But t h r o u g h p a t i e n t , in-

as w e l l a s o f t h e c r u e l g o d d e s s . If w e w a n t t o

direct talks with t h e m I soon found that

they

c h a r a c t e r i z e this spirit, we shall certainly get

h a d d r e a m s just like e v e r y o n e else, b u t

that

c l o s e r t o it i n t h e s p h e r e o f a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g i e s ,

they

o r t h e f a b l e s o f t h e p r i m e v a l f o r e s t , t h a n in t h e

meaning.

c o n s c i o u s n e s s of m o d e r n m a n . I a m n o t d e n y -

nothing,"' they told m e . T h e y t h o u g h t t h a t the

ing that

the

o n l y d r e a m s t h a t m a t t e r e d w e r e those of chiefs

gains

a n d medicine m e n ; these, which concerned the

great

gains have

resulted

from

e v o l u t i o n of civilized s o c i e t y . B u t t h e s e

were

convinced "Dreams

their

dreams

of o r d i n a r y

had

men

no

mean

h a v e b e e n m a d e a t t h e p r i c e o f e n o r m o u s losses,

welfare of t h e t r i b e , w e r e h i g h l y

w h o s e e x t e n t w e h a v e scarcely b e g u n to esti-

T h e only d r a w b a c k was that the chief a n d the

m a t e . P a r t of t h e p u r p o s e of m y

comparisons

medicine

man

both

claimed

appreciated.

that

they

had

b e t w e e n t h e p r i m i t i v e a n d t h e civilized s t a t e s of

ceased having meaningful dreams. T h e y dated

man

this c h a n g e from the t i m e t h a t the British c a m e

has been

to s h o w

t h e b a l a n c e of these

to their c o u n t r y . T h e district

losses a n d g a i n s . Primitive m a n w a s m u c h m o r e g o v e r n e d by his i n s t i n c t s t h a n a r e his " r a t i o n a l * " m o d e r n d e s c e n d a n t s , w h o h a v e l e a r n e d to " c o n t r o l " t h e m selves.

In

this

civilizing

process,

we

have

the

British

official

in

charge

commissioner of t h e m

t a k e n o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e " g r e a t

had

dreams"

that had hitherto guided the tribe's behavior. W h e n these tribesmen c o n c e d e d that they did

increasingly divided o u r consciousness from the

have dreams, but thought them

d e e p e r i n s t i n c t i v e s t r a t a of t h e h u m a n

t h e y w e r e like t h e m o d e r n m a n w h o t h i n k s t h a t

psyche,

meaningless,

a n d even u l t i m a t e l y from the s o m a t i c basis of

a d r e a m h a s n o s i g n i f i c a n c e for h i m s i m p l y b e -

the psychic p h e n o m e n o n . Fortunately, we have

cause he does not understand

n o t lost t h e s e b a s i c i n s t i n c t i v e s t r a t a ; t h e y r e -

civilized

main

though

d r e a m (which he m a y not even r e m e m b e r ) can

t h e y m a y e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s o n l y in t h e form of

a l t e r h i s m o o d for b e t t e r o r w o r s e . T h e d r e a m

part

of t h e

unconscious,

d r e a m images. These instinctive one

may

not, incidentally,

even

phenomena-

always

recognize

t h e m for w h a t t h e y a r e , for t h e i r c h a r a c t e r is symbolic

play a vital

part

in w h a t

I

have

called the c o m p e n s a t i n g function of d r e a m s . F o r t h e sake of m e n t a l stability a n d physiological health, the unconscious a n d

even the

conscious must be integrally connected a n d thus m o v e o n p a r a l l e l lines. If t h e y a r e split a p a r t o r " d i s s o c i a t e d , " p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e follows. In this r e s p e c t , d r e a m s y m b o l s a r e

the

essential message c a r r i e r s from the instinctive to the r a t i o n a l p a r t s of the h u m a n m i n d , a n d their i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e n r i c h e s t h e p o v e r t y of c o n s c i o u s ness so t h a t it l e a r n s t o u n d e r s t a n d a g a i n

the

forgotten l a n g u a g e of t h e instincts. Of course, people are b o u n d function,

52

to q u e r y

s i n c e its s y m b o l s s o o f t e n

pass

this un-

man

it. B u t e v e n

can sometimes observe

that

a a


has b e e n " c o m p r e h e n d e d , " b u t o n l y i n a s u b -

t h a t a r e typical a n d often occur. A m o n g s u c h

liminal w a y . A n d t h a t is w h a t u s u a l l y h a p p e n s .

motifs a r e falling, flying, b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d

It is o n l y o n t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n s w h e n a d r e a m

d a n g e r o u s a n i m a l s o r h o s t i l e m e n , b e i n g insuffi-

is p a r t i c u l a r l y

i m p r e s s i v e o r r e p e a t s itself a t

c i e n t l y o r a b s u r d l y c l o t h e d in p u b l i c

places,

regular intervals t h a t m o s t p e o p l e c o n s i d e r a n

b e i n g in a h u r r y o r lost i n a m i l l i n g

crowd,

fighting w i t h useless w e a p o n s o r b e i n g w h o l l y

interpretation desirable. Here against

I ought

to a d d

unintelligent

or

by

a word

of

warning

defenseless, r u n n i n g h a r d yet g e t t i n g n o w h e r e .

dream

A t y p i c a l i n f a n t i l e m o t i f is t h e d r e a m o f g r o w -

incompetent

analysis. T h e r e a r e s o m e p e o p l e w h o s e m e n t a l

ing infinitely small or infinitely big, or

c o n d i t i o n is so u n b a l a n c e d t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a -

t r a n s f o r m e d from o n e to t h e o t h e r

being

a s y o u find

tion of t h e i r d r e a m s c a n b e e x t r e m e l y r i s k y ; i n

it, for i n s t a n c e , i n L e w i s C a r r o l l ' s Alice in

such a c a s e , a v e r y o n e - s i d e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s is

derland.

cut off f r o m

or

motifs t h a t m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e c o n t e x t of

not

t h e d r e a m itself, n o t a s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y c i p h e r s .

a correspondingly

irrational

"crazy" unconscious, a n d the two should be b r o u g h t

together

without

taking

special

precautions.

Won-

B u t I m u s t stress a g a i n t h a t t h e s e a r e

T h e r e c u r r i n g d r e a m is a n o t e w o r t h y p h e n o m e n o n . T h e r e a r e cases in w h i c h p e o p l e h a v e

A n d , s p e a k i n g m o r e g e n e r a l l y , it is p l a i n foolishness to b e l i e v e

in

ready-made

systematic

guides t o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s if o n e c o u l d

d r e a m e d the s a m e d r e a m from c h i l d h o o d into t h e l a t e r y e a r s of a d u l t

life. A d r e a m

of t h i s

k i n d is u s u a l l y a n a t t e m p t t o c o m p e n s a t e for a

simply buy a r e f e r e n c e b o o k a n d look u p a p a r -

p a r t i c u l a r defect in t h e d r e a m e r ' s a t t i t u d e

ticular s y m b o l . N o d r e a m s y m b o l c a n b e s e p a -

l i f e ; o r it m a y d a t e f r o m a t r a u m a t i c

r a t e d f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h o d r e a m s it, a n d

t h a t h a s left b e h i n d s o m e s p e c i f i c p r e j u d i c e . I t

t h e r e is n o d e f i n i t e o r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d

interpre-

t a t i o n of a n y d r e a m . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l v a r i e s s o m u c h in t h e w a y t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s c o m p l e ments or c o m p e n s a t e s his c o n s c i o u s m i n d

that

to

moment

m a y also sometimes anticipate a future

event

of i m p o r t a n c e . I myself d r e a m e d

of a m o t i f o v e r

several

y e a r s , in w h i c h I w o u l d " d i s c o v e r " a p a r t of m y

it is i m p o s s i b l e t o b e s u r e h o w f a r d r e a m s a n d

house that I did not k n o w existed.

their s y m b o l s c a n b e c l a s s i f i e d a t a l l .

it w a s t h e q u a r t e r s w h e r e m y l o n g - d e a d p a r e n t s single

l i v e d , in w h i c h m y f a t h e r , t o m y s u r p r i s e , h a d

"motifs")

a laboratory w h e r e he studied the c o m p a r a t i v e

It is t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e d r e a m s a n d symbols (I s h o u l d p r e f e r t o c a l l t h e m

Sometimes

Left, a p h o t o g r a p h of J u n g ( f o u r t h from the r i g h t ) in 1 9 2 6 w i t h t h e tribesmen of M t . E l g o n , K e n y a . Jung's f i r s t h a n d s t u d y of p r i m i t i v e societies led t o m a n y of his m o s t valuable p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s .

Right, t w o d r e a m b o o k s — o n e f r o m 20th-century Britain and the other from ancient E g y p t ( t h e latter is among the o l d e s t w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s extant, c. 2 0 0 0 B.C.). S u c h r e a d y made, r u l e - o f - t h u m b of dreams

interpretation

is w o r t h l e s s ;

dreams

are

highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , a n d t h e i r symbolism c a n n o t be p i g e o n h o l e d .

53


a n a t o m y o f f i s h a n d m y m o t h e r r a n a h o t e l for ghostly visitors. U s u a l l y this u n f a m i l i a r

guest

wing was an ancient historical building,

long

forgotten, yet m y i n h e r i t e d p r o p e r t y . It

con-

tained interesting antique furniture, and toward t h e e n d of this series of d r e a m s I d i s c o v e r e d a n old library whose books w e r e u n k n o w n to m e . F i n a l l y , in t h e last d r e a m , I o p e n e d o n e of t h e b o o k s a n d f o u n d i n it a p r o f u s i o n o f t h e m o s t marvelous symbolic pictures. W h e n

I awoke,

my heart was palpitating with excitement. S o m e t i m e before I h a d this p a r t i c u l a r last d r e a m of t h e series, I h a d p l a c e d a n o r d e r w i t h a n a n t i q u a r i a n b o o k s e l l e r for o n e o f t h e c l a s s i c compilations

of m e d i e v a l

alchemists.

I

had

found a q u o t a t i o n in l i t e r a t u r e t h a t I t h o u g h t might have some connection with early Byzant i n e a l c h e m y , a n d I w i s h e d t o c h e c k it. S e v e r a l weeks after

I h a d h a d the d r e a m of t h e

un-

k n o w n book, a parcel arrived from the bookseller. I n s i d e w a s a p a r c h m e n t v o l u m e d a t i n g from

the

16th c e n t u r y .

It was illustrated

by

fascinating symbolic pictures that instantly rem i n d e d m e of t h o s e I h a d seen in m y

dream.

As t h e r e d i s c o v e r y of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of a l c h e m y c a m e to b e a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t of m y w o r k as a p i o n e e r of p s y c h o l o g y , t h e m o t i f of m y ring

dream

can

easily

be

recur-

understood.

h o u s e , of c o u r s e , w a s a s y m b o l of m y

The

person-

a l i t y a n d its c o n s c i o u s field o f i n t e r e s t s ; a n d t h e u n k n o w n a n n e x r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n of a n e w field o f i n t e r e s t a n d r e s e a r c h o f w h i c h m y conscious m i n d was at that time u n a w a r e . F r o m that moment,

30 years ago, I never h a d

the

dream again.

T o p of p a g e , a f a m o u s e x a m p l e o f t h e c o m m o n d r e a m of g r o w i n g larger: a d r a w i n g f r o m Alice in Wonderland (1 8 7 7 ) s h o w s A l i c e g r o w i n g t o fill a house. Center, the equally c o m m o n d r e a m o f f l y i n g , in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y d r a w i n g ( b y t h e B r i t i s h artist William Blake) entitled: " 0 , H o w I D r e a m t of T h i n g s I m p o s s i b l e . "

54


The analysis of dreams

I began this essay by n o t i n g t h e difference b e -

the king died.

t w e e n a s i g n a n d a s y m b o l . T h e s i g n is a l w a y s

those of a m i r r o r t h a t b r e a k s , or a p i c t u r e t h a t

less t h a n t h e c o n c e p t it r e p r e s e n t s , w h i l e a s y m -

falls, w h e n a d e a t h o c c u r s ; o r m i n o r b u t u n e x -

bol a l w a y s s t a n d s for s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n its

p l a i n e d b r e a k a g e s i n a h o u s e w h e r e s o m e o n e is

obvious

and

immediate

meaning.

Symbols,

moreover, are n a t u r a l a n d s p o n t a n e o u s

pro-

Other

passing through

common

examples

are

a n e m o t i o n a l crisis. E v e n

if

skeptics refuse to c r e d i t s u c h r e p o r t s , stories of

ducts. N o g e n i u s h a s e v e r sat d o w n w i t h a p e n

this kind a r e a l w a y s c r o p p i n g u p , a n d this a l o n e

or a b r u s h in his h a n d a n d s a i d : " N o w I a m

s h o u l d s e r v e as a m p l e p r o o f of t h e i r

going to i n v e n t a s y m b o l . " N o o n e c a n t a k e a

logical i m p o r t a n c e .

m o r e o r less r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , r e a c h e d a s a l o g i -

T h e r e are m a n y symbols, however

psycho(among

cal c o n c l u s i o n o r b y d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t , a n d t h e n

them the most i m p o r t a n t ) , that are not indi-

give it " s y m b o l i c " f o r m . N o m a t t e r w h a t

v i d u a l b u t collective

fan-

in their n a t u r e a n d origin.

tastic t r a p p i n g s o n e m a y p u t u p o n a n i d e a o f

T h e s e a r e chiefly religious i m a g e s . T h e believer

this k i n d , it w i l l still r e m a i n a s i g n , l i n k e d t o

assumes that

the c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t b e h i n d it, n o t a s y m b o l

they h a v e been revealed to m a n . T h e

that

In

says flatly t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n i n v e n t e d . B o t h

for

a r e w r o n g . I t is t r u e , a s t h e s k e p t i c n o t e s , t h a t

hints at

dreams,

something

symbols

occur

not

yet

known.

spontaneously,

t h e y a r e of d i v i n e origin — t h a t skeptic

dreams h a p p e n and are not invented; they are,

r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l s a n d c o n c e p t s h a v e for

therefore, t h e m a i n s o u r c e of all o u r k n o w l e d g e

turies b e e n t h e object of careful a n d q u i t e c o n -

about symbolism.

s c i o u s e l a b o r a t i o n . I t is e q u a l l y t r u e , a s t h e b e -

But s y m b o l s , I m u s t p o i n t o u t , d o n o t o c c u r

cen-

l i e v e r i m p l i e s , t h a t t h e i r o r i g i n is s o f a r b u r i e d

solely in d r e a m s . T h e y a p p e a r in a l l k i n d s o f

in t h e m y s t e r y of t h e p a s t t h a t t h e y s e e m

psychic

have no h u m a n

manifestations.

There

are

symbolic

source. But they are in

to fact

thoughts a n d feelings, s y m b o l i c acts a n d situa-

"collective representations," e m a n a t i n g

tions. I t o f t e n s e e m s t h a t e v e n i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s

primeval

c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in t h e a r r a n g e -

such, these images are involuntary spontaneous

m e n t of s y m b o l i c p a t t e r n s . T h e r e a r c n u m e r o u s

manifestations

well-authenticated stories of clocks s t o p p i n g at

inventions.

the m o m e n t of t h e i r o w n e r ' s d e a t h ; o n e

dreams and

and

creative

fantasies.

by no m e a n s

from As

intentional

was

T h i s fact, as I shall l a t e r e x p l a i n , h a s a direct

the p e n d u l u m c l o c k i n t h e p a l a c e o f F r e d e r i c k

and important bearing upon the interpretation

the G r e a t a t S a n s S o u c i , w h i c h s t o p p e d

o f d r e a m s . I t is o b v i o u s t h a t if y o u a s s u m e t h e

when

Inanimate o b j e c t s s o m e t i m e s s e e m to " a c t " s y m b o l i c a l l y : left, t h e clock of Frederick t h e Great, w h i c h stopped w h e n its o w n e r d i e d in 1 7 8 6 .

Symbols are p r o d u c e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y from the u n c o n s c i o u s ( t h o u g h t h e y may later be c o n s c i o u s l y e l a b o r a t e d ) . Right, the ankh, a n c i e n t E g y p t ' s symbol of life, t h e u n i v e r s e , a n d man. By c o n t r a s t , t h e a i r w a y s insignia (far r i g h t ) are c o n s c i o u s l y contrived signs, n o t s y m b o l s .

55


d r e a m t o b e s y m b o l i c , y o u w i l l i n t e r p r e t it dif-

furniture d a t i n g from the 16th c e n t u r y or even

ferently from a person w h o believes that

the

earlier. M y surprise a n d curiosity increased. I

is

w a n t e d to see m o r e of t h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r e of

k n o w n a l r e a d y a n d is m e r e l y " d i s g u i s e d " b y t h e

this h o u s e . So I w e n t d o w n to t h e cellar, w h e r e

essential

energizing

thought

or

emotion

'dream. In the latter case, d r e a m interpretation

I f o u n d a d o o r o p e n i n g o n t o a flight of s t o n e

m a k e s l i t t l e s e n s e , for y o u f i n d o n l y w h a t y o u

s t e p s t h a t l e d t o a l a r g e v a u l t e d r o o m . T h e floor

already know.

c o n s i s t e d of l a r g e s l a b s of s t o n e a n d t h e walls

I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t I h a v e a l w a y s s a i d

seemed very ancient. I examined

the

mortar

as y o u

can

a n d f o u n d it w a s m i x e d w i t h s p l i n t e r s o f b r i c k .

a b o u t s y m b o l i s m ; t h e n f o r g e t it a l l w h e n

you

O b v i o u s l y the walls w e r e of R o m a n origin. I

to m y

pupils:

"Learn

as m u c h

a r e a n a l y z i n g a d r e a m . " T h i s a d v i c e is o f s u c h

b e c a m e increasingly excited. In one corner, I

p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t I h a v e m a d e it a r u l e

saw an iron ring on a stone slab. I pulled

to r e m i n d myself t h a t I c a n n e v e r

understand

t h e s l a b a n d s a w yet a n o t h e r n a r r o w flight of

s o m e b o d y else's d r e a m well e n o u g h to i n t e r p r e t

steps l e a d i n g to a k i n d of c a v e , w h i c h s e e m e d

up

il c o r r e c t l y . I h a v e d o n e t h i s in o r d e r t o c h e c k

to b e a p r e h i s t o r i c t o m b , c o n t a i n i n g t w o skulls,

t h e flow o f m y o w n a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d r e a c t i o n s ,

s o m e b o n e s , a n d b r o k e n s h a r d s of p o t t e r y . T h e n

which might otherwise prevail over my patient's

I woke up.

uncertainties and

h e s i t a t i o n s . A s it is o f

the

If F r e u d , w h e n h e a n a l y z e d this d r e a m , h a d

g r e a t e s t t h e r a p e u t i c i m p o r t a n c e for a n a n a l y s t

followed

to get t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e s s a g e of a d r e a m

(that

associations a n d context, he would have heard

is, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is m a k -

a far-reaching story. But I a m afraid he would

my

m e t h o d o f e x p l o r i n g its s p e c i f i c

i n g to t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d ) as a c c u r a t e l y as pos-

have dismissed

s i b l e , it is e s s e n t i a l for h i m t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n -

from a p r o b l e m t h a t w a s really his o w n .

tent of a d r e a m w i t h the u t m o s t t h o r o u g h n e s s .

d r e a m is i n f a c t a s h o r t s u m m a r y o f m y life,

I had

a dream

when

I was working

with

F r e u d t h a t illustrates this p o i n t . I d r e a m e d t h a t I w a s in " m y h o m e , " a p p a r e n t l y o n t h e

first

it a s a m e r e e f f o r t

m o r e specifically

to

of the d e v e l o p m e n t

escape

of

The my

m i n d . I g r e w u p in a h o u s e 2 0 0 years old, o u r f u r n i t u r e c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y of p i e c e s a b o u t 3 0 0

floor, in a cosy, p l e a s a n t s i t t i n g r o o m f u r n i s h e d

years old, a n d mentally m y hitherto

in t h e m a n n e r o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . I w a s a s t o n -

spiritual a d v e n t u r e h a d b e e n to s t u d y t h e philo-

ished t h a t I h a d n e v e r seen this r o o m

sophies of K a n t a n d S c h o p e n h a u e r .

before,

a n d b e g a n to w o n d e r w h a t the g r o u n d

floor

greatest

The great

n e w s of t h e d a y w a s t h e w o r k of C h a r l e s

Dar-

w a s like. I w e n t d o w n s t a i r s a n d f o u n d t h e p l a c e

win. S h o r t l y before this, I h a d b e e n living with

was rather dark, with paneled walls a n d heavy

t h e still m e d i e v a l c o n c e p t s o f m y p a r e n t s , for

Right, J u n g ' s mother and father. J u n g ' s interest in a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n and m y t h o l o g y d r e w him away from t h e r e l i g i o u s w o r l d of his p a r e n t s (hisfather w a s a p a s t o r ) — a s s h o w n by the dream, discussed o n t h i s p a g e , t h a t he h a d w h i l e w o r k i n g w i t h F r e u d . Far r i g h t , J u n g at B u r g h b l z l i H o s p i t a l , Z u r i c h , w h e r e he w o r k e d in 1 9 0 0 as a psychiatrist.

56


w h o m t h e w o r l d a n d m e n w e r e still p r e s i d e d

my own inner world, which, I surmised, would

over b y d i v i n e o m n i p o t e n c e a n d

look very q u e e r to h i m . Feeling q u i t e u n c e r t a i n

providence.

This world h a d b e c o m e a n t i q u a t e d a n d obso-

about my own psychology, I almost automati-

lete. M y C h r i s t i a n f a i t h h a d b e c o m e

relative

c a l l y t o l d h i m a lie a b o u t m y " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s "

through

religions

in o r d e r to e s c a p e t h e i m p o s s i b l e task of e n l i g h t -

a n d G r e e k p h i l o s o p h y . I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t

its e n c o u n t e r

with

Eastern

ening him about my very personal and utterly

the g r o u n d floor w a s so still, d a r k , a n d

different

obvi-

ously u n i n h a b i t e d . M y then historical interests h a d

developed

r a t i o n of t h e j a m

I got into t h r o u g h

telling

from a n o r i g i n a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c o m p a r a -

F r e u d m y d r e a m . B u t it is a g o o d e x a m p l e o f

tive a n a t o m y

t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in w h i c h o n e g e t s i n v o l v e d

and

paleontology

while

I

w o r k i n g as a n assistant a t t h e A n a t o m i c a l

was In-

t h e c o u r s e of a real d r e a m analysis. So

in

much

s t i t u t e . I w a s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e b o n e s o f fossil

d e p e n d s u p o n the personal differences b e t w e e n

man, particularly by the m u c h discussed

the analyst a n d the analyzed.

derthalensis

and

skull o f D u b o i s '

the

still

more

Pithecanthropus.

Nean-

controversial As a

matter

I s o o n r e a l i z e d t h a t F r e u d w a s l o o k i n g for s o m e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i s h o f m i n e . A n d so I s u g -

of f a c t t h e s e w e r e m y r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o t h e

gested t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t t h e skulls I h a d d r e a m e d

d r e a m ; b u t I did not d a r e to m e n t i o n the s u b -

of m i g h t refer to c e r t a i n m e m b e r s of m y family

ject of skulls, s k e l e t o n s , o r c o r p s e s t o

Freud,

w h o s e d e a t h , for s o m e r e a s o n , I m i g h t d e s i r e .

because I h a d l e a r n e d t h a t this t h e m e w a s not

T h i s p r o p o s a l m e t w i t h his a p p r o v a l , b u t I w a s

popular with him. H e cherished the

n o t satisfied w i t h s u c h a " p h o n e y " s o l u t i o n .

peculiar

idea t h a t I a n t i c i p a t e d his e a r l y d e a t h . A n d h e

W h i l e I w a s t r y i n g t o find a s u i t a b l e a n s w e r

d r e w this c o n c l u s i o n from t h e fact t h a t I h a d

to F r e u d ' s q u e s t i o n s , I w a s s u d d e n l y

shown m u c h i n t e r e s t in t h e m u m m i f i e d

by a n intuition a b o u t the role that t h e subjec-

corpses

confused

in t h e s o - c a l l e d B l e i k e l l e r i n B r e m e n , w h i c h w e

tive f a c t o r p l a y s in p s y c h o l o g i c a l

visited t o g e t h e r i n 1 9 0 9 o n o u r w a y t o t a k e t h e

i n g . M y i n t u i t i o n w a s so o v e r w h e l m i n g t h a t I

boat to A m e r i c a . T h u s I felt r e l u c t a n t t o c o m e o u t w i t h

•

constitution.

I m u s t a p o l o g i z e for t h i s r a t h e r l e n g t h y n a r -

understand-

t h o u g h t o n l y of h o w to get o u t of this i m p o s my

sible snarl, a n d I took the easy w a y o u t by a

own t h o u g h t s , since t h r o u g h r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e

lie. T h i s w a s n e i t h e r e l e g a n t n o r m o r a l l y d e f e n -

I was d e e p l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e a l m o s t u n b r i d g e -

sible, b u t o t h e r w i s e I s h o u l d h a v e risked a fatal

able g a p b e t w e e n F r e u d ' s m e n t a l o u t l o o k a n d

r o w w i t h F r e u d — a n d I d i d n o t feel u p t o t h a t

b a c k g r o u n d a n d m y o w n . I w a s afraid of losing

for m a n y r e a s o n s .

his f r i e n d s h i p if I s h o u l d o p e n u p t o h i m a b o u t

My

intuition

consisted of t h e s u d d e n

and

m o s t u n e x p e c t e d insight i n t o t h e fact t h a t

my

d r e a m m e a n t myself, my life a n d my w o r l d ,

my

whole

reality

against

a theoretical

structure

e r e c t e d b y a n o t h e r , s t r a n g e m i n d for

reasons

and

Freud's

p u r p o s e s o f its o w n .

It w a s n o t

d r e a m , it w a s m i n e ; a n d I u n d e r s t o o d s u d d e n l y i n a flash w h a t m y d r e a m

meant.

T h i s conflict illustrates a vital p o i n t

about

d r e a m a n a l y s i s . It is n o t so m u c h a t e c h n i q u e t h a t c a n be l e a r n e d a n d a p p l i e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e r u l e s a s it is a d i a l e c t i c a l e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t w o p e r s o n a l i t i e s . I f it is h a n d l e d a s a m e c h a n i cal t e c h n i q u e , the individual psychic a l i t y o f t h e d r e a m e r g e t s lost a n d

the

personthera-

p e u t i c p r o b l e m is r e d u c e d t o t h e s i m p l e q u e s -

57


t i o n : W h i c h of t h e t w o p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d — t h e analyst

or

the

dreamer—will

dominate

The problem of types

the

o t h e r ? I g a v e u p h y p n o t i c t r e a t m e n t for t h i s very reason, because I did not w a n t to impose m y will o n o t h e r s . I w a n t e d t h e h e a l i n g p r o cesses t o g r o w o u t o f t h e p a t i e n t ' s o w n p e r s o n -

I n a l l o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e , it is l e g i t i m a t e

ality, not from suggestions by m e t h a t

to a p p l y a h y p o t h e s i s to a n i m p e r s o n a l subject.

would

h a v e o n l y a p a s s i n g effect. M y a i m w a s t o p r o -

Psychology,

tect a n d p r e s e r v e m y p a t i e n t ' s d i g n i t y a n d free-

you with the living relations b e t w e e n two indi-

however,

inescapably

confronts

d o m , s o t h a t h e c o u l d l i v e h i s life a c c o r d i n g t o

v i d u a l s , n e i t h e r of w h o m c a n b e d i v e s t e d of his

h i s o w n w i s h e s . I n t h i s e x c h a n g e w i t h F r e u d , it

subjective personality, nor, indeed, depersonal-

d a w n e d o n m e for t h e first t i m e t h a t b e f o r e w e

ized in a n y o t h e r w a y . T h e

construct general theories about m a n and

his

p a t i e n t m a y set o u t b y a g r e e i n g t o d e a l w i t h a

p s y c h e w e s h o u l d l e a r n a lot m o r e a b o u t

the

c h o s e n p r o b l e m in a n i m p e r s o n a l a n d o b j e c t i v e

T h e i n d i v i d u a l is t h e o n l y r e a l i t y . T h e f u r t h e r

w h o l e personalities a r e i n v o l v e d in their discus-

we m o v e a w a y from the individual t o w a r d a b -

s i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t , f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s is. p o s s i b l e

s t r a c t i d e a s a b o u t Homo sapiens,

o n l y if m u t u a l a g r e e m e n t c a n b e r e a c h e d .

real h u m a n b e i n g w e h a v e to d e a l w i t h .

t h e m o r e likely

manner;

but

once

they

analyst and

are

engaged,

his

their

w e a r e t o fall i n t o e r r o r . I n t h e s e t i m e s o f s o c i a l

C a n w e m a k e a n y sort of o b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t

u p h e a v a l a n d r a p i d c h a n g e , it is d e s i r a b l e t o

a b o u t t h e final r e s u l t ? O n l y if w e m a k e a c o m -

know m u c h more than we do about the indi-

parison between our conclusions and the stan-

v i d u a l h u m a n b e i n g , for so m u c h d e p e n d s u p o n

dards

that

are generally

valid

in t h e

h i s m e n t a l a n d m o r a l q u a l i t i e s . B u t if w e a r e

milieu to w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g .

to see t h i n g s in t h e i r r i g h t p e r s p e c t i v e , w e n e e d

then, we must take into account the

to u n d e r s t a n d

social Even mental

t h e p a s t of m a n as w e l l as his

e q u i l i b r i u m (or " s a n i t y " ) of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n -

p r e s e n t . T h a t is w h y a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m y t h s

cerned. For the result c a n n o t be a completely

a n d s y m b o l s is o f e s s e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e .

collective

leveling

out

of t h e

individual

A n assertive e x t r a v e r t o v e r p o w e r s a w i t h d r a w n i n t r o v e r t in a c a r t o o n b y A m e r i c a ' s J u l e s Feiffer. T h e s e J u n g i a n terms for h u m a n " t y p e s " are n o t d o g m a t i c : For i n s t a n c e , G a n d h i , r i g h t , w a s b o t h an a s c e t i c ( i n t r o v e r t ) a n d a p o l i t i c a l leader (extravert). A n i n d i v i d u a l — a n y face in t h e c r o w d (far r i g h t ) — c a n o n l y more or less be c a t e g o r i z e d .

to


adjust h i m to t h e " n o r m s " o f his society. T h i s would amount

to a m o s t

A sane a n d n o r m a l people

habitually

unnatural

condition.

s o c i e t y is o n e i n

disagree,

because

which general

formulate a n y psychological theory, or to teach it, b y d e s c r i b i n g l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s e p a r a t e c a s e s without common

a n y effort

to see w h a t

a n d h o w they

differ.

they have in A n y general

a g r e e m e n t is r e l a t i v e l y r a r e o u t s i d e t h e s p h e r e

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a n b e chosen as a basis. O n e

of i n s t i n c t i v e h u m a n q u a l i t i e s .

c a n , for i n s t a n c e , m a k e a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e disof

tinction between individuals w h o have "extra-

m e n t a l life i n s o c i e t y , b u t it is n o t a g o a l ; a g r e e -

verted" personalities a n d others w h o a r e "intro-

m e n t is e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . B e c a u s e p s y c h o l o g y

verted."

basically d e p e n d s u p o n b a l a n c e d o p p o s i t e s , n o

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b u t it e n a b l e s o n e t o s e e i m m e -

judgment

d i a t e l y t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c a n a r i s e if t h e a n a -

Disagreement

functions

as

can be considered

a

vehicle

t o b e final

in

This

is o n l y

w h i c h its r e v e r s i b i l i t y h a s n o t b e e n t a k e n i n t o

lyst s h o u l d

a c c o u n t . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y lies i n

patient the other.

t h e fact t h a t t h e r e is n o s t a n d p o i n t a b o v e o r outside p s y c h o l o g y

that

form

judgment

an

ultimate

would

enable of

what

us to the

p s y c h e is. In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t d r e a m s d e m a n d i n d i -

happen

o n e of m a n y

to be one type

possible

a n d his

Since a n y d e e p e r analysis of d r e a m s leads to the confrontation

of t w o individuals,

it w i l l

obviously m a k e a great difference w h e t h e r their types of a t t i t u d e a r e t h e s a m e o r n o t . If both b e l o n g t o t h e s a m e t y p e , t h e y m a y sail a l o n g

vidual t r e a t m e n t , s o m e generalities a r e neces-

h a p p i l y for a l o n g t i m e . B u t if o n e is a n e x t r a -

sary i n o r d e r t o classify a n d c l a r i f y t h e m a t e r i a l

vert a n d t h e o t h e r a n introvert, their different

that t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t collects b y s t u d y i n g m a n y

a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y standpoints m a y clash right

individuals. It w o u l d obviously b e impossible to

a w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n they a r e u n a w a r e of

59


their own

t y p e of p e r s o n a l i t y , o r w h e n

they

a m o u n t to m o r e t h a n m e r e a d v a n t a g e s on the

a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r o w n is t h e o n l y r i g h t

side of t h e a n a l y s t .

t y p e . T h e e x t r a v e r t , for i n s t a n c e , w i l l

s i d e t h e f r a y , i n w h i c h h e is b o u n d t o b e t e s t e d

choose

They do not keep him out-

t h e m a j o r i t y v i e w ; t h e i n t r o v e r t w i l l r e j e c t it

j u s t as m u c h as his p a t i e n t .

s i m p l y b e c a u s e it is f a s h i o n a b l e . S u c h a m i s -

good deal whether their personalities are har-

u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e a s y e n o u g h b e c a u s e t h e v a l u e

m o n i o u s , in c o n f l i c t , o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y .

of t h e o n e is t h e n o n - v a l u e of t h e o t h e r .

Freud

h i m s e l f , for i n s t a n c e , i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i n t r o v e r t e d

Fxtravcrsion

and

But t h e y a r c often

himself. But i n t r o s p e c t i o n a n d

recognizable.

c a n j u s t as well b e of t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e

and

importance. differences of p e r s o n a l i t y in d r e a m

interpreta-

t i o n . I t c a n n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s t is a

a r e just

rather obvious and

If o n e studies e x t r a v e r t e d

in m a n y w a y s f r o m

two

behavior.

v i d u a l s , for i n s t a n c e , o n e s o o n d i s c o v e r s t h e y differ

It is v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f s u c h

introversion

a m o n g m a n y p e c u l i a r i t i e s of h u m a n

t y p e as a n i n d i v i d u a l m o r b i d l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h self-knowledge

T h u s it m a t t e r s a

one

easily indithat

another,

a n d t h a t b e i n g e x t r a v e r t e d is t h e r e f o r e a s u p e r ficial

and

too general

criterion

to be

really

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h a t is w h y , l o n g a g o , I t r i e d t o

s u p e r m a n w h o is a b o v e s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s , j u s t

find s o m e f u r t h e r b a s i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s

because

a

ties t h a t m i g h t s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e o f g i v i n g s o m e

psychological theory and a corresponding tech-

o r d e r t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t l e s s v a r i a t i o n s in

nique.

human

h e is a d o c t o r He

can

only

w h o has acquired

imagine

himself

to

be

s u p e r i o r i n so f a r a s h e a s s u m e s t h a t h i s t h e o r y

peculiari-

individuality.

I h a d a l w a y s b e e n i m p r e s s e d b y t h e fact t h a t

a n d t e c h n i q u e a r e a b s o l u t e t r u t h s , c a p a b l e of

t h e r e a r e a s u r p r i s i n g n u m b e r of i n d i v i d u a l s

embracing

psyche.

w h o n e v e r u s e t h e i r m i n d s if t h e y c a n a v o i d it,

S i n c e s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n is m o r e t h a n d o u b t -

a n d a n e q u a l n u m b e r w h o d o use their m i n d s ,

t h e w h o l e of the

human

ful, h e c a n n o t r e a l l y b e s u r e o f it. C o n s e q u e n t l y ,

b u t in a n a m a z i n g l y s t u p i d w a y .

h e w i l l b e a s s a i l e d b y s e c r e t d o u b t s if h e c o n -

surprised

m a n y intelligent a n d

wide-

fronts t h e h u m a n w h o l e n e s s of his p a t i e n t w i t h

a w a k e p e o p l e w h o lived (as far as o n e

could

a t h e o r y o r t e c h n i q u e ( w h i c h is m e r e l y a h y p o -

m a k e o u t ) a s if t h e y h a d n e v e r l e a r n e d t o u s e

thesis or a n a t t e m p t )

i n s t e a d of w i t h his o w n

living wholeness.

to

find

I was

also

t h e i r sense o r g a n s : T h e y d i d n o t see t h e t h i n g s before t h e i r eyes, h e a r t h e w o r d s s o u n d i n g in

T h e a n a l y s t ' s w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y is t h e o n l y

their ears, or notice the things they touched or

a d e q u a t e e q u i v a l e n t of his p a t i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y .

tasted. S o m e lived w i t h o u t b e i n g a w a r e of the

Psychological experience and knowledge do not

s t a t e of t h e i r o w n b o d i e s .

T h e " c o m p a s s " of t h e p s y c h e — a n o t h e r J u n g i a n w a y of l o o k i n g at p e o p l e in g e n e r a l . Each p o i n t o n t h e c o m p a s s has its o p p o s i t e : f o r a " t h i n k i n g " t y p e , t h e " f e e l i n g " side w o u l d be least d e v e l o p e d . ( " F e e l i n g " here m e a n s t h e f a c u l t y o f w e i g h i n g and evaluating e x p e r i e n c e — i n the w a y t h a t o n e m i g h t say " I feel t h a t is a g o o d thing to d o , " w i t h o u t needing t o a n a l y z e or r a t i o n a l i z e t h e " w h y " of '.he a c t i o n . ) Of c o u r s e , t h e r e is o v e r l a p p i n g in e a c h i n d i v i d u a l : In a " s e n s a t i o n " person the t h i n k i n g or t h e f e e l i n g s i d e c o u l d b e a l m o s t as s t r o n g ( a n d " i n t u i t i o n , " t h e o p p o s i t e , w o u l d be w e a k e s t ) .

Go


There were others who seemed to live in a most curious condition of consciousness, as if the state they had arrived at today were final, with no possibility of change, or as if the world and the psyche were static and would remain so forever. T h e y seemed devoid of all imagination, and they entirely and exclusively depended upon their sense-perception. Chances and possibilities did not exist in their world, and in " t o d a y " there was no real " t o m o r r o w . " The future was just the repetition of the past. I am trying here to give the reader a glimpse of my own first impressions when I began to observe the many people I met. It soon became clear to me, however, that the people who used their minds were those who thought — that is, who applied their intellectual faculty in trying to adapt, themselves to people and circumstances. And the equally intelligent people who did not think were those who sought and found their way by feeling. " F e e l i n g " is a word that needs some explanation. For instance, one speaks of "feeling" when it is a matter of " s e n t i m e n t " (corresponding to the French term sentiment). But one also applies the same word to define an opinion; for example, a communication from the White House may begin: " T h e President feels . . . . " Furthermore, the word may be used to express an intuition: " I had a feeling as if. . . . " When I use the word "feeling" in contrast to "thinking," I refer to a j u d g m e n t of value — for instance, agreeable or disagreeable, good or bad, and so on. Feeling according to this definition is not an emotion (which, as the word conveys, is involuntary). Feeling as I mean it is (like thinking) a rational (i.e. ordering) function, whereas intuition is an irrational (i.e. perceiving) function. In so far as intuition is a " h u n c h , " it is not the product of a voluntary act; it is rather an involuntary event, which depends upon different external or internal circumstances instead of an act of judgment. Intuition is more like a sense-perception, which is also an irrational event in so far as it depends essentially upon objective stimuli, which owe their existence to physical and not to mental causes.

These four functional types correspond to the obvious means by which consciousness obtains its orientation to experience. Sensation (i.e. sense-perception) tells you that something exists; thinking tells you what it is; feeling tells you whether it is agreeable or not; and intuition tells you whence it comes and where it is going. T h e reader should understand that these four criteria of types of human behavior are just four viewpoints among many others, like will power, temperament, imagination, memory, and so on. T h e r e is nothing dogmatic about them, but their basic nature recommends them as suitable criteria for a classification. I find them particularly helpful when I am called upon to explain parents to children and husbands to wives, and vice versa. T h e y are also useful in understanding one's own prejudices. T h u s , if you want to understand another person's d r e a m , you have to sacrifice your own predilections and suppress your prejudices. This is not easy or comfortable, because it means a moral effort that is not to everyone's taste. But if the analyst does not make the effort to criticize his own standpoint (and to admit its relativity, he will get neither the right information about, nor sufficient insight into, his patient's mind. T h e analyst expects at least a certain willingness on the patient's part to listen to his opinion and to take it seriously, and the patient must be granted the same right. Although such a relationship is indispensable for any understanding and is therefore of self-evident necessity, one must remind oneself again and again that it is more important in therapy for the patient to understand than for the analyst's theoretical expectations to be satisfied. T h e patient's resistance to the analyst's interpretation is not necessarily w r o n g ; it is rather a sure sign that something does not " c l i c k . " Either the patient has not yet reached the point where he understands, or the interpretation does not fit. In our efforts to interpret the dream symbols of another person, we are almost invariabl hampered by our tendency to fill in the unavoidable gaps in our understanding by projection that is, by the assumption that what the analyst perceives or thinks is equally per6i


ceived or t h o u g h t by the d r e a m e r . T o o v e r c o m e

her hidden motivations — unconscious

this s o u r c e of e r r o r , I h a v e a l w a y s insisted o n

ces t h a t h a d m o r e t h a n o n c e led to d i s a g r e e a b l e

influen-

t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s t i c k i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t of t h e

rows with h e r friends. S h e h a d a l w a y s b l a m e d

p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m a n d e x c l u d i n g all t h e o r e t i c a l

o t h e r s for t h e s e , n o t h e r s e l f .

a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t d r e a m s in g e n e r a l — e x c e p t for t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d r e a m s i n s o m e

way

m a k e sense.

I t is n o t m e r e l y t h e " s h a d o w " s i d e o f o u r p e r sonalities that we overlook, disregard, a n d repress. W e m a y also d o the s a m e to o u r positive

It will b e c l e a r f r o m all I h a v e s a i d t h a t w e

q u a l i t i e s . A n e x a m p l e t h a t c o m e s t o m i n d is

c a n n o t l a y d o w n g e n e r a l r u l e s for i n t e r p r e t i n g

t h a t of a n a p p a r e n t l y m o d e s t a n d

self-effacing

dreams. W h e n I suggested earlier that the over-

man,

He

all f u n c t i o n of d r e a m s s e e m s t o b e t o c o m p e n -

seemed c o n t e n t with a back seat, b u t discreetly

sate

insisted o n b e i n g p r e s e n t . W h e n asked to speak

for

deficiencies

or

distortions

in

the

with

charming

manners.

always

conscious m i n d , I m e a n t t h a t this a s s u m p t i o n

h e w o u l d offer a w e l l - i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n , t h o u g h

o p e n e d u p t h e most p r o m i s i n g a p p r o a c h to the

h e n e v e r i n t r u d e d it. B u t h e s o m e t i m e s h i n t e d

n a t u r e o f particular

d r e a m s . I n s o m e cases y o u

t h a t a g i v e n m a t t e r c o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h in a far

c a n see this f u n c t i o n p l a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . O n e of m y p a t i e n t s h a d a v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n of h i m s e l f a n d w a s u n a w a r e t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y -

superior

way

at

a

certain

higher

level

(though he never explained how). I n his d r e a m s , h o w e v e r , h e c o n s t a n t l y

had

o n e w h o k n e w h i m w a s i r r i t a t e d b y his air of

e n c o u n t e r s w i t h g r e a t historical figures,

m o r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . H e c a m e to m e w i t h a d r e a m

as N a p o l e o n a n d A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t .

in w h i c h h e h a d seen a d r u n k e n t r a m p r o l l i n g

d r e a m s w e r e c l e a r l y c o m p e n s a t i n g for a n

in a d i t c h — a s i g h t t h a t e v o k e d f r o m h i m o n l y

feriority c o m p l e x . But they h a d a n o t h e r impli-

such These in-

t h e p a t r o n i z i n g c o m m e n t : " I t ' s t e r r i b l e to see

c a t i o n . W h a t sort of m a n m u s t I b e , t h e d r e a m

h o w low a m a n c a n fall." It w a s e v i d e n t

w a s asking, to h a v e such illustrious callers? In

the

unpleasant

nature

of t h e d r e a m

l e a s t in p a r t a n a t t e m p t t o offset h i s

that

was

at

inflated

o p i n i o n of his o w n m e r i t s . B u t t h e r e w a s s o m e t h i n g m o r e t o it t h a n t h i s . I t t u r n e d o u t

that

he h a d a b r o t h e r w h o was a d e g e n e r a t e alcoholic. W h a t the d r e a m also revealed was t h a t his s u p e r i o r

attitude

was

compensating

the

b r o t h e r , as b o t h a n o u t e r a n d a n i n n e r figure. In a n o t h e r case I recall, a w o m a n w h o was proud

of

her

intelligent

understanding

of

psychology had recurringdreams about another woman.

When

in o r d i n a r y

life s h e m e t

this

w o m a n , she d i d n o t like h e r , t h i n k i n g h e r

a

v a i n a n d d i s h o n e s t i n t r i g u e r . B u t in t h e d r e a m s t h e w o m a n a p p e a r e d a l m o s t as a sister, friendly a n d likeable. M y patient could not u n d e r s t a n d w h y s h e s h o u l d d r e a m so f a v o r a b l y

about

a

person she disliked. But these d r e a m s w e r e trying to convey

the idea

that she herself

was

" s h a d o w e d " by an unconscious character that resembled the other w o m a n .

It was h a r d

for

m y patient, w h o h a d very clear ideas a b o u t her o w n personality, to realize t h a t the d r e a m was telling her a b o u t her o w n p o w e r c o m p l e x

62

and

this respect t h e d r e a m s p o i n t e d to a secret m e g -


a l o m a n i a , w h i c h offset t h e d r e a m e r ' s f e e l i n g o f

images a n d m a d e t h e m unrecognizable or mis-

inferiority. T h i s u n c o n s c i o u s i d e a of g r a n d e u r

l e a d i n g in o r d e r to decei ve t h e d r e a m i n g c o n -

insulated h i m from t h e r e a l i t y of his e n v i r o n -

sciousness a b o u t t h e real subject of t h e d r e a m .

ment a n d e n a b l e d h i m to r e m a i n aloof

from

By c o n c e a l i n g

the critical

o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d b e i m p e r a t i v e for o t h e r

dreamer,

"censor"

p e o p l e . H e felt n o n e e d

a g a i n s t t h e shock of a d i s a g r e e a b l e r e m i n i s c e n c e .

to p r o v e — e i t h e r

to

the

thought

protected

from his

the sleep

himself or to o t h e r s — t h a t his s u p e r i o r j u d g -

But I a m skeptical a b o u t the theory t h a t

ment was based on superior merit.

d r e a m is a g u a r d i a n o f s l e e p ; d r e a m s j u s t a s

H e w a s , in fact, u n c o n s c i o u s l y p l a y i n g

an

the

often d i s t u r b sleep.

insane g a m e , a n d the d r e a m s w e r e seeking to

I t r a t h e r l o o k s a s if t h e a p p r o a c h

to

con-

b r i n g it t o t h e l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n a c u r i -

s c i o u s n e s s h a s a " b l o t t i n g - o u t " effect u p o n t h e

ously a m b i g u o u s w a y . H o b n o b b i n g w i t h N a p o -

s u b l i m i n a l c o n t e n t s of t h e p s y c h e . T h e s u b l i m i -

leon

and

being

on

speaking

terms

with

Alexander the Great are exactly the kind fantasies p r o d u c e d b y a n i n f e r i o r i t y But w h y , o n e a s k s , c o u l d

of

complex.

not the d r e a m

nal state retains ideas a n d images at a

much

l o w e r level of t e n s i o n t h a n t h e y possess in c o n sciousness.

In

the subliminal

condition

they

be

lose clarity of d e f i n i t i o n ; t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n

o p e n a n d d i r e c t a b o u t it a n d s a y w h a t it h a d

t h e m a r e less c o n s e q u e n t i a l a n d m o r e v a g u e l y

to s a y w i t h o u t a m b i g u i t y ?

a n a l o g o u s , less r a t i o n a l a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e " i n -

I h a v e frequently b e e n asked this q u e s t i o n ,

c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . " T h i s c a n also be o b s e r v e d in

a n d I h a v e a s k e d it m y s e l f . I a m o f t e n s u r p r i s e d

all

dreamlike

conditions,

whether

due

to

at t h e t a n t a l i z i n g w a y d r e a m s s e e m t o e v a d e

f a t i g u e , f e v e r , o r t o x i n s . B u t if s o m e t h i n g h a p -

definite i n f o r m a t i o n o r o m i t t h e d e c i s i v e p o i n t .

p e n s to e n d o w a n y of these i m a g e s w i t h g r e a t e r

Freud a s s u m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a special func-

t e n s i o n , t h e y b e c o m e less s u b l i m i n a l a n d ,

tion o f t h e p s y c h e , w h i c h h e c a l l e d t h e

t h e y c o m e close to t h e t h r e s h o l d of conscious-

sor." T h i s ,

he supposed,

Left, a d o w n - a n d - o u t a l c o h o l i c in a New York slum (from the 1 9 5 5 film On the Bowery). Such a figure might appear in t h e d r e a m s of a m a n w h o felt himself to be s u p e r i o r t o others. In t h i s w a y his u n c o n s c i o u s w o u l d be c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r his conscious m i n d ' s onesidedness.

Right, The Nightmare, painted by the 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y S w i s s - b o r n artist Henry Fuseli. A l m o s t e v e r y o n e has been a w a k e n e d , u p s e t , or d i s t u r b e d by his d r e a m s ; o u r s l e e p d o e s n o t appear to be p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e contents of the u n c o n s c i o u s .

twisted

the

"cendream

ness, m o r e s h a r p l y defined.

as


It is from this fact that one may understand why dreams often express themselves as analogies, why one dream image slides into another, and why neither the logic nor the time scale of our waking life seems to apply. T h e form that dreams take is natural to the unconscious because the material from which they are produced is retained in the subliminal state in precisely this fashion. Dreams do not guard sleep from what Freud called the "incompatible w i s h . " What he called " d i s g u i s e " is actually the shape all "impulses naturally take in the unconscious. Thus, a dream cannot produce a definite thought. If it begins to do so, it ceases to be a dream because it crosses the threshold of consciousness. T h a t is why dreams seem to skip the very points that are most important to the conscious mind, and seem rather to manifest the "fringe of consciousness," like the faint gleam of stars during a total eclipse of the sun. We should understand that dream symbols are for the most part manifestations of a psyche that is beyond the control of the conscious mind. M e a n i n g and purposefulness are not the prerogatives of the m i n d ; they operate in the whole of living nature. There is no difference in principle between organic and psychic growth. As a plant produces its flower, so the psyche creates its symbols. Every dream is evidence of this process. So, by means of dreams (plus all sorts of intuitions, impulses, and other spontaneous events), instinctive forces influence the activity of consciousness. Whether that influence is for better or for worse depends upon the actual contents of the unconscious. If it contains too many things that normally ought to be conscious, then its function becomes twisted and prejudiced; motives appear that are not based upon true instincts, but that owe their existence and psychic importance to the fact that they have been consigned to the unconscious by repression or neglect. T h e y overlay, as it were, the normal unconscious psyche and distort its natural tendency to express basic symbols and motifs. Therefore it is reasonable for a psychoanalyst, concerned with the causes of a mental disturbance, to begin by eliciting from his

64

patient a more or less voluntary confession and realization of everything that the patient dislikes or fears. This is like the much older confession of the Church, which in many ways anticipated modern psychological techniques. At least this is the general rule. In practice, however, it may work the other way r o u n d ; overpowering feelings of inferiority or serious weakness may make it very difficult, even impossible, for the patient to face fresh evidence of his own inadequacy. So I have often found it profitable to begin by giving a positive outlook to the patient; this provides a helpful sense of security when he approaches the more painful insights. T a k e as an example a dream of "personal exaltation" in which, for instance, one has tea with the queen of England, or finds oneself on intimate terms with the pope. If the dreamer is not a schizophrenic, the practical interpretation of the symbol depends very much upon his present state of mind — that is, the condition of his ego. If the dreamer overestimates his own value, it is easy to show (from the material produced by association of ideas) how inappropriate and childish the dreamer's intentions are, and how much they emanate from childish wishes to be equal to or superior to his parents. But if it is a case of inferiority, where an allpervading feeling of worthlessness has already overcome every positive aspect of the dreamer's personality, it would be quite wrong to depress him still more by showing how infantile, ridiculous, or even perverse he is. T h a t would cruelly increase his inferiority, as well as cause an unwelcome and quite unnecessary resistance to the treatment. T h e r e is no therapeutic technique or doctrine that is of general application, since every case that one receives for treatment is an individual in a specific condition. I remember a patient I once had to treat over a period of nine years.

Right, the heroic dreams with which Walter Mitty (in the 1947 film of JamesThurber's story) compensates his sense of inferiority.


I s a w h i m o n l y for a f e w w e e k s e a c h y e a r , s i n c e

If I h a d

he lived a b r o a d . F r o m t h e s t a r t I k n e w w h a t his

w o u l d h a v e t o l d y o u w h a t it w a s a t m y

b e e n a b l e t o t a l k f r e e l y a b o u t it, I

real t r o u b l e w a s , b u t I also s a w t h a t t h e least

consultation.

But that would

have

first

destroyed

a t t e m p t to get close to t h e t r u t h w a s m e t b y a

my rapport with you. W h e r e should I have been

violent

a

then? I should have been morally bankrupt. In

c o m p l e t e r u p t u r e b e t w e e n us. W h e t h e r I liked

t h e c o u r s e o f 10 y e a r s I h a v e l e a r n e d t o t r u s t

it o r n o t , I h a d t o d o m y b e s t t o m a i n t a i n o u r

y o u ; a n d as m y confidence g r e w , m y

r e l a t i o n a n d to follow his i n c l i n a t i o n , w h i c h w a s

tion i m p r o v e d .

defensive

reaction

that

threatened

condi-

I i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e this slow

our

p r o c e s s r e s t o r e d m y belief in myself. N o w I a m

discussion a w a y from t h e root of his neurosis.

s t r o n g e n o u g h to discuss t h e p r o b l e m t h a t w a s

W e r a n g e d so w i d e l y t h a t I o f t e n a c c u s e d m y s e l f

destroying m e . "

supported

b y his d r e a m s a n d w h i c h led

of l e a d i n g m y p a t i e n t a s t r a y . N o t h i n g b u t t h e fact

that

his

condition

slowly

but

clearly

i m p r o v e d p r e v e n t e d m e from confronting

him

brutally with the truth.

H e then m a d e a devastatingly frank

o n s for t h e p e c u l i a r c o u r s e o u r t r e a t m e n t had

I n t h e 10th y e a r , h o w e v e r , t h e p a t i e n t d e -

confes-

sion of his p r o b l e m , w h i c h s h o w e d m e t h e r e a s to follow.

T h e original shock h a d

had been

s u c h t h a t a l o n e h e h a d b e e n u n a b l e to face it.

all

H e n e e d e d the help of a n o t h e r , a n d the t h e r a -

his s y m p t o m s . I w a s s u r p r i s e d b e c a u s e t h e o r e t i -

p e u t i c task w a s the slow e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o n -

cally his c o n d i t i o n w a s i n c u r a b l e . N o t i c i n g m y

fidence,

a s t o n i s h m e n t , h e s m i l e d a n d said (in

clinical theory.

c l a r e d h i m s e l f to b e c u r e d a n d freed from

effect):

" A n d I w a n t t o t h a n k y o u a b o v e a l l for y o u r unfailing t a c t a n d p a t i e n c e in h e l p i n g m e

rather

than

the demonstration

F r o m cases like this I l e a r n e d to a d a p t

of a my

to

m e t h o d s to t h e n e e d s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t ,

neurosis.

r a t h e r t h a n to c o m m i t myself to g e n e r a l t h e o r e -

I a m n o w r e a d y t o tell y o u e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t i t .

tical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t m i g h t be i n a p p l i c a b l e

c i r c u m v e n t the painful c a u s e of m y

The Madhouse, p a i n t e d by G o y a N o t e the " k i n g " and the " b i s h o p " on the right'. S c h i z o p h r e n i a o f t e n t a k e s t h e f o r m of " p e r s o n a l e x a l t a t i o n "

65


in

any

particular

case.

The

knowledge

of

An

example

comes

to m y

dream

c o u r s e of 60 y e a r s of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e

riding on horseback across a wide

has

t a u g h t m e to c o n s i d e r e a c h case as a n e w o n e

in w h i c h

that

h u m a n n a t u r e t h a t I h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d in t h e

mind

a g r o u p of y o u n g

is a

men field.

are The

d r e a m e r is in t h e l e a d a n d h e j u m p s a d i t c h

in w h i c h , first ol a l l , I h a v e h a d t o s e e k t h e i n -

full o f w a t e r , j u s t c l e a r i n g t h i s h a z a r d . T h e r e s t

d i v i d u a l a p p r o a c h . S o m e t i m e s I h a v e not hesi-

o f t h e p a r t y fall i n t o t h e d i t c h . N o w t h e y o u n g

tated to p l u n g e i n t o a careful s t u d y of infantile

man

events a n d fantasies; at o t h e r times I h a v e be-

c a u t i o u s , i n t r o v e r t e d type. But I also h e a r d the

g u n a t t h e l o p , e v e n if t h i s h a s m e a n t

soaring

s a m e d r e a m f r o m a n o l d m a n of d a r i n g c h a r -

metaphysical

a c t e r , w h o h a d lived a n active a n d e n t e r p r i s i n g

learning

life. A t t h e t i m e h e h a d t h i s d r e a m , h e w a s a n

straight

into

speculations.

the

most

remote

It a l l d e p e n d s o n

l a n g u a g e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t a n d

the

follow-

who

first

told

me

this

dream

was

a

i n v a l i d w h o g a v e his d o c t o r a n d n u r s e a g r e a t

i n g t h e g r o p i n g s of his u n c o n s c i o u s t o w a r d t h e

deal of t r o u b l e ; h e h a d a c t u a l l y i n j u r e d

light. S o m e cases d e m a n d o n e m e t h o d a n d s o m e

self b y h i s d i s o b e d i e n c e o f m e d i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s .

another.

him-

It w a s c l e a r t o m e t h a t t h i s d r e a m w a s t e l l i n g

l i t i s is e s p e c i a l l y t r u e w h e n o n e s e e k s t o i n -

t h e y o u n g m a n w h a t h e ought t o d o . B u t it w a s

terpret symbols. T w o different individuals m a y

t e l l i n g t h e o l d m a n w h a t h e a c t u a l l y w a s still

have almost exactly the s a m e d r e a m .

lining. W h e r e a s it e n c o u r a g e d t h e h e s i t a n t y o u n g

T h i s , as

o n e s o o n d i s c o v e r s in c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , is less

m a n . t h e o l d m a n w a s in n o s u c h n e e d o f e n -

uncommon

c o u r a g e m e n t ; t h e s p i r i t o f e n t e r p r i s e t h a t still

than the l a y m a n m a y think.)

Yet

if. for i n s t a n c e , o n e d r e a m e r is y o u n g a n d

the

flickered w i t h i n h i m w a s . i n d e e d , his g r e a t e s t

is

trouble. This e x a m p l e shows how the interpre-

be

t a t i o n of d r e a m s a n d s y m b o l s l a r g e l y d e p e n d s

other old. the p r o b l e m correspondingly

that disturbs them

different,

and

it

would

o b v i o u s l y a b s u r d t o i n t e r p r e t b o t h d r e a m s in

upon

the same wav.

d r e a m e r a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n of his m i n d .

the

individual

circumstances

of

the

As this m u s e u m display s h o w s , the f e t u s of m a n r e s e m b l e s t h o s e of other animals (and thus provides an i n d i c a t i o n of m a n ' s p h y s i c a l e v o l u t i o n ) T h e p s y c h e , t o o , has " e v o l v e d "; a n d s o m e c o n t e n t s o f m o d e r n man's u n c o n s c i o u s resemble p r o d u c t s of t h e m i n d of a n c i e n t m a n J u n g termed these p r o d u c t s archetypal images

66


The archetype in dream symbolism

I have already suggested that dreams serve the purpose of compensation. This assumption means that the dream is a normal psychic phenomenon that transmits unconscious reactions orspontaneousimpulses to consciousness. M a n y dreams can be interpreted with the help of the dreamer, who provides both the associations to and the context of the dream image, by means of which one can look at all its aspects.

our body is based on the general anatomical pattern of the m a m m a l . T h e trained eye of the anatomist or the biologist finds many traces of this original pattern in our bodies. T h e experienced investigator of the mind can similarly see the analogies between the dream pictures of modern man and the products of the primitive mind, its "collective i m a g e s , " and its mythological motifs.

This method is adequate in all ordinary cases, such as those when a relative, a friend, or a patient tells you a dream more or less in the course of conversation. But when it is a matter of obsessive dreaming or of highly emotional dreams, the personal associations produced by the dreamer do not usually suffice for a satisfactory interpretation. In such cases, we have to take into consideration the fact (first observed and commented on by Freud J that elements often occur in a dream that are not individual and that cannot be derived from the dreamer's personal experience. These elements, as I have previously mentioned, are what Freud called " a r c h a i c remnants" mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal, innate, and inherited shapes of the human mind.

J u s t as the biologist needs the science of comparative anatomy, however, the psychologist cannot do without a " c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy of the p s y c h e . " In practice, to put it differently, the psychologist must have a sufficient experience not only of dreams and other products of unconscious activity, but also of mythology in its widest sense. Without this equipment, nobody can spot the important analogies; it is not possible, for instance, to see the analogy between a case of compulsion neurosis and that of a classical demonic possession without a working knowledge of both.

Just as the human body represents a whole museum of organs, each with a long evolutionary history behind it, so we should expect to find that the mind is organized in a similar way. It can no more be a product without history than is the body in which it exists. By "history" I do not mean the fact that the mind builds itself up by conscious reference to the past through language and other cultural traditions. I am referring to the biological, prehistoric, and unconscious development of the mind in archaic man, whose psyche was still close to that of the animal. This immensely old psyche forms the basis of our mind, just as much as the structure of

M y views about the " a r c h a i c remnants," which I call " a r c h e t y p e s " or "primordial i m a g e s , " have been constantly criticized by people who lack a sufficient knowledge of the psychology of dreams and of mythology. T h e term " a r c h e t y p e " is often misunderstood as meaning certain definite mythological images or motifs. But these are nothing more than conscious representations; it would be absurd to assume that such variable representations could be inherited. T h e archetype is a tendency to form such representations ofa motif—representations that can vary a great deal in detail without losing their basic pattern. T h e r e are, for instance, many representations of the motif of the hostile brethren, but the motif itself remains the same. M y critics have incorrectly assumed that I am dealing with "inherited representations," and on that ground they have dismissed the idea of the archetype as mere superstition. They have 67


M a n ' s unconscious archetypal images are as i n s t i n c t i v e as t h e a b i l i t y of g e e s e t o m i g r a t e ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) ; as a n t s ' f o r m i n g o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t i e s ; as b e e s ' t a i l - w a g g i n g d a n c e ( a b o v e ) t h a t c o m m u n i c a t e s to t h e h i v e t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n of a f o o d s o u r c e

A m o d e r n professor had a " v i s i o n " e x a c t l y like a w o o d c u t in an o l d b o o k t h a t he h a d n e v e r s e e n . R i g h t , the b o o k ' s title page; and another w o o d c u t , symbolizing the male and female principles united. Such a r c h e t y p a l s y m b o l s arise f r o m t h e p s y c h e ' s a g e - o l d c o l l e c t i v e basis.

68


if

relate

to a n y t h i n g

archetypes were representations that originated

could

have passed on

in o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( o r w e r e a c q u i r e d b y c o n -

s o m e of these p a t i e n t s w e r e h i g h l y e d u c a t e d : A

failed

to t a k e

into

account

the

fact

that

they

could

remember

sciousness), w e s h o u l d surely u n d e r s t a n d t h e m ,

few of t h e m w e r e a c t u a l l y p s y c h i a t r i s t s

and not be b e w i l d e r e d

selves.

and astonished

they p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n o u r They

are,

indeed,

an

when

consciousness.

instinctive

trend,

or

to their c h i l d r e n .

Yet

them-

I v i v i d l y r e c a l l t h e c a s e of a professor

who

as

h a d h a d a s u d d e n vision a n d t h o u g h t he w a s

m a r k e d as t h e i m p u l s e of b i r d s to b u i l d nests,

i n s a n e . H e c a m e t o s e e m e in a s t a t e o f c o m -

or a n t s t o f o r m o r g a n i z e d c o l o n i e s .

plete panic. I simply took a 400-year-old

book

between

from the shelf a n d s h o w e d h i m a n old w o o d c u t

instincts a n d a r c h e t y p e s : W h a t w e p r o p e r l y call

d e p i c t i n g h i s v e r y v i s i o n . " T h e r e ' s n o r e a s o n for

instincts a r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l u r g e s , a n d a r e p e r -

you to believe that y o u ' r e i n s a n e , " I said

ceived b y t h e s e n s e s . B u t a t

time,

h i m . " T h e y k n e w a b o u t y o u r vision 4 0 0 years

they a l s o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s in f a n t a s i e s a n d

a g o . " W h e r e u p o n he sat d o w n entirely deflated,

often r e v e a l t h e i r p r e s e n c e o n l y b y

but once more normal.

Here

I must

clarify

the

relation

the same

symbolic

images. T h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a r e w h a t

I call

the a r c h e t y p e s . T h e y a r e w i t h o u t k n o w n o r i g i n ;

to

A very i m p o r t a n t case c a m e to m e from m a n w h o was himself a psychiatrist. O n e

a

day

a n d t h e y r e p r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s in a n y t i m e o r

he brought m e a h a n d w r i t t e n booklet he h a d

in a n y p a r t o f t h e w o r l d — e v e n w h e r e

r e c e i v e d as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t from

trans-

h i s 10-

mission b y d i r e c t d e s c e n t o r " c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n "

\ e a r - o l d d a u g h t e r . It c o n t a i n e d a w h o l e s e r i e s

through migration must be ruled out.

of d r e a m s s h e

I can r e m e m b e r m a n y cases of p e o p l e have c o n s u l t e d m e b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e

who

They

had

had

when

she was

eight.

m a d e u p t h e w e i r d e s t series of d r e a m s

baflled

t h a t I h a v e ever seen, a n d I c o u l d well u n d e r -

children's.

stand why the father was more than just puz-

T h e y w e r e a t a c o m p l e t e loss t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e

zled by t h e m . T h o u g h childlike, they w e r e u n -

t e r m s of t h e d r e a m s . T h e r e a s o n w a s t h a t

the

cannv. and they contained images whose origin

dreams contained images that they could

not

was

by t h e i r o w n

d r e a m s or bv their

whollv

incomprehensible

to

the

father.

69


H e r e are the relevant motifs from the d r e a m s :

b i t s of it a t e v e r y o n e w h o p a s s e s . I n t h i s w a y

1. " T h e evil a n i m a l . " a s n a k e l i k e m o n s t e r w i t h

all t h e p a s s e r s - b y b e c o m e b a d .

m a n y h o r n s , kills a n d d e v o u r s a l l o t h e r a n i m a l s .

7. A d r u n k e n w o m a n falls i n t o t h e w a t e r

B u t G o d c o m e s f r o m t h e f o u r c o r n e r s , b e i n g in

comes out renewed a n d sober.

and

fact f o u r s e p a r a t e g o d s , a n d g i v e s r e b i r t h t o a l l

8. T h e s c e n e is in A m e r i c a , w h e r e m a n y p e o p l e

the dead animals.

are rolling on an ant

2. A n a s c e n t i n t o h e a v e n , w h e r e p a g a n d a n c e s

a n t s . T h e d r e a m e r , in a p a n i c , falls i n t o a r i v e r .

heap, attacked

by

a r e b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d ; a n d a descent i n t o hell,

9 . T h e r e is a d e s e r t o n t h e m o o n

where angels are doing good deeds.

d r e a m e r s i n k s so d e e p l y i n t o t h e g r o u n d

3.

A

horde

of s m a l l

animals

frightens

the

where

the the that

she r e a c h e s hell.

d r e a m e r . T h e a n i m a l s increase to a t r e m e n d o u s

10. I n

s i z e , a n d o n e of t h e m d e v o u r s t h e l i t t l e g i r l .

l u m i n o u s b a l l . S h e t o u c h e s it. V a p o r s e m a n a t e

4.

A small

mouse

s n a k e s , fishes, a n d

is p e n e t r a t e d human

by

beings.

worms, Thus

this d r e a m

t h e girl h a s a vision of a

f r o m it. A m a n c o m e s a n d kills h e r .

the

1 1. T h e g i r l d r e a m s s h e is d a n g e r o u s l y ill. S u d -

m o u s e b e c o m e s h u m a n . T h i s p o r t r a y s the four

d e n l y b i r d s c o m e o u t of h e r skin a n d c o v e r h e r

s t a g e s of t h e o r i g i n o f m a n k i n d .

completely.

5. A d r o p o f w a t e r is s e e n , as it a p p e a r s w h e n

12. S w a r m s of g n a t s o b s c u r e t h e s u n . t h e m o o n ,

l o o k e d at t h r o u g h a m i c r o s c o p e .

a n d all t h e s t a r s , e x c e p t o n e . T h a t o n e s t a r falls

T h e g i r l sees

t h a t t h e d r o p is lull o f t r e e b r a n c h e s . T h i s p o r t r a y s t h e o r i g i n of t h e w o r l d . 6. A b a d b o v h a s a c l o d o f e a r t h a n d

7"

upon the dreamer. In

throws

dream

the unabridged

German

original,

each

b e g i n s w i t h t h e w o r d s of t h e o l d

fairv


Parallels to a r c h e t y p a l m o t i f s in the girl's first d r e a m ( p . 7 0 ) : Left, f r o m S t r a s b o u r g C a t h e d r a l , Christ c r u c i f i e d o n A d a m ' s g r a v e symbolizing t h e t h e m e of r e b i r t h (Christ as t h e s e c o n d A d a m ) . In a Navaho s a n d p a i n t i n g , a b o v e , t h e horned heads are t h e f o u r c o r n e r s of the w o r l d . In B r i t a i n ' s r o y a l coronation ceremony, the m o n a r c h (right. Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h II in 1 9 5 3 ) is presented to t h e p e o p l e at t h e four d o o r s of W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y .

tale: " O n c e u p o n a t i m e . . . . " By these w o r d s the little d r e a m e r suggests that she feels as if each d r e a m w e r e a sort of fairy tale, which she wants to tell her father as a C h r i s t m a s present, flic l a t h e r tried to e x p l a i n the d r e a m s in terms of their c o n t e x t . But he could not d o so, lor there seemed to he no personal associations to t h e m . T h e possibility t h a t these d r e a m s w e r e conscious e l a b o r a t i o n s can of course be ruled out only by s o m e o n e w h o knew the child well enough to be absolutely sure of her truthfulness. (They w o u l d , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n a c h a l l e n g e to our u n d e r s t a n d i n g even if they w e r e fantasies. | In this case, the l a t h e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t the d r e a m s w e r e a u t h e n t i c , a n d I h a v e no reason to doubt it. I knew the little girl myself, but this was before she g a v e her d r e a m s to her l a t h e r , so that I had no c h a n c e to ask her a b o u t t h e m . She lived a b r o a d a n d died of an infectious disease a b o u t a y e a r after that C h r i s t m a s .

7"


Her dreams have a decidedly peculiar character. T h e i r l e a d i n g t h o u g h t s are m a r k e d l y philosophic in c o n c e p t . T h e first o n e , for i n s t a n c e , speaks of a n evil m o n s t e r killing o t h e r a n i m a l s , b u t G o d gives r e b i r t h to t h e m all t h r o u g h a d i v i n e Apokatastasis, or restitution. In the W e s t e r n w o r l d this i d e a is k n o w n t h r o u g h the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . It c a n be found in the Acts of the Apostles r n : 2 1 : " [ C h r i s t ] w h o m the h e a v e n m u s t receive until the t i m e of restitution of all things. . . . " T h e early G r e e k F a t h e r s of t h e C h u r c h (for i n s t a n c e , O r i g e n ) p a r t i c u l a r l y insisted u p o n the idea t h a t , at the end of t i m e , e v e r y t h i n g will b e restored by t h e R e d e e m e r to its original a n d perfect s t a t e . But, a c c o r d i n g to St. M a t t h e w x v n : l l , t h e r e was a l r e a d y a n old J e w i s h t r a d i t i o n t h a t Elias " t r u l y shall first c o m e , a n d restore all t h i n g s . " I C o r i n t h i a n s x v : 2 2 refers to the s a m e i d e a in the following w o r d s : " F o r as in A d a m all die, even so in Christ shall all b e m a d e a l i v e . " O n e m i g h t guess t h a t t h e child h a d e n c o u n tered this t h o u g h t in h e r religious e d u c a t i o n .

A b o v e , the h e r o - g o d Raven (of the H a i d a I n d i a n s of A m e r i c a ' s P a c i f i c C o a s t ) in t h e b e l l y of a w h a l e — c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the " d e v o u r i n g m o n s t e r " m o t i f in t h e g i r l ' s first dream (p. 7 0 ) .

T h e girl's s e c o n d d r e a m — o f a n g e l s in hell a n d d e m o n s in h e a v e n — seems t o e m b o d y t h e idea of t h e relativity of morality. The same c o n c e p t is e x p r e s s e d in t h e d u a l a s p e c t of t h e f a l l e n a n g e l w h o is both Satan, the devil, and (right) Lucifer, t h e r e s p l e n d e n t b r i n g e r of l i g h t . T h e s e o p p o s i t e s c a n also be seen in t h e f i g u r e of G o d , far r i g h t ( i n a d r a w i n g b y B l a k e ) : He a p p e a r s to J o b , in a d r e a m , w i t h a c l o v e n h o o f like a d e m o n ' s .

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But she h a d very little religious b a c k g r o u n d . H e r p a r e n t s w e r e P r o t e s t a n t s in n a m e ; b u t in fact they k n e w the Bible only from h e a r s a y . It is p a r t i c u l a r l y unlikely t h a t the r e c o n d i t e i m a g e of Apokataslasis h a d b e e n fully e x p l a i n e d to the girl. C e r t a i n l y h e r father h a d n e v e r h e a r d of this m y t h i c a l idea. N i n e of the 12 d r e a m s a r e influenced by the t h e m e of d e s t r u c t i o n a n d r e s t o r a t i o n . A n d n o n e of these d r e a m s shows traces of specific C h r i s tian e d u c a t i o n or influence. O n the c o n t r a r y , they a r e m o r e closely related to p r i m i t i v e m y t h s . T h i s relation is c o r r o b o r a t e d by the o t h e r m o t i f — t h e " c o s m o g o n i c m y t h " (the crea t i o n of the world a n d of m a n ) t h a t a p p e a r s in the fourth a n d fifth d r e a m s . T h e s a m e c o n n e c tion is found in I C o r i n t h i a n s x v : 2 2 , w h i c h I h a v e j u s t q u o t e d . In this passage too, A d a m a n d Christ ( d e a t h a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n ) a r e linked together. T h e g e n e r a l idea of Christ the R e d e e m e r belongs to the w o r l d - w i d e a n d p r e - C h r i s t t h e m e of the h e r o a n d rescuer w h o , a l t h o u g h he has


been d e v o u r e d by a m o n s t e r , a p p e a r s a g a i n in a miraculous way, having overcome whatever monster it was t h a t swallowed h i m . W h e n a n d where such a motif o r i g i n a t e d n o b o d y knows. We d o not even k n o w h o w to go a b o u t investigating the p r o b l e m . T h e o n e a p p a r e n t c e r t a i n t y is that every g e n e r a t i o n seems to h a v e k n o w n it as a t r a d i t i o n h a n d e d d o w n from s o m e p r e c e d ing time. T h u s w e c a n safely a s s u m e t h a t it " o r i g i n a t e d " at a p e r i o d w h e n m a n did not yet know t h a t he possessed a h e r o m y t h ; in a n age, that is to say, w h e n h e did not yet consciously reflect on w h a t h e was saying. T h e h e r o figure is an a r c h e t y p e , w h i c h has existed since t i m e immemorial. T h e p r o d u c t i o n of a r c h e t y p e s by c h i l d r e n is especially significant, b e c a u s e o n e c a n s o m e times be q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t a child has h a d n o direct access to the t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n e d . In this case, the girl's family h a d n o m o r e t h a n a superficial a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the C h r i s t i a n t r a dition. C h r i s t i a n t h e m e s m a y , of course, b e represented by such ideas as G o d , angels, h e a -

ven, hell, a n d evil. But the w a y in w h i c h they a r e t r e a t e d by this child points to a totally n o n - C h r i s t i a n origin. Let us take the first d r e a m of the G o d w h o really consists of four gods, c o m i n g from the " f o u r c o r n e r s . " T h e c o r n e r s of w h a t ? T h e r e is n o r o o m m e n t i o n e d in the d r e a m . A r o o m w o u l d not even fit in w i t h the p i c t u r e of w h a t is obviously a cosmic e v e n t , in w h i c h the U n i versal Being himself i n t e r v e n e s . T h e q u a t e r n i t y (or e l e m e n t of " f o u r n e s s " ) itself is a s t r a n g e i d e a , b u t o n e t h a t plays a g r e a t role in m a n y religions a n d philosophies. I n t h e C h r i s t i a n r e ligion, it has b e e n s u p e r s e d e d by the T r i n i t y , a notion t h a t we must a s s u m e was k n o w n to the child. But w h o in a n o r d i n a r y middle-class family of t o d a y w o u l d be likely to k n o w of a d i v i n e q u a t e r n i t y ? It is a n idea t h a t was o n c e fairly familiar a m o n g s t u d e n t s of the H e r m e t i c p h i l o s o p h y in the M i d d l e Ages, b u t it p e t e r e d out w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the 18th c e n t u r y , a n d it has b e e n entirely obsolete for at least 200 years. W h e r e , t h e n , did the little girl pick it u p ?

V / j t k D r e a m s upon my b e d t h o a n e a r e s t i n e ^ a l f n g k e s t m e with. V i s i o n s

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F r o m EzekieFs vision? But t h e r e is no C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g t h a t identifies t h e s e r a p h i m with G o d . T h e s a m e q u e s t i o n m a y he asked a b o u t the h o r n e d s e r p e n t . In the Bible, it is t r u e , t h e r e are m a n y h o r n e d a n i m a l s in the Book of R e v e l a t i o n , for i n s t a n c e . But all these seem to be q u a d r u p e d , a l t h o u g h their overlord is the d r a g o n , the G r e e k w o r d for w h i c h (drakon) also m e a n s s e r p e n t . The h o r n e d serpent a p p e a r s in 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y L a t i n a l c h e m y as the quadricornulus serpens f o u r - h o r n e d s e r p e n t ) , a symbol of M e r c u r y a n d a n a n t a g o n i s t of the C h r i s t i a n Trinity. But this is an o b s c u r e reference. So far as I can discover, it is m a d e by only o n e a u t h o r ; a n d this child h a d n o m e a n s of k n o w ing it. In the second d r e a m , a motif a p p e a r s that is definitely n o n - C h r i s t i a n a n d that c o n t a i n s a reversal of a c c e p t e d values for i n s t a n c e , p a g a n d a n c e s by m e n in h e a v e n a n d good deeds by angels in hell. This symbol suggests a relativity of m o r a l values. W h e r e did the child find such a r e v o l u t i o n a r y n o t i o n , w o r t h y of Nietzsche's genius? These q u e s t i o n s lead us to a n o t h e r : W h a t is the c o m p e n s a t o r y m e a n i n g of these d r e a m s , to which the little girl obviously a t t r i b u t e d so

m u c h i m p o r t a n c e t h a t she p r e s e n t e d t h e m to her father as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t ? If the d r e a m e r h a d b e e n a p r i m i t i v e m e d i cine m a n , o n e could r e a s o n a b l y a s s u m e that they represent v a r i a t i o n s of the philosophical t h e m e s ol d e a t h , of resurrection or restitution, of the origin of the w o r l d , the c r e a t i o n of m a n . a n d the relativity of values. But o n e m i g h t give u p such d r e a m s as hopelessly difficult if one tried to i n t e r p r e t t h e m from a personal level. They u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t a i n '"collective i m a g e s . " a n d they a r e in a w a y a n a l o g o u s to the d o c trines t a u g h t to y o u n g people in p r i m i t i v e tribes w h e n they a r e a b o u t to be initiated as m e n . At such times they learn a b o u t w h a t G o d , or the gods, or the " f o u n d i n g " a n i m a l s h a v e d o n e , how the world a n d m a n w e r e c r e a t e d , how the end of the world will c o m e , a n d the m e a n i n g ol d e a t h . Is t h e r e a n y occasion w h e n we, in Christian civilization, h a n d out similar instructions? There is: in adolescence. But m a n y people begin to think a g a i n of things like this in old a g e . at the a p p r o a c h of d e a t h . The little girl, as it h a p p e n e d , was in both these situations. She was a p p r o a c h i n g p u b e r t y a n d , at the s a m e t i m e , the e n d of her life. Little or n o t h i n g in the symbolism of h e r d r e a m s

T h e little g i r l ' s d r e a m s (p. 7 0 ) c o n t a i n s y m b o l s of c r e a t i o n , d e a t h , and rebirth, w h i c h resemble the t e a c h i n g s g i v e n t o a d o l e s c e n t s in p r i m i t i v e i n i t i a t i o n rituals. Left, t h e e n d of a N a v a h o c e r e m o n y : A girl, having b e c o m e a w o m a n , g o e s i n t o t h e desert t o m e d i t a t e .

D e a t h a n d r e b i r t h s y m b o l i s m also a p p e a r s in d r e a m s at t h e e n d of life, w h e n t h e a p p r o a c h of d e a t h casts a s h a d o w b e f o r e it. R i g h t , o n e of G o y a ' s last p a i n t i n g s : T h e strange creature, apparently a d o g , that emerges f r o m the dark c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e artist's f o r e s h a d o w i n g of his d e a t h In m a n y m y t h o l o g i e s d o g s a p p e a r as g u i d e s to t h e l a n d of t h e d e a d

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points to the b e g i n n i n g of a n o r m a l a d u l t life, but t h e r e a r e m a n y allusions to d e s t r u c t i o n a n d restoration. W h e n I first r e a d h e r d r e a m s , indeed, I h a d the u n c a n n y feeling that they suggested i m p e n d i n g disaster. T h e reason I felt like that was the p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of the c o m pensation that I d e d u c e d from the s y m b o l i s m . It was the o p p o s i t e of w h a t o n e w o u l d expect to find in the consciousness of a girl of t h a t age. T h e s e d r e a m s o p e n u p a new a n d r a t h e r terrifying aspect of life a n d d e a t h . O n e w o u l d expect to find such i m a g e s in a n a g i n g person who looks back u p o n life, r a t h e r t h a n to be given t h e m by a child w h o w o u l d n o r m a l l y be looking f o r w a r d . T h e i r a t m o s p h e r e recalls the old R o m a n saying, "Life is a short d r e a m , " rather t h a n the j o y a n d e x u b e r a n c e of its springtime. For this c h i l d ' s life was like a ver sacrum vovendum (vow of a v e r n a l sacrifice), as the R o m a n poet p u t s it. E x p e r i e n c e shows that the u n k n o w n a p p r o a c h of d e a t h casts an adumbratio (an a n t i c i p a t o r y s h a d o w ; over the life a n d d r e a m s of the victim. Even the a l t a r in C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s r e p r e s e n t s , o n the one h a n d , a t o m b a n d , on the o t h e r , a p l a c e of resurrection the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of d e a t h into e t e r n a l life.

S u c h a r e the ideas t h a t the d r e a m s b r o u g h t h o m e to the child. T h e y w e r e a p r e p a r a t i o n for d e a t h , expressed t h r o u g h short stories, like the tales told at p r i m i t i v e initiations or the Koans of Z e n B u d d h i s m . T h i s message is unlike the o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e a n d m o r e like a n c i e n t p r i m i t i v e t h o u g h t . It seems to h a v e o r i g i n a t e d o u t s i d e historical t r a d i t i o n in the long-forgotten psychic sources t h a t , since p r e historic times, h a v e n o u r i s h e d philosophical a n d religious s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t life a n d d e a t h . It was as if future events w e r e casting their s h a d o w back by a r o u s i n g in the child certain t h o u g h t forms t h a t , t h o u g h n o r m a l l y d o r m a n t , describe or a c c o m p a n y the a p p r o a c h of a fatal issue. A l t h o u g h the specific s h a p e in w h i c h they express themselves is m o r e or less p e r s o n a l , their g e n e r a l p a t t e r n is collective. T h e y a r e found e v e r y w h e r e a n d at all times, just as a n i m a l instincts vary a good d e a l in the different species a n d yet serve the s a m e general p u r poses. W e d o not a s s u m e t h a t e a c h n e w - b o r n a n i m a l creates its o w n instincts as a n i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n , a n d we must not suppose t h a t h u m a n i n d i v i d u a l s invent their specific h u m a n ways with every n e w b i r t h . Like the instincts, the collective t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s of the h u m a n m i n d a r e i n n a t e a n d i n h e r i t e d . T h e y function, w h e n the occasion arises, in m o r e or less the s a m e way in all of us. E m o t i o n a l manifestations, to w h i c h such t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s belong, a r e r e c o g n i z a b l y the s a m e all over the e a r t h . W e c a n identify t h e m even in a n i m a l s , a n d the a n i m a l s themselves u n d e r s t a n d o n e a n o t h e r in this respect, even t h o u g h they m a y b e l o n g to different species. A n d w h a t a b o u t insects, with their c o m p l i c a t e d s y m b i o t i c functions? Most of t h e m d o not even know their p a r e n t s a n d h a v e n o b o d y to teach t h e m . W h y should o n e a s s u m e , t h e n , t h a t m a n is the only living b e i n g d e p r i v e d of specific instincts, or that his psyche is devoid of all traces of its e v o l u t i o n ? .Naturally, if you identify the psyche with consciousness, you can easily fall into the e r r o neous idea that m a n c o m e s i n t o the world with a psyche that is e m p t y , a n d t h a t in later years it c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n w h a t it has 7.-,


l e a r n e d by i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . But the psyche is m o r e t h a n consciousness. A n i m a l s h a v e little consciousness, b u t m a n y impulses a n d reactions t h a t d e n o t e the existence of a p s y c h e ; a n d p r i m i t i v e s d o a lot of things whose m e a n i n g is u n k n o w n to t h e m . You m a y ask m a n y civilized p e o p l e in vain for the real m e a n i n g of the C h r i s t m a s tree or of the E a s t e r egg. T h e fact is, they d o things w i t h o u t k n o w i n g w h y they d o t h e m . I a m inclined to the view t h a t things w e r e generally d o n e first a n d t h a t it was only a long t i m e a f t e r w a r d t h a t s o m e b o d y asked w h y they w e r e d o n e . T h e m e d i c a l psychologist is c o n s t a n t l y confronted w i t h o t h e r w i s e intelligent p a t i e n t s who b e h a v e in a peculiar a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e w a y a n d w h o h a v e n o inkling of w h a t they say or d o . T h e y a r e s u d d e n l y c a u g h t by u n r e a s o n able m o o d s for w h i c h they themselves c a n n o t account. Superficially, such reactions a n d impulses seem to be of a n i n t i m a t e l y personal n a t u r e , a n d so we dismiss t h e m as i d i o s y n c r a t i c behavior. In fact, they a r e based u p o n a p r e formed a n d e v e r - r e a d y instinctive system t h a t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a n . T h o u g h t forms, u n i v e r sally u n d e r s t a n d a b l e gestures, a n d m a n y a t t i tudes follow a p a t t e r n t h a t was established long before m a n d e v e l o p e d a reflective consciousness. It is even c o n c e i v a b l e that the early origins of m a n ' s c a p a c i t y to reflect c o m e from the p a i n ful c o n s e q u e n c e s of violent e m o t i o n a l clashes. Let me take, p u r e l y as a n illustration of this point, the b u s h m a n w h o , in a m o m e n t of a n g e r

a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t at his failure to c a t c h a n y fish, strangles his m u c h beloved only son, a n d is then seized with i m m e n s e regret as he holds the little d e a d b o d y in his a r m s . S u c h a m a n m i g h t r e m e m b e r this m o m e n t of p a i n for ever. W e c a n n o t k n o w w h e t h e r this kind of experie n c e was a c t u a l l y the initial cause of the d e v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n consciousness. But t h e r e is n o d o u b t t h a t the shock of a similar e m o tional e x p e r i e n c e is often n e e d e d to m a k e people w a k e u p a n d p a y a t t e n t i o n to w h a t they a r e d o i n g . T h e r e is a famous case of a 13thc e n t u r y S p a n i s h h i d a l g o , R a i m o n Lull, w h o finally (after a long chase) succeeded in m e e t i n g the lady he a d m i r e d at a secret r e n d e z v o u s . S h e silently o p e n e d her dress a n d showed h i m her breast, r o t t e n with c a n c e r . T h e shock c h a n g e d Lull's life; he e v e n t u a l l y b e c a m e a n e m i n e n t theologian a n d o n e of the C h u r c h ' s greatest missionaries. In the case of such a s u d d e n c h a n g e o n e c a n often p r o v e t h a t a n a r c h e t y p e has b e e n at work for a long t i m e in the u n c o n scious, skillfully a r r a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t will lead to the crisis. S u c h e x p e r i e n c e s seem to show t h a t a r c h e typal forms a r e not j u s t static p a t t e r n s . T h e y are d y n a m i c factors t h a t manifest themselves in impulses, j u s t as s p o n t a n e o u s l y as the instincts. C e r t a i n d r e a m s , visions, or t h o u g h t s can s u d d e n l y a p p e a r ; a n d h o w e v e r carefully one investigates, o n e c a n n o t find o u t w h a t causes t h e m . T h i s does not m e a n t h a t they h a v e n o c a u s e ; they c e r t a i n l y h a v e . But it is so r e m o t e or o b s c u r e t h a t o n e c a n n o t see w h a t it is. In

S o m e d r e a m s s e e m to p r e d i c t t h e f u t u r e ( p e r h a p s d u e to u n c o n s c i o u s k n o w l e d g e of f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) ; t h u s d r e a m s w e r e l o n g u s e d as d i v i n a t i o n . In G r e e c e t h e sick w o u l d ask t h e h e a l i n g g o d A s k l e p i o s f o r a d r e a m i n d i c a t i n g a c u r e . Left, a relief d e p i c t s s u c h a d r e a m c u r e : A snake (the g o d ' s s y m b o l ) bites a man's diseased shoulder and the g o d (far left) heals t h e s h o u l d e r . R i g h t , C o n s t a n t i n e ( a n Italian painting c 1 4 6 0 ) dreaming before a battle that w a s to make him R o m a n E m p e r o r . He d r e a m e d of t h e cross, a s y m b o l of C h r i s t , a n d a v o i c e said: " I n this sign c o n q u e r . " He t o o k t h e s i g n as his e m b l e m , w o n the battle, and w a s thus converted to Christianity


such a case, o n e must wait either until the d r e a m a n d its m e a n i n g a r e sufficiently u n d e r stood, or until s o m e e x t e r n a l event occurs that will e x p l a i n the d r e a m . At the m o m e n t of the d r e a m , this event m a y still lie in the future. But just as o u r conscious t h o u g h t s often o c c u p y themselves with the future a n d its possibilities, so d o the u n c o n s c i o u s a n d its d r e a m s . There has long been a general belief t h a t the chief function of d r e a m s is p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n of t h e future. In a n t i q u i t y , a n d as late as the M i d d l e Ages, d r e a m s p l a y e d their p a r t in m e d i c a l prognosis. I c a n confirm by a m o d e r n d r e a m the e l e m e n t of prognosis (or p r e cognition that c a n be found in a n old d r e a m rpioted by A r t e m i d o r u s of Daldis, in the second c e n t u r y A . O . A m a n d r e a m e d t h a t he saw his l a t h e r die in the flames of a house on (ire. Not long a f t e r w a r d s , he himself died in a phlegmon? (fire, or high lexer:, which I p r e s u m e was pneumonia. It so h a p p e n e d that a colleague of m i n e was once suffering from a d e a d l y g a n g r e n o u s fever in fact, a phlegmone. A former patient of his, w h o h a d no k n o w l e d g e of the n a t u r e of his d o c t o r ' s illness, d r e a m e d t h a t the d o c t o r died in a g r e a t fire. At that time the d o c t o r h a d just e n t e r e d a hospital a n d the disease was only b e g i n n i n g . T h e d r e a m e r knew n o t h i n g but the b a r e fact that his d o c t o r was ill a n d in a hospital. Three weeks later, the d o c t o r d i e d . As this e x a m p l e shows, d r e a m s m a y h a v e a n a n t i c i p a t o r y or prognostic aspect, a n d a n y b o d y trying to i n t e r p r e t t h e m must take this into c o n s i d e r a t i o n , especially w h e r e a n obviously meaningful d r e a m does not p r o v i d e a context

sufficient to e x p l a i n it. S u c h a d r e a m often comes right out of the b l u e , a n d o n e w o n d e r s w h a t could h a v e p r o m p t e d it. O f course, if one knew its ulterior message, its c a u s e would be clear. For it is only o u r consciousness that does not yet k n o w ; the unconscious seems a l r e a d y informed, a n d to h a v e c o m e to a conclusion that is expressed in the d r e a m . In fact, the unconscious seems to be a b l e to e x a m i n e a n d to d r a w conclusions from facts, m u c h as consciousness does. It can even use c e r t a i n facts, a n d a n t i c i p a t e their possible results, just because we a r e not conscious of t h e m . But as far as o n e can m a k e out from d r e a m s , the u n c o n s c i o u s makes its d e l i b e r a t i o n s instinctively. The distinction is i m p o r t a n t . Logical analysis is the p r e r o g a t i v e of consciousness; we select with reason a n d k n o w l e d g e . The u n c o n scious, h o w e v e r , seems to be g u i d e d chiefly by instinctive t r e n d s , r e p r e s e n t e d by c o r r e s p o n d i n g t h o u g h t forms that is. by the a r c h e t y p e s . A d o c t o r w h o is asked to describe the course of an illness will use such r a t i o n a l concepts as " i n f e c t i o n " or " f e v e r . " The d r e a m is more poetic. It presents the diseased b o d y as a m a n ' s e a r t h l y house, a n d the fever as the fire that is d e s t r o y i n g it. As the a b o v e d r e a m shows, the a r c h e t y p a l m i n d has h a n d l e d the situation in the s a m e way as it did in the t i m e of A r t e m i d o r u s . S o m e t h i n g that is of a m o r e or less u n k n o w n n a t u r e has been intuitively g r a s p e d In the unconscious a n d s u b m i t t e d to an a r c h e t y p a l t r e a t m e n t . This suggests t h a t , instead of the process of reasoning t h a t conscious t h o u g h t w o u l d h a v e a p p l i e d , the a r c h e t y p a l m i n d has s t e p p e d in a n d t a k e n over

In a d r e a m q u o t e d f r o m A r t e m i d o r u s on this page, a b u r n i n g house s y m b o l i z e s a fever T h e h u m a n b o d y is o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d as a h o u s e : Left, f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y H e b r e w encyclopedia, the body and a house are c o m p a r e d in d e t a i l — t u r r e t s as ears, w i n d o w s as eyes, a f u r n a c e as s t o m a c h , etc. R i g h t , in a c a r t o o n by J a m e s T h u r b e r , a h e n p e c k e d h u s b a n d sees his h o m e a n d his w i f e as the s a m e b e i n g


the task of p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n . The a r c h e t y p e s thus have their o w n initiative a n d their o w n specific energy. T h e s e p o w e r s e n a b l e t h e m b o t h to p r o d u c e a m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (in t h e i r o w n symbolic style) a n d to interfere in a given situation with their o w n impulses a n d their o w n t h o u g h t formations. In this respect, they function like c o m p l e x e s ; they c o m e a n d g o very much as they please, a n d often they o b s t r u c t or modify o u r conscious i n t e n t i o n s in a n e m b a r rassing w a y . W e can perceive the specific e n e r g v of a r c h e t y p e s w h e n we e x p e r i e n c e the p e c u l i a r fascination that a c c o m p a n i e s t h e m . T h e y seem to hold a special spell. S u c h a p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y is also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ol the personal c o m p l e x e s ; and just as personal c o m p l e x e s h a v e their individual history, so d o social c o m p l e x e s of a n a r c h e t y p a l c h a r a c t e r . But while personal c o m plexes never p r o d u c e m o r e t h a n a personal bias, a r c h e t y p e s c r e a t e m y t h s , religions, a n d philosophies that influence a n d c h a r a c t e r i z e whole nations a n d epochs of history. W e r e g a r d the personal c o m p l e x e s as c o m p e n s a t i o n s for o n e sided or faulty a t t i t u d e s of consciousness; in the saine w a y . m y t h s of a religious n a t u r e can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a sort of m e n t a l t h e r a p y for the sufferings a n d anxieties of m a n k i n d in general h u n g e r , w a r , disease, old a g e , d e a t h . The universal h e r o m y t h , lot e x a m p l e , always refers to a powerful m a n or g o d - m a n who v a n q u i s h e s evil in the form of d r a g o n s , serpents, monsters, d e m o n s , a n d so on, a n d w h o liberates his p e o p l e from d e s t r u c t i o n a n d d e a t h , fhe n a r r a t i o n or ritual r e p e t i t i o n of sacred texts and c e r e m o n i e s , a n d the w o r s h i p of such a

The e n e r g y of a r c h e t y p e s c a n be focused ( t h r o u g h rituals a n d o t h e r appeals to m a s s e m o t i o n ) t o m o v e people to c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n T h e Nazis k n e w this, a n d u s e d v e r s i o n s of T e u t o n i c m y t h s t o h e l p rally the c o u n t r y to their c a u s e Far r i g h t , a p r o p a g a n d a p a i n t i n g of H i t l e r as a heroic c r u s a d e r ; r i g h t , a s o l s t i c e festival c e l e b r a t e d in s u m m e r by the Hitler Y o u t h , a revival of an ancient p a g a n f e s t i v a l

figure with d a n c e s , music, h y m n s , p r a y e r s , a n d sacrifices, g r i p the a u d i e n c e with n u m i n o u s e m o t i o n s (as if with m a g i c spells) a n d exalt the i n d i v i d u a l to a n identification with the h e r o . II we try to see such a situation with the eyes of a believer, we c a n p e r h a p s u n d e r s t a n d how the o r d i n a r y m a n can be l i b e r a t e d from his personal i m p o t e n c e a n d misery a n d end o w e d (at least t e m p o r a r i l y ) with a n almost s u p e r h u m a n q u a l i t y . Often e n o u g h such a conviction will sustain him for a long t i m e a n d give a c e r t a i n style to his life. It m a y even set the tone of a w h o l e society. A r e m a r k a b l e instance of this can be found in the Eleusinian mysteries, w h i c h w e r e finally suppressed at the b e g i n n i n g of the seventh c e n t u r y of the Christian era. They expressed, t o g e t h e r with the Delphic o r a c l e , the essence a n d spirit of a n c i e n t G r e e c e . O n a m u c h g r e a t e r scale, the C h r i s t i a n era itself owes its n a m e a n d significance to the a n t i q u e mystery of t h e g o d - m a n . w h i c h has its roots in the a r c h e t y p a l O s i r i s - H o r u s m y t h of a n c i e n t Egypt. It is c o m m o n l y a s s u m e d that on s o m e given occasion in prehistoric times, the basic m y t h o logical ideas w e r e " i n v e n t e d " by a clever old p h i l o s o p h e r or p r o p h e t , a n d ever afterward " b e l i e v e d " by a c r e d u l o u s a n d uncritical p e o p l e . It is said t h a t stories told by a p o w e r seeking priesthood are not " t r u e . " but merely "'wishful t h i n k i n g . " But the very word " i n v e n t " is derived from the L a t i n invenirt, a n d m e a n s to " i i n d " a n d h e n c e to find s o m e t h i n g by •"seeki n g " it. In the latter case the w o r d itself hints at some foreknowledge of w h a t you a r e going to find.


T o p , a c h i l d ' s p a i n t i n g of C h r i s t m a s i n c l u d e s t h e f a m i l i a r tree d e c o r a t e d w i t h c a n d l e s . T h e e v e r g r e e n tree is c o n n e c t e d w i t h Christ t h r o u g h t h e s y m b o l i s m of t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e a n d t h e " n e w y e a r " ( t h e n e w a e o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y ) There are m a n y l i n k s b e t w e e n Christ a n d t h e tree s y m b o l : T h e c r o s s is o f t e n seen as a tree, as in a m e d i e v a l Italian f r e s c o , left, of Christ c r u c i f i e d o n t h e tree of k n o w l e d g e . C a n d l e s in C h r i s t i a n c e r e m o n i e s s y m b o l i z e d i v i n e l i g h t , as in t h e S w e d i s h festival of St L u c i a ( a b o v e ) , w h e r e girls w e a r c r o w n s of burning candles.

8o


Let me go b a c k to the s t r a n g e ideas contained in the d r e a m s of the little girl. It seems unlikely t h a t she s o u g h t t h e m o u t , since she was surprised to find t h e m . T h e y o c c u r r e d to h e r rather as p e c u l i a r a n d u n e x p e c t e d stories, w h i c h seemed n o t e w o r t h y e n o u g h to be given to h e r father as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t . I n d o i n g so, h o w ever, she lifted t h e m u p i n t o t h e s p h e r e of o u r still living C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r y — t h e b i r t h of o u r Lord, m i x e d w i t h the secret of the e v e r g r e e n tree t h a t carries the n e w - b o r n L i g h t . ( T h i s is the reference of t h e fifth d r e a m . )

similar t e r m s d e s i g n a t e a " p o w e r " of e x t r a o r d i n a r y efficiency a n d pervasiveness, w h i c h we s h o u l d call d i v i n e . T h u s the w o r d mungu is their e q u i v a l e n t for A l l a h or G o d . ) W h e n I asked t h e m w h a t they m e a n t by this act, or w h y they did it, they w e r e c o m p l e t e l y baffled. T h e y c o u l d only s a y : " W e h a v e always d o n e it. I t has a l w a y s b e e n d o n e w h e n the sun rises." T h e y l a u g h e d a t t h e obvious conclusion t h a t the sun is mungu. T h e sun i n d e e d is not mungu w h e n it is a b o v e the h o r i z o n ; mungu is the a c t u a l m o m e n t of t h e sunrise.

A l t h o u g h t h e r e is a m p l e historical e v i d e n c e for the s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n C h r i s t a n d the tree s y m b o l , t h e little girl's p a r e n t s w o u l d have b e e n g r a v e l y e m b a r r a s s e d h a d they b e e n asked to e x p l a i n exactly w h a t they m e a n t by decorating a tree w i t h b u r n i n g c a n d l e s to celebrate the n a t i v i t y of Christ. " O h , it's j u s t a Christmas c u s t o m ! " t h e y w o u l d h a v e said. A serious a n s w e r w o u l d r e q u i r e a f a r - r e a c h i n g dissertation a b o u t the a n t i q u e symbolism of the dying god, a n d its r e l a t i o n to t h e cult of the Great M o t h e r a n d h e r s y m b o l , the t r e e — t o mention only one aspect of this c o m p l i c a t e d problem. f

W h a t they w e r e d o i n g was obvious to m e , b u t n o t to t h e m ; they j u s t did it, n e v e r reflecting o n w h a t they d i d . T h e y w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y u n a b l e to e x p l a i n themselves. I c o n c l u d e d t h a t they w e r e offering t h e i r souls to mungu, because the b r e a t h (of life) a n d the spittle m e a n " s o u l - s u b s t a n c e . " T o b r e a t h e or spit u p o n s o m e t h i n g conveys a " m a g i c a l " effect, as, for i n s t a n c e , w h e n C h r i s t used spittle to c u r e the b l i n d , or w h e r e a son inhales his d y i n g father's last b r e a t h in o r d e r to take over the father's soul. It is most unlikely t h a t these Africans ever, even in t h e r e m o t e past, k n e w a n y m o r e a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g of their c e r e m o n y . I n fact, their ancestors p r o b a b l y knew even less, because they w e r e even m o r e p r o f o u n d l y u n c o n s c i o u s of their motives a n d t h o u g h t less a b o u t their doings.

T h e further we delve into the origins of a "collective i m a g e " (or, to express it in ecclesiastical l a n g u a g e , of a d o g m a ) , the m o r e we u n cover a seemingly u n e n d i n g w e b of a r c h e t y p a l patterns t h a t , before m o d e r n times, w e r e n e v e r the object of conscious reflection. T h u s , p a r a doxically e n o u g h , we k n o w m o r e a b o u t m y t h o logical s y m b o l i s m t h a n did a n y g e n e r a t i o n before o u r o w n . T h e fact is t h a t in former times men did not reflect u p o n their s y m b o l s ; they lived t h e m a n d w e r e unconsciously a n i m a t e d by their m e a n i n g . I will illustrate this by a n e x p e r i e n c e I o n c e had w i t h the p r i m i t i v e s of M o u n t E l g o n in Africa. E v e r y m o r n i n g at d a w n , they leave their huts a n d b r e a t h e or spit i n t o t h e i r h a n d s , w h i c h they t h e n stretch o u t to t h e first rays of the s u n , as if they w e r e offering e i t h e r their b r e a t h or their spittle to the rising god — to mungu. ( T h i s Swahili w o r d , w h i c h t h e y used in e x p l a i n i n g the ritual act, is d e r i v e d from a Polynesian root equivalent to mana or mulungu. T h e s e a n d

G o e t h e ' s F a u s t a p t l y says: "Im Anfang war die Tat [ I n the b e g i n n i n g was t h e d e e d ] . " " D e e d s " w e r e n e v e r i n v e n t e d , they w e r e d o n e ; t h o u g h t s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , are a relatively late discovery of m a n . First he was m o v e d to deeds by u n c o n s c i o u s factors; it was only a long t i m e a f t e r w a r d t h a t he b e g a n to reflect u p o n the causes t h a t h a d m o v e d h i m ; a n d it took h i m a very long t i m e i n d e e d to arrive at the p r e p o s t e r o u s idea t h a t he must h a v e moved himself—his m i n d b e i n g u n a b l e to identify a n y o t h e r m o t i v a t i n g force t h a n his o w n . W e s h o u l d l a u g h at the idea of a p l a n t or a n a n i m a l i n v e n t i n g itself, yet t h e r e a r e m a n y p e o p l e w h o believe t h a t the psyche or m i n d i n v e n t e d itself a n d thus was t h e c r e a t o r of its o w n existence. As a m a t t e r of fact, the m i n d has g r o w n to its present state of consciousness as a n a c o r n grows i n t o a n oak or as s a u r i a n s 81


d e v e l o p e d into m a m m a l s . As it has for so long been d e v e l o p i n g , so it still develops, a n d thus we a r e m o v e d by forces from w i t h i n as well as by stimuli from w i t h o u t . T h e s e i n n e r motives s p r i n g from a d e e p source t h a t is not m a d e by consciousness a n d is not u n d e r its c o n t r o l . In the m y t h o l o g y of earlier times, these forces w e r e called mana, or spirits, d e m o n s , a n d gods. T h e y a r e as active t o d a y as they ever w e r e . If they c o n f o r m to o u r wishes, we call t h e m h a p p y h u n c h e s or impulses a n d p a t ourselves o n the back for b e i n g s m a r t fellows. If they go a g a i n s t us, t h e n we say t h a t it is j u s t b a d luck, or t h a t c e r t a i n p e o p l e a r e against us, or t h a t t h e cause of o u r misfortunes must be p a t h o l o g i c a l . T h e o n e t h i n g we refuse to a d m i t is t h a t we a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n " p o w e r s " that are beyond our control.

a c t i o n w i t h o u t a h i t c h , w h e r e a s the p r i m i t i v e seems to be h a m p e r e d at e a c h step by fears, superstitions, a n d o t h e r unseen obstacles to a c t i o n . T h e m o t t o " W h e r e t h e r e ' s a will, t h e r e ' s a w a y " is the superstition of m o d e r n m a n . Yet in o r d e r to sustain his c r e e d , c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n pays the price in a r e m a r k a b l e lack of i n t r o s p e c t i o n . H e is blind to the fact t h a t , with all his r a t i o n a l i t y a n d efficiency, he is possessed by " p o w e r s " t h a t a r e b e y o n d his control. His gods a n d d e m o n s h a v e not d i s a p p e a r e d at a l l ; they h a v e merely got n e w n a m e s . They keep him on the r u n w i t h restlessness, v a g u e a p p r e h e n s i o n s , psychological c o m p l i c a t i o n s , a n i n s a t i a b l e need for pills, alcohol, t o b a c c o , food

It is t r u e , h o w e v e r , t h a t in r e c e n t times civilized m a n has a c q u i r e d a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of will p o w e r , w h i c h he c a n a p p l y w h e r e he pleases. H e has l e a r n e d to d o his work efficiently w i t h out h a v i n g recourse to c h a n t i n g a n d d r u m m i n g to h y p n o t i z e h i m i n t o t h e state of d o i n g . Hec a n even dispense w i t h a daily p r a y e r for d i v i n e aid. H e c a n c a r r y o u t w h a t he proposes to d o , a n d he c a n a p p a r e n t l y t r a n s l a t e his ideas into

T w o e x a m p l e s of belief in t h e " m a g i c a l " g u a l i t y of b r e a t h : B e l o w left, a Z u l u w i t c h d o c t o r c u r e s a p a t i e n t by b l o w i n g i n t o his ear t h r o u g h a c o w ' s horn (to drive the spirits o u t ) ; b e l o w , a m e d i e v a l p a i n t i n g of t h e c r e a t i o n d e p i c t s G o d b r e a t h i n g life i n t o A d a m . R i g h t , in a 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y Italian p a i n t i n g , Christ heals a b l i n d m a n w i t h s p i t t l e — w h i c h , like b r e a t h , has l o n g been believed to have a lifegiving ability

a n d , a b o v e all, a large a r r a y of neuroses.


The soul of man

What we call civilized consciousness has steadily separated itself from the basic instincts. But these instincts h a v e not d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e y h a v e merely lost their c o n t a c t w i t h o u r consciousness and are thus forced to assert themselves in an indirect fashion. T h i s m a y be by m e a n s of physical s y m p t o m s in the case of a neurosis, or by means of i n c i d e n t s of v a r i o u s kinds, such as unaccountable m o o d s , u n e x p e c t e d forgetfulness, or mistakes in speech. A m a n likes to believe that he is the m a s t e r of his soul. But as long as he is u n a b l e to c o n t r o l his moods a n d e m o t i o n s , or to be conscious of the myriad secret w a y s in w h i c h unconscious factors insinuate themselves into his a r r a n g e ments and decisions, he is c e r t a i n l y not his o w n master. T h e s e u n c o n s c i o u s factors owe their existence to the a u t o n o m y of the a r c h e t y p e s . Modern m a n protects himself against seeing his own split state by a system of c o m p a r t m e n t s . Certain areas of o u t e r life a n d of his o w n behavior are kept, as it w e r e , in s e p a r a t e

d r a w e r s a n d a r c never confronted with o n e another. As an e x a m p l e of this so-called c o m p a r t m e n t psychology, I r e m e m b e r the case of an alcoholic w h o h a d c o m e u n d e r the l a u d a b l e influence of a c e r t a i n religious m o v e m e n t , a n d , fascinated by its e n t h u s i a s m , h a d forgotten that he n e e d e d a d r i n k . H e was obviously a n d m i r a c u l o u s l y c u r e d by J e s u s , a n d he was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y displayed as a witness to divine g r a c e or to the efficiency of the said religious o r g a n i z a t i o n . But after a few weeks of p u b l i c confessions, the novelty b e g a n to pale a n d some alcoholic refreshment seemed to be i n d i c a t e d , a n d so he d r a n k a g a i n . But this t i m e the helpful o r g a n ization c a m e to the conclusion t h a t the case was " p a t h o l o g i c a l " a n d obviously not s u i t a b l e for a n i n t e r v e n t i o n by J e s u s , so they p u t him into a clinic to let the d o c t o r d o b e t t e r t h a n the div ine healer. T h i s is a n aspect of the m o d e r n " c u l t u r a l " m i n d t h a t is w o r t h looking into. It shows a n

ÂŤ3


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alarming d e g r e e of dissociation a n d p s y c h o logical confusion. If, for a m o m e n t , we r e g a r d m a n k i n d as o n e individual, we see t h a t the h u m a n r a c e is like a person c a r r i e d a w a y b y u n c o n s c i o u s p o w e r s ; and the h u m a n r a c e also likes to k e e p c e r t a i n problems t u c k e d a w a y in s e p a r a t e d r a w e r s . But this is why we s h o u l d give a g r e a t d e a l of consideration to w h a t we a r e d o i n g , for m a n k i n d is now t h r e a t e n e d by self-created a n d d e a d l y dangers t h a t a r e g r o w i n g b e y o n d o u r control. Our world is, so to speak, dissociated like a neurotic, w i t h the I r o n C u r t a i n m a r k i n g the symbolic line of division. W e s t e r n m a n , b e c o m ing a w a r e of the aggressive will to p o w e r of the East, sees himself forced to t a k e e x t r a o r d i n ary measures of defense, at the s a m e t i m e as he prides himself on his v i r t u e a n d good intentions. W h a t he fails to see is t h a t it is his o w n vices, which he has covered u p by good i n t e r n a t i o n a l manners, t h a t are t h r o w n b a c k in his face by the c o m m u n i s t w o r l d , shamelessly a n d m e t h odically. W h a t the W e s t has t o l e r a t e d , b u t secretly a n d with a slight sense of s h a m e (the diplomatic lie, systematic d e c e p t i o n , veiled threats), comes b a c k i n t o the o p e n a n d in full measure from the East a n d ties us u p in n e u rotic knots. It is the face of his o w n evil s h a d o w that grins at W e s t e r n m a n from the o t h e r side of the I r o n C u r t a i n . It is this state of affairs t h a t explains the peculiar feeling of helplessness of so m a n y people in W e s t e r n societies. T h e y h a v e b e g u n to realize t h a t the difficulties confronting us are moral p r o b l e m s , a n d t h a t the a t t e m p t s to answer t h e m by a policy of piling u p n u c l e a r arms or by e c o n o m i c " c o m p e t i t i o n " is achieving little, for it cuts b o t h ways. M a n y of us now u n d e r s t a n d t h a t m o r a l a n d m e n t a l m e a n s would be m o r e efficient, since they could p r o vide us with psychic i m m u n i t y a g a i n s t the everincreasing infection.

"Our world is dissociated like a neurotic." Left, the Berlin Wall.

But all such a t t e m p t s h a v e p r o v e d singularly ineffective, a n d will d o so as long as we try to c o n v i n c e ourselves a n d the w o r l d t h a t it is only they (i.e. o u r o p p o n e n t s ) w h o a r e w r o n g , ft w o u l d be m u c h m o r e to the p o i n t for us to m a k e a serious a t t e m p t to recognize o u r o w n s h a d o w a n d its nefarious doings. If we could see o u r s h a d o w (the d a r k side of o u r n a t u r e ) , we s h o u l d be i m m u n e to a n y m o r a l a n d m e n t a l infection a n d i n s i n u a t i o n . As m a t t e r s n o w s t a n d , we lay ourselves o p e n to every infection, b e c a u s e we a r e really d o i n g p r a c t i c a l l y the s a m e t h i n g as they. O n l y we h a v e the a d d i tional d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t we n e i t h e r see n o r w a n t to u n d e r s t a n d w h a t we ourselves are d o i n g , u n d e r the cover of good m a n n e r s . T h e c o m m u n i s t w o r l d , it m a y be n o t e d , has o n e big m y t h (which we call a n illusion, in the v a i n h o p e t h a t o u r s u p e r i o r j u d g m e n t will m a k e it d i s a p p e a r ) . It is the t i m e - h a l l o w e d a r c h e t y p a l d r e a m of a G o l d e n A g e (or P a r a dise), w h e r e e v e r y t h i n g is p r o v i d e d in a b u n d a n c e for e v e r y o n e , a n d a g r e a t , j u s t , a n d wise chief rules over a h u m a n k i n d e r g a r t e n . T h i s powerful a r c h e t y p e in its infantile form has g r i p p e d t h e m , b u t it will n e v e r d i s a p p e a r from the w o r l d at the m e r e sight of o u r superior p o i n t of view. W e even s u p p o r t it by o u r o w n childishness, for o u r W e s t e r n civilization is in the g r i p of the s a m e m y t h o l o g y . Unconsciously, we cherish the s a m e prejudices, h o p e s , a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s . W e too believe in the welfare state, in universal p e a c e , in the e q u a l i t y of m a n , in his e t e r n a l h u m a n rights, in j u s t i c e , t r u t h , a n d (do not say it too loudly) in the K i n g d o m of G o d on E a r t h . T h e sad t r u t h is t h a t m a n ' s real life consists of a c o m p l e x of i n e x o r a b l e o p p o s i t e s — d a y a n d night, b i r t h a n d d e a t h , h a p p i n e s s a n d misery, good a n d evil. W e are n o t even sure t h a t one will prevail against the o t h e r , t h a t good will o v e r c o m e evil, or j o y defeat p a i n . Life is a b a t t l e g r o u n d . It always has b e e n , a n d always will b e ; a n d if it w e r e n o t so, existence w o u l d c o m e to a n e n d . It was precisely this conflict w i t h i n m a n t h a t led the early C h r i s t i a n s to e x p e c t a n d h o p e for a n early e n d to this w o r l d , or the B u d d h i s t s to 85


Every s o c i e t y has its idea of t h e a r c h e t y p a l p a r a d i s e or g o l d e n age t h a t , it is b e l i e v e d , o n c e e x i s t e d a n d w i l l exist a g a i n . Left, a 1 9 t h century American painting embodies t h e idea of a past U t o p i a : It s h o w s W i l l i a m Penn's treaty w i t h the I n d i a n s in 1 6 8 2 o c c u r r i n g in an ideal s e t t i n g w h e r e all is h a r m o n y a n d peace. B e l o w left, a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e idea of a U t o p i a yet to c o m e : A p o s t e r in a M o s c o w park s h o w s L e n i n l e a d i n g t h e Russian p e o p l e t o w a r d the future

A b o v e , the G a r d e n of E d e n , d e p i c t e d as a w a l l e d ( a n d w o m b - l i k e ) g a r d e n in a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y ' F r e n c h p a i n t i n g a n d s h o w i n g t h e e x p u l s i o n of A d a m a n d Eve. R i g h t , a " g o l d e n a g e " of p r i m i t i v e n a t u r a l n e s s is p i c t u r e d in a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g by C r a n a c h ( e n t i t l e d Earthly Paradise). Far r i g h t , t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h artist Brueghel's Land of Cokaygne, a m y t h i c a l l a n d of s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s a n d easy l i v i n g . ( s t o r i e s of w h i c h w e r e w i d e l y p o p u l a r in m e d i e v a l Europe, especially a m o n g the hardw o r k i n g peasants and serfs).


reject all e a r t h l y desires a n d a s p i r a t i o n s . T h e s e basic answers w o u l d be frankly suicidal if they were not linked u p with p e c u l i a r m e n t a l a n d moral ideas a n d practices t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the bulk of both religions a n d t h a t , to a c e r t a i n extent, modify their r a d i c a l d e n i a l of the world. I stress this point b e c a u s e , in o u r t i m e , t h e r e are millions of p e o p l e w h o h a v e lost faith in any kind of religion. S u c h p e o p l e d o not u n d e r stand their religion a n y longer. W h i l e life r u n s smoothly w i t h o u t religion, t h e loss r e m a i n s as good as u n n o t i c e d . But w h e n suffering c o m e s , it is a n o t h e r m a t t e r . T h a t is w h e n p e o p l e begin to seek a w a y o u t a n d to reflect a b o u t the meaning of life a n d its b e w i l d e r i n g a n d painful experiences. It is significant t h a t the psychological d o c t o r (within my e x p e r i e n c e ) is c o n s u l t e d m o r e by Jews and P r o t e s t a n t s t h a n by C a t h o l i c s . T h i s might be e x p e c t e d , for t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h still feels responsible for t h e cura animarum (the care a n d welfare of souls). But in this scientific age, the psychiatrist is a p t to b e asked the questions t h a t o n c e b e l o n g e d in the d o m a i n of the theologian. P e o p l e feel t h a t it m a k e s , or would m a k e , a g r e a t difference if only they h a d a positive belief in a m e a n i n g f u l w a y of life or in God a n d i m m o r t a l i t y . T h e s p e c t e r of a p proaching d e a t h often gives a powerful i n c e n tive to such t h o u g h t s . F r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l , men have h a d ideas a b o u t a S u p r e m e Being (one or several) a n d a b o u t t h e L a n d of the

H e r e a f t e r . O n l y t o d a y d o they t h i n k they c a n d o w i t h o u t such ideas. Because we c a n n o t discover G o d ' s t h r o n e in the sky w i t h a r a d i o telescope or establish (for c e r t a i n ) t h a t a beloved father or m o t h e r is still a b o u t in a m o r e or less c o r p o r e a l form, p e o p l e a s s u m e t h a t such ideas a r e " n o t t r u e . " I w o u l d r a t h e r say t h a t they a r e not " t r u e " enough, for these a r e c o n c e p t i o n s of a kind t h a t h a v e a c c o m p a n i e d h u m a n life from p r e historic times, a n d t h a t still b r e a k t h r o u g h i n t o consciousness at a n y p r o v o c a t i o n . M o d e r n m a n m a y assert t h a t he can dispense w i t h t h e m , a n d h e m a y bolster his o p i n i o n by insisting t h a t t h e r e is n o scientific e v i d e n c e of their t r u t h . O r he m a y even regret the loss of his convictions. But since we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h invisible a n d u n k n o w a b l e things (for G o d is b e y o n d h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d ing, a n d t h e r e is n o m e a n s of p r o v i n g i m m o r tality), w h y s h o u l d we b o t h e r a b o u t e v i d e n c e ? Even if we did not k n o w by reason o u r need for salt in o u r food, we s h o u l d nonetheless profit from its use. W e m i g h t a r g u e t h a t the use of salt is a m e r e illusion of taste or a s u p e r s t i t i o n ; b u t it w o u l d still c o n t r i b u t e to o u r well-being. W h y , t h e n , should we d e p r i v e ourselves of views t h a t w o u l d p r o v e helpful in crises a n d w o u l d give a m e a n i n g to o u r existence? A n d h o w d o we k n o w t h a t such ideas a r e not t r u e ? M a n y p e o p l e w o u l d a g r e e w i t h m e

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if I stated flatly t h a t such ideas a r e p r o b a b l y illusions. W h a t they fail to realize is t h a t the denial is as impossible to " p r o v e " as the assertion of religious belief. W e a r e entirely free to choose w h i c h point of view we t a k e ; it will in a n y case be a n a r b i t r a r y decision. T h e r e is, h o w e v e r , a s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l reason why we should c u l t i v a t e t h o u g h t s t h a t can never be p r o v e d . It is t h a t they a r e k n o w n to be useful. M a n positively needs g e n e r a l ideas and convictions t h a t will give a m e a n i n g to his life a n d e n a b l e him to find a p l a c e for himself in the universe. H e c a n s t a n d t h e most incredible h a r d s h i p s w h e n he is c o n v i n c e d that they m a k e sense; he is c r u s h e d w h e n , on t o p of all his misfortunes, h e has to a d m i t t h a t he is taking p a r t in a " t a l e told by a n i d i o t . " It is the role of religious symbols to give a meaning to the life of m a n . T h e P u e b l o Indians believe t h a t they a r e t h e sons of Father S u n , a n d this belief e n d o w s their life with a perspective ( a n d a goal) t h a t goes far beyond their limited existence. It gives t h e m ample space for the unfolding of personality and p e r m i t s t h e m a full life as c o m p l e t e persons. T h e i r plight is infinitely m o r e satisfactory t h a n t h a t of a m a n in o u r o w n civilization w h o knows t h a t he is ( a n d will r e m a i n ) nothing m o r e t h a n a n u n d e r d o g with n o i n n e r meaning to his life. A sense of a w i d e r m e a n i n g to one's existence is w h a t raises a m a n b e y o n d m e r e g e t t i n g and s p e n d i n g . If he lacks this sense, he is lost and miserable. H a d St. Paul been convinced t h a t he was n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a

Left, the burial c o f f i n of a S o u t h American C a y a p a s I n d i a n . T h e d e a d man is p r o v i d e d w i t h f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g for his life after d e a t h . Religious s y m b o l s a n d beliefs of e v e r y kind give m e a n i n g t o m e n ' s lives ancient p e o p l e s g r i e v e d o v e r d e a t h (right, an E g y p t i a n f i g u r i n e representing m o u r n i n g , w h i c h w a s f o u n d in a t o m b ) ; y e t t h e i r b e l i e f s made t h e m also t h i n k of d e a t h as a positive t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .

w a n d e r i n g t e n t - m a k e r he c e r t a i n l y w o u l d not h a v e been the m a n he was. His real a n d m e a n i n g f u l life lay in the i n n e r c e r t a i n t y t h a t he was the messenger of the L o r d . O n e m a y accuse him of suffering from m e g a l o m a n i a , b u t this o p i n i o n pales before the testim o n y of history a n d the j u d g m e n t of s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s . T h e m y t h that took possession of him m a d e h i m s o m e t h i n g g r e a t e r than a mere craftsman. S u c h a m y t h , h o w e v e r , consists of symbols t h a t h a v e not b e e n i n v e n t e d consciously. T h e y h a v e h a p p e n e d . It was not the m a n J e s u s w h o c r e a t e d the m y t h of the g o d - m a n . It existed for m a n y c e n t u r i e s before his b i r t h . H e himself was seized by this s y m b o l i c idea, w h i c h , as St. M a r k tells us, lifted h i m o u t of the n a r r o w life of t h e N a z a r e n e c a r p e n t e r .


M y t h s go back to the p r i m i t i v e storyteller a n d his d r e a m s , to m e n m o v e d by the stirring of their fantasies. T h e s e p e o p l e w e r e not very different from those w h o m later g e n e r a t i o n s h a v e called poets or p h i l o s o p h e r s . P r i m i t i v e storytellers did not c o n c e r n themselves with the origin of t h e i r fantasies; it was very m u c h later t h a t p e o p l e b e g a n to w o n d e r w h e r e a story o r i g i n a t e d . Vet. c e n t u r i e s a g o , in w h a t we now call "ancient"" G r e e c e , m e n ' s m i n d s w e r e a d v a n c e d e n o u g h t o surmise that the tales of the gods were n o t h i n g but a r c h a i c a n d e x a g g e r a t e d t r a d i t i o n s o f l o n g - b u r i e d kings or chieftains. M e n a l r e a d y t o o k t h e view that the m y t h was too i m p r o b a b l e to m e a n what it said. T h e y therefore tried to r e d u c e it to a g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e form. In m o r e recent times, we h a v e seen the s a m e thing h a p p e n with d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . W e b e c a m e a w a r e , in the years w h e n psychology was in its infancy, that d r e a m s h a d some i m p o r t a n c e . But j u s t as the G r e e k s p e r s u a d e d themselves t h a t t h e i r m y t h s w e r e m e r e l y e l a b o r a t i o n s of r a t i o n a l or " n o r m a l " history, so some of the pioneers of psychology c a m e to the conclusion t h a t d r e a m s did not m e a n w h a t they a p p e a r e d to m e a n . T h e i m a g e s or symbols t h a t they p r e s e n t e d w e r e dismissed as b i z a r r e forms in w h i c h repressed c o n t e n t s o f the psyche a p p e a r e d to the c o n s c i o u s m i n d . It thus c a m e to be t a k e n for g r a n t e d t h a t a d r e a m m e a n t s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n its o b v i o u s s t a t e m e n t . I h a v e a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d my d i s a g r e e m e n t with this idea — a d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t led m c to s t u d y the form as well as the c o n t e n t of d r e a m s . W h y should they m e a n s o m e t h i n g different from their c o n t e n t s ? Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g in n a t u r e t h a t is o t h e r t h a n it is? T h e d r e a m is a n o r m a l a n d n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n , a n d it does not m e a n s o m e t h i n g it is not. T h e T a l m u d even s a y s : " T h e d r e a m is its o w n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " T h e confusion arises b e c a u s e the d r e a m ' s c o n t e n t s a r e s y m b o l i c a n d thus h a v e m o r e t h a n o n e m e a n i n g . T h e symbols point in different directions from those we a p p r e h e n d with the conscious m i n d ; a n d t h e r e fore they r e l a t e to s o m e t h i n g either u n c o n s c i o u s or at least not entirely conscious.

'I"

A b o v e , a c h i l d ' s d r a w i n g of a tree ( w i t h t h e s u n a b o v e i t ) . A tree is o n e of t h e best e x a m p l e s of a m o t i f t h a t o f t e n a p p e a r s in d r e a m s ( a n d e l s e w h e r e ) a n d t h a t c a n have an i n c r e d i b l e v a r i e t y o f m e a n i n g s . It might symbolize evolution, physical g r o w t h , or p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r a t i o n ; it m i g h t s y m b o l i z e s a c r i f i c e or death (Christ's crucifixion on the t r e e ) ; it m i g h t be a p h a l l i c s y m b o l ; it m i g h t be a great deal m o r e . A n d such other c o m m o n dream motifs as t h e cross ( r i g h t ) or t h e lingam (far r i g h t ) c a n also have a vast array of s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s .


T o the scientific m i n d , such p h e n o m e n a as symbolic ideas a r e a n u i s a n c e b e c a u s e they c a n n o t be f o r m u l a t e d in a w a y t h a t is satisfactory to intellect a n d logic. T h e y a r e by no m e a n s the only case of this kind in psychology. T h e t r o u b l e begins with the p h e n o m e n o n of "affect" or e m o t i o n , w h i c h evades all the a t t e m p t s of the psychologist to pin it d o w n with a final definition. T h e cause of t h e difficulty is the s a m e in b o t h cases — the i n t e r v e n tion of the unconscious. I know e n o u g h of the scientific point of view to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t it is most a n n o y i n g to have to d e a l with facts t h a t c a n n o t b e c o m pletely or a d e q u a t e l y g r a s p e d . T h e t r o u b l e with these p h e n o m e n a is t h a t the facts a r e u n d e n i a b l e a n d yet c a n n o t be f o r m u l a t e d in intellectual t e r m s . F o r this o n e w o u l d h a v e to be able to c o m p r e h e n d life itself, for it is life t h a t p r o d u c e s e m o t i o n s a n d symbolic ideas. T h e a c a d e m i c psychologist is perfectly free to dismiss the p h e n o m e n o n of e m o t i o n or the concept of the u n c o n s c i o u s (or b o t h ) from his consideration. Yet they r e m a i n facts to w h i c h the m e d i c a l psychologist at least has to p a y d u e a t t e n t i o n ; for e m o t i o n a l conflicts a n d the intervention of the unconscious a r e the classical features of his science. If he treats a p a t i e n t at all, he comes u p against these irrationalities as

h a r d facts, irrespective of his ability to formulate t h e m in intellectual terms. It is. therefore, epiite n a t u r a l t h a t p e o p l e w h o h a v e not had the m e d i c a l psychologist's e x p e r i e n c e find it difficult to follow w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n psychology ceases to be a t r a n q u i l pursuit for the scientist in his l a b o r a t o r y a n d b e c o m e s a n active p a r t of the a d v e n t u r e of real life. Target p r a c t i c e on a s h o o t i n g r a n g e is far from the battlefield; the d o c t o r has to deal with casualties in a g e n u i n e w a r . H e must c o n c e r n himself with psychic realities, even if he c a n n o t e m b o d y t h e m in scientific definitions. T h a t is w h y no textbook can teach p s y c h o l o g y ; one learns only by a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . W e c a n see this point clearly w h e n we examine certain well-known symbols: T h e cross in t h e C h r i s t i a n religion, for ins t a n c e , is a m e a n i n g f u l s y m b o l t h a t expresses a m u l t i t u d e of aspects, ideas, a n d e m o t i o n s : b u t a cross after a n a m e on a list simply indicates t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l is d e a d . T h e p h a l l u s functions as a n a l l - e m b r a c i n g s y m b o l in the H i n d u religion, but if a street u r c h i n d r a w s o n e on a wall, it just reflects an interest in his penis. Because infantile a n d adolescent fantasies often c o n t i n u e far into a d u l t life, m a n y d r e a m s o c c u r in which t h e r e are u n m i s t a k a b l e sexual allusions. It w o u l d be a b s u r d to u n d e r -

9i


s t a n d t h e m as a n y t h i n g else. But w h e n a m a s o n speaks of m o n k s a n d n u n s to be laid u p o n each o t h e r , or a n electrician of m a l e plugs a n d female sockets, it w o u l d be l u d i c r o u s to suppose t h a t he is i n d u l g i n g in g l o w i n g adolescent fantasies. H e is simply using colorful descriptive n a m e s for his m a t e r i a l s . W h e n an e d u c a t e d H i n d u talks to you a b o u t t h e ling a m (the p h a l l u s t h a t represents t h e god Siva in H i n d u m y t h o l o g y ) , you will h e a r things we W e s t e r n e r s w o u l d n e v e r c o n n e c t w i t h the penis. T h e l i n g a m is certainly n o t a n obscene allusion; n o r is the cross m e r e l y a sign of d e a t h . M u c h d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m a t u r i t y of the d r e a m e r w h o p r o d u c e s such a n i m a g e . T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s a n d symbols d e m a n d s intelligence. It c a n n o t be t u r n e d into a m e c h a n i c a l system a n d t h e n c r a m m e d i n t o u n i m a g i n a t i v e b r a i n s . It d e m a n d s b o t h a n i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e of t h e d r e a m e r ' s indiv i d u a l i t y a n d a n i n c r e a s i n g self-awareness on t h e p a r t of t h e i n t e r p r e t e r . N o e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r in this field will d e n y t h a t t h e r e a r e rules of t h u m b t h a t c a n p r o v e helpful, b u t they m u s t be a p p l i e d with p r u d e n c e a n d intelligence. O n e m a y follow all t h e right rules a n d yet get bogged d o w n in t h e most a p p a l l i n g nonsense, simply by o v e r l o o k i n g a seemingly u n i m p o r t a n t detail t h a t a b e t t e r intelligence w o u l d n o t h a v e missed. Even a m a n of high intellect c a n go b a d l y a s t r a y for lack of i n t u i t i o n or feeling. W h e n we a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d symbols, we a r e not only confronted with t h e symbol itself, b u t we a r e b r o u g h t u p a g a i n s t the wholeness of t h e s y m b o l - p r o d u c i n g i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s includes a study of his c u l t u r a l backg r o u n d , a n d in t h e process o n e fills in m a n y gaps in one's o w n e d u c a t i o n . I h a v e m a d e it a rule myself to consider every case as a n entirely n e w p r o p o s i t i o n a b o u t w h i c h I d o not even k n o w t h e A B C . R o u t i n e responses m a y be p r a c t i c a l a n d useful while o n e is dealing with the surface, b u t as soon as o n e gets in touch with t h e vital p r o b l e m s , life itself takes over a n d even t h e most b r i l l i a n t t h e o r e t i cal premises b e c o m e ineffectual w o r d s . I m a g i n a t i o n a n d i n t u i t i o n a r e vital to o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A n d t h o u g h t h e usual p o p u l a r

9

2

o p i n i o n is t h a t they a r e chiefly v a l u a b l e to poets a n d artists ( t h a t in " s e n s i b l e " m a t t e r s o n e s h o u l d mistrust t h e m ) , they a r e in fact e q u a l l y vital in all t h e h i g h e r g r a d e s of science. H e r e t h e y play a n increasingly i m p o r t a n t role, w h i c h s u p p l e m e n t s t h a t of t h e " r a t i o n a l " intellect a n d its a p p l i c a t i o n to a specific p r o b l e m . E v e n physics, t h e strictest of all a p p l i e d sciences, d e p e n d s to a n a s t o n i s h i n g d e g r e e u p o n intuition, w h i c h works by w a y of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ( a l t h o u g h it is possible to d e m o n s t r a t e afterw a r d t h e logical p r o c e d u r e s t h a t could h a v e led o n e to t h e s a m e result as i n t u i t i o n ) . I n t u i t i o n is a l m o s t i n d i s p e n s a b l e in t h e int e r p r e t a t i o n of symbols, a n d it c a n often e n s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d by the d r e a m e r . But while such a lucky h u n c h m a y be subjectively c o n v i n c i n g , it c a n also be r a t h e r d a n g e r o u s . It c a n so easily lead to a false feeling of security. I t m a y , for i n s t a n c e , seduce b o t h t h e i n t e r p r e t e r a n d t h e d r e a m e r into c o n t i n u i n g a cosy a n d relatively easy r e l a t i o n , w h i c h m a y e n d in a sort of s h a r e d d r e a m . T h e safe basis of real intellectual k n o w l e d g e a n d m o r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g gets lost if o n e is c o n t e n t w i t h t h e v a g u e satisfaction of h a v i n g understood by " h u n c h . " O n e can explain and k n o w only if o n e has r e d u c e d i n t u i t i o n s to a n exact k n o w l e d g e of facts a n d their logical connections. An honest i n v e s t i g a t o r will h a v e to a d m i t t h a t he c a n n o t always d o this, b u t it w o u l d be dishonest n o t to keep it a l w a y s in m i n d . Even a scientist is a h u m a n b e i n g . So it is n a t u r a l for h i m , like o t h e r s , to h a t e t h e things he c a n n o t e x p l a i n . It is a c o m m o n illusion to believe t h a t w h a t w e k n o w t o d a y is all we ever c a n k n o w . N o t h i n g is m o r e v u l n e r a b l e t h a n scientific t h e o r y , w h i c h is a n e p h e m e r a l a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n facts a n d n o t a n everlasting t r u t h in itself. Ancient mythological beings are now curiosities in museums (right). But the archetypes they expressed have not lost their power to affect men's minds. Perhaps the monsters of modern "horror" films (far right) are distorted versions of archetypes that will no longer be repressed.


The role of symbols

W h e n the m e d i c a l psychologist takes a n interest in symbols, he is p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with " n a t u r a l " symbols, as distinct from " c u l t u r a l " symbols. T h e former a r e d e r i v e d from the unconscious c o n t e n t s of the p s y c h e , a n d they therefore r e p r e s e n t a n e n o r m o u s n u m b e r of variations on the essential a r c h e t y p a l images. In m a n y cases they c a n still be t r a c e d back to their a r c h a i c roots i.e. to ideas a n d i m a g e s that we meet in the most a n c i e n t records a n d in p r i m i t i v e societies. T h e c u l t u r a l symbols, on the o t h e r h a n d , a r e those t h a t h a v e b e e n used to express " e t e r n a l t r u t h s , " a n d t h a t a r e still used in m a n y religions. T h e y h a v e g o n e t h r o u g h m a n y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a n d even a long process of m o r e or less conscious d e v e l o p m e n t , and h a v e t h u s b e c o m e collective images accepted by civilized societies. S u c h c u l t u r a l symbols nevertheless retain m u c h of their original n u m i n o s i t y or " s p e l l . " O n e is a w a r e t h a t they c a n evoke a d e e p e m o tional response in s o m e i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d this psychic c h a n g e m a k e s t h e m function in m u c h the s a m e w a y as prejudices. T h e y a r e a factor with w h i c h the psychologist must r e c k o n ; it is folly to dismiss t h e m b e c a u s e , in r a t i o n a l t e r m s , they seem to be a b s u r d or i r r e l e v a n t . T h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u e n t s of o u r m e n t a l m a k e - u p

a n d vital forces in the b u i l d i n g u p of h u m a n society; a n d they c a n n o t be e r a d i c a t e d w i t h o u t serious loss. W h e r e they a r e repressed or neglected, their specific cnergv d i s a p p e a r s into the u n c o n s c i o u s with u n a c c o u n t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e psychic e n e r g y t h a t a p p e a r s to h a v e been lost in this w a y in fact serves to revive a n d intensify w h a t e v e r is u p p e r m o s t in the u n c o n scious— t e n d e n c i e s , p e r h a p s , t h a t h a v e h i t h e r t o h a d no c h a n c e to express themselves or at least h a v e not been allowed a n u n i n h i b i t e d existence in o u r consciousness. S u c h t e n d e n c i e s form a n e v e r - p r e s e n t a n d p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e " s h a d o w " to o u r conscious m i n d . Even t e n d e n c i e s t h a t m i g h t in some c i r c u m s t a n c e s be a b l e to exert a beneficial influence a r e t r a n s f o r m e d into d e m o n s w h e n they a r e repressed. T h i s is w h y m a n y wellm e a n i n g p e o p l e a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y afraid of the unconscious, a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y of psychology. O u r times h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d w h a t it m e a n s for the gates of the u n d e r w o r l d to be o p e n e d . Things whose e n o r m i t y n o b o d y could h a v e i m a g i n e d in the idyllic harmlessness of the first d e c a d e of o u r c e n t u r y h a v e h a p p e n e d a n d h a v e t u r n e d o u r world upside d o w n . E v e r since, the world has r e m a i n e d in a state of s c h i z o p h r e n i a . Not only has civilized G e r m a n y disgorged its

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terrible p r i m i t i v i t y , but Russia is also ruled by it, a n d Africa has b e e n set on fire. N o w o n d e r t h a t t h e W e s t e r n world feels uneasy. M o d e r n m a n does not u n d e r s t a n d h o w m u c h his " r a t i o n a l i s m " (which h a s d e s t r o y e d his c a p a city to respond to n u m i n o u s symbols a n d ideas I has put him at the m e r c y of the psychic " u n d e r w o r l d . " H e has freed himself frqm " s u p e r s t i t i o n " ( o r s o h e believes), but in the p r o cess he has lost his spiritual values to a positively d a n g e r o u s d e g r e e . His m o r a l a n d spiritual t r a d i tion has d i s i n t e g r a t e d , a n d he is now p a y i n g the price for this b r e a k - u p in w o r l d - w i d e diso r i e n t a t i o n a n d dissociation. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e often described w h a t h a p p e n s to a p r i m i t i v e society w h e n its spiritual values a r e exposed to t h e i m p a c t of m o d e r n civilization. Its p e o p l e lose the m e a n i n g of their lives, theirsocial o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s i n t e g r a t e s , a n d they themselves m o r a l l y d e c a y . W e are now in the s a m e c o n d i t i o n . But we h a v e never really u n d e r s t o o d w h a t we h a v e lost, for o u r spiritual leaders u n f o r t u n a t e l y w e r e m o r e interested in p r o t e c t i n g their institutions t h a n in u n d e r s t a n d ing the mystery t h a t symbols present. In m y o p i n i o n , faith docs not e x c l u d e t h o u g h t (which

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is m a n ' s strongest w e a p o n ) , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y m a n y believers seem to b e so afraid of science ( a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y of psychology) that they t u r n a blind eye to the n u m i n o u s psychic powers t h a t forever control m a n ' s fate. W e h a v e stripped all things of their mystery a n d n u m i n o s i t y : n o t h i n g is holy a n y longer. I n earlier ages, as instinctive c o n c e p t s welled u p in the m i n d of m a n , his conscious m i n d could no d o u b t i n t e g r a t e t h e m into a c o h e r e n t psychic p a t t e r n . But the " c i v i l i z e d " m a n is no longer a b l e to d o this. His " a d v a n c e d " consciousness has d e p r i v e d itself of t h e m e a n s by w h i c h the auxiliary c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the instincts a n d the unconscious can be assimilated. These o r g a n s of assimilation a n d i n t e g r a t i o n were n u m i n o u s symbols, held holy by c o m m o n consent. T o d a y , for i n s t a n c e , we talk of " m a t t e r . " W e describe its physical p r o p e r t i e s . W e c o n d u c t l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s to d e m o n s t r a t e some ol its aspects. But the word " m a t t e r " r e m a i n s a d r y , i n h u m a n , a n d purely intellectual c o n c e p t , w i t h o u t a n y psychic significance for us. How different was the former i m a g e of m a t t e r the Great Mother that could e n c o m p a s s a n d cx-


press the p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n a l m e a n i n g of M o t h e r E a r t h . In t h e s a m e w a y , w h a t was the spirit is n o w identified w i t h intellect a n d thus ceases to be the F a t h e r of All. It has d e g e n erated to the limited e g o - t h o u g h t s of m a n ; the immense e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y expressed in the image of " o u r F a t h e r " vanishes into the sand of an intellectual desert. T h e s e t w o a r c h e t y p a l principles lie at the foundation of the c o n t r a s t i n g systems of East and West. T h e masses a n d t h e i r leaders d o not realize, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e is n o s u b s t a n t i a l difference b e t w e e n c a l l i n g the world p r i n c i p l e male a n d a father (spirit), as the West does, or female a n d a m o t h e r ( m a t t e r ) , as t h e C o m munists d o . Essentially, we k n o w as little of the one as of the o t h e r . In earlier times, these p r i n ciples w e r e w o r s h i p e d in all sorts of rituals, which at least s h o w e d the psychic significance they held for m a n . But n o w they h a v e b e c o m e mere a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . As scientific u n d e r s t a n d i n g has g r o w n , so o u r world has b e c o m e d e h u m a n i z e d . M a n feels h i m self isolated in the cosmos, b e c a u s e he is n o longer involved in n a t u r e a n d has lost his e m o tional " u n c o n s c i o u s i d e n t i t y " with n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a . These h a v e slowly lost t h e i r symbolic implications. T h u n d e r is n o l o n g e r the voice of an a n g r y god, n o r is l i g h t n i n g his a v e n g i n g missile. N o river c o n t a i n s a spirit, no tree is the life p r i n c i p l e of a m a n , n o s n a k e the e m b o d i ment of w i s d o m , no m o u n t a i n cave the h o m e of a great d e m o n . No voices now speak to man from stones, p l a n t s , a n d a n i m a l s , n o r does he speak to t h e m believing they can h e a r . His contact with n a t u r e has g o n e , a n d with it has gone the p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y that this symbolic c o n n e c t i o n s u p p l i e d .

This e n o r m o u s loss is c o m p e n s a t e d for by the symbols of o u r d r e a m s . T h e y b r i n g u p o u r original n a t u r e its instincts a n d p e c u l i a r t h i n k i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h o w e v e r , they express their c o n t e n t s in the l a n g u a g e of n a t u r e , w h i c h is s t r a n g e a n d i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to us. It t h e r e fore confronts us with the task of t r a n s l a t i n g it into the r a t i o n a l w o r d s a n d c o n c e p t s of m o d e r n speech, w h i c h has l i b e r a t e d itself from its p r i m i tive e n c u m b r a n c e s n o t a b l y from its mystical p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the things it describes. N o w a d a y s , w h e n we talk of ghosts a n d o t h e r n u m i nous figures, we a r e n o l o n g e r c o n j u r i n g t h e m u p . 'The p o w e r as well as t h e glory is d r a i n e d out of such o n c e - p o t e n t w o r d s . W e h a v e ceased to believe in m a g i c f o r m u l a s ; not m a n y taboos a n d similar restrictions a r e left; a n d o u r world seems to be disinfected of all such " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " m i n i m a as " w i t c h e s , warlocks, a n d worr i c o w s , " to say n o t h i n g ol werewolves, v a m p i r e s , bush souls, a n d all the o t h e r b i z a r r e beings that p o p u l a t e d the p r i m e v a l forest. T o be m o r e a c c u r a t e , the surface of o u r world seems to be cleansed ol all superstitious a n d i r r a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s . W h e t h e r , however, the real inner h u m a n w o r l d mil inn wish-fullilling

Repressed u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s c a n erupt d e s t r u c t i v e l y in the f o r m of negative e m o t i o n s as in W o r l d W a r II Far left, J e w i s h p r i s o n e r s in W a r s a w after the 1 9 4 3 u p r i s i n g ; left, f o o t w e a r of t h e d e a d s t a c k e d at A u s c h w i t z . Right, A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s w h o have d i s i n t e g r a t e d s i n c e t h e y lost their r e l i g i o u s beliefs t h r o u g h contact w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n T h i s t r i b e now numbers only a few hundred

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fiction a b o u t it) is also freed from p r i m i t i v i t y is a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . Is the n u m b e r 13 n o t still t a b o o for m a n y p e o p l e ? A r e t h e r e not still m a n y i n d i v i d u a l s possessed by i r r a t i o n a l prejudices, projections, a n d childish illusions? A realistic p i c t u r e of the h u m a n m i n d reveals m a n y such p r i m i t i v e traits a n d survivals, w h i c h a r e still p l a y i n g their roles just as if n o t h i n g h a d h a p p e n e d d u r i n g the last 500 years. It is essential to a p p r e c i a t e this p o i n t . M o d e r n m a n is in fact a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e of c h a r a c t e r i s tics a c q u i r e d over the long ages of his m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s m i x e d - u p b e i n g is the m a n a n d his symbols t h a t we h a v e to d e a l w i t h , a n d we must scrutinize his m e n t a l p r o d u c t s very carefully i n d e e d . Skepticism a n d scientific conviction exist in h i m side by side w i t h old-fashioned prejudices, o u t d a t e d h a b i t s of t h o u g h t a n d feeling, o b s t i n a t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n d blind i g n o r a n c e . S u c h are the c o n t e m p o r a r y h u m a n beings w h o p r o d u c e the symbols we psychologists investigate. In o r d e r to e x p l a i n these symbols a n d their m e a n i n g , it is vital to l e a r n w h e t h e r their r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are r e l a t e d to p u r e l y personal e x p e r i e n c e , or w h e t h e r they h a v e b e e n chosen by a d r e a m for its p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e from a store of g e n e r a l conscious k n o w l e d g e . T a k e , for i n s t a n c e , a d r e a m in w h i c h the n u m b e r 13 occurs. T h e q u e s t i o n is w h e t h e r the d r e a m e r himself h a b i t u a l l y believes in the u n lucky q u a l i t y of the n u m b e r , or w h e t h e r the d r e a m m e r e l y alludes to p e o p l e w h o still ind u l g e in such superstitions. T h e a n s w e r m a k e s a g r e a t difference to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n the former case, you h a v e to reckon w i t h t h e fact t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l is still u n d e r the spell of the u n l u c k y 13, a n d therefore will feel most u n c o m f o r t a b l e in R o o m 13 in a hotel or sitting at a t a b l e w i t h 13 p e o p l e . I n t h e l a t t e r case, 13 m a y not m e a n a n y m o r e t h a n a d i s c o u r t e o u s or abusive r e m a r k . T h e " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " d r e a m e r still feels the " s p e l l " of 1 3 ; t h e m o r e " r a t i o n a l " d r e a m e r has s t r i p p e d 13 of its original e m o tional o v e r t o n e s . T h i s a r g u m e n t illustrates the w a y in w h i c h a r c h e t y p e s a p p e a r in p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e : T h e y a r e , at the s a m e t i m e , b o t h i m a g e s a n d 96

e m o t i o n s . O n e can speak of a n a r c h e t y p e only w h e n these two aspects a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s . W h e n t h e r e is m e r e l y the i m a g e , t h e n t h e r e is simply a w o r d - p i c t u r e of little c o n s e q u e n c e . But by b e i n g c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n , t h e i m a g e gains n u m i n o s i t y (or psychic e n e r g y ) ; it b e c o m e s d y n a m i c , a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s of some kind m u s t flow from it. I a m a w a r e t h a t it is difficult to g r a s p this c o n c e p t , b e c a u s e I a m t r y i n g to use w o r d s to describe s o m e t h i n g whose very n a t u r e m a k e s it i n c a p a b l e of precise definition. But since so m a n y p e o p l e h a v e chosen to t r e a t a r c h e t y p e s as if they w e r e p a r t of a m e c h a n i c a l system t h a t c a n be l e a r n e d by rote, it is essential to insist t h a t they are not m e r e n a m e s , or even p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t s . T h e y a r e pieces of life itself- i m a g e s t h a t a r e i n t e g r a l l y c o n n e c t e d to the living i n d i v i d u a l by the b r i d g e of the e m o t i o n s . T h a t is w h y it is impossible to give a n a r b i t r a r y (or universal) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a n y a r c h e t y p e . It m u s t be e x p l a i n e d in the m a n n e r i n d i c a t e d by the w h o l e life-situation of the p a r ticular i n d i v i d u a l to w h o m it relates. T h u s , in the case of a d e v o u t C h r i s t i a n , the s y m b o l of the cross can b e i n t e r p r e t e d only in its C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t — unless the d r e a m p r o duces a very s t r o n g reason to look b e y o n d it. E v e n t h e n , the specific C h r i s t i a n m e a n i n g should be k e p t in m i n d . But o n e c a n n o t say t h a t , at all times a n d in all c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the symbol of the cross has the s a m e m e a n i n g . If t h a t w e r e so, it w o u l d b e s t r i p p e d of its n u m i n osity, lose its vitality, a n d b e c o m e a m e r e w o r d . T h o s e w h o d o not realize the special feeling t o n e of the a r c h e t y p e e n d w i t h n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a j u m b l e of m y t h o l o g i c a l concepts, w h i c h c a n be s t r u n g t o g e t h e r to show t h a t e v e r y t h i n g m e a n s a n y t h i n g — or n o t h i n g at all. All the corpses in the w o r l d a r e c h e m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , b u t living i n d i v i d u a l s a r e not. A r c h e t y p e s c o m e to life only w h e n o n e p a t i e n t l y tries to discover w h y a n d in w h a t fashion they a r e m e a n i n g f u l to a living i n d i v i d u a l . T h e m e r e use of w o r d s is futile w h e n you d o not k n o w w h a t they s t a n d for. T h i s is p a r t i c u larly t r u e in psychology, w h e r e we speak of a r c h e types such as the a n i m a a n d a n i m u s , the wise


The ancient Chinese connected the m o o n w i t h the goddess K w a n - Y i n (pictured above) Other societies h a v e p e r s o n i f i e d t h e m o o n as a divinity. A n d t h o u g h modern space f l i g h t has p r o v e d t h a t t h e m o o n is o n l y a c r a t e r e d ball of dirt ( l e f t ) , w e have r e t a i n e d s o m e t h i n g of t h e a r c h e t y p a l a t t i t u d e in o u r f a m i l i a r a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e m o o n w i t h l o v e and romance

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In a c h i l d ' s u n c o n s c i o u s w e c a n see t h e p o w e r ( a n d u n i v e r s a l i t y ) of archetypal symbols A seven-yearold's painting (left) — a huge sun d r i v i n g a w a y b l a c k birds, d e m o n s of t h e n i g h t — h a s t h e f l a v o r of a true m y t h C h i l d r e n at p l a y ( r i g h t ) s p o n t a n e o u s l y d a n c e in as n a t u r a l a f o r m of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as t h e c e r e m o n i a l d a n c e s of p r i m i t i v e s . A n c i e n t f o l k l o r e still exists in c h i l d r e n ' s " r i t u a l " b e l i e f s : For i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n all o v e r B r i t a i n ( a n d e l s e w h e r e ) b e l i e v e it is l u c k y to see a w h i t e h o r s e — w h i c h is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l of life A C e l t i c g o d d e s s of c r e a t i v i t y , E p o n a , s h o w n (far r i g h t ) r i d i n g a horse, w a s o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d as a w h i t e m a r e .

m a n . the G r e a t M o t h e r , a n d so o n . You c a n know all a b o u t the saints, sages, p r o p h e t s , a n d o t h e r godly m e n , a n d all the great m o t h e r s of the world. But if they a r e m e r e i m a g e s whose n u m i n o s i t y you h a v e never e x p e r i e n c e d , it will be as if you w e r e t a l k i n g in a d r e a m , for you will not k n o w w h a t you a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t . T h e m e r e w o r d s you use will be e m p t y a n d valueless. T h e y g a i n life a n d m e a n i n g only w h e n you try to take i n t o a c c o u n t their n u m i n o s i t y — i.e. their r e l a t i o n s h i p to the living i n d i v i d u a l . O n l y then d o you begin to u n d e r s t a n d that their n a m e s m e a n very little, w h e r e a s the way they are related to you is a l l - i m p o r t a n t . The s y m b o l - p r o d u c i n g function of o u r d r e a m s is thus a n a t t e m p t to b r i n g the original m i n d of m a n into " a d v a n c e d ' " or differentiated consciousness, w h e r e it has never b e e n before a n d w h e r e , therefore, it has never b e e n s u b jected to critical self-reflection. For, in ages long past, t h a t original m i n d was the w h o l e of m a n ' s personality. As he d e v e l o p e d consciousness, so his conscious m i n d lost c o n t a c t with some of t h a t p r i m i t i v e psychic e n e r g y . A n d the conscious m i n d has n e v e r k n o w n t h a t original m i n d ; for it was d i s c a r d e d in the process of evolving the very differentiated consciousness t h a t a l o n e could be a w a r e of it. Yet it seems t h a t w h a t we call the u n c o n scious has preserved p r i m i t i v e characteristics that formed p a r t of the original m i n d . It is to 98

these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that the symbols of d r e a m s c o n s t a n t l y refer, as if the u n c o n s c i o u s sought to b r i n g back all the old things from which the m i n d freed itself as it evolved illusions, fantasies, a r c h a i c t h o u g h t forms, f u n d a m e n t a l instincts, a n d so on. This is w h a t e x p l a i n s the resistance, even fear, t h a t p e o p l e often e x p e r i e n c e in a p p r o a c h ing u n c o n s c i o u s m a t t e r s . T h e s e relict c o n t e n t s a r e not m e r e l y n e u t r a l or indifferent. O n the c o n t r a r y , they are so highly c h a r g e d that they a r e often m o r e t h a n merely u n c o m f o r t a b l e . They can cause real fear. The m o r e they are repressed, the m o r e they s p r e a d t h r o u g h the whole p e r s o n a l i t y in the form of a neurosis. It is this psychic e n e r g y t h a t gives t h e m such vital i m p o r t a n c e . It is just as if a m a n w h o has lived t h r o u g h a period of unconsciousness should s u d d e n l y realize that t h e r e is a g a p in his m e m o r y — t h a t i m p o r t a n t events seem to h a v e t a k e n p l a c e t h a t he c a n n o t r e m e m b e r . I n so far as he assumes t h a t the psyche is a n exclusively personal affair (and this is the usual a s s u m p t i o n ) , he will try to retrieve the a p p a r ently lost infantile m e m o r i e s . But the gaps in his c h i l d h o o d m e m o r y a r e merely the s y m p toms of a m u c h g r e a t e r loss the loss of the p r i m i t i v e psyche. As the evolution of the e m b r y o n i c b o d y repeats its p r e h i s t o r y , so the m i n d also develops t h r o u g h a series of p r e h i s t o r i c stages. The m a i n


task of d r e a m s is to b r i n g b a r k a sort b f " r e c o l lection" of the p r e h i s t o r i c , as well as the infantile world, right d o w n to the level of the most primitive instincts. S u c h recollections c a n h a v e a r e m a r k a b l y h e a l i n g effect in c e r t a i n cases, as Freud saw long a g o . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n confirms the view that a n infantile m e m o r y g a p (a socalled amnesia) r e p r e s e n t s a positive loss a n d its recovery can b r i n g a positive increase in life and well-being. Because a child is physically small a n d its conscious t h o u g h t s a r e scarce a n d simple, we do not realize the f a r - r e a c h i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s ol the infantile m i n d that a r e based on its original identity with the prehistoric psyche. T h a t "original m i n d " is just as m u c h present a n d still functioning in the child as the e v o l u t i o n a r y stages of m a n k i n d a r e in its e m b r y o n i c b o d y . II the r e a d e r r e m e m b e r s w h a t I said earlier about the r e m a r k a b l e d r e a m s ol the child w h o made a present of her d r e a m s to her father, he will get a good idea of w h a t 1 m e a n . In infantile a m n e s i a , o n e f i n d s s t r a n g e m y t h o logical fragments that also often a p p e a r in later psychoses. I m a g e s of this kind are highly n u m i nous and therefore verv i m p o r t a n t . If such recollections r e a p p e a r in a d u l t life, they m a y in some cases cause profound psychological disturbance, while in o t h e r people they can p r o duce miracles of healing or religious c o n v e r sions. Often they b r i n g back a piece of life,

missing for a long t i m e , that gives p u r p o s e to a n d thus e n r i c h e s h u m a n life. T h e recollection of infantile m e m o r i e s a n d the r e p r o d u c t i o n of a r c h e t y p a l ways of psychic b e h a v i o r can c r e a t e a w i d e r horizon a n d a g r e a t e r extension of consciousness on c o n d i tion t h a t o n e succeeds in assimilating a n d integ r a t i n g in the conscious m i n d the lost a n d r e g a i n e d c o n t e n t s . Since they a r c not n e u t r a l , their assimilation will modify the personality, just as they themselves will h a v e to u n d e r g o c e r t a i n a l t e r a t i o n s . In this p a r t of w h a t is called " t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s " (which Dr. M . - L . von F r a n z describes in a later section of this b o o k ) , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of svmbols plavs a n i m p o r t a n t p r a c t i c a l role. For the symbols are n a t u r a l attempts to reconcile a n d u n i t e o p p o sites w i t h i n the psyche. N a t u r a l l y , just seeing a n d then b r u s h i n g aside the symbols w o u l d h a v e n o such effect a n d w o u l d merely re-establish the old n e u r o t i c condition a n d destroy the a t t e m p t at a synthesis. Bttt. u n f o r t u n a t e l y , those r a r e p e o p l e w h o d o not d e n y the very existence of the a r c h e t y p e s almost i n v a r i a b l y treat t h e m as m e r e words a n d forget their living reality. W h e n their n u m i n o sity has thus (illegitimately) been b a n i s h e d , the process of limitless s u b s t i t u t i o n begins in o t h e r w o r d s , o n e glides easily from archetype to a r c h e t y p e , with e v e r y t h i n g m e a n i n g everything. It is t r u e e n o u g h t h a t the forms of a r c h e types are to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent e x c h a n g e a b l e . But their n u m i n o s i t y is a n d r e m a i n s a fact, a n d represents the value of an a r c h e t y p a l event. T h i s e m o t i o n a l v a l u e must be kept in mind a n d allowed for t h r o u g h o u t the whole intellectual process of d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It is only too easy to lose this v a l u e , because thinking a n d feeling a r e so d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed that t h i n k i n g almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y throws out feeling values a n d vice versa. Psychology is the only science t h a t has to take the factor of value (i.e. feeling) into a c c o u n t , because it is the link b e t w e e n physical events a n d life. Psychology is often accused of not b e i n g scientific on this a c c o u n t ; but its critics fail to u n d e r s t a n d the scientific a n d p r a c t i c a l necessity of giving d u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to feeling. 9<)


IOO


Healing the split

O u r intellect has c r e a t e d a n e w w o r l d t h a t dominates n a t u r e , a n d has p o p u l a t e d it with monstrous m a c h i n e s . T h e l a t t e r a r e so i n d u bitably useful t h a t w e c a n n o t see even a possibility of g e t t i n g rid of t h e m or o u r subservience to t h e m . M a n is b o u n d to follow t h e a d v e n t u r ous p r o m p t i n g s of his scientific a n d i n v e n t i v e mind a n d to a d m i r e himself for his s p l e n d i d achievements. At t h e s a m e t i m e , his genius shows the u n c a n n y t e n d e n c y to i n v e n t things that b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e d a n g e r o u s , because they r e p r e s e n t b e t t e r a n d b e t t e r m e a n s for wholesale suicide. In view of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g a v a l a n c h e of world p o p u l a t i o n , m a n has a l r e a d y b e g u n to seek ways a n d m e a n s of k e e p i n g the rising flood at b a y . But n a t u r e m a y a n t i c i p a t e all o u r a t t e m p t s by t u r n i n g a g a i n s t m a n his o w n creative m i n d . T h e H - b o m b , for i n s t a n c e , w o u l d put a n effective stop to o v e r p o p u l a t i o n . I n spite of o u r p r o u d d o m i n a t i o n of n a t u r e , we a r e still her victims, for we h a v e n o t even l e a r n e d to control o u r o w n n a t u r e . Slowly b u t , it a p p e a r s , inevitably, we a r e c o u r t i n g disaster. T h e r e a r e n o longer a n y gods w h o m we can invoke to h e l p us. T h e g r e a t religions of t h e world suffer from i n c r e a s i n g a n e m i a , b e c a u s e the helpful n u m i n a h a v e fled from t h e woods, rivers, a n d m o u n t a i n s , a n d from a n i m a l s , a n d the g o d - m e n h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d u n d e r g r o u n d into the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e we fool ourselves

A b o v e left, t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y ' s greatest c i t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; N e w Y o r k . B e l o w , the e n d of a n o t h e r c i t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; H i r o s h i m a , 1 9 4 5 . T h o u g h m a n m a y s e e m to h a v e gained ascendance over nature, Jung always pointed out that man has n o t yet g a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r his own n a t u r e .

t h a t t h e y lead a n i g n o m i n i o u s existence a m o n g the relics of o u r past. O u r p r e s e n t lives are d o m i n a t e d by the goddess R e a s o n , w h o is o u r greatest a n d most t r a g i c illusion. By the aid of reason, so we assure ourselves, we h a v e " c o n quered nature." But this is a m e r e slogan, for the so-called c o n q u e s t of n a t u r e o v e r w h e l m s us w i t h the n a t u r a l fact of o v e r p o p u l a t i o n a n d a d d s to o u r t r o u b l e s by o u r psychological i n c a p a c i t y to m a k e the necessary political a r r a n g e m e n t s . It r e m a i n s q u i t e n a t u r a l for m e n to q u a r r e l a n d to struggle for s u p e r i o r i t y over o n e a n o t h e r . H o w t h e n h a v e we " c o n q u e r e d n a t u r e " ? As a n y c h a n g e m u s t begin s o m e w h e r e , it is the single i n d i v i d u a l w h o will e x p e r i e n c e it a n d c a r r y it t h r o u g h . T h e c h a n g e m u s t i n d e e d b e gin with a n i n d i v i d u a l ; it m i g h t be a n y o n e of us. N o b o d y c a n afford to look a r o u n d a n d to w a i t for s o m e b o d y else to d o w h a t he is l o a t h to d o himself. But since n o b o d y seems to k n o w w h a t to d o , it m i g h t b e w o r t h while for e a c h of us to ask himself w h e t h e r by a n y c h a n c e his or her u n c o n s c i o u s m a y k n o w s o m e t h i n g t h a t will h e l p us. C e r t a i n l y the conscious m i n d seems u n a b l e to d o a n y t h i n g useful in this respect. M a n t o d a y is painfully a w a r e of the fact t h a t n e i t h e r his g r e a t religions n o r his v a r i o u s philosophies seem to p r o v i d e h i m w i t h those p o w e r ful a n i m a t i n g ideas t h a t w o u l d give him the security h e needs in face of t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i tion of the w o r l d . I k n o w w h a t the B u d d h i s t s w o u l d s a y : T h i n g s w o u l d go r i g h t if p e o p l e w o u l d only follow the " n o b l e eightfold p a t h " of t h e Dharma ( d o c t r i n e , law) a n d h a d t r u e insight i n t o the Self T h e C h r i s t i a n tells us t h a t if only pcople h a d faith in G o d , we s h o u l d h a v e a b e t t e r w o r l d . T h e rationalist insists t h a t if p e o p l e w e r e intelligent a n d r e a s o n a b l e , all o u r p r o b l e m s w o u l d be m a n a g e a b l e . T h e t r o u b l e is t h a t n o n e of t h e m m a n a g e s to solve these problems himself

IOI


C h r i s t i a n s often ask w h y G o d does not speak to t h e m , as he is believed to h a v e d o n e in form e r days. W h e n I h e a r such questions, it always makes m e think of the r a b b i w h o was asked h o w it could be t h a t G o d often s h o w e d himself to p e o p l e in the olden d a y s w h e r e a s n o w a d a y s n o b o d y ever sees h i m . T h e r a b b i r e p l i e d : " N o w a d a y s t h e r e is no longer a n y b o d y w h o can b o w low e n o u g h . " T h i s a n s w e r hits the nail on the h e a d . W e are so c a p t i v a t e d by a n d e n t a n g l e d in o u r s u b jective consciousness t h a t we h a v e forgotten the age-old fact t h a t G o d speaks chiefly t h r o u g h d r e a m s a n d visions. T h e B u d d h i s t discards the world of u n c o n s c i o u s fantasies as useless illusions; the C h r i s t i a n p u t s his C h u r c h a n d his Bible b e t w e e n himself a n d his u n c o n s c i o u s ; a n d the r a t i o n a l intellectual does not yet k n o w t h a t his consciousness is not his total psyche. T h i s i g n o r a n c e persists t o d a y in spite of the fact that for m o r e t h a n 70 years the u n c o n scious has been a basic scientific c o n c e p t t h a t is i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a n y serious psychological investigation. W e c a n no longer afford to be so G o d A l m i g h t y - l i k e as to set ourselves u p as judges of the merits or d e m e r i t s of n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a . W e d o not base o u r b o t a n y u p o n the oldfashioned division into useful a n d useless p l a n t s , or o u r zoology u p o n the n a i v e distinction between h a r m l e s s a n d d a n g e r o u s a n i m a l s . But we still c o m p l a c e n t l y assume t h a t consciousness is sense a n d the u n c o n s c i o u s is nonsense. I n science such an a s s u m p t i o n w o u l d be l a u g h e d out of c o u r t . Do m i c r o b e s , for i n s t a n c e , m a k e sense or nonsense? W h a t e v e r the u n c o n s c i o u s m a y be, it is a n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n p r o d u c i n g symbols t h a t p r o v e to be m e a n i n g f u l . W e c a n n o t expect s o m e o n e w h o has never looked t h r o u g h a m i c r o scope to be a n a u t h o r i t y on m i c r o b e s ; in the s a m e w a y , no one w h o has not m a d e a serious study of n a t u r a l symbols c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m p e t e n t j u d g e in this m a t t e r . But the g e n e r a l u n d e r v a l u a t i o n of the h u m a n soul is so g r e a t that n e i t h e r the g r e a t religions n o r the philosophies nor scientific r a t i o n a l i s m h a v e been willing to look at it twice. 102

I n spite of the fact t h a t the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a d m i t s the o c c u r r e n c e of somma a Deo missa ( d r e a m s sent by G o d ) , most of its thinkers m a k e no serious a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d d r e a m s . I d o u b t w h e t h e r t h e r e is a P r o t e s t a n t treatise or d o c t r i n e t h a t w o u l d stoop so low as to a d m i t the possibility t h a t the vox Dei m i g h t be perceived in a d r e a m . But if a t h e o l o g i a n really believes in G o d , by w h a t a u t h o r i t y does he suggest t h a t G o d is u n a b l e to speak t h r o u g h dreams? I h a v e spent m o r e t h a n half a c e n t u r y in i n v e s t i g a t i n g n a t u r a l symbols, a n d I h a v e c o m e to t h e conclusion t h a t d r e a m s a n d their symbols a r e not s t u p i d a n d m e a n i n g l e s s . O n the cont r a r y , d r e a m s p r o v i d e the most i n t e r e s t i n g inf o r m a t i o n for those w h o take the t r o u b l e to u n d e r s t a n d their symbols. T h e results, it is true, h a v e little to d o w i t h such w o r l d l y concerns as b u y i n g a n d selling. But the m e a n i n g of life is not exhaustively e x p l a i n e d by one's business life, n o r is the d e e p desire of the h u m a n h e a r t a n s w e r e d by a b a n k a c c o u n t . In a p e r i o d of h u m a n history w h e n all available e n e r g y is spent in the investigation of n a t u r e , very little a t t e n t i o n is p a i d to the essence of m a n , which is his psyche, a l t h o u g h m a n y researches a r e m a d e into its conscious functions. But the really c o m p l e x a n d u n f a m i l i a r p a r t of the m i n d , from w h i c h symbols are p r o d u c e d , is still virtually u n e x p l o r e d . It seems almost inc r e d i b l e t h a t t h o u g h we receive signals from it every n i g h t , d e c i p h e r i n g these c o m m u n i c a t i o n s seems too tedious for a n y b u t a very few people to be b o t h e r e d with it. M a n ' s greatest instrum e n t , his psyche, is little t h o u g h t of, a n d it is often directly mistrusted a n d despised. " I t ' s only p s y c h o l o g i c a l " too often m e a n s : It is nothing. W h e r e , exactly, does this i m m e n s e prejudice c o m e from ? W e h a v e obviously b e e n so busy with the q u e s t i o n of w h a t we think that we entirely forget to ask w h a t the unconscious psyche thinks a b o u t us. T h e ideas of S i g m u n d F r e u d confirmed for most p e o p l e the existing c o n t e m p t for the psyche. Before h i m it h a d been m e r e l y overlooked a n d n e g l e c t e d ; it has n o w b e c o m e a d u m p for m o r a l refuse.


This m o d e r n s t a n d p o i n t is surely one-sided and unjust. It does not even a c c o r d with the known facts. O u r a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e of the u n conscious shows t h a t it is a n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n and that, like N a t u r e herself, it is at least neutral. It c o n t a i n s all aspects of h u m a n n a t u r e light a n d d a r k , beautiful a n d ugly, good a n d evil, profound a n d silly. T h e study of i n d i v i d u a l , as well as of collective, symbolism is a n e n o r mous task, a n d o n e t h a t has not yet b e e n m a s t ered. But a b e g i n n i n g has been m a d e at last. The early results a r e e n c o u r a g i n g , a n d they seem to i n d i c a t e a n a n s w e r to m a n y so far unanswered questions of p r e s e n t - d a y m a n k i n d .

Above, R e m b r a n d t ' s Philosopher with an Open Book (1 6 3 3 ) . T h e i n w a r d - l o o k i n g o l d m a n p r o v i d e s an image of J u n g ' s belief t h a t e a c h of us must explore his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s . The u n c o n s c i o u s m u s t not be i g n o r e d ; it is as natural, as limitless, a n d as p o w e r f u l as t h e stars.

io3


2

A n c i e n t m y t h s and m o d e r n m a n

J o s e p h L. H e n d e r s o n

A c e r e m o n i a l m a s k f r o m t h e island of N e w I r e l a n d ( N e w G u i n e a )


Ancient myths and modern man

The eternal symbols

T h e a n c i e n t history of m a n is b e i n g m e a n i n g fully rediscovered t o d a y in the s y m b o l i c i m a g e s a n d m y t h s t h a t h a v e survived a n c i e n t m a n . As archaeologists dig d e e p into the past, it is less the events of historical t i m e t h a t we l e a r n to t r e a s u r e t h a n the statues, designs, t e m p l e s , a n d l a n g u a g e s that tell of old beliefs. O t h e r symbols are revealed to us by the philologists a n d religious historians, w h o c a n t r a n s l a t e these beliefs into intelligible m o d e r n c o n c e p t s . T h e s e in t u r n are b r o u g h t to life by the c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o gists. T h e y c a n show t h a t the s a m e symbolic p a t t e r n s c a n be found in the rituals or m y t h s of small tribal societies still existing, u n c h a n g e d for c e n t u r i e s , on the outskirts of civilization. All such researches h a v e d o n e m u c h to correct the one-sided a t t i t u d e ol those m o d e r n m e n w h o m a i n t a i n t h a t such symbols b e l o n g to the peoples of a n t i q u i t y or to " b a c k w a r d " " m o d e r n tribes a n d a r e therefore i r r e l e v a n t to the c o m plexities of m o d e r n life. In L o n d o n or N e w York we m a y dismiss the fertility rites of neolithic m a n as a r c h a i c superstition. If a n y o n e claims to h a v e seen a vision or h e a r d voices, he

is not t r e a t e d as a saint or as a n o r a c l e . It is said he is m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d . W e read the m y t h s of the a n c i e n t G r e e k s or the folk stories of A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , b u t we fail to see a n y c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m a n d o u r a t t i t u d e s to the " h e r o e s " or d r a m a t i c events of t o d a y . Yet the c o n n e c t i o n s a r e t h e r e . A n d the symbols t h a t represent t h e m h a v e not lost their rel e v a n c e for m a n k i n d . O n e of the m a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s of" o u r time to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d r e v a l u i n g of such e t e r n a l symbols has been m a d e by D r . J u n g ' s School of A n a l y t i c a l Psychology. It has helped to b r e a k d o w n the a r b i t r a r y distinction b e t w e e n p r i m i t i v e m a n . to w h o m symbols seem a n a t u r a l p a r t of e v e r y d a y life, a n d m o d e r n m a n , for w h o m symbols a r e a p p a r e n t l y meaningless a n d irrelevant. As Dr. J u n g has p o i n t e d out earlier in this book, the h u m a n m i n d has its o w n history a n d the psyche retains traces left from previous stages of its d e v e l o p m e n t . M o r e t h a n this, the c o n t e n t s of the unconscious exert a formative influence on the psyche. Consciously we


may ignore t h e m , h u t unconsciously we respond to t h e m , a n d to the s y m b o l i c forms including d r e a m s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i n which they express themselves. The i n d i v i d u a l m a y feel t h a t his d r e a m s a r e spontaneous a n d d i s c o n n e c t e d . But over a long period of time the a n a l y s t c a n observe a series of d r e a m i m a g e s a n d n o t e t h a t they h a v e a meaningful p a t t e r n ; a n d by u n d e r s t a n d i n g this his patient m a y e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i r e a new a t t i tude to life. S o m e of the symbols in such dreams derive from w h a t Dr. J u n g has called "the collective u n c o n s c i o u s " t h a t is, the p a r t of the psyche t h a t retains a n d t r a n s m i t s the common psychological i n h e r i t a n c e of m a n k i n d . These symbols a r e so a n c i e n t a n d u n f a m i l i a r to m o d e r n m a n t h a t he c a n n o t directly u n d e r stand or assimilate t h e m . -

It is here t h a t t h e analyst c a n h e l p . Possibly the patient must be freed from the e n c u m b r a n c e of symbols that h a v e g r o w n stale a n d i n a p p r o priate. O r possibly he must be assisted to discover the a b i d i n g v a l u e of a n old symbol t h a t , far from being d e a d , is seeking to be r e b o r n in modern form. Before the analyst c a n effectively e x p l o r e the meaning of symbols with a p a t i e n t , he must himself a c q u i r e a w i d e r k n o w l e d g e of their origins a n d significance. For the analogies between a n c i e n t m y t h s a n d the stories that a p p e a r

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in the d r e a m s of m o d e r n p a t i e n t s a r e n e i t h e r trivial n o r a c c i d e n t a l . T h e y exist b e c a u s e the u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d of m o d e r n m a n preserves the s y m b o l - m a k i n g c a p a c i t y t h a t o n c e found expression in the beliefs a n d rituals of the p r i m i tive. A n d t h a t c a p a c i t y still plays a role of vital psychic i m p o r t a n c e . In m o r e ways t h a n we realize, we a r e d e p e n d e n t on the messages that a r e c a r r i e d by such symbols, a n d b o t h o u r a t t i tudes a n d o u r b e h a v i o r are profoundly influenced by t h e m . In w a r t i m e , for i n s t a n c e , o n e finds increased interest in the works of H o m e r , S h a k e s p e a r e , a n d Tolstoi, a n d we r e a d with a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g those passages t h a t give w a r its e n d u r i n g (or " a r c h e t y p a l " ) m e a n i n g . T h e y evoke a response from us t h a t is m u c h m o r e p r o f o u n d t h a n it could be from s o m e o n e w h o has never k n o w n the intense e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of w a r . T h e battles on the plains of T r o y w e r e utterly unlike the fighting at A g i n c o u r t or B o r o d i n o , yet the great writers a r e a b l e to t r a n s c e n d the differences of time a n d place a n d to express t h e m e s that a r e universal. W e respond because these t h e m e s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y symbolic. A more to a n y o n e society. At feeling for

striking e x a m p l e should be familiar w h o has g r o w n u p in a C h r i s t i a n C h r i s t m a s we m a y express o u r i n n e r the m y t h o l o g i c a l b i r t h of a semi-

Far left, a s y m b o l i c c e r e m o n y of a n t i q u i t y in 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y f o r m : T h e A m e r i c a n a s t r o n a u t J o h n G l e n n in a W a s h i n g t o n parade after his o r b i t of t h e e a r t h in 1 9 6 2 - like a h e r o of o l d , after a v i c t o r y , r e t u r n i n g h o m e in a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n

C e n t e r left, a c r o s s - l i k e s c u l p t u r e of a Greek f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s (c 2 5 0 0 B.C.). Left, t w o v i e w s of 6 1 2 t h c e n t u r y S c o t s s t o n e cross t h a t retains s o m e p a g a n f e m a l e n e s s : t h e " b r e a s t s " at t h e c r o s s b a r Right, another age old archetype r e b o r n in a n e w g u i s e : a R u s s i a n p o s t e r for an " a t h e i s t i c " f e s t i v a l at Easter, to r e p l a c e t h e C h r i s t i a n festival |ust as the C h r i s t i a n Easter w a s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n earlier p a g a n s o l s t i c e rites

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d i v i n e child, even t h o u g h we m a y not believe in the d o c t r i n e of t h e virgin b i r t h of C h r i s t or h a v e a n y kind of conscious religious faith. U n k n o w i n g l y , we h a v e fallen in w i t h t h e s y m b o l ism of r e b i r t h . T h i s is a relic of a n i m m e n s e l y o l d e r solstice festival, w h i c h carries the h o p e t h a t the fading w i n t e r l a n d s c a p e of the n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e will b e r e n e w e d . F o r all o u r sophistication we find satisfaction in this symbolic festival, j u s t as we j o i n w i t h o u r c h i l d r e n at Easter in the p l e a s a n t ritual of E a s t e r eggs a n d Easter r a b b i t s . But d o we u n d e r s t a n d w h a t we d o , or see the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the story of Christ's b i r t h , d e a t h , a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n a n d the folk symbolism of E a s t e r ? U s u a l l y we d o not even c a r e to consider such things intellectually. Yet they c o m p l e m e n t e a c h o t h e r . Christ's crucifixion on G o o d F r i d a y seems at first sight to b e l o n g to t h e s a m e p a t t e r n of fertility symbolism t h a t o n e finds in the rituals of such o t h e r " s a v i o r s " as Osiris, T a m m u z , a n d O r p h e u s . T h e y , too, w e r e of d i v i n e or s e m i - d i v i n e b i r t h , they flourished, w e r e killed, a n d w e r e r e b o r n . T h e y b e l o n g e d , in fact, to cyclic religions in w h i c h t h e d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h of the g o d - k i n g was a n e t e r n a l l y r e c u r r i n g m y t h .

But the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Christ on E a s t e r S u n d a y is m u c h less satisfying from a ritual point of view t h a n is the s y m b o l i s m of the cyclic religions. F o r Christ ascends to sit at the right h a n d of G o d the F a t h e r : His resurrection occurs o n c e a n d for all. It is this finality of the C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t of t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n (the C h r i s t i a n i d e a of the Last J u d g m e n t has a similar " c l o s e d " t h e m e ) t h a t distinguishes C h r i s t i a n i t y from o t h e r g o d - k i n g m y t h s . It h a p p e n e d o n c e , a n d t h e ritual merely c o m m e m o r a t e s it. But this sense of finality is p r o b a b l y o n e reason w h y early C h r i s t i a n s , still influenced by p r e - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s , felt that C h r i s t i a n i t y n e e d e d to b e s u p p l e m e n t e d by some e l e m e n t s of a n o l d e r fertility r i t u a l . T h e y n e e d e d the r e c u r r i n g p r o m i s e of r e b i r t h ; a n d t h a t is w h a t is s y m b o l i z e d by t h e egg a n d the r a b b i t of Easter. I h a v e t a k e n two q u i t e different e x a m p l e s to show h o w m o d e r n m a n c o n t i n u e s to r e s p o n d to p r o f o u n d psychic influences of a kind t h a t , consciously, he dismisses as little m o r e t h a n the folk tales of superstitious a n d u n e d u c a t e d peoples. But it is necessary to go m u c h further t h a n this. T h e m o r e closely o n e looks at the history of s y m b o l i s m , a n d at t h e role t h a t sym-

Left, a 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y J a p a n e s e scroll p a i n t i n g of t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of a city: b e l o w , similarly d o m i n a t e d by f l a m e a n d s m o k e , St. P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , L o n d o n , d u r i n g an air raid in W o r l d W a r II M e t h o d s o f warfare have c h a n g e d over the ages, b u t t h e e m o t i o n a l i m p a c t o f w a r is t i m e l e s s a n d a r c h e t y p a l .


bols h a v e p l a y e d in the life of m a n y different c u l t u r e s , the m o r e o n e u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h e r e is also a r e - c r e a t i v e m e a n i n g in these symbols. S o m e symbols r e l a t e to c h i l d h o o d a n d the t r a n s i t i o n to a d o l e s c e n c e , o t h e r s to m a t u r i t y , a n d o t h e r s a g a i n to the e x p e r i e n c e of old age, w h e n m a n is p r e p a r i n g for his i n e v i t a b l e d e a t h . D r . J u n g has described h o w the d r e a m s of a girl of eight c o n t a i n e d the symbols o n e n o r m a l l y associates with old a g e . H e r d r e a m s p r e s e n t e d aspects of initiation into life as b e l o n g i n g to the s a m e a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n as initiation into d e a t h . T h i s progression of symbolic ideas m a y take p l a c e , therefore, w i t h i n the u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d of m o d e r n m a n j u s t as it took p l a c e in the rituals of a n c i e n t societies. T h i s crucial link b e t w e e n a r c h a i c or p r i m i t i v e m y t h s a n d the symbols p r o d u c e d by the u n conscious is of i m m e n s e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to the analyst. It e n a b l e s h i m to identify a n d to i n t e r p r e t these symbols in a context t h a t gives t h e m historical p e r s p e c t i v e as well as psychological m e a n i n g . I shall n o w take some of the m o r e i m p o r t a n t m y t h s of a n t i q u i t y a n d show h o w — a n d to w h a t p u r p o s e — they a r e a n a l o gous to the s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l t h a t we e n c o u n ter in o u r d r e a m s .

T o p left, C h r i s t ' s n a t i v i t y ; c e n t e r , his c r u c i f i x i o n ; b o t t o m , his a s c e n s i o n . His b i r t h , d e a t h , a n d rebirth f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n of m a n y a n c i e n t h e r o m y t h s — a p a t t e r n o r i g i n a l l y based o n s e a s o n a l f e r t i l i t y rites like t h o s e p r o b a b l y h e l d 3 0 0 0 years a g o at E n g l a n d ' s S t o n e h e n g e (seen b e l o w at d a w n at t h e s u m m e r s o l s t i c e ) .


Heroes and hero makers

T h e m y t h of the h e r o is the most c o m m o n a n d the b e s t - k n o w n m y t h in the world. W e find it in the classical m y t h o l o g y of G r e e c e a n d R o m e , in the M i d d l e Ages, in the F a r East, a n d a m o n g c o n t e m p o r a r y p r i m i t i v e tribes. It also a p p e a r s in o u r d r e a m s . It has a n o b v i o u s d r a m a t i c a p p e a l , a n d a less o b v i o u s , b u t nonetheless p r o found, psychological i m p o r t a n c e . T h e s e h e r o m y t h s v a r y e n o r m o u s l y in d e t a i l , but the m o r e closely o n e e x a m i n e s t h e m the m o r e o n e sees t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l y they a r e very similar. They h a v e , t h a t is to say, a universal p a t t e r n , even t h o u g h they w e r e d e v e l o p e d by g r o u p s or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t a n y direct cult u r a l c o n t a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b y , for i n s t a n c e , tribes of Africans or N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , or the G r e e k s , or the I n c a s of P e r u . O v e r a n d over a g a i n o n e h e a r s a tale d e s c r i b i n g a hero's m i r a c u l o u s b u t h u m b l e b i r t h , his early proof of s u p e r h u m a n s t r e n g t h , his r a p i d rise to p r o m i nence or p o w e r , his t r i u m p h a n t struggle with

T h e h e r o ' s early p r o o f of s t r e n g t h o c c u r s in m o s t h e r o m y t h s B e l o w , the infant Hercules killing t w o serpents. T o p right, the y o u n g K i n g A r t h u r , a l o n e able to d r a w a magic sword from a stone Bottom right, A m e r i c a ' s D a v y C r o c k e t t , w h o k i l l e d a bear w h e n he w a s t h r e e .

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the forces of evil, his fallibility to the sin of p r i d e (kybris), a n d his fall t h r o u g h b e t r a y a l or a " h e r o i c " sacrifice t h a t ends in his d e a t h . I shall l a t e r e x p l a i n in m o r e detail w h y I believe t h a t this p a t t e r n has psychological m e a n ing b o t h for the i n d i v i d u a l , w h o is e n d e a v o r i n g to discover a n d assert his p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d for a w h o l e society, w h i c h has a n e q u a l need to establish its collective identity. But a n o t h e r imp o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the h e r o m y t h provides a clue. In m a n y of these stories the early weakness of the h e r o is b a l a n c e d by the a p p e a r a n c e of s t r o n g " t u t e l a r y " figures or g u a r d i a n s w h o e n a b l e him to perform the s u p e r h u m a n tasks t h a t he c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h u n a i d e d . A m o n g the G r e e k heroes, T h e s e u s h a d Poseid o n , god of the sea, as his d e i t y ; Perseus h a d A t h e n a ; Achilles h a d C h e i r o n , the wise cent a u r , as his t u t o r . T h e s e godlike figures a r e in fact symbolic rep r e s e n t a t i v e s of the w h o l e psyche, the larger


A b o v e , t w o e x a m p l e s of t h e h e r o ' s betrayal: the biblical hero Samson ( t o p ) , betrayed by Delilah; and the Persian h e r o R u s t a m , led i n t o a t r a p b y a m a n he t r u s t e d B e l o w , a m o d e r n result of hybns ( o v e r c o n f i d e n c e ) : G e r m a n p r i s o n e r s in Stalingrad, 1 9 4 1 , after Hitler i n v a d e d Russia in w i n t e r

Above, three e x a m p l e s of t h e t u t e l a r y or guardian f i g u r e t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s the archetypal hero. T o p . f r o m Greek myth, the c e n t a u r C h e i r o n g i v i n g instruction to the y o u t h f u l A c h i l l e s . Center, King A r t h u r ' s g u a r d i a n , t h e magician M e r l i n ( h o l d i n g a s c r o l l ) . Bottom, an i n s t a n c e f r o m m o d e r n life: the trainer o n w h o s e k n o w l e d g e a n d experience a p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x e r often d e p e n d s

M o s t h e r o e s m u s t face a n d o v e r c o m e v a r i o u s m o n s t e r s a n d f o r c e s of evil Top, the Scandinavian hero Sigurd ( l o w e r right of p i c t u r e ) slays t h e s e r p e n t Fafnir C e n t e r , t h e a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n epic hero G i l g a m e s h battling w i t h a lion B o t t o m , the m o d e r n A m e r i c a n c o m i c - s t r i p hero Superman, whose one-man war a g a i n s t c r i m e o f t e n requires h i m t o rescue p r e t t y g i r l s

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a n d m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i d e n t i t y t h a t supplies t h e s t r e n g t h t h a t the p e r s o n a l ego lacks. T h e i r special role suggests t h a t the essential function of the heroic m y t h is t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ego-consciousness â&#x20AC;&#x201D; his a w a r e n e s s of his o w n s t r e n g t h s a n d weaknessesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in a m a n n e r t h a t will e q u i p h i m for the a r d u o u s tasks with w h i c h life confronts h i m . O n c e the indiv i d u a l has passed his initial test a n d c a n e n t e r the m a t u r e p h a s e of life, the h e r o m y t h loses its r e l e v a n c e . T h e h e r o ' s symbolic d e a t h b e c o m e s , as it w e r e , the a c h i e v e m e n t of t h a t m a t u r i t y . I h a v e so far b e e n referring to t h e c o m p l e t e h e r o m y t h , in w h i c h t h e w h o l e cycle from b i r t h to d e a t h is e l a b o r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . But it is essential to recognize t h a t at each of the stages in this cycle t h e r e a r e special forms of the h e r o story t h a t a p p l y to the p a r t i c u l a r point r e a c h e d by the i n d i v i d u a l in the d e v e l o p m e n t of his egoconsciousness, a n d to the specific p r o b l e m confronting h i m at a given m o m e n t . T h a t is to say, the i m a g e of t h e h e r o evolves in a m a n n e r t h a t reflects e a c h stage of the e v o l u t i o n of the h u m a n personality. T h i s c o n c e p t c a n b e m o r e easily u n d e r s t o o d if I present it in w h a t a m o u n t s to a d i a g r a m . I take this e x a m p l e from the o b s c u r e N o r t h A m e r i c a n tribe of W i n n e b a g o I n d i a n s , b e c a u s e it sets o u t q u i t e clearly four distinct stages in the evolution of the h e r o . In these stories (which D r . P a u l R a d i n p u b l i s h e d in 1948 u n d e r the

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title Hero Cycles of the Winnebago) w e c a n see the definite progression from the most p r i m i t i v e to the most sophisticated c o n c e p t of the h e r o . This progression is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o t h e r h e r o cycles. T h o u g h t h e symbolic figures in t h e m n a t u r a l l y h a v e different n a m e s , t h e i r roles a r e similar, a n d we shall u n d e r s t a n d t h e m b e t t e r o n c e we h a v e g r a s p e d the point m a d e by this example. D r . R a d i n n o t e d four distinct cycles in the e v o l u t i o n of the h e r o m y t h . H e n a m e d t h e m the Trickster cycle, the Hare cycle, the Red Horn cycle, a n d t h e Twin cycle. H e correctly perceived the psychology of this evolution w h e n he s a i d : " I t represents o u r efforts to d e a l with the p r o b l e m of g r o w i n g u p , aided by the illusion of an eternal fiction." T h e T r i c k s t e r cycle c o r r e s p o n d s to the earliest a n d least d e v e l o p e d period of life. T r i c k s t e r is a figure whose physical a p p e t i t e s d o m i n a t e his b e h a v i o r ; he has the m e n t a l i t y of a n infant. L a c k i n g a n y p u r p o s e b e y o n d the gratification of his p r i m a r y needs, he is cruel, cynical, a n d unfeeling. ( O u r stories of Brer R a b b i t or R e y n a r d t h e Fox preserve the essentials of the T r i c k s t e r m y t h . ) T h i s figure, w h i c h at the outset assumes the form of a n a n i m a l , passes from o n e mischievous exploit to a n o t h e r . But, as hedoes so, a c h a n g e comes over h i m . At the end of his r o g u e ' s progress he is b e g i n n i n g to take on the physical likeness of a g r o w n m a n .


T h e next figure is H a r e . H e also, like Trickster (whose a n i m a l traits are r e p r e s e n t e d among some A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s by a c o y o t e ) , first a p p e a r s in a n i m a l form. H e has not yet attained m a t u r e h u m a n s t a t u r e , b u t all the same he a p p e a r s as t h e f o u n d e r of h u m a n c u l t u r e — t h e T r a n s f o r m e r . T h e W i n n e b a g o believe t h a t , in giving t h e m their famous M e d i c i n e Rite, he b e c a m e their savior as well as their culture-hero. T h i s m y t h was so powerful, D r . Radin tells us, t h a t the m e m b e r s of the P e y o t e Rite were r e l u c t a n t to give u p H a r e w h e n Christianity b e g a n to p e n e t r a t e the t r i b e . H e became m e r g e d w i t h the figure of C h r i s t , a n d some of t h e m a r g u e d t h a t they h a d n o need of Christ since they a l r e a d y h a d H a r e . T h i s a r c h e typal figure r e p r e s e n t s a distinct a d v a n c e on Trickster: O n e c a n see t h a t he is b e c o m i n g a socialized being, c o r r e c t i n g the i n s t i n c t u a l a n d infantile urges found in the T r i c k s t e r cycle. Red H o r n , the t h i r d of this series of h e r o figures, is a n a m b i g u o u s p e r s o n , said to be t h e youngest of 10 b r o t h e r s . H e meets the r e q u i r e ments of a n a r c h e t y p a l h e r o by passing such tests as w i n n i n g a r a c e a n d by p r o v i n g himself in battle. His s u p e r h u m a n p o w e r is s h o w n by his ability to defeat giants by guile (in a g a m e of dice) or by s t r e n g t h (in a wrestling m a t c h ) . He has a powerful c o m p a n i o n in the form of a t h u n d e r b i r d called "Storms-as-he-walks," whose strength c o m p e n s a t e s for w h a t e v e r weakness

R e d H o r n m a y display. W i t h R e d H o r n we h a v e r e a c h e d the w o r l d of m a n , t h o u g h a n a r c h a i c w o r l d , in w h i c h the aid of s u p e r h u m a n p o w e r s or t u t e l a r y gods is n e e d e d to ensure m a n ' s victory over t h e evil forces t h a t beset h i m . T o w a r d the e n d of the story the h e r o - g o d d e p a r t s , leaving R e d H o r n a n d his sons o n e a r t h . T h e d a n g e r to m a n ' s h a p p i n e s s a n d security n o w comes from m a n himself. T h i s basic t h e m e ( w h i c h is r e p e a t e d in the last cycle, t h a t of the T w i n s ) raises, in effect, the vital q u e s t i o n : H o w long c a n h u m a n beings, be successful w i t h o u t falling victims to their o w n p r i d e or, in m y t h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , to the j e a l o u s y of the gods? T h o u g h the T w i n s a r e said to be the sons of t h e S u n , they a r e essentially h u m a n a n d tog e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a single p e r s o n . O r i g i n a l l y u n i t e d in the m o t h e r ' s w o m b , they w e r e forced a p a r t at b i r t h . Yet they b e l o n g t o g e t h e r , a n d it is necessary — t h o u g h exceedingly difficult— to r e u n i t e t h e m . In these two c h i l d r e n we see the t w o sides of m a n ' s n a t u r e . O n e of t h e m . Flesh, is a c q u i e s c e n t , mild, a n d w i t h o u t initiat i v e ; the o t h e r , S t u m p , is d y n a m i c a n d rebellious. In some of the stories of t h e T w i n H e r o e s these a t t i t u d e s a r c refined to the point w h e r e o n e figure r e p r e s e n t s the i n t r o v e r t , whose m a i n s t r e n g t h lies in his p o w e r s of reflection, a n d the o t h e r is a n e x t r a v e r t , a m a n of action w h o c a n a c c o m p l i s h g r e a t deeds.

" T r i c k s t e r " : t h e first, r u d i m e n t a r y stage in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e hero m y t h , in w h i c h t h e hero is instinctual, u n i n h i b i t e d , a n d o f t e n childish. Far left, t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y Chinese epic hero M o n k e y , s h o w n (in a m o d e r n P e k i n g o p e r a ) t r i c k i n g a river k i n g i n t o g i v i n g u p a m a g i c staff. Left, o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y B.C. jar, the i n f a n t H e r m e s in his cradle after h a v i n g s t o l e n A p o l l o ' s cattle. Right, t h e t r o u b l e - m a k i n g Norse g o d L o k i (a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y s c u l p t u r e ) . Far r i g h t , C h a r l i e Chaplin c r e a t i n g a d i s t u r b a n c e in the 1 9 3 6 f i l m Modern Times—a 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y trickster.

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F o r a long t i m e these t w o heroes a r e invinc i b l e : W h e t h e r they a r e p r e s e n t e d as t w o sepa r a t e figures or as t w o - i n - o n e , they c a r r y all before t h e m . Yet, like the w a r r i o r gods of N a v a h o I n d i a n m y t h o l o g y , they e v e n t u a l l y sicken from the a b u s e of their o w n p o w e r . T h e r e a r e n o m o n s t e r s left in h e a v e n or on e a r t h for t h e m to o v e r c o m e , a n d their c o n s e q u e n t wild b e h a v i o r brings r e t r i b u t i o n in its t r a i n . T h e W i n n e b a g o say t h a t n o t h i n g , in the e n d , was safe from t h e m — not even the s u p p o r t s on w h i c h the w o r l d rests. W h e n the T w i n s killed o n e of the four a n i m a l s t h a t u p h e l d the e a r t h , they h a d o v e r s t e p p e d all limits, a n d the t i m e h a d c o m e to p u t a stop to their c a r e e r . T h e p u n i s h m e n t they deserved was d e a t h . T h u s , in b o t h the R e d H o r n cycle a n d t h a t of the T w i n s , we see t h e t h e m e of sacrifice or d e a t h of the h e r o as a necessary c u r e for hybris, the p r i d e t h a t has o v e r - r e a c h e d itself. In the p r i m i t i v e societies whose levels of c u l t u r e corr e s p o n d to the R e d H o r n cycle, it a p p e a r s t h a t this d a n g e r m a y h a v e been forestalled by the institution of p r o p i t i a t o r y h u m a n sacrifice — a t h e m e t h a t has i m m e n s e symbolic i m p o r t a n c e a n d recurs c o n t i n u a l l y in h u m a n history. T h e W i n n e b a g o , like the I r o q u o i s a n d a few A l g o n q u i n tribes, p r o b a b l y a t e h u m a n flesh as a totemic ritual t h a t could t a m e their individualistic a n d d e s t r u c t i v e impulses.

In the e x a m p l e s of the h e r o ' s b e t r a y a l or d e feat t h a t o c c u r in E u r o p e a n m y t h o l o g y , the t h e m e of ritual sacrifice is m o r e specifically e m ployed as a p u n i s h m e n t for hybris. But the W i n n e b a g o , like the N a v a h o , d o not go so far. T h o u g h the T w i n s e r r e d , a n d t h o u g h the p u n i s h m e n t should h a v e been d e a t h , they themselves b e c a m e so frightened by their irresponsible p o w e r t h a t they c o n s e n t e d to live in a state of p e r m a n e n t rest: T h e conflicting sides of h u m a n n a t u r e w e r e a g a i n in e q u i l i b r i u m . I h a v e given this description of the four types of h e r o at s o m e , length b e c a u s e it provides a clear d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the p a t t e r n t h a t occurs b o t h in the historic m y t h s a n d in the hero d r e a m s of c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n . W i t h this in mind we can e x a m i n e the following d r e a m of a m i d d l e - a g e d p a t i e n t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this d r e a m shows h o w the a n a l y t i c a l psychologist c a n , from his k n o w l e d g e of m y t h o l o g y , help his p a t i e n t find a n a n s w e r to w h a t m i g h t otherwise seem a n insoluble riddle. This m a n d r e a m e d hewas at a t h e a t r e , in the role of " a n i m p o r t a n t s p e c t a t o r whose o p i n i o n is r e s p e c t e d . " Therewas a n act in which a white m o n k e y was s t a n d ing on a pedestal with m e n a r o u n d h i m . In r e c o u n t i n g his d r e a m the m a n said : My guide explains the theme to me.' It is the ordeal of a voting sailor who is exposed both to

T h e s e c o n d s t a g e in t h e e v o l u t i o n of the hero is t h e f o u n d e r of h u m a n c u l t u r e . Left, a N a v a h o s a n d p a i n t i n g of the m y t h of C o y o t e , w h o s t o l e fire f r o m t h e g o d s a n d g a v e it t o m a n . In Greek m y t h P r o m e t h e u s also s t o l e fire f r o m t h e g o d s f o r m a n — for w h i c h he w a s c h a i n e d to a r o c k a n d t o r t u r e d b y an eagle ( b e l o w , o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y B.c c u p ) .


The hero in t h e t h i r d s t a g e is a p o w e r f u l m a n - g o d — like B u d d h a . In the f i r s t - c e n t u r y s c u l p t u r e a b o v e , Siddhartha begins the journey on w h i c h he w i l l receive e n l i g h t e n m e n t and b e c o m e B u d d h a .

B e l o w left, a m e d i e v a l Italian s c u l p t u r e of R o m u l u s a n d R e m u s , the t w i n s (raised by a w o l f ) w h o f o u n d e d R o m e — a n d w h o are t h e b e s t - k n o w n i n s t a n c e of t h e f o u r t h s t a g e of t h e h e r o m y t h .

In t h e f o u r t h s t a g e , t h e T w i n s often misuse their p o w e r — a s d i d the R o m a n heroes Castor and Pollux w h e n they a b d u c t e d the daughters of L e u c i p p u s ( b e l o w , in a p a i n t i n g by t h e F l e m i s h artist R u b e n s ) .


the wind and to being beaten up. I begin to object that this white monkey is not a sailor at all; but just at that moment a young man in black stands up and I think that he must be the true hero. But another handsome young man strides toward an altar and stretches himself out on it. They are making marks on his bare chest as a preparation to offering him as a human sacrifice. Then I find myself on a platform with several other people. We could get down by a small ladder, but I hesitate to do so because there are two young toughs standing by and I think that they will stop us. But when a woman in the group uses the ladder unmolested, I see that it is safe and all of us follow the woman down. N o w a d r e a m of this kind c a n n o t be quickly or simply i n t e r p r e t e d . W e h a v e to u n r a v e l it carefully in o r d e r to show b o t h its r e l a t i o n to the d r e a m e r ' s o w n life a n d its w i d e r symbolic i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e p a t i e n t w h o p r o d u c e d it was a m a n w h o h a d a c h i e v e d m a t u r i t y in a physical sense. H e was successful in his c a r e e r , a n d he h a d a p p a r e n t l y d o n e p r e t t y well as a h u s b a n d a n d father. Yet psychologically h e was still i m m a t u r e , a n d h a d not c o m p l e t e d his youthful p h a s e of d e v e l o p m e n t . It was this psychic i m m a turity t h a t expressed itselfin his d r e a m s as different aspects of t h e h e r o m y t h . T h e s e i m a g e s still exerted a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n for his i m a g i n a t i o n even t h o u g h they h a d long since e x h a u s t e d a n y

of t h e i r m e a n i n g in t e r m s of the reality of his e v e r y d a y life. T h u s , in a d r e a m , we see a series of figures t h e a t r i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d as v a r i o u s aspects of a figure t h a t the d r e a m e r keeps e x p e c t i n g will t u r n o u t to be the t r u e h e r o . T h e first is a white m o n k e y , the second a sailor, the t h i r d a y o u n g m a n in black, a n d the last a " h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n . " I n the early p a r t of the p e r f o r m a n c e , w h i c h is s u p p o s e d to r e p r e s e n t the sailor's o r d e a l , the d r e a m e r sees only t h e w h i t e m o n key. T h e m a n in black s u d d e n l y a p p e a r s a n d as s u d d e n l y d i s a p p e a r s ; he is a n e w figure w h o first c o n t r a s t s with the w h i t e m o n k e y a n d is then for a m o m e n t confused w i t h t h e h e r o p r o p e r . (Such confusion in d r e a m s is not u n u s u a l . T h e d r e a m e r is not usually p r e s e n t e d w i t h clear i m a g e s by the u n c o n s c i o u s . H e has to puzzle out a m e a n i n g from a succession of contrasts a n d paradoxes.) Significantly, these figures a p p e a r in the c o u r s e of a t h e a t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d this c o n t e x t seems to be a direct reference by the d r e a m e r to his o w n t r e a t m e n t by a n a l y s i s : T h e " g u i d e " he m e n t i o n s is p r e s u m a b l y his analyst. Yet h e does not see himself as a p a t i e n t w h o is b e i n g t r e a t e d by a d o c t o r b u t as " a n i m p o r t a n t s p e c t a t o r whose o p i n i o n is r e s p e c t e d . " T h i s is the v a n t a g e p o i n t from w h i c h he sees c e r t a i n figures w h o m he associates w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e

A n i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e d e v e l o p s (as does the hero m y t h ) from a primitive, childish s t a g e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d often images of t h e early s t a g e s c a n a p p e a r in t h e d r e a m s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i m m a t u r e a d u l t s . T h e first s t a g e m i g h t b e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e carefree p l a y of c h i l d r e n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; like t h e p i l l o w f i g h t (far left) f r o m t h e 1 9 3 3 F r e n c h f i l m Zero de Conduite. The second s t a g e m i g h t b e t h e reckless t h r i l l s e e k i n g of early a d o l e s c e n c e : R i g h t , A m e r i c a n y o u t h s test t h e i r n e r v e s in a s p e e d i n g car. A later s t a g e c a n p r o d u c e i d e a l i s m , a n d selfs a c r i f i c e in late a d o l e s c e n c e , e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e p i c t u r e ( o p p o s i t e , far r i g h t ) t a k e n d u r i n g t h e East B e r l i n rising ( J u n e 1 9 5 3 ) w h e n y o u n g m e n f o u g h t Russian tanks w i t h stones.

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of growing u p . T h e w h i t e m o n k e y , for i n s t a n c e , reminds him of t h e playful a n d s o m e w h a t lawless behavior of boys b e t w e e n t h e ' a g e s of seven and 12. T h e sailor suggests t h e a d v e n t u r o u s n e s s of early a d o l e s c e n c e , t o g e t h e r with t h e consequent p u n i s h m e n t by " b e a t i n g " for i r r e s p o n sible p r a n k s . T h e d r e a m e r could offer n o association to the y o u n g m a n in black, b u t in the handsome y o u n g m a n a b o u t to be sacrificed he saw a r e m i n d e r of t h e self-sacrificing idealism of late adolescence. At this stage it is possible to p u t t o g e t h e r the historical m a t e r i a l (or a r c h e t y p a l h e r o images) and the d a t a from t h e d r e a m e r ' s p e r s o n a l experience in o r d e r to see h o w they c o r r o b o r a t e , contradict, or qualify e a c h o t h e r . T h e first conclusion is t h a t the w h i t e m o n k e y seems to r e p r e s e n t T r i c k s t e r or at least those traits of personality t h a t the W i n n e b a g o a t t r i bute to T r i c k s t e r . But, to m e , the m o n k e y also stands for s o m e t h i n g t h a t the d r e a m e r has not personally a n d a d e q u a t e l y e x p e r i e n c e d for h i m selfâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; he in fact says t h a t in the d r e a m he was a spectator. I found o u t t h a t as a boy he h a d been excessively a t t a c h e d to his p a r e n t s , a n d that he was n a t u r a l l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e . F o r these reasons he h a d n e v e r fully d e v e l o p e d t h e boisterous qualities n a t u r a l to late c h i l d h o o d ; n o r had he j o i n e d in t h e g a m e s of his schoolfellows. He had not, as the s a y i n g goes, " g o t u p to m o n -

key t r i c k s " or p r a c t i c e d " m o n k e y s h i n e s . " T h e saying provides t h e clue h e r e . T h e m o n k e y in the d r e a m is in fact a symbolic form of the Trickster figure. But w h y should T r i c k s t e r a p p e a r as a m o n key? A n d w h y s h o u l d it b e w h i t e ? As I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , the W i n n e b a g o m y t h tells us t h a t , t o w a r d the end of the cycle, T r i c k s t e r begins to e m e r g e in the physical likeness of a m a n . A n d h e r e , in the d r e a m , is a m o n k e y so close to a h u m a n b e i n g t h a t it is a l a u g h a b l e a n d not too d a n g e r o u s c a r i c a t u r e of a m a n . T h e d r e a m e r himself could offer n o personal association t h a t could e x p l a i n w h y the m o n k e y was w h i t e . But from o u r k n o w l e d g e of p r i m i tive s y m b o l i s m we c a n c o n j e c t u r e t h a t w h i t e ness lends a special q u a l i t y of " g o d - l i k e n e s s " to this o t h e r w i s e b a n a l figure. ( T h e a l b i n o is reg a r d e d as sacred in m a n y p r i m i t i v e c o m m u n i ties.) T h i s fits in q u i t e well w i t h T r i c k s t e r ' s s e m i - d i v i n e or s e m i - m a g i c a l p o w e r s . T h u s , it seems, t h e w h i t e m o n k e y symbolizes for the d r e a m e r the positive q u a l i t y of childh o o d playfulness, w h i c h he h a d insufficiently a c c e p t e d at the t i m e , a n d w h i c h he n o w feels called u p o n to exalt. As the d r e a m tells us, he places it " o n a p e d e s t a l , " w h e r e it b e c o m e s s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n a lost c h i l d h o o d experie n c e . It is, for the a d u l t m a n , a symbol of creative experimentalism.

i

'7


Next we c o m e to t h e conclusion a b o u t the m o n k e y . Is it a m o n k e y , or is it a sailor w h o has to p u t u p with b e a t i n g s ? T h e d r e a m e r ' s o w n associations p o i n t e d to the m e a n i n g of this t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . But in a n y case the next stage in h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t is o n e in w h i c h the irresponsibility of c h i l d h o o d gives w a y to a period of socialization, a n d t h a t involves submission to painful discipline. O n e could say, therefore, t h a t the sailor is a n a d v a n c e d form of T r i c k s t e r , w h o is b e i n g c h a n g e d into a socially responsibleperson by m e a n s of a n initiation o r d e a l . D r a w ing on t h e history of s y m b o l i s m , we c a n assumet h a t the w i n d r e p r e s e n t s the n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s in this process, a n d the b e a t i n g s a r e those t h a t are humanly induced. At this p o i n t , t h e n , we h a v e a reference to the process t h a t the W i n n e b a g o describe in the H a r e cycle, w h e r e the c u l t u r e - h e r o is a weak yet struggling figure, r e a d y to sacrifice childishness for the sake of further d e v e l o p m e n t . O n c e a g a i n , in this p h a s e of the d r e a m , the p a t i e n t is a c k n o w l e d g i n g his failure to e x p e r i e n c e to the full a n i m p o r t a n t aspect of c h i l d h o o d a n d early a d o l e s c e n c e . H e missed out on the playfulness of the child, a n d also on the r a t h e r m o r e a d -

v a n c e d p r a n k s of the y o u n g t e e n a g e r , a n d he is seeking ways in w h i c h those lost experiences a n d personal qualities c a n be r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Next comes a c u r i o u s c h a n g e in the d r e a m . T h e y o u n g m a n in black a p p e a r s , a n d for a m o m e n t the d r e a m e r feels t h a t this is t h e " t r u e h e r o . " T h a t is all we a r e told a b o u t the m a n in b l a c k ; yet this fleeting glimpse i n t r o d u c e s a t h e m e of p r o f o u n d i m p o r t a n c e —a t h e m e t h a t occurs frequently in d r e a m s . T h i s is the c o n c e p t of the " s h a d o w , " which plays such a vital role in a n a l y t i c a l psychology. D r . J u n g has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the s h a d o w cast by the conscious m i n d of the i n d i v i d u a l contains the h i d d e n , repressed, a n d u n f a v o r a b l e (or nefarious) aspects of the personality. But this darkness is not jusl the simple ((inverse of the conscious ego. J u s t as the ego c o n t a i n s unfavora b l e a n d d e s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , so the s h a d o w has good qualities— n o r m a l instincts a n d c r e a t i v e impulses. Ego a n d s h a d o w , i n d e e d , a l t h o u g h s e p a r a t e , are i n e x t r i c a b l y linked tog e t h e r in m u c h the s a m e w a y t h a t t h o u g h t a n d feeling a r e r e l a t e d to each o t h e r . T h e ego, nevertheless, is in conflict with the s h a d o w , in w h a t D r . J u n g o n c e called " t h e b a t t l e for d e l i v e r a n c e . " In the struggle of p r i m i t i v e m a n to a c h i e v e consciousness, this conflict is expressed by the contest b e t w e e n the a r c h e t y p a l h e r o a n d the cosmic p o w e r s of evil, personified by d r a g o n s a n d o t h e r monsters. In the d e v e l o p i n g consciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l the h e r o figure is the symbolic m e a n s by which t h e e m e r g i n g ego o v e r c o m e s the inertia of the u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d , a n d liberates the m a t u r e The y o u n g , undifferentiated egop e r s o n a l i t y is p r o t e c t e d by t h e m o t h e r — a protection imaged by t h e s h e l t e r i n g M a d o n n a , left ( i n a painting by the 1 5th-century Italian artist Piero della F r a n c e s c a ) , or by t h e E g y p t i a n sky g o d d e s s N u t , r i g h t , b e n d i n g over t h e e a r t h ( i n a f i f t h - c e n t u r y B.C. r e l i e f ) . B u t t h e e g o m u s t e v e n t u a l l y free itself f r o m unconsciousness and immaturity; a n d its "battle f o r d e l i v e r a n c e " is often symbolized by a hero's battle w i t h a m o n s t e r — l i k e the Japanese g o d Susanoo's battle w i t h a serpent, t o p right (in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y p r i n t ) . T h e hero d o e s n ' t a l w a y s w i n at o n c e : For i n s t a n c e , J o n a h w a s s w a l l o w e d by t h e w h a l e (far right, from a 14th-century manuscript).


"9


m a n from a regressive longing to r e t u r n to the blissful state of infancy in a world d o m i n a t e d by his m o t h e r . Usually, in m y t h o l o g y , the h e r o wins his b a t t l e against the m o n s t e r . (I shall say m o r e a b o u t this in a m o m e n t . ) But t h e r e a r e o t h e r h e r o m y t h s in w h i c h the h e r o gives in to the m o n s t e r . A familiar type is t h a t of J o n a h a n d the w h a l e , in w h i c h the h e r o is swallowed by a sea m o n s t e r t h a t carries him on a night sea j o u r n e y from west to east, thus s y m b o l i z i n g the supposed transit of the sun from sunset to d a w n . The h e r o goes into d a r k n e s s , which represents a kind of d e a t h . I h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d this t h e m e in d r e a m s p r e s e n t e d in my o w n clinical e x p e r i e n c e . The b a t t l e b e t w e e n the h e r o a n d the d r a g o n is the m o r e active form of this m y t h , a n d it shows m o r e clearly the a r c h e t y p a l t h e m e of the ego's t r i u m p h over regressive t r e n d s . For most people the d a r k or n e g a t i v e side of the personality r e m a i n s u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e h e r o , on the c o n t r a r y , must realize t h a t the s h a d o w exists

The ego's e m e r g e n c e can be s y m b o l i z e d n o t by a b a t t l e but by a s a c r i f i c e : d e a t h l e a d i n g to r e b i r t h . R e v o l u t i o n is s a c r i f i c i a l in this w a y : D e l a c r o i x ' s p a i n t i n g ( b e l o w ) , Greece expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi, p e r s o n i f i e s t h e c o u n t r y k i l l e d by c i v i l w a r to be l i b e r a t e d a n d r e b o r n . A s individual sacrifices: the British poet B y r o n ( a b o v e ) d i e d in G r e e c e d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n ( 1 8 2 4 ) . B e l o w left, t h e C h r i s t i a n m a r t y r St. L u c i a s a c r i f i c e d her eyes a n d her life for her r e l i g i o n .


and that he c a n d r a w s t r e n g t h from it. H e must

a n d its role in p r e p a r i n g the h e r o for the s t r u g -

c o m e to t e r m s w i t h its d e s t r u c t i v e p o w e r s i f he

gles o f life, is a n essential t r a n s i t i o n f r o m the

is to b e c o m e s u f f i c i e n t l y t e r r i b l e to o v e r c o m e

e a r l i e r p a r t s o f the d r e a m to the t h e m e o f the

the d r a g o n

s a c r i f i c i a l h e r o : the h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n w h o

i.e. b e f o r e t h e e g o c a n t r i u m p h , it

must m a s t e r a n d a s s i m i l a t e the s h a d o w . O n e c a n see this t h e m e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , in a well-known l i t e r a r y h e r o figure

( J o e t he's c h a r -

acter

the

of Faust.

In

accepting

wager

places h i m s e l f on an a l t a r .

I his figure r e p r e -

sents the f o r m o f h e r o i s m

that is c o m m o n l y

a s s o c i a t e d to the e g o - b u i l d i n g process o f late

of

a d o l e s c e n c e . A m a n expresses t h e ideal p r i n -

M e p h i s t o p h e l e s . F a u s t put h i m s e l f in the p o w e r

ciples o f his life at this t i m e , sensing t h e i r p o w e r

of a " s h a d o w " ' figure t h a t G o e t h e d e s c r i b e s as

b o t h to t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f a n d to c h a n g e his r e -

'"part o f that p o w e r w h i c h , w i l l i n g evil, finds

l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . H e is, so to s p e a k , in the

the g o o d . " ' L i k e the m a n w h o s e d r e a m I h a v e

b l o o m of y o u t h , a t t r a c t i v e , full o f e n e r g y a n d

been d i s c u s s i n g , F a u s t h a d failed to live out to

i d e a l i s m . W h y . t h e n , does he willingly

the full a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f his e a r l y life. He-

h i m s e l f as a h u m a n s a c r i f i c e ?

was, a c c o r d i n g l y , a n u n r e a l o r i n c o m p l e t e p e r son w h o lost himself

in a fruitless quest

offer

T h e r e a s o n , p r e s u m a b l y , is the s a m e as t h a t

for

w h i c h m a d e the Twins of the W i n n e b a g o m y t h

m e t a p h y s i c a l g o a l s t h a t failed to m a t e r i a l i z e .

give u p t h e i r p o w e r on p a i n o f d e s t r u c t i o n . T h e

He was still u n w i l l i n g to a c c e p t life's c h a l l e n g e

i d e a l i s m o f y o u t h , w h i c h drives o n e so h a r d , is

to live b o t h the g o o d a n d t h e b a d .

b o u n d to lead to o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e : T h e h u m a n

It is to this a s p e c t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s that the

ego c a n be e x a l t e d to e x p e r i e n c e g o d l i k e a t t r i -

dream

b u t e s , but o n l y at the cost o f o v e r - r e a c h i n g itself

seems to refer. S u c h a r e m i n d e r o f t h e shadow

a n d f a l l i n g to d i s a s t e r . ( T h i s is t h e m e a n i n g o f

side o f his p e r s o n a l i t y , of its p o w e r f u l p o t e n t i a l

the story o f I c a r u s , the y o u t h w h o is c a r r i e d

young m a n

in b l a c k in m y p a t i e n t ' s

B e l o w , a m o n t a g e of W o r l d W a r I a c a l l - t o - a r m s poster, i n f a n t r y , a military c e m e t e r y . M e m o r i a l s a n d religious services for s o l d i e r s w h o gave their lives for their c o u n t r y often reflect t h e c y c l i c "death a n d r e b i r t h " t h e m e of t h e a r c h e t y p a l heroic s a c r i f i c e . A n i n s c r i p t i o n on one B r i t i s h m e m o r i a l to t h e d e a d of W o r l d W a r I reads: " A t t h e g o i n g d o w n of t h e s u n a n d in the m o r n i n g we will remember t h e m . "

In m y t h o l o g y , a h e r o ' s d e a t h is o f t e n d u e to his o w n hybris, w h i c h causes t h e g o d s to h u m b l e h i m . A s a m o d e r n e x a m p l e : In 1 9 1 2 t h e s h i p Titanic s t r u c k an i c e b e r g a n d sank. ( R i g h t , a m o n t a g e of s c e n e s of t h e s i n k i n g , f r o m t h e 1 9 4 3 f i l m Titanic.) Yet t h e Titanic h a d b e e n called " u n s i n k a b l e " : according to the A m e r i c a n a u t h o r W a l t e r L o r d , o n e sailor w a s h e a r d to say, " G o d h i m s e l f c o u l d n ' t sink this s h i p ! "


up to h e a v e n on his f r a g i l e , h u m a n l y c o n t r i v e d

m a n ' s h i s t o r y . H e r e , as t h e m a n lies s t r e t c h e d

w i n g s , b u t w h o flies t o o close to t h e sun a n d

o u t on a n a l t a r , we see a r e f e r e n c e to a n a c t

p l u n g e s to his d o o m . ) All t h e s a m e , t h e y o u t h -

e v e n m o r e p r i m i t i v e t h a n those p e r f o r m e d on

ful e g o m u s t a l w a y s r u n this risk, for i f a y o u n g

t h e a l t a r s t o n e in t h e t e m p l e at

m a n does n o t strive for a h i g h e r g o a l t h a n he

T h e r e , as on so m a n y p r i m i t i v e a l t a r s , w e c a n

Stonehenge.

c a n safely r e a c h , he c a n n o t s u r m o u n t t h e o b -

i m a g i n e a y e a r l y solstice rite c o m b i n e d

stacles b e t w e e n adolescence and m a t u r i t y .

the death and rebirth o f a mythological hero.

with

So far, I have been talking a b o u t the con-

T h e r i t u a l has a s o r r o w a b o u t it t h a t is also

clusions t h a t , a t t h e level o f his p e r s o n a l asso-

a kind o f j o y , a n i n w a r d a c k n o w l e d g m e n t t h a t

c i a t i o n s , m y p a t i e n t c o u l d d r a w f r o m his o w n

d e a t h also leads to a n e w life. W h e t h e r it is

d r e a m . Y e t t h e r e is a n a r c h e t y p a l level o f t h e

e x p r e s s e d in t h e prose e p i c o f t h e W i n n e b a g o

d r e a m â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the mystery o f the proffered

human

I n d i a n s , in a l a m e n t for t h e d e a t h o f B a l d e r in

s a c r i f i c e . I t is p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e it is a m y s t e r y

the N o r s e e d d a s , in W a l t W h i t m a n ' s p o e m s o f

t h a t it is e x p r e s s e d in a r i t u a l a c t t h a t , in its

mourning

s y m b o l i s m , c a r r i e s us a l o n g w a y b a c k

dream

I 22

into

for

Abraham

Lincoln,

or

in

the

r i t u a l w h e r e b y a m a n r e t u r n s to his


Heroes o f t e n f i g h t m o n s t e r s t o rescue " d a m s e l s In d i s t r e s s " ( w h o s y m b o l i z e t h e a n i m a ) . Left, St, George slays a d r a g o n to free a m a i d e n ( i n a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y Italian p a i n t i n g ) . R i g h t , in t h e 1 9 1 6 f i l m The Great Secret, t h e d r a g o n has become a locomotive but the heroic rescue r e m a i n s t h e s a m e .

youthful h o p e s a n d fears, it is t h e s a m e t h e m e — the d r a m a o f n e w b i r t h t h r o u g h d e a t h . T h e e n d o f the d r e a m b r i n g s out a c u r i o u s epilogue in w h i c h t h e d r e a m e r at last b e c o m e s involved in t h e a c t i o n o f t h e d r e a m . H e a n d others a r e on a p l a t f o r m f r o m w h i c h t h e y h a v e to d e s c e n d . H e does n o t trust t h e l a d d e r b e c a u s e of the possible i n t e r f e r e n c e o f h o o d l u m s ,

but

a w o m a n e n c o u r a g e s h i m to b e l i e v e he c a n g o down safely a n d this is a c c o m p l i s h e d . S i n c e I found out f r o m his a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t t h e w h o l e performance

he

witnessed

was

part

of

his

As a g e n e r a l rule it c a n b e said t h a t t h e n e e d for h e r o s y m b o l s arises w h e n

the ego

needs

analysis — a p r o c e s s o f i n n e r c h a n g e t h a t h e w a s

strengthening

experiencing — he was p r e s u m a b l y thinking o f

scious m i n d n e e d s a s s i s t a n c e in s o m e task t h a t

the difficulty o f g e t t i n g b a c k to e v e r y d a y r e a l i t y

it c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h u n a i d e d o r w i t h o u t d r a w -

a g a i n . His f e a r o f t h e " t o u g h s , " as he calls

i n g on t h e s o u r c e s o f s t r e n g t h t h a t lie in the u n -

t h e m , suggests his f e a r t h a t t h e T r i c k s t e r a r c h e -

c o n s c i o u s m i n d . I n the d r e a m I h a v e b e e n dis-

type m a y a p p e a r in a c o l l e c t i v e f o r m .

w h e n , t h a t is to s a y , t h e c o n -

c u s s i n g , for i n s t a n c e , t h e r e was n o r e f e r e n c e to

T h e s a v i n g e l e m e n t s in t h e d r e a m a r e the

o n e o f the m o r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e m y t h

m a n - m a d e l a d d e r , w h i c h h e r e is p r o b a b l y a

o f the t y p i c a l

symbol o f the r a t i o n a l m i n d , a n d the p r e s e n c e

protect beautiful women from terrible danger.

hero —his capacity

to s a v e o r

of the w o m a n w h o e n c o u r a g e s t h e d r e a m e r to

( T h e d a m s e l in distress w a s a f a v o r i t e m y t h of

use it. H e r a p p e a r a n c e in the final s e q u e n c e of

m e d i e v a l E u r o p e . ) T h i s is o n e w a y in w h i c h

the d r e a m p o i n t s to a p s y c h i c n e e d to i n c l u d e

m y t h s or d r e a m s refer to t h e " a n i m a " — t h e

a f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e as a c o m p l e m e n t

feminine

to all

element

of

the

male

psyche

that

G o e t h e called " t h e Eternal F e m i n i n e . "

this excessively m a s c u l i n e a c t i v i t y . It s h o u l d not b e a s s u m e d f r o m w h a t I h a v e

T h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f this f e m a l e e l e -

said, or f r o m the fact t h a t I h a v e c h o s e n to use

m e n t will b e discussed l a t e r in this b o o k by D r .

the W i n n e b a g o m y t h to i l l u m i n a t e this p a r t i c u -

von F r a n z . B u t its r e l a t i o n to t h e h e r o figure

lar d r e a m , t h a t o n e m u s t seek for c o m p l e t e a n d

can be illustrated here by a d r e a m

wholly m e c h a n i c a l p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n a d r e a m

by a n o t h e r p a t i e n t , also a m a n o f m a t u r e y e a r s .

and the m a t e r i a l s o n e c a n find in the h i s t o r y o f

H e b e g a n by s a y i n g :

mythology.

produced

E a c h d r e a m is i n d i v i d u a l to the

" I had returned from a long hike through

d r e a m e r , a n d t h e p r e c i s e f o r m it takes is d e t e r -

India. A w o m a n had equipped myself and a

mined

friend for the j o u r n e y , a n d on m y r e t u r n

by

his o w n

situation.

What

I

have

I

sought to s h o w is t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h the un-

r e p r o a c h e d h e r for f a i l i n g to g i v e us b l a c k r a i n -

c o n s c i o u s d r a w s on this a r c h e t y p a l m a t e r i a l a n d

hats, t e l l i n g h e r t h a t t h r o u g h this o v e r s i g h t w e

modifies its p a t t e r n s to t h e d r e a m e r ' s

h a d b e e n s o a k e d by the r a i n . "

needs.

T h u s , in this p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m , o n e must not

This

introduction

to

the

dream,

it

later

look for a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to w h a t t h e W i n n e -

e m e r g e d , r e f e r r e d to a p e r i o d in this

b a g o d e s c r i b e in the R e d H o r n or T w i n c y c l e s ;

y o u t h w h e n he w a s g i v e n to t a k i n g

the r e f e r e n c e is r a t h e r to t h e essence o f those

walks t h r o u g h d a n g e r o u s m o u n t a i n c o u n t r y in

two t h e m e s — t o t h e s a c r i f i c i a l e l e m e n t in t h e m .

company

with a c o l l e g e f r i e n d .

man's

"heroic"

(As he

had

123


n e v e r b e e n to I n d i a , a n d in view o f his o w n

y o u n g m a n . H e is dressed in g r a y with a b l a c k

a s s o c i a t i o n s to this d r e a m , I c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e

hat. and

d r e a m j o u r n e y signified his e x p l o r a t i o n o f a

y o u n g m a n dressed in a b l a c k suit. I m m e d i a t e l y

n e w r e g i o n — n o t , t h a t is to s a y , a r e a l p l a c e b u t

a f t e r this s c e n e t h e d r e a m e r feels a n e w vigor,

the realm o f the unconscious.)

a n d finds that he is c a p a b l e o f r e j o i n i n g his

he sits d o w n

to talk w i t h

another

I n his d r e a m t h e p a t i e n t s e e m s to feel t h a t

p a r t y . T h e y all t h e n c l i m b o v e r t h e n e x t hill.

a w o m a n — p r e s u m a b l y a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f his

T h e r e , b e l o w t h e m , he sees t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n ; it

a n i m a — h a s failed to p r e p a r e h i m p r o p e r l y for

is a lovely h a r b o r t o w n . H e feels b o t h h e a r t e n e d

this e x p e d i t i o n . T h e l a c k o f a s u i t a b l e r a i n h a t

a n d r e j u v e n a t e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y .

suggests t h a t he feels in a n u n p r o t e c t e d s t a t e o f

H e r e , in c o n t r a s t to t h e restless, u n c o m f o r t -

m i n d , in w h i c h he is u n c o m f o r t a b l y a f f e c t e d by

a b l e , a n d l o n e l y j o u r n e y o f t h e first e p i s o d e ,

e x p o s u r e to n e w a n d n o t a l t o g e t h e r

the d r e a m e r

pleasant

is w i t h

a group. T h e

contrast

experiences. H e believes that the w o m a n should

marks a change

h a v e p r o v i d e d a r a i n h a t for h i m , just as his

i s o l a t i o n a n d y o u t h f u l p r o t e s t to the s o c i a l i z i n g

m o t h e r p r o v i d e d c l o t h e s for h i m to w e a r as a

i n f l u e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . S i n c e this i m -

b o y . T h i s e p i s o d e is r e m i n i s c e n t o f his e a r l y

plies a n e w c a p a c i t y for r e l a t e d n e s s , it suggests

picaresque wanderings, when he was sustained

t h a t his a n i m a must n o w be f u n c t i o n i n g b e t t e r

from

an

earlier

pattern

of

b y the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t his m o t h e r ( t h e o r i g i n a l

t h a n it was b e f o r e — s y m b o l i z e d by his d i s c o v -

f e m i n i n e i m a g e ) w o u l d p r o t e c t h i m a g a i n s t all

ery o f t h e missing h a t t h a t t h e a n i m a figure h a d

d a n g e r s . As he g r e w o l d e r , h e s a w t h a t this w a s

p r e v i o u s l y failed to p r o v i d e for h i m .

a c h i l d i s h illusion, a n d he n o w b l a m e s his m i s f o r t u n e on his o w n a n i m a , n o t his m o t h e r .

B u t t h e d r e a m e r is t i r e d , a n d t h e s c e n e at the r e s t a u r a n t reflects his n e e d to look at his

I n t h e n e x t s t a g e o f the d r e a m t h e p a t i e n t

e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e s in a n e w l i g h t , with the h o p e

speaks o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a h i k e w i t h a g r o u p of

o f r e n e w i n g his s t r e n g t h b y this regression. A n d

p e o p l e . H e g r o w s tired a n d r e t u r n s to a n o u t -

so it t u r n s o u t . W h a t he first sees is a poster

d o o r r e s t a u r a n t w h e r e he finds his r a i n c o a t , to-

s u g g e s t i n g the e n a c t m e n t o f a y o u t h f u l

gether with the r a i n h a t

role

t h a t he h a d

missed

a high-school

hero

b o y p l a y i n g the p a r t

of

e a r l i e r . H e sits d o w n to r e s t ; a n d , as he does so,

P e r s e u s . T h e n he sees the b o y , n o w a m a n , with

he n o t i c e s a p o s t e r s t a t i n g that a l o c a l h i g h -

a friend w h o m a k e s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t to h i m .

s c h o o l b o y is t a k i n g t h e p a r t o f Perseus in a

T h e o n e dressed

in light g r a y , the o t h e r in

p l a y . T h e n t h e b o y in q u e s t i o n a p p e a r s — w h o

black, can be recognized, from what

turns out to be not a b o y at all but a husky

p r e v i o u s l y s a i d , as a version o f t h e T w i n s . T h e y

I have


are h e r o - f i g u r e s e x p r e s s i n g t h e o p p o s i t e s o f e g o

locks t u r n e d all w h o g a z e d u p o n t h e m to s t o n e .

and a l t e r - e g o , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r h e r e in

He

a harmonious and unified relation.

g u a r d e d A n d r o m e d a . T h e s e u s r e p r e s e n t e d the

later had

to o v e r c o m e

the dragon

that

T h e p a t i e n t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n f i r m e d this a n d

y o u n g p a t r i a r c h a l spirit o f A t h e n s w h o h a d to

e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e figure in g r a y r e p r e s e n t s a

b r a v e t h e t e r r o r s o f t h e C r e t a n l a b y r i n t h with

w e l l - a d a p t e d , w o r l d l y a t t i t u d e to life, w h e r e a s

its m o n s t r o u s i n m a t e , t h e M i n o t a u r , w h i c h p e r -

the figure in b l a c k r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i r i t u a l life,

haps symbolized the unhealthy d e c a d e n c e o f

in the sense t h a t a c l e r g y m a n w e a r s b l a c k . T h a t

m a t r i a r c h a l C r e t e . ( I n all c u l t u r e s , t h e l a b y -

they w o r e h a t s ( a n d he n o w h a d f o u n d his o w n )

r i n t h has t h e m e a n i n g o f a n e n t a n g l i n g

points to t h e i r h a v i n g a c h i e v e d

relatively

c o n f u s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d oi m a t r i -

m a t u r e i d e n t i t y o f a k i n d t h a t he h a d felt to b e

a r c h a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; it c a n b e t r a v e r s e d o n l y

a

and

severely l a c k i n g in his o w n e a r l i e r a d o l e s c e n t

by those w h o a r e r e a d y for a s p e c i a l i n i t i a t i o n

years, w h e n t h e q u a l i t y o f " T r i c k s t e r i s m " still

into the mysterious world o f the collective un-

clung to h i m , in spite o f his i d e a l i s t i c s e l f - i m a g e

conscious.)

as a seeker o f w i s d o m .

T h e s e u s r e s c u e d A r i a d n e , a m a i d e n in distress.

Having

overcome

this

danger,

Perseus

This r e s c u e s y m b o l i z e s t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f the

was a c u r i o u s o n e , w h i c h p r o v e d e s p e c i a l l y sig-

a n i m a figure f r o m t h e d e v o u r i n g a s p e c t o f the

His a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e G r e e k h e r o

nificant b e c a u s e it r e v e a l e d a g l a r i n g i n a c c u -

m o t h e r i m a g e . N o t until this is a c c o m p l i s h e d

racy. It t u r n e d o u t t h a t h e t h o u g h t Perseus was

c a n a m a n a c h i e v e his first t r u e c a p a c i t y for

the h e r o w h o slew t h e M i n o t a u r a n d r e s c u e d

r e l a t e d n e s s to w o m e n . T h e f a c t t h a t this m a n

A r i a d n e f r o m t h e C r e t a n l a b y r i n t h . As he w r o t e

h a d failed a d e q u a t e l y to s e p a r a t e the a n i m a

the n a m e d o w n for m e , h e d i s c o v e r e d his mis-

f r o m t h e m o t h e r w a s e m p h a s i z e d in a n o t h e r

t a k e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h a t it w a s T h e s e u s , not P e r s e u s , w h o

d r e a m , in w h i c h he e n c o u n t e r e d a d r a g o n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a

slew the M i n o t a u r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d this m i s t a k e b e c a m e

s y m b o l i c i m a g e for t h e " d e v o u r i n g " a s p e c t o f

suddenly m e a n i n g f u l , as s u c h slips often d o , by

his a t t a c h m e n t to his m o t h e r . T h i s d r a g o n p u r -

m a k i n g h i m n o t i c e w h a t these t w o h e r o e s h a d

sued h i m , a n d b e c a u s e he h a d n o w e a p o n .he

in c o m m o n . T h e y b o t h h a d to o v e r c o m e t h e i r

b e g a n to get t h e w o r s t o f t h e s t r u g g l e .

fear o f u n c o n s c i o u s d e m o n i c m a t e r n a l p o w e r s and h a d to l i b e r a t e f r o m these p o w e r s a single youthful f e m i n i n e

figure.

t h e d r a g o n s m a l l e r a n d less t h r e a t e n i n g . T h i s

Perseus h a d to c u t o f f t h e h e a d o f t h e g o r g o n Medusa, whose horrifying visage and

Some h e r o i c b a t t l e s a n d r e s c u e s from Greek m y t h : Far left, Perseus slays M e d u s a ( o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y B.C. v a s e ) ; left, Perseus w i t h A n d r o m e d a ( f r o m a f i r s t - c e n t u r y B.C. mural) w h o m he s a v e d f r o m a m o n s t e r . Right, T h e s e u s kills t h e M i n o t a u r (on a f i r s t - c e n t u r y B.C. j a r ) w a t c h e d by A r i a d n e ; b e l o w , o n a C r e t a n c o i n (67 B.C.), t h e M i n o t a u r ' s l a b y r i n t h .

S i g n i f i c a n t l y , h o w e v e r , his wife a p p e a r e d in the d r e a m , and her a p p e a r a n c e somehow made

snaky

c h a n g e in t h e d r e a m s h o w e d t h a t in his m a r riage the d r e a m e r was belatedly

overcoming


the a t t a c h m e n t to his m o t h e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s ,

h e r o a r c h e t y p e r e p r e s e n t s ; he h a d c l a r i f i e d a n d

he h a d to find a m e a n s o f f r e e i n g t h e p s y c h i c

d e v e l o p e d t h a t p a r t o f h i m w h i c h was s y m b o l -

e n e r g y a t t a c h e d to t h e m o t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ,

ized by t h e w o m a n ; a n d he h a d , by his e g o ' s

in o r d e r to a c h i e v e a m o r e a d u l t r e l a t i o n to

h e r o i c a c t , l i b e r a t e d himself f r o m his m o t h e r .

women â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and,

indeed,

to a d u l t

s o c i e t y as a

T h e s e and m a n y other examples o f the hero

whole. T h e h e r o - d r a g o n battle was the symbolic

m y t h in m o d e r n d r e a m s s h o w t h a t t h e e g o as

e x p r e s s i o n o f this p r o c e s s o f " g r o w i n g u p . "

h e r o is a l w a y s e s s e n t i a l l y a b e a r e r o f c u l t u r e

B u t t h e h e r o ' s task has a n a i m

that

goes

rather than a purely egocentric

exhibitionist.

b e y o n d b i o l o g i c a l a n d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . I t is

E v e n T r i c k s t e r , in his m i s g u i d e d o r u n p u r p o s i v e

to l i b e r a t e t h e a n i m a as t h a t i n n e r c o m p o n e n t

w a y , is a c o n t r i b u t o r to t h e c o s m o s as p r i m i t i v e

true

m a n sees it. In N a v a h o m y t h o l o g y , as C o y o t e ,

I n this m a n ' s c a s e w e

he h u r l e d t h e stars i n t o t h e sky as a n a c t o f

h a v e to guess t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f this o u t c o m e

c r e a t i o n , he i n v e n t e d the n e c e s s a r y c o n t i n g e n c y

b e c a u s e it is not d i r e c t l y s t a t e d in t h e d r e a m o f

o f d e a t h , a n d in t h e m y t h o f e m e r g e n c e

the I n d i a n journey. But I a m sure he would

h e l p e d lead the p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e h o l l o w reed

o f the p s y c h e t h a t is n e c e s s a r y for a n y creative achievement.

he

c o n f i r m m y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t his j o u r n e y o v e r t h e

w h e r e b y t h e y e s c a p e d f r o m o n e w o r l d to a n -

hill a n d the sight o f his g o a l as a p e a c e f u l h a r -

o t h e r a b o v e it w h e r e t h e y w e r e safe f r o m t h e

b o r t o w n c o n t a i n e d t h e r i c h p r o m i s e t h a t he

t h r e a t o f flood.

w o u l d d i s c o v e r his a u t h e n t i c a n i m a

function.

H e w o u l d thus b e c u r e d o f his e a r l y r e s e n t m e n t at n o t b e i n g g i v e n p r o t e c t i o n ( t h e r a i n h a t ) b y t h e w o m a n for his j o u r n e y t h r o u g h I n d i a . ( I n d r e a m s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y p l a c e d t o w n s c a n often b e a n i m a symbols.)

W e h a v e h e r e a r e f e r e n c e to t h a t f o r m o f c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n w h i c h e v i d e n t l y b e g i n s on a c h i l d l i k e , p r e c o n s c i o u s , o r a n i m a l level o f existe n c e . T h e e g o ' s rise to e f f e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n b e c o m e s p l a i n in t h e t r u e c u l t u r e - h e r o . I n the s a m e fashion t h e c h i l d i s h o r a d o l e s c e n t e g o frees

T h e m a n h a d w o n this p r o m i s e o f s e c u r i t y

itself f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a -

for h i m s e l f by his c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c

tions a n d b e c o m e s i n d i v i d u a l . As p a r t o f this

hero a r c h e t y p e , and had found a new c o - o p e r a -

rise to c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h e h e r o - d r a g o n b a t t l e m a y

tive a n d r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e to t h e g r o u p . His sense

have

of rejuvenation

e n e r g y for t h e m u l t i t u d e o f h u m a n tasks that

naturally

followed.

He

had

d r a w n on t h e i n n e r s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t t h e

to be f o u g h t a n d

refought

to

can form a culture pattern out o f chaos.

liberate


T h e h e r o ' s rescue of a m a i d e n c a n s y m b o l i z e t h e f r e e i n g of t h e a n i m a f r o m t h e " d e v o u r i n g " a s p e c t of t h e m o t h e r . T h i s a s p e c t is r e p r e s e n t e d , far left, by B a l i n e s e d a n c e r s w e a r i n g t h e m a s k of R a n g d a ( l e f t ) , a m a l i g n f e m a l e s p i r i t ; or by t h e s e r p e n t t h a t s w a l l o w e d and then regurgitated the Greek hero J a s o n ( a b o v e ) . A s in t h e d r e a m d i s c u s s e d o n p 1 2 4 , a c o m m o n a n i m a s y m b o l is a h a r b o r t o w n B e l o w , a p o s t e r by M a r c C h a g a l l p e r s o n i f i e s N i c e as a m e r m a i d .


W h e n this is s u c c e s s f u l , w e see the full h e r o

The archetype of initiation

i m a g e e m e r g i n g as a kind o f e g o s t r e n g t h for, if we a r e s p e a k i n g in c o l l e c t i v e t e r m s , a t r i b a l i d e n t i t y ) t h a t has n o f u r t h e r n e e d to o v e r c o m e the m o n s t e r s a n d t h e g i a n t s . It has r e a c h e d t h e

In a p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense the h e r o i m a g e is n o t

p o i n t w h e r e these d e e p forces c a n b e p e r s o n -

to b e r e g a r d e d as i d e n t i c a l w i t h the e g o p r o p e r .

a l i z e d . T h e " f e m i n i n e e l e m e n t " no l o n g e r a p -

It is b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as t h e s y m b o l i c m e a n s by

p e a r s in d r e a m s as a d r a g o n , b u t as a w o m a n ;

w h i c h the e g o s e p a r a t e s itself from t h e a r c h e -

s i m i l a r l y , the " s h a d o w " side o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y

types e v o k e d by t h e p a r e n t a l i m a g e s in e a r l y

takes on a less m e n a c i n g f o r m .

c h i l d h o o d . D r . J u n g has suggested t h a t e a c h the

h u m a n b e i n g has o r i g i n a l l y a feeling o f w h o l e -

d r e a m o f a m a n n e a r i n g 5 0 . All his life he h a d

ness, a p o w e r f u l a n d c o m p l e t e sense o f the Self.

suffered from p e r i o d i c a t t a c k s o f a n x i e t y asso-

And from the S e l f

the t o t a l i t y o f t h e p s y c h e â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

c i a t e d with fear o f f a i l u r e ( o r i g i n a l l y

the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d

ego-consciousness

This i m p o r t a n t

point

is i l l u s t r a t e d

in

engen-

d e r e d by a d o u b t i n g m o t h e r ) . Y e t his a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , b o t h in his profession a n d in his p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , w e r e well a b o v e a v e r a g e . In

emerges

as the i n d i v i d u a l g r o w s up. Within

the

past

few

years,

the

works

of

c e r t a i n followers of J u n g h a v e b e g u n to d o c u -

his d r e a m his n i n e - y e a r - o l d son a p p e a r e d as a

m e n t the series o f e v e n t s by w h i c h the i n d i -

young man of about

18 o r 19, dressed in the

v i d u a l e g o e m e r g e s d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n from

s h i n i n g a r m o r o f a m e d i e v a l k n i g h t . The y o u n g

i n f a n c y t h r o u g h c h i l d h o o d . This s e p a r a t i o n c a n

m a n is called u p o n to fight a host o f m e n in

n e v e r b e c o m e final w i t h o u t severe i n j u r y to Un-

b l a c k , w h i c h he p r e p a r e s at first to d o . T h e n he

o r i g i n a l sense o f w h o l e n e s s . A n d t h e e g o must

s u d d e n l y r e m o v e s his h e l m e t , a n d smiles at the

c o n t i n u a l l y r e t u r n to r e - e s t a b l i s h its r e l a t i o n to

l e a d e r of the m e n a c i n g h o s t ; it is c l e a r

that

they will not

will

engage

in the b a t t l e b u t

b e c o m e friends. The son

in the d r e a m

is the

man's

own

y o u t h f u l e g o , w h i c h h a d f r e q u e n t l y felt t h r e a t e n e d by t h e s h a d o w in t h e f o r m o f s e l f - d o u b t . H e h a d , in a sense, w a g e d a successful c r u s a d e a g a i n s t this a d v e r s a r y all his m a t u r e life. N o w , partly through

the a c t u a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t

of

seeing his son g r o w up w i t h o u t such d o u b t s , but m a i n l y by f o r m i n g a s u i t a b l e i m a g e o f t h e h e r o in the f o r m closest to his o w n

environmental

p a t t e r n , he finds it n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y to fight t h e s h a d o w ; he c a n a c c e p t it. T h a t is w h a t is s y m b o l i z e d in t h e a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p . H e is n o l o n g e r d r i v e n to a c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e for i n d i vidual s u p r e m a c y , b u t is a s s i m i l a t e d to t h e c u l tural task o f f o r m i n g a d e m o c r a t i c sort o f c o m m u n i t y . S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n , r e a c h e d in t h e fullness o f life, goes b e y o n d the h e r o i c task a n d leads o n e to a t r u l y m a t u r e a t t i t u d e . This c h a n g e , h o w e v e r , does not t a k e p l a c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y . It r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n , w h i c h is expressed in the v a r i o u s f o r m s o f t h e a r c h e t y p e of i n i t i a t i o n . 1i 28 28


the S e l f in o r d e r to m a i n t a i n a c o n d i t i o n

of

psychic h e a l t h .

Ancient history a n d the rituals o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p r i m i t i v e societies h a v e p r o v i d e d us with

It w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m m y studies t h a t t h e

a w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l a b o u t m y t h s a n d rites o f

hero m y t h is t h e first s t a g e in t h e d i f f e r e n t i a -

initiation, whereby young men and women are

tion o f t h e p s y c h e . I h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t it

weaned a w a y from their parents and forcibly

seems to g o t h r o u g h a fourfold c y c l e by w h i c h

m a d e m e m b e r s o f t h e i r c l a n o r t r i b e . B u t in

the ego seeks to a c h i e v e its r e l a t i v e a u t o n o m y

m a k i n g this b r e a k w i t h t h e c h i l d h o o d w o r l d ,

from the o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n o f w h o l e n e s s . U n l e s s

t h e o r i g i n a l p a r e n t a r c h e t y p e will b e i n j u r e d ,

some d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y is a c h i e v e d , t h e i n d i -

a n d t h e d a m a g e must be m a d e g o o d by a h e a l -

vidual is u n a b l e to r e l a t e h i m s e l f to his a d u l t

i n g p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e life o f the

environment.

not

g r o u p . ( T h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e g r o u p a n d the i n d i -

ensure t h a t this l i b e r a t i o n will o c c u r . It o n l y

But

the

hero

myth

does

v i d u a l is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by a t o t e m a n i m a l . )

shows h o w it is possible for it to o c c u r , so that

T h u s t h e g r o u p fulfills t h e c l a i m s o f t h e i n j u r e d

the ego m a y a c h i e v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e r e r e -

archetv pe a n d b e c o m e s a kind ol s e c o n d parent

mains the p r o b l e m o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p -

to w h i c h t h e y o u n g a r e first s y m b o l i c a l l y s a c r i -

ing that c o n s c i o u s n e s s in a m e a n i n g f u l w a y , so

ficed,

that the i n d i v i d u a l c a n live a useful life a n d can a c h i e v e t h e n e c e s s a r y sense o f s e l f - d i s t i n c tion in s o c i e t y .

o n l y to r e - e m e r g e i n t o a n e w life.

In this " d r a s t i c c e r e m o n y , w h i c h looks v e r y like a s a c r i f i c e to t h e p o w e r s t h a t m i g h t hold t h e y o u n g m a n b a c k , " as D r . J u n g has put it,

A primitive t r i b e ' s totem ( o f t e n an animal) s y m b o l i z e s e a c h t r i b e s m a n ' s identity w i t h t h e t r i b a l u n i t . Left, an A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e i m i t a t i n g (in a ritual d a n c e ) his t r i b e ' s t o t e m â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n emu. M a n y modern groups use t o t e m - l i k e a n i m a l s as e m b l e m s : Below, a heraldic lion ( f r o m the Belgian c o a t of a r m s ) o n a 1 7 t h century a l l e g o r i c a l m a p of B e l g i u m . Right, t h e f a l c o n is t h e m a s c o t o f the A m e r i c a n A i r Force A c a d e m y ' s f o o t b a l l t e a m . Far r i g h t , m o d e r n totemistic e m b l e m s that aren't animals: a s h o p w i n d o w d i s p l a y of ties, b a d g e s , etc. of B r i t i s h schools a n d c l u b s .

I 2

9


w c sec h o w t h e p o w e r o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r c h e t y p e can

n e v e r be p e r m a n e n t l y o v e r c o m e , in

the

m a n n e r e n v i s a g e d by the h e r o - d r a g o n b a t t l e , w i t h o u t a c r i p p l i n g sense ol a l i e n a t i o n from the fruitful p o w e r s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . W e saw in the m y t h o f the

Twins h o w t h e i r hybris,

ex-

pressing e x c e s s i v e e g o - S e l f s e p a r a t i o n , was c o r r e c t e d by t h e i r o w n f e a r o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s , w h i c h forced t h e m b a c k i n t o a h a r m o n i o u s e g o Self relation. In t r i b a l societies it is the i n i t i a t i o n rite that most e f f e c t i v e l y solves this p r o b l e m . T h e ritual takes the n o v i c e b a c k to the deepesl

level ol

original mother-child identity or e g o - S e l f identity, thus f o r c i n g h i m to e x p e r i e n c e a s y m b o l i c d e a t h . In o t h e r w o r d s , his i d e n t i t y is t e m p o r a r i l y d i s m e m b e r e d o r dissolved in the c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s . F r o m this s t a t e he is then c e r e m o n i a l l y r e s c u e d by the rite ol the new b i r t h . This is the first act o f t r u e c o n s o l i d a t i o n ol the e g o with the l a r g e r g r o u p , e x p r e s s e d as t o t e m , c l a n , or t r i b e , o r all t h r e e c o m b i n e d . The

ritual,

whether

it is f o u n d

in

tribal

g r o u p s o r in m o r e c o m p l e x s o c i e t i e s , i n v a r i a b l y insists u p o n this rite o f d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h , w h i c h p r o v i d e s the n o v i c e with a " r i t e o f p a s s a g e " from o n e s t a g e o f life to the n e x t , w h e t h e r it is from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d to l a t e r c h i l d h o o d or from early

to late a d o l e s c e n c e

maturity.

and

from

then

to


Initiatory e v e n t s a r e n o t , o f c o u r s e , c o n f i n e d

a n a l y s i s . It is not s u r p r i s i n g that t h e r e should

to the p s y c h o l o g y o f y o u t h . E v e r y new p h a s e o f

a p p e a r , in the u n c o n s c i o u s o f s o m e o n e w h o is

development t h r o u g h o u t a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s life is

seeking

help

accompanied

psychic

d i s o r d e r s , i m a g e s that d u p l i c a t e

by a r e p e t i t i o n o f the

original

from

a

doctor

specializing

conflict b e t w e e n the c l a i m s o f the Sell a n d the

m a j o r p a t t e r n s o f i n i t i a t i o n as we know

claims ol the e g o . In f a c t , this c o n f l i c t m a y be

from h i s t o r y .

expressed

more

P e r h a p s t h e c o m m o n e s t ol these t h e m e s to be

transition from e a r l y m a t u r i t y to m i d d l e a g e

f o u n d in y o u n g p e o p l e is the o r d e a l , o r trial of

(between 3 5 a n d 4 0 in o u r society

s t r e n g t h . T h i s m i g h t s e e m to be i d e n t i c a l with

in

life. A n d

at

the

the

period

them

of

other time

powerfully

in the

t h a n at a n y

transition

from

what

we

have

already

noticed

in

modern

middle a g e to old a g e c r e a t e s a g a i n the need

d r e a m s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e h e r o m y t h , such as the

for a f f i r m a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n

the

s a i l o r w h o h a d to s u b m i t to t h e w e a t h e r a n d to

ego and the total p s y c h e ; the h e r o receives his

b e a t i n g s , or that p r o o f o f fitness r e p r e s e n t e d in

last call to a c t i o n in d e f e n s e o f e g o - c o n s c i o u s -

t h e h i k e t h r o u g h I n d i a o f the m a n w i t h o u t a

ness against the a p p r o a c h i n g dissolution o f life

r a i n h a t . W e c a n also sec this t h e m e o f physical

in death.

s u f f e r i n g c a r r i e d to its logical e n d in the first

At these c r u c i a l initiation

p e r i o d s , the a r c h e t y p e

is s t r o n g l y

meaningful

transition

activated that

to p r o v i d e

offers

of

d r e a m I discussed, w h e n the h a n d s o m e y o u n g

a

m a n b e c a m e a h u m a n s a c r i f i c e on an a l t a r .

something

This s a c r i f i c e r e s e m b l e d the a p p r o a c h to i n i t i a -

more s p i r i t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g t h a n the a d o l e s c e n t

tion, but its end was o b s c u r e d . It s e e m e d to

rites with t h e i r s t r o n g s e c u l a r flavor. T h e a r c h e -

r o u n d o f f the h e r o c y c l e , to m a k e way

typal p a t t e r n s ol i n i t i a t i o n in this religious sense

new t h e m e .

lor a

known since a n c i e n t t i m e s as " t h e m y s t e r i e s "

T h e r e is o n e striking d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the

are w o v e n i n t o t h e t e x t u r e o f all e c c l e s i a s t i c a l

h e r o m y t h a n d the i n i t i a t i o n rite. T h e typical

rituals r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i a l m a n n e r o f w o r s h i p at

h e r o figures e x h a u s t t h e i r efforts in a c h i e v i n g

the time o f b i r t h , m a r r i a g e , o r d e a t h .

the

As in o u r study o f the h e r o m y t h , so in the

goal

of their

ambitions;

in s h o r t ,

b e c o m e successful even i f i m m e d i a t e l y are

punished

or

killed

for

after-

study o f i n i t i a t i o n we must look for e x a m p l e s

ward

in the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s o f m o d e r n p e o p l e

hybris. In c o n t r a s t to this, the n o v i c e for i n i t i a -

and e s p e c i a l l y o f those w h o h a v e

tion is c a l l e d u p o n to give up willful a m b i t i o n

undergone

thev

they their

Primitive i n i t i a t i o n rituals b r i n g the y o u t h i n t o a d u l t h o o d a n d i n t o the tribe's c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . In many p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , i n i t i a t i o n is a c c o m p l i s h e d by c i r c u m c i s i o n (a symbolic s a c r i f i c e ) . Here are f o u r stages in a c i r c u m c i s i o n rite o f Australian a b o r i g i n e s . Far l e f t . t o p and center: T h e b o y s are p l a c e d under b l a n k e t s (a s y m b o l i c d e a t h from w h i c h t h e y w i l l be r e b o r n ) . Bottom, t h e y are r e m o v e d a n d h e l d by the m e n for t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n . Left, the c i r c u m c i s e d b o y s are given m e n ' s c o n i c a l c a p s , a m a r k of their n e w s t a t u s . R i g h t , t h e y are finally i s o l a t e d f r o m the tribe t o be purified a n d g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n .

'3

1


and all desire and to submit to the ordeal. He must be willing to experience this trial without hope of success. In fact, he must be prepared to die; and though the token of his ordeal may be mild (a period of fasting, the knocking out of a tooth, or tattooing) or agonizing (the infliction of the wounds of circumcision, subincision, or other mutilations), the purpose remains always the same: T o create the symbolic mood of death from which may spring the symbolic mood of rebirth. A young man of 25 dreams of climbing a mountain on top of which there is a kind of altar. Near the altar he sees a sarcophagus with a statue of himself upon it. T h e n a veiled priest approaches carrying a staff on which there glows a living sun-disk. (Discussing the dream later, the young man said that climbing a mountain reminded him of the effort he was making in his analysis to achieve self-mastery.) T o his surprise, he finds himself, as it were, dead, and instead of a sense of achievement he feels deprivation and fear. Then comes a feeling of strength and rejuvenation as he is bathed in the warm rays of the sun-disk. This dream shows quite succinctly the distinction we must make between initiation and the hero myth. T h e act of climbing the mountain seems to suggest a trial of strength: It is the will to achieve ego-consciousness in the heroic phase of adolescent development. T h e patient had evidently thought that his approach to therapy would be like his approach to other tests of manhood, which he had approached in the competitive manner characteristic of young men in our society. But the scene by the altar corrected this mistaken assumption, showing him that his task is rather to submit to a power greater than himself. He must see himself as if he were dead and entombed in a symbolic form (the sarcophagus) that recalls the archetypal mother as the original container of all life. Only by such an act of submission can he experience rebirth. An invigorating ritual brings him to life again as the symbolic son of a Sun Father. Here again we might confuse this with a hero cycle â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that of the Twins, the "children of the S u n . " But in this case we have no indication I

3

2

that the initiate will over-reach himself. Instead, he has learned a lesson in humility by experiencing a rite of death and rebirth that marks his passage from youth to maturity. According to his chronological age he should already have made this transition, but a prolonged period of arrested development has held him back. This delay had plunged him into a neurosis for which he had come for treatment, and the dream offers him the same wise counsel that he could have been given by any good tribal medicine man â&#x20AC;&#x201D; that he should give up scaling mountains to prove his strength and submit to the meaningful ritual of an initiatory change that could fit him for the new moral responsibilities of manhood. T h e theme of submission as an essential attitude toward promotion of the successful initiation rite can be clearly seen in the case of girls or women. Their rite of passage initially emphasizes their essential passivity, and this is reinforced by the psychological limitation on theirautonomyimposedby the menstrual cycle. It has been suggested that the menstrual cycle may actually be the major part of initiation from a woman's point of view, since it has the power to awaken the deepest sense of obedience to life's creative power over her. Thus she willingly gives herself to her womanly function, much as a man gives himself to his assigned role in the community life of his group. On the other hand, the woman, no less than the man, has her initial trials of strength that

A sarcophagus from second-century A . D . T h e b e s t h a t reveals a s y m b o l i c c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a r c h e t y p a l Great M o t h e r ( t h e c o n t a i n e r of all l i f e ) . T h e i n s i d e of t h e c o v e r bears a p o r t r a i t of t h e E g y p t i a n g o d d e s s N u t ; thus the goddess w o u l d " e m b r a c e " t h e b o d y of t h e d e c e a s e d ( w h o s e p o r t r a i t is o n t h e base, far r i g h t ) .


'33


lead to a final s a c r i f i c e for the s a k e of e x p e r i e n c i n g the n e w b i r t h . T h i s s a c r i f i c e e n a b l e s a w o m a n to free h e r s e l f f r o m t h e e n t a n g l e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s a n d fits h e r for a m o r e c o n scious role as an i n d i v i d u a l in h e r o w n r i g h t . In c o n t r a s t , a m a n ' s s a c r i f i c e is a s u r r e n d e r o f his s a c r e d

independence:

He becomes

more

c o n s c i o u s l y r e l a t e d to w o m a n . H e r e we c o m e to that a s p e c t o f i n i t i a t i o n which a c q u a i n t s m a n with w o m a n and w o m a n w i t h m a n in such a w a y as to c o r r e c t s o m e sort of

original

male-female

opposition.

knowledge (Logos) then encounters relatedness

Man's woman's

E r o s i a n d t h e i r u n i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d

as t h a t s y m b o l i c r i t u a l o f a s a c r e d

marriage

w h i c h has b e e n at t h e h e a r t o f i n i t i a t i o n s i n c e its origins in the m y s t e r y - r e l i g i o n s o f a n t i q u i t y . But

this is e x c e e d i n g l y

difficult

for

modern

p e o p l e to g r a s p , a n d it f r e q u e n t l y takes a special crisis in t h e i r lives to m a k e t h e m u n d e r s t a n d it. Several

patients

have

told

me dreams

in

w h i c h the m o t i f o f s a c r i f i c e is c o m b i n e d with the m o t i f o f the s a c r e d m a r r i a g e . O n e o f these was p r o d u c e d by a y o u n g m a n w h o h a d fallen in love but was u n w i l l i n g to m a r r y for fear that m a r r i a g e w o u l d b e c o m e a kind o f prison p r e sided o v e r by a p o w e r f u l m o t h e r figure.

His

o w n m o t h e r h a d b e e n a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e in his c h i l d h o o d , a n d his f u t u r e m o t h e r - i n - l a w p r e s e n t e d a s i m i l a r t h r e a t . W o u l d not his w i f e - t o -

Four v a r i e d i n i t i a t i o n c e r e m o n i e s : T o p left, n o v i c e s in a c o n v e n t p e r f o r m s u c h h u m b l e d u t i e s as s c r u b b i n g a f l o o r ( f r o m the 1 9 5 8 f i l m The Nun's Story), a n d h a v e their hair c u t off ( f r o m a m e d i e v a l p a i n t i n g ) . Center, ship's passengers crossing the equator must undergo a "rite of p a s s a g e . " B o t t o m , A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n in a t r a d i t i o n a l b a t t l e w i t h their s e n i o r s . M a r r i a g e c a n be seen as an i n i t i a t i o n rite in w h i c h t h e m a n a n d t h e w o m a n m u s t s u b m i t t o o n e a n o t h e r B u t in s o m e s o c i e t i e s t h e m a n o f f s e t s his submission by ritually " a b d u c t i n g " his b r i d e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; as d o t h e D y a k s of M a l a y s i a and Borneo (right, from the 1955 f i l m The Lost Continent). A remnant of t h i s p r a c t i c e exists in t o d a y ' s c u s t o m of c a r r y i n g t h e bride a c r o s s t h e t h r e s h o l d (far r i g h t ) .

1

:Y\


be d o m i n a t e h i m in t h e s a m e w a y these m o t h e r s

H e felt d e e p l y a s h a m e d o f his c o w a r d l y failure

had d o m i n a t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ?

to s a c r i f i c e h i m s e l f with the o t h e r s . ritual

This d r e a m b r o u g h t h o m e to m y p a t i e n t the

dance a l o n g w i t h a n o t h e r m a n a n d t w o o t h e r

fact t h a t he was m o r e t h a n r e a d y to c h a n g e

In 11 is d r e a m

he was e n g a g e d

in a

The

his a t t i t u d e to life. H e h a d b e e n s e l f - c e n t e r e d ,

others w e r e a n o l d e r m a n a n d wife, w h o i m -

s e e k i n g t h e illusory safety o f p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n -

pressed t h e d r e a m e r b e c a u . s e . d e s p i t e t h e i r c l o s e -

d e n c e but

women, o n e o f w h o m

n e s s

was his

fiancee.

to e a c h o t h e r , t h e y s e e m e d to h a v e r o o m

inwardly dominated

by t h e

fears

c a u s e d by c h i l d h o o d s u b j e c t i o n to his m o t h e r .

nol

H e n e e d e d a c h a l l e n g e to his m a n h o o d in o r d e r

therefore

to see that unless he s a c r i f i c e d his c h i l d i s h s t a t e

represented to this y o u n g m a n a m a r r i e d state-

o f m i n d he w o u l d be left isolated a n d a s h a m e d .

that did not i m p o s e u n d u e c o n s t r a i n t on the

T h e d r e a m , a n d his s u b s e q u e n t insight i n t o its

development o f the individual n a t u r e of the two

m e a n i n g , dispelled his d o u b t s . H e h a d passed

partners. I f it w e r e possible for h i m to a c h i e v e

t h r o u g h the s y m b o l i c rite by w h i c h a y o u n g

this c o n d i t i o n , m a r r i a g e w o u l d t h e n

man

for their i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a n d did appear to be possessive. T h e s e t w o

become

In

the

ritual

dance

gives

up

his

exclusive

autonomy

and

a c c e p t s his s h a r e d life in a r e l a t e d , not j u s t

a c c e p t a b l e to h i m . each

man

faced

his

woman p a r t n e r , a n d all f o u r t o o k t h e i r p l a c e s

heroic, form. A n d so he m a r r i e d a n d f o u n d

appropriate

at the c o r n e r s o f a s q u a r e d a n c i n g g r o u n d . As

fulfillment in his r e l a t i o n s h i p with his wife. F a r

they d a n c e d , it b e c a m e a p p a r e n t that this was

from i m p a i r i n g his e f f e c t i v e n e s s in the w o r l d ,

also a kind o f s w o r d d a n c e . E a c h d a n c e r h a d

his m a r r i a g e a c t u a l l y e n h a n c e d it.

in his h a n d a short s w o r d with w h i c h to p e r -

Quite

form a difficult a r a b e s q u e , m o v i n g a r m s a n d

invisible

legs in a series o f m o v e m e n t s that

behind

suggested

apart

from

the

neurotic

m o t h e r s or l a t h e r s the

marriage

may

veil, even

fear

that

be

lurking

the

normal

alternate i m p u l s e s ol a g g r e s s i o n a n d s u b m i s s i o n

voting m a n has g o o d reason to leel a p p r e h e n -

to each o t h e r . In the final s c e n e o f the d a n c e

sive a b o u t the w e d d i n g r i t u a l . It is essentially

all four d a n c e r s h a d to plunge- the swords i n t o

a w o m a n ' s i n i t i a t i o n rite, in w h i c h a m a n is

their own b r e a s t s a n d d i e . O n l y the d r e a m e r

b o u n d to feel like a n y t h i n g but a c o n q u e r i n g

refused to a c c o m p l i s h the final s u i c i d e , a n d was

h e r o . No w o n d e r we

left s t a n d i n g a l o n e a f t e r t h e o t h e r s h a d fallen.

such c o u n t e r p h o b i c rituals as the a b d u c t i o n o r

find,

in t r i b a l societies,

'35


rape o f the bride. T h e s e enable the m a n

to

w h i c h she c o u l d a c c e p t a b a l a n c e d a n d n a t u r a l

c l i n g to t h e r e m n a n t s o f his h e r o i c r o l e at the

r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e ) she h a d

v e r y m o m e n t t h a t h e m u s t s u b m i t to his b r i d e

w r o n g l y a s s u m e d t h a t she h a d to p u t h e r e n t i r e

and assume the responsibilities o f m a r r i a g e .

c o n s c i o u s (i.e. r i g h t - s i d e d )

i d e n t i t y in t h e ser-

B u t t h e t h e m e o f m a r r i a g e is a n i m a g e o f

vice o f the m a n . In fact, m a r r i a g e required her

such u n i v e r s a l i t y t h a t it also has a d e e p e r m e a n -

to s h a r e w i t h h i m o n l y t h a t s u b l i m i n a l , n a t u r a l

i n g . It is a n a c c e p t a b l e , e v e n n e c e s s a r y , s y m -

(i.e. left-sided)

bolic discovery o f the feminine c o m p o n e n t o f a

p r i n c i p l e o f u n i o n w o u l d h a v e a s y m b o l i c , not

m a n ' s o w n p s y c h e , j u s t as m u c h as it is t h e

a l i t e r a l o r a b s o l u t e , m e a n i n g . H e r f e a r was the

a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e a l wife. S o o n e m a y e n c o u n -

fear o f the w o m a n

t e r this a r c h e t y p e

identity

in a m a n

o f any age

in

p a r t o f h e r s e l f in w h i c h

w h o d r e a d s to lose

in a s t r o n g l y

patriarchal

the

her

marriage,

w h i c h this w o m a n h a d g o o d r e a s o n to resist.

r e s p o n s e to a s u i t a b l e s t i m u l u s . N o t all w o m e n , h o w e v e r , r e a c t t r u s t i n g l y to the married state. A w o m a n patient who had

Nevertheless,

the

sacred

marriage

archetypal form has a particularly

as

an

important

unfulfilled l o n g i n g s f o r a c a r e e r , w h i c h she h a d

m e a n i n g for t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f w o m e n , a n d o n e

h a d to give u p for a v e r y difficult a n d s h o r t -

for w h i c h t h e y a r e p r e p a r e d d u r i n g t h e i r a d o -

lived m a r r i a g e , d r e a m e d t h a t she w a s k n e e l i n g

lescence

o p p o s i t e a m a n w h o w a s also k n e e l i n g . H e h a d

initiatory character.

by m a n y

preliminary

events o f an

a r i n g t h a t he p r e p a r e d to p u t o n h e r f i n g e r , b u t she s t r e t c h e d o u t h e r r i g h t - h a n d r i n g f i n g e r in

a

tense

mannerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;evidently

resisting

this

ritual of marital union. It w a s easy to p o i n t o u t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r . Instead o f offering the left-hand ring finger (by

The archetypal sacred marriage (the u n i o n of o p p o s i t e s , of t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e p r i n c i p l e s ) r e p r e s e n t e d here by a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y I n d i a n s c u l p t u r e of t h e d e i t i e s Siva a n d P a r v a t i .


Beauty and the Beast

Girls in o u r s o c i e t y s h a r e in t h e m a s c u l i n e h e r o

o f y o u n g w o m e n like herself, a n d as she l o o k e d

myths b e c a u s e , like b o y s , t h e y m u s t also d e -

a h e a d to w h e r e t h e y w e r e g o i n g she s a w t h a t as

velop a r e l i a b l e e g o - i d e n t i t y a n d a c q u i r e

e a c h c a m e to t h e h e a d o f t h e l i n e she was d e -

an

e d u c a t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a n o l d e r l a y e r o f t h e

capitated by a guillotine. W i t h o u t any fear the

mind t h a t s e e m s to c o m e to t h e s u r f a c e in t h e i r

d r e a m e r r e m a i n e d in t h e l i n e , p r e s u m a b l y q u i t e

feelings, w i t h t h e a i m o f m a k i n g t h e m

into

w i l l i n g to s u b m i t to t h e s a m e t r e a t m e n t w h e n

women, n o t i n t o i m i t a t i o n

this

her turn c a m e .

men.

When

ancient c o n t e n t o f t h e p s y c h e b e g i n s to m a k e

I e x p l a i n e d to h e r t h a t this m e a n t she was

its a p p e a r a n c e , t h e m o d e r n y o u n g w o m a n m a y

r e a d y to g i v e u p t h e h a b i t o f " l i v i n g in h e r

repress it b e c a u s e it t h r e a t e n s to c u t h e r o f f

h e a d " ; she m u s t l e a r n to free h e r b o d y to dis-

from the e m a n c i p a t e d e q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p

c o v e r its n a t u r a l s e x u a l r e s p o n s e a n d t h e fulfill-

and o p p o r t u n i t y

to c o m p e t e w i t h

men

that

have b e c o m e h e r m o d e r n p r i v i l e g e s .

m e n t o f its b i o l o g i c a l role in m o t h e r h o o d . T h e d r e a m e x p r e s s e d this as t h e n e e d to m a k e a

T h i s r e p r e s s i o n m a y b e so successful t h a t for a time she will m a i n t a i n a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h

d r a s t i c c h a n g e ; she h a d to s a c r i f i c e t h e " m a s c u l i n e " hero role.

the m a s c u l i n e i n t e l l e c t u a l goals she l e a r n e d at

As o n e m i g h t e x p e c t , this e d u c a t e d w o m a n

school or c o l l e g e . E v e n w h e n she m a r r i e s , she

h a d n o difficulty in a c c e p t i n g this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

will preserve s o m e illusion o f f r e e d o m , d e s p i t e

at a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , a n d she set a b o u t t r y i n g

her ostensible a c t o f s u b m i s s i o n to t h e a r c h e t y p e

to c h a n g e h e r s e l f i n t o a m o r e s u b m i s s i v e k i n d

of m a r r i a g e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w i t h

to

o f w o m a n . S h e did t h e n i m p r o v e h e r love-life

b e c o m e a m o t h e r . A n d so t h e r e m a y o c c u r , as

and b e c a m e the m o t h e r of two very satisfactory

its i m p l i c i t i n j u n c t i o n

conflict

c h i l d r e n . As she g r e w to k n o w h e r s e l f b e t t e r ,

which in t h e e n d forces t h e w o m a n to redis-

she b e g a n to sec t h a t for a m a n (or t h e m a s c u -

cover h e r b u r i e d w o m a n h o o d in a p a i n f u l ( b u t

l i n e - t r a i n e d m i n d in w o m e n ) life is s o m e t h i n g

ultimately r e w a r d i n g ) m a n n e r .

t h a t has to be t a k e n by s t o r m , as a n a c t o f t h e

we very f r e q u e n t l y

see

today,

that

I saw a n e x a m p l e o f this in a y o u n g m a r r i e d woman w h o did n o t y e t h a v e a n y c h i l d r e n b u t who i n t e n d e d to h a v e o n e o r t w o e v e n t u a l l y , because it w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d o f h e r .

Mean-

h e r o i c w i l l ; b u t for a w o m a n to feel r i g h t a b o u t herself,

life is best r e a l i z e d

b y a p r o c e s s of

awakening. A

universal

myth

expressing

this k i n d

of

while h e r s e x u a l r e s p o n s e was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .

a w a k e n i n g is f o u n d in t h e f a i r y t a l e o f B e a u t y

This w o r r i e d h e r a n d h e r h u s b a n d , t h o u g h t h e y

a n d t h e B e a s t . T h e b e s t - k n o w n v e r s i o n o f this

were u n a b l e to o f f e r a n y e x p l a n a t i o n for it.

story r e l a t e s h o w B e a u t y , t h e y o u n g e s t o f four

She h a d g r a d u a t e d w i t h h o n o r s f r o m a g o o d

daughters, becomes her father'sfavorite because

women's c o l l e g e a n d e n j o y e d a life o f i n t e l l e c -

o f h e r unselfish g o o d n e s s . W h e n she asks h e r

tual c o m p a n i o n s h i p w i t h h e r h u s b a n d a n d o t h e r

f a t h e r o n l y for a w h i t e r o s e , i n s t e a d o f t h e m o r e

men. A l t h o u g h this side o f h e r life w e n t well

c o s t l y p r e s e n t s d e m a n d e d b y t h e o t h e r s , she is

enough m u c h o f t h e t i m e , she h a d o c c a s i o n a l

a w a r e only of her i n n e r sincerity o f feeling. She

outbursts o f t e m p e r a n d t a l k e d in a n aggressive

does n o t k n o w t h a t she is a b o u t to e n d a n g e r

fashion t h a t a l i e n a t e d m e n a n d g a v e h e r a n i n -

h e r f a t h e r ' s life a n d h e r i d e a l r e l a t i o n w i t h h i m .

tolerable feeling o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h herself.

F o r he steals t h e w h i t e rose f r o m t h e e n c h a n t e d

She h a d a d r e a m at this t i m e t h a t s e e m e d so

g a r d e n o f B e a s t , w h o is s t i r r e d to a n g e r b y t h e

i m p o r t a n t she s o u g h t

professional

advice

to

understand it. S h e d r e a m e d she w a s in a line

theft

and

requires

him

to

return

in

three

m o n t h s for his p u n i s h m e n t , p r e s u m a b l y d e a t h .

137


go

At this the c a s t l e is Idled with a b l a z e o f light

h o m e with his g i l t . Beast b e h a v e s out o f c h a r -

(In

allowing

the lather

this r e p r i e v e

to

a n d the s o u n d o f m u s i c , a n d Beast d i s a p p e a r s .

a c t e r , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n he also o i l e r s to send h i m

I n his p l a c e s t a n d s a h a n d s o m e p r i n c e , w h o

a t r u n k full o f gold w h e n he gets h o m e . As

tells Beauty that he h a d b e e n e n c h a n t e d by a

Beauty's father c o m m e n t s , the Beast seems cruel

w i t c h a n d t u r n e d i n t o the B e a s t . The spell was

a n d kind at the s a m e t i m e . )

o r d a i n e d to last until a b e a u t i f u l girl should

B e a u t y insists u p o n t a k i n g h e r f a t h e r ' s p u n -

love Beast for his g o o d n e s s a l o n e .

i s h m e n t a n d r e t u r n s a f t e r t h r e e m o n t h s to the

In this s t o r y , if we u n r a v e l the s y m b o l i s m , we

e n c h a n t e d c a s t l e . T h e r e she is g i v e n a b e a u t i f u l

a r e likely to see that B e a u t y is any y o u n g girl

r o o m w h e r e she has no w o r r i e s a n d n o t h i n g to

or w o m a n w h o has e n t e r e d i n t o an e m o t i o n a l

fear e x c e p t the o c c a s i o n a l visits o f B e a s t , w h o

b o n d with h e r l a t h e r , no less b i n d i n g b e c a u s e

r e p e a t e d l y c o m e s to ask h e r if she will s o m e d a y

o f its s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e . H e r g o o d n e s s is s y m b o l -

m a r r y h i m . S h e a l w a y s refuses. T h e n , s e e i n g in

ized by h e r r e q u e s t lor a w h i t e rose, but in a

a m a g i c m i r r o r a p i c t u r e o f h e r f a t h e r l y i n g ill.

significant

she begs Beast to a l l o w h e r to r e t u r n to c o m f o r t

i n t e n t i o n puts h e r l a t h e r a n d t h e n h e r s e l f in

twist o f m e a n i n g

her

unconscious

h i m , p r o m i s i n g to r e t u r n in a w e e k . B e a s t tells

the p o w e r o f a p r i n c i p l e

h e r that he will die if she deserts h i m . but she

g o o d n e s s a l o n e , but cruelty a n d kindness c o m -

m a y go for a w e e k .

that

expresses

not

b i n e d . It is as if she wished to be r e s c u e d from

At h o m e , h e r r a d i a n t p r e s e n c e b r i n g s joy to her l a t h e r a n d e n v y to h e r sisters, w h o plot to

a love h o l d i n g h e r to an e x c l u s i v e l y

virtuous

and unreal attitude.

d e t a i n h e r l o n g e r t h a n h e r p r o m i s e d stay. At

Bv l e a r n i n g to love Beast she a w a k e n s to the

length she d r e a m s that Beast is d y i n g o f d e s p a i r .

p o w e r o f h u m a n love c o n c e a l e d in its a n i m a l

S o . r e a l i z i n g she has o v e r s t a y e d h e r t i m e , she r e t u r n s to r e s u s c i t a t e h i m .

and therefore imperfect

but g e n u i n e l y

erotic

f o r m . P r e s u m a b l y this r e p r e s e n t s a n a w a k e n i n g

Q u i t e f o r g e t t i n g the d y i n g B e a s t ' s ugliness.

o f h e r true f u n c t i o n o f r e l a t c d n c s s , e n a b l i n g h e r

B e a u t y m i n i s t e r s to h i m . H e tells h e r t h a t _ h c

to a c c e p t the e r o t i c c o m p o n e n t o f h e r o r i g i n a l

was u n a b l e to live w i t h o u t h e r . a n d that he will

wish, w h i c h had to be repressed b e c a u s e ol a

die

fear o f incest.

happy

now

that

she

has

returned.

B e a u t y realizes that she c a n n o t

But

To l e a v e h e r f a t h e r she h a d . as

live w i t h o u t

it w e r e , lo a c c e p t the i n c c s l - l e a r . to allow her-

Beast, that she has fallen in love with h i m . S h e

self to live in its p r e s e n c e in f a n t a s y until she

tells h i m so. a n d p r o m i s e s to be his wile i f o n l y

c o u l d get to k n o w the a n i m a l m a n a n d d i s c o v e r

he will noi die.

h e r own true response to it as a w o m a n .

Three s c e n e s f r o m t h e 1 9 4 6 f i l m of Beauty and the Beast ( d i r e c t e d b y France's J e a n C o c t e a u ) : Left, B e a u t y ' s father c a u g h t s t e a l i n g t h e w h i t e rose f r o m t h e B e a s t ' s g a r d e n ; right, t h e Beast d y i n g ; far r i g h t , t h e Beast t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a P r i n c e , w a l k i n g w i t h Beauty. The story can be said to s y m b o l i z e a y o u n g g i r l ' s i n i t i a t i o n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i.e. her release f r o m her b o n d w i t h the father, in o r d e r to c o m e to t e r m s w i t h t h e e r o t i c a n i m a l side of her n a t u r e . U n t i l this is d o n e , she c a n n o t a c h i e v e a t r u e relationship w i t h a man.


In

ihis

way she

redeems

herself and

her

image ol the m a s c u l i n e from the forces o f re-

A woman of menopausal age reported

the

following d r e a m :

pression, b r i n g i n g to c o n s c i o u s n e s s h e r c a p a c i t y to trust h e r love as s o m e t h i n g that

combines

spirit a n d n a t u r e in the best sense o f the w o r d s . A d r e a m <>l an e m a n c i p a t e d w o m a n p a t i e n t ol mine r e p r e s e n t e d

this need to r e m o v e

incest-fear, a very real thoughts, attachment

because

ol

fear in this

her

father's

the

patient's over-close

to h e r f o l l o w i n g his wife's d e a t h .

I he d r e a m s h o w e d h e r b e i n g c h a s e d In a furious bull. S h e lied at first, but r e a l i z e d it was no use. S h e fell a n d the bull w a s u p o n h e r . S h e knew h e r o n l y h o p e was to sing to the b u l l , a n d when she d i d . t h o u g h in a q u a v e r i n g v o i c e , the hull c a l m e d d o w n a n d b e g a n l i c k i n g h e r h a n d with its t o n g u e . T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o w e d that she c o u l d n o w l e a r n to r e l a t e to m e n in a m o r e confidently f e m i n i n e w a y

not o n l y s e x u a l l y ,

hut e r o t i c a l l y in t h e w i d e r sense o f r e l a t e d n e s s on the level ol h e r c o n s c i o u s i d e n t i t y .

I am with several anonymous women whom I don't seem to know. W e go downstairs in a strange house, and are confronted suddenly by some grotesque " a p e - m e n ' ' with evil laces dressed in fur with trray and black rings, with tails, horrible and leering. W e arc completely in their power, but suddenly I feel the only way we can save ourselves is not to panic and run or fight, but to treat these creatures with humanity as il to make them aware of their better side. So one ol the ape-men comes up to me and I greet him like a dancing partner and begin to dance with him. Later. I have been given supernatural healing powers and there is a man who is at death's door. I have a kind of quill or perhaps a bird's beak through which I blow air into his nostrils and he begins to breathe again. D u r i n g the years o f h e r m a r r i a g e a n d

the

r a i s i n g o f h e r c h i l d r e n , this w o m a n b a d b e e n

But in the cases o f o l d e r w o m e n , the Beasi

o b l i g e d to n e g l e c t h e r c r e a t i v e g i l l , with w h i c h

theme m a y not i n d i c a t e the need to find the

she h a d o n c e m a d e a s m a l l but g e n u i n e r e p u t a -

answer

tion as a w r i t e r . At the l i m e o f h e r d r e a m she

to a

personal

fixation

or

to

release

a sexual i n h i b i t i o n , or a n y o f the things that

b a d b e e n t r y i n g to force h e r s e l f b a c k to work

the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y m i n d e d r a t i o n a l i s t m a y

a g a i n , at the s a m e t i m e c r i t i c i z i n g hersell un-

see in the m y t h . It c a n b e . in fact, (he e x p r e s -

m e r c i f u l l y lor not b e i n g a b e t t e r wife, f r i e n d ,

sion ol a c e r t a i n kind o f w o m a n ' s

initiation,

and m o t h e r . T h e d r e a m showed her problem

which may be just as m e a n i n g f u l al the onset

in the light o f o t h e r w o m e n w h o m i g h t b e g o i n g

of the m e n o p a u s e as at the h e i g h t o f a d o l e s -

t h r o u g h a s i m i l a r t r a n s i t i o n , d e s c e n d i n g , as the

c e n c e ; a n d it may a p p e a l at a n y a g e . w h e n the

dream

union ol spirit a n d n a t u r e has b e e n d i s t u r b e d .

s t r a n g e b o u s e from a too highly c o n s c i o u s level.

puts

il. i n t o

the

lower

regions

ol

a


T h i s w e c a n guess to b e t h e e n t r a n c e to s o m e

d i s c h a r g i n g h e r f e m i n i n e , wifely f u n c t i o n in a

meaningful aspect of the collective unconscious,

n a t u r a l w a y . ( I n a s s o c i a t i o n to this d r e a m she

w i t h its c h a l l e n g e to a c c e p t t h e m a s c u l i n e p r i n -

said: " W h e n

c i p l e as a n i m a l - m a n , t h a t s a m e h e r o i c , c l o w n -

c r e a t i v e side goes u n d e r g r o u n d a n d I b e c o m e

like T r i c k s t e r f i g u r e w e m e t at t h e b e g i n n i n g

the over-organized

o f the p r i m i t i v e h e r o c y c l e s .

my husband comes h o m e , housewife.")

Her

my

dream

takes this u n e x p e c t e d t u r n o f t r a n s f o r m i n g h e r

F o r h e r to r e l a t e t o this a p e - m a n , a n d h u -

spirit g o n e b a d i n t o t h e w o m a n she m u s t a c c e p t

m a n i z e h i m by b r i n g i n g out w h a t is g o o d in

a n d c u l t i v a t e in h e r s e l f ; in this w a y she c a n

h i m , m e a n t t h a t she w o u l d first h a v e t o a c c e p t

harmonize

some

with

unpredictable

element

o f her

natural

c r e a t i v e s p i r i t . W i t h this she c o u l d c u t a c r o s s

her creative

the i n s t i n c t s

that

intellectual enable

interests

h e r to

relate

w a r m l y to o t h e r s .

t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l b o n d s o f h e r life a n d l e a r n to

T h i s involves a new a c c e p t a n c e o f the dual

w r i t e in a n e w w a y , m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e for h e r

p r i n c i p l e o f life in n a t u r e , o f t h a t w h i c h is c r u e l

in t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f life.

b u t k i n d , o r , as w e m i g h t say in h e r c a s e , r u t h -

T h a t this i m p u l s e is r e l a t e d to t h e c r e a t i v e

lessly a d v e n t u r o u s b u t at t h e s a m e t i m e h u m b l y

m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e is s h o w n in t h e s e c o n d s c e n e

and creatively domestic. T h e s e opposites obvi-

w h e r e she r e s u s c i t a t e s a m a n by b l o w i n g a i r

ously c a n n o t b e r e c o n c i l e d e x c e p t on a h i g h l y

t h r o u g h a k i n d o f b i r d ' s b e a k i n t o his nose.

s o p h i s t i c a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l level o f a w a r e n e s s ,

T h i s p n e u m a t i c p r o c e d u r e suggests the need for

a n d w o u l d o f c o u r s e b e h a r m f u l to t h a t i n n o -

a r e v i v a l o f t h e spirit r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r i n c i p l e

c e n t c h i l d in h e r S u n d a y - s c h o o l dress.

o f e r o t i c w a r m t h . It is a s y m b o l i s m k n o w n all over

the

world:

The

ritual

act

brings

the

c r e a t i v e b r e a t h o f life to a n y n e w a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e dream of another woman

emphasizes

the " n a t u r e " aspect o f Beauty and the B e a s t :

T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n e c o u l d p l a c e on this w o m a n ' s d r e a m is t h a t she n e e d e d to o v e r c o m e s o m e e x c e s s i v e l y n a i v e i m a g e o f herself. S h e h a d to b e w i l l i n g to e m b r a c e t h e full p o l a r i t y o f h e r feelings â&#x20AC;&#x201D; just as B e a u t y h a d

to g i v e u p

the

i n n o c e n c e o f t r u s t i n g in a f a t h e r w h o c o u l d not Something flies or is thrown in through the window, like a large insect with whirling spiral legs, yellow and black. It then becomes a queer animal, striped yellow and black, like a tiger, with bear-like, almost human paws and a pointed wolflike face. It may run loose and harm children. It is Sunday afternoon, and I see a little girl all dressed in white on her way to Sunday school. I must get the police to help. But then I see the creature has become part woman, part animal. It fawns upon me, wants to be loved. I feel it's a fairy-tale situation, or a dream, and only kindness can transform it. I try to embrace it warmly, but I can't go through with it. I push it away. But I have the feeling I must keep it near and get used to it and maybe someday I'll be able to kiss it.

H e r e we have a different situation from the previous o n e . T h i s w o m a n h a d b e e n t o o i n t e n sively c a r r i e d a w a y b y t h e m a s c u l i n e c r e a t i v e f u n c t i o n w i t h i n herself, w h i c h h a d b e c o m e a c o m p u l s i v e , m e n t a l ( t h a t is, " a i r - b o r n e " ) p r e o c c u p a t i o n . T h u s she has b e e n p r e v e n t e d from

140

g i v e h e r t h e p u r e w h i t e rose o f his f e e l i n g w i t h o u t a w a k e n i n g t h e b e n e f i c e n t fury o f the B e a s t .

A b o v e , t h e Greek g o d D i o n y s u s e c s t a t i c a l l y p l a y i n g t h e lute ( i n a vase p a i n t i n g ) . T h e f r e n z i e d a n d o r g i a s t i c rites of t h e D i o n y s i a c cults symbolized initiation into nature's mysteries. Right, M a e n a d s w o r s h i p i n g D i o n y s u s ; far r i g h t , satyrs in t h e s a m e w i l d w o r s h i p .


Orpheus and the Son of Man

" B e a u t y a n d t h e B e a s t " is a f a i r y t a l e w i t h t h e

abandon

q u a l i t y o f a wild f l o w e r , a p p e a r i n g so u n e x p e c t -

t h e r e b y e x p e r i e n c e t h e full f e r t i l i z i n g p o w e r o f

h i m s e l f to his a n i m a l

nature

and

edly a n d c r e a t i n g in us s u c h a n a t u r a l sense o f

t h e E a r t h M o t h e r . T h e i n i t i a t i n g a g e n t for this

w o n d e r t h a t w e d o n o t n o t i c e for t h e m o m e n t

rite o f p a s s a g e in t h e D i o n y s i a c r i t u a l was w i n e .

that it b e l o n g s to a d e f i n i t e class, g e n u s , a n d

I t w a s s u p p o s e d to p r o d u c e t h e s y m b o l i c l o w e r -

species o f p l a n t . T h e k i n d o f m y s t e r y i n h e r e n t

i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s n e c e s s a r y to i n t r o d u c e t h e

in s u c h a story is g i v e n a u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n

novice

not o n l y in a l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l m y t h , b u t also in

n a t u r e , w h o s e e s s e n c e was e x p r e s s e d b y a s y m -

the r i t u a l s w h e r e b y t h e m y t h is e x p r e s s e d o r

bol

from w h i c h it m a y b e d e r i v e d .

j o i n e d w i t h A r i a d n e , his c o n s o r t , in a s a c r e d

T h e type o f ritual a n d myth

appropriately

into

o f erotic

the

closely

fulfillment:

guarded

secrets

the god

of

Dionysus

marriage ceremony.

expressing this t y p e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e

I n t i m e t h e rites o f D i o n y s u s lost t h e i r e m o -

is e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e G r e c o - R o m a n r e l i g i o n o f

tive religious p o w e r . T h e r e e m e r g e d a n a l m o s t

D i o n y s u s , a n d in its s u c c e s s o r , t h e r e l i g i o n o f

o r i e n t a l l o n g i n g for l i b e r a t i o n f r o m t h e i r e x c l u -

Orpheus. B o t h o f these religions provided

sive p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e p u r e l y n a t u r a l s y m -

a

significant i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e t y p e k n o w n as " m y s -

bols o f life a n d l o v e . T h e D i o n y s i a c

t e r i e s . " T h e y b r o u g h t forth s y m b o l s a s s o c i a t e d

s h i f t i n g c o n s t a n t l y f r o m s p i r i t u a l to p h y s i c a l

religion,

with a g o d - m a n o f a n d r o g y n o u s c h a r a c t e r w h o

a n d b a c k a g a i n , p e r h a p s p r o v e d t o o wild a n d

was s u p p o s e d to h a v e a n i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d -

t u r b u l e n t for s o m e m o r e a s c e t i c souls. T h e s e

ing o f t h e a n i m a l o r p l a n t w o r l d a n d to b e

c a m e to e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r religious ecstasies i n -

the m a s t e r o f i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e i r s e c r e t s .

w a r d l y , in t h e w o r s h i p o f O r p h e u s .

orgiastic

O r p h e u s was p r o b a b l y a r e a l m a n , a s i n g e r ,

rites t h a t i m p l i e d t h e n e e d for a n i n i t i a t e to

prophet, a n d teacher, w h o was martyred and

T h e Dionysiac religion contained

I I 4


w h o s e t o m b b e c a m e a s h r i n e . N o w o n d e r the

act

e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h saw in O r p h e u s the p r o -

d e a t h , he r e t u r n e d to h e a v e n

of God's

incarnation

in

man.

t o t y p e o f C h r i s t . B o t h religions b r o u g h t to the

o n c e a n d for a l l . to reign on the right h a n d ol

late H e l l e n i s t i c w o r l d the p r o m i s e o f a f u t u r e

G o d until t h e S e c o n d C o m i n g " w h e n the d e a d

d i v i n e life. B e c a u s e t h e y w e r e m e n , yet also

shall a r i s e . "

but

Alter

his

returned

m e d i a t o r s o f t h e d i v i n e , for t h e m u l t i t u d e s o f

O f c o u r s e the a s c e t i c i s m o f early C h r i s t i a n i t y

t h e d y i n g G r e c i a n c u l t u r e in t h e d a y s o f the

did not last. T h e m e m o r y o f t h e c y c l i c mysteries

R o m a n E m p i r e t h e y held t h e l o n g e d - f o r h o p e

haunted

o f a f u t u r e life.

C h u r c h eventually

its followers to the e x t e n t

that

h a d to i n c o r p o r a t e

the

many

differ-

p r a c t i c e s from the p a g a n past i n t o its rituals.

e n c e b e t w e e n the r e l i g i o n ol O r p h e u s a n d the

T h e most m e a n i n g f u l ol these may be f o u n d in

T h e r e was, h o w e v e r , o n e i m p o r t a n t

religion o f C h r i s t . T h o u g h s u b l i m a t e d i n t o a

the old r e c o r d s o f w h a t

m y s t i c a l f o r m , t h e O r p h i c m y s t e r i e s kept a l i v e

S a t u r d a y a n d E a s t e r S u n d a y in c e l e b r a t i o n o f

the old D i o n y s i a c r e l i g i o n . T h e s p i r i t u a l

im-

the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t

was d o n e on

Holy

the b a p t i s m a l ser-

was

vice that the m e d i e v a l c h u r c h m a d e i n t o a suit-

cpiality

of a

a b l e a n d d e e p l y m e a n i n g f u l i n i t i a t i o n rite. But

religion r o o t e d in t h e a r t o f a g r i c u l t u r e .

That

petus c a m e from a d e m i - g o d , in w h o m preserved

the

most

significant

t h a t r i t u a l has scarcely s u r v i v e d i n t o m o d e r n

cpiality was the old p a t t e r n o f t h e fertility gods

times,

w h o c a m e o n l y for t h e season

testantism.

in o t h e r w o r d s ,

the eternally recurrent cycle of birth, growth, fullness, a n d d e c a y .

and

it

is c o m p l e t e l y

absent

in

T h e r i t u a l t h a t has s u r v i v e d m u c h

Pro-

better,

a n d that still c o n t a i n s t h e m e a n i n g o f a c e n t r a l

C h r i s t i a n i t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , dispelled the

i n i t i a t i o n m y s t e r y for the d e v o u t , is t h e C a t h o l i c

m y s t e r i e s . C h r i s t was the p r o d u c t a n d r e f o r m e r

p r a c t i c e o f the e l e v a t i o n o f the c h a l i c e . It has

of a p a t r i a r c h a l ,

b e e n d e s c r i b e d by D r . J u n g in his " T r a n s f o r -

nomadic,

pastoral

religion,

whose p r o p h e t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r M e s s i a h as a being of absolutely divine origin.

The Son o f

m a t i o n Symbolism in the M a s s " : " T h e lifting up o f the c h a l i c e in the a i r p r e -

M a n . t h o u g h b o r n o f a h u m a n v i r g i n , h a d his

p a r e s the s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n . . . o f t h e w i n e .

b e g i n n i n g in h e a v e n , w h e n c e he c a m e in a n

is c o n f i r m e d

142

by the i n v o c a t i o n

to the

This Holy


Ghost that i m m e d i a t e l y follows. . . . T h e i n v o cation serves to infuse t h e w i n e w i t h holy spirit, lor it is t h e H o l y G h o s t w h o b e g e t s , fulfills, a n d transforms. . . . A f t e r t h e e l e v a t i o n , t h e c h a l i c e was, in f o r m e r t i m e s , set d o w n to the r i g h t o f the H o s t , to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e b l o o d

that

flowed f r o m t h e right side o f C h r i s t . " T h e r i t u a l o f c o m m u n i o n is e v e r y w h e r e the same, w h e t h e r it is e x p r e s s e d by d r i n k i n g o f t h e

A b o v e , a D i o n y s i a c ritual d e p i c t e d o n t h e great f r e s c o in t h e V i l l a of the M y s t e r i e s at P o m p e i i . In t h e c e n t e r an i n i t i a t e is o f f e r e d t h e c e r e m o n i a l c u p of D i o n y s u s , in w h i c h he sees a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e g o d - m a s k h e l d b e h i n d . T h i s is a s y m b o l i c i n f u s i o n of t h e d r i n k w i t h t h e g o d ' s spirit â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w h i c h can be said to parallel t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c c e r e m o n y of e l e v a t i n g the c h a l i c e during Mass ( b e l o w )

cup o f D i o n y s u s o r o f the holy C h r i s t i a n c h a lice; but t h e level ol a w a r e n e s s e a c h b r i n g s to (he i n d i v i d u a l

participant

is d i f f e r e n t .

The

Dionysiac p a r t i c i p a n t looks b a c k to the o r i g i n ol things, to the " s t o r m - b i r t h " o f t h e g o d w h o is blasted f r o m the resistant w o m b o f M o t h e r E a r t h . In t h e frescoes o f t h e V i l l a d e M i s t e r i in P o m p e i i , the e n a c t e d rite e v o k e d t h e god as a mask o f t e r r o r r e f l e c t e d in t h e c u p o f D i o n y s u s offered by the priest to t h e i n i t i a t e . E a t e r we find the w i n n o w i n g b a s k e t , with its p r e c i o u s fruits o f the e a r t h , a n d t h e p h a l l u s as c r e a t i v e symbols o f t h e g o d ' s m a n i f e s t a t i o n as the p r i n ciple o f b r e e d i n g a n d g r o w t h . In c o n t r a s t to this b a c k w a r d look, with its central focus on n a t u r e ' s e t e r n a l c y c l e o f b i r t h and d e a t h , the C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r y p o i n t s forward to the i n i t i a t e ' s u l t i m a t e h o p e of u n i o n with a t r a n s c e n d e n t g o d . M o t h e r N a t u r e , with

143


Left, O r p h e u s c h a r m i n g t h e b e a s t s w i t h his s o n g ( i n a R o m a n m o s a i c ) ; a b o v e , t h e m u r d e r of O r p h e u s b y Thracian w o m e n ( o n a Greek vase). B e l o w left, C h r i s t as t h e G o o d S h e p h e r d (a s i x t h - c e n t u r y m o s a i c ) . B o t h O r p h e u s a n d C h r i s t parallel t h e a r c h e t y p e of t h e m a n of n a t u r e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a l s o r e f l e c t e d in t h e p a i n t i n g b y Cranach ( b e l o w ) of "natural m a n ' s " i n n o c e n c e . F a c i n g p a g e , left, t h e 18th-century French philosopher R o u s s e a u , w h o p u t f o r w a r d t h e idea of t h e " n o b l e s a v a g e " â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h e s i m p l e c h i l d of n a t u r e free of sin a n d evil. Far r i g h t , t h e title p a g e of Walden, by the 19th -century American writer T h o r e a u , w h o b e l i e v e d in a n d f o l l o w e d a n a t u r a l w a y of life a l m o s t w h o l l y i n d e p e n d e n t of c i v i l i z a t i o n .

I

4

4


all her b e a u t i f u l s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s , has b e e n left

In a s t a t e o f h e a v y f a t i g u e a n d d e p r e s s i o n , a

b e h i n d , a n d the c e n t r a l figure o f C h r i s t i a n i t y

w o m a n u n d e r g o i n g a n a l y s i s h a d this f a n t a s y :

offers s p i r i t u a l c e r t a i n t y , for he is t h e S o n o f God in h e a v e n . Y e t the t w o s o m e h o w fuse in the figure o f O r p h e u s , t h e god w h o r e m e m b e r s D i o n y s u s but looks f o r w a r d

to

Christ.

sense o f this i n t e r m e d i a t e

The

psychological

figure

has b e e n d e -

scribed by t h e Swiss a u t h o r L i n d a F i e r z - D a v i d , in her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e O r p h i c rite p i c t u r e d in the V i l l a d e M i s t e r i : " O r p h e u s t a u g h t w h i l e he s a n g a n d p l a y e d the lyre, a n d his s i n g i n g w a s so p o w e r f u l t h a t it m a s t e r e d all n a t u r e ; w h e n he s a n g to his lyre the birds flew a b o u t h i m , the fish left t h e water a n d s p r a n g to h i m . T h e w i n d a n d t h e sea b e c a m e still, t h e rivers flowed u p w a r d t o ward h i m . It did not s n o w a n d t h e r e w a s n o hail. T r e e s a n d t h e v e r y stones f o l l o w e d a f t e r O r p h e u s ; tiger a n d lion lay d o w n n e a r

him

next to the s h e e p , a n d t h e wolves n e x t to the stag a n d the r o e . N o w w h a t does this m e a n ? It surely m e a n s t h a t t h r o u g h a d i v i n e insight into the m e a n i n g o f n a t u r a l e v e n t s . . . n a t u r e ' s happenings b e c o m e h a r m o n i o u s l y o r d e r e d f r o m

I sit on the side of a long narrow table in a high vaulted room with no window. My body is hunched over and shrunken. T h e r e is nothing over me but a long white linen cloth that hangs from my shoulders to the floor. Something crucial has happened to me. T h e r e is not much life lelt in me. Red crosses on gold disks appear before my eyes. I recall that I have made some sort of commitment a long time ago and wherever I am now must be part of this. I sit there a long time. Now I slowly open my eyes and I see a man who sits beside me who is to heal me. He appears natural and kind and he is talking to me though I don't hear him. He seems to know all about where I have been. I am aware that I am very ugly and that there must be an odor of death around me. I wonder if he will be repelled. 1 look at him for a very long time. He does not turn away. I breathe more easily. T h e n I feel a cool breeze, or cool water, pour over my body. I wrap the white linen cloth across me now and prepare for a natural sleep. T h e man's healing bands are on my shoulders. I recall vaguely that there was a time when there were wounds there but the pressure of his hands seems to give me strength and healing.

within. E v e r y t h i n g b e c o m e s light a n d all c r e a tures a p p e a s e d

the

T h i s w o m a n h a d p r e v i o u s l y felt t h r e a t e n e d

act of w o r s h i p i n g , r e p r e s e n t s the light o f n a t u r e .

when

the

mediator,

in

bv d o u b t s a b o u t h e r o r i g i n a l religious affilia-

Orpheus is a n e m b o d i m e n t

tion. S h e had been brought

of devotion

and

u p as a d e v o u t

piety; he s y m b o l i z e s t h e religious a t t i t u d e t h a t solves all c o n f l i c t s , s i n c e t h e r e b y the w h o l e soul is turned t o w a r d t h a t w h i c h lies o n t h e o t h e r side of all c o n f l i c t . . . . A n d as he does this, h e is truly O r p h e u s ; t h a t is, a g o o d s h e p h e r d , his primitive e m b o d i m e n t . . . . " Both as g o o d

shepherd

and

as

mediator.

Orpheus strikes t h e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e D i o nysiac religion a n d t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , s i n c e we find b o t h D i o n y s u s a n d C h r i s t in s i m i l a r roles, t h o u g h , as I h a v e s a i d , d i f f e r e n t l y o r i e n ted as to t i m e a n d d i r e c t i o n in s p a c e

one a

cyclic religion of t h e n e t h e r w o r l d , t h e o t h e r heavenly a n d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l , o r final. T h i s series of initiatory e v e n t s , d r a w n f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f religious history, is r e p e a t e d endlessly a n d w i t h practically e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e i n d i v i d u a l twist o f meaning in the d r e a m s a n d f a n t a s i e s o f m o d e r n people.

'45


C a t h o l i c o f t h e old s c h o o l , b u t s i n c e h e r y o u t h she

herself from

the

f o r m a l r e l i g i o u s c o n v e n t i o n s f o l l o w e d by

had

struggled

to

free

her

family. Y e t the symbolic events o f the c h u r c h y e a r a n d t h e r i c h n e s s o f h e r insight i n t o t h e i r meaning

remained with her throughout

the

p r o c e s s o f h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a n g e ; a n d in h e r analysis

I found

this w o r k i n g

knowledge

of

religious s y m b o l i s m m o s t h e l p f u l . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s she singled out o f her fantasy were the white cloth, which

she

u n d e r s t o o d as a s a c r i f i c i a l c l o t h ; t h e v a u l t e d r o o m , w h i c h she c o n s i d e r e d to b e a t o m b ; a n d h e r c o m m i t m e n t , w h i c h she a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s u b m i s s i o n . T h i s c o m m i t m e n t , as she c a l l e d it, s u g g e s t e d a r i t u a l o f i n i t i a t i o n w i t h a perilous descent into the vault o f d e a t h , which s y m b o l i z e d t h e w a y she h a d left c h u r c h

and

f a m i l y to e x p e r i e n c e G o d in h e r o w n f a s h i o n . S h e h a d u n d e r g o n e a n " i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t " in the t r u e s y m b o l i c s e n s e , a n d like h i m s h e h a d suffered t h e w o u n d s t h a t p r e c e d e d this d e a t h . The

s a c r i f i c i a l c l o t h suggests t h e

winding

s h e e t o r s h r o u d in w h i c h t h e c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t was w r a p p e d a n d t h e n p l a c e d in t h e t o m b . T h e e n d o f t h e f a n t a s y i n t r o d u c e s t h e h e a l i n g figure o f a m a n , loosely a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e as h e r a n a l y s t b u t a p p e a r i n g also in his n a t u r a l role as a f r i e n d fully a w a r e o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e .

He

speaks to h e r in w o r d s she c a n n o t yet h e a r , b u t his h a n d s a r e r e a s s u r i n g a n d give a sense o f h e a l i n g . O n e senses in this figure t h e t o u c h a n d the word o f the good shepherd, O r p h e u s or Christ,

as m e d i a t o r

and

also, o f course,

as

h e a l e r . H e is o n t h e side of life a n d has to c o n vince her that she m a y now c o m e back from the vault o f death. S h a l l we c a l l this r e b i r t h o r

resurrection?

B o t h , p e r h a p s , o r n e i t h e r . T h e essential rite p r o c l a i m s i t s e l f at t h e e n d : T h e c o o l b r e e z e or w a t e r f l o w i n g o v e r h e r b o d y is t h e p r i m o r d i a l a c t o f p u r i f i c a t i o n o r c l e a n s i n g o f t h e sin o f d e a t h , the essence o f true baptism. T h e same woman

had a n o t h e r fantasy

in

w h i c h she felt t h a t h e r b i r t h d a y fell u p o n the day o f Christ's resurrection. ( T h i s was much m o r e m e a n i n g f u l for h e r t h a n t h e m e m o r y o f h e r m o t h e r , w h o h a d n e v e r g i v e n h e r t h e feel-

146


ing of r e a s s u r a n c e a n d r e n e w a l she so m u c h

depart too far from her family's conventional

wished for o n h e r c h i l d h o o d b i r t h d a y s . )

But

r e l i g i o n . B u t r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m is s i g n i f i c a n t

this did not m e a n she i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f w i t h

b y its a b s e n c e . A l l is in t h e h a n d s o f n a t u r e ; w e

the figure o f C h r i s t .

are

F o r all his p o w e r

and

glory, s o m e t h i n g was l a c k i n g ; a n d as she tried to reach cross were

him

through

lifted

up

prayer,

to

heaven

he out

and

his

of

her

human r e a c h .

clearly

in

the

realm

of

the

shepherd

O r p h e u s r a t h e r t h a n t h e risen C h r i s t . A

dream

followed

this

sequence,

which

b r o u g h t h e r to a c h u r c h r e s e m b l i n g t h e c h u r c h in Assisi w i t h G i o t t o ' s frescoes o f S t . F r a n c i s .

In this s e c o n d f a n t a s y she fell b a c k u p o n t h e

S h e felt m o r e a t h o m e h e r e t h a n she w o u l d in

symbol o f r e b i r t h as a rising s u n , a n d a n e w

other

feminine s y m b o l b e g a n to m a k e its a p p e a r a n c e .

O r p h e u s , w a s a religious m a n o f n a t u r e . T h i s

churches

because

St.

Francis,

like

First o f all it a p p e a r e d as a n " e m b r y o in a

r e v i v e d h e r feelings a b o u t t h e c h a n g e in h e r

watery s a c k . " T h e n she w a s c a r r y i n g a n e i g h t -

religious a f f i l i a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n so p a i n f u l to

a

u n d e r g o , b u t n o w s h e b e l i e v e d she c o u l d j o y -

danger p o i n t . " T h e n a n e w m o v e m e n t o c c u r r e d

fully f a c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i n s p i r e d b y t h e light

in which she n o l o n g e r felt t h r e a t e n e d o r u n d e r

of nature.

year-old b o y t h r o u g h

the water

"passing

the influence o f d e a t h . S h e w a s " i n a forest by

T h e series o f d r e a m s e n d e d w i t h a d i s t a n t

a little spring w a t e r f a l l . . . g r e e n vines g r o w all

echo o f the religion o f Dionysus. ( O n e could

around. I n m y h a n d s I h a v e a s t o n e b o w l in

say t h a t this w a s a r e m i n d e r t h a t e v e n O r p h e u s

which t h e r e is s p r i n g w a t e r , s o m e g r e e n moss,

c a n at t i m e s b e a little too f a r r e m o v e d f r o m

and violets. I b a t h e m y s e l f u n d e r t h e w a t e r f a l l .

the fecundating power of the animal-god

It is golden a n d ' s i l k y ' a n d I feel like a c h i l d . "

m a n . ) S h e d r e a m e d t h a t she w a s l e a d i n g a fair-

T h e sense o f t h e s e e v e n t s is c l e a r , t h o u g h it is

h a i r e d c h i l d by t h e h a n d . " W e a r e

in

happily

possible to miss t h e i n n e r m e a n i n g in t h e c r y p -

p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a festival t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e sun

tic description o f so m a n y c h a n g i n g

a n d t h e forests a n d flowers all a r o u n d .

images.

The

Here we h a v e , it s e e m s , a p r o c e s s o f r e b i r t h in

c h i l d has a l i t t l e w h i t e f l o w e r in h e r h a n d , a n d

which a l a r g e r s p i r i t u a l s e l f is r e b o r n a n d b a p -

she p l a c e s it o n t h e h e a d o f a b l a c k b u l l . T h e

tized in n a t u r e as a c h i l d . M e a n w h i l e she has

bull is p a r t o f t h e festival a n d is c o v e r e d with

rescued an o l d e r c h i l d w h o w a s , in s o m e w a y ,

festive d e c o r a t i o n s . " T h i s r e f e r e n c e r e c a l l s t h e

her own e g o a t t h e m o s t t r a u m a t i c p e r i o d o f

a n c i e n t rites t h a t c e l e b r a t e d D i o n y s u s in t h e

her c h i l d h o o d . S h e

guise o f a b u l l .

then

carried

it

through

water past t h e d a n g e r p o i n t , thus i n d i c a t i n g h e r fear of a p a r a l y z i n g sense of guilt i f she s h o u l d Above left, t h e Persian g o d M i t h r a s sacrificing t h e b u l l . T h e s a c r i f i c e (also part of D i o n y s i a c rites) c a n be seen as a s y m b o l of t h e v i c t o r y of man's spiritual n a t u r e o v e r his a n i m a l i t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; o f w h i c h t h e b u l l is a common s y m b o l . ( T h i s m a y e x p l a i n the popularity in s o m e c o u n t r i e s of b u l l f i g h t i n g , left.) R i g h t , an etching by Picasso (1 9 3 5 ) d e p i c t s a girl threatened by a M i n o t a u r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; here, as in the m y t h of T h e s e u s , a symbol of m a n ' s u n c o n t r o l l a b l e instinctive f o r c e s .

But

the

dream

did

not

end

there.

The

w o m a n a d d e d : " S o m e t i m e l a t e r t h e b u l l is


pierced

besides

O n a f u n e r a l u r n f o u n d in a R o m a n g r a v e

D i o n y s u s , t h e r e is a n o t h e r p r e - C h r i s t i a n rite in

by

a

golden

arrow."

Now,

n e a r t h e C o l u m b a r i u m on t h e E s q u i l i n e Hill we

w h i c h t h e bull p l a y s a s y m b o l i c r o l e . T h e P e r -

find a c l e a r b a s - r e l i e f r e p r e s e n t i n g s c e n e s o f the

sian s u n - g o d M i t h r a s s a c r i f i c e s a b u l l . H e , like

final

O r p h e u s , r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o n g i n g for a life o f

a d m i t t e d to t h e p r e s e n c e a n d c o n v e r s e o f t h e

t h e spirit t h a t m i g h t t r i u m p h o v e r t h e p r i m i t i v e

goddesses. T h e rest o f t h e design is d e v o t e d to

stage of initiation where

the n o v i c e is

a n i m a l passions o f m a n a n d , a f t e r a c e r e m o n y

t w o p r e l i m i n a r y c e r e m o n i e s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n — the

o f i n i t i a t i o n , give h i m p e a c e .

s a c r i f i c e o f the " m y s t i c p i g , " a n d a m y s t i c i z e d

T h i s series o f i m a g e s c o n f i r m s a s u g g e s t i o n that

is

found

in

many

s e q u e n c e s o f this t y p e

fantasy

or

dream

t h a t t h e r e is n o

final

v e r s i o n o f t h e s a c r e d m a r r i a g e . T h i s all p o i n t s to a n i n i t i a t i o n i n t o d e a t h , b u t in a f o r m that lacks the

finality

o f m o u r n i n g . It h i n t s at t h a t

p e a c e , no r e s t i n g p o i n t . In t h e i r religious quest

element o f the later mysteries — especially

m e n a n d w o m e n — e s p e c i a l l y those w h o live in

Orphism

modern

C h r i s t i a n i z e d societies — a r e

o f i m m o r t a l i t y . Christianity went even further.

still in the p o w e r o f those e a r l y t r a d i t i o n s that

It promised something more than immortality

strive w i t h i n t h e m for s u p r e m a c y , It is a c o n -

( w h i c h in t h e old sense o f t h e c y c l i c mysteries

Western

of

which makes death carry a promise

flict o f p a g a n o r C h r i s t i a n beliefs, o r , o n e m i g h t

m i g h t m e r e l y m e a n r e i n c a r n a t i o n ) , for i t o f f e r e d

say, o f rebirth or resurrection.

t h e f a i t h f u l a n e v e r l a s t i n g life in h e a v e n .

A m o r e d i r e c t c l u e to t h e s o l u t i o n o f this d i l e m m a is to b e f o u n d , in this w o m a n ' s

first

S o we see a g a i n , in m o d e r n life, the t e n d e n c y to r e p e a t old p a t t e r n s . T h o s e w h o h a v e to l e a r n

f a n t a s y , in a c u r i o u s p i e c e o f s y m b o l i s m

that

to f a c e d e a t h m a y h a v e to r e l e a r n t h e old m e s -

c o u l d easily b e o v e r l o o k e d . T h e w o m a n

says

s a g e t h a t tells us t h a t d e a t h is a m y s t e r y for

t h a t in h e r d e a t h v a u l t s h e s a w b e f o r e h e r eyes

w h i c h we m u s t p r e p a r e ourselves in the s a m e

a vision o f red crosses o n g o l d disks. A s b e c a m e

spirit of s u b m i s s i o n a n d h u m i l i t y as we o n c e

c l e a r l a t e r in h e r a n a l y s i s , she was a b o u t to e x -

l e a r n e d to p r e p a r e ourselves for life.

perience

a profound

psychic

change

and

to

e m e r g e o u t o f this " d e a t h " i n t o a n e w kind o f life. W e

might

imagine, therefore,

that

this

i m a g e , w h i c h c a m e to h e r in t h e d e p t h o f h e r d e s p a i r o f life, s h o u l d in s o m e w a y h e r a l d h e r f u t u r e r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e . In h e r s u b s e q u e n t w o r k she did in f a c t p r o d u c e e v i d e n c e for t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e red crosses r e p r e s e n t e d h e r d e v o t i o n to the C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e , w h i l e t h e gold disks r e presented

her devotion

to t h e

pre-Christian

m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s . H e r vision h a d told h e r t h a t she m u s t r e c o n c i l e these C h r i s t i a n a n d p a g a n e l e m e n t s in t h e n e w life t h a t lay a h e a d . O n e last, b u t i m p o r t a n t , o b s e r v a t i o n

con-

c e r n s t h e a n c i e n t i n i t i a t i o n rites a n d t h e i r r e l a tion to C h r i s t i a n i t y .

T h e i n i t i a t i o n rite c e l e -

b r a t e d in t h e E l e u s i n i a n m y s t e r i e s ( t h e rites o f w o r s h i p o f t h e fertility goddesses D e m e t e r a n d Persephone]

w a s not c o n s i d e r e d

appropriate

m e r e l y for those w h o s o u g h t to live life m o r e a b u n d a n t l y ; it was also used as a p r e p a r a t i o n for d e a t h , as i f d e a t h also r e q u i r e d a n i n i t i a tory rite o f p a s s a g e o f t h e s a m e k i n d .

i « 4


Symbols of transcendence

The symbols t h a t i n f l u e n c e m a n vary in t h e i r

t r a n s i t i o n in a p e r s o n s life. B u t these s y m b o l s

purpose. S o m e m e n n e e d to b e a r o u s e d , a n d

d o not seek to i n t e g r a t e the i n i t i a t e w i t h a n y

experience t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n in t h e v i o l e n c e o f a

religious d o c t r i n e o r s e c u l a r g r o u p - c o n s c i o u s -

Dionysiac " t h u n d e r r i t e . " O t h e r s n e e d to b e

ness. O n the c o n t r a r y , t h e y point to m a n ' s need

subdued, a n d t h e y a r e b r o u g h t to s u b m i s s i o n in

for l i b e r a t i o n f r o m a n y s t a t e o f b e i n g t h a t is

the ordered design o f t e m p l e p r e c i n c t o r s a c r e d

too i m m a t u r e , too fixed o r f i n a l . I n o t h e r w o r d s ,

cave, suggestive o f t h e A p o l l o n i a n r e l i g i o n of

they c o n c e r n m a n ' s release from

later G r e e c e . A full i n i t i a t i o n e m b r a c e s

e n c e o f â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n y c o n f i n i n g p a t t e r n o f e x i s t e n c e , as

both

or t r a n s c e n d -

themes, as we c a n see w h e n w e look e i t h e r at

he m o v e s t o w a r d a s u p e r i o r o r m o r e

the m a t e r i a l d r a w n f r o m a n c i e n t texts o r at

s t a g e in his d e v e l o p m e n t .

living s u b j e c t s . B u t it is q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t the

mature

A c h i l d , as I h a v e s a i d , possesses a sense o f

fundamental g o a l o f i n i t i a t i o n lies in t a m i n g the

c o m p l e t e n e s s , b u t o n l y b e f o r e t h e initial e m e r -

original T r i c k s t e r - l i k e wildness o f t h e j u v e n i l e

g e n c e o f his e g o - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In t h e c a s e o f a n

nature. It t h e r e f o r e has a c i v i l i z i n g o r s p i r i t u -

adult,

alizing p u r p o s e , in s p i t e o f t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e

t h r o u g h a u n i o n of" the c o n s c i o u s n e s s with the

a

sense

of completeness

is

achieved

rites that a r e r e q u i r e d to set this p r o c e s s in

u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s o f the m i n d . O u t o f this

motion.

u n i o n arises w h a t J u n g c a l l e d " t h e t r a n s c e n d -

T h e r e is, h o w e v e r , a n o t h e r kind o f s y m b o l i s m ,

e n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e p s y c h e , " by w h i c h a m a n

belonging to t h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n s a c r e d t r a d i -

c a n a c h i e v e his h i g h e s t g o a l : t h e full r e a l i z a t i o n

tions, that is also c o n n e c t e d with the p e r i o d s of

o f the p o t e n t i a l o f his i n d i v i d u a l Self.

Both a bird a n d a s h a m a n (i.e. a primitive m e d i c i n e m a n ) are common s y m b o l s of t r a n s c e n d e n c e , and often are c o m b i n e d : Left, a prehistoric cave p a i n t i n g at L a s c a u x shows a s h a m a n in a bird m a s k . B e l o w , a shaman priestess of a S i b e r i a n people, in a bird c o s t u m e . R i g h t , a shaman's c o f f i n (also S i b e r i a n ) with bird f i g u r e s o n t h e p o s t s

149


T h u s , w h a t w e call " s y m b o l s of t r a n s c e n d ence" are the symbols that represent

man's

E v i d e n c e o f s u c h p o w e r s c a n b e f o u n d as far b a c k as t h e p a l e o l i t h i c p e r i o d o f p r e h i s t o r y , as

striving to a t t a i n this g o a l . T h e y p r o v i d e the

the A m e r i c a n

means by w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

p o i n t e d o u t in c o m m e n t i n g u p o n o n e o f the

scholar Joseph

Campbell

has

can e n t e r t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d , a n d t h e y also

f a m o u s c a v e p a i n t i n g s r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d in

are t h e m s e l v e s a n a c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f those

F r a n c e . A t L a s c a u x , he w r i t e s , " t h e r e is a s h a -

contents.

m a n d e p i c t e d , lying in a t r a n c e , w e a r i n g a bird

These symbols are manifold inform. W h e t h e r

m a s k w i t h a f i g u r e o f a b i r d p e r c h e d on a s t a f f

we e n c o u n t e r t h e m in h i s t o r y or in t h e d r e a m s

beside him. T h e s h a m a n s o f S i b e r i a wear such

of c o n t e m p o r a r y m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a r e a t a

b i r d c o s t u m e s to this d a y , a n d m a n y a r e b e -

critical s t a g e in t h e i r lives, we c a n see

lieved to h a v e b e e n c o n c e i v e d by t h e i r m o t h e r s

their

i m p o r t a n c e . A t t h e m o s t a r c h a i c level o f this

f r o m t h e d e s c e n t o f a bird . . . .

symbolism we a g a i n m e e t t h e T r i c k s t e r t h e m e .

t h e n , is n o t o n l y a f a m i l i a r d e n i z e n , b u t even

T h e shaman,

But this t i m e he n o l o n g e r a p p e a r s as a lawless

t h e f a v o r e d scion o f those r e a l m s o f p o w e r t h a t

would-be h e r o . H e has b e c o m e t h e s h a m a n

a r e i n v i s i b l e to o u r n o r m a l w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s -

the m e d i c i n e m a n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w h o s e m a g i c a l

ness, w h i c h all m a y visit briefly in vision, b u t

practices

and flights o f i n t u i t i o n s t a m p h i m as a p r i m i t i v e master o f i n i t i a t i o n . H i s p o w e r resides in his

t h r o u g h w h i c h he r o a m s , a m a s t e r . " A t t h e h i g h e s t level o f this t y p e o f i n i t i a t o r y

supposed a b i l i t y to l e a v e his b o d y a n d fly a b o u t

a c t i v i t y , far f r o m those t r i c k s - o f - t h e - t r a d e

the universe as a b i r d .

w h i c h m a g i c so f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t r u e s p i r i t u a l

In this c a s e t h e b i r d is t h e most fitting s y m b o l of t r a n s c e n d e n c e . liar n a t u r e

It

represents

of intuition

working

the

pecu-

through

a

i n s i g h t , we

find

t h e H i n d u m a s t e r yogis.

by In

t h e i r t r a n c e s t a t e s t h e y g o far b e y o n d the n o r mal categories of thought.

" m e d i u m , " t h a t is, a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o is c a p a b l e

O n e o f t h e c o m m o n e s t d r e a m s y m b o l s for

of o b t a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e o f d i s t a n t e v e n t s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; o r

this t y p e o f r e l e a s e t h r o u g h t r a n s c e n d e n c e is t h e

facts o f w h i c h he c o n s c i o u s l y k n o w s n o t h i n g â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

theme

by going i n t o a t r a n c e l i k e s t a t e .

w h i c h s o m e h o w s e e m s to b e a s p i r i t u a l p i l g r i m -

o f the lonely j o u r n e y

or

pilgrimage,

ln myths or d r e a m s , a l o n e l y t o u r n e y often s y m b o l i z e s t h e l i b e r a t i o n of transcendence. A b o v e left, a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y painting of the p o e t D a n t e holding his b o o k ( t h e Divine Comedy) which relates his d r e a m of a j o u r n e y to hell ( l o w e r left of p i c t u r e ) , purgatory, a n d h e a v e n . Far left, an engraving of t h e l o u r n e y m a d e by t h e pilgrim in the B r i t i s h a u t h o r J o h n Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1 6 7 8 ) . (Note that t h e j o u r n e y i s a c i r c u l a r movement t o w a r d an i n n e r c e n t e r . ) This b o o k , t o o , is t o l d as a d r e a m ; left, the p i l g r i m d r e a m i n g .

Many p e o p l e w a n t s o m e c h a n g e from a c o n t a i n i n g p a t t e r n of life; but the f r e e d o m g a i n e d by travel (urged by the " r u n a w a y t o s e a " poster, r i g h t ) is n o s u b s t i t u t e for a true inner l i b e r a t i o n .

'5

1


a g e on w h i c h the i n i t i a t e b e c o m e s a c q u a i n t e d

all free m e n to f a c e s o m e n e w d i s c o v e r y o r to

with t h e n a t u r e o f d e a t h . B u t this is not d e a t h

live t h e i r lives in a n e w w a y . T h i s c h a n g e m a y

as a last j u d g m e n t o r o t h e r i n i t i a t o r y trial o f

b e c o m e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t in the p e r i o d b e -

s t r e n g t h ; it is a j o u r n e y o f r e l e a s e , r e n u n c i a -

t w e e n m i d d l e a g e a n d old a g e , w h i c h is the

t i o n , a n d a t o n e m e n t , p r e s i d e d o v e r a n d fostered

t i m e in life w h e n so m a n y p e o p l e a r e c o n s i d e r -

b y s o m e spirit o f c o m p a s s i o n . T h i s spirit is m o r e

i n g w h a t to d o in t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t

often r e p r e s e n t e d b y a " m i s t r e s s " r a t h e r t h a n a

w o r k o r to p l a y , w h e t h e r to stay at h o m e o r to

"master"

travel.

of initiation,

a

supreme

feminine

w h e t h e r to

(i.e. a n i m a ) f i g u r e s u c h as K w a n - Y i n in C h i n -

I f t h e i r lives h a v e b e e n a d v e n t u r o u s , i n s e c u r e ,

ese B u d d h i s m , S o p h i a in t h e C h r i s t i a n - G n o s t i c

o r full o f c h a n g e , t h e y m a y l o n g for a settled

doctrine,

life a n d t h e c o n s o l a t i o n s o f religious c e r t a i n t y .

or

the

ancient

Greek

goddess

of

wisdom Pallas A t h e n a .

B u t i f t h e y h a v e lived c h i e f l y w i t h i n t h e social

N o t o n l y t h e flight o f b i r d s o r t h e j o u r n e y i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s r e p r e s e n t s this s y m b o l i s m ,

p a t t e r n in w h i c h t h e y w e r e b o r n , t h e y

may

d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d a l i b e r a t i n g c h a n g e . T h i s need

but any strong m o v e m e n t exemplifying release.

m a y b e filled, t e m p o r a r i l y , b y a t r i p a r o u n d the

I n the first p a r t o f life, w h e n o n e is still a t t a c h e d

w o r l d , o r b y n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a m o v e to a

to t h e o r i g i n a l f a m i l y a n d social g r o u p , this

smaller

m a y be e x p e r i e n c e d as t h a t m o m e n t o f i n i t i a -

c h a n g e s will s e r v e unless t h e r e has b e e n s o m e

tion at w h i c h o n e m u s t l e a r n to t a k e t h e d e c i s i v e

i n n e r t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f old v a l u e s in c r e a t i n g ,

steps i n t o life a l o n e .

not j u s t i n v e n t i n g , a n e w p a t t e r n o f l i f e .

I t is t h e m o m e n t

T . S . E l i o t d e s c r i b e s in " T h e W a s t e

that

Land,"

w h e n o n e faces The awful

daring

house.

But

none

o f these

external

A c a s e o f this l a t t e r sort is a w o m a n

who

h a d lived in a style o f l i f e t h a t s h e , h e r f a m i l y , of a moment's

which an age of prudence

can never

surrender,

a n d friends h a d l o n g e n j o y e d b e c a u s e it was so

retract.

well r o o t e d , c u l t u r a l l y n o u r i s h i n g , a n d s e c u r e

A t a . l a t e r p e r i o d o f l i f e o n e m a y not n e e d to

f r o m t r a n s i t o r y f a s h i o n s . S h e h a d this d r e a m :

b r e a k all ties w i t h t h e s y m b o l s o f m e a n i n g f u l c o n t a i n m e n t . B u t n o n e t h e l e s s o n e c a n b e filled with t h a t spirit o f d i v i n e d i s c o n t e n t w h i c h forces

I found some strange pieces of wood, not carved but with natural beautiful shapes. Some-

Left, t h e B r i t i s h e x p l o r e r R. F. S c o t t a n d his c o m p a n i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h e d in t h e A n t a r c t i c in 1 9 1 1 . Explorers, venturing into the u n k n o w n , provide an apt i m a g e of t h e l i b e r a t i o n , t h e b r e a k i n g o u t of c o n t a i n m e n t , t h a t characterizes transcendence.

T h e s y m b o l of t h e s n a k e is c o m m o n l y linked w i t h transcendence, because it w a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c r e a t u r e of the u n d e r w o r l d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and thus w a s a " m e d i a t o r " b e t w e e n o n e w a y of life a n d a n o t h e r . R i g h t , t h e snake a n d staff s y m b o l of t h e G r e c o - R o m a n g o d of m e d i c i n e A s k l e p i o s o n a card u s e d to i d e n t i f y a d o c t o r ' s car in m o d e r n France.

>5

2


one said: '"Neanderthal man brought t h e m . " Then I saw at a distance these Neanderthal men looking like a dark mass, but I could not see one of them distinctly. I thought I would take back from this place a piece of their wood. Then I went on, as if on a journey by myself, and I looked down into an enormous abyss like an extinct volcano. T h e r e was water in part of it and there I expected to see more Neanderthal men. But instead I saw black water pigs that had come out of the water and were running in and out of the black volcanic rocks. In c o n t r a s t to this w o m a n ' s f a m i l y

attach-

ments a n d h e r h i g h l y c u l t i v a t e d style o f life, the d r e a m

takes h e r to a p r e h i s t o r i c

period

more p r i m i t i v e t h a n a n y t h i n g w e c a n v i s u a l i z e . She c a n

find

no social

group

among

these

ancient m e n : S h e sees t h e m as a n e m b o d i m e n t of a truly u n c o n s c i o u s , c o l l e c t i v e " d a r k m a s s " in the d i s t a n c e . Y e t t h e y a r e a l i v e , a n d she m a y carry a w a y a p i e c e o f t h e i r w o o d . T h e d r e a m emphasizes t h a t t h e w o o d is n a t u r a l , not c a r v e d ; therefore it c o m e s f r o m a p r i m o r d i a l , n o t a c u l turally c o n d i t i o n e d , level o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e piece o f w o o d , r e m a r k a b l e for its g r e a t a g e , links this w o m a n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y e x p e r i e n c e to the distant o r i g i n s o f h u m a n life. We

know

from

many

examples

growth

and development

o f p s y c h i c life

(as

d i s t i n c t f r o m i n s t i n c t u a l life, c o m m o n l y s y m b o lized b y a n i m a l s ) . H e n c e , in this p i e c e o f w o o d , this w o m a n a c q u i r e d a s y m b o l o f h e r link with the deepest layers o f the collective unconscious. Next she speaks o f continuing her j o u r n e y a l o n e . T h i s t h e m e , as I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , s y m b o l i z e s t h e n e e d for release as a n i n i t i a tory e x p e r i e n c e . S o here we have a n o t h e r symbol o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e . T h e n , in t h e d r e a m , she sees a h u g e c r a t e r o f a n e x t i n c t v o l c a n o , w h i c h h a s b e e n the c h a n n e l for a v i o l e n t e r u p t i o n o f fire f r o m t h e deepest l a y e r s o f t h e e a r t h . W e c a n s u r m i s e t h a t this refers to a s i g n i f i c a n t m e m o r y t r a c e , w h i c h leads b a c k to a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s she assoc i a t e d to a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e e a r l y in h e r life w h e n she h a d felt t h e d e s t r u c t i v e , yet c r e a t i v e , f o r c e o f h e r passions to s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t she f e a r e d she w o u l d g o o u t o f h e r m i n d . S h e h a d f o u n d , in l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e , a q u i t e u n e x p e c t e d need to b r e a k a w a y f r o m h e r f a m i l y ' s e x c e s sively

conventional

social

pattern.

She

had

a c h i e v e d this b r e a k w i t h o u t serious distress, a n d h a d b e e n a b l e to r e t u r n e v e n t u a l l y to m a k e h e r peace with the family. But there lingered a

that

an

ancient tree o r p l a n t r e p r e s e n t s s y m b o l i c a l l y the

p r o f o u n d wish to m a k e a still g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f r o m h e r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d a n d to find freedom from her own pattern o f existence. T h i s d r e a m r e c a l l s a n o t h e r . It c a m e f r o m a young m a n who had a totally different problem b u t w h o s e e m e d to n e e d a s i m i l a r t y p e o f insight. H e too h a d t h e u r g e to a c h i e v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . H e d r e a m e d o f a v o l c a n o , a n d f r o m its c r a t e r he s a w t w o b i r d s t a k i n g flight as if in f e a r t h a t t h e v o l c a n o was a b o u t to e r u p t . T h i s was in a s t r a n g e , l o n e l y p l a c e with a b o d y o f w a t e r b e t w e e n h i m a n d t h e v o l c a n o . In this case,

the

dream

initiation j o u r n e y . It is s i m i l a r

represented

an

individual

.

to cases r e p o r t e d

among

the

s i m p l e f o o d - g a t h e r i n g t r i b e s , w h i c h a r e the least family-conscious

groups

we

know.

In

these

societies t h e y o u n g i n i t i a t e must t a k e a lonely j o u r n e y to a s a c r e d p l a c e (in I n d i a n c u l t u r e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c c o a s t , it m a y a c t u a l l y b e a c r a t e r l a k e ) w h e r e , in a v i s i o n a r y o r t r a n c e l i k e s t a t e , he e n c o u n t e r s his " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " in t h e

'53


form o f an a n i m a l , a bird, or natural object.

t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e y b r i n g i n t o the

H e c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e s himself with this

"bush

field o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s p e c i a l c h t h o n i c ( u n d e r -

souT'and thereby becomesa man. Withoutsuch

w o r l d ) m e s s a g e t h a t is s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t from

a n e x p e r i e n c e h e is r e g a r d e d , as a n A c h u m a u i

t h e s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s s y m b o l i z e d by the birds

m e d i c i n e m a n p u t it, as " a n o r d i n a r y

in t h e y o u n g m a n ' s d r e a m .

Indian,

nobody."

O t h e r t r a n s c e n d e n t s y m b o l s o f the d e p t h s a r e

T h e y o u n g m a n ' s d r e a m c a m e at t h e b e g i n -

rodents, lizards, snakes, and sometimes

fish.

n i n g o f his life, a n d it p o i n t e d to his f u t u r e

These a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e c r e a t u r e s t h a t c o m b i n e

independence

The

u n d e r w a t e r a c t i v i t y a n d t h e b i r d - f l i g h t with an

w o m a n I h a v e d e s c r i b e d was a p p r o a c h i n g the

i n t e r m e d i a t e t e r r e s t r i a l life. T h e wild d u c k or

e n d o f h e r life, a n d s h e e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r

t h e s w a n a r e cases in p o i n t . P e r h a p s t h e c o m -

and

identity

as a

man.

j o u r n e y a n d s e e m e d to n e e d to a c q u i r e a s i m i -

m o n e s t d r e a m s y m b o l o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e is the

l a r i n d e p e n d e n c e . S h e c o u l d live o u t t h e r e -

s n a k e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by the t h e r a p e u t i c s y m b o l

m a i n d e r o f h e r d a y s in h a r m o n y w i t h a n e t e r n a l

of t h e R o m a n

h u m a n l a w t h a t , b y its a n t i q u i t y , t r a n s c e n d e d

w h i c h has s u r v i v e d to m o d e r n t i m e s as a sign

the known symbols o f culture.

o f t h e m e d i c a l profession. T h i s w a s o r i g i n a l l y

g o d of m e d i c i n e

Aesculapius,

B u t s u c h i n d e p e n d e n c e does not e n d in a

a n o n p o i s o n o u s t r e e s n a k e ; as we sec it, coiled

state o f yogi-like d e t a c h m e n t that would mean

a r o u n d t h e s t a f f o f the h e a l i n g g o d , it s e e m s to

a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d w i t h all its i m p u r i -

e m b o d y a kind o f m e d i a t i o n b e t w e e n e a r t h a n d

ties. I n t h e o t h e r w i s e d e a d a n d b l a s t e d l a n d -

heaven.

s c a p e o f h e r d r e a m t h e w o m a n s a w signs of

A still m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d w i d e s p r e a d s y m -

a n i m a l life. T h e s e a r e " w a t e r p i g s , " u n k n o w n

b o l o f c h t h o n i c t r a n s c e n d e n c e is t h e motif of

to h e r as a s p e c i e s . T h e y t h e r e f o r e w o u l d c a r r y

the two entwined serpents. T h e s e are the famous

the m e a n i n g o f a special type o f a n i m a l , one

N a g a s e r p e n t s o f a n c i e n t I n d i a ; a n d w e also

t h a t c a n live in t w o e n v i r o n m e n t s , in w a t e r o r

find t h e m in G r e e c e as t h e e n t w i n e d serpents

on the e a r t h .

o n t h e e n d o f t h e s t a f f b e l o n g i n g to t h e god

T h i s is t h e u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t y o f t h e a n i m a l as a symbol of transcendence. These

creatures,

Hermes. An

early Grecian

herm

is a

stone

p i l l a r w i t h a bust o f t h e god a b o v e . O n o n e side

o f the

a r e t h e e n t w i n e d s e r p e n t s a n d on t h e o t h e r an

ancient Earth M o t h e r , are symbolic denizens of

e r e c t p h a l l u s . As t h e s e r p e n t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d

figuratively

1

54

coming

from

the depths


Left, a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h p a i n t i n g reveals t h e s n a k e ' s role as m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n this w o r l d a n d t h e n e x t . Orpheus is p l a y i n g his lyre; h e and his a u d i e n c e fail t o n o t i c e that Eurydice ( c e n t e r of p i c t u r e ) has been b i t t e n by a s n a k e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a f a t a l w o u n d t h a t s y m b o l i z e s her d e s c e n t into t h e u n d e r w o r l d .

Above, the Egyptian g o d Thoth w i t h t h e h e a d of a b i r d ( a n i b i s ) , in a relief f r o m c. 3 5 0 B.C. T h o t h is an " u n d e r w o r l d " f i g u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n c e ; it w a s he w h o j u d g e d t h e s o u l s of t h e d e a d . T h e Greek g o d Hermes, w h o w a s called " p s y c h o - p o m p " ( s o u l - g u i d e ) , had t h e f u n c t i o n of g u i d i n g t h e d e a d t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d . Left, a s t o n e herm, w h i c h w a s p l a c e d at c r o s s roads ( s y m b o l i z i n g t h e g o d ' s role as a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n t w o w o r l d s ) O n t h e s i d e o f t h e h e r m is a s n a k e t w i n e d a r o u n d a staff; t h i s s y m b o l ( t h e caduceus) w a s carried over t o the R o m a n g o d M e r c u r y ( r i g h t , a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y Italian b r o n z e ) , w h o also a c q u i r e d w i n g s , r e c a l l i n g t h e b i r d as a s y m b o l of spiritual transcendence.

'55


in t h e a c t o f s e x u a l u n i o n a n d the e r e c t p h a l l u s

H e r e w e see his full p o w e r o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e ,

is u n e q u i v o c a l l y s e x u a l , w e c a n d r a w c e r t a i n

w h e r e b y the l o w e r t r a n s c e n d e n c e f r o m u n d e r -

c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t the f u n c t i o n o f t h e h e r m as a

w o r l d s n a k e - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , passing t h r o u g h the m e d i u m o f e a r t h l y r e a l i t y , finally a t t a i n s t r a n s -

s y m b o l o f fertility. B u t w e a r e m i s t a k e n i f we t h i n k this o n l y refers to b i o l o g i c a l f e r t i l i t y . H e r m e s is T r i c k s t e r in a d i f f e r e n t r o l e as a m e s s e n g e r , a g o d o f the

cendence

to

superhuman

or

transpersonal

r e a l i t y in its w i n g e d flight. S u c h a c o m p o s i t e s y m b o l is f o u n d in o t h e r

c r o s s - r o a d s , a n d finally the l e a d e r o f souls to

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s as t h e w i n g e d h o r s e o r w i n g e d

a n d f r o m t h e u n d e r w o r l d . His p h a l l u s t h e r e f o r e

d r a g o n o r o t h e r c r e a t u r e s t h a t a b o u n d in the

penetrates from the known into the unknown

a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s of a l c h e m y , so fully illus-

world, seeking a spiritual message o f deliverance

t r a t e d in D r . J u n g ' s classic w o r k on this s u b j e c t .

and healing.

W e follow the i n n u m e r a b l e vicissitudes o f these

O r i g i n a l l y in E g y p t H e r m e s was k n o w n as

s y m b o l s in o u r w o r k with p a t i e n t s . T h e y show

the i b i s - h e a d e d god T h o t h , and t h e r e f o r e w a s

w h a t o u r t h e r a p y c a n e x p e c t to a c h i e v e w h e n

c o n c e i v e d as t h e b i r d f o r m o f t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t

it l i b e r a t e s t h e d e e p e r p s y c h i c c o n t e n t s so that

p r i n c i p l e . A g a i n , in the O l y m p i a n

they can b e c o m e part of our conscious equip-

period

of

Greek mythology, Hermes recovered attributes

m e n t for u n d e r s t a n d i n g life m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y .

o f the bird life to a d d to his c h t h o n i c n a t u r e as

I t is n o t easy for m o d e r n m a n to g r a s p the

s e r p e n t . His s t a f f a c q u i r e d wings a b o v e t h e ser-

s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s y m b o l s t h a t c o m e d o w n to

p e n t s , b e c o m i n g t h e caduceus

us f r o m t h e past o r t h a t a p p e a r in o u r d r e a m s .

o r w i n g e d staff

o f M e r c u r y , a n d t h e g o d h i m s e l f b e c a m e the

N o r is it easy to see h o w t h e a n c i e n t

" f l y i n g m a n " w i t h his w i n g e d h a t a n d s a n d a l s .

between symbols o f c o n t a i n m e n t and liberation

Winged dragons (above, from a 15thcentury manuscript) combine the t r a n s c e n d e n t s y m b o l i s m of t h e s n a k e a n d the b i r d . R i g h t , an i m a g e o f spiritual t r a n s c e n d e n c e : M o h a m m e d o n t h e w i n g e d m a r e B u r a q flies t h r o u g h t h e celestial s p h e r e s

156

conflict


relates to o u r o w n p r e d i c a m e n t . Y e t it b e c o m e s easier w h e n w e r e a l i z e it is o n l y t h e specificforms o f these a r c h a i c p a t t e r n s t h a t

change,

not t h e i r p s y c h i c m e a n i n g . W e h a v e b e e n t a l k i n g o f wild b i r d s as s y m bols o f r e l e a s e o r l i b e r a t i o n . B u t t o d a y we c o u l d as well s p e a k o f j e t p l a n e s a n d s p a c e r o c k e t s , for t h e y a r e t h e p h y s i c a l e m b o d i m e n t o f the s a m e t r a n s c e n d e n t p r i n c i p l e , f r e e i n g us at least t e m p o r a r i l y f r o m g r a v i t y . I n t h e s a m e w a y the ancient symbols of containment, which

once

g a v e s t a b i l i t y a n d p r o t e c t i o n , n o w a p p e a r in modern

man's search

for e c o n o m i c

security

and social w e l f a r e . A n y o f us c a n see, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e r e is a conflict in o u r lives b e t w e e n a d v e n t u r e a n d disc i p l i n e , o r evil a n d

virtue, or freedom

and

security. B u t these a r e o n l y p h r a s e s we use to d e s c r i b e a n a m b i v a l e n c e t h a t t r o u b l e s us, a n d to w h i c h w e n e v e r s e e m a b l e to find a n a n s w e r . T h e r e is an a n s w e r . T h e r e is a m e e t i n g point b e t w e e n c o n t a i n m e n t a n d l i b e r a t i o n , a n d we can find it in t h e rites o f i n i t i a t i o n t h a t I h a v e been discussing. T h e y c a n m a k e it possible for i n d i v i d u a l s , o r w h o l e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , to u n i t e the

opposing

forces

within

themselves

and

a c h i e v e a n e q u i l i b r i u m in t h e i r lives. But t h e rites d o n o t o f f e r this o p p o r t u n i t y invariably, or a u t o m a t i c a l l y .

They

relate

to

p a r t i c u l a r p h a s e s in the life o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , o r of a g r o u p , a n d unless t h e y a r e p r o p e r l y u n d e r stood a n d t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a n e w w a y o f l i f e , t h e m o m e n t c a n pass. I n i t i a t i o n is, e s s e n t i a l l y , a process t h a t b e g i n s w i t h a rite o f s u b m i s s i o n , followed by a p e r i o d o f c o n t a i n m e n t , a n d t h e n by a f u r t h e r rite o f l i b e r a t i o n . I n this w a y e v e r y individual c a n r e c o n c i l e the c o n f l i c t i n g e l e m e n t s of his p e r s o n a l i t y : H e c a n strike a b a l a n c e t h a t makes h i m truly h u m a n , a n d truly t h e m a s t e r of himself.

In the d r e a m s a n d f a n t a s i e s of m a n y modern p e o p l e , t h e f l i g h t s of t h e great rockets of s p a c e r e s e a r c h have o f t e n a p p e a r e d as s y m b o l i c 20th-century e m b o d i m e n t s of t h e urge t o w a r d l i b e r a t i o n a n d release that is called t r a n s c e n d e n c e .

'57


3

The process of individuation

M.-L. von Franz

T h e rose w i n d o w of t h e c a t h e d r a l of N o t r e D a m e , Paris


The process of individuation

The pattern of psychic g r o w t h

A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f this b o o k D r . C . G . J u n g i n t r o d u c e d t h e r e a d e r to t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , its p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , a n d its s y m b o l i c m o d e o f e x p r e s s i o n . O n c e o n e h a s seen t h e v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e ( t h a t is, the h e a l ing or destructive i m p a c t ) o f the symbols prod u c e d by t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , t h e r e r e m a i n s t h e difficult p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D r . J u n g has s h o w n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g d e p e n d s on w h e t h e r a n y p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " c l i c k s " a n d is m e a n ingful to t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . I n this w a y he has i n d i c a t e d t h e possible m e a n i n g a n d f u n c tion o f d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . B u t , in the d e v e l o p m e n t o f J u n g ' s

theory,

this possibility raised a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n :

What

is the p u r p o s e o f t h e total d r e a m life o f t h e individual? W h a t role do d r e a m s play, not only in the i m m e d i a t e p s y c h i c e c o n o m y o f the h u m a n b e i n g , b u t in his life as a w h o l e ? By o b s e r v i n g a g r e a t m a n y p e o p l e a n d s t u d y ing t h e i r d r e a m s ( h e e s t i m a t e d t h a t he i n t e r preted at least 8 0 , 0 0 0 d r e a m s ) , J u n g d i s c o v e r e d not only t h a t all d r e a m s a r e r e l e v a n t in v a r y i n g degrees to t h e life o f t h e d r e a m e r , b u t t h a t they a r e all p a r t s o f o n e g r e a t w e b o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l factors, fcle also f o u n d t h a t , on t h e w h o l e , t h e y seem to follow a n a r r a n g e m e n t o r p a t t e r n . T h i s p a t t e r n J u n g c a l l e d " t h e process o f i n d i v i d u a tion." Since dreams produce different

scenes

and images every night, people who are not c a r e f u l o b s e r v e r s will p r o b a b l y b e u n a w a r e o f any pattern.

But

if o n e

watches

one's

own

d r e a m s o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s a n d studies t h e e n t i r e s e q u e n c e , o n e will see t h a t c e r t a i n c o n tents e m e r g e ,

disappear,

and

then

turn

up

again. M a n y people even d r e a m repeatedly of the s a m e figures, l a n d s c a p e s , o r s i t u a t i o n s ; a n d if o n e follows these t h r o u g h a w h o l e series, o n e will see that t h e y c h a n g e slowly b u t p e r c e p t i b l y . T h e s e changes can be accelerated if the d r e a m e r ' s c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e is i n f l u e n c e d by a p p r o priate interpretation o f the d r e a m s and symbolic contents.

i bo

their

B e l o w , a " m e a n d e r " (a d e c o r a t i o n in a s e v e n t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t ) . I n d i v i d u a l d r e a m s s e e m as s t r a n g e a n d f r a g m e n t e d as t h e d e t a i l , a b o v e , f r o m the decoration; but over a lifetime's dreaming, a meandering pattern appears - r e v e a l i n g the p r o c e s s of p s y c h i c g r o w t h


Thus

our

dream

life c r e a t e s

a

meandering

p a t t e r n in w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s t r a n d s o r t e n d e n cies b e c o m e v i s i b l e , t h e n v a n i s h , t h e n r e t u r n a g a i n . I f o n e w a t c h e s this m e a n d e r i n g design over a long period o f time, one c a n observe a sort o f h i d d e n r e g u l a t i n g o r d i r e c t i n g t e n d e n c y at w o r k , c r e a t i n g a s l o w , i m p e r c e p t i b l e p r o c e s s of p s y c h i c g r o w t h

the p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n .

Gradually a wider and more mature personality e m e r g e s , a n d by d e g r e e s b e c o m e s e f f e c t i v e and e v e n visible to o t h e r s . T h e fact t h a t often s p e a k o f " a r r e s t e d d e v e l o p m e n t "

we

shows

that we a s s u m e t h a t s u c h a p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h and m a t u r a t i o n is possible w i t h e v e r y i n d i v i dual.

Since

brought

this

about

psychic

growth

cannot

be

b y a c o n s c i o u s effort o f will

power, but h a p p e n s i n v o l u n t a r i l y a n d

natur-

ally, it is in d r e a m s f r e q u e n t l y s y m b o l i z e d by the t r e e , w h o s e s l o w , p o w e r f u l ,

involuntary-

growth fulfills a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n . T h e organizing center from which the regulatory effect s t e m s s e e m s to be a sort of " n u clear a t o m " in o u r p s y c h i c s y s t e m . O n e c o u l d also call it the i n v e n t o r , o r g a n i z e r , a n d s o u r c e of d r e a m i m a g e s . J u n g c a l l e d this c e n t e r t h e " S e l f " a n d d e s c r i b e d it as the t o t a l i t y of the whole

p s y c h e , in o r d e r to d i s t i n g u i s h it f r o m

the " e g o , " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f the total p s y c h e . T h r o u g h o u t the ages m e n h a v e b e e n i n t u i tively a w a r e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a n i n n e r center. T h e G r e e k s c a l l e d it m a n ' s i n n e r daimon; in E g y p t it w a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e c o n c e p t of the Ba-soul;

a n d t h e R o m a n s w o r s h i p e d it

as the " g e n i u s " n a t i v e to e a c h i n d i v i d u a l .

In

more p r i m i t i v e societies it was often t h o u g h t o f as a

protective

spirit

embodied

within

an

animal o r a fetish. T h i s i n n e r c e n t e r is r e a l i z e d in e x c e p t i o n a l l y pure, unspoiled f o r m by the N a s k a p i who still exist in t h e forests o f t h e

Indians, Labrador

peninsula. T h e s e s i m p l e p e o p l e a r e h u n t e r s w h o live in isolated f a m i l y g r o u p s , so far f r o m o n e

T h e p s y c h e c a n he c o m p a r e d t o a s p h e r e w i t h a b r i g h t f i e l d ( A ) o n its surface, representing consciousness T h e ego is t h e f i e l d ' s c e n t e r ( o n l y if " I " k n o w a t h i n g is it c o n s c i o u s ) T h e Self is at o n c e t h e n u c l e u s a n d t h e w h o l e s p h e r e ( B ) ; its i n t e r n a l regulating processes p r o d u c e dreams T h e p s y c h e c a n be c o m p a r e d t o a s p h e r e w i t h a b r i g h t f i e l d ( A ) o n its surface, representing consciousness T h e ego is t h e f i e l d ' s c e n t e r ( o n l y if " I " k n o w a t h i n g is it c o n s c i o u s ) T h e Self is at o n c e t h e n u c l e u s a n d t h e w h o l e s p h e r e ( B ) ; its i n t e r n a l regulating processes p r o d u c e dreams

a n o t h e r that they h a v e not b e e n a b l e to e v o l v e t r i b a l c u s t o m s o r c o l l e c t i v e religious beliefs a n d c e r e m o n i e s . In his lifelong s o l i t u d e the N a s k a p i h u n t e r has to rely on his o w n i n n e r voices a n d unconscious

revelations;

he has n o

religious

t e a c h e r s w h o tell h i m w h a t he s h o u l d b e l i e v e , no r i t u a l s , festivals, o r c u s t o m s to h e l p

him

a l o n g . I n his b a s i c view o f l i f e , t h e soul o f m a n is s i m p l y a n " i n n e r c o m p a n i o n , " w h o m he calls "my

friend"

or

Mista'peo,

meaning

"Great

M a n . " M i s t a ' p e o dwells in the h e a r t a n d is i m m o r t a l ; in t h e m o m e n t

of d e a t h , or shortly

b e f o r e , he leaves t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a n d l a t e r r e i n c a r n a t e s h i m s e l f in a n o t h e r b e i n g . T h o s e N a s k a p i w h o p a y a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r d r e a m s a n d w h o try to find t h e i r m e a n i n g a n d test t h e i r t r u t h c a n e n t e r i n t o a d e e p e r c o n n e c tion

with

the

Great

Man.

He

favors

such

p e o p l e a n d sends t h e m m o r e a n d b e t t e r d r e a m s . Thus

the m a j o r o b l i g a t i o n

o f an

individual

N a s k a p i is to follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n by his d r e a m s , a n d t h e n to give p e r m a n e n t f o r m to t h e i r c o n t e n t s in a r t . Lies a n d d r i v e the ( b e a t

M a n away

dishonesty ib i

from o n e ' s i n n e r

rneeai gl m r eda so f gaenniemr oa sl si t ya t tar na d h b, o w r sh ae n c t love h i m aonfd ogniev' es


h i m life. D r e a m s give t h e N a s k a p i

complete

f a c t o r s , s u c h as t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e soil a n d the

a b i l i t y to find his w a y in life, n o t o n l y in t h e

s t o n e s , t h e s l o p e o f t h e l a n d , a n d its e x p o s u r e

i n n e r w o r l d b u t also in t h e o u t e r w o r l d o f n a -

to sun a n d w i n d . T h e l a t e n t t o t a l i t y o f t h e p i n e

t u r e . T h e y h e l p h i m to f o r e t e l l t h e w e a t h e r a n d

in t h e seed r e a c t s to these c i r c u m s t a n c e s

give h i m i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e in his h u n t i n g ,

a v o i d i n g t h e stones a n d i n c l i n i n g t o w a r d the

u p o n w h i c h his life d e p e n d s . I m e n t i o n these

s u n , w i t h t h e result t h a t t h e t r e e ' s g r o w t h is

by

very primitive people because they are u n c o n -

s h a p e d . T h u s a n i n d i v i d u a l p i n e slowly c o m e s

t a m i n a t e d b y o u r c i v i l i z e d ideas a n d still h a v e

i n t o e x i s t e n c e , c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f its

n a t u r a l insight into the essence o f w h a t J u n g

t o t a l i t y , its e m e r g e n c e i n t o t h e r e a l m o f r e a l i t y .

calls t h e Self.

W i t h o u t t h e l i v i n g t r e e , t h e i m a g e o f t h e p i n e is

T h e S e l f c a n b e d e f i n e d as a n i n n e r g u i d i n g

o n l y a possibility o r a n a b s t r a c t i d e a . A g a i n , t h e

f a c t o r t h a t is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n s c i o u s p e r -

r e a l i z a t i o n o f this u n i q u e n e s s in t h e i n d i v i d u a l

sonality and that c a n be grasped only through

m a n is t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n .

the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o n e ' s o w n d r e a m s . T h e s e

F r o m o n e p o i n t o f v i e w this p r o c e s s takes

show it to b e t h e r e g u l a t i n g c e n t e r t h a t b r i n g s

p l a c e in m a n (as w e l l as in e v e r y o t h e r living

about a constant extension and m a t u r i n g o f the

b e i n g ) b y i t s e l f a n d in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ; it is a

p e r s o n a l i t y . B u t this l a r g e r , m o r e n e a r l y t o t a l

p r o c e s s b y w h i c h m a n lives o u t his i n n a t e h u -

a s p e c t o f t h e p s y c h e a p p e a r s first as m e r e l y a n

m a n nature. Strictly speaking, however,

inborn possibility. It m a y e m e r g e very slightly,

p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n is r e a l o n l y i f t h e i n d i -

the

or it m a y d e v e l o p r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l e t e l y d u r i n g

v i d u a l is a w a r e o f it a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y m a k e s a

o n e ' s l i f e t i m e . H o w f a r it d e v e l o p s d e p e n d s o n

living c o n n e c t i o n

w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e g o is w i l l i n g to listen to

whether

t h e m e s s a g e s o f t h e Self. J u s t as t h e N a s k a p i

g r o w t h , w h e t h e r it e n j o y s a n d suffers t h e dif-

h a v e n o t i c e d t h a t a p e r s o n w h o is r e c e p t i v e to

f e r e n t vicissitudes t h a t s h a p e it. B u t m a n c e r -

the hints o f the G r e a t M a n gets b e t t e r a n d m o r e

t a i n l y is a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e c o n s c i o u s l y in his

helpful d r e a m s , we could add that the inborn

d e v e l o p m e n t . H e e v e n feels t h a t f r o m t i m e to

Great

time,

Man

becomes

more

real

within

the

by

the

pine

making

w i t h it. W e d o n o t t r e e is a w a r e

know

o f its

free d e c i s i o n s , h e c a n

own

co-

r e c e p t i v e p e r s o n t h a n in those w h o n e g l e c t h i m .

operate

S u c h a p e r s o n also b e c o m e s a m o r e c o m p l e t e

b e l o n g s to t h e process o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n in t h e

human being.

n a r r o w e r sense o f t h e w o r d .

I t e v e n s e e m s as i f t h e e g o has n o t b e e n p r o d u c e d b y n a t u r e to follow its o w n

actively

with

it.

This

co-operation

M a n , however, experiences something that

arbitrary

is n o t c o n t a i n e d in o u r m e t a p h o r o f t h e p i n e

i m p u l s e s to a n u n l i m i t e d e x t e n t , b u t to h e l p to

t r e e . T h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s is m o r e t h a n a

m a k e real t h e t o t a l i t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h e w h o l e p s y c h e . I t is

c o m i n g to t e r m s b e t w e e n t h e i n b o r n g e r m o f

the e g o t h a t serves to l i g h t u p t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m ,

w h o l e n e s s a n d t h e o u t e r a c t s o f f a t e . Its s u b j e c -

a l l o w i n g it to b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s a n d thus to be

tive e x p e r i e n c e c o n v e y s the f e e l i n g t h a t s o m e

realized.

artistic

s u p r a - p e r s o n a l f o r c e is a c t i v e l y i n t e r f e r i n g in a

t a l e n t o f w h i c h m y e g o is n o t c o n s c i o u s , n o t h i n g

c r e a t i v e w a y . O n e s o m e t i m e s feels t h a t t h e u n -

will h a p p e n to it. T h e gift m a y as well b e n o n -

c o n s c i o u s is l e a d i n g t h e w a y in a c c o r d a n c e with

If, for e x a m p l e ,

I have an

e x i s t e n t . O n l y i f m y e g o n o t i c e s it c a n T b r i n g

a s e c r e t d e s i g n . I t is as i f s o m e t h i n g is l o o k i n g

it i n t o r e a l i t y . T h e i n b o r n b u t h i d d e n t o t a l i t y

a t m e , s o m e t h i n g t h a t I d o n o t see b u t t h a t sees

o f the p s y c h e is n o t t h e s a m e t h i n g as a w h o l e -

m e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; p e r h a p s t h a t G r e a t M a n in t h e h e a r t , w h o

ness t h a t is fully r e a l i z e d a n d l i v e d .

tells m e his o p i n i o n s a b o u t m e b y m e a n s o f

O n e c o u l d p i c t u r e this in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : The

mountain

pine

contains

dreams.

the

B u t this c r e a t i v e l y a c t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e psy-

w h o l e f u t u r e t r e e in a l a t e n t f o r m ; b u t e a c h

c h i c n u c l e u s c a n c o m e i n t o p l a y o n l y w h e n the

seed falls at a c e r t a i n t i m e o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r

ego gets rid o f all p u r p o s i v e a n d wishful a i m s

p l a c e , in w h i c h t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l

a n d tries to get to a d e e p e r , m o r e b a s i c f o r m

162

seed o f a


of existence. T h e e g o m u s t b e a b l e to listen attentively a n d to g i v e itself, w i t h o u t a n y further design o r p u r p o s e , to t h a t i n n e r u r g e toward g r o w t h . M a n y e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s try to d e s c r i b e this s t a t e , b u t t h e y go o n l y as far as s t r i p p i n g o f f the illusions o f c o n s c i o u s ness: T h e y g o r i g h t u p to t h e d o o r o f t h e unconscious a n d t h e n fail to o p e n it. People living in c u l t u r e s m o r e s e c u r e l y r o o t e d than our o w n h a v e less t r o u b l e in u n d e r s t a n d ing that it is n e c e s s a r y to g i v e u p t h e u t i l i t a r i a n attitude o f c o n s c i o u s p l a n n i n g in o r d e r to m a k e way for t h e i n n e r g r o w t h o f the p e r s o n a l i t y . I once met a n e l d e r l y l a d y w h o h a d not a c h i e v e d much in h e r life, in t e r m s o f o u t w a r d a c h i e v e ment. But she h a d in fact m a d e a g o o d m a r riage with a difficult h u s b a n d , a n d h a d s o m e how d e v e l o p e d i n t o a m a t u r e p e r s o n a l i t y . W h e n she c o m p l a i n e d to m e t h a t she h a d not " d o n e " anything in h e r life, I told h e r a story r e l a t e d by a C h i n e s e s a g e , C h u a n g - T z u . S h e

under-

stood i m m e d i a t e l y a n d felt g r e a t relief. T h i s is the s t o r y :

A wandering carpenter, called Stone, saw on his travels a gigantic old oak tree standing in a field near an earth-altar. T h e carpenter said to his apprentice, who was admiring the o a k : " T h i s is

a useless tree. II you wanted to make a ship, it would soon rot; if you wanted to make tools, they would break. You can't do anything useful with this tree, and that's why it has become so o l d . " But in an inn, that same evening, when the carpenter went to sleep, the old oak tree appeared to him in his dream and said: " W h y do you compare me to your cultivated trees such as whitethorn, pear, orange, and apple trees, and all the others that bear fruit? Even before they can ripen their fruit, people attack and violate them. T h e i r branches are broken, their twigs are torn. T h e i r own gifts bring harm to them, and they cannot live out their natural span. T h a t is what happens everywhere, and that is why I have long since tried to become completely useless. You poor mortal! Imagine if I had been useful in any way, would I have reached this size? Furthermore, you and I are both creatures, and how can one creature set himself so high as to judge another creature? You useless mortal man, what do you know about useless t r e e s ? " T h e carpenter woke up and meditated upon his dream, and later, when his apprentice asked him why just this one tree served to protect the earthaltar, he answered, " K e e p your mouth shut! Let's hear no more about it! T h e tree grew here on purpose because anywhere else people would have ill-treated it. I f it were not the tree of the earthaltar, it might have been chopped d o w n . "

The

carpenter

obviously

understood

his

d r e a m . H e s a w t h a t s i m p l y to fulfill o n e ' s d e s An earth altar b e n e a t h a tree (In a 19th-century Chinese painting) Such r o u n d or s q u a r e s t r u c t u r e s usually s y m b o l i z e t h e Self, t o w h i c h the ego must s u b m i t t o f u l f i l l t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n .

tiny is t h e g r e a t e s t h u m a n a c h i e v e m e n t ,

and

t h a t o u r u t i l i t a r i a n n o t i o n s h a v e to give w a y in the f a c e o f the d e m a n d s o f o u r

unconscious

p s y c h e ; I f we t r a n s l a t e this m e t a p h o r i n t o psychological

l a n g u a g e , t h e tree s y m b o l i z e s

the

p r o c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , g i v i n g a lesson to o u r shortsighted ego. U n d e r t h e t r e e t h a t fulfilled its d e s t i n y , t h e r e w a s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i n C h u a n g - T z u ' s story â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n

earth-altar.

T h i s was a c r u d e , u n w r o u g h t s t o n e u p o n w h i c h p e o p l e m a d e s a c r i f i c e s to t h e l o c a l god

who

" o w n e d " this p i e c e o f l a n d . T h e s y m b o l o f the e a r t h - a l t a r p o i n t s to t h e f a c t t h a t in o r d e r to b r i n g the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process i n t o r e a l i t y , o n e must s u r r e n d e r c o n s c i o u s l y to t h e p o w e r o f the u n c o n s c i o u s , i n s t e a d o f t h i n k i n g in t e r m s

of

w h a t o n e s h o u l d d o , o r o f w h a t is g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t r i g h t , o r o f w h a t usually h a p p e n s . O n e must s i m p l y listen, in o r d e r to l e a r n w h a t t h e

163


inner totality

the Self

w a n t s o n e to d o h e r e

tion.

The fact is that e a c h person has to do

s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , s o m e t h i n g that is u n i q u e l y

a n d n o w in a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . O u r a t t i t u d e m u s t be like t h a t of the m o u n -

his o w n . the

Jungian

a n n o y e d w h e n its g r o w t h is o b s t r u c t e d b y a

a p p r o a c h for not p r e s e n t i n g p s y c h i c

material

s t o n e , n o r does it m a k e p l a n s a b o u t

s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . B u t these c r i t i c s forget t h a t the

tain p i n e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e :

It does not

get

h o w to

o v e r c o m e t h e o b s t a c l e s . It m e r e l y tries to feel

Many

people

have criticized

m a t e r i a l itself is a living e x p e r i e n c e

charged

w h e t h e r it s h o u l d g r o w m o r e t o w a r d t h e left o r

with e m o t i o n , by n a t u r e i r r a t i o n a l a n d e v e r -

the r i g h t , t o w a r d t h e s l o p e o r a w a y f r o m it.

c h a n g i n g , w h i c h does not l e n d i t s e l f to s y s t e m a -

L i k e the t r e e , we s h o u l d g i v e in to this a l m o s t

t i z a t i o n e x c e p t in the most s u p e r f i c i a l fashion.

i m p e r c e p t i b l e , yet p o w e r f u l l y d o m i n a t i n g , i m -

M o d e r n d e p t h p s y c h o l o g y has h e r e r e a c h e d the

pulse

s a m e limits t h a t c o n f r o n t m i c r o p h y s i c s . T h a t is,

an i m p u l s e t h a t c o m e s f r o m the u r g e to-

w a r d u n i q u e , c r e a t i v e s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . A n d this

when w e a r e d e a l i n g with statistical a v e r a g e s ,

is a p r o c e s s in w h i c h o n e must r e p e a t e d l y seek

a r a t i o n a l a n d s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e facts

out a n d find s o m e t h i n g t h a t is not yet k n o w n

is possible. But w h e n we a r e a t t e m p t i n g to d e -

to a n y o n e . T h e g u i d i n g hints o r i m p u l s e s c o m e ,

s c r i b e a single p s y c h i c e v e n t , we c a n do no m o r e

not from the e g o , b u t f r o m the t o t a l i t y o f the

t h a n present an honest p i c t u r e of it f r o m as

p s y c h e : the Self.

m a n y a n g l e s as possible. I n the s a m e w a y , s c i e n -

It is, m o r e o v e r , useless to cast furtive g l a n c e s at the w a y s o m e o n e else is d e v e l o p i n g , b e c a u s e e a c h o f us has a u n i q u e task of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . Although many h u m a n problems are similar, they a r e n e v e r i d e n t i c a l . All p i n e trees a r e very m u c h a l i k e ( o t h e r w i s e we s h o u l d not r e c o g n i z e t h e m as p i n e s ) , yet n o n e is e x a c t l y t h e s a m e as a n o t h e r . B e c a u s e o f these f a c t o r s o f s a m e n e s s a n d d i f f e r e n c e , it is difficult to s u m m a r i z e t h e infinite v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a -

tists h a v e to a d m i t that they d o not know w h a t light is. They c a n say o n l y t h a t in c e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s it seems to consist o f p a r ticles, while in o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s it s e e m s to consist o f w a v e s . B u t w h a t it is " i n i t s e l f " is not k n o w n . T h e p s y c h o l o g y of the unc o n s c i o u s a n d a n y d e s c r i p t i o n o f the process o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n e n c o u n t e r c o m p a r a b l e difficulties o f d e f i n i t i o n . But I will try h e r e to g i v e a s k e t c h o f s o m e o f t h e i r most t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s .


The first approach of the unconscious

For most p e o p l e the y e a r s o f y o u t h a r e c h a r -

to h e r life. F r o m this single d r e a m it is possible

acterized by a s t a t e o f g r a d u a l a w a k e n i n g in

to d e d u c e t h e t r a g i c fate o f the d r e a m e r , w h i c h

which the i n d i v i d u a l slowly b e c o m e s a w a r e o f

was a n t i c i p a t e d by h e r p s y c h e in c h i l d h o o d .

the world a n d o f himself. C h i l d h o o d is a p e r i o d of great

emotional

intensity,

and

a

child's

S o m e t i m e s it is not a d r e a m but s o m e very i m p r e s s i v e a n d u n f o r g e t t a b l e real event

that,

earliest d r e a m s often m a n i f e s t in s y m b o l i c f o r m

like a p r o p h e c y , a n t i c i p a t e s the f u t u r e in s y m -

the basic s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p s y c h e , i n d i c a t i n g h o w

bolic f o r m . It is well k n o w n t h a t c h i l d r e n often

it will l a t e r s h a p e the d e s t i n y o f the i n d i v i d u a l

forget e v e n t s t h a t s e e m i m p r e s s i v e to a d u l t s but

c o n c e r n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , J ting o n c e told a g r o u p

k e e p a vivid r e c o l l e c t i o n of s o m e i n c i d e n t

or

of students a b o u t a y o u n g w o m a n w h o was so

story that no o n e else has n o t i c e d . W h e n

we

haunted by a n x i e t y t h a t she c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e

look i n t o o n e o f these c h i l d h o o d m e m o r i e s , we

at the a g e o f 26.

As a s m a l l c h i l d , she

dreamed that " J a c k

Frost"

had e n t e r e d

had

usually find t h a t it d e p i c t s (if i n t e r p r e t e d as if

her

it w e r e a s y m b o l ) a b a s i c p r o b l e m o f t h e c h i l d ' s

room while she was lyiilg in b e d a n d p i n c h e d her on the s t o m a c h . S h e w o k e a n d d i s c o v e r e d that she had p i n c h e d h e r s e l f with h e r o w n h a n d . T h e d r e a m did not f r i g h t e n h e r ; she m e r e l y r e m e m b e r e d that she h a d b a d such a d r e a m . Hut the fact that she did not r e a c t e m o t i o n a l l y to her s t r a n g e e n c o u n t e r with the d e m o n o f the cold

o f c o n g e a l e d life

did not a u g u r well for

the future a n d was itself a b n o r m a l . It was with a cold, u n f e e l i n g h a n d that she l a t e r put an e n d

psychic makeup. W h e n a c h i l d r e a c h e s s c h o o l a g e , the p h a s e o f b u i l d i n g up the e g o a n d of a d a p t i n g to the o u t e r w o r l d b e g i n s . T h i s p h a s e generally b r i n g s a n u m b e r o f p a i n f u l s h o c k s . At the s a m e t i m e , s o m e c h i l d r e n b e g i n to feel very d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s , a n d this feeling of b e i n g u n i q u e b r i n g s a c e r t a i n sadness t h a t is p a r t o f the loneliness o f m a n y y o u n g s t e r s . T h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f the w o r l d , a n d the evil w i t h i n o n e s e l f as well as o u t -

A child, adapting to the outside w o r l d , receives m a n y p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h o c k s : far left, t h e f e a r f u l first d a y at s c h o o l ; center, t h e surprise and pain resulting from an attack by a n o t h e r c h i l d , left, t h e g r i e f a n d b e w i l d e r m e n t of t h e first e x p e r i e n c e of d e a t h A s in effect a protection from such shocks, the c h i l d m a y d r e a m or d r a w a c i r c u l a r , quadrangular, nuclear motif (above) t h a t s y m b o l i z e s t h e all i m p o r t a n t c e n t e r of t h e p s y c h e

'6

5


side, b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s p r o b l e m s ; t h e c h i l d must

a l o n g by t h e d y n a m i s m o f i n h e r i t e d a n d i n s t i n c -

try to c o p e w i t h u r g e n t ( b u t n o t y e t u n d e r s t o o d )

tive a r c h e t y p a l pat terns. T h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e a r e

i n n e r i m p u l s e s as well as t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e

not c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the deeper m e a n i n g oflife,

outer world.

because

I f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s is dist u r b e d in its n o r m a l

unfolding, children

sport,

t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s with

and work contain

love,

nature,

an i m m e d i a t e a n d

fre-

satisfying m e a n i n g for t h e m . T h e y a r e n o t n e c e s -

q u e n t l y r e t i r e from o u t e r o r i n n e r difficulties

sarily m o r e s u p e r f i c i a l ; usually t h e y a r e c a r r i e d

into a n i n n e r " f o r t r e s s " ; a n d w h e n t h a t h a p -

by t h e s t r e a m of life with less friction a n d dis-

p e n s , t h e i r d r e a m s a n d s y m b o l i c d r a w i n g s of

t u r b a n c e t h a n t h e i r m o r e i n t r o s p e c t i v e fellows.

u n c o n s c i o u s m a t e r i a l often r e v e a l to a n u n u s u a l

I f I travel in a c a r o r train w i t h o u t l o o k i n g o u t ,

degree a type o f circular, q u a d r a n g u l a r , a n d

it is only t h e stops, s t a r t s , a n d s u d d e n t u r n s t h a t

" n u c l e a r " m o t i f ( w h i c h I will e x p l a i n l a t e r ) .

m a k e m e realise I a m moving at all.

This refers to t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p s y c h i c n u c l e u s , t h e vital c e n t e r of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y f r o m w h i c h t h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of c o n sciousness s t e m s . It is n a t u r a l t h a t t h e i m a g e o f the ( C i l l e r s h o u l d a p p e a r in an especially

strik-

ing way w h e n t h e p s y c h i c life o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l is t h r e a t e n e d . F r o m this c e n t r a l n u c l e u s (as f a r as we k n o w t o d a y ) , t h e w h o l e b u i l d i n g u p o f e g o c o n s c i o u s n e s s is d i r e c t e d , t h e e g o a p p a r e n t l y b e ing a d u p l i c a t e o r s t r u c t u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t ol t h e original center. I n this e a r l y p h a s e t h e r e a r e m a n y

T h e actual process o f individuation

the con-

scious c o m i n g - t o - t e r m s w i t h o n e ' s o w n i n n e r center (psychic nucleus) or Selfâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;generally begins with a w o u n d i n g o f the p e r s o n a l i t y a n d t h e s u f f e r i n g that a c c o m p a n i e s it. T h i s initial shock a m o u n t s to a sort o f " c a l l , " a l t h o u g h it is not often r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e e g o feels h a m p e r e d in its will o r its desire a n d usually p r o j e c t s t h e o b s t r u c t i o n o n t o s o m e t h i n g external.

T h a t is. t h e e g o a c c u s e s G o d o r Un-

e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o r t h e boss o r t h e marriagechildren

w h o e a r n e s t l y seek f o r s o m e m e a n i n g in life t h a t

p a r t n e r o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e for w h a t e v e r is o b s t r u c t i n g it.

c o u l d h e l p t h e m to d e a l with t h e c h a o s b o t h

O r p e r h a p s e v e r y t h i n g s e e m s o u t w a r d l y all

within a n d outside themselves. T h e r e are others,

r i g h t , b u t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e a person is suffer-

h o w e v e r , w h o a r e still u n c o n s c i o u s l y

ing from a deadly b o r e d o m t h a t m a k e s e v e r y -

166

carried


thing seem

meaningless

and

empty.

Many

It is e x a c t l y t h e s a m e in t h e i n i t i a l crisis in

myths a n d fairy tales s y m b o l i c a l l y d e s c r i b e this

t h e life o f a n i n d i v i d u a l . O n e is s e e k i n g s o m e -

initial stage in t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n b y

t h i n g t h a t is i m p o s s i b l e to find o r a b o u t w h i c h

telling o f a k i n g w h o has fallen ill or g r o w n o l d .

n o t h i n g is k n o w n . I n s u c h m o m e n t s all well-

Other f a m i l i a r story p a t t e r n s a r e t h a t a r o y a l

m e a n t , s e n s i b l e a d v i c e is c o m p l e t e l y u s e l e s s -

couple is b a r r e n ; o r t h a t a m o n s t e r steals all t h e

a d v i c e t h a t urges o n e to try to b e r e s p o n s i b l e ,

women, c h i l d r e n , horses, a n d w e a l t h o f t h e k i n g -

to t a k e a h o l i d a y , n o t to w o r k so h a r d (or to

dom; or t h a t a d e m o n keeps t h e king's a r m y

w o r k h a r d e r ) , to h a v e m o r e ( o r less) h u m a n c o n -

or his ship f r o m p r o c e e d i n g on its c o u r s e ; o r

t a c t , or to t a k e u p a h o b b y . N o n e o f t h a t h e l p s ,

that darkness h a n g s o v e r t h e l a n d s , wells d r y

o r a t best o n l y r a r e l y . T h e r e is o n l y o n e t h i n g

up, a n d flood, d r o u g h t , a n d frost afflict t h e

t h a t s e e m s to w o r k ; a n d t h a t is to t u r n d i r e c t l y

country. T h u s it seems as i f t h e initial e n c o u n t e r

toward the a p p r o a c h i n g darkness without pre-

with the S e l f casts a d a r k s h a d o w a h e a d

of

j u d i c e a n d t o t a l l y n a i v e l y , a n d to try to find

time, or as if t h e " i n n e r f r i e n d " c o m e s a t first

out w h a t its s e c r e t a i m is a n d w h a t it w a n t s

like a t r a p p e r to c a t c h t h e helplessly s t r u g g l i n g

from you.

ego in his s n a r e .

T h e hidden purpose o f the o n c o m i n g dark-

I n myths o n e finds t h a t t h e m a g i c or t a l i s m a n

ness is g e n e r a l l y s o m e t h i n g so u n u s u a l , so u n i q u e

that c a n c u r e t h e m i s f o r t u n e o f t h e k i n g o r his

a n d u n e x p e c t e d , t h a t as a r u l e o n e c a n find o u t

country a l w a y s p r o v e s to b e s o m e t h i n g

very

w h a t it is o n l y b y m e a n s o f d r e a m s a n d f a n t a -

special. I n o n e t a l e " a w h i t e b l a c k b i r d " ' or " a

sies w e l l i n g up f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I f o n e

fish that c a r r i e s a g o l d e n r i n g in its gills'" is

focuses

needed to r e s t o r e t h e k i n g ' s h e a l t h . I n a n o t h e r ,

rash a s s u m p t i o n s o r e m o t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n , it often

a t t e n t i o n on t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

without

the king w a n t s " t h e w a t e r o f life'" o r " t h r e e

b r e a k s t h r o u g h in a flow o f helpful

golden hairs f r o m t h e h e a d o f t h e d e v i l " o r " a

i m a g e s . B u t n o t a l w a y s . S o m e t i m e s it first offers

woman's g o l d e n p l a i t " ( a n d a f t e r w a r d , n a t u r -

a series o f p a i n f u l r e a l i z a t i o n s o f w h a t is w r o n g

symbolic

ally, the o w n e r o f t h e p l a i t ) . W h a t e v e r it is, t h e

with o n e s e l f a n d o n e ' s c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s . T h e n

thing that c a n d r i v e a w a y t h e evil is a l w a y s

o n e m u s t b e g i n t h e process by s w a l l o w i n g all

unique a n d h a r d to find.

sorts o f b i t t e r t r u t h s .

Far left, a w o o d c u t f r o m a 1 7 t h century a l c h e m i c a l m a n u s c r i p t d e p i c t s a k i n g w h o has f a l l e n ill â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a c o m m o n s y m b o l i c i m a g e of t h e emptiness a n d b o r e d o m ( i n t h e consciousness) t h a t c a n m a r k t h e initial stage of t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n process. Left, f r o m t h e 1 9 6 0 Italian film La Dolce Vita, a n o t h e r i m a g e of this p s y c h o l o g i c a l state: G u e s t s explore the r u n - d o w n interior o f a decayed a r i s t o c r a t ' s castle.

Right, a p a i n t i n g b y t h e m o d e r n Swiss artist Paul Klee e n t i t l e d Fairy Tale. It illustrates a t a l e of a y o u n g m a n w h o s o u g h t a n d found the " b l u e b i r d of h a p p i n e s s . " and so c o u l d m a r r y a p r i n c e s s . In many fairy tales s u c h a t a l i s m a n is necessary t o c u r e illness or misfortune, s y m b o l s of o u r feelings of e m p t i n e s s a n d f u t i l i t y .


The realization of the shadow

W h e t h e r t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c o m e s up at first in

people

a helpful or a n e g a t i v e f o r m , a f t e r a t i m e the

and sloppiness; unreal fantasies, schemes, and

need usually arises to r e a d a p t

the

conscious

such things as e g o t i s m , m e n t a l laziness,

plots; carelessness a n d c o w a r d i c e ;

inordinate

a t t i t u d e in a b e t t e r w a y to the u n c o n s c i o u s f a c -

love o f m o n e y a n d possessions

tors

lit tie sins a b o u t w h i c h he might previously h a v e

therefore

"criticism"

to a c c e p t

from

the

what

seems

unconscious.

to

be

Through

told h i m s e l f :

"That

doesn't

in s h o r t , all Unmatter;

d r e a m s o n e b e c o m e s a c q u a i n t e d with a s p e c t s of

will n o t i c e it, a n d in a n y c a s e o t h e r

o n e ' s o w n p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t for v a r i o u s r e a s o n s

d o it t o o . "

nobody people

o n e has p r e f e r r e d not to look at too c l o s e l y .

I f you feel a n o v e r w h e l m i n g r a g e c o m i n g up

This is w h a t J u n g c a l l e d " t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e

in you w h e n a friend r e p r o a c h e s you a b o u t a

s h a d o w . " ( H e used t h e t e r m " s h a d o w " for this

f a u l t , you c a n b e fairly s u r e t h a t at this point

u n c o n s c i o u s p a r t o f the p e r s o n a l i t y b e c a u s e it

you will find a p a r t o f y o u r s h a d o w , o f w h i c h

a c t u a l l y often a p p e a r s in d r e a m s in a p e r s o n i -

you a r e u n c o n s c i o u s . It is, of c o u r s e , n a t u r a l to

fied f o r m . )

b e c o m e annoyed when others who are " n o bet-

T h e s h a d o w is not the w h o l e o f t h e u n c o n scious p e r s o n a l i t y .

It r e p r e s e n t s u n k n o w n

or

t e r " c r i t i c i z e you b e c a u s e o f s h a d o w faults. But w h a t c a n you say i f y o u r o w n d r e a m s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n i n n e r

l i t t l e - k n o w n a t t r i b u t e s a n d q u a l i t i e s of t h e e g o

j u d g e in y o u r o w n b e i n g

reproach you? T h a t

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s p e c t s that m o s t l y b e l o n g to the p e r s o n a l

is t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e e g o gets c a u g h t , a n d

s p h e r e a n d t h a t c o u l d j u s t as well b e c o n s c i o u s .

t h e result is usually e m b a r r a s s e d s i l e n c e . A f t e r -

In s o m e a s p e c t s , t h e s h a d o w c a n also consist o f

w a r d the p a i n f u l a n d l e n g t h y w o r k o f s e l f - e d u -

collective factors that stem from a source out-

cation begins

side the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l life.

t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f the l a b o r s o f

W h e n an i n d i v i d u a l m a k e s an a t t e m p t to see his s h a d o w , he b e c o m e s a w a r e of ( a n d often ashamed o f

those q u a l i t i e s a n d i m p u l s e s he

d e n i e s in himself b u t c a n p l a i n l y see in o t h e r

a w o r k , we m i g h t say, that is

H e r c u l e s . T h i s u n f o r t u n a t e h e r o ' s first task, you will r e m e m b e r , was to c l e a n u p in o n e d a y t h e A u g e a n S t a b l e s , in w h i c h h u n d r e d s of c a t t l e h a d d i o p p r d theii d u n g for m a i n d e c a d e s

a task

T h r e e e x a m p l e s of a " c o l l e c t i v e infection'" that can w e l d people into an irrational m o b and to w h i c h t h e shadow ( t h e dark side of t h e e g o - p e r s o n a l i t y ) is v u l n e r a b l e Left, a s c e n e f r o m a 1 9 6 1 P o l i s h film concerning 1 7th century French nuns w h o were possessed by t h e d e v i l " R i g h t , a d r a w i n g by B r u e g h e l d e p i c t s t h e a f f l i c t i o n (largely p s y c h o s o m a t i c ) called " S t Vitus' Dance." w h i c h was widespread in t h e M i d d l e A g e s Far right, t h e f i e r y - c r o s s e m b l e m of t h e Ku Klux K l a n , t h e w h i t e s u p r e m a c y "secret s o c i e t y " of A m e r i c a s S o u t h w h o s e racial i n t o l e r a n c e has o f t e n led t o a c t s of m o b v i o l e n c e


so e n o r m o u s that the o r d i n a r y m o r t a l w o u l d b e

t h e d r e a m e r . T h e f o l l o w i n g d r e a m m a y serve

overcome

mere

as a n e x a m p l e . T h e d r e a m e r was a m a n o f 4 8

T h e s h a d o w does not consist o n l y o f o m i s -

self, w o r k i n g h a r d a n d d i s c i p l i n i n g himself, r e -

by

discouragement

at

the

w h o tried to live very m u c h for a n d bv h i m -

thought o f it. sions. It shows u p just as often in a n i m p u l s i v e

pressing

pleasure

and

spontaneity

to

a

or i n a d v e r t e n t a c t . B e f o r e o n e has t i m e to t h i n k ,

g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n suited his real n a t u r e .

far

the evil r e m a r k pops o u t , t h e plot is h a t c h e d , the w r o n g d e c i s i o n is m a d e , a n d o n e is c o n fronted with results t h a t w e r e n e v e r i n t e n d e d or consciously w a n t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s h a dow is e x p o s e d to c o l l e c t i v e i n f e c t i o n s to a m u c h greater e x t e n t t h a n is t h e c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y . When a m a n is a l o n e , for i n s t a n c e , he feels r e l a tively all r i g h t ; b u t as soon as " t h e o t h e r s " d o dark, p r i m i t i v e t h i n g s , he b e g i n s to f e a r t h a t i f he doesn't j o i n in, he will b e c o n s i d e r e d a fool. Thus he gives w a y to i m p u l s e s t h a t d o not r e a l l y belong to h i m at all. It is p a r t i c u l a r l y in c o n tacts with

p e o p l e o f the s a m e sex t h a t

one

stumbles o v e r b o t h o n e ' s o w n s h a d o w a n d those of other p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h we d o see t h e s h a d o w in a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex, w e a r e usually much less a n n o y e d by it a n d c a n m o r e easily pardon it. In d r e a m s a n d m y t h s , t h e r e f o r e , the s h a d o w appeals as a person o f t h e s a m e sex as t h a t o f

1 owned and inhabited a very big house in town, and I didn't yet know all its different parts. So I took a walk through it and discovered, mainly in the cellar, several rooms about which I knew nothing and even exits leading into other cellars or into subterranean streets. I felt uneasy when I found that several of these exits were not locked and some had no locks at all. Moreover, there were some laborers at work in the neighborhood who could have sneaked in. . . . When I came up again to the ground floor, I passed a back yard where again I discovered dilferent exits into the street or into other houses. When I tried to investigate them m o t e closely, a man came up to me laughing loudly and calling out that we were old pa Is from the elementary school. I remembered him too, and while he was telling me about his life, I walked along with him toward the exit and strolled with him through the streets. T h e r e was a strange chiaroscuro in the air as we walked through an enormous circular street


and arrived at a green lawn where three galloping horses suddenly passed us. T h e y were beautiful, strong animals, wild but well-groomed, and they had no rider with them. (Had they run away from military service?) T h e m a z e o f strange passages, c h a m b e r s , a n d unlocked

exits

in

the

cellar

Egyptian

representation

recalls

o f the

the

old

d i s a p p e a r , a n d o n e does not k n o w w h e r e o r how t h e y h a v e g o n e . It is such a lost c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e d r e a m e r t h a t n o w r e t u r n s ( f r o m the b a c k yard) figure

a n d tries to m a k e friends a g a i n . probably

stands

for

the

This

dreamer's

n e g l e c t e d c a p a c i t y for e n j o y i n g life a n d for his e x t r a v e r t e d s h a d o w side.

underworld,

B u t we soon l e a r n w h y t h e d r e a m e r feels " u n -

w h i c h is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l o f t h e u n c o n -

easy " j u s t b e f o r e m e e t i n g this s e e m i n g l y h a r m -

scious w i t h its u n k n o w n

less old f r i e n d . W h e n he strolls with h i m in the

possibilities.

It

also

shows h o w o n e is " o p e n " to o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s in

street,

t h e horses b r e a k

loose. T h e

dreamer

one's unconscious shadow side, and how un-

thinks t h e y m a y h a v e e s c a p e d f r o m

c a n n y a n d a l i e n e l e m e n t s c a n b r e a k in. T h e

s e r v i c e ( t h a t is to s a y , f r o m t h e c o n s c i o u s disci-

cellar, one can

p l i n e t h a t has h i t h e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d his life).

dreamer's

s a y , is the b a s e m e n t

psyche.

In

the b a c k

yard

o f the of

military

the

T h e f a c t t h a t t h e horses h a v e n o r i d e r shows

s t r a n g e b u i l d i n g ( w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the still u n -

t h a t i n s t i n c t i v e drives c a n get a w a y f r o m c o n -

perceived psychic scope of the dreamer's person-

scious c o n t r o l . In this old f r i e n d , a n d in the

a l i t y ) a n old s c h o o l f r i e n d s u d d e n l y t u r n s u p .

horses, all the positive f o r c e r e a p p e a r s t h a t was

T h i s p e r s o n o b v i o u s l y personifies a n o t h e r a s p e c t

l a c k i n g b e f o r e a n d t h a t was b a d l y n e e d e d by

o f the d r e a m e r h i m s e l f â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n

the d r e a m e r .

aspect that

had

b e e n p a r t o f his life as a c h i l d but t h a t he h a d f o r g o t t e n a n d lost. It often h a p p e n s t h a t a p e r son's c h i l d h o o d q u a l i t i e s (for i n s t a n c e , g a i e t y , i r a s c i b i l i t y , o r p e r h a p s trustfulness)

i 70

suddenly

T h i s is a p r o b l e m t h a t often c o m e s u p w h e n o n e m e e t s o n e ' s " o t h e r s i d e . " T h e s h a d o w usually c o n t a i n s v a l u e s t h a t a r e n e e d e d by c o n s c i ousness, b u t t h a t exist in a f o r m t h a t m a k e s it


Left, Anxious

Journey

by t h e m o d e r n

Italian artist d e C h i r i c o . T h e t i t l e and g l o o m y passages of t h e p a i n t i n g express t h e n a t u r e of t h e first contact w i t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s w h e n the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s b e g i n s . The u n c o n s c i o u s is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by c o r r i d o r s , l a b y r i n t h s , or m a z e s : Right, o n a p a p y r u s (c, 1 4 0 0 B . C . ) , the seven d o o r s of t h e E g y p t i a n u n d e r w o r l d , itself seen as a m a z e . B e l o w , d r a w i n g s of t h r e e m a z e s : left to r i g h t , a F i n n i s h s t o n e m a z e (Bronze A g e ) : a 1 9 t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h turf maze: a n d a m a z e ( i n t i l e s ) o n the f l o o r of C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l (it c o u l d b e w a l k e d as a s y m b o l i c pilgrimage to the Holy Land).

difficult

t o i n t e g r a t e t h e m i n t o o n e ' s life. T h e

passages a n d t h e l a r g e h o u s e in this d r e a m also show t h a t the d r e a m e r d o e s n o t yet k n o w

his

o w n p s y c h i c d i m e n s i o n s a n d is n o t y e t a b l e t o fill t h e m o u t . T h e s h a d o w i n t h i s d r e a m is t y p i c a l for a n i n t r o v e r t fa m a n w h o t e n d s t o r e t i r e t o o m u c h from o u t e r l i f e ) . I n t h e c a s e o f a n c x t r a v e r t , w h o is t u r n e d m o r e t o w a r d o u t e r o b j e c t s a n d o u t e r life, t h e s h a d o w w o u l d l o o k q u i t e

w e a p p r o a c h t h e exit, b u t I a m on my g u a r d . A tall, p o r t l y m a n ( r a t h e r rich a n d influential) s u d d e n l y leans a g a i n s t t h e wall beside m e , feeling ill. I q u i c k l y g r a b t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to kill t h e official b y s t a b b i n g his h e a r t . " O n e o n l y notices a bit of m o i s t u r e " â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h i s is said like a c o m m e n t . N o w I a m safe, for t h e F r e n c h m a n w o n ' t a t t a c k m e since t h e m a n w h o g a v e h i m his o r d e r s is d e a d . ( P r o b a b l y t h e official a n d t h e successful p o r t l y m a n are the same person, the latter somehow replacing the former.)

different.

A y o u n g m a n w h o h a d a v e r y lively t e m p e r a ment e m b a r k e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n on successful

T h e d e s p e r a d o r e p r e s e n t s t h e o t h e r side of

enterprises, w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e his d r e a m s

the

insisted t h a t h e s h o u l d

r e a c h e d a c o m p l e t e l y d e s t i t u t e s t a t e . H e lies o n

finish

off a p i e c e o f p r i -

vate c r e a t i v e w o r k he h a d b e g u n . T h e

follow-

dreamerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;his

introversion â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

has

a c o u c h ( i . e . h e is p a s s i v e ) a n d p u l l s t h e c o v e r

ing w a s o n e o f t h o s e d r e a m s :

o v e r h i s f a c e b e c a u s e h e w a n t s t o b e left a l o n e .

A m a n is lying o n a c o u c h a n d h a s p u l l e d t h e cover o v e r his face. H e is a F r e n c h m a n , a d e s perado w h o would take on any criminal j o b . An official is a c c o m p a n y i n g m e d o w n s t a i r s , a n d I know t h a t a plot has b e e n m a d e a g a i n s t m e : namely, t h a t t h e F r e n c h m a n s h o u l d kill m e as if by c h a n c e . ( T h a t is h o w it w o u l d look from t h e outside.) H e a c t u a l l y s n e a k s u p b e h i n d m e w h e n

ous portly m a n (who are secretly the s a m e per-

T h e official, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n d t h e p r o s p e r son ) personify t h e d r e a m e r ' s successful o u t e r res p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d activities. T h e s u d d e n illness o f t h e p o r t l y m a n is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e fact t h a t t h i s d r e a m e r h a d in fact b e c o m e ill s e v e r a l t i m e s w h e n h e h a d a l l o w e d his d y n a m i c e n e r g y to e x p l o d e t o o f o r c i b l y in his e x t e r n a l life. B u t t h i s

'7'


s u c c e s s f u l m a n h a s n o b l o o d in h i s v e i n s a sort of m o i s t u r e

only

w h i c h m e a n s that these ex-

t e r n a l a m b i t i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of t h e d r e a m e r c o n t a i n n o g e n u i n e life a n d

no passion, but

are

b l o o d l e s s m e c h a n i s m s . T h u s it w o u l d b e n o r e a l loss if t h e p o r t l y m a n w e r e k i l l e d . A t t h e e n d of t h e d r e a m , t h e F r e n c h m a n is s a t i s f i e d ; h e o b v i ously represents a positive s h a d o w figure

who

had turned negative and dangerous only

be-

c a u s e t h e c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e of t h e d r e a m e r d i d not agree with him. T h i s d r e a m s h o w s us t h a t t h e s h a d o w consist

of

many

different

elements

can

for

in-

s t a n c e , of u n c o n s c i o u s a m b i t i o n ( t h e s u c c e s s f u l p o r t l y m a n ) a n d of i n t r o v e r s i o n

(the

French-

m a n ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m e r ' s association to the French, moreover, was that they know how to h a n d l e love affairs v e r y well. T h e r e f o r e two shadow

figures also r e p r e s e n t

two

the

well-

k n o w n d r i v e s : p o w e r a n d sex. T h e p o w e r d r i v e a p p e a r s m o m e n t a r i l y in a d o u b l e f o r m , b o t h as a n official a n d a s a s u c c e s s f u l m a n . T h e o f f i c i a l , or civil s e r v a n t , personifies c o l l e c t i v e

adapta-

tion, w h e r e a s t h e successful m a n d e n o t e s a m b i tion ; but naturally both serve the p o w e r drive. When

t h e d r e a m e r s u c c e e d s in s t o p p i n g

this

d a n g e r o u s i n n e r f o r c e , t h e F r e n c h m a n is s u d denly

In o t h e r w o r d s ,

the

e q u a l l y d a n g e r o u s a s p e c t of t h e sex d r i v e

no longer hostile.

has

also s u r r e n d e r e d . O b v i o u s l y , t h e p r o b l e m of t h e s h a d o w plays a g r e a t r o l e i n all p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s . If t h e m a n w h o h a d this d r e a m h a d not b e e n sensible a b o u t his s h a d o w p r o b l e m , h e c o u l d e a s i l y h a v e i d e n tified t h e d e s p e r a t e F r e n c h m a n w i t h t h e " d a n g e r o u s C o m m u n i s t s ' ' of o u t e r life, o r t h e official plus the prosperous m a n

with

the

"grasping

c a p i t a l i s t s . " I n this w a y he w o u l d h a v e a v o i d e d seeing that he h a d within

him such

e l e m e n t s . If p e o p l e o b s e r v e t h e i r o w n

warring uncon-

s c i o u s t e n d e n c i e s in o t h e r p e o p l e , t h i s is c a l l e d a " p r o j e c t i o n . " P o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n i n all c o u n t r i e s is full o f s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s , j u s t as m u c h a s the b a c k - y a r d gossip of little g r o u p s a n d i n d i viduals. Projections

of all k i n d s o b s c u r e

our

v i e w o f o u r f e l l o w m e n , s p o i l i n g its o b j e c t i v i t y , and

thus

human

'72

spoiling

all

relationships.

possibility

of

genuine

"For over live years this man has been chasing around Europe like a madman in search of something he could set on lire. Untoitunalely he again and again finds hirelings who open the gates ol their country to this international incendiaiy "


A n d t h e r e is a n a d d i t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e i n

I t w o u l d b e r e l a t i v e l y e a s y if o n e c o u l d i n t e -

projecting o u r s h a d o w . If w e identify o u r o w n

grate the shadow into the conscious personality

shadow with, say, the C o m m u n i s t s or the capi-

j u s t by a t t e m p t i n g to be honest a n d to use o n e ' s

talists, a p a r t o f o u r o w n p e r s o n a l i t y

remains

insight.

But, unfortunately,

such an

attempt

on t h e o p p o s i n g s i d e . T h e r e s u l t is t h a t w e s h a l l

d o e s n o t a l w a y s w o r k . T h e r e is s u c h a p a s s i o n a t e

constantly (though involuntarily) do things he-

d r i v e w i t h i n the s h a d o w y p a r t of oneself t h a t

hind o u r o w n b a c k s t h a t s u p p o r t this o t h e r side,

r e a s o n m a y n o t p r e v a i l a g a i n s t it. A b i t t e r e x -

and thus we shall u n w i t t i n g l y h e l p o u r e n e m y .

perience c o m i n g from

If, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , w e r e a l i z e t h e p r o j e c t i o n a n d

s i o n a l l y h e l p ; a b r i c k , so t o s p e a k , h a s t o d r o p

can discuss m a t t e r s w i t h o u t fear or

o n o n e ' s h e a d to p u t a stop to s h a d o w

dealing with

hostility,

the o t h e r person sensibly,

then

t h e r e is a c h a n c e o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g

or

at l e a s t o f a t r u c e .

the outside m a y

occadrives

a n d impulses. At times a heroic decision serve to halt

them,

but such

a

may

superhuman

e f f o r t is u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e o n l y if t h e C r e a t

W h e t h e r the s h a d o w b e c o m e s o u r friend or e n e m y d e p e n d s largely u p o n ourselves. As the

Man

w i t h i n ( t h e Self) helps t h e i n d i v i d u a l to c a r r y it t h r o u g h .

d r e a m s of t h e u n e x p l o r e d h o u s e a n d t h e F r e n c h

T h e fact t h a t t h e s h a d o w c o n t a i n s t h e o v e r -

d e s p e r a d o b o t h s h o w , t h e s h a d o w is n o t n e c e s -

w h e l m i n g p o w e r of i r r e s i s t i b l e i m p u l s e d o e s n o t

sarily a l w a y s a n o p p o n e n t . I n f a c t , h e is e x a c t l y

mean, however, that the drive should always be

like a n y h u m a n b e i n g w i t h w h o m o n e h a s t o g e t

h e r o i c a l l y r e p r e s s e d . S o m e t i m e s t h e s h a d o w is

along, s o m e t i m e s by g i v i n g in, s o m e t i m e s by r e -

p o w e r f u l b e c a u s e t h e u r g e o f t h e S e l f is p o i n t -

sisting, s o m e t i m e s by g i v i n g love

ing in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n , a n d so o n e d o e s n o t

whatever the

situation requires. T h e s h a d o w becomes hostile

k n o w w h e t h e r it is t h e S e l f o r t h e s h a d o w t h a t

o n l y w h e n h e is i g n o r e d o r m i s u n d e r s t o o d .

is b e h i n d t h e i n n e r p r e s s u r e . I n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ,

S o m e t i m e s , t h o u g h not often, a n

individual

o n e is u n f o r t u n a t e l y i n t h e s a m e s i t u a t i o n a s i n

feels i m p e l l e d t o l i v e o u t t h e w o r s e s i d e o f h i s

a

contents

arc

n a t u r e a n d to r e p r e s s his b e t t e r side. I n s u c h

blurred and merge into one another, and

one

cases t h e s h a d o w a p p e a r s a s a p o s i t i v e

figure

in

his d r e a m s . B u t t o a p e r s o n w h o l i v e s o u t h i s

moonlit

landscape:

All

the

never knows exactly w h a t or where

anything

is, o r w h e r e o n e t h i n g b e g i n s a n d e n d s . ( T h i s is

natural e m o t i o n s a n d feelings, the s h a d o w m a y

k n o w n as t h e " c o n t a m i n a t i o n " of u n c o n s c i o u s

a p p e a r a s a c o l d a n d n e g a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l ; it

contents.)

then personifies poisonous j u d g m e n t s a n d n e g a tive t h o u g h t s t h a t

have been held

whatever

takes,

form

it

back.

the function

of

W h e n J u n g c a l l e d o n e a s p e c t of t h e u n c o n -

So,

scious personality the s h a d o w , he was referring

the

to a relatively well-defined

factor. But

some-

s h a d o w is t o r e p r e s e n t t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e

t i m e s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t is u n k n o w n t o t h e e g o is

ego a n d to e m b o d y j u s t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t o n e

mixed up with the shadow, including even the

dislikes m o s t in o t h e r p e o p l e .

m o s t v a l u a b l e a n d h i g h e s t f o r c e s . W h o , for i n -

Rather t h a n face o u r d e f e c t s as revealed by t h e s h a d o w wepro/ect them o n t o o t h e r s for instance, on t o o u r p o l i t i c a l e n e m i e s A b o v e left, a p o s t e r m a d e for a p a r a d e in C o m m u n i s t C h i n a s h o w s A m e r i c a as an evil s e r p e n t ( b e a r i n g N a z i s w a s t i k a s ) k i l l e d by a C h i n e s e h a n d Left, H i t l e r d u r i n g a s p e e c h ; t h e q u o t a t i o n is his d e s c r i p t i o n of C h u r c h i l l P r o j e c t i o n s also f l o u r i s h in m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p ( r i g h t f r o m the B r i t i s h t e l e v i s i o n series Coronation Street)


A b o v e , the w i l d w h i t e stallion f r o m t h e 1 9 5 3 F r e n c h f i l m Crin Blanc W i l d horses o f t e n s y m b o l i z e t h e uncontrollable instinctive drives that can erupt from the u n c o n s c i o u s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d t h a t m a n y p e o p l e try t o repress. In t h e f i l m , t h e horse a n d a b o y form a strong attachment (though t h e h o r s e still r u n s w i l d w i t h his h e r d ) . B u t local h o r s e m e n set o u t t o c a p t u r e t h e w i l d horses. T h e s t a l l i o n a n d his b o y rider are p u r s u e d for miles; finally they are c o r n e r e d o n t h e seashore. Rather than submit to capture, the b o y a n d t h e horse p l u n g e i n t o t h e sea t o be s w e p t a w a y S y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e s t o r y ' s e n d s e e m s t o represent an e s c a p e i n t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ( t h e sea) as a w a y t o a v o i d f a c i n g reality in t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .


stance, could be quite sure w h e t h e r the F r e n c h

ally

d e s p e r a d o in t h e d r e a m I q u o t e d w a s a useless

w e r e o n t h e i r w a y t o s t e a l it. A s it is, t h e

t r a m p or a most valuable introvert? A n d

saved

it for

its o w n e r s

because

pirates fisher-

the

m e n c a n s a l v a g e it. T h e h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n

bolting horses of t h e p r e c e d i n g d r e a m â&#x20AC;&#x201D; s h o u l d

w a s o n h i s w a y t o c o m m i t a c r i m e , a n d b y kill-

they b e a l l o w e d to r u n free o r n o t ? I n a c a s e

ing him

when the d r e a m

i n f a m y . By r e s t o r i n g t h e w a l l , t w o p i o u s y o u n g

clear,

itself d o e s n o t m a k e

the conscious personality

things

will h a v e

to

make the decision.

K h i d r saved his pious p a r e n t s

from

m e n w e r e saved from ruin because their treas u r e w a s b u r i e d u n d e r it. M o s e s , w h o h a d b e e n

If t h e s h a d o w figure c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e , vital forces, t h e y o u g h t t o b e a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a c t u a l

so m o r a l l y i n d i g n a n t , s a w n o w ( t o o l a t e )

that

his j u d g m e n t h a d b e e n t o o h a s t y . K h i d r ' s d o i n g s

e x p e r i e n c e a n d n o t r e p r e s s e d . I t is u p t o t h e e g o

h a d s e e m e d to b e t o t a l l y evil, b u t in fact t h e y

to g i v e u p its p r i d e a n d p r i g g i s h n e s s a n d t o l i v e

were not.

out s o m e t h i n g t h a t s e e m s to b e d a r k , b u t a c t u ally m a y n o t b e . T h i s c a n r e q u i r e a

sacrifice

just as h e r o i c as t h e c o n q u e s t of p a s s i o n ,

Looking

at

this story

naively,

one

might

a s s u m e t h a t K h i d r is t h e l a w l e s s , c a p r i c i o u s ,

but

evil s h a d o w of p i o u s , l a w - a b i d i n g M o s e s . But

one

sonification of s o m e secret c r e a t i v e a c t i o n s of

in a n o p p o s i t e s e n s e .

t h i s is n o t t h e c a s e . K h i d r is m u c h m o r e t h e p e r -

T h e e t h i c a l difficulties t h a t arise w h e n

the

t h e G o d h e a d . ( O n e c a n find a s i m i l a r m e a n i n g

Moses

in t h e f a m o u s I n d i a n s t o r y of " T h e K i n g a n d

meets K h i d r ( " t h e G r e e n O n e " or "first a n g e l

t h e C o r p s e " as i n t e r p r e t e d b y H e n r y Z i m m e r . )

of G o d " ) i n t h e d e s e r t . T h e y w a n d e r a l o n g t o -

I t is n o a c c i d e n t t h a t I h a v e n o t q u o t e d a d r e a m

meets o n e ' s s h a d o w a r e well d e s c r i b e d in 18th B o o k o f t h e K o r a n .

In this tale

gether, a n d K h i d r expresses his fear t h a t M o s e s

to illustrate this s u b t l e p r o b l e m . I h a v e chosen

will n o t b e a b l e t o w i t n e s s h i s d e e d s

this w e l l - k n o w n story from the K o r a n

without

because

i n d i g n a t i o n . If M o s e s c a n n o t b e a r w i t h h i m a n d

it s u m s u p t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a l i f e t i m e , w h i c h

trust h i m , K h i d r will h a v e to l e a v e .

would very rarely be expressed with such clarity

Presently K h i d r scuttles the

fishing

b o a t of

some p o o r villagers. T h e n , before Moses's eyes, he kills a h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n , a n d

finally

he

in a n i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m . W h e n d a r k figures t u r n u p i n o u r d r e a m s a n d seem

to w a n t s o m e t h i n g , w e c a n n o t be

sure

restores t h e fallen wall of a city of u n b e l i e v e r s .

w h e t h e r t h e y personify m e r e l y a s h a d o w y p a r t of

Moses c a n n o t h e l p e x p r e s s i n g his i n d i g n a t i o n ,

o u r s e l v e s , o r t h e Self, o r b o t h a t t h e s a m e t i m e .

a n d so K h i d r h a s t o l e a v e h i m . B e f o r e h i s d e -

D i v i n i n g in a d v a n c e w h e t h e r o u r d a r k p a r t n e r

p a r t u r e , h o w e v e r , h e e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n s for

symbolizes

his a c t i o n s :

overcome or a meaningful

By s c u t t l i n g

the

boat

he

actu-

T h e s h a d o w c a n be said t o h a v e t w o aspects, one d a n g e r o u s , the other v a l u a b l e T h e p a i n t i n g of t h e H i n d u g o d V i s h n u , far left, i m a g e s s u c h a duality: Usually considered a b e n e v o l e n t g o d , V i s h n u here a p p e a r s in a d e m o n i c a s p e c t , t e a r i n g a m a n apart Left, f r o m a J a p a n e s e t e m p l e ( A D 7 5 9 ) , a s c u l p t u r e of B u d d h a also e x p r e s s e s d u a l i t y : The g o d ' s many arms hold symbols of b o t h g o o d a n d evil R i g h t , t h e d o u b t - s t r i c k e n Martin Luther ( p o r t r a y e d by A l b e r t F i n n e y in t h e 1 9 6 1 p l a y Luther by B r i t a i n ' s J o h n O s b o r n e ) : L u t h e r w a s never sure w h e t h e r his break f r o m t h e C h u r c h w a s i n s p i r e d by G o d or arose f r o m his o w n p r i d e a n d o b s t i n a c y ( i n s y m b o l i c t e r m s , t h e " e v i l " side of his s h a d o w ) .

a

shortcoming

that

we

should

b i t o f life t h a t

we


should accept

t h i s is o n e o f t h e m o s t

difficult

p r o b l e m s t h a t w e e n c o u n t e r on the w a y to individuation.

Moreover, the dream symbols

are

to look to his o w n p r o b l e m a n d try to d e t e r m i n e w h a t is r i g h t for h i m s e l f . A s a n o l d Z e n

Budd-

hist M a s t e r said, w e m u s t follow t h e e x a m p l e

often so s u b t l e a n d c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t o n e c a n -

of t h e c o w h e r d

not b e sure of their i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .

s t i c k s o t h a t it w i l l n o t g r a z e o n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s

In such a

s i t u a t i o n a l l o n e c a n d o is a c c e p t t h e d i s c o m fort o f e t h i c a l d o u b t â&#x20AC;&#x201D; m a k i n g n o final d e c i s i o n s or c o m m i t m e n t s a n d c o n t i n u i n g to w a t c h

w h o w a t c h e s his ox " w i t h

a

meadows." T h e s e n e w discoveries of d e p t h

psychology

the

a r e b o u n d to m a k e s o m e c h a n g e in o u r collective

d r e a m s . T h i s r e s e m b l e s t h e s i t u a t i o n of C i n d e r -

e t h i c a l v i e w s , for t h e y w i l l c o m p e l u s t o j u d g e

ella w h e n h e r s t e p m o t h e r t h r e w a h e a p of g o o d

all h u m a n a c t i o n s in a m u c h m o r e i n d i v i d u a l

a n d b a d p e a s in front of h e r a n d a s k e d h e r to

a n d s u b t l e w a y . T h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e

uncon-

s o r t t h e m o u t . A l t h o u g h it s e e m e d q u i t e h o p e -

s c i o u s is o n e o f t h e m o s t f a r - r e a c h i n g

discov-

less, C i n d e r e l l a b e g a n p a t i e n t l y t o s o r t t h e p e a s ,

eries

a n d s u d d e n l y d o v e s (or a n t s , in s o m e versions)

r e c o g n i t i o n o f its u n c o n s c i o u s r e a l i t y

c a m e to h e l p her. T h e s e c r e a t u r e s

symbolize

of

recent

times.

But

the

fact

that

involves

h o n e s t s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n a n d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of

helpful, deeply unconscious impulses that

can

o n e ' s life c a u s e s m a n y p e o p l e t o c o n t i n u e

to

o n l y b e felt i n o n e ' s b o d y , a s it w e r e , a n d

that

b e h a v e a s if n o t h i n g a t a l l h a s h a p p e n e d .

It

p o i n t to a w a y o u t .

t a k e s a lot of c o u r a g e to t a k e t h e

S o m e w h e r e , right at t h e b o t t o m of o n e ' s o w n being,

one

generally

does

know

where

one

unconscious

s e r i o u s l y a n d t o t a c k l e t h e p r o b l e m s it r a i s e s . Most people a r e too indolent to think

deeply

there

a b o u t e v e n t h o s e m o r a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r b e h a -

a r e times w h e n t h e c l o w n w e call " I " b e h a v e s

vior of w h i c h t h e y a r e c o n s c i o u s ; t h e y a r e cer-

in s u c h a d i s t r a c t i n g fashion t h a t t h e i n n e r v o i c e

tainly too lazy to c o n s i d e r h o w t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

c a n n o t m a k e its p r e s e n c e felt.

affects t h e m .

should go a n d w h a t one should do. But

S o m e t i m e s all a t t e m p t s to u n d e r s t a n d h i n t s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

fail, a n d

the

in s u c h

a

difficulty o n e c a n o n l y h a v e t h e c o u r a g e to d o w h a t seems to be right, while being r e a d y

to

c h a n g e c o u r s e if t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e u n c o n scious s h o u l d s u d d e n l y p o i n t in a n o t h e r d i r e c tion.

It

unusual)

may

also

happen

(although

t h a t a p e r s o n will

find

this

is

it b e t t e r

to

resist t h e u r g e of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , e v e n at t h e p r i c e of feeling w a r p e d by d o i n g so, r a t h e r t h a n d e p a r t t o o far f r o m t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g (This would

human.

b e t h e s i t u a t i o n of p e o p l e

who

h a d t o l i v e o u t a c r i m i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n in o r d e r tf) b e c o m p l e t e l y t h e m s e l v e s . ) T h e strength a n d i n n e r clarity n e e d e d by the e g o in o r d e r secretly

from

to m a k e the

such

Great

a decision

Man,

who

stem appar-

ently does not w a n t to reveal himself too clearly. It m a y b e t h a t t h e S e l f w a n t s t h e e g o t o m a k e a free c h o i c e , o r it m a y b e t h a t t h e Self d e p e n d s on h u m a n

consciousness a n d

its d e c i s i o n s

to

h e l p h i m t o b e c o m e m a n i f e s t . W h e n it c o m e s to s u c h difficult e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s , n o o n e c a n t r u l y j u d g e t h e d e e d s of o t h e r s . E a c h m a n

176

has


The anima: the w o m a n within

Difficult a n d s u b t l e e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s a r e n o t inv a r i a b l y b r o u g h t u p b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h e shadow

itself. O f t e n

another

"inner

figure"

A

particularly

good

example

of h o w

a n i m a is e x p e r i e n c e d a s a n i n n e r prophets

cover a female

o t h e r arctic tribes. S o m e of these e v e n

s c i o u s ; a n d it w i l l b e a m a l e

of his

figure

uncon-

in t h e case

of a w o m a n . O f t e n this s e c o n d s y m b o l i c

figure

in a

m a n ' s p s y c h e is f o u n d i n t h e m e d i c i n e m e n a n d

e m e r g e s . I f t h e d r e a m e r is a m a n , h e w i l l d i s personification

the

figure

(shamans)

among

the

Eskimo

and wear

w o m e n ' s clothes, or have breasts depicted

on

t h e i r g a r m e n t s , in o r d e r to m a n i f e s t t h e i r i n n e r

turns up behind the shadow, bringing up new

feminine side — the side t h a t e n a b l e s t h e m

and

connect with the "ghost l a n d "

different

problems. J u n g

called

and female forms " a n i m u s " a n d

its

male

"anima."

T h e a n i m a is a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l f e m i n i n e

(i.e. w h a t

to we

call t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ) . O n e r e p o r t e d c a s e tells o f a y o u n g m a n w h o

psychological t e n d e n c i e s in a m a n ' s p s y c h e , such

was being initiated by an older s h a m a n

as v a g u e feelings a n d m o o d s , p r o p h e t i c h u n c h e s ,

w h o w a s b u r i e d b y h i m i n a s n o w h o l e . H e fell

r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o t h e i r r a t i o n a l , c a p a c i t y for p e r -

i n t o a s t a t e of d r e a m i n e s s a n d e x h a u s t i o n . coma

he

this

l e a s t — h i s r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I t is n o

emitted

m e r e c h a n c e t h a t in o l d e n t i m e s priestesses (like

needed

the G r e e k Sibyl) w e r e used to f a t h o m t h e d i v i n e

spirit, h e l p e d h i m to p r a c t i c e his difficult

will a n d t o m a k e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e g o d s .

fession b y r e l a t i n g h i m t o t h e p o w e r s of t h e b e -

She

to k n o w

saw

instructed

and

a

woman

In

s o n a l l o v e , f e e l i n g for n a t u r e , a n d — l a s t b u t n o t

light.

suddenly

and

him

later, as his

who

in all

he

protective pro-

T h e a n i m a ( t h e f e m a l e e l e m e n t in a m a l e p s y c h e ) is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d as a w i t c h or a priestess — w o m e n w h o have l i n k s w i t h " f o r c e s of d a r k n e s s " a n d " t h e spirit w o r l d " (i.e. t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ) . Left, a sorceress w i t h imps and d e m o n s (in a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g ) . B e l o w , a s h a m a n of a S i b e r i a n tribe, w h o is a m a n d r e s s e d as a w o m a n — b e c a u s e w o m e n are t h o u g h t t o be m o r e a b l e t o c o n t a c t spirits.

A b o v e , a w o m a n s p i r i t u a l i s t or m e d i u m ( f r o m t h e 1 9 5 1 f i l m The Medium, based o n an o p e r a b y G i a n Carlo M e n o t t i ) . The majority of m o d e r n m e d i u m s are p r o b a b l y w o m e n ; t h e belief is still w i d e s p r e a d t h a t w o m e n are m o r e r e c e p t i v e t h a n m e n to the irrational.

'77


y o n d . S u c h a n e x p e r i e n c e s h o w s t h e a n i m a as

a n i m a is p e r s o n i f i e d b y t h e Q u e e n o f t h e N i g h t

the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a m a n ' s u n c o n s c i o u s .

i n M o z a r t ' s Magic

I n its i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h e c h a r a c t e r of a m a n ' s a n i m a

is a s a r u l e s h a p e d

by

his

the G e r m a n

Flute.)

T h e Greek Sirens or

Lorelei also personify

this

dan-

g e r o u s a s p e c t of t h e a n i m a , w h i c h in this form

m o t h e r . If h e feels t h a t h i s m o t h e r h a d a n e g a -

symbolizes destructive illusion. T h e

tive i n f l u e n c e o n h i m , his a n i m a will often e x -

S i b e r i a n t a l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b e h a v i o r of s u c h a

press

destructive a n i m a :

itself

uncertainty,

in

irritable,

insecurity,

depressed and

moods,

touchiness.

h o w e v e r , h e is a b l e t o o v e r c o m e t h e

(If,

negative

assaults o n himself, t h e y c a n e v e n serve to reinforce his m a s c u l i n i t y . ) W i t h i n t h e soul of s u c h a m a n the negative m o t h e r - a n i m a endlessly repeat

this t h e m e : " I

figure

am

will

nothing.

N o t h i n g m a k e s a n y sense. W i t h o t h e r s it's differe n t , b u t for m e . . .

I enjoy n o t h i n g . "

These

" a n i m a m o o d s " c a u s e a sort of d u l l n e s s , a fear of disease, of i m p o t e n c e , or of a c c i d e n t s . w h o l e o f life t a k e s o n

a sad

and

The

oppressive

aspect. Such dark moods can even lure a m a n to s u i c i d e , in w h i c h c a s e t h e a n i m a b e c o m e s a death

demon.

Cocteau's The femme

film

French fatale.

(A

She

appears

in

this

role

in

figure

a

Orphee. call s u c h milder

an

anima

version

of this

dark

following

O n e d a y a lonely h u n t e r sees a beautiful w o m a n e m e r g i n g from t h e d e e p forest on the o t h e r side of t h e river. S h e w a v e s at h i m a n d sings: O h . c o m e , lonely h u n t e r in t h e stillness of dusk. C o m e , c o m e ! I miss y o u . I miss y o u ! Now I will e m b r a c e y o u . e m b r a c e y o u ! C o m e , c o m e ! M y nest is n e a r , my nest is n e a r . C o m e , c o m e , lonely h u n t e r , now in t h e stillness of dusk. H e t h r o w s oil his clothes a n d s w i m s across the river, but s u d d e n l y she Hies awav in the form "I an owl. l a u g h i n g m o c k i n g l y at h i m . W h e n he tries to swim b a c k to find his clothes, he d r o w n s in t h e cold river. I n this tale the a n i m a symbolizes a n unreal d r e a m of l o v e , h a p p i n e s s , a n d m a t e r n a l w a r m t h (her nest) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a d r e a m t h a t lures m e n a w a y from

T h e a n i m a ( l i k e t h e s h a d o w ) has t w o aspects, benevolent and malefic (or n e g a t i v e ) Left, a s c e n e f r o m Orphee (a f i l m v e r s i o n by C o c t e a u of t h e O r p h e u s m y t h ) : T h e w o m a n c a n be seen as a lethal a n i m a . f o r she has led O r p h e u s ( b e i n g c a r r i e d by d a r k " u n d e r w o r l d ' ' f i g u r e s ) t o his d o o m . A l s o m a l e v o l e n t are t h e Lorelei of T e u t o n i c m y t h ( b e l o w , in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y d r a w i n g ) , w a t e r spirits w h o s e s i n g i n g lures m e n to their death. B e l o w right, a parallel f r o m S l a v o n i c m y t h : t h e Rusalka. These beings were thought to b e spirits of d r o w n e d g i r l s w h o b e w i t c h and d r o w n passing men.

.78


reality. T h e h u n t e r is d r o w n e d b e c a u s e h e r a n after

a

wishful

fantasy

that

could

not

be

fulfilled.

this sort c a n t u r n m e n i n t o sentimentalists, o r they m a y b e c o m e as t o u c h y as old m a i d s or as sensitive as t h e fairy-tale princess w h o c o u l d

A n o t h e r w a y in w h i c h t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a in a man's

personality

waspish,

poisonous,

can

be

revealed

effeminate

is

remarks

in by

feel a p e a u n d e r 3 0 m a t t r e s s e s . A still subtle

manifestation

of

a

negative

more anima

a p p e a r s in s o m e fairy tales in t h e form of a

which h e d e v a l u e s e v e r y t h i n g . R e m a r k s o f t h i s

p r i n c e s s w h o asks h e r suitors to a n s w e r a series

sort a l w a y s c o n t a i n a c h e a p t w i s t i n g o f t h e t r u t h

of riddles or, p e r h a p s , to h i d e t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r

and a r e in a s u b t l e w a y d e s t r u c t i v e . T h e r e a r e

h e r n o s e . I f t h e y c a n n o t g i v e t h e a n s w e r s , o r if

legends t h r o u g h o u t

s h e c a n find t h e m , t h e y m u s t d i e

the

world

in

which

"a

a n d she in-

poison d a m s e l " ( a s t h e y c a l l h e r i n t h e O r i e n t )

v a r i a b l y wins. T h e a n i m a in this guise involves

a p p e a r s . S h e is a b e a u t i f u l

creature who has

m e n in a destructive intellectual g a m e . W e c a n

weapons h i d d e n in h e r b o d y o r a secret poison

n o t i c e t h e effect o f t h i s a n i m a t r i c k i n a l l t h o s e

first

neurotic pseudo-intellectual dialogues that in-

I n t h i s g u i s e t h e a n i m a is a s

hibit a m a n from g e t t i n g into direct t o u c h with

cold a n d r e c k l e s s a s c e r t a i n u n c a n n y a s p e c t s o f

life a n d its r e a l d e c i s i o n s . H e r e f l e c t s a b o u t life

with w h i c h s h e kills h e r l o v e r s d u r i n g t h e i r night t o g e t h e r .

n a t u r e itself, a n d i n E u r o p e is o f t e n

expressed

so m u c h t h a t h e c a n n o t l i v e it a n d loses a l l h i s s p o n t a n e i t y a n d o u t g o i n g feeling.

to this d a y b y t h e b e l i e f i n w i t c h e s . II, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a m a n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f

The

his m o t h e r h a s b e e n p o s i t i v e , t h i s c a n a l s o a f f e c t

anima

his a n i m a in t y p i c a l b u t d i f f e r e n t w a y s , w i t h

m a y be d r i v e n to nurse their fantasies by look-

the r e s u l t t h a t h e e i t h e r b e c o m e s e f f e m i n a t e o r

i n g a t films a n d s t r i p - t e a s e s h o w s , o r b y d a y -

is p r e y e d u p o n b y w o m e n a n d t h u s is u n a b l e

d r e a m i n g o v e r p o r n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l . T h i s is a

to c o p e w i t h t h e h a r d s h i p s o f life. A n a n i m a o f

c r u d e , p r i m i t i v e a s p e c t of t h e a n i m a ,

most

frequent

manifestation

of

takes t h e form of erotic fantasy.

A b o v e , four scenes from the 1 9 3 0 G e r m a n f i l m The Blue Angel, w h i c h concerns a strait-laced professor's i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h a c a b a r e t singer, clearly a negative anima figure T h e girl uses her c h a r m t o d e g r a d e the professor, even m a k i n g him a b u f f o o n in her c a b a r e t act. R i g h t , a d r a w i n g of S a l o m e w i t h t h e h e a d of J o h n t h e B a p t i s t , w h o m s h e h a d k i l l e d t o p r o v e her p o w e r over King Herod

the Men

which


A b o v e , a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y Italian artist S t e f a n o d i G i o v a n n i d e p i c t i n g St. A n t h o n y c o n f r o n t e d by an a t t r a c t i v e y o u n g g i r l . B u t her b a t - l i k e w i n g s reveal t h a t she is a c t u a l l y a d e m o n , o n e of t h e m a n y t e m p t a t i o n s o f f e r e d t o St. A n t h o n y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d a n o t h e r e m b o d i m e n t of t h e deadly anima figure.

A b o v e right, a British cinema poster a d v e r t i s i n g t h e F r e n c h f i l m Eve (1 9 6 2 ) . T h e f i l m is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e x p l o i t s of a femme fatale ( p l a y e d by t h e F r e n c h actress J e a n n e M o r e a u ) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a w i d e l y k n o w n term for the " d a n g e r o u s " w o m e n whose relationships w i t h m e n clearly image t h e n a t u r e of t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a .

T h e f o l l o w i n g is a d e s c r i p t i o n ( t a k e n f r o m t h e p o s t e r a b o v e ) of t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e f i l m (a m e l o d r a m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t o n e t h a t m i g h t fit m a n y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a ) : " M y s t e r i o u s tantalizing â&#x20AC;&#x201D; alluring - w a n t o n but d e e p w i t h i n her b u r n i n g t h e v i o l e n t fires t h a t d e s t r o y a m a n . "

becomes compulsive only w h e n a m a n does not

a c c o m p a n y i n g difficulties. A b e a r a b l e solution

sufficiently c u l t i v a t e his feeling r e l a t i o n s h i p s -

t o s u c h a d r a m a c a n b e f o u n d o n l y if t h e a n i m a

when

is r e c o g n i z e d a s a n i n n e r p o w e r . T h e s e c r e t a i m

his

feeling

attitude

toward

life

has

r e m a i n e d infantile.

of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in b r i n g i n g a b o u t s u c h a n

All t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e a n i m a h a v e t h e s a m e

e n t a n g l e m e n t is t o f o r c e a m a n t o d e v e l o p a n d

t e n d e n c y t h a t w e h a v e o b s e r v e d in t h e s h a d o w :

t o b r i n g h i s own b e i n g t o m a t u r i t y b y i n t e g r a t -

That

i n g m o r e of his u n c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y

is, t h e y c a n

be projected

so t h a t

they

a p p e a r to t h e m a n to b e t h e q u a l i t i e s of s o m e particular

woman.

I t is t h e p r e s e n c e o f

a n i m a that causes a m a n

t o fall s u d d e n l y

l o v e w h e n h e s e e s a w o m a n for t h e

first

the

But I h a v e said e n o u g h a b o u t the negative

in

side of t h e a n i m a . T h e r e a r e j u s t as m a n y i m -

time

a n d k n o w s a t o n c e t h a t t h i s is " s h e . " I n

and

b r i n g i n g it i n t o h i s r e a l life.

portant

positive

aspects.

The

anima

is,

for

this

i n s t a n c e , r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e f a c t t h a t a m a n is

s i t u a t i o n , t h e m a n feels a s if h e h a s k n o w n t h i s

a b l e t o find t h e r i g h t m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r . A n o t h e r

w o m a n i n t i m a t e l y for a l l t i m e ; h e falls for h e r

f u n c t i o n is a t l e a s t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t :

so h e l p l e s s l y t h a t it l o o k s t o o u t s i d e r s l i k e c o m -

e v e r a m a n ' s l o g i c a l m i n d is i n c a p a b l e o f d i s -

plete m a d n e s s . W o m e n w h o a r e of " f a i r y - l i k e "

c e r n i n g facts t h a t a r e h i d d e n in his u n c o n s c i o u s ,

character especially attract such a n i m a projec-

the anima

tions, because m e n c a n a t t r i b u t e almost thing

to a

creature

who

is s o

any-

fascinatingly

v a g u e , a n d c a n thus proceed to w e a v e

fanta-

sies a r o u n d h e r .

helps him

When-

to d i g t h e m o u t .

Even

m o r e v i t a l is t h e r o l e t h a t t h e a n i m a p l a y s i n p u t t i n g a m a n ' s m i n d in t u n e w i t h t h e

right

inner values and thereby opening the way into m o r e p r o f o u n d i n n e r d e p t h s . It is as if a n i n n e r

T h e p r o j e c t i o n of t h e a n i m a in s u c h a s u d -

" r a d i o " b e c o m e s t u n e d to a c e r t a i n w a v e l e n g t h

can

that excludes irrelevancies but allows the voice

greatly disturb a m a n ' s m a r r i a g e a n d can lead

of t h e G r e a t M a n to b e h e a r d . I n e s t a b l i s h i n g

to the so-called

this i n n e r " r a d i o " r e c e p t i o n , t h e a n i m a

d e n a n d p a s s i o n a t e form as a love affair

too

"human

triangle,"

with

its

takes


A m a n ' s stress o n i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m c a n be d u e t o a n e g a t i v e a n i m a — o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d in l e g e n d s a n d m y t h s by t h e f e m a l e f i g u r e w h o asks r i d d l e s t h a t m e n m u s t a n s w e r or d i e . A b o v e , a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y French painting depicts Oedipus a n s w e r i n g the S p h i n x ' s riddle.

Left, a t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w of t h e d e m o n i c a n i m a as an u g l y w i t c h — in a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y G e r m a n w o o d c u t , "The Bewitched Groom "

T h e a n i m a a p p e a r s in c r u d e , c h i l d i s h f o r m in m e n ' s e r o t i c f a n t a s i e s — w h i c h many men indulge through f o r m s of p o r n o g r a p h y . B e l o w , part of a s h o w in a m o d e r n B r i t i s h strip-tease night club.

I8I


In t h e 1 9 5 3 J a p a n e s e f i l m Ugetsu Monogatan, a man comes under the spell of a g h o s t p r i n c e s s ( c e n t e r , a b o v e ) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n i m a g e of a p r o j e c t i o n of t h e a n i m a o n t o a " f a i r y - l i k e " w o m a n , producing a destructive fantasy relationship In Madame Bovary t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y French novelist Flaubert describes a " l o v e m a d n e s s " c a u s e d by an a n i m a p r o j e c t i o n : " B y her c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g moods, sometimes mystical, sometimes gay, n o w talkative, n o w silent, s o m e t i m e s passionate, sometimes superior she k n e w h o w to e v o k e a t h o u s a n d desires in h i m , a thousand instincts and memories S h e w a s t h e b e l o v e d o n e o f all n o v e l s , t h e h e r o i n e of all p l a y s , t h e s h e ' of all p o e m s he h a d e v e r read O n her s h o u l d e r s he f o u n d t h e a m b e r g l o w ' of t h e b a t h i n g O d a l i s q u e ; she h a d t h e l o n g w a i s t of ladies in t h e c h i v a l r i c age; she a l s o l o o k e d like t h e p a l e lady of B a r c e l o n a ' ; b u t she w a s a l w a y s an a n g e l . " Left, E m m a B o v a r y ( i n t h e 1 9 4 9 f i l m of t h e n o v e l ) w i t h her h u s b a n d ( l e f t ) a n d lover.

I

82


on t h e r o l e of g u i d e , o r m e d i a t o r , t o t h e w o r l d w i t h i n a n d t o t h e Self. T h a t is h o w s h e a p p e a r s in t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n s o f s h a m a n s t h a t I d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ; t h i s is t h e r o l e o f B e a t r i c e i n D a n t e ' s Paradiso, dess Isis w h e n Apuleius,

a n d also of t h e g o d -

she a p p e a r e d

the famous

author

in a d r e a m of

The

to

Golden

Ass, i n o r d e r t o i n i t i a t e h i m i n t o a h i g h e r , m o r e s p i r i t u a l f o r m o f life. T h e d r e a m of a 4 5 - y e a r - o l d

psychotherapist

may help to m a k e clear h o w the a n i m a c a n be an i n n e r g u i d e . As h e w a s g o i n g to b e d o n t h e e v e n i n g before h e h a d this d r e a m , he t h o u g h t to h i m s e l f t h a t it w a s h a r d t o s t a n d a l o n e i n life, l a c k i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f a c h u r c h . H e f o u n d himself e n v y i n g p e o p l e w h o a r e p r o t e c t e d

by

the m a t e r n a l e m b r a c e of a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( H e had been b o r n a Protestant b u t n o longer h a d any religious affiliation.)

This w a s his d r e a m :

I a m in t h e aisle of a n old c h u r c h filled w i t h people. T o g e t h e r w i t h m y m o t h e r a n d m y wife, I sit at t h e e n d of t h e aisle in w h a t s e e m to b e extra seats. I a m to c e l e b r a t e t h e M a s s as a priest, a n d I have a b i g M a s s b o o k in m y h a n d s , or, r a t h e r , a p r a y e r b o o k o r a n a n t h o l o g y of p o e m s . T h i s book is not familiar to m e , a n d I c a n n o t find t h e r i g h t text. I a m v e r y e x c i t e d b e c a u s e I h a v e to b e g i n soon, a n d , to a d d to m y t r o u b l e s , m y m o t h e r a n d wife d i s t u r b m e by c h a t t e r i n g a b o u t u n i m p o r t a n t trifles. N o w t h e o r g a n s t o p s , a n d e v e r y b o d y is waiting for m e , so I get u p in a d e t e r m i n e d w a y and ask o n e of t h e n u n s w h o is k n e e l i n g b e h i n d me to h a n d m e h e r M a s s b o o k a n d p o i n t o u t t h e right p l a c e w h i c h s h e does in a n o b l i g i n g m a n ner. N o w , like a sort of s e x t o n , this s a m e n u n p r e cedes m e to t h e a l t a r , w h i c h is s o m e w h e r e b e h i n d me a n d to t h e left, as if w e a r e a p p r o a c h i n g it from a side aisle. T h e M a s s book is like a sheet of pictures, a sort of b o a r d , t h r e e feet l o n g a n d a foot w i d e , a n d on it is t h e text w i t h a n c i e n t p i c tures in c o l u m n s , o n e b e s i d e t h e o t h e r .

M e n project the anima on to things as w e l l as w o m e n . For i n s t a n c e , s h i p s are a l w a y s k n o w n as " s h e " ' above, the female figurehead on the o l d British clipper ship Cutty Sark. T h e c a p t a i n of a s h i p is s y m b o l i c a l l y " h e r " h u s b a n d , w h i c h m a y b e w h y he m u s t (according to tradition) g o d o w n w i t h t h e s h i p if " s h e " s i n k s .

A car is a n o t h e r k i n d of p o s s e s s i o n t h a t is u s u a l l y f e m i n i z e d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i.e. t h a t c a n b e c o m e t h e f o c u s of m a n y m e n ' s a n i m a p r o j e c t i o n s . Like s h i p s , cars are c a l l e d " s h e . ' ' a n d t h e i r o w n e r s caress a n d p a m p e r t h e m ( b e l o w ) like f a v o r i t e m i s t r e s s e s .

First t h e n u n h a s to r e a d a p a r t of t h e l i t u r g y before I b e g i n , a n d 1 h a v e still not found t h e right place in t h e text. S h e h a s told m e t h a t it is N u m ber 15, b u t t h e n u m b e r s a r e n o t c l e a r , a n d I c a n not find it. W i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , I t u r n toward t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , a n d n o w I h a v e found N u m b e r 15 ( t h e n e x t to t h e last o n t h e b o a r d ) , although I d o n o t yet k n o w if I shall b e a b l e to d e c i p h e r it. I w a n t to try all t h e s a m e . I w a k e u p .

I

83


' I l l i s d r e a m e x p r e s s e d in a s y m b o l i c w a y a n a n s w e r from

t h e u n c o n s c i o u s to the

thoughts

that the d r e a m e r had had the e v e n i n g before. It s a i d t o h i m , in e f f e c t : " Y o u y o u r s e l f

must

b e c o m e a priest in y o u r o w n i n n e r c h u r c h the

church

of y o u r

soul."" T h u s

in

the

dream

shows that the d r e a m e r does have the

helpful

s u p p o r t o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n : h e is c o n t a i n e d in a church

not an external c h u r c h but one that

exists i n s i d e his o w n s o u l . The

people

(all h i s o w n

psychic

qualities)

w a n t h i m t o f u n c t i o n as t h e p r i e s t a n d c e l e b r a t e t h e M a s s himself. N o w the d r e a m c a n n o t m e a n t h e a c t u a l M a s s . for its M a s s b o o k is v e r y diff e r e n t f r o m t h e r e a l o n e . It s e e m s t h a t t h e i d e a o f t h e M a s s is u s e d a s a s y m b o l , a n d

therefore

it m e a n s a s a c r i f i c i a l a c t in w h i c h t h e D i v i n i t y is p r e s e n t so t h a t m a n c a n c o m m u n i c a t e

with

it. T h i s s y m b o l i c s o l u t i o n is. o f c o u r s e , n o t g e n erally

valid

dreamer.

but

relates

to

this

particular

It is a t y p i c a l s o l u t i o n for a P r o t e s -

t a n t , b e c a u s e a m a n w h o t h r o u g h r e a l f a i t h is

T w o s t a g e s in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e a n i m a : First, p r i m i t i v e w o m a n ( a b o v e , f r o m a p a i n t i n g by G a u g u i n ) ; s e c o n d , r o m a n t i c i z e d b e a u t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s in t h e i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t , left, o f a R e n a i s s a n c e Italian girl w h o is d e p i c t e d as C l e o p a t r a T h e s e c o n d s t a g e w a s classically e m b o d i e d in H e l e n of T r o y ( b e l o w , w i t h Pans)

184


still c o n t a i n e d in t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h

usually

experiences

of

his

anima

in

the

image

the

C h u r c h h e r s e l f , a n d h e r s a c r e d i m a g e s a r e for him the s y m b o l s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . O u r d r e a m e r did not h a v e this ecclesiastical e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h i s is w h y h e h a d t o f o l l o w a n inner w a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d r e a m told what

he should

do.

It s a i d :

"Your

boundness and your cxtravcrsion by t h e wife w h o is a n c x t r a v e r t

him

mother-

represented distract

a n d m a k e y o u feel i n s e c u r e , a n d b y

you

meaning-

less t a l k k e e p y o u f r o m c e l e b r a t i n g t h e

inner

M a s s . But if y o u f o l l o w t h e n u n ( t h e i n t r o v e r t e d a n i m a . s h e will l e a d y o u a s b o t h a s e r v a n t a n d a priest. She o w n s a s t r a n g e M a s s book w h i c h is c o m p o s e d o f 16

four t i m e s four

ancient pic-

tures. Y o u r M a s s consists of y o u r c o n t e m p l a t i o n of t h e s e

psychic

images

that

your

religious

a n i m a r e v e a l s t o y o u . " ' I n o t h e r w o r d s , if t h e dreamer

overcomes

his

inner

uncertainty,

c a u s e d b y his m o t h e r c o m p l e x , h e will find t h a t his life (ask h a s t h e n a t u r e a n d

q u a l i t y of a

r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e a n d t h a t if h e m e d i t a t e s a b o u t the s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g o f t h e i m a g e s in h i s s o u l , i h c \ will l e a d h i m t o t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n . In t h i s d r e a m t h e a n i m a a p p e a r s in h e r p r o per positive role

t h a t is. a s a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n

the e g o a n d t h e Self. T h e f o u r - t i m e s - f o u r figuration

con-

o f t h e p i c t u r e s p o i n t s t o t h e fact t h a t

t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h i s i n n e r M a s s is p e r f o r m e d

A b o v e , t h e a n i m a ' s t h i r d s t a g e is personified a s t h e Virgin M a r y (in a p a i n t i n g by v a n E y c k ) . T h e red of her r o b e is t h e s y m b o l i c c o l o r of f e e l i n g (or eros): but in t h i s s t a g e t h e eros has b e c o m e s p i r i t u a l i z e d . B e l o w , t w o e x a m p l e s of t h e f o u r t h s t a g e : t h e Greek g o d d e s s of w i s d o m A t h e n a ( l e f t ) , a n d t h e Mona Lisa.

in t h e s e r v i c e o f t o t a l i t y . A s J u n g h a s d e m o n strated,

the n u c l e u s of the p s y c h e

(the

Sell"

n o r m a l l y e x p r e s s e s itself in s o m e k i n d of fourfold s t r u c t u r e . T h e

number

f o u r is a l s o

con-

n e c t e d w i t h t h e a n i m a b e c a u s e , as J u n g n o t e d , t h e r e a r e f o u r s t a g e s in its d e v e l o p m e n t . first s t a g e is b e s t s y m b o l i z e d

The

b y t h e figure of

Eve, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s p u r e l y i n s t i n c t u a l

and

b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e s e c o n d c a n b e s e e n in Faust's H e l e n : S h e personifies a r o m a n t i c a n d a e s t h e t i c l e v e l t h a t is. h o w e v e r , still c h a r a c t e r ized b y s e x u a l e l e m e n t s . T h e t h i r d is r e p r e s e n ted, for i n s t a n c e , b y t h e V i r g i n M a r y who raises love devotion.

The

eros fourth

a

figure

to t h e h e i g h t s of s p i r i t u a l type

is s y m b o l i z e d

by

Sapientia. wisdom transcending even the most holy a n d t h e m o s t p u r e . O f t h i s a n o t h e r s y m b o l is t h e S h u l a m i t e in t h e S o n g o f S o l o m o n . ( I n t h e

'85


psychic d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n m a n this stage

t h e p r o c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e s

is r a r e l y r e a c h e d . I h e M o n a L i s a c o m e s n e a r e s t

t h e s i n g l e r e a l i t y a n d c a n u n f o l d i n its t r u e f o r m .

to such a w i s d o m a n i m a . )

Many

At this s t a g e I a m o n l y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t the concept

of fourfoldness

frequently

occurs

in

examples

from

a n i m a as a g u i d e a n d world:

Francesco

literature

show

m e d i a t o r to t h e

Colonna's

the inner

Hypnerolomachia,

certain types of s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l . T h e essen-

R i d e r H a g g a r d ' s She, o r " t h e e t e r n a l f e m i n i n e "

t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s will b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .

in G o e t h e ' s Faust.

But w h a t d o e s t h e role of t h e a n i m a as g u i d e to the i n n e r w o r l d

mean

in p r a c t i c a l

terms?

an

anima

figure

In a m e d i e v a l mystical text, explains

her

own

nature

as f o l l o w s :

This p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n o c c u r s w h e n a m a n t a k e s seriously the feelings, m o o d s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d f a n t a s i e s s e n t b y h i s a n i m a a n d w h e n h e fixes t h e m in s o m e f o r m

for e x a m p l e , in w r i t i n g ,

painting,

musical

sculpture,

composition,

or

d a n c i n g . W h e n h e w o r k s at this p a t i e n t l y a n d slowly, o t h e r m o r e d e e p l y unconscious m a t e r i a l wells u p from the d e p t h s a n d c o n n e c t s w i t h the e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l . A f t e r a f a n t a s y h a s b e e n fixed in s o m e s p e c i f i c f o r m , it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d b o t h intellectually a n d ethically, with an evaluating f e e l i n g r e a c t i o n . A n d it is e s s e n t i a l t o r e g a r d it

I a m t h e flower of the field a n d t h e lily of the valleys. I a m the m o t h e r of lair love a n d of fear a n d of k n o w l e d g e a n d of holy h o p e . . . . I a m t h e m e d i a t o r of t h e e l e m e n t s , m a k i n g o n e to a g r e e witli a n o t h e r ; t h a t w h i c h is w a r m I m a k e cold a n d t h e r e v e r s e , a n d t h a t w h i c h is d r y I m a k e moist a n d t h e reverse, a n d t h a t w h i c h is h a r d I soften. . . . I a m t h e law in t h e priest a n d the w o r d in t h e p r o p h e t a n d t h e c o u n s e l in t h e wise. I will kill a n d I will m a k e to live a n d t h e r e is n o n e t h a t c a n d e l i v e r o u t of m y h a n d . In the M i d d l e Ages t h e r e took place a per-

as b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y r e a l ; t h e r e m u s t b e n o l u r k -

ceptible

i n g d o u b t t h a t t h i s is " o n l y a f a n t a s y . " " If t h i s

poetical, and other cultural matters; and

is p r a c t i c e d w i t h d e v o t i o n o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d ,

fantasy

spiritual

in

religious,

world of the unconscious was

Left, a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g d o m i n a t e d by t h e s y m b o l i c f i g u r e of t h e a n i m a as m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n this w o r l d (the m o n k e y , probably representing man's instinctual n a t u r e ) a n d t h e next ( t h e h a n d of G o d , reaching from the c l o u d s ) . T h e a n i m a f i g u r e s e e m s t o parallel t h e w o m a n of t h e A p o c a l y p s e , w h o also w o r e a c r o w n of 1 2 stars; antiquity's m o o n goddesses; the Old Testament's Sapientia (the f o u r t h s t a g e of t h e a n i m a , p. 1 8 5 ) ; a n d t h e E g y p t i a n g o d d e s s Isis ( w h o also h a d f l o w i n g hair, a h a l f - m o o n at her w o m b , a n d s t o o d w i t h o n e foot on land and one on w a t e r ) .

R i g h t , t h e a n i m a as m e d i a t o r (or g u i d e ) in a d r a w i n g by W i l l i a m B l a k e : It i l l u s t r a t e s a s c e n e f r o m t h e " P u r g a t o r i o " of D a n t e ' s Divine Comedy, a n d s h o w s B e a t r i c e l e a d i n g Dante along a symbolically tortuous m o u n t a i n p a t h Far r i g h t , f r o m an early f i l m of Rider H a g g a r d ' s n o v e l She, a m y s t e r i o u s w o m a n leads e x p l o r e r s t h r o u g h m o u n t a i n s .

18b

differentiation

the

recog-


nizcd

m o r e clearly t h a n

before.

During

period, the knightly cult of the lady

this

signified

a n a t t e m p t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e f e m i n i n e s i d e of m a n ' s n a t u r e in r e g a r d to t h e o u t e r w o m a n as well a s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n n e r w o r l d . T h e l a d y to w h o s e service the k n i g h t p l e d g e d himself, a n d for w h o m h e p e r f o r m e d h i s h e r o i c deeds, was naturally a personification anima.

of t h e

The n a m e of t h e c a r r i e r of t h e G r a i l ,

in W o l f r a m

v o n E s c h c n b a c h ' s version of t h e

l e g e n d , is e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t :

Conduir-amour

( " g u i d e in love m a t t e r s " ) . S h e t a u g h t t h e h e r o to d i f f e r e n t i a t e

both

his feelings a n d

his b e -

havior t o w a r d w o m e n . L a t e r , h o w e v e r , this ind i v i d u a l a n d p e r s o n a l e f f o r t of d e v e l o p i n g t h e relationship with

the a n i m a

was

abandoned

w h e n h e r s u b l i m e a s p e c t fused w i t h t h e

figure

of t h e V i r g i n , w h o t h e n b e c a m e t h e o b j e c t o f boundless

devotion

and

praise.

When

the

a n i m a , as V i r g i n , w a s c o n c e i v e d as b e i n g allpositive, h e r n e g a t i v e aspects found

expression

in t h e b e l i e f i n w i t c h e s . In C h i n a the is t h e

goddess

figure

p a r a l l e l to t h a t of M a r y

Kwan-Yin.

A

more

popular

A c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the motif of f o u r a n d t h e a n i m a a p p e a r s a b o v e in a p a i n t i n g by t h e S w i s s artist Peter Birkhauser A four eyed anima a p p e a r s as an o v e r w h e l m i n g , t e r r i f y i n g vision The four eyes have a s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e similar t o that of the 1 6 p i c t u r e s in t h e d r e a m q u o t e d o n p. 1 8 3 : T h e y a l l u d e t o t h e f a c t t h a t the anima contains the possibility of a c h i e v i n g w h o l e n e s s . In t h e p a i n t i n g , r i g h t , b y t h e m o d e r n artist S l a v k o , t h e Self is s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e a n i m a b u t still m e r g e d w i t h n a t u r e . T h e p a i n t i n g can be called a " s o u l l a n d s c a p e " : O n t h e left sits a dark-skinned, naked w o m a n the a n i m a . O n t h e r i g h t is a bear, t h e a n i m a l s o u l or i n s t i n c t Near t h e a n i m a is a d o u b l e t r e e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; symbolizing the individuation process in w h i c h t h e i n n e r o p p o s i t e s u n i t e In t h e b a c k g r o u n d o n e at first sees a glacier, but on l o o k i n g closely o n e sees t h a t it is also a f a c e . This face (from w h i c h t h e lifes t r e a m f l o w s ) is t h e Self. It has f o u r eyes, a n d l o o k s s o m e t h i n g like an a n i m a l , b e c a u s e it c o m e s f r o m instinctive nature (The painting thus provides a good example of t h e w a y an u n c o n s c i o u s s y m b o l c a n i n a d v e r t e n t l y f i n d its w a y i n t o a fantasy landscape.)


Chinese

anima-figure

is

the

"Lady

of

the

M o o n , " w h o b e s t o w s t h e gift o f p o e t r y o r m u s i c on her favorites a n d can even give t h e m

im-

m o r t a l i t y . I n I n d i a t h e s a m e a r c h e t y p e is r e p r e sented

by

others;

Shakti,

among

Parvati,

the

Rati,

Moslems

and

she

many

is

chiefly

F a t i m a , t h e d a u g h t e r of M o h a m m e d . W o r s h i p of t h e a n i m a as a n officially r e c o g nized religious figure brings the serious disadv a n t a g e t h a t s h e loses h e r i n d i v i d u a l On

aspects.

t h e o t h e r h a n d , if s h e is r e g a r d e d

as a n

e x c l u s i v e l y p e r s o n a l b e i n g , t h e r e is t h e d a n g e r t h a t , if s h e is p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d , it is o n l y t h e r e t h a t s h e c a n b e f o u n d . T h i s l a t t e r s t a t e of affairs c a n c r e a t e endless t r o u b l e , because

man

becomes either

the victim

o f his

erotic fantasies or compulsively d e p e n d e n t

on

one actual woman. O n l y the painful (but essentially simple) decision to t a k e o n e ' s fantasies a n d feelings seriously c a n at this stage p r e v e n t a c o m p l e t e stagn a t i o n of the i n n e r process of

individuation,

b e c a u s e o n l y in this w a y c a n a m a n

discover

w h a t t h i s figure m e a n s a s a n i n n e r r e a l i t y . T h u s the a n i m a b e c o m e s a g a i n w h a t she originally wasâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the "woman

within," who conveys

v i t a l m e s s a g e s o f t h e Self.

M e d i e v a l E u r o p e ' s idea of "courtly l o v e " w a s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e w o r s h i p of t h e V i r g i n M a r y : L a d i e s t o w h o m k n i g h t s p l e d g e d love w e r e b e l i e v e d t o be as p u r e as t h e V i r g i n ( o f w h o m a typical medieval image w a s t h e d o l l - l i k e c a r v i n g , t o p of p a g e , c. 1 4 0 0 ) . O n a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y s h i e l d , far left, a k n i g h t k n e e l s t o h i s lady, w i t h d e a t h b e h i n d h i m . T h i s i d e a l i z e d v i e w of w o m a n p r o d u c e d an o p p o s i n g v i e w : t h e b e l i e f in w i t c h e s . Left, a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g of a w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t h .

W h e n t h e a n i m a is p r o j e c t e d o n t o an " o f f i c i a l " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , she t e n d s t o fall apart i n t o a d o u b l e a s p e c t , s u c h as M a r y a n d w i t c h Left, a n o t h e r o p p o s i n g d u a l i t y (from a 15th-century manuscript): personifications of the C h u r c h (on the right, identified w i t h M a r y ) a n d of t h e S y n a g o g u e (here identified w i t h the sinful Eve).

88

the


The animus: the man within

T h e m a l e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in

( T h e a n i m u s n e v e r believes in e x c e p t i o n s . ) O n e

woman —the animus

can rarely contradict an animus opinion

exhibits both good and

be-

b a d a s p e c t s , a s d o e s t h e a n i m a in m a n . B u t t h e

c a u s e it is u s u a l l y r i g h t i n a g e n e r a l w a y ; y e t

a n i m u s d o e s n o t so o f t e n a p p e a r i n t h e f o r m o f

it s e l d o m s e e m s t o fit t h e i n d i v i d u a l

a n e r o t i c f a n t a s y o r m o o d ; it is m o r e a p t

I t is a p t t o b e a n o p i n i o n t h a t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e

to

take the form of a h i d d e n " s a c r e d " conviction. When

such

a conviction

is p r e a c h e d

with

a

loud, insistent, m a s c u l i n e voice or i m p o s e d on

situation.

but beside the point. J u s t as t h e c h a r a c t e r of a m a n ' s a n i m a

is

s h a p e d b y h i s m o t h e r , s o t h e a n i m u s is b a s i c a l l y

others by m e a n s of b r u t a l e m o t i o n a l scenes, the

influenced

underlying masculinity

e n d o w s his d a u g h t e r ' s a n i m u s w i t h t h e special

in a w o m a n

is e a s i l y

by a w o m a n ' s

father.

The

r e c o g n i z e d . H o w e v e r , e v e n in a w o m a n w h o is

c o l o r i n g of u n a r g u a b l e , i n c o n t e s t a b l y

outwardly very feminine the a n i m u s can be an

convictions

equally hard, inexorable power. O n e m a y sud-

p e r s o n a l reality of t h e w o m a n

denly

a c t u a l l y is.

find

o n e s e l f u p a g a i n s t s o m e t h i n g in a

w o m a n t h a t is o b s t i n a t e , c o l d , a n d

completely

inaccessible.

father "true"

convictions that never include the herself as she

T h i s is w h y t h e a n i m u s is s o m e t i m e s , l i k e t h e a n i m a , a d e m o n of d e a t h . F o r e x a m p l e , in a

O n e ol t h e f a v o r i t e t h e m e s t h a t t h e a n i m u s

g y p s y f a i r y t a l e a h a n d s o m e s t r a n g e r is r e c e i v e d

r e p e a t s e n d l e s s l y in t h e r u m i n a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d

b y a l o n e l y w o m a n in s p i t e of t h e fact t h a t s h e

of w o m a n g o e s l i k e t h i s : " T h e o n l y t h i n g i n

h a s h a d a d r e a m w a r n i n g h e r t h a t h e is t h e

t h e w o r l d t h a t I w a n t is l o v e — a n d h e d o e s n ' t

king of the d e a d . After he has b e e n w i t h

love m e " ; o r " I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e r e a r e o n l y

for a t i m e , s h e p r e s s e s h i m t o tell h e r w h o h e

two possibilities

r e a l l y is. A t first h e r e f u s e s , s a y i n g t h a t s h e w i l l

and both are equally

bad."

her

A b o v e , J o a n of A r c ( p l a y e d by I n g r l d B e r g m a n in t h e 1 9 4 8 f i l m ) , w h o s e animus — t h e m a l e side of t h e f e m a l e p s y c h e — t o o k t h e f o r m of a " s a c r e d c o n v i c t i o n " R i g h t , t w o i m a g e s of the n e g a t i v e a n i m u s : a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g of a w o m a n d a n c i n g w i t h death; a n d ( f r o m a m a n u s c r i p t c 1500) Hades w i t h Persephone, w h o m he a b d u c t e d t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d .

[89


H e a t h c h f f , t h e sinister p r o t a g o n i s t of t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r E m i l y B r o n t e ' s n o v e l , Wuthenng Heights ( 1 8 4 7 ) , is partly a n e g a t i v e , d e m o n i c a n i m u s figure p r o b a b l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of Emily B r o n t e ' s o w n a n i m u s . In t h e montage above, Heathcliff (played by L a u r e n c e O l i v i e r in t h e 1 9 3 9 f i l m ) c o n f r o n t s Emily (a p o r t r a i t by her b r o t h e r ) ; in t h e b a c k g r o u n d , W u t h e n n g H e i g h t s as it is t o d a y .

T w o e x a m p l e s of d a n g e r o u s a n i m u s f i g u r e s : Left, an i l l u s t r a t i o n ( b y t h e 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h artist G u s t a v e D o r e ) t o t h e folk tale of B l u e b e a r d H e r e B l u e b e a r d w a r n s his w i f e against o p e n i n g a certain d o o r ( O f c o u r s e , she d o e s so and finds t h e c o r p s e s of B l u e b e a r d ' s f o r m e r w i v e s . S h e is c a u g h t , a n d j o i n s her p r e d e c e s s o r s ) R i g h t , a 1 9 t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g of t h e h i g h w a y m a n Claude Duval, w h o once robbed a lady traveler b u t g a v e his b o o t y b a c k o n t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t she d a n c e w i t h h i m by t h e r o a d s i d e

19"


d i e if h e tells h e r . S h e i n s i s t s , h o w e v e r , suddenly

he reveals to h e r

that

h e is

and

trigue, w h i c h get her into a state w h e r e

she

death

e v e n w i s h e s d e a t h t o o t h e r s . ( " W h e n o n e o f us

himself. T h e w o m a n i m m e d i a t e l y dies of fright.

d i e s , I'll m o v e to t h e R i v i e r a , " said a w o m a n

Viewed mythologically, the beautiful

stran-

to h e r

husband

when

she saw

the

beautiful

g e r is p r o b a b l y a p a g a n f a t h e r - i m a g e o r g o d -

M e d i t e r r a n e a n coast

i m a g e , w h o a p p e a r s h e r e as k i n g of t h e d e a d

d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y h a r m l e s s b y r e a s o n ol t h e f a c t

dike

that she said it! I

Hades'

abduction

of P e r s e p h o n e ) .

But

a thought that was ren-

psychologically he represents a p a r t i c u l a r form

By n u r s i n g s e c r e t d e s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , a w i f e

ol t h e a n i m u s t h a t l u r e s w o m e n a w a y f r o m a l l

c a n drive her h u s b a n d , a n d a m o t h e r her chil-

human

d r e n , i n t o illness, a c c i d e n t , or e v e n d e a t h .

relationships

and

especially

from

all

contacts with real m e n . H e personifies a cocoon

she

o f d r e a m y t h o u g h t s , filled w i t h d e s i r e a n d j u d g -

m a r r y i n g â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a d e e p l y h i d d e n f o r m of evil

may

decide

to

keep

the

children

Or

from that

m e n t s a b o u t h o w things " o u g h t to b e , " w h i c h

rarely c o m e s to the surface of the m o t h e r ' s con-

c u t a w o m a n off f r o m t h e r e a l i t y o f life.

scious m i n d . (A n a i v e old w o m a n o n c e said to only

m e , w h i l e s h o w i n g m e a p i c t u r e of h e r son, w h o

as a d e a t h - d e m o n . I n m y t h s a n d f a i r y t a l e s h e

w a s d r o w n e d w h e n h e w a s 2 7 : " I p r e f e r it t h i s

p l a y s t h e role of r o b b e r a n d

w a y ; it's b e t t e r t h a n g i v i n g h i m a w a y to a n -

T h e negative a n i m u s does not a p p e a r murderer.

One

e x a m p l e is B l u e b e a r d , w h o s e c r e t l y kills all his w i v e s in a h i d d e n c h a m b e r .

In this form

the

a n i m u s personifies all t h o s e s e m i c o n s c i o u s , c o l d ,

other

woman.")

A s t r a n g e p a s s i v i t y a n d p a r a l y s i s of a l l feeling, or a d e e p insecurity that can lead

almost

d e s t r u c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t i n v a d e a w o m a n in

to a sense of n u l l i t y , m a y s o m e t i m e s

be

the s m a l l h o u r s , especially w h e n she has failed

r e s u l t of a n u n c o n s c i o u s a n i m u s o p i n i o n . In t h e

to r e a l i z e s o m e o b l i g a t i o n of f e e l i n g . It is t h e n

d e p t h s of t h e w o m a n ' s b e i n g , t h e a n i m u s w h i s -

that she begins to t h i n k a b o u t the family herit-

pers:

age a n d m a t t e r s of t h a t k i n d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a sort of w e b of

t r y i n g ? T h e r e is n o p o i n t i n d o i n g

c a l c u l a t i n g t h o u g h t s , filled w i t h m a l i c e a n d i n -

Life w i l l n e v e r c h a n g e for t h e b e t t e r . "

"You

are

hopeless.

What's

the

the

u s e of

anything.

The a n i m u s is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d as a g r o u p of m e n A n e g a t i v e g r o u p a n i m u s m i g h t a p p e a r as a d a n g e r o u s band of c r i m i n a l s like t h e w r e c k e r s ( a b o v e , in an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y Italian painting) w h o o n c e lured ships o n t o rocks w i t h l i g h t s , k i l l e d s u r v i v o r s , and l o o t e d t h e w r e c k s

â&#x20AC;˘9

1


A f r e q u e n t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e n e g a t i v e g r o u p a n i m u s in w o m e n ' s d r e a m s has b e e n t h e b a n d of r o m a n t i c but d a n g e r o u s o u t l a w s . A b o v e , an o m i n o u s g r o u p of b a n d i t s f r o m t h e 1 9 5 3 B r a z i l i a n f i l m The Bandit. c o n c e r n i n g an a d v e n t u r o u s w o m a n s c h o o l t e a c h e r w h o falls in l o v e w i t h a b a n d i t leader.

B e l o w , an i l l u s t r a t i o n by Fuseli of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Midsummer Night's Dream. T h e fairy q u e e n h a s b e e n c a u s e d ( b y m a g i c ) t o fall in l o v e w i t h a p e a s a n t w h o has b e e n g i v e n an ass's h e a d , also by m a g i c . T h i s is a c o m i c t w i s t o n t h e tales in w h i c h a g i r l ' s l o v e releases a m a n f r o m a m a g i c spell


U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w h e n e v e r o n e of these

per-

T h e sadistic aspect of these t w o

figures

was

sonifications of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s takes possession

w e l l k n o w n t o t h e d r e a m e r , for i n r e a l i t y s h e

o f o u r m i n d , it s e e m s a s if w e o u r s e l v e s a r e h a v -

f r e q u e n t l y suffered b a d a t t a c k s of a n x i e t y d u r -

ing s u c h t h o u g h t s a n d feelings. T h e ego i d e n t i -

ing w h i c h she was h a u n t e d by the t h o u g h t t h a t

fies w i t h t h e m t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e it is u n a b l e

people she loved w e r e in great d a n g e r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; o r even

t o d e t a c h t h e m a n d s e e t h e m for w h a t t h e y a r e .

t h a t t h e y w e r e d e a d . B u t t h e fact t h a t t h e a n i -

O n e is r e a l l y " p o s s e s s e d " b y t h e figure f r o m t h e

m u s f i g u r e i n t h e d r e a m is d o u b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t

u n c o n s c i o u s . O n l y after the possession h a s fallen

t h e b u r g l a r s p e r s o n i f y a p s y c h i c f a c t o r t h a t is

away does one realize with horror that one has

d u a l i n its e f f e c t , a n d t h a t c o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g

said a n d d o n e t h i n g s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d to

quite different from these t o r m e n t i n g thoughts.

one's real thoughts a n d feelingsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that one has

T h e sister of t h e d r e a m e r , w h o r u n s a w a y from

b e e n t h e p r e y of a n alien p s y c h i c factor. Like the a n i m a , the a n i m u s does not merely

t h e m e n , is c a u g h t a n d t o r t u r e d . I n r e a l i t y t h i s sister d i e d w h e n fairly y o u n g . S h e h a d

been

consist of n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s s u c h as b r u t a l i t y ,

artistically gifted, b u t h a d m a d e v e r y little use

recklessness, e m p t y talk, a n d silent, o b s t i n a t e ,

of h e r t a l e n t . N e x t the d r e a m reveals t h a t the

evil i d e a s . H e t o o h a s a v e r y p o s i t i v e a n d v a l u -

veiled burglars are actually disguised

able s i d e ; h e too c a n b u i l d a b r i d g e to t h e Self

a n d t h a t if t h e d r e a m e r r e c o g n i z e s t h e i r

through

( w h i c h a r e h e r o w n ) , t h e y will give u p t h e i r evil

his c r e a t i v e

activity.

The

following

d r e a m of a w o m a n of 4 5 m a y h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e this p o i n t :

artists, gifts

intentions. W h a t is t h e d e e p e r m e a n i n g o f t h e d r e a m ? I t is t h a t b e h i n d t h e s p a s m s o f a n x i e t y t h e r e is

T w o veiled figures c l i m b o n t o t h e b a l c o n y a n d into t h e h o u s e . T h e y a r e s w a t h e d in b l a c k h o o d e d coats, a n d t h e y seem to w a n t to t o r m e n t m e a n d my sister. S h e hides u n d e r t h e b e d , b u t t h e y pull her o u t w i t h a b r o o m a n d t o r t u r e h e r . T h e n it is my t u r n . T h e l e a d e r of t h e t w o p u s h e s m e a g a i n s t the w a l l , m a k i n g m a g i c a l g e s t u r e s before m y face. In t h e m e a n t i m e his h e l p e r m a k e s a sketch o n the w a l l , a n d w h e n I see it, I say (in o r d e r to seem f r i e n d l y ) , " O h ! B u t this is well d r a w n ! " Now s u d d e n l y m y t o r m e n t o r h a s t h e n o b l e h e a d of an artist, a n d he says p r o u d l y , " Y e s , i n d e e d , " and begins to c l e a n his spectacles.

indeed a genuine and mortal danger; but there is a l s o a c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y for t h e

dreamer.

S h e , like t h e sister, h a d s o m e t a l e n t as a p a i n t e r , b u t she d o u b t e d w h e t h e r p a i n t i n g could be a meaningful

a c t i v i t y for h e r . N o w h e r

dream

tells h e r i n t h e m o s t e a r n e s t w a y t h a t s h e m u s t live o u t this talent. If she o b e y s , t h e d e s t r u c tive, t o r m e n t i n g a n i m u s will b e into a creative and meaningful

transformed

activity.

As in this d r e a m , t h e a n i m u s often

appears

as a g r o u p of m e n . I n this w a y t h e u n c o n s c i o u s s y m b o l i z e s t h e fact t h a t t h e a n i m u s r e p r e s e n t s a collective r a t h e r

A b o v e left, t h e s i n g e r Franz Grass in the title role of W a g n e r ' s o p e r a The Flying Dutchman, based o n t h e tale of t h e sea c a p t a i n d o o m e d t o sail a g h o s t s h i p u n t i l a w o m a n ' s love breaks t h e c u r s e o n h i m .

than a personal

B e c a u s e of this c o l l e c t i v e - m i n d e d n e s s

element. women

h a b i t u a l l y r e f e r ( w h e n t h e i r a n i m u s is s p e a k i n g t h r o u g h t h e m ) to " o n e " or " t h e y " or " e v e r y b o d y , " a n d in such c i r c u m s t a n c e s their speech frequently

contains the words " a l w a y s "

"should" and

and

"ought."

A v a s t n u m b e r o f m y t h s a n d f a i r y t a l e s tell o f In many m y t h s a w o m a n ' s lover is a figure of m y s t e r y w h o m she m u s t never try t o see. Left, a late 1 8 t h century e n g r a v i n g of an e x a m p l e from Greek m y t h : T h e m a i d e n P s y c h e , loved by Eros b u t f o r b i d d e n t o try to look at h i m . E v e n t u a l l y she d i d so and he left her; she w a s able t o regain his love o n l y after a l o n g search a n d m u c h s u f f e r i n g .

a prince, t u r n e d by witchcraft into a wild anim a l o r m o n s t e r , w h o is r e d e e m e d b y t h e l o v e of a girl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a process s y m b o l i z i n g t h e m a n n e r in which the a n i m u s becomes conscious. (Dr. Henderson has c o m m e n t e d on the significance

of

this " B e a u t y a n d t h e B e a s t " m o t i f in t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . ) V e r y o f t e n t h e h e r o i n e is n o t

193


a l l o w e d to ask q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h e r m y s t e r i o u s , u n k n o w n lover a n d h u s b a n d ; or she meets him only in t h e d a r k a n d m a y n e v e r look at

him.

T h e i m p l i c a t i o n is t h a t , b y b l i n d l y t r u s t i n g a n d l o v i n g h i m , s h e will b e a b l e

to r e d e e m

her

bridegroom.

succeeds.

She

finally

her

But

this

never

always breaks her promise and

finds

lover a g a i n o n l y after a l o n g , difficult q u e s t a n d much

suffering.

T h e p a r a l l e l i n life is t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s a t t e n tion a w o m a n has to give to h e r a n i m u s p r o b l e m t a k e s m u c h t i m e a n d i n v o l v e s a lot o f suff e r i n g . B u t if s h e r e a l i z e s w h o a n d w h a t

her

a n i m u s is a n d w h a t h e d o e s t o h e r , a n d if s h e faces t h e s e r e a l i t i e s i n s t e a d of a l l o w i n g herself to be possessed, h e r a n i m u s c a n t u r n into a n invaluable inner companion who endows

her

w i t h t h e m a s c u l i n e q u a l i t i e s of initiative, c o u r age, objectivity, a n d spiritual wisdom. T h e a n i m u s , j u s t like t h e a n i m a , e x h i b i t s four s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t . personification

of m e r e

He

first

a p p e a r s as a

physical

power—for

i n s t a n c e , as a n athletic c h a m p i o n or

"muscle

m a n . " I n t h e n e x t s t a g e h e possesses i n i t i a t i v e and

t h e c a p a c i t y for p l a n n e d

action.

third phase, the animus becomes the often a p p e a r i n g as a professor o r

In

the

"word,"

clergyman.

F i n a l l y , in his f o u r t h m a n i f e s t a t i o n , t h e a n i m u s is t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f meaning.

O n this highest

level h e b e c o m e s (like t h e a n i m a ) a m e d i a t o r o f t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h e r e b y life a c q u i r e s new meaning. firmness,

H e gives the w o m a n

spiritual

an invisible inner s u p p o r t that c o m -

p e n s a t e s for h e r o u t e r s o f t n e s s . T h e a n i m u s in his m o s t d e v e l o p e d form s o m e t i m e s

connects

the w o m a n ' s mind with the spiritual evolution

E m b o d i m e n t s of t h e f o u r s t a g e s of t h e a n i m u s : First, t h e w h o l l y physical man — the fictional l u n g l e h e r o T a r z a n ( t o p , p l a y e d by J o h n n y Weismuller). Second, the " r o m a n t i c " m a n — the 19th century British poet Shelley (center l e f t ) : or t h e " m a n of a c t i o n " — A m e r i c a ' s Ernest H e m i n g w a y , w a r h e r o , h u n t e r , etc. T h i r d , t h e bearer of t h e " w o r d " — L l o y d G e o r g e , t h e great p o l i t i c a l orator Fourth, the wise guide to spiritual t r u t h — o f t e n projected on to Gandhi (left).

I'M

A b o v e r i g h t , an I n d i a n m i n i a t u r e of a girl g a z i n g w i t h l o v e at a man's portrait. A w o m a n falling in l o v e w i t h a p i c t u r e ( o r a f i l m star) is c l e a r l y p r o j e c t i n g her a n i m u s o n t o the m a n . The actor R u d o l p h V a l e n t i n o ( r i g h t , in a f i l m m a d e in 1 9 2 2 ) b e c a m e t h e f o c u s of a n i m u s p r o j e c t i o n f o r t h o u s a n d s of w o m e n w h i l e he l i v e d — a n d e v e n a f t e r he d i e d Far r i g h t , part o f t h e i m m e n s e f l o r a l t r i b u t e sent by w o m e n all o v e r t h e w o r l d t o V a l e n t i n o ' s f u n e r a l in 1 9 2 6


of h e r a g e , a n d more

can

thereby make her

receptive than a m a n

to n e w

even

creative

i d e a s . I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t i n e a r l i e r t i m e s w o m e n w e r e used by m a n y n a t i o n s as diviners a n d seers. T h e creative boldness of their positive a n i m u s at times expresses t h o u g h t s

and

ideas t h a t s t i m u l a t e m e n to n e w enterprises. T h e "inner m a n " within a w o m a n ' s psyche c a n lead to m a r i t a l troubles similar to

those

m e n t i o n e d in t h e s e c t i o n o n t h e a n i m a .

What

m a k e s t h i n g s e s p e c i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e possession of o n e p a r t n e r by the a n i m u s (or a n i m a )

m a y automatically exert such

an

i r r i t a t i n g effect u p o n t h e o t h e r t h a t h e (or she) becomes

possessed

too.

Animus

and

anima

a l w a y s t e n d to d r a g c o n v e r s a t i o n d o w n to a v e r y low level a n d to p r o d u c e a d i s a g r e e a b l e , irascible, emotional a t m o s p h e r e . As I m e n t i o n e d before, t h e positive side of the a n i m u s c a n personify a n e n t e r p r i s i n g spirit, c o u r a g e , t r u t h f u l n e s s , a n d in t h e h i g h e s t f o r m , spiritual profundity.

Through

him a

woman

c a n e x p e r i e n c e t h e u n d e r l y i n g processes of h e r cultural a n d personal objective situation, and c a n find h e r w a y t o a n i n t e n s i f i e d s p i r i t u a l a t t i t u d e t o life. T h i s n a t u r a l l y p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t h e r a n i m u s ceases to represent opinions t h a t

are

above

the

criticism.

The

woman

must

find

c o u r a g e a n d inner b r o a d m i n d e d n e s s to question the sacredness of h e r o w n convictions.

Only

t h e n will s h e b e a b l e to t a k e in t h e s u g g e s t i o n s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , especially w h e n t h e y c o n t r a d i c t h e r a n i m u s o p i n i o n s . O n l y t h e n will the manifestations of the Self get t h r o u g h to her, a n d will s h e b e a b l e c o n s c i o u s l y to u n d e r s t a n d their meaning.


The Self: symbols of totality

If a n i n d i v i d u a l h a s wrestled seriously e n o u g h a n d long e n o u g h w i t h the a n i m a (or a n i m u s ) p r o b l e m s o t h a t h e , o r s h e , is n o l o n g e r p a r t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h it, t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a g a i n c h a n g e s its d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r a n d a p p e a r s i n a n e w s y m b o l i c f o r m , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Self, t h e i n n e r m o s t n u c l e u s of t h e p s y c h e . I n t h e d r e a m s of a w o m a n t h i s c e n t e r is u s u a l l y p e r s o n i f i e d a s a superior female figure—a

priestess, sorceress,

e a r t h m o t h e r , or g o d d e s s of n a t u r e or love. I n t h e case of a m a n , it m a n i f e s t s itself as a m a s culine initiator a n d g u a r d i a n (an I n d i a n

guru),

a wise o l d m a n , a s p i r i t of n a t u r e , a n d so f o r t h . T w o folk t a l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e t h a t s u c h figure

c a n p l a y . T h e first is a n A u s t r i a n

left h e r , she visits a little h o u s e n e a r t h e M o o n G h o s t ' s m a n s i o n . T h e r e s h e finds a tiny w o m a n c l o t h e d in t h e " i n t e s t i n a l m e m b r a n e of t h e b e a r d e d seal," w h o warns the heroine against the S p i r i t of t h e M o o n , s a y i n g t h a t h e p l a n s to kill h e r . (It a p p e a r s t h a t h e is a killer of w o m e n , a sort of B l u e b e a r d . ) T h e tiny w o m a n fashions a l o n g r o p e b y m e a n s of w h i c h t h e girl c a n d e s c e n d to e a r t h a t t h e t i m e of t h e n e w m o o n , w h i c h is t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e little w o m a n c a n w e a k e n t h e M o o n S p i r i t . T h e girl c l i m b s d o w n , b u t w h e n she a r r i v e s o n e a r t h , she does n o t o p e n h e r eyes as q u i c k l y as t h e little w o m a n told h e r to. Because of this, she is t u r n e d i n t o a s p i d e r a n d c a n n e v e r become h u m a n again.

a

tale:

As w e h a v e n o t e d , t h e d i v i n e m u s i c i a n in t h e first

A k i n g h a s o r d e r e d soldiers to k e e p t h e n i g h t w a t c h beside t h e c o r p s e of a b l a c k princess, w h o h a s b e e n b e w i t c h e d . E v e r y m i d n i g h t s h e rises a n d kills t h e g u a r d . A t last o n e soldier, w h o s e t u r n it is to s t a n d g u a r d , d e s p a i r s a n d r u n s a w a y i n t o the woods. T h e r e he meets an "old guitarist who is o u r L o r d H i m s e l f . " T h i s old m u s i c i a n tells h i m w h e r e to h i d e in t h e c h u r c h a n d i n s t r u c t s h i m o n h o w to b e h a v e so t h a t t h e b l a c k princess c a n not get h i m . W i t h this d i v i n e h e l p t h e soldier a c t u a l l y m a n a g e s to r e d e e m t h e princess a n d m a r r y her. C l e a r l y , " t h e o l d g u i t a r i s t w h o is o u r L o r d H i m s e l f " is, i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , a s y m b o l i c p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Self. W i t h h i s h e l p t h e e g o a v o i d s d e s t r u c t i o n a n d is a b l e t o o v e r c o m e —a n d even redeem — a highly dangerous aspect of his a n i m a . I n a w o m a n ' s p s y c h e , as I h a v e said, t h e Self a s s u m e s f e m i n i n e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s is i l l u s trated in t h e second story, a n E s k i m o tale: A lonely girl w h o h a s b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d in love m e e t s a w i z a r d t r a v e l i n g in a c o p p e r b o a t . H e is t h e " S p i r i t of t h e M o o n , " w h o h a s g i v e n all t h e a n i m a l s to m a n k i n d a n d w h o also bestows luck in h u n t i n g . H e a b d u c t s t h e girl to t h e h e a v e n l y r e a l m . O n c e , w h e n t h e S p i r i t of t h e M o o n h a s i g6

t a l e is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e " w i s e o l d

m a n , " a t y p i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Self. H e is a k i n

to the sorcerer

Merlin

of

medieval

l e g e n d o r to t h e G r e e k g o d H e r m e s . T h e little w o m a n i n h e r s t r a n g e m e m b r a n e - c l o t h i n g is a parallel

figure,

symbolizing

the

Self

as

it

a p p e a r s in the feminine psyche. T h e old musician saves t h e h e r o from t h e destructive a n i m a , a n d t h e little w o m a n p r o t e c t s t h e girl a g a i n s t t h e E s k i m o " B l u e b e a r d " ( w h o is, i n t h e f o r m o f the M o o n Spirit, h e r a n i m u s ) . I n this case, h o w ever, things go w r o n g — a point t h a t I shall take u p later. T h e Self, h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t a l w a y s t a k e t h e form of a wise old m a n o r wise old

woman.

These paradoxical personifications are attempts t o e x p r e s s s o m e t h i n g t h a t is n o t e n t i r e l y c o n tained

in

time—something

simultaneously

y o u n g a n d old. T h e d r e a m of a

middle-aged

m a n s h o w s t h e Self a p p e a r i n g as a y o u n g m a n : C o m i n g from t h e street, a y o u t h r o d e d o w n into our garden. (There were no bushes a n d no fence as t h e r e a r e in real life, a n d t h e g a r d e n lay o p e n . ) I d i d n o t q u i t e k n o w if h e c a m e o n p u r pose, or if t h e horse c a r r i e d h i m h e r e a g a i n s t his will. I stood on t h e p a t h t h a t leads to m y s t u d i o a n d w a t c h e d t h e a r r i v a l w i t h g r e a t p l e a s u r e . T h e sight


The S e l f — t h e i n n e r c e n t e r of t h e total p s y c h e — is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d in d r e a m s as a s u p e r i o r h u m a n figure T o w o m e n , t h e Self m i g h t appear as a w i s e a n d p o w e r f u l goddess — l i k e the ancient Greek mother g o d d e s s D e m e t e r ( r i g h t , s h o w n w i t h her s o n T r i p t o l e m u s and d a u g h t e r Kore. in a f i f t h century-B.c. relief). The "fairy g o d m o t h e r " of m a n y tales is also a s y m b o l i c p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e female Self: a b o v e . C i n d e r e l l a ' s godmother (from an illustration by G u s t a v e D o r e ) . B e l o w , a h e l p f u l old w o m a n ( a l s o a fairy g o d m o t h e r ) rescues a girl in an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a Hans C h r i s t i a n A n d e r s e n tale

1(

>7


P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of t h e Self in m e n ' s dreams often take the f o r m o f "wise o l d m e n . " Far left, t h e magician Merlin of the Arthurian legends (in a 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y English m a n u s c r i p t ) C e n t e r , a guru ( w i s e m a n ) f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y I n d i a n p a i n t i n g . Left, a w i n g e d o l d m a n like t h i s a p p e a r e d in o n e of Dr. J u n g ' s o w n d r e a m s c a r r y i n g k e y s : a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. J u n g he r e p r e s e n t e d "superior i n s i g h t . "

T h o m a s S u l l y . W a s h i n g t o n at t h e Passage of the Delaware. Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

T h e Self u s u a l l y a p p e a r s in d r e a m s at c r u c i a l t i m e s in t h e d r e a m e r ' s l i f e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t u r n i n g p o i n t s w h e n his basic a t t i t u d e s a n d w h o l e w a y of life are c h a n g i n g T h e c h a n g e itself is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by t h e a c t i o n o f c r o s s i n g w a t e r . A b o v e , an a c t u a l river c r o s s i n g t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d an i m p o r t a n t u p h e a v a l : G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n ' s c r o s s i n g of t h e D e l a w a r e River d u r i n g t h e A m e r i c a n Revolution (ina 19th-century A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g ) . Left, a n o t h e r major event that involved crossing w a t e r : t h e first a t t a c k l a u n c h e d against the N o r m a n d y beaches o n D-day, J u n e 1944

1 8 9


T h e Self Is n o t a l w a y s p e r s o n i f i e d as a s u p e r i o r old p e r s o n . Left, a p a i n t i n g ( o f a d r e a m ) by Peter B i r k h a u s e r , in w h i c h t h e Self a p p e a r s as a m a r v e l o u s y o u t h . W h i l e t h e artist w a s w o r k i n g o n the p a i n t i n g , other associations and ideas c a m e u p f r o m his u n c o n s c i o u s T h e r o u n d o b j e c t like a s u n b e h i n d t h e y o u t h is a s y m b o l o f t o t a l i t y , a n d t h e b o y ' s f o u r a r m s recall o t h e r " f o u r f o l d " symbols that characterize p s y c h o l o g i c a l w h o l e n e s s . Before the b o y ' s h a n d s h o v e r s a f l o w e r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s if he n e e d o n l y raise his h a n d s a n d a m a g i c a l f l o w e r w i l l a p p e a r . H e is b l a c k b e c a u s e of his n o c t u r n a l (i.e. unconscious) origin.

of the b o y o n his b e a u t i f u l horse i m p r e s s e d m e deeply. T h e horse w a s a s m a l l , w i l d , powerful a n i m a l , a symbol of e n e r g y (it r e s e m b l e d a b o a r ) , a n d it had a thick, bristly, s i l v e r y - g r a y c o a t . T h e b o y rode past m e b e t w e e n t h e s t u d i o a n d h o u s e , j u m p e d off his h o r s e , a n d led h i m carefully a w a y so t h a t h e w o u l d n o t t r a m p l e o n t h e flower b e d with its beautiful r e d a n d o r a n g e tulips. T h e flower b e d h a d b e e n n e w l y m a d e a n d p l a n t e d by my wife fa d r e a m o c c u r r e n c e ) .

" I d i o t ! " I yelled o u t . O n t h e o t h e r side of t h e r i v e r t h r e e little girls w e r e p l a y i n g , a n d o n e of t h e m s t r e t c h e d o u t h e r h a n d as if to h e l p m e . I t h o u g h t t h a t h e r small h a n d w a s n o t s t r o n g e n o u g h to h e l p m e , b u t w h e n I took it, she succ e e d e d , w i t h o u t t h e slightest effort, in p u l l i n g m e across a n d u p t h e b a n k on t h e o t h e r side.

The

dreamer

is

a

religious

person,

but

a c c o r d i n g t o h e r d r e a m s h e c a n n o t r e m a i n in t h e C h u r c h ( P r o t e s t a n t ) a n y l o n g e r ; in fact, s h e

T h i s y o u t h s i g n i f i e s t h e Self, a n d w i t h it r e n e w a l o f life, a c r e a t i v e elan vital,

and a

new

spiritual o r i e n t a t i o n b y m e a n s of w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g b e c o m e s full o f life a n d e n t e r p r i s e . If a m a n d e v o t e s h i m s e l f t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s of his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s , it c a n b e s t o w t h i s gift,

s e e m s t o h a v e lost t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e n t e r i n g it, a l t h o u g h s h e t r i e s t o k e e p t h e a c c e s s t o it a s c l e a n as she c a n . A c c o r d i n g to t h e d r e a m , s h e m u s t n o w cross a s t a g n a n t river, a n d this i n d i cates

that

the

flow

of

life

b e c a u s e of t h e u n r e s o l v e d

is s l o w e d

religious

down

problem.

( C r o s s i n g a r i v e r is a f r e q u e n t s y m b o l i c i m a g e

so t h a t s u d d e n l y life, w h i c h h a s b e e n s t a l e a n d

for a f u n d a m e n t a l

dull, t u r n s i n t o a r i c h , u n e n d i n g i n n e r a d v e n -

s t u d e n t was i n t e r p r e t e d by the d r e a m e r herself

t u r e , full o f c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n a w o m a n ' s

as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a t h o u g h t t h a t she h a d

psychology, this s a m e youthful

personification

p r e v i o u s l y h a d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; n a m e l y , t h a t s h e m i g h t satisfy

of t h e S e l f c a n a p p e a r a s a s u p e r n a t u r a l l y g i f t e d

her spiritual y e a r n i n g by a t t e n d i n g high school.

girl. T h e d r e a m e r i n t h i s i n s t a n c e is a w o m a n

O b v i o u s l y t h e d r e a m d o e s n o t t h i n k m u c h of

in h e r l a t e f o r t i e s :

this p l a n . W h e n

c h a n g e of attitude.)

she d a r e s to cross t h e

The

river

a l o n e , a personification of t h e Self (the girl), I stood in front of a c h u r c h a n d w a s w a s h i n g the p a v e m e n t w i t h w a t e r . T h e n I r a n d o w n t h e street j u s t a t t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e s t u d e n t s from the high school w e r e let o u t . I c a m e to a s t a g n a n t river across w h i c h a b o a r d o r t r e e t r u n k h a d b e e n laid; b u t w h e n I w a s a t t e m p t i n g to w a l k across, a m i s c h i e v o u s s t u d e n t b o u n c e d o n t h e b o a r d so that it c r a c k e d a n d I n e a r l y fell i n t o t h e w a t e r .

small but s u p e r n a t u r a l l y powerful, helps her. But

the form

of a h u m a n

being,

whether

y o u t h f u l o r o l d , is o n l y o n e o f t h e m a n y in w h i c h

t h e Self c a n

appear

ways

in d r e a m s

or

v i s i o n s . T h e v a r i o u s a g e s it a s s u m e s s h o w n o t o n l y t h a t it is w i t h u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e o f life, b u t

also t h a t

it e x i s t s b e y o n d

the

con-

199


M a n y people today personify the Self in t h e i r d r e a m s as p r o m i n e n t public figures J u n g i a n psychologists f i n d t h a t , in m e n ' s d r e a m s . Dr. A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r (far left) a n d Sir W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ( l e f t ) o f t e n a p p e a r ; in w o m e n ' s d r e a m s , Eleanor R o o s e v e l t ( r i g h t ) a n d Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h II (far r i g h t , a p o r t r a i t o n an A f r i c a n h o u s e ) .

sciously realized

flow

o f life â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w h i c h

is

what

c r e a t e s o u r e x p e r i e n c e of t i m e .

W e h a v e a l r e a d y seen that symbolic structures t h a t s e e m to refer to t h e process of indi-

J u s t a s t h e S e l f is n o t e n t i r e l y c o n t a i n e d

in

v i d u a t i o n t e n d to b e b a s e d o n t h e m o t i f of the

o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of t i m e (in o u r s p a c e -

number

t i m e d i m e n s i o n ) , it is a l s o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o m n i -

consciousness, or the four stages of the

anima

p r e s e n t . M o r e o v e r , it a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y i n a

or animus.

cosmic

form that hints at a special o m n i p r e s e n c e ; that

s h a p e of P ' a n K u . O n l y u n d e r specific c i r c u m -

is, it m a n i f e s t s

stances

itself as a g i g a n t i c ,

symbolic

h u m a n being w h o embraces and contains the

four

such

as t h e four

It r e a p p e a r s

do

other

here

functions

in t h e

combinations

of

of

numbers

a p p e a r in t h e p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l . T h e n a t u r a l u n -

w h o l e c o s m o s . W h e n this i m a g e t u r n s u p in t h e

hampered

d r e a m s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , w e m a y h o p e for a

characterized by fourfoldness-

manifestations

of

the

center

are

c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n to his conflict, b e c a u s e

now

h a v i n g four divisions, or s o m e o t h e r s t r u c t u r e

t h a t is t o s a y , b y

the

d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e n u m e r i c a l s e r i e s o f 4 , 8, 16,

w h o l e b e i n g is c o n d e n s e d i n t o o n e n e s s ) i n o r d e r

a n d so o n . N u m b e r 16 p l a y s a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m -

to o v e r c o m e t h e difficulty.

p o r t a n t r o l e , s i n c e it is c o m p o s e d o f f o u r f o u r s .

t h e v i t a l p s y c h i c c e n t e r is a c t i v a t e d

(i.e.

I t is n o w o n d e r t h a t t h i s f i g u r e o f t h e C o s m i c Man

appears

in

many

myths

and

religious

I n o u r W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n , s i m i l a r i d e a s of a C o s m i c M a n h a v e a t t a c h e d themselves to the

t e a c h i n g s . G e n e r a l l y h e is d e s c r i b e d a s s o m e -

s y m b o l of A d a m ,

thing

Jewish legend that when God created

Adam,

helpful as t h e

and

positive.

Persian

Hindu Purusha. This

He

appears

Gayomart, figure

as

or as

the

m a y even be de-

s c r i b e d as t h e basic p r i n c i p l e of t h e w h o l e w o r l d .

t h e F i r s t M a n . T h e r e is a Adam,

h e first g a t h e r e d r e d , b l a c k , w h i t e , a n d y e l l o w d u s t from t h e four c o r n e r s of t h e w o r l d ,

and

t h u s A d a m " r e a c h e d from o n e e n d of t h e w o r l d

T h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e , for i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h t t h a t

to t h e o t h e r . " W h e n h e b e n t d o w n , his h e a d

before a n y t h i n g w h a t e v e r was created,

was

there

w a s a colossal d i v i n e m a n called P ' a n K u

who

gave heaven a n d earth their form. W h e n

in

the

According

East to

and

his

feet

another Jewish

in

the

West.

tradition,

the

he

w h o l e o f m a n k i n d w a s c o n t a i n e d in A d a m f r o m

c r i e d , his tears m a d e t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r a n d t h e

the b e g i n n i n g , w h i c h m e a n t t h e soul of every-

Yangtze River; when he breathed, the

wind

body

who would

ever be born. T h e

soul

of

rose; w h e n he spoke, t h u n d e r was loosed; and

A d a m , t h e r e f o r e , w a s " l i k e t h e wick of a l a m p

w h e n he looked a r o u n d , lightning

composed

flashed.

w a s in a g o o d m o o d , t h e w e a t h e r w a s

If h e

of i n n u m e r a b l e

strands."

In

this

if

s y m b o l t h e i d e a of a t o t a l o n e n e s s of all h u m a n

h e w a s s a d , it c l o u d e d o v e r . W h e n h e d i e d , h e

e x i s t e n c e , b e y o n d a l l i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s , is c l e a r l y

fell a p a r t ,

expressed.

and

from

his b o d y

the

fine;

five

holy

m o u n t a i n s of C h i n a s p r a n g i n t o existence. His head became the T'ai mountain

in t h e

East,

In

ancient

Man

called

Persia,

the s a m e original

G a y o m a r t â&#x20AC;&#x201D; was

depicted

First as

a

his t r u n k b e c a m e t h e S u n g m o u n t a i n in t h e c e n -

h u g e figure e m i t t i n g l i g h t . W h e n h e d i e d , e v e r y

ter, his r i g h t a r m t h e H e n g m o u n t a i n in

k i n d of m e t a l s p r a n g from his b o d y , a n d

the

from

N o r t h , h i s left a r m t h e H e n g m o u n t a i n i n t h e

h i s s o u l c a m e g o l d . H i s s e m e n fell u p o n

S o u t h , a n d h i s feet t h e H u a m o u n t a i n in t h e

e a r t h , a n d f r o m it c a m e t h e first h u m a n c o u p l e

West. His eyes b e c a m e the sun a n d

in t h e f o r m o f t w o r h u b a r b s h r u b s . I t is s t r i k i n g

2 0 0

moon.

the


Cosmic M a n the gigantic, alle m b r a c i n g figure that personifies and c o n t a i n s the entire u n i v e r s e — i s a c o m m o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e Self in m y t h s a n d d r e a m s . Left, t h e title p a g e of Leviathan, b y t h e 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y English philosopher T h o m a s Hobbes. T h e g i g a n t i c f i g u r e of L e v i a t h a n is m a d e u p of all t h e p e o p l e o f t h e " c o m m o n w e a l t h " — H o b b e s ' s ideal s o c i e t y , in w h i c h t h e p e o p l e c h o o s e t h e i r o w n c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y (or "sovereign," hence Leviathan's c r o w n , s w o r d , and scepter). A b o v e , t h e c o s m i c f i g u r e of a n c i e n t C h i n a ' s P a n K u — s h o w n c o v e r e d in leaves t o i n d i c a t e t h a t C o s m i c M a n (or First M a n ) s i m p l y e x i s t e d , like a p l a n t , g r o w n in nature. B e l o w , o n a leaf f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y Indian illuminated manuscript, the Cosmic Lion Goddess h o l d i n g the s u n ( t h e l i o n is m a d e u p of m a n y people and animals)

201


o l d I n d i a , t h i s f i g u r e is k n o w n a s t h e P u r u s h a , a name

that

son." The

simply

Purusha

means

"man"

lives w i t h i n

or

"per-

the heart

of

every i n d i v i d u a l , a n d yet at the s a m e t i m e he fills t h e e n t i r e c o s m o s . A c c o r d i n g to t h e t e s t i m o n y of m a n y m y t h s , t h e C o s m i c M a n is n o t o n l y t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t also the

final

g o a l o f a l l life

o f t h e w h o l e of

c r e a t i o n . " A l l c e r e a l n a t u r e m e a n s w h e a t , all treasure

nature

means

gold,

all

generation

m e a n s m a n , " says the m e d i e v a l sage

Meister

E c k h a r t . A n d if o n e l o o k s a t t h i s f r o m a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , it is c e r t a i n l y s o .

The

w h o l e i n n e r p s y c h i c r e a l i t y of e a c h

individual

is u l t i m a t e l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d

archetypal

this

s y m b o l o f t h e Self. In p r a c t i c a l t e r m s this m e a n s t h a t t h e existe n c e of h u m a n b e i n g s will n e v e r b e satisfactorily e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of i s o l a t e d i n s t i n c t s o r p u r posive m e c h a n i s m s u c h as h u n g e r , p o w e r , sex, s u r v i v a l , p e r p e t u a t i o n of t h e species, a n d so on. T h a t is, m a n ' s m a i n p u r p o s e is n o t t o e a t , d r i n k , e t c . , b u t lo be human.

Above and beyond

these

drives, o u r i n n e r psychic reality serves to m a n i fest a l i v i n g m y s t e r y t h a t c a n b e e x p r e s s e d o n l y depicted

b y a s y m b o l , a n d for its e x p r e s s i o n t h e u n c o n -

c o v e r e d b y l e a v e s l i k e a p l a n t . P e r h a p s t h i s is

s c i o u s often c h o o s e s t h e p o w e r f u l i m a g e of t h e

b e c a u s e t h e F i r s t M a n w a s t h o u g h t o f a s a self-

Cosmic

that the Chinese P'an

K u w a s also

Man.

g r o w n , living unit that just existed w i t h o u t a n y

In o u r W e s t e r n civilization the Cosmic M a n

a n i m a l i m p u l s e o r self-will. A m o n g a g r o u p of

has b e e n identified to a g r e a t e x t e n t w i t h Christ,

p e o p l e w h o live o n

a n d in t h e E a s t w i t h K r i s h n a o r w i t h

t h e b a n k s of t h e

Tigris.

Buddha.

A d a m is s t i l l , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , w o r s h i p e d a s

I n the O l d T e s t a m e n t this s a m e s y m b o l i c

figure

the hidden "super-soul" or mystical "protective

t u r n s u p as the " S o n

later

s p i r i t " of t h e e n t i r e h u m a n r a c e . T h e s e p e o p l e

Jewish

say t h a t he c a m e from a d a t e p a l m

C e r t a i n religious m o v e m e n t s of late a n t i q u i t y

another

r e p e t i t i o n of t h e p l a n t motif.

mysticism

of M a n "

is c a l l e d

and

Adam

in

Kadmon.

simply called him A n t h r o p o s (the Greek word

In t h e East, a n d in s o m e gnostic circles in t h e

for m a n ) . L i k e a l l s y m b o l s t h i s i m a g e p o i n t s t o

West, people soon recognized that the Cosmic M a n was more an inner psychic image than a concrete

outer

reality.

According

to

Hindu

t r a d i t i o n , for i n s t a n c e , h e is s o m e t h i n g t h a t l i v e s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l h u m a n b e i n g a n d is t h e o n l y p a r t t h a t is i m m o r t a l . T h i s i n n e r M a n redeems the individual by leading

Great him

o u t o f c r e a t i o n a n d its s u f f e r i n g s , b a c k i n t o h i s original e t e r n a l s p h e r e . But h e c a n d o this o n l y if m a n r e c o g n i z e s h i m a n d rises f r o m h i s s l e e p in o r d e r t o b e l e d . I n t h e s y m b o l i c m y t h s o f

202

T o p left, a R h o d e s i a n rock p a i n t i n g of a c r e a t i o n m y t h , in w h i c h t h e First M a n ( t h e m o o n ) m a t e s w i t h t h e m o r n i n g star a n d e v e n i n g star t o p r o d u c e t h e c r e a t u r e s of e a r t h . C o s m i c M a n o f t e n a p p e a r s as a n A d a m - l i k e o r i g i n a l m a n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d Christ, t o o , has b e c o m e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e Self: T o p r i g h t , a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y G e r m a n artist G r u n e w a l d s h o w s t h e f i g u r e of C h r i s t w i t h all t h e m a j e s t y o f C o s m i c M a n


an

unknowable

secret â&#x20AC;&#x201D; to the ultimate

un-

k n o w n m e a n i n g of h u m a n existence. As w e h a v e n o t e d , c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n s assert t h a t t h e C o s m i c M a n is t h e g o a l o f c r e a t i o n , b u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of this s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r stood as a possible external h a p p e n i n g .

From

t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e H i n d u , for e x a m p l e , it is n o t s o m u c h t h a t t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d w i l l o n e d a y dissolve into the original G r e a t M a n , but that the ego's extraverted orientation

toward

t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d will d i s a p p e a r in o r d e r to m a k e w a y for t h e C o s m i c M a n . T h i s h a p p e n s w h e n t h e e g o m e r g e s i n t o t h e Self. T h e e g o ' s d i s c u r s i v e flow o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( w h i c h from o n e t h o u g h t to a n o t h e r )

goes

a n d its d e s i r e s

(which r u n from o n e object to a n o t h e r )

calm

d o w n w h e n t h e G r e a t M a n w i t h i n is e n c o u n t e r e d . I n d e e d , w e m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h a t for u s o u t e r r e a l i t y exists o n l y in so far as w e p e r c e i v e it c o n s c i o u s l y , a n d t h a t w e c a n n o t p r o v e t h a t it e x i s t s " i n a n d b y i t s e l f . " The

many

e x a m p l e s c o m i n g from

various

civilizations a n d different periods show the uni-

E x a m p l e s of t h e "royal c o u p l e " (a s y m b o l i c i m a g e of p s y c h i c t o t a l i t y a n d t h e S e l f ) : left, a t h i r d - c e n t u r y A D . I n d i a n s c u l p t u r e of Siva a n d Parvati, hermaphroditically joined; b e l o w , the H i n d u deities Krishna a n d R a d h a in a g r o v e .

T h e Greek h e a d , b e l o w left, w a s s h o w n b y Dr. J u n g t o be s u b t l y t w o s i d e d (i.e. h e r m a p h r o d i t i c ) . In a letter t o t h e o w n e r J u n g a d d e d t h a t t h e h e a d "has, like his a n a l o g s A d o n i s , T a m m u z , a n d . . B a l d u r , all t h e g r a c e a n d c h a r m of e i t h e r s e x . "

203


R i g h t , a p r e - R o m a n s c u l p t u r e of t h e C e l t i c bear g o d d e s s A r t i o , f o u n d at B e r n e ( w h i c h m e a n s " b e a r " ) . She w a s probably a mother goddess, r e s e m b l i n g t h e s h e - b e a r in t h e d r e a m q u o t e d o n this page. Further correspondences to symbolic images in t h i s d r e a m : C e n t e r , A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s w i t h their " s a c r e d stones," w h i c h they believe contain t h e s p i r i t s of t h e d e a d B o t t o m , from a 17th-century alchemical manuscript, the s y m b o l i c royal c o u p l e as a pair of l i o n s .

versality of t h e s y m b o l of t h e G r e a t M a n .

His

i m a g e is p r e s e n t in t h e m i n d s o f m e n a s a s o r t of goal or expression of the basic m y s t e r y o u r life. B e c a u s e t h i s s y m b o l

of

represents

that

w h i c h is w h o l e a n d c o m p l e t e , it is o f t e n

con-

c e i v e d of as a b i s e x u a l b e i n g . In this form s y m b o l reconciles o n e of the most pairs

of

psychological

the

important

opposites â&#x20AC;&#x201D; male

and

female. T h i s u n i o n also a p p e a r s frequently

in

d r e a m s as a d i v i n e , r o y a l , o r o t h e r w i s e d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o u p l e . T h e following d r e a m of a m a n o f 4 7 s h o w s t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e S e l f in a

dra-

matic way:

I a m o n a p l a t f o r m , a n d below m e I see a h u g e , b l a c k , beautiful s h e - b e a r w i t h a r o u g h b u t wellg r o o m e d c o a t . S h e is s t a n d i n g o n h e r h i n d legs, a n d o n a s t o n e slab she is p o l i s h i n g a flat oval black s t o n e , w h i c h b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y shiny. N o t far a w a y a lioness a n d h e r c u b d o t h e s a m e t h i n g , but t h e stones t h e y a r e p o l i s h i n g a r e b i g g e r a n d r o u n d in s h a p e . After a w h i l e t h e s h e - b e a r t u r n s i n t o a fat, n a k e d w o m a n with b l a c k h a i r a n d d a r k , fiery eyes. I b e h a v e in a n erotically p r o v o c a t i v e w a y t o w a r d her, a n d s u d d e n l y she m o v e s n e a r e r in o r d e r to c a t c h m e . I get f r i g h t e n e d a n d take refuge u p o n t h e b u i l d i n g of scaffolding w h e r e I w a s before. L a t e r I a m in t h e midst of m a n y w o m e n , half of w h o m a r e p r i m i t i v e a n d h a v e rich b l a c k h a i r (as if t h e y a r c t r a n s f o r m e d from a n i m a l s ) ; t h e o t h e r h a l f a r e o u r w o m e n [of the s a m e n a t i o n a l i t y as t h e d r e a m e r ] a n d h a v e b l o n d e o r b r o w n h a i r . T h e p r i m i t i v e w o m e n sing a very s e n t i m e n t a l s o n g in m e l a n c h o l y , h i g h p i t c h e d voices. N o w , in a h i g h e l e g a n t c a r r i a g e , t h e r e c o m e s a y o u n g m a n w h o w e a r s on his h e a d a r o y a l g o l d e n c r o w n , set w i t h s h i n i n g r u b i e s -

204


a very b e a u t i f u l sight. Beside h i m sits a b l o n d e y o u n g w o m a n , p r o b a b l y his wife, b u t w i t h o u t a c r o w n . It seems t h a t t h e lioness a n d h e r c u b h a v e been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o this c o u p l e . T h e y b e l o n g to t h e g r o u p of p r i m i t i v e s . N o w all t h e w o m e n (the p r i m i t i v e s a n d t h e o t h e r s ) i n t o n e a s o l e m n song, a n d t h e r o y a l c a r r i a g e slowly travels t o w a r d the h o r i z o n . Here

the

inner

nucleus

of the

dreamer's

p s y c h e s h o w s i t s e l f a t first in a t e m p o r a r y v i s i o n of t h e r o y a l c o u p l e , w h i c h e m e r g e s f r o m

In d r e a m s a m i r r o r c a n s y m b o l i z e t h e p o w e r of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s t o " m i r r o r " the individual objectively â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g i v i n g h i m a v i e w of h i m s e l f t h a t he m a y never h a v e h a d b e f o r e O n l y through the unconscious can such a v i e w ( w h i c h often shocks and upsets the c o n s c i o u s m i n d ) be o b t a i n e d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; j u s t as in G r e e k m y t h t h e G o r g o n M e d u s a , w h o s e look turned m e n to s t o n e , c o u l d be g a z e d u p o n o n l y in a mirror. B e l o w , M e d u s a reflected in a s h i e l d (a p a i n t i n g b y t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y artist C a r a v a g g i o ) .

the

d e p t h s of his a n i m a l n a t u r e a n d t h e p r i m i t i v e l a y e r of his u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e s h e - b e a r in

the

b e g i n n i n g is a s o r t o f m o t h e r g o d d e s s . ( A r t e m i s , for i n s t a n c e , w a s w o r s h i p e d in G r e e c e a s a s h e bear. ) T h e d a r k oval stone that she rubs a n d polishes p r o b a b l y symbolizes the d r e a m e r ' s inn e r m o s t b e i n g , his t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y .

Rubbing

a n d p o l i s h i n g s t o n e s is a w e l l - k n o w n ,

exceed-

ingly a n c i e n t a c t i v i t y of m a n . I n E u r o p e " h o l y " s t o n e s , w r a p p e d in b a r k a n d h i d d e n in c a v e s , h a v e b e e n f o u n d in m a i n

p l a c e s ; as c o n t a i n e r s

of d i v i n e p o w e r s t h e y w e r e p r o b a b l y k e p t t h e r e by m e n of t h e S t o n e A g e . A t t h e p r e s e n t

time

s o m e of t h e A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r d e a d a n c e s t o r s c o n t i n u e to exist in s t o n e s as v i r t u o u s a n d d i v i n e p o w e r s , a n d t h a t if t h e y rub

these

stones,

the

power

increases

(like

c h a r g i n g t h e m w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y ) for t h e b e n e f i t of b o t h t h e l i v i n g a n d t h e d e a d . T h e m a n w h o h a d the d r e a m wc are discussing h a d h i t h e r t o refused

to a c c e p t a

marital

b o n d w i t h a w o m a n . His fear of b e i n g c a u g h t b y t h i s a s p e c t o f life c a u s e d h i m , i n t h e d r e a m ,

d r e a m e r r u n s a w a y to a h i g h e r p l a c e - i.e. i n t o

to flee f r o m t h e b e a r - w o m a n t o t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s

all sorts of reflections b y w h i c h h e c a n e s c a p e

platform w h e r e he could passively w a t c h things

t h e d e m a n d s o f life. T h e d r e a m t h e n s h o w s h i m

without

t h a t if h e r u n s a w a y f r o m t h e d e m a n d s o f life,

becoming

entangled.

Through

the

m o t i f of t h e s t o n e b e i n g r u b b e d b y t h e b e a r , t h e

o n e p a r t of his soul (his a n i m a )

u n c o n s c i o u s is t r y i n g t o s h o w h i m t h a t h e s h o u l d

u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , a fact s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e g r o u p

let h i m s e l f c o m e i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s s i d e o f

of n o n d e s c r i p t w o m e n t h a t splits a p a r t i n t o a

life; it is t h r o u g h t h e f r i c t i o n s o f m a r r i e d

p r i m i t i v e half a n d a m o r e civilized one.

life

will

remain

t h a t his i n n e r b e i n g c a n b e s h a p e d a n d p o l i s h e d .

T h e lioness a n d h e r son, w h i c h t h e n a p p e a r

W h e n t h e s t o n e is p o l i s h e d , it w i l l b e g i n t o

o n the scene, personify the mysterious urge to-

shine like a m i r r o r so t h a t t h e b e a r c a n see h e r -

w a r d i n d i v i d u a t i o n , i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r w o r k at

self in i t ; t h i s m e a n s t h a t o n l y b y

s h a p i n g t h e r o u n d s t o n e s . ( A r o u n d s t o n e is a

accepting human

s y m b o l o f t h e Self.) T h e l i o n s , a r o y a l c o u p l e ,

soul b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a m i r r o r in w h i c h t h e

a r e in t h e m s e l v e s a s y m b o l of t o t a l i t y . I n m e d i -

divine powers can perceive themselves. But the

eval s y m b o l i s m , the " p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s t o n e "

earthly contact a n d suffering can the

(a

205


p r e - e m i n e n t s y m b o l o f m a n ' s w h o l e n e s s ) is r e presented

as a p a i r of lions o r as a

human

c o u p l e r i d i n g o n lions. S y m b o l i c a l l y , this points to t h e fact t h a t often t h e u r g e t o w a r d i n d i v i d u a t i o n a p p e a r s in a veiled f o r m , h i d d e n in t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p a s s i o n o n e m a y feel for a n o t h e r p e r s o n . ( I n fact, p a s s i o n t h a t goes b e y o n d

the

n a t u r a l m e a s u r e of love u l t i m a t e l y a i m s at the m y s t e r y o f b e c o m i n g w h o l e , a n d t h i s is w h y o n e feels, w h e n o n e h a s f a l l e n p a s s i o n a t e l y i n l o v e , t h a t b e c o m i n g o n e w i t h t h e o t h e r p e r s o n is t h e o n l y w o r t h w h i l e g o a l o f o n e ' s life.) As l o n g as t h e i m a g e of t o t a l i t y in this d r e a m e x p r e s s e s itself in t h e f o r m o f a p a i r o f l i o n s , it is still c o n t a i n e d i n s o m e s u c h

overwhelming

passion. But w h e n lion a n d lioness h a v e t u r n e d i n t o a k i n g a n d q u e e n , t h e u r g e to i n d i v i d u a t e h a s r e a c h e d t h e level of c o n s c i o u s realization, a n d c a n n o w be u n d e r s t o o d by the ego as being t h e r e a l g o a l o f life. Before the lions h a d t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o h u m a n b e i n g s , it w a s o n l y t h e

themselves primitive

w o m e n w h o s a n g , a n d t h e y d i d so i n a s e n t i m e n t a l m a n n e r ; t h a t is t o s a y , t h e f e e l i n g s of t h e d r e a m e r r e m a i n e d o n a p r i m i t i v e a n d sent i m e n t a l level. B u t in h o n o r of t h e h u m a n i z e d lions,

both

the

primitive

and

the

civilized

w o m e n c h a n t a c o m m o n h y m n of praise. T h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r feelings in a u n i t e d

form

s h o w s t h a t the i n n e r split in the a n i m a l has n o w changed into inner h a r m o n y . Still appears

another in a

personification

report

of a

of

woman's

the

Self

so-called

" a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . " ( A c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n is a certain

w a y of m e d i t a t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e l y ,

by

O f t e n t h e Self is r e p r e s e n t e d as a h e l p f u l a n i m a l (a s y m b o l of t h e p s y c h e ' s i n s t i n c t u a l b a s i s ) . T o p left, t h e m a g i c f o x of G r i m m ' s f a i r y tale " T h e Golden Bird." Center, the Hindu monkey god Hanuman c a r r y i n g t w o g o d s in his heart. B o t t o m , Rin T i n T i n t h e h e r o i c d o g o n c e p o p u l a r in A m e r i c a n f i l m s a n d television.

S t o n e s are f r e q u e n t i m a g e s of t h e Self ( b e c a u s e t h e y are c o m p l e t e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; i.e. u n c h a n g i n g â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d l a s t i n g ) . M a n y people t o d a y look for stones of special beauty â&#x20AC;&#x201D; perhaps on beaches, t o p right. S o m e H i n d u s pass f r o m f a t h e r t o s o n s t o n e s (center) believed to have magical p o w e r s . " P r e c i o u s " s t o n e s , like the j e w e l s of Q u e e n Elizabeth I (1 5 5 8 1 6 0 3 ) , b o t t o m , are a n o u t w a r d s i g n of w e a l t h a n d p o s i t i o n .


which one m a y deliberately enter into contact with

the

unconscious and

connection

with

psychic

make

a

conscious

phenomena.

Active

i m a g i n a t i o n is a m o n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t

of

J u n g ' s d i s c o v e r i e s . W h i l e it is i n a s e n s e c o m p a r a b l e to E a s t e r n forms of m e d i t a t i o n , s u c h as t h e t e c h n i q u e of Z e n B u d d h i s m or of T a n t r i c Y o g a , o r to W e s t e r n t e c h n i q u e s like t h o s e of t h e J e s u i t E x e r c i t i a , it is f u n d a m e n t a l l y e n t in t h a t t h e m e d i t a t o r r e m a i n s

differ-

completely

d e v o i d of a n y conscious goal or p r o g r a m . T h u s the meditation becomes the solitary experiment o f a free i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h is t h e r e v e r s e o f a g u i d e d a t t e m p t to m a s t e r t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , is n o t t h e p l a c e t o e n t e r i n t o a d e tailed analysis of a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n ; t h e r e a d e r w i l l find o n e o f J u n g ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f it i n h i s paper on " T h e Transcendent

Function.")

In the w o m a n ' s m e d i t a t i o n the Self a p p e a r e d as a d e e r , w h i c h said to t h e e g o : " I a m

your

child a n d y o u r m o t h e r . T h e y call m e t h e ' c o n necting animal' because I connect people, anim a l s , a n d e v e n s t o n e s w i t h o n e a n o t h e r if I e n t e r t h e m . I a m y o u r fate o r t h e ' o b j e c t i v e I.' W h e n I a p p e a r , I r e d e e m you from the

meaningless

h a z a r d s o f life. T h e fire b u r n i n g i n s i d e m e b u r n s i n t h e w h o l e o f n a t u r e . I f a m a n l o s e s it, h e becomes

egocentric,

lonely, disoriented,

and

weak." T h e S e l f is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d a s a n

animal,

r e p r e s e n t i n g o u r i n s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e a n d its c o n nectedness with one's surroundings. why

there

are

so

many

helpful

(That

animals

is in

m y t h s a n d fairy tales.) T h i s r e l a t i o n of t h e Self to all s u r r o u n d i n g n a t u r e a n d e v e n t h e c o s m o s p r o b a b l y c o m e s from t h e fact t h a t t h e " n u c l e a r a t o m " o f o u r p s y c h e is s o m e h o w w o v e n

into

t h e w h o l e w o r l d , b o t h o u t e r a n d i n n e r . All t h e h i g h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f life a r e s o m e h o w t u n e d to

the

surrounding

space-time

continuum.

A n i m a l s , for e x a m p l e , h a v e t h e i r o w n

special

foods, t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r h o m e - b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , and

their definite

t e r r i t o r i e s , to all of w h i c h

their instinctive patterns are exactly tuned and a d a p t e d . T i m e r h y t h m s also play their

part:

W e h a v e o n l y to t h i n k of t h e fact t h a t

most

grass-eating a n i m a l s h a v e their y o u n g at prec i s e l y t h e t i m e o f y e a r w h e n t h e g r a s s is r i c h e s t

207


a n d most a b u n d a n t . W i t h such

considerations

in m i n d , a w e l l - k n o w n z o o l o g i s t h a s s a i d t h e " i n w a r d n e s s " of e a c h a n i m a l r e a c h e s o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d a r o u n d it a n d

b e c o m e m e a n i n g f u l . If w e p a y a t t e n t i o n to o u r

far

d r e a m s , i n s t e a d of living in a c o l d , i m p e r s o n a l

"psychifies"

w o r l d of m e a n i n g l e s s c h a n c e , w e m a y b e g i n to e m e r g e i n t o a w o r l d o f o u r o w n , full o f i m p o r -

time and space. I n w a y s t h a t a r e still c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d o u r comprehension,

level o f s y m b o l i s m t h r o u g h o u r d r e a m life a n d

that

our

unconscious

a t t u n e d to o u r s u r r o u n d i n g s

is

similarly

to o u r g r o u p , to

society in g e n e r a l , a n d , b e y o n d

these, to

the

tant a n d secretly o r d e r e d events. Our

dreams,

primarily

however,

concerned

with

are

not

as a

ride

our adaptation

to

o u t e r life. I n o u r c i v i l i z e d w o r l d , m o s t d r e a m s

s p a c e - t i m e c o n t i n u u m a n d the w h o l e of n a t u r e .

h a v e to d o w i t h the d e v e l o p m e n t (by t h e ego)

T h u s the Great

o f t h e " r i g h t " i n n e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e Self,

M a n of t h e N a s k a p i

Indians also

for t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p is f a r m o r e d i s t u r b e d i n u s

gives hints a b o u t w h e r e a n d w h e n to h u n t . A n d

b y m o d e r n w a y s of t h i n k i n g a n d b e h a v i n g t h a n

so f r o m d r e a m s t h e N a s k a p i h u n t e r e v o l v e s t h e

is t h e c a s e w i t h p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e .

w o r d s a n d m e l o d i e s of the m a g i c a l songs w i t h

e r a l l y live d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e i n n e r c e n t e r ,

which he attracts the animals.

we, with

does not merely reveal inner truths; he

But this specific h e l p from t h e

unconscious

entangled

our

uprooted

with

They

genbut

consciousness, are

external,

completely

so

foreign

is n o t g i v e n t o p r i m i t i v e m a n a l o n e . J u n g d i s -

m a t t e r s t h a t it is v e r y d i f f i c u l t for t h e m e s s a g e s

covered that d r e a m s c a n also give civilized m a n

of t h e Self t o get t h r o u g h to us. O u r c o n s c i o u s

way

m i n d c o n t i n u a l l y creates the illusion of a clearly

t h r o u g h t h e p r o b l e m s of b o t h his i n n e r a n d his

s h a p e d , " r e a l " o u t e r w o r l d t h a t b l o c k s off m a n y

o u t e r life. I n d e e d , m a n y ol o u r d r e a m s a r e c o n -

other perceptions. Yet through o u r unconscious

the

guidance

he

needs

in

finding

his

c e r n e d w i t h d e t a i l s o f o u r o u t e r life a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s . S u c h t h i n g s as t h e t r e e in

our front

of the w i n d o w , one's bicycle or car, or a stone picked u p d u r i n g a w a l k m a y be raised to t h e

nature we are inexplicably connected psychic a n d physical

to o u r

environment.

I h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t h e fact t h a t

the

S e l f is s y m b o l i z e d w i t h s p e c i a l f r e q u e n c y i n t h e

T h e " e t e r n a l " q u a l i t y of s t o n e s c a n be seen in p e b b l e s or m o u n t a i n s . Left, r o c k s b e n e a t h M t W i l l i a m s o n , C a l i f o r n i a . T h u s s t o n e has a l w a y s been used for m e m o r i a l s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; l i k e the h e a d s of f o u r U S. p r e s i d e n t s ( a b o v e ) c a r v e d in t h e cliff f a c e of M t . R u s h m o r e , S o u t h D a k o t a S t o n e s w e r e also o f t e n u s e d to m a r k p l a c e s of w o r s h i p â&#x20AC;&#x201D; as w a s t h e sacred s t o n e in t h e T e m p l e of J e r u s a l e m (far r i g h t ) . It w a s t h e c e n t e r of t h e c i t y ; a n d (as t h e m e d i e v a l m a p , r i g h t , s h o w s ) t h e c i t y w a s seen as t h e c e n t e r of t h e w o r l d


f o r m of" a s t o n e , p r e c i o u s o r o t h e r w i s e . W c s a w

person

a n e x a m p l e of this in t h e s t o n e t h a t w a s b e i n g

represented

polished by the s h e - b e a r a n d the lions. In m a n y

b e i n g is a s d i f f e r e n t a s p o s s i b l e f r o m a s t o n e , y e t

remains, which

can

be most

by a stone, f o r while the

fittingly human

d r e a m s t h e n u c l e a r c e n t e r , t h e Self, a l s o a p p e a r s

man's

as

precise

s p e c i a l w a y a k i n t o it ( p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e s t o n e

a r r a n g e m e n t o f a c r y s t a l e v o k e s i n us t h e i n t u i -

symbolizes m e r e existence at the farthest r e m o v e

a

crystal.

The

mathematically

tive feeling t h a t e v e n in s o - c a l l e d " d e a d " t e r t h e r e is a s p i r i t u a l

ordering

mat-

principle

at

from

innermost

the

discursive

center

emotions, thinking

is i n a s t r a n g e

feelings,

fantasies,

of e g o - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i .

and

and In

work. T h u s the crystal often symbolically s t a n d s

t h i s s e n s e t h e s t o n e s y m b o l i z e s w h a t is p e r h a p s

for t h e u n i o n o f e x t r e m e o p p o s i t e s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; o f m a t t e r

the simplest and deepest experience â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

ex-

and spirit.

p e r i e n c e of s o m e t h i n g

can

P e r h a p s crystals a n d stones are especially apt s y m b o l s of t h e Self b e c a u s e of t h e " j u s t - s o - n e s s " of t h e i r n a t u r e . from

Many

people cannot

picking u p stones of a slightly

refrain unusual

color or s h a p e a n d k e e p i n g t h e m , w i t h o u t k n o w -

eternal

that m a n

h a v e i n t h o s e m o m e n t s w h e n h e feels i m m o r t a l and

unalterable.

T h e u r g e t h a t w e find i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c i v i l i zations to erect stone m o n u m e n t s

to

famous

m e n or o n t h e site of i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s p r o b a b l y

i n g w h y t h e y d o t h i s . It is a s if t h e s t o n e s h e l d

a l s o s t e m s f r o m t h i s s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g of

a living mystery that fascinates t h e m . M e n h a v e

stone. T h e stone that J a c o b placed on the spot

the

collected stones since the b e g i n n i n g of t i m e a n d

where

have apparently assumed that certain ones were

s t o n e s left b y s i m p l e p e o p l e o n t h e t o m b s o f

he h a d

his f a m o u s

dream,

or

certain

t h e c o n t a i n e r s o f t h e l i f e - f o r c e w i t h a l l its m y s -

local saints or heroes, s h o w the original n a t u r e

t e r y . T h e a n c i e n t G e r m a n s , for i n s t a n c e , b e -

of t h e h u m a n u r g e to express a n o t h e r w i s e inex-

lieved t h a t t h e spirits of t h e d e a d c o n t i n u e d

to

p r e s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e b y t h e s t o n e - s y m b o l . It is

live i n t h e i r t o m b s t o n e s . T h e c u s t o m o f p l a c i n g

n o w o n d e r t h a t m a n y religious cults use a stone

stones o n g r a v e s m a y s p r i n g p a r t l y from

the

to signify G o d o r to m a r k a p l a c e of w o r s h i p .

symbolic i d e a t h a t s o m e t h i n g e t e r n a l of t h e d e a d

T h e h o l i e s t s a n c t u a r y o f t h e I s l a m i c w o r l d is t h e


K a ' a b a , t h e b l a c k s t o n e in M e c c a to w h i c h all pious M o s l e m s h o p e to m a k e their p i l g r i m a g e . According

to C h r i s t i a n

ecclesiastical

sym-

T h e a l c h e m i c a l s t o n e ( t h e lapis)

symbolizes

s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n n e v e r b e lost o r d i s s o l v e d , something eternal that some alchemists

com-

b o l i s m , C h r i s t is " t h e s t o n e w h i c h t h e b u i l d e r s

p a r e d to t h e mystical e x p e r i e n c e of G o d w i t h i n

r e j e c t e d , " w h i c h b e c a m e " t h e h e a d of t h e cor-

one's

n e r " ( L u k e x x : 1 7 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y h e is c a l l e d

suffering

t h e " s p i r i t u a l r o c k " from w h i c h t h e w a t e r of

psychic elements concealing the stone. But some

life s p r i n g s (1 C o r . x : 4 ) . M e d i e v a l a l c h e m i s . t s ,

p r o f o u n d i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e of t h e Self d o e s o c c u r

w h o s e a r c h e d for t h e s e c r e t o f m a t t e r i n a p r e -

to most p e o p l e at least o n c e in a lifetime. F r o m

scientific

way,

hoping

to

find

God

i n it,

own

soul. to

It

burn

usually away

all

takes

prolonged

the

superfluous

or

t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , a g e n u i n e l y reli-

at least t h e w o r k i n g of d i v i n e a c t i v i t y , b e l i e v e d

g i o u s a t t i t u d e consists of a n effort to d i s c o v e r

famous

this u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e , a n d g r a d u a l l y to keep

" p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s t o n e . " B u t s o m e of t h e a l c h e -

t h a t this secret w a s e m b o d i e d in their

i n t u n e w i t h it (it is r e l e v a n t t h a t a s t o n e is

mists d i m l y perceived t h a t their m u c h - s o u g h t -

itself s o m e t h i n g p e r m a n e n t ) , so t h a t t h e Self b e -

after stone w a s a s y m b o l of s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n

comes an

b e f o u n d o n l y w i t h i n t h e p s y c h e of m a n .

a t t e n t i o n is c o n t i n u a l l y t u r n e d .

old A r a b i a n alchemist, M o r i e n u s , said:

An

inner partner

toward

whom

c /ie's

"This

T h e fact t h a t this h i g h e s t a n d m o s t f r e q u e n t

t h i n g [ t h e p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s t o n e ] is e x t r a c t e d f r o m

s y m b o l o f t h e S e l f is a n o b j e c t o f lifeless m a t -

you:

you

a r e its m i n e r a l , a n d o n e c a n

find

i n y o u ; o r , t o p u t it m o r e c l e a r l y , t h e y

it

[the

ter points to yet a n o t h e r

field

of i n q u i r y

and

s p e c u l a t i o n : t h a t is, t h e still u n k n o w n r e l a t i o n -

a l c h e m i s t s ] t a k e it f r o m y o u . I f y o u r e c o g n i z e

ship

this, t h e love a n d a p p r o b a t i o n of t h e s t o n e will

p s y c h e a n d w h a t w e call " m a t t e r " â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a m y s t e r y

g r o w w i t h i n y o u . K n o w t h a t t h i s is t r u e w i t h -

with which psychosomatic medicine endeavors

out d o u b t . "

t o g r a p p l e . I n s t u d y i n g t h i s still u n d e f i n e d

between

Left, t h e B l a c k S t o n e of M e c c a , blessed by M o h a m m e d ( i n an A r a b i c m a n u s c r i p t illustration) to integrate it i n t o t h e I s l a m i c r e l i g i o n . It is c a r r i e d by f o u r t r i b a l c h i e f t a i n s (at t h e f o u r c o r n e r s of a c a r p e t ) into the Ka'aba, the holy sanctuary t o w h i c h t h o u s a n d s of M o s l e m s m a k e an a n n u a l p i l g r i m a g e ( b e l o w l e f t ) .

Right, another symbolic stone: t h e S t o n e o f S c o n e (or S t o n e of Destiny) on w h i c h Scottish kings w e r e f o r m e r l y c r o w n e d . It w a s t a k e n t o E n g l a n d ' s W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y in t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y , b u t it never lost its i m p o r t a n c e f o r S c o t l a n d O n C h r i s t m a s D a y , 1 9 5 0 , a g r o u p of Scottish Nationalists stole the S t o n e f r o m t h e A b b e y a n d t o o k it back to S c o t l a n d (It w a s returned t o t h e A b b e y in A p r i l 1 9 5 1 . )

R i g h t , a t o u r i s t kisses t h e f a m o u s " B l a r n e y S t o n e ' ' of Irish l e g e n d . It is s u p p o s e d t o c o n f e r t h e g i f t of e l o q u e n c e o n t h o s e w h o kiss it

what

we

call

the

unconscious

and


u n e x p l a i n e d c o n n e c t i o n (it m a y p r o v e t o b e t h a t

s e e m u c h t h e s a m e u n d e r l y i n g t h e m e in a s t r o -

"psyche" and " m a t t e r " are actually the same

logy, a n d in t h e w a y v a r i o u s c i v i l i z a t i o n s h a v e

p h e n o m e n o n , one observed from " w i t h i n " a n d

d e p e n d e d on consulting oracles a n d paying at-

the o t h e r from " w i t h o u t " ) , D r . J u n g p u t

for-

t e n t i o n to o m e n s . All of these a r e a t t e m p t s to

synchroni-

p r o v i d e a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t is

ward a new concept that he called cily. T h i s t e r m

means a "meaningful

coinci-

d e n c e " of o u t e r a n d i n n e r e v e n t s t h a t a r e n o t themselves causally connected. T h e lies o n t h e w o r d

emphasis

"meaningful."

different from o n e t h a t d e p e n d s on straightforward cause and

effect.

I n c r e a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t of s y n c h r o n i c i t y , D r . J u n g s k e t c h e d a w a y in w h i c h w e m i g h t p e n e -

If a n a i r c r a f t c r a s h e s b e f o r e m y e y e s a s I a m

t r a t e d e e p e r i n t o t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n of p s y c h e

b l o w i n g m y n o s e , t h i s is a c o i n c i d e n c e o f e v e n t s

a n d m a t t e r . A n d it is p r e c i s e l y t o w a r d s u c h a

that has no m e a n i n g .

r e l a t i o n t h a t t h e s y m b o l of t h e s t o n e s e e m s t o

I t is s i m p l y a

chance

o c c u r r e n c e of a k i n d t h a t h a p p e n s all t h e t i m e .

p o i n t . B u t t h i s is still a c o m p l e t e l y o p e n

B u t if I b o u g h t a b l u e f r o c k a n d , b y m i s t a k e ,

insufficiently

the s h o p d e l i v e r e d a b l a c k o n e o n t h e d a y o n e

f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s of psychologists a n d

of m y

cists m u s t d e a l .

near

relatives

died,

this w o u l d

be

a

explored

matter,

with

and

which physi-

meaningful coincidence. T h e two events are not

It m a y s e e m t h a t m y d i s c u s s i o n o f s y n c h r o n i -

causally related, b u t they are c o n n e c t e d by the

city has led m e a w a y from m y m a i n t h e m e , b u t

symbolic m e a n i n g t h a t o u r society gives to t h e

I feel it is n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e a t l e a s t a

color b l a c k .

introductory

W h e r e v e r Dr. J u n g observed such meaningful

with

the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d r e a m s r e v e a l e d )

application.

there

t o it

because

brief

it is

a

J u n g i a n h y p o t h e s i s t h a t seems to be p r e g n a n t

c o i n c i d e n c e s i n a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s life, it s e e m e d ( a s that

reference

future

possibilities of i n v e s t i g a t i o n Synchronistic

events,

and

moreover,

was a n a r c h e t y p e a c t i v a t e d in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s

almostinvariably a c c o m p a n y thecrucial phases

of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s b y

of t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . B u t too often

m y e x a m p l e of t h e b l a c k f r o c k : I n s u c h a c a s e

they pass u n n o t i c e d , b e c a u s e the individual has

the p e r s o n w h o receives t h e b l a c k frock

might

n o t l e a r n e d t o w a t c h for s u c h c o i n c i d e n c e s a n d

also h a v e h a d a d r e a m o n t h e t h e m e o f d e a t h .

to m a k e

It s e e m s a s if t h e u n d e r l y i n g a r c h e t y p e is m a n i -

s y m b o l i s m of his d r e a m s .

them

meaningful

in r e l a t i o n

to

the

festing i t s e l f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n i n n e r a n d e x t e r nal

events.

The

common

denominator

is

a

symbolically expressed m e s s a g e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in this case a message a b o u t d e a t h . As s o o n a s w e n o t i c e t h a t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f event " l i k e " to cluster t o g e t h e r at c e r t a i n times, we begin

to u n d e r s t a n d

the

attitude

C h i n e s e , w h o s e t h e o r i e s of m e d i c i n e ,

of

the

philoso-

phy, a n d even b u i l d i n g a r e based on a " s c i e n c e " of m e a n i n g f u l c o i n c i d e n c e s . T h e c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e t e x t s d i d n o t a s k w h a t causes

what,

but

r a t h e r w h a t " l i k e s " t o occur with w h a t . O n e c a n

A p a i n t i n g by t h e m o d e r n artist Hans Haffenrichter resembles the p a t t e r n of a crystal â&#x20AC;&#x201D; like o r d i n a r y s t o n e , a s y m b o l of w h o l e n e s s .

2

I I


The relation to the Self

Nowadays

more and

more people,

especially

before, to o u t e r d u t i e s , b u t a t t h e s a m e

time

t h o s e w h o live in l a r g e cities, suffer f r o m a t e r -

o n e r e m a i n s a l e r t for h i n t s a n d s i g n s , b o t h i n

r i b l e e m p t i n e s s a n d b o r e d o m , a s if t h e y

d r e a m s a n d in e x t e r n a l e v e n t s , t h a t t h e

were

Self

w a i t i n g for s o m e t h i n g t h a t n e v e r a r r i v e s . M o v i e s

u s e s t o s y m b o l i z e its i n t e n t i o n s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h e d i r e c t i o n i n

and

w h i c h t h e l i f e - s t r e a m is m o v i n g .

television, spectator sports a n d

political

e x c i t e m e n t s m a y d i v e r t t h e m for a w h i l e , b u t again and again, exhausted and

O l d C h i n e s e texts t h a t are c o n c e r n e d

with

disenchanted,

this k i n d of e x p e r i e n c e often use the simile of

t h e y h a v e t o r e t u r n to t h e w a s t e l a n d of t h e i r

t h e c a t w a t c h i n g the m o u s e h o l e . O n e text says

o w n lives.

t h a t o n e s h o u l d allow n o o t h e r t h o u g h t s to in-

T h e o n l y a d v e n t u r e t h a t is still w o r t h w h i l e

trude, but one's attention should not be sharp â&#x20AC;&#x201D;nor

u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h e . W i t h this i d e a v a g u e l y in

e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t level of p e r c e p t i o n .

mind,

t r a i n i n g is u n d e r g o n e i n t h i s m a n n e r . . . it w i l l

many

now

turn

to

Yoga

and

other

should

it

be

too

dull.

too

for m o d e r n m a n lies i n t h e i n n e r r e a l m o f t h e

There "If

is the

genuine

be effective as t i m e goes o n , a n d w h e n t h e c a u s e

n e w a d v e n t u r e , for in t h e m o n e o n l y t a k e s o v e r

c o m e s to fruition, like a r i p e m e l o n t h a t a u t o -

E a s t e r n p r a c t i c e s . B u t t h e s e offer n o

w h a t is a l r e a d y k n o w n t o t h e H i n d u s o r Chinese without

directly

i n n e r life c e n t e r . W h i l e it is t r u e t h a t m e t h o d s serve

to c o n c e n t r a t e

the

matically

falls,

anything

it

may

happen

to

own

t o u c h o r m a k e c o n t a c t w i t h will s u d d e n l y c a u s e

Eastern

t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u p r e m e a w a k e n i n g . T h i s is t h e

meeting one's the mind

and

m o m e n t w h e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r will b e like o n e

d i r e c t it i n w a r d ( a n d t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e is i n

w h o d r i n k s w a t e r a n d a l o n e k n o w s w h e t h e r it

a sense s i m i l a r to t h e i n t r o v e r s i o n of a n a n a l y -

is c o l d o r w a r m . H e b e c o m e s free o f a l l d o u b t s

t i c a l , t r e a t m e n t ) , t h e r e is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r -

about himself and experiences a great happiness

ence. J u n g e v o l v e d a w a y of g e t t i n g - t o

s i m i l a r t o t h a t o n e feels i n m e e t i n g o n e ' s o w n

one's

inner center a n d m a k i n g contact with the living m y s t e r y of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , a l o n e a n d u n a i d e d .

father at the crossroads." T h u s , in t h e m i d s t of o r d i n a r y

outer

life,

T h a t is u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m f o l l o w i n g a w e l l -

o n e is s u d d e n l y c a u g h t u p i n a n e x c i t i n g i n n e r

worn path.

a d v e n t u r e ; a n d b e c a u s e it is u n i q u e for

T r y i n g to give t h e living reality of the Self a constant

amount

of d a i l y a t t e n t i o n

is l i k e

each

i n d i v i d u a l , it c a n n o t b e c o p i e d o r s t o l e n . T h e r e a r e t w o m a i n r e a s o n s w h y m a n loses

t r y i n g to live s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o n t w o levels o r in

c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i n g c e n t e r of his s o u l .

t w o different worlds. O n e gives o n e ' s m i n d , as

O n e o f t h e m is t h a t s o m e s i n g l e i n s t i n c t i v e d r i v e

2 I 2


or e m o t i o n a l i m a g e c a n c a r r y h i m i n t o a o n e -

word

s i d e d n e s s t h a t m a k e s h i m lose his b a l a n c e . T h i s

s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s o r d e r , w h i c h is a s y m b o l i c r e -

also h a p p e n s t o a n i m a l s ; for e x a m p l e , a s e x u -

presentation

ally e x c i t e d s t a g w i l l c o m p l e t e l y f o r g e t

h u m a n psyche

hunger

mandala

(magic of

the

circle) "nuclear

to d e s i g n a t e atom"

of

a the

whose essence we d o not k n o w .

a n d s e c u r i t y . T h i s o n e - s i d e d ness a n d c o n s e q u e n t

I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n it is i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a N a s -

loss of b a l a n c e a r e m u c h d r e a d e d b y p r i m i t i v e s ,

kapi h u n t e r pictorially represented

w h o c a l l it " l o s s o f s o u l . " A n o t h e r t h r e a t t o t h e

M a n not as a h u m a n b e i n g b u t as a m a n d a l a .

inner b a l a n c e c o m e s from excessive d a y d r e a m -

his G r e a t

W h e r e a s the Naskapi experience the

inner

i n g , w h i c h in a s e c r e t w a y u s u a l l y c i r c l e s a r o u n d

c e n t e r d i r e c t l y a n d n a i v e l y , w i t h o u t t h e h e l p of

p a r t i c u l a r c o m p l e x e s . In fact, d a y d r e a m s arise

religious rites or d o c t r i n e s , o t h e r

just b e c a u s e t h e y c o n n e c t a m a n w i t h his c o m -

u s e t h e m a n d a l a m o t i f in o r d e r t o r e s t o r e a lost

plexes; at the s a m e time they t h r e a t e n the con-

inner balance. Forinstance, the N a v a h o Indians

c e n t r a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u i t y o f his c o n s c i o u s n e s s .

try,

T h e s e c o n d o b s t a c l e is e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e , and

is d u e

to a n

over-consolidation

of e g o -

c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A11 h o u g h a d i s c i | ) l i n e d c o n s c i o u s -

by

means

of

communities

mandala-structurcd

sand

p a i n t i n g s , t o b r i n g a sick p e r s o n b a c k i n t o h a r m o n y with himself a n d with the cosmos

and

t h e r e b y to r e s t o r e his h e a l t h .

ness is n e c e s s a r y for t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f c i v i l i z e d

In Eastern civilizations similar pictures are

a c t i v i t i e s ( w e k n o w w h a t h a p p e n s if a r a i l w a y

used to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i n n e r b e i n g , o r to e n a b l e

s i g n a l m a n l a p s e s i n t o d a y d r e a m i n g ) , it h a s t h e

o n e to p l u n g e i nto d e e p m e d i t a t i o n . T h e c o n -

s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t it is a p t t o b l o c k t h e

t e m p l a t i o n o f a m a n d a l a is m e a n t t o b r i n g a n

reception of i m p u l s e s a n d messages c o m i n g from

i n n e r p e a c e , a f e e l i n g t h a t life h a s a g a i n f o u n d

the c e n t e r .

This

is w h y s o m a n y

dreams

civilized p e o p l e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h this r e c e p t i v i t y attitude

by a t t e m p t i n g

of c o n s c i o u s n e s s

of

its m e a n i n g a n d o r d e r . T h e m a n d a l a a l s o c o n -

restoring

v e y s t h i s f e e l i n g w h e n it a p p e a r s s p o n t a n e o u s l y

to c o r r e c t

toward

the

the

in t h e d r e a m s o f m o d e r n m e n w h o a r e n o t i n f l u -

uncon-

e n c e d by a n y religious t r a d i t i o n of this sort a n d

s c i o u s c e n t e r o r Self. A m o n g the m y t h o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the Self o n e

finds

m u c h e m p h a s i s on the four

c o r n e r s o f t h e w o r l d , a n d in m a n y p i c t u r e s t h e Great

Man

is r e p r e s e n t e d

in t h e c e n t e r o f a

circle d i v i d e d i n t o four. J u n g used t h e

The f e e l i n g s of b o r e d o m a n d a p a t h y from w h i c h c i t y d w e l l e r s t o d a y o f t e n suffer is o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y o f f s e t by s u c h a r t i f i c i a l e x c i t e m e n t s as adventure f i l m s (far left) a n d t i m e killing " a m u s e m e n t s " ( l e f t ) . J u n g stressed t h a t t h e o n l y real a d v e n t u r e remaining f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l is t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s . The u l t i m a t e g o a l of s u c h a s e a r c h is the f o r m i n g of a h a r m o n i o u s a n d balanced r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Self The circular m a n d a l a i m a g e s t h i s perfect b a l a n c e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; e m b o d i e d in t h e structure of t h e m o d e r n c a t h e d r a l (right) of t h e c i t y of Brasilia.

Hindu

know

nothing about

effect

is e v e n

greater

it. P e r h a p s t h e in s u c h

cases

positive because

knowledge a n d tradition sometimes blur or even block the s p o n t a n e o u s experience. An

example

of a s p o n t a n e o u s l y

produced

m a n d a l a o c c u r s in t h e f o l l o w i n g d r e a m o f a 6 2 -


Top, a Navaho makes a sand painting (a m a n d a l a ) in a h e a l i n g ritual; t h e p a t i e n t sits in t h e p a i n t i n g . A b o v e , a p l a n o f a s a n d p a i n t i n g ; it m u s t b e c i r c l e d by a p a t i e n t b e f o r e e n t e r i n g .

Left, a w i n t e r l a n d s c a p e b y t h e G e r m a n artist Kaspar F r i e d r i c h L a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g s u s u a l l y express indefinable " m o o d s " â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s do s y m b o l i c l a n d s c a p e s in d r e a m s .


year-old w o m a n . It e m e r g e d as a p r e l u d e to a

I m e n t i o n e d before.) N o w t h e g o l d e n disk sud-

n e w p h a s e o f life i n w h i c h s h e b e c a m e

d e n l y m o v e s to t h e " r i g h t " side — t h e side w h e r e

very

creative:

things become conscious. A m o n g other

things

" r i g h t " often m e a n s , psychologically, t h e side I see a l a n d s c a p e in a d i m light. I n t h e b a c k g r o u n d I see t h e rising a n d t h e n e v e n l y c o n t i n u ing crest of a hill. A l o n g t h e line w h e r e it rises moves a q u a d r a n g u l a r disk t h a t shines like gold. In the f o r e g r o u n d I see d a r k p l o w e d e a r t h t h a t is beginning to s p r o u t . N o w I s u d d e n l y p e r c e i v e a round t a b l e w i t h a g r a y s t o n e s l a b as its t o p , a n d at the s a m e m o m e n t t h e q u a d r a n g u l a r disk s u d denly s t a n d s u p o n t h e t a b l e . I t h a s left t h e hill, but h o w a n d w h y it h a s c h a n g e d its p l a c e I d o not k n o w .

of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , of a d a p t a t i o n , of b e i n g " r i g h t , " w h i l e " l e f t " signifies t h e s p h e r e of u n a d a p t e d , unconscious

reactions

or sometimes

even

of

s o m e t h i n g " s i n i s t e r . " T h e n , finally, t h e g o l d e n d i s k s t o p s its m o v e m e n t a n d c o m e s t o r e s t o n — significantly — a r o u n d stone table. It has found a p e r m a n e n t base. As A n i e l a Jaffe observes later in this book, roundness (the m a n d a l a motif) generally symbolizes a n a t u r a l wholeness, w h e r e a s a q u a d r a n g u l a r f o r m a t i o n represents the r e a l i z a t i o n of

L a n d s c a p e s in d r e a m s (as well a s in a r t ) fre-

this in consciousness. I n t h e d r e a m t h e s q u a r e

In

disk a n d t h e r o u n d t a b l e m e e t , a n d t h u s a c o n -

this d r e a m , t h e d i m l i g h t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e i n d i -

s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c e n t e r is a t h a n d . T h e

cates t h a t t h e c l a r i t y of d a y t i m e

consciousness

r o u n d t a b l e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m -

is d i m m e d . " I n n e r n a t u r e " m a y n o w b e g i n t o

b o l o f w h o l e n e s s a n d p l a y s a i-ole i n m y t h o l o g y

quently symbolize a n inexpressible mood.

r e v e a l itself i n its o w n l i g h t , s o w e a r e t o l d t h a t

— for

the q u a d r a n g u l a r disk b e c o m e s visible o n t h e

w h i c h i t s e l f is a n i m a g e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t a b l e

h o r i z o n . H i t h e r t o t h e s y m b o l o f t h e Self, t h e

of t h e L a s t S u p p e r .

disk, h a d b e e n l a r g e l y a n i n t u i t i v e i d e a o n t h e

instance,

King

Arthur's

round

table,

I n fact, w h e n e v e r a h u m a n b e i n g g e n u i n e l y

dreamer's mental horizon, but nowin t h e d r e a m

t u r n s to t h e i n n e r w o r l d a n d tries to k n o w h i m -

it shifts its p o s i t i o n a n d b e c o m e s t h e c e n t e r o f

self— n o t b y r u m i n a t i n g a b o u t h i s s u b j e c t i v e

the l a n d s c a p e of h e r soul. A seed, s o w n

t h o u g h t s a n d feelings, b u t by following t h e ex-

ago, b e g i n s to s p r o u t : for a l o n g t i m e ously t h e d r e a m e r h a d p a i d c a r e f u l

long previ-

pressions of his o w n o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e s u c h as

attention

d r e a m s a n d g e n u i n e fantasies — t h e n sooner or

to h e r d r e a m s , a n d n o w t h i s w o r k b e a r s f r u i t .

l a t e r t h e Self e m e r g e s . T h e e g o will t h e n

( O n e is r e m i n d e d o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e

a n i n n e r p o w e r t h a t c o n t a i n s all t h e possibilities

s y m b o l o f t h e G r e a t M a n a n d p l a n t life, w h i c h

of r e n e w a l .

In t h e p a i n t i n g s , left, o f t h e d r e a m q u o t e d o n this page (painted by the dreamer), the mandala motif appears as a q u a d r a n g l e rather t h a n a c i r c l e Usually quadrangular forms symbolize c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n of inner w h o l e n e s s : t h e w h o l e n e s s itself is m o s t o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d in c i r c u l a r f o r m s , s u c h as t h e r o u n d t a b l e t h a t also a p p e a r s in t h e d r e a m . R i g h t , t h e l e g e n d a r y R o u n d T a b l e of K i n g Arthur (from a 15th-century m a n u s c r i p t ) , at w h i c h t h e H o l y Grail a p p e a r e d in a v i s i o n a n d started the k n i g h t s o n the f a m o u s q u e s t . T h e Grail itself s y m b o l i z e s the i n n e r w h o l e n e s s f o r w h i c h m e n have a l w a y s been searching.

find


B u t t h e r e is a g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y

that

I

have

Thus

t h e e m e r g i n g of t h e Self m a y

m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n d i r e c t l y u p till n o w . T h i s is

great

danger

to a m a n ' s c o n s c i o u s e g o .

t h a t e v e r y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

d o u b l e a s p e c t o f t h e S e l f is b e a u t i f u l l y

the s h a d o w , t h e a n i m a , the a n i m u s , a n d the Self

ted by this old I r a n i a n fairy tale, called

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;has b o t h a light a n d a d a r k aspect. W e saw

S e c r e t of t h e B a t h

bring The

illustra"The

Badgerd":

before t h a t t h e s h a d o w m a y be base or evil, a n instinctive d r i v e t h a t o n e o u g h t to o v e r c o m e . It m a y , h o w e v e r , b e a n i m p u l s e t o w a r d g r o w t h that one should

c u l t i v a t e a n d follow.

same way the a n i m a

and

In

animus have

the dual

a s p e c t s : T h e y c a n b r i n g life-giving d e v e l o p m e n t a n d creativeness to the personality, or they c a n cause

petrification

and

physical

death.

And

e v e n t h e Self, t h e a l l - e m b r a c i n g s y m b o l o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , h a s a n a m b i v a l e n t e f f e c t , a s for i n s t a n c e in t h e E s k i m o t a l e ( p a g e

196),

when

the "little w o m a n " offered to save the h e r o i n e from the M o o n Spirit b u t a c t u a l l y t u r n e d

her

into a spider. T h e d a r k s i d e o f t h e S e l f is t h e m o s t

dan-

g e r o u s t h i n g of all, precisely b e c a u s e t h e Self is t h e g r e a t e s t

power

in

the psyche.

It

can

c a u s e p e o p l e to " s p i n " m e g a l o m a n i a c or o t h e r delusory

fantasies

that

catch

them

up

" p o s s e s s " t h e m . A p e r s o n in this s t a t e

and thinks

with m o u n t i n g excitement that he has grasped a n d solved the great cosmic riddles; he therefore loses all t o u c h w i t h h u m a n r e a l i t y . A r e l i a b l e s y m p t o m o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n is t h e loss o f o n e ' s sense of h u m o r a n d of h u m a n

contacts.

T h e g r e a t a n d n o b l e P r i n c e H a t i m T a i receives o r d e r s from his king to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m y s t e r i o u s Bath B a d g e r d [castle of n o n e x i s t e n c e ] . W h e n he a p p r o a c h e s it, h a v i n g g o n e t h r o u g h m a n y d a n g e r o u s a d v e n t u r e s , he h e a r s t h a t n o b o d y ever ret u r n e d from it, b u t he insists on g o i n g on. He is r e c e i v e d at a r o u n d b u i l d i n g by a b a r b e r w i t h a m i r r o r w h o leads h i m i n t o t h e b a t h , b u t as soon as t h e p r i n c e e n t e r s t h e w a t e r , a t h u n d e r o u s noise b r e a k s o u t . it gets c o m p l e t e l y d a r k , t h e b a r b e r d i s a p p e a r s , a n d slowly t h e w a t e r b e g i n s to rise. H a t i m s w i m s d e s p e r a t e l y r o u n d until t h e w a t e r finally r e a c h e s t h e t o p of t h e r o u n d c u p o l a , which forms t h e roof of t h e b a t h . N o w he fears he is lost, b u t he says a p r a y e r a n d g r a b s t h e centers t o n e of t h e c u p o l a . A g a i n a t h u n d e r o u s noise, e v e r y t h i n g c h a n g e s , a n d H a t i m s t a n d s a l o n e in a desert. After long a n d painful w a n d e r i n g , he c o m e s to a beautiful g a r d e n in t h e m i d d l e of w h i c h is a circle of s t o n e s t a t u e s . In t h e c e n t e r of t h e statues, he sees a p a r r o t in its c a g e , a n d a voice from a b o v e says to h i m : " O h , h e r o , you p r o b a b l y will not e s c a p e alive from this b a t h . O n c e G a y o m a r t [the First M a n ] found a n e n o r m o u s d i a m o n d that s h o n e m o r e b r i g h t l y t h a n sun a n d m o o n . H e d e cided to h i d e it w h e r e n o o n e c a n find it, a n d t h e r e f o r e he built this m a g i c a l b a t h in o r d e r to


p r o t e c t it. T h e p a r r o t t h a t you see h e r e forms p a r t of t h e m a g i c . At its feet lie a g o l d e n b o w a n d a r r o w o n a g o l d e n c h a i n , a n d w i t h t h e m you m a y try t h r e e t i m e s to s h o o t t h e p a r r o t . If y o u hit h i m t h e curse will be lifted; if n o t , you will be petrified, as w e r e all these o t h e r p e o p l e . " H a t i m tries o n c e , a n d fails. His legs t u r n to stone. H e fails o n c e m o r e a n d is petrified u p to his chest. T h e t h i r d t i m e h e j u s t s h u t s his eyes, e x c l a i m i n g " G o d is g r e a t , " shoots b l i n d l y , a n d this t i m e hits t h e p a r r o t . A n o u t b r e a k of t h u n d e r , c l o u d s of d u s t . W h e n all this has s u b s i d e d , in place of t h e p a r r o t is a n e n o r m o u s , beautiful d i a m o n d , a n d all t h e s t a t u e s h a v e c o m e to life a g a i n . T h e p e o p l e t h a n k h i m for t h e i r r e d e m p t i o n .

c o p y a n d a c t o u t t h e p a t t e r n of t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s m a d e b y h i s life. I t m e a n s t h a t w e s h o u l d try with a sincerity a n d d e v o t i o n e q u a l to his to live o u r o w n lives. T h e b a r b e r with the mirror, w h o vanishes, symbolizes

t h e gift o f r e f l e c t i o n

that

Hatim

loses w h e n h e w a n t s it m o s t ; t h e r i s i n g w a t e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e risk t h a t o n e m a y d r o w n in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d g e t lost i n o n e ' s o w n e m o t i o n s . In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the s y m b o l i c i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , o n e m u s t be careful n o t to get o u t s i d e oneself or " b e s i d e oneself," b u t to s t a y e m o t i o n a l l y w i t h i n o n e s e l f . I n d e e d , it is vitally i m p o r t a n t that the ego should c o n t i n u e

T h e r e a d e r will r e c o g n i z e t h e s y m b o l s of t h e S e l f in t h i s s t o r y round

t h e First M a n G a y o m a r t , t h e

mandala-shaped

building,

the

center-

stone, a n d the d i a m o n d . But this d i a m o n d

is

to f u n c t i o n

in n o r m a l w a y s . O n l y if I r e m a i n

a n o r d i n a r y h u m a n b e i n g , conscious of m y incompleteness, can

I b e c o m e r e c e p t i v e to

the

significant c o n t e n t s a n d processes of the u n c o n -

demonic

parrot

scious. But h o w c a n a h u m a n b e i n g stand

signifies t h e evil s p i r i t of i m i t a t i o n t h a t

makes

t e n s i o n ol f e e l i n g h i m s e l f a t o n e w i t h t h e w h o l e

o n e miss t h e t a r g e t a n d petrify psychologically.

u n i v e r s e , w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e h e is o n l y a

surrounded

by danger.

The

the

As I p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , t h e p r o c e s s of i n d i v i -

m i s e r a b l e e a r t h l y h u m a n c r e a t u r e ? If, o n

duation excludes any parrot-like imitation

of

o n e h a n d , I d e s p i s e m y s e l f as m e r e l y a s t a t i s t i c a l

o t h e r s . T i m e a n d a g a i n in a l l c o u n t r i e s p e o p l e

c i p h e r , m y life h a s n o m e a n i n g a n d is n o t w o r t h

h a v e tried to c o p y in " o u t e r " or ritualistic b e -

l i v i n g . B u t if, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , I feel m y s e l f

h a v i o r the o r i g i n a l religious e x p e r i e n c e of t h e i r

to be p a r t of s o m e t h i n g m u c h g r e a t e r , h o w a m

great religious teachers

Christ or B u d d h a or

I t o k e e p m y feet o n t h e g r o u n d ? difficult

" p e t r i f i e d . " T o f o l l o w in t h e s t e p s o f a g r e a t

u n i t e d w i t h i n oneself w i t h o u t t o p p l i n g o v e r i n t o

spiritual leader does not m e a n that one should

one or the other extreme.

Right, t h e r e p e n t a n t St M a r y M a g d a l e n gazes into a mirror (in a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y French artist G e o r g e s d e la T o u r ) Here, as in t h e tale o f t h e B a t h Badgerd, the mirror symbolizes the m u c h - n e e d e d faculty of true, inward-looking "reflection,"

to keep these i n n e r

It is v e r y

some other master â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d have therefore become

Far left, t h e t o r r e n t i a l w a t e r s of t h e river H e r a c l i t o s o v e r w h e l m a Greek t e m p l e , in a p a i n t i n g by the m o d e r n F r e n c h artist A n d r e M a s s o n T h e p a i n t i n g c a n b e seen as an a l l e g o r y o f t h e results o f imbalance: Greek overemphasis o n logic a n d r e a s o n ( t h e t e m p l e ) leading to a destructive e r u p t i o n of i n s t i n c t u a l f o r c e s Left, a more d i r e c t a l l e g o r y , f r o m a 15th-century illustration to the French a l l e g o r i c a l p o e m Le Roman de la Rose: t h e f i g u r e o f L o g i c ( o n the r i g h t ) is t h r o w n i n t o c o n f u s i o n w h e n c o n f r o n t e d by N a t u r e

indeed

the

opposites


The social aspect of the Self

population,

f r i e n d s n e x t S u n d a y ; t h e n a d r e a m f o r b i d s it

e s p e c i a l l y o b v i o u s in l a r g e c i t i e s , i n e v i t a b l y h a s

Today

the

enormous

growth

of

and d e m a n d s that you do some creative work

a d e p r e s s i n g effect o n u s . W e t h i n k , " O h , w e l l ,

instead. If y o u listen to y o u r u n c o n s c i o u s a n d

I a m only so-and-so living at s u c h - a n d - s u c h a n

o b e y it, y o u m u s t e x p e c t c o n s t a n t

a d d r e s s , like t h o u s a n d s of o t h e r p e o p l e . If a

w i t h y o u r c o n s c i o u s p l a n s . Y o u r w i l l is c r o s s e d

interference

f e w o f t h e m g e t k i l l e d , w h a t d i f f e r e n c e c a n it

by other intentions â&#x20AC;&#x201D; intentions that you

must

m a k e ? T h e r e a r e far t o o m a n y p e o p l e in a n y

s u b m i t to, or at a n y rate m u s t seriously

con-

c a s e . " A n d w h e n w e r e a d in t h e p a p e r a b o u t t h e

s i d e r . T h i s is p a r t l y w h y t h e o b l i g a t i o n a t t a c h e d

d e a t h s of i n n u m e r a b l e u n k n o w n

people

who

p e r s o n a l l y m e a n n o t h i n g to us, t h e feeling t h a t

t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n is o f t e n felt t o b e a b u r d e n r a t h e r t h a n an i m m e d i a t e blessing.

o u r l i v e s c o u n t for n o t h i n g is f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d .

St. C h r i s t o p h e r , t h e p a t r o n of all t r a v e l e r s ,

T h i s is t h e m o m e n t w h e n a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u n -

is a fitting s y m b o l for t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g

c o n s c i o u s b r i n g s t h e g r e a t e s t h e l p , for d r e a m s

t o t h e l e g e n d , h e felt a n a r r o g a n t p r i d e in h i s

s h o w t h e d r e a m e r h o w e a c h d e t a i l o f h i s life is

t r e m e n d o u s physical strength, a n d was willing

interwoven with the most significant

realities.

W h a t w e all k n o w t h e o r e t i c a l l y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h a t e v e r y thing

depends

on

the

individual â&#x20AC;&#x201D; becomes

to serve only t h e strongest. First he served king; but w h e n he saw that the king

a

feared

t h e d e v i l , h e left h i m a n d b e c a m e t h e d e v i l ' s

t h r o u g h d r e a m s a p a l p a b l e fact t h a t e v e r y o n e

servant. T h e n one day he discovered that

c a n e x p e r i e n c e for h i m s e l f . S o m e t i m e s w e h a v e

d e v i l f e a r e d t h e crucifix, a n d so h e d e c i d e d to

a

s e r v e C h r i s t if h e c o u l d find h i m . H e

s t r o n g feeling

that

the Great

Man

wants

s o m e t h i n g f r o m us a n d h a s set us v e r y s p e c i a l

the

followed

t h e a d v i c e o f a p r i e s t w h o t o l d h i m t o w a i t for

tasks. O u r r e s p o n s e to this e x p e r i e n c e c a n h e l p

Christ at a ford. I n the years t h a t passed

us to a c q u i r e t h e s t r e n g t h to s w i m a g a i n s t

the

carried m a n y people across the river. But once,

s t r e a m of collective p r e j u d i c e

our

on a dark, stormy night, a small child

by taking

t h i s is n o t a l w a y s a n

called

out that he w a n t e d to be carried over the river.

o w n soul seriously i n t o a c c o u n t . Naturally

he

agreeable

task. F o r i n s t a n c e , y o u w a n t to m a k e a trip w i t h

W i t h t h e g r e a t e s t ease, St. C h r i s t o p h e r t h e c h i l d o n to his s h o u l d e r s , b u t h e

lifted

walked


m o r e s l o w l y w i t h e v e r y s t e p , for h i s b u r d e n b e c a m e h e a v i e r a n d h e a v i e r . W h e n h e a r r i v e d in m i d s t r e a m , h e felt " a s if h e c a r r i e d t h e w h o l e universe." H e realized then that he had Christ

upon

his s h o u l d e r s — a n d

taken

Christ

gave

h i m r e m i s s i o n o f h i s s i n s a n d e t e r n a l life. T h i s m i r a c u l o u s c h i l d is a s y m b o l o f t h e S e l f that literally " d e p r e s s e s " the o r d i n a r y

human

b e i n g , e v e n t h o u g h it is t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t c a n r e d e e m h i m . I n m a n y w o r k s of a r t t h e C h r i s t c h i l d is d e p i c t e d a s , o r w i t h , t h e s p h e r e o f t h e w o r l d , a m o t i f t h a t c l e a r l y d e n o t e s t h e Self, for a child a n d a sphere are both universal symbols of t o t a l i t y . W h e n a p e r s o n tries to o b e y t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , h e will often, as w e h a v e seen, b e u n a b l e to d o j u s t as h e p l e a s e s . B u t e q u a l l y h e w i l l o f t e n b e u n a b l e to d o w h a t o t h e r people w a n t h i m

to

d o . I t o f t e n h a p p e n s , for i n s t a n c e , t h a t h e m u s t s e p a r a t e f r o m his g r o u p — f r o m his f a m i l y , his partner,

or

other

personal

connections—in

o r d e r t o find h i m s e l f . T h a t is w h y it is s o m e t i m e s The a c h i e v e m e n t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y is an i n d i v i d u a l t a s k — a n d so is i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o d a y w h e n m a n ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y is threatened by widespread conformity. Far left, a B r i t i s h h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h its s t e r e o t y p e d d w e l l i n g s ; left, a S w i s s a t h l e t i c s d i s p l a y p r o v i d e s an i m a g e of m a s s regimentation.

Above, a page from William Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience, in w h i c h t h e p o e m s reveal B l a k e ' s concept of the " d i v i n e c h i l d " — a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l o f t h e Self. Right, a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g o f St. C h r i s t o p h e r c a r r y i n g C h r i s t as a d i v i n e c h i l d ( w h o is e n c i r c l e d by a w o r l d s p h e r e — a m a n d a l a a n d a s y m b o l of t h e S e l f ) . T h i s b u r d e n symbolizes the " w e i g h t " of the task o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n — j u s t as St. C h r i s t o p h e r ' s role as t h e p a t r o n of t r a v e l e r s (far r i g h t , a St. Christopher medallion o n a car's i g n i t i o n k e y ) reflects h i s l i n k w i t h m a n ' s need t o travel the path to p s y c h o l o g i c a l w h o l e n e s s .

said t h a t a t t e n d i n g to the u n c o n s c i o u s

makes

p e o p l e antisocial a n d e g o c e n t r i c . As a rule this is n o t t r u e , for t h e r e is a l i t t l e - k n o w n f a c t o r t h a t e n t e r s i n t o this a t t i t u d e : t h e collective (or, w e c o u l d e v e n s a y , s o c i a l ) a s p e c t o f t h e Self.


From

a practical

i t s e l f in

that

an

a n g l e this factor

individual

who

reveals

follows

his

d r e a m s for a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e w i l l find

that

t h e y a r e often c o n c e r n e d w i t h his r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other people. His d r e a m s m a y w a r n

him

against trusting a certain person too m u c h , or he may d r e a m about a favorable and agreeable meeting with someone w h o m he m a y previously h a v e n e v e r c o n s c i o u s l y n o t i c e d . If a d r e a m d o e s p i c k u p t h e i m a g e of a n o t h e r p e r s o n for us i n some such fashion, there a r e t w o possible interp r e t a t i o n s . First, the figure m a y be a projection, w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e d r e a m - i m a g e of this person

is a

symbol

for

an

inner

aspect

of

the

d r e a m e r h i m s e l f . O n e d r e a m s , for i n s t a n c e , o f a d i s h o n e s t n e i g h b o r , b u t t h e n e i g h b o r is u s e d by the d r e a m

as a p i c t u r e of o n e ' s o w n

h o n e s t y . I t is t h e t a s k o f d r e a m to

find

dis-

interpretation

o u t in w h i c h s p e c i a l a r e a s o n e ' s

dishonesty

into

play.

called

d r e a m interpretation on the subjective

level.)

it a l s o h a p p e n s a t

(This

own

is

But

comes

times that

dreams

g e n u i n e l y tell us s o m e t h i n g a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e . I n t h i s w a y , t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p l a y s a r o l e t h a t is far from

L i k e all

the

h i g h e r f o r m s o f life, m a n is i n t u n e w i t h

b e i n g fully u n d e r s t o o d .

the

living beings a r o u n d him to a r e m a r k a b l e d e gree. H e perceives their sufferings a n d

prob-

lems, their positive a n d negative attributes a n d values,

instinctively â&#x20AC;&#x201D; quite

independently

of

his c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t s a b o u t o t h e r p e o p l e . O u r d r e a m life a l l o w s u s t o h a v e a l o o k a t these s u b l i m i n a l p e r c e p t i o n s a n d s h o w s us t h a t t h e y h a v e a n effect u p o n u s . A f t e r h a v i n g agreeable d r e a m about somebody, even

an

with-

out i n t e r p r e t i n g the d r e a m , I shall involuntarily look at t h a t

person

with

m o r e interest.

dream image may have deluded me,

The

because

o f m y p r o j e c t i o n s ; o r it m a y h a v e g i v e n

me

o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . T o find o u t w h i c h is t h e

2 2 0

T h e c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e Self c a n create a b o n d a m o n g p e o p l e that ignores more o b v i o u s , natural g r o u p s like t h e f a m i l y ( a b o v e left) A mental kinship on a conscious level c a n o f t e n b e t h e n u c l e u s of cultural d e v e l o p m e n t : above, the 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y French encyclopedists ( i n c l u d i n g V o l t a i r e , w i t h raised h a n d ) ; b e l o w , a p a i n t i n g by M a x Ernst of t h e early 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y " D a d a i s t " artists; a n d research p h y s i c i s t s at B r i t a i n ' s W i l l s L a b o r a t o r y


The p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e a n d u n i t y that m a n n e e d s t o d a y h a v e b e e n s y m b o l i z e d in m a n y m o d e r n d r e a m s by t h e u n i o n of t h e F r e n c h girl a n d t h e J a p a n e s e m a n in t h e w i d e l y p o p u l a r F r e n c h f i l m Hiroshima Mon Amour (1 9 5 9 ) , a b o v e A n d in t h e same d r e a m s , t h e o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e f r o m w h o l e n e s s (i.e. c o m p l e t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s s o c i a t i o n , or m a d n e s s ) has b e e n s y m b o l i z e d by a related 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y i m a g e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a nuclear explosion (right).

correct i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s a n honest, a t t e n tive a t t i t u d e a n d careful t h o u g h t . But, as is the case with all i n n e r processes, it is u l t i m a t e l y the Self t h a t o r d e r s a n d r e g u l a t e s o n e ' s h u m a n relationships, so long as the conscious ego lakes the t r o u b l e to d e t e c t the delusive projections a n d deals w i t h these inside himself instead of outside. It is in this w a y t h a t spiritually a t t u n e d and similarly o r i e n t e d p e o p l e find t h e i r w a y to one a n o t h e r , to c r e a t e a g r o u p t h a t cuts across all the usual social a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l affiliations of p e o p l e . S u c h a g r o u p is not in conflict with o t h e r s ; it is m e r e l y different a n d i n d e p e n d e n t . T h e consciously realized process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n thus c h a n g e s a person's relationships. T h e familiar b o n d s such as kinship or c o m m o n interests a r e r e p l a c e d by a different type of u n i t y â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a b o n d t h r o u g h the Self. All activities a n d o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t b e l o n g exclusively to the o u t e r w o r l d d o definite h a r m to the secret activities of the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h r o u g h these u n c o n s c i o u s ties those w h o b e l o n g tog e t h e r c o m e t o g e t h e r . T h a t is o n e reason w h y a t t e m p t s to influence people by a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and political p r o p a g a n d a a r e d e s t r u c t i v e , even when inspired by idealistic motives. T h i s raises the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r the unconscious p a r t of the h u m a n psyche c a n

b e influenced at all. P r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n show t h a t o n e c a n n o t influence o n e ' s o w n d r e a m s . T h e r e a r e p e o p l e , it is t r u e , w h o assert t h a t they can influence t h e m . But if you look into their d r e a m m a t e r i a l , you find t h a t they d o only w h a t I d o with m y diso b e d i e n t d o g ; I o r d e r h i m to d o those things I notice he w a n t s to d o a n y h o w , so t h a t I can preserve my illusion of a u t h o r i t y . O n l y a long process of i n t e r p r e t i n g o n e ' s d r e a m s a n d confronting oneself with w h a t they h a v e to say c a n g r a d u a l l y transform the u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d conscious a t t i t u d e s also must c h a n g e in this process. If a m a n w h o w a n t s to influence p u b l i c o p i n i o n misuses symbols for this p u r p o s e , they will n a t u r a l l y impress the masses in so far as they a r e t r u e symbols, b u t w h e t h e r or not the mass unconscious will be e m o t i o n a l l y g r i p p e d by t h e m is s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n n o t be c a l c u l a t e d in a d v a n c e , s o m e t h i n g that r e m a i n s c o m p l e t e l y i r r a t i o n a l . No music p u b l i s h e r , for i n s t a n c e , c a n tell in a d v a n c e w h e t h e r a song will b e c o m e a hit or not, even t h o u g h it m a y d r a w on p o p u l a r images a n d melodies. N o d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t s to influence the u n c o n s c i o u s h a v e yet p r o d u c e d a n y significant results, a n d it seems t h a t the mass u n c o n s c i o u s preserves its a u t o n o m y j u s t as m u c h as the i n d i v i d u a l unconscious.

22 I


At times, in o r d e r to express its p u r p o s e s , the u n c o n s c i o u s m a y use a motif from o u r external w o r l d a n d t h u s m a y seem to h a v e b e e n influe n c e d by it. For i n s t a n c e , I h a v e c o m e across m a n y d r e a m s of m o d e r n p e o p l e t h a t h a v e to d o w i t h Berlin. I n these d r e a m s Berlin stands as a s y m b o l of the psychic w e a k s p o t — t h e p l a c e of d a n g e r — a n d for this reason is the p l a c e w h e r e the Self is a p t to a p p e a r . It is the p o i n t w h e r e the d r e a m e r is t o r n by conflict and w h e r e he m i g h t , therefore, b e a b l e to u n i t e the i n n e r opposites. I h a v e also e n c o u n t e r e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y n u m b e r of d r e a m reactions to the film Hiroshima Mon Amour. I n most of these d r e a m s the idea was expressed t h a t e i t h e r the two lovers in the film m u s t u n i t e (which symbolizes the u n i o n of i n n e r opposites) or there w o u l d be a n a t o m i c explosion (a s y m b o l of complete dissociation, e q u i v a l e n t to m a d n e s s ) . O n l y w h e n t h e m a n i p u l a t o r s of public o p i n i o n a d d c o m m e r c i a l pressure or acts of violence to their activities d o t h e y seem to a c h i e v e a t e m p o r a r y success. But in fact this m e r e l y causes a repression of t h e g e n u i n e unconscious reactions. A n d mass repression leads to the s a m e result as i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s s i o n ; that is, to n e u r o t i c dissociation a n d psychological illness. All such a t t e m p t s to repress the reactions of the u n c o n s c i o u s m u s t fail in the long r u n , for they a r e basically o p p o s e d to o u r instincts. W e k n o w from s t u d y i n g t h e social behavior of the h i g h e r a n i m a l s t h a t small g r o u p s (from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 to 50 individuals) c r e a t e the

A s in t h e d r e a m q u o t e d o n p. 2 2 3 , p o s i t i v e a n i m a f i g u r e s o f t e n assist and guide m e n . T o p of page, from a 1 0 t h - c e n t u r y psalter, D a v i d i n s p i r e d by t h e m u s e . A b o v e , a g o d d e s s saves a s h i p w r e c k e d sailor ( i n a 1 6 t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g ) . R i g h t , o n a n early 20th-century postcard from M o n t e C a r l o , g a m b l e r s ' "Lady L u c k " — a l s o a helpful anima.

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Right, Liberty leading the French r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ( i n a p a i n t i n g by Delacroix) images the anima's f u n c t i o n of a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a t i o n by l i b e r a t i n g u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s Far r i g h t , in a s c e n e f r o m t h e 1 9 2 5 f a n t a s y f i l m Metropolis, a woman urges robot-like workers to find spiritual " l i b e r a t i o n . "


best possible living c o n d i t i o n s for the single a n i m a l as well as for the g r o u p , a n d m a n seems to b e n o e x c e p t i o n in this respect. His physical well-being, his s p i r i t u a l psychic h e a l t h , a n d , b e y o n d the a n i m a l r e a l m , his c u l t u r a l efficiency seem to flourish best in such a social function. As far as we at p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , the Self a p p a r e n t l y t e n d s to p r o d u c e such small g r o u p s by c r e a t i n g at the s a m e t i m e s h a r p l y defined ties of feeling between c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s a n d feelings of r e latedness to all p e o p l e . O n l y if these c o n n e c t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d by the Self c a n o n e feel a n y assura n c e t h a t e n v y , j e a l o u s y , fighting, a n d all m a n n e r of n e g a t i v e projections will not b r e a k u p the g r o u p . T h u s a n u n c o n d i t i o n a l d e v o t i o n to one's o w n process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n also brings a b o u t the best possible a d a p t a t i o n . T h i s does not m e a n , of course, t h a t t h e r e will not be collisions of o p i n i o n a n d conflicting o b l i g a t i o n s , or d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t the " r i g h t " w a y . in the face of w h i c h o n e m u s t c o n s t a n t l y w i t h d r a w a n d listen to o n e ' s i n n e r voice in o r d e r to find the i n d i v i d u a l s t a n d p o i n t t h a t the Self i n t e n d s o n e to h a v e . F a n a t i c a l political activity ( b u t not the perf o r m a n c e of essential duties) seems somehowincompatible with individuation. A m a n who d e v o t e d himself entirely to freeing his c o u n t r y from foreign o c c u p a t i o n h a d this d r e a m : With some of my compatriots I go up a stairway to the attic of a museum, where there is a

hall painted black and looking like a cabin on a ship. A distinguished-looking middle-aged lady opens the door; her name is X, daughter of X. [X was a famous national hero of the dreamer's country who attempted some centuries ago to free it. He might be compared to J o a n of Arc or William Tell. In reality X had no children.] In the hall we see the portraits of two aristocratic ladies dressed in flowery brocaded garments. While Miss X is explaining these pictures to us, they suddenly come to life; first the eyes begin to live, and then the chest seems to breathe. People are surprised and go to a lecture room where Miss X will speak to them about the phenomenon. She says that through her intuition and feeling these portraits came alive; but some of the people are indignant and say that Miss X is m a d ; some even leave the lecture room. T h e i m p o r t a n t feature of this d r e a m is t h a t the a n i m a figure, Miss X , is p u r e l y a c r e a t i o n of the d r e a m . She h a s , h o w e v e r , the n a m e of a famous n a t i o n a l h e r o - l i b e r a t o r (as if she w e r e , for instance. W i l h e l m i n a Tell, the d a u g h t e r of W i l l i a m T e l l ) . By the i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d in the n a m e , the unconscious is p o i n t i n g to the fact t h a t t o d a y the d r e a m e r should not try, as X did long ago, to free his c o u n t r y in a n o u t e r w a y . N o w , the d r e a m says, l i b e r a t i o n is a c c o m plished by the a n i m a (by the d r e a m e r ' s soul), w h o a c c o m p l i s h e s it b y b r i n g i n g the i m a g e s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s to life. T h a t the hall in the attic of the m u s e u m looks p a r t l y like a ship's c a b i n p a i n t e d black is very m e a n i n g f u l . T h e black color hints at d a r k ness, n i g h t , a t u r n i n g i n w a r d , a n d if the hall is

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a c a b i n , t h e n the m u s e u m is s o m e h o w also a ship. T h i s suggests t h a t w h e n the m a i n l a n d of collective consciousness b e c o m e s flooded by u n consciousness a n d b a r b a r i s m , this m u s e u m - s h i p , filled w i t h living i m a g e s , m a y t u r n i n t o a saving ark t h a t will c a r r y those w h o e n t e r it to a n o t h e r spiritual shore. P o r t r a i t s h a n g i n g in a m u s e u m are usually the d e a d r e m a i n s of t h e past, a n d often the i m a g e s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a r e reg a r d e d in t h e s a m e w a y u n t i l we discover t h a t they are alive a n d m e a n i n g f u l . W h e n t h e a n i m a ( w h o a p p e a r s h e r e in h e r rightful role of soulguide) c o n t e m p l a t e s the i m a g e s w i t h i n t u i t i o n a n d feeling, they b e g i n to live. T h e i n d i g n a n t p e o p l e in the d r e a m r e p r e s e n t the side of the d r e a m e r t h a t is influenced by collective o p i n i o n — s o m e t h i n g in h i m t h a t distrusts a n d rejects the b r i n g i n g to life of psychic i m a g e s . T h e y personify a resistance to t h e u n conscious t h a t m i g h t express itself s o m e t h i n g like t h i s : " B u t w h a t if t h e y b e g i n d r o p p i n g a t o m b o m b s on us? Psychological insight w o n ' t be m u c h h e l p t h e n ! " T h i s resistant side is u n a b l e to free itself from statistical t h i n k i n g a n d from extraverted r a t i o n a l prejudices. T h e d r e a m , h o w e v e r , points o u t t h a t in o u r t i m e g e n u i n e l i b e r a t i o n c a n s t a r t only with a psychological t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T o w h a t e n d does o n e l i b e r a t e one's c o u n t r y if a f t e r w a r d t h e r e is n o m e a n i n g f u l goal of l i f e no .goal for w h i c h it is w o r t h w h i l e to be free? If m a n n o l o n g e r finds a n y m e a n i n g in his life, it m a k e s n o difference w h e t h e r he wastes a w a y u n d e r a C o m m u n i s t or a capitalist r e g i m e . O n l y if he c a n use his freedom to c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g m e a n i n g f u l is it r e l e v a n t t h a t he s h o u l d b e free. T h a t is w h y finding the i n n e r m e a n i n g of life is m o r e i m p o r t a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l t h a n a n y t h i n g else, a n d w h y the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n must be given priority. A t t e m p t s to influence p u b l i c o p i n i o n by m e a n s of n e w s p a p e r s , r a d i o , television, a n d a d v e r t i s i n g a r e based on two factors. O n the o n e h a n d , they rely o n s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a t reveal the t r e n d of " o p i n i o n " or " w a n t s " - - t h a t is, of collective a t t i t u d e s . O n the o t h e r , they express prejudices, projections, a n d u n c o n scious c o m p l e x e s ( m a i n l y the p o w e r c o m p l e x ) 224

of those w h o m a n i p u l a t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . But statistics d o no j u s t i c e to the i n d i v i d u a l . A l t h o u g h the a v e r a g e size of stones in a h e a p m a y b e five c e n t i m e t e r s , o n e will find very few stones of exactly this size in the h e a p . T h a t the second factor c a n n o t c r e a t e a n y t h i n g positive is clear from the start. But if a single i n d i v i d u a l devotes himself to i n d i v i d u a tion, he frequently has a positive c o n t a g i o u s effect o n t h e p e o p l e a r o u n d h i m . It is as if a spark leaps from o n e to a n o t h e r . A n d this usually occurs w h e n o n e has n o i n t e n t i o n of influe n c i n g others a n d often w h e n o n e uses no w o r d s . It is o n t o this i n n e r p a t h t h a t Miss X tried to lead the d r e a m e r . N e a r l y all religious systems o n o u r p l a n e t c o n t a i n i m a g e s t h a t symbolize the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , or a t least some stages of it. In C h r i s t i a n c o u n t r i e s the Self is p r o j e c t e d , as I said before, o n t o t h e second A d a m : Christ. I n the East the r e l e v a n t figures a r e those of Krishna and Buddha. F o r p e o p l e w h o are c o n t a i n e d in a religion ( t h a t is, w h o still really believe in its c o n t e n t a n d t e a c h i n g s ) , t h e psychological r e g u l a t i o n of their lives is effected by religious symbols, a n d even t h e i r d r e a m s often revolve a r o u n d t h e m . W h e n the late P o p e Pius X I I issued the d e c l a r a t i o n of the A s s u m p t i o n of M a r y , a C a t h o l i c w o m a n d r e a m e d , for i n s t a n c e , t h a t she was a C a t h o l i c priestess. H e r u n c o n s c i o u s seemed to e x t e n d the d o g m a in this w a y : " I f M a r y is n o w a l m o s t a goddess, she s h o u l d h a v e priestesses." A n o t h e r C a t h o l i c w o m a n , w h o h a d resistances to s o m e of the m i n o r a n d o u t e r aspects of her creed, d r e a m e d t h a t the c h u r c h of h e r h o m e city h a d b e e n p u l l e d d o w n a n d r e b u i l t , b u t t h a t the t a b e r n a c l e w i t h t h e c o n s e c r a t e d host a n d the s t a t u e of the V i r g i n M a r y w e r e to be t r a n s ferred from the old to the n e w c h u r c h . T h e d r e a m s h o w e d her t h a t some of the m a n - m a d e aspects of h e r religion n e e d e d r e n e w a l , b u t t h a t its basic symbols — C o d ' s h a v i n g b e c o m e M a n , a n d the G r e a t M o t h e r , the V i r g i n M a r y — w o u l d survive t h e c h a n g e . S u c h d r e a m s d e m o n s t r a t e the living interest t h a t the u n c o n s c i o u s takes in the conscious religious r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of a n i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s


raises the q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r it is possible to d e tect a g e n e r a l t r e n d in all the religious d r e a m s of c o n t e m p o r a r y p e o p l e . I n the manifestations of the u n c o n s c i o u s found in o u r m o d e r n C h r i s tian c u l t u r e , w h e t h e r P r o t e s t a n t or C a t h o l i c , Dr. J u n g often observed t h a t t h e r e is a n unconscious t e n d e n c y at work to r o u n d off o u r t r i n i t a r i a n formula of the G o d h e a d with a fourth e l e m e n t , w h i c h t e n d s to be feminine, d a r k , a n d even evil. A c t u a l l y this fourth elem e n t has a l w a y s existed in the r e a l m of o u r religious r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , b u t it was s e p a r a t e d from the i m a g e of G o d a n d b e c a m e his c o u n t e r p a r t , in the form of m a t t e r itself (or the lord of m a t t e r â&#x20AC;&#x201D;i.e. the devil). N o w the unconscious seems to w a n t to r e u n i t e these e x t r e m e s , the light h a v i n g b e c o m e too b r i g h t a n d the d a r k ness too s o m b e r . N a t u r a l l y it is the c e n t r a l symbol of religion, the i m a g e of the G o d h e a d , t h a t is most exposed to u n c o n s c i o u s t e n d e n c i e s toward transformation. A T i b e t a n a b b o t o n c e told Dr. J u n g t h a t the most impressive m a n d a l a s in T i b e t a r e built u p by i m a g i n a t i o n , or d i r e c t e d fantasy, w h e n the psychological b a l a n c e of the g r o u p is d i s t u r b e d or w h e n a p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t c a n n o t be r e n d ered because it is not yet c o n t a i n e d 1n the sacred d o c t r i n e a n d must therefore be s e a r c h e d for. In these r e m a r k s , two e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t basic aspects of m a n d a l a symbolism e m e r g e . T h e m a n d a l a serves a c o n s e r v a t i v e p u r p o s e n a m e l y , to restore a previously existing o r d e r .

But it also serves the c r e a t i v e p u r p o s e of giving expression a n d form to s o m e t h i n g t h a t does not yet exist, s o m e t h i n g new a n d u n i q u e . T h e second aspect is p e r h a p s even m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n the first, b u t does not c o n t r a d i c t it. For, in most cases, w h a t restores the old o r d e r simultaneously involves s o m e e l e m e n t of n e w creation. In the n e w o r d e r the older p a t t e r n r e t u r n s on a h i g h e r level. T h e process is t h a t of the a s c e n d i n g spiral, w h i c h grows u p w a r d while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e t u r n i n g a g a i n a n d a g a i n to the same point. A p a i n t i n g by a simple w o m a n w h o was b r o u g h t u p in P r o t e s t a n t s u r r o u n d i n g s shows a m a n d a l a in the form of a spiral. In a d r e a m this w o m a n received a n o r d e r to p a i n t the G o d h e a d . L a t e r (also in a d r e a m ) she saw it in a book. O f G o d himself she saw only his wafting cloak, the d r a p e r y of w h i c h m a d e a beautiful display of light a n d s h a d o w . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d impressively with the stability of the spiral in the d e e p blue sky. F a s c i n a t e d by t h e cloak a n d the .spiral, the d r e a m e r did not look closely at the o t h e r figure on the rocks. W h e n she a w o k e a n d t h o u g h t a b o u t w h o these d i v i n e figures w e r e , she s u d d e n l y realized t h a t it was " G o d himself." T h i s g a v e h e r a frightful shock, w h i c h she felt for a long t i m e . U s u a l l y the H o l y G h o s t is r e p r e s e n t e d in C h r i s t i a n a r t by a fiery wheel or a d o v e , b u t h e r e it has a p p e a r e d as a spiral. T h i s is a n e w t h o u g h t , " n o t yet c o n t a i n e d in the d o c t r i n e , "

T h i s 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y s t a t u e of M a r y c o n t a i n s w i t h i n it i m a g e s of b o t h G o d a n d C h r i s t â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a clear e x p r e s s i o n of t h e fact t h a t t h e V i r g i n M a r y c a n be said t o b e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e "Great M o t h e r " a r c h e t y p e

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w h i c h has s p o n t a n e o u s l y arisen from t h e unconscious. T h a t t h e H o l y G h o s t is the p o w e r t h a t works for the further d e v e l o p m e n t of o u r religious u n d e r s t a n d i n g is not a new idea, of course, b u t its symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in the form of a spiral is n e w . T h e s a m e w o m a n t h e n p a i n t e d a second p i c t u r e , also inspired by a d r e a m , s h o w i n g the d r e a m e r with her positive a n i m u s s t a n d i n g a b o v e J e r u s a l e m w h e n the w i n g of S a t a n d e scends to d a r k e n the city. The s a t a n i c wing strongly r e m i n d e d her of t h e wafting cloak of G o d in the first p a i n t i n g , b u t in the former d r e a m the s p e c t a t o r is high u p , s o m e w h e r e in h e a v e n , a n d sees in front of her a terrific split b e t w e e n the rocks. T h e m o v e m e n t in the cloak of G o d is a n a t t e m p t to r e a c h C h r i s t , the figure on t h e right, but it does not q u i t e succeed. In the second p a i n t i n g , the s a m e t h i n g is seen from below from a h u m a n a n g l e . L o o k i n g at it from a h i g h e r a n g l e , w h a t is m o v i n g a n d s p r e a d i n g is a p a r t of G o d ; a b o v e that rises the spiral as a s y m b o l of possible further d e v e l o p m e n t . But seen from the basis of o u r h u m a n reality, this s a m e t h i n g in the air is the d a r k , u n c a n n y w i n g of the devil.

A miniature f r o m the 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h Book of Hours, s h o w i n g M a r y w i t h the Holy Trinity. The Catholic Church's d o g m a of the A s s u m p t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in w h i c h M a r y , as domina rerum. Q u e e n o f N a t u r e , w a s declared to have entered heaven w i t h soul and body r e u n i t e d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c a n b e said t o h a v e m a d e t h e T r i n i t y fourfold, corresponding w i t h the basic archetype of c o m p l e t e n e s s

In the d r e a m e r ' s life these t w o pictures bec a m e real in a w a y t h a t does not c o n c e r n us h e r e , b u t it is o b v i o u s t h a t they also c o n t a i n a collective m e a n i n g t h a t r e a c h e s b e y o n d the personal. T h e y m a y p r o p h e s y the descent of a divine d a r k n e s s u p o n the C h r i s t i a n h e m i s p h e r e , a d a r k n e s s t h a t points, h o w e v e r , t o w a r d the possibility of further e v o l u t i o n . Since the axis of the spiral does not m o v e u p w a r d b u t into the b a c k g r o u n d of the p i c t u r e , t h e further evolution will lead n e i t h e r to g r e a t e r spiritual height n o r d o w n into the r e a l m of m a t t e r , b u t to a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n , p r o b a b l y into the backg r o u n d of these divine figures. A n d that m e a n s into the u n c o n s c i o u s . W h e n religious symbols that a r e p a r t l y different from those we know e m e r g e from the u n c o n s c i o u s of a n i n d i v i d u a l , it is often feared t h a t these will wrongfully a l t e r or d i m i n i s h the officially recognized religious symbols. T h i s fear even causes m a n y p e o p l e to reject a n a l y t i c a l psychology a n d the e n t i r e u n c o n s c i o u s .

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II I look at such a resistance from a psychological point of view, I should h a v e to c o m ment t h a t as far as religion is c o n c e r n e d , h u m a n beings c a n b e d i v i d e d into t h r e e types. First, t h e r e a r e those w h o still g e n u i n e l y believe their religious d o c t r i n e s , w h a t e v e r they m a y be. For these p e o p l e , t h e symbols a n d d o c t r i n e s " c l i c k " so satisfyingly w i t h w h a t they feel d e e p inside themselves t h a t serious d o u b t s h a v e n o c h a n c e to sneak in. T h i s h a p p e n s w h e n the views of consciousness a n d the u n c o n s c i o u s b a c k g r o u n d a r e in relative h a r m o n y . People of this sort c a n afford to look at n e w psychological discoveries a n d facts w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e and need not fear t h a t they m a y be caused to lose their faith. E v e n if t h e i r d r e a m s should bring u p some relatively u n o r t h o d o x details, these c a n be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o their g e n e r a l view. T h e second type consists of those p e o p l e w h o have c o m p l e t e l y lost t h e i r faith a n d h a v e replaced it with purely conscious, r a t i o n a l opinions. F o r these p e o p l e , d e p t h psychology simply m e a n s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o newly discovered a r e a s of the p s y c h e , a n d it s h o u l d cause no t r o u b l e w h e n they e m b a r k on the n e w a d v e n t u r e a n d investigate t h e i r d r e a m s to test the truth of t h e m . T h e n t h e r e is a t h i r d g r o u p of p e o p l e w h o in one p a r t of themselves ( p r o b a b l y the h e a d ) n o longer believe in their religious t r a d i t i o n s ,

w h e r e a s in s o m e o t h e r p a r t they still d o believe. The French p h i l o s o p h e r Voltaire is an illustration of this. H e violently a t t a c k e d the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h with r a t i o n a l a r g u m e n t (ecrasez I'infdme), b u t on his d e a t h b e d , a c c o r d i n g to some reports, he begged for e x t r e m e u n c t i o n . W h e t h e r this is true or not, his h e a d was certainly unreligious, w h e r e a s his feelings a n d e m o t i o n s seem still to h a v e been o r t h o d o x . S u c h people r e m i n d o n e of a person g e t t i n g stuck in the a u t o m a t i c d o o r s of a b u s ; h e c a n n e i t h e r get out into free space n o r r e - e n t e r the bus. O f course the d r e a m s of such persons could p r o b ably h e l p t h e m out of their d i l e m m a , b u t such people frequently h a v e t r o u b l e t u r n i n g t o w a r d the unconscious because they themselves d o not k n o w w h a t they think a n d w a n t . T o take the u n c o n s c i o u s seriously is u l t i m a t e l y a m a t t e r of personal c o u r a g e a n d integrity. T h e c o m p l i c a t e d situation of those w h o a r e c a u g h t in a n o - m a n ' s - l a n d b e t w e e n t h e two states of m i n d is p a r t l y c r e a t e d by the fact t h a t all official religious d o c t r i n e s a c t u a l l y b e l o n g to the collective consciousness ( w h a t F r e u d called the s u p e r - e g o ) ; b u t o n c e , long a g o , they s p r a n g from the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h i s is a p o i n t t h a t m a n y historians of religion a n d theologians c h a l l e n g e . T h e y choose to a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e was o n c e some sort of " r e v e l a t i o n . " I h a v e s e a r c h e d for m a n y years for c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e for the J u n -

Paintings of the dreams discussed o n p p . 2 2 5 - 6 : Left, t h e spiral (a f o r m of m a n d a l a ) represents the Holy Ghost; right, the dark w i n g of S a t a n , f r o m t h e s e c o n d d r e a m Neither m o t i f w o u l d be a familiar religious symbol to most people (nor w e r e they t o the dreamer): Each e m e r g e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y from the unconscious.


gian hypothesis a b o u t this p r o b l e m ; b u t it has b e e n difficult to find b e c a u s e most rituals are so old t h a t o n e c a n n o t t r a c e their origin. T h e following e x a m p l e , h o w e v e r , seems to m e to offer a most i m p o r t a n t c l u e : Black Elk, a m e d i c i n e m a n of the O g l a l a Sioux, w h o d i e d not long ago, tells us in his a u t o b i o g r a p h y Black Elk Speaks t h a t , w h e n he was n i n e years old, he b e c a m e seriously ill a n d d u r i n g a sort of c o m a h a d a t r e m e n d o u s vision. H e saw four g r o u p s of beautiful horses c o m i n g from the four corners of the w o r l d , a n d t h e n , seated w i t h i n a c l o u d , he saw the Six G r a n d fathers, the a n c e s t r a l spirits of his t r i b e , " t h e g r a n d f a t h e r s of the w h o l e w o r l d . " T h e y g a v e h i m six h e a l i n g symbols for his p e o p l e a n d showed h i m n e w ways of life. But w h e n h e was 16 years old, he s u d d e n l y d e v e l o p e d a terrible p h o b i a w h e n e v e r a t h u n d e r s t o r m was a p p r o a c h i n g , b e c a u s e he h e a r d " t h u n d e r b e i n g s " calling to h i m " t o m a k e h a s t e . " It r e m i n d e d h i m of the t h u n d e r i n g noise m a d e by the a p p r o a c h i n g horses in his vision. A n old m e d i c i n e m a n e x p l a i n e d to h i m t h a t his fear c a m e from the fact t h a t he was k e e p i n g his vision to h i m self, a n d said t h a t h e m u s t tell it to his tribe. H e did so, a n d l a t e r he a n d his p e o p l e a c t e d o u t the vision in a r i t u a l , using real horses. N o t merely Black Elk himself, b u t m a n y o t h e r m e m b e r s of his tribe felt infinitely b e t t e r after this play. S o m e w e r e even c u r e d of t h e i r diseases. Black Elk s a i d : " E v e n the horses s e e m e d to be h e a l t h i e r a n d h a p p i e r after the d a n c e . " T h e ritual was n o t r e p e a t e d b e c a u s e t h e t r i b e was destroyed soon a f t e r w a r d . But h e r e is a different case in w h i c h a ritual still survives. Several E s k i m o tribes living n e a r the Colville R i v e r in Alaska e x p l a i n t h e origin of their eagle festival in the following w a y :

A young hunter shot dead a very unusual eagle and was so impressed by the beauty of the dead bird that he stuffed and made a fetish of him, honoring him by sacrifices. One day, when the hunter had traveled far inland during his hunting, two animal-men suddenly appeared in the role of messengers and led him to the land of the eagles. There he heard a dark drumming noise, 2 2Q

and the messengers explained that this was the heartbeat of the dead eagle's mother. Then the eagle spirit appeared to the hunter as a woman clothed in black. She asked him to initiate an eagle festival among his people to honor her dead son. After the eagle people had shown him how to do this, he suddenly found himself, exhausted, back in the place where he had met the messengers. Returning home, he taught his people how to perform the great eagle festivalâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;as they have done faithfully ever since.

F r o m such e x a m p l e s we see h o w a r i t u a l or religious c u s t o m c a n s p r i n g directly from a n u n c o n s c i o u s r e v e l a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by a single i n d i v i d u a l . O u t of such b e g i n n i n g s , p e o p l e living in c u l t u r a l g r o u p s d e v e l o p their various religious activities w i t h t h e i r e n o r m o u s influence on the entire life of the society. D u r i n g a long process of e v o l u t i o n t h e original m a t e r i a l is s h a p e d a n d r e s h a p e d by w o r d s a n d actions, is beautified, a n d a c q u i r e s increasingly definite forms. T h i s crystallizing process, h o w e v e r , has a great disadvantage. M o r e and more people h a v e n o p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e of the original exp e r i e n c e a n d c a n only believe w h a t t h e i r elders a n d t e a c h e r s tell t h e m a b o u t it. T h e y n o longer k n o w t h a t such h a p p e n i n g s a r e real, a n d they are of course i g n o r a n t a b o u t h o w o n e feels d u r ing the e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e i r p r e s e n t forms, w o r k e d over a n d exceedingly a g e d , such religious t r a d i t i o n s often resist further c r e a t i v e a l t e r a t i o n s by t h e u n c o n scious. T h e o l o g i a n s s o m e t i m e s even defend these " t r u e " religious symbols a n d symbolic d o c t r i n e s a g a i n s t the discovery of a religious function in the u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h e , forgetting t h a t t h e values t h e y fight for o w e t h e i r existence to t h a t very s a m e function. W i t h o u t a h u m a n p s y c h e to receive d i v i n e inspirations a n d u t t e r t h e m in w o r d s or s h a p e t h e m in art, no religious s y m b o l has ever c o m e into the reality of o u r h u m a n life. ( W e need only think of the p r o p h e t s a n d the evangelists.) If s o m e o n e objects t h a t t h e r e is a religious reality in itself, i n d e p e n d e n t of the h u m a n psyche, I c a n only a n s w e r such a p e r s o n w i t h this q u e s t i o n : " W h o says this, if n o t a h u m a n p s y c h e ? " N o m a t t e r w h a t we assert, we c a n


n e v e r get a w a y from t h e existence of t h e psyche â&#x20AC;&#x201D;for w e a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n it, a n d it is t h e only m e a n s by w h i c h w e c a n g r a s p reality. T h u s t h e m o d e r n discovery of t h e u n c o n scious shuts o n e d o o r forever. It definitely excludes t h e illusory i d e a , so favored by s o m e individuals, that a m a n can know spiritual reality in itself. In m o d e r n physics, t o o , a d o o r has b e e n closed by H e i s e n b e r g ' s " p r i n c i p l e of i n d e t e r m i n a c y , " s h u t t i n g o u t t h e delusion t h a t we c a n c o m p r e h e n d a n a b s o l u t e physical r e ality. T h e discovery of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , h o w ever, c o m p e n s a t e s for t h e loss of these beloved illusions by o p e n i n g before us a n i m m e n s e a n d u n e x p l o r e d n e w field of r e a l i z a t i o n s , w i t h i n w h i c h objective scientific i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o m bines in a s t r a n g e n e w w a y w i t h p e r s o n a l ethical a d v e n t u r e . But, as I said a t t h e o u t s e t , it is p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to i m p a r t t h e w h o l e reality of o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e in t h e n e w field. M u c h is u n i q u e a n d c a n be o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o m m u n i c a t e d by l a n g u a g e . H e r e , t o o , a d o o r is s h u t a g a i n s t t h e

illusion t h a t o n e c a n c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a n o t h e r p e r s o n a n d tell h i m w h a t is right for h i m . O n c e a g a i n , h o w e v e r , o n e c a n find a c o m p e n s a t i o n for this in the n e w r e a l m of e x p e r i e n c e by t h e discovery of t h e social function of the Self, w h i c h w o r k s in a h i d d e n w a y to u n i t e s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o b e l o n g together. I n t e l l e c t u a l c h i t - c h a t is t h u s r e p l a c e d bym e a n i n g f u l events t h a t o c c u r in t h e reality of the p s y c h e . H e n c e , for t h e i n d i v i d u a l to e n t e r seriously into t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n in t h e w a y t h a t has b e e n o u t l i n e d m e a n s a c o m p l e t e l y n e w a n d different o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d life. F o r scientists it also m e a n s a n e w a n d different scientific a p p r o a c h to o u t e r facts. H o w this will work o u t in t h e field of h u m a n k n o w l e d g e a n d in t h e social life of h u m a n beings c a n n o t b e p r e d i c t e d . But to m e it seems c e r t a i n t h a t J u n g ' s discovery of t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n is a fact t h a t future g e n e r a t i o n s will h a v e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t if t h e y w a n t to avoid drifting i n t o a s t a g n a n t o r even regressive o u t l o o k .

T h i s p a i n t i n g ( b y Erhard J a c o b y ) illustrates t h e fact that each o f us, p e r c e i v i n g t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e , p e r c e i v e s it in a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t w a y f r o m others T h e m a n , w o m a n , a n d c h i l d are l o o k i n g at t h e s a m e s c e n e ; b u t , for e a c h , d i f f e r e n t d e t a i l s b e c o m e clear or o b s c u r e d O n l y b y m e a n s of our c o n s c i o u s p e r c e p t i o n d o e s t h e w o r l d e x i s t " o u t s i d e " : W e are surrounded by something completely u n k n o w n a n d u n k n o w a b l e (here represented by the p a i n t i n g ' s gray b a c k g r o u n d )

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4

S y m b o l i s m in t h e visual arts

Aniela J a f f e

Variation

within

a Sphere

no. 10: The Sun, by Richard Lippold


Symbolism in the visual arts

Sacred symbols—the stone and the animal

T h e history of s y m b o l i s m shows t h a t e v e r y t h i n g can assume symbolic significance: natural objects (like stones, p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , m e n , m o u n tains a n d valleys, s u n a n d m o o n , w i n d , w a t e r , a n d fire), or m a n - m a d e t h i n g s (like houses, b o a t s , or c a r s ) , or e v e n a b s t r a c t forms (like n u m bers, or t h e t r i a n g l e , t h e s q u a r e , a n d the circle). I n fact, t h e w h o l e c o s m o s is a p o t e n t i a l s y m b o l . M a n , w i t h his s y m b o l - m a k i n g p r o p e n s i t y , unconsciously t r a n s f o r m s objects or forms i n t o s y m b o l s ( t h e r e b y e n d o w i n g t h e m w i t h g r e a t psychological i m p o r t a n c e ) a n d expresses t h e m in b o t h his religion a n d his visual a r t . T h e i n t e r t w i n e d history of religion a n d a r t , r e a c h i n g b a c k to p r e h i s t o r i c t i m e s , is t h e r e c o r d t h a t o u r a n c e s tors h a v e left of t h e s y m b o l s t h a t w e r e m e a n ingful a n d m o v i n g to t h e m . E v e n t o d a y , as m o d e r n p a i n t i n g a n d s c u l p t u r e s h o w , the i n t e r p l a y of religion a n d a r t is still alive. F o r t h e first p a r t of m y discussion of s y m bolism in t h e visual a r t s , I i n t e n d to e x a m i n e s o m e of t h e specific motifs t h a t h a v e b e e n u n i versally s a c r e d or m y s t e r i o u s to m a n . T h e n , for the r e m a i n d e r of t h e c h a p t e r , I wish to discuss the p h e n o m e n o n of 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y a r t , n o t in t e r m s of its use of s y m b o l s , b u t in t e r m s of its significance as a symbol itself—a symbolic expression of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the modern world. I n the following p a g e s , I h a v e c h o s e n t h r e e r e c u r r i n g motifs w i t h w h i c h to illustrate t h e p r e s e n c e a n d n a t u r e of s y m b o l i s m in t h e a r t of m a n y different p e r i o d s . T h e s e a r e t h e s y m b o l s of t h e s t o n e , t h e a n i m a l , a n d t h e c i r c l e — e a c h of w h i c h has h a d e n d u r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l significance from t h e earliest expressions of h u m a n consciousness to t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d forms of 20th-century art. W e k n o w t h a t e v e n u n h e w n stones h a d a h i g h l y s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g for a n c i e n t a n d p r i m i tive societies. R o u g h , n a t u r a l stones w e r e often believed to be t h e d w e l l i n g places of spirits or gods, a n d w e r e used in p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s as

232


t o m b s t o n e s , b o u n d a r y stones, or objects of religious v e n e r a t i o n . T h e i r use m a y b e r e g a r d e d as a p r i m e v a l form of s c u l p t u r e a first a t t e m p t to invest t h e stone w i t h m o r e expressive p o w e r t h a n c h a n c e a n d n a t u r e c o u l d give it. T h e O l d T e s t a m e n t story of J a c o b ' s d r e a m is a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e of h o w , t h o u s a n d s of years ago, m a n felt t h a t a living god or a d i v i n e spirit was e m b o d i e d in t h e s t o n e a n d h o w the stone became a symbol: And J a c o b . . . went toward Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of the place, and put them for his pillows and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven, and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed. And J a c o b awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the Lord is in this place; and I knew it not. And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. And J a c o b rose up early in the morning and took the stone

A b o v e left, t h e s t o n e a l i g n m e n t s at C a r n a c in B r i t t a n y , d a t i n g f r o m c. 2 0 0 0 B . C . â&#x20AC;&#x201D; c r u d e s t o n e s set u p r i g h t in r o w s t h a t are t h o u g h t t o have b e e n u s e d in s a c r e d rituals a n d r e l i g i o u s p r o c e s s i o n s . Left, rough stones resting o n raked sand in a Z e n B u d d h i s t rock g a r d e n ( i n the R y o a n j i t e m p l e , J a p a n ) . T h o u g h apparently haphazard, the stones' a r r a n g e m e n t in f a c t e x p r e s s e s a highly refined spirituality. Right, a prehistoric menhirâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a rock t h a t h a s b e e n s l i g h t l y c a r v e d into a female f o r m ( p r o b a b l y a m o t h e r g o d d e s s ) . Far r i g h t , a s c u l p t u r e by M a x Ernst ( b o r n 1 8 9 1 ) has also hardly altered the natural shape of the stone.

that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Beth-el. F o r J a c o b , the stone was a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of the r e v e l a t i o n . It was t h e m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n himself and God. I n m a n y p r i m i t i v e s t o n e - s a n c t u a r i e s , the deity is r e p r e s e n t e d not by a single stone b u t by a g r e a t m a n y u n h e w n stones, a r r a n g e d in distinct p a t t e r n s . ( T h e g e o m e t r i c a l stone a l i g n m e n t s in B r i t t a n y a n d the stone circle a t S t o n e h e n g e a r e famous e x a m p l e s . ) A r r a n g e m e n t s of r o u g h n a t u r a l stones also p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t in the highly civilized rock g a r d e n s of Z e n B u d d h i s m . T h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t is n o t g e o m e t r i cal b u t seems to h a v e c o m e a b o u t by p u r e c h a n c e . I n fact, h o w e v e r , it is t h e expression of a most refined s p i r i t u a l i t y . V e r y e a r l y in history, m e n b e g a n t r y i n g to express w h a t t h e y felt to b e t h e soul or spirit of a rock b y w o r k i n g it i n t o a r e c o g n i z a b l e form. I n m a n y cases, the form was a m o r e or less d e finite a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the h u m a n figureâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for instance, the ancient menhirs with their crude o u t l i n e s of faces, or the h e r m s t h a t d e v e l o p e d o u t of b o u n d a r y stones in a n c i e n t G r e e c e , or the


m a n y p r i m i t i v e stone idols with h u m a n features. T h e a n i m a t i o n of the stone m u s t b e e x p l a i n e d as the projection of a m o r e or less distinct c o n t e n t of the u n c o n s c i o u s into the stone. T h e p r i m i t i v e t e n d e n c y to give m e r e l y a hint of a h u m a n figure, a n d to r e t a i n m u c h of the stone's n a t u r a l form, c a n also be seen in m o d e r n s c u l p t u r e . M a n y e x a m p l e s show t h e artists" c o n c e r n w i t h the "self-expression" of 'tins t o n e ; to use the l a n g u a g e of m y t h , the stone is allowed to " s p e a k for itself." This c a n be seen, for i n s t a n c e , in the w o r k of the Swiss s c u l p t o r H a n s A e s c h b a c h e r , the A m e r i c a n s c u l p t o r J a m e s R o s a t i , a n d the G e r m a n - b o r n artist M a x Ernst. In a letter from M a l o j a in 1935, Ernst w r o t e : " A l b e r t o [ t h e Swiss artist G i a c o m e t t i ] a n d I a r e afflicted with s c u l p t u r i t i s . W e work on g r a n i t e b o u l d e r s , large a n d small, from the m o r a i n e of the F o r n o glacier. W o n d e r f u l l y polished by t i m e , frost, a n d w e a t h e r , they a r e in themselves fantastically beautiful. N o h u m a n h a n d c a n d o that. So w h y not leave the s p a d e work to the e l e m e n t s , a n d confine ourselves to s c r a t c h i n g on t h e m the runes of o u r o w n mystery?" W h a t Ernst m e a n t by " m y s t e r y " is not exp l a i n e d . But later in this c h a p t e r I shall try to show t h a t the " m y s t e r i e s " of the m o d e r n artist a r e not very different from those of t h e old masters w h o knew the "spirit of the s t o n e . " T h e e m p h a s i s on t h i s " s p i r i t " in m u c h s c u l p t u r e is o n e i n d i c a t i o n of the shifting, indefinable 234

b o r d e r l i n e b e t w e e n religion a n d a r t . S o m e t i m e s o n e c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d from the o t h e r . The s a m e a m b i v a l e n c e c a n also be seen in a n o t h e r symbolic motif, as it a p p e a r s in age-old works of a r t : the symbol of the a n i m a l . A n i m a l pictures go back to the last Ice Age ( b e t w e e n 60,000 a n d 10,000 B . C . ) . T h e y were discovered on the walls of caves in F r a n c e a n d S p a i n at the end of the last c e n t u r y , but it was not until early in t h e present c e n t u r y that archaeologists b e g a n to realize their e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e a n d to i n q u i r e into their m e a n i n g . These inquiries revealed a n infinitely r e m o t e prehistoric c u l t u r e whose existence h a d never even been suspected. Even t o d a y , a s t r a n g e music seems to h a u n t the caves that c o n t a i n the rock e n g r a v i n g s a n d p a i n t i n g s . A c c o r d i n g to the G e r m a n art historian H e r b e r t K i i h n , i n h a b i t a n t s of the a r e a s in Africa, S p a i n , F r a n c e , a n d S c a n d i n a v i a w h e r e such p a i n t i n g s a r e found could not be i n d u c e d to go n e a r the caves. A kind of religious a w e , or p e r h a p s a fear of spirits h o v e r i n g a m o n g the rocks a n d the p a i n t i n g s , held t h e m back. Passing n o m a d s still lay their votive offerings before the old rock p a i n t i n g s in N o r t h Africa. In the 1 5 t h c e n t u r y . P o p e Calixtus 11 p r o h i b i t e d religious c e r e m o n i e s in the " c a v e with the horsep i c t u r e s . " W h i c h c a v e the p o p e m e a n t is not k n o w n , b u t t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t it was a c a v e of the Ice A g e c o n t a i n i n g a n i m a l pictures. All this goes to p r o v e t h a t the caves a n d rocks


Far left, a n i m a l p a i n t i n g s o n c a v e w a l l s at L a s c a u x T h e p a i n t i n g s were not simply decorative; they h a d a m a g i c a l f u n c t i o n . Left, a d r a w i n g of a b i s o n c o v e r e d w i t h a r r o w a n d spear m a r k s : T h e c a v e d w e l l e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t by r i t u a l l y " k i l l i n g " t h e i m a g e , t h e y w o u l d be m o r e likely t o kill t h e a n i m a l .

Even t o d a y t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of a n e f f i g y or s t a t u e is a s y m b o l ic killing of the person d e p i c t e d . R i g h t , a s t a t u e of S t a l i n d e s t r o y e d by H u n g a r i a n rebels in 1 9 5 6 ; far r i g h t , rebels h a n g a b u s t o f t h e f o r m e r Stalinist Hungarian premier Matyas Rakosi.

with the a n i m a l p a i n t i n g s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n instinctively felt to b e w h a t they originally w e r e â&#x20AC;&#x201D;religious places. T h e numen of the p l a c e has outlived the c e n t u r i e s . In a n u m b e r of caves the m o d e r n visitor must travel t h r o u g h low, d a r k , a n d d a m p passages till he reaches the p o i n t w h e r e the great p a i n t e d " c h a m b e r s " suddenly open out. This arduous a p p r o a c h m a y express the desire of the p r i m i tive m e n to safeguard from c o m m o n sight all t h a t was c o n t a i n e d a n d w e n t on in t h e caves, a n d to p r o t e c t their m y s t e r y . T h e s u d d e n a n d u n e x p e c t e d sight of t h e p a i n t i n g s in the c h a m bers, c o m i n g after the difficult a n d awe-inspiring a p p r o a c h , m u s t h a v e m a d e a n o v e r w h e l m ing impression on p r i m i t i v e m a n . T h e p a l e o l i t h i c c a v e p a i n t i n g s consist almost entirely of figures of a n i m a l s , whose m o v e m e n t s a n d postures h a v e b e e n observed in n a t u r e a n d r e n d e r e d with g r e a t artistic skill. T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , m a n y details t h a t show t h a t t h e figures w e r e i n t e n d e d to b e s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n naturalistic reproductions. Kiihn writes: " T h e s t r a n g e t h i n g is t h a t a good m a n y p r i m i t i v e p a i n t i n g s h a v e b e e n used as targets. At M o n t e span t h e r e is a n e n g r a v i n g of a horse t h a t is being d r i v e n into a t r a p ; it is pitted w i t h the m a r k s of missiles. A clay m o d e l of a b e a r in the same c a v e has 42 h o l e s . " T h e s e p i c t u r e s suggest a h u n t i n g - m a g i c like that still p r a c t i c e d t o d a y by h u n t i n g tribes in Africa. T h e p a i n t e d a n i m a l has t h e function of

a " d o u b l e " ; by its symbolic s l a u g h t e r , the h u n t e r s a t t e m p t to a n t i c i p a t e a n d e n s u r e the d e a t h of the real a n i m a l . T h i s is a form of symp a t h e t i c m a g i c , w h i c h is based on t h e " r e a l i t y " of a d o u b l e r e p r e s e n t e d in a p i c t u r e : W h a t h a p p e n s to the p i c t u r e will h a p p e n to the original. T h e u n d e r l y i n g psychological fact is a s t r o n g identification b e t w e e n a living being a n d its i m a g e , w h i c h is considered to be the being's soul. ( T h i s is o n e reason w h y a g r e a t m a n y p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e t o d a y will shrink from being photographed.) O t h e r cave p i c t u r e s m u s t h a v e served m a g i c fertility rites. T h e y show a n i m a l s at the m o m e n t of m a t i n g ; a n e x a m p l e c a n b e seen in the figures of a m a l e a n d female bison in the T u c d ' A u d u b e r t c a v e in F r a n c e . T h u s the r e a listic p i c t u r e of the a n i m a l s was e n r i c h e d by o v e r t o n e s of m a g i c a n d took on a s y m b o l i c significance. It b e c a m e the i m a g e of the living essence of the a n i m a l . T h e most i n t e r e s t i n g figures in the cave p a i n t i n g s a r e those of s e m i h u m a n beings in a n i m a l disguise, w h i c h a r e s o m e t i m e s to be found besides the a n i m a l s . I n the T r o i s Freres c a v e in F r a n c e , a m a n w r a p p e d in a n a n i m a l h i d e is p l a y i n g a p r i m i t i v e flute as if h e m e a n t to p u t a spell o n the a n i m a l s . I n t h e s a m e cave, t h e r e is a d a n c i n g h u m a n b e i n g , w i t h a n t l e r s , a horse's h e a d , a n d b e a r ' s p a w s . T h i s figure, d o m i n a t i n g a m e d l e y of several h u n d r e d a n i m a l s , is u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the " L o r d of the A n i m a l s . " 235


T h e c u s t o m s a n d usages of s o m e p r i m i t i v e African tribes t o d a y c a n t h r o w s o m e light on the m e a n i n g of these mysterious a n d doubtless symbolic figures. In initiations, secret societies, a n d even the institution of m o n a r c h y in these tribes, a n i m a l s a n d a n i m a l disguises often play an i m p o r t a n t p a r t . T h e king a n d chief a r e a n i mals t o o â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g e n e r a l l y lions or l e o p a r d s . Vestiges of this c u s t o m m a y be discerned in the title of the last e m p e r o r of E t h i o p i a , H a i l e Selassie (Lion of J u d a h ) , or the honorific n a m e of D r . Hastings B a n d a ( T h e Lion of M a l a w i ) . The further back we go in t i m e , or t h e m o r e p r i m i t i v e a n d close to n a t u r e the society is, the m o r e literally such titles must be t a k e n . A primitive chief is not only disguised as the a n i m a l ; w h e n he a p p e a r s at initiation rites in full a n i m a l disguise, he is the a n i m a l . Still m o r e , h e is a n a n i m a l spirit, a terrifying d e m o n w h o performs c i r c u m c i s i o n . At such m o m e n t s he incorp o r a t e s or r e p r e s e n t s the a n c e s t o r of the tribe a n d the clan, a n d therefore the p r i m a l god himself. H e r e p r e s e n t s , a n d is, the " t o t e m " a n i m a l . T h u s we p r o b a b l y should not go far w r o n g in seeing in the figure of the d a n c i n g a n i m a l - m a n in the T r o i s Freres c a v e a kind of chief w h o has been t r a n s f o r m e d by his disguise into a n a n i m a l d e m o n . In the course of t i m e , the c o m p l e t e a n i m a l disguise was s u p e r s e d e d in m a n y places by a n i m a l a n d d e m o n masks. P r i m i t i v e m e n lavished

all their artistic skill on these masks, a n d m a n y of t h e m a r e still u n s u r p a s s e d in the p o w e r a n d intensity of t h e i r expression. T h e y a r e often the objects of the s a m e v e n e r a t i o n as the god or d e m o n himself. A n i m a l masks play a p a r t in the folk arts of m a n y m o d e r n c o u n t r i e s , like Switzerl a n d , or in the magnificently expressive masks of the a n c i e n t J a p a n e s e No d r a m a , w h i c h is still p e r f o r m e d in m o d e r n J a p a n . T h e symbolic function of the m a s k is the s a m e as t h a t of the original a n i m a l disguise. I n d i v i d u a l h u m a n expression is s u b m e r g e d , but in its p l a c e the w e a r e r assumes the d i g n i t y a n d the b e a u t y (and also the horrifying expression) of a n a n i m a l d e m o n . In psychological t e r m s , the mask t r a n s forms its w e a r e r i n t o a n a r c h e t y p a l i m a g e . D a n c i n g , w h i c h was originally n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a c o m p l e t i o n of the a n i m a l disguise by a p p r o p r i a t e m o v e m e n t s a n d gestures, was p r o b a b l y s u p p l e m e n t a r y to the initiation or o t h e r rites. It was, so to speak, p e r f o r m e d by d e m o n s in h o n o r of a d e m o n . In the soft clay of the T u c d ' A u d u b e r t c a v e , H e r b e r t K i i h n found footp r i n t s t h a t led a r o u n d a n i m a l figures. T h e y show t h a t d a n c i n g was p a r t of even the Ice Age rites. " O n l y heel prints c a n be s e e n , " K i i h n writes. " T h e d a n c e r s h a d m o v e d like bisons. T h e y h a d d a n c e d a bison d a n c e for the fertility a n d increase of the a n i m a l s a n d for their s l a u g h t e r . " In his i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , D r . J u n g has p o i n t e d out the close r e l a t i o n , or even identifi-

Far left, a p r e h i s t o r i c p a i n t i n g f r o m T r o i s Freres cave i n c l u d e s ( l o w e r right c o r n e r ) a h u m a n f i g u r e , p e r h a p s a shaman, w i t h horns and hoofs. A s e x a m p l e s of " a n i m a l " d a n c e s : left, a B u r m e s e b u f f a l o d a n c e in w h i c h m a s k e d d a n c e r s are p o s s e s s e d by t h e b u f f a l o spirit; r i g h t , a B o l i v i a n d e v i l d a n c e in w h i c h t h e dancers wear d e m o n i c animal masks; far r i g h t , an o l d s o u t h w e s t G e r m a n folk d a n c e in w h i c h t h e d a n c e r s are d i s g u i s e d as w i t c h e s a n d as a n i m a l - l i k e " w i l d m e n , "

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c a t i o n , b e t w e e n the n a t i v e a n d his t o t e m a n i m a l (or " b u s h - s o u l " ) . T h e r e a r e special c e r e m o n i e s for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of this r e l a t i o n s h i p , especially the initiation rites for boys. T h e boy enters into possession of his " a n i m a l s o u l , " a n d at the s a m e time sacrifices his o w n " a n i m a l b e i n g " by circumcision. T h i s d u a l process a d m i t s h i m to the t o t e m clan a n d establishes his r e l a t i o n s h i p to his t o t e m a n i m a l . A b o v e all, he b e c o m e s a m a n , a n d (in a still w i d e r sense) a h u m a n b e i n g .

himself, he was o v e r w h e l m e d with grief a n d remorse for w h a t he h a d d o n e . I n this case a n e g a t i v e i m p u l s e b r o k e loose a n d did its d e a d l y work regardless of the conscious will. T h e a n i mal d e m o n is a highly expressive symbol for such a n i m p u l s e . T h e vividness a n d c o n c r e t e ness of the i m a g e e n a b l e s m a n to establish a r e l a t i o n s h i p with it as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o v e r w h e l m i n g p o w e r in himself. H e fears it a n d seeks to p r o p i t i a t e it by sacrifice a n d r i t u a l .

East Coast Africans d e s c r i b e d the u n c i r c u m cised as " a n i m a l s . " T h e y h a d n e i t h e r received a h a n i m a l soul nor sacrificed their " a n i m a l i t y . " In o t h e r w o r d s , since n e i t h e r the h u m a n n o r the a n i m a l aspect of a n u n c i r c u m c i s e d boy's soul h a d b e c o m e conscious, his a n i m a l aspect was r e g a r d e d as d o m i n a n t . T h e a n i m a l motif is usually s y m b o l i c of m a n ' s p r i m i t i v e a n d i n s t i n c t u a l n a t u r e . Even civilized m e n must realize the violence of their instinctual drives a n d their powerlessness in face of the a u t o n o m o u s e m o t i o n s e r u p t i n g from the unconscious. T h i s is still m o r e the case w i t h p r i m i t i v e m e n , whose consciousness is not highly d e v e l o p e d a n d w h o a r e still less well e q u i p p e d to w e a t h e r t h e e m o t i o n a l s t o r m . In the first c h a p t e r of this book, w h e n D r . J u n g is discussing the ways in w h i c h m a n d e v e l o p e d the p o w e r of reflection, h e takes a n e x a m p l e of a n African w h o fell i n t o a r a g e a n d killed his beloved little son. W h e n the m a n recovered

A large n u m b e r of m y t h s a r e c o n c e r n e d with a p r i m a l a n i m a l , w h i c h must be sacrificed in the cause of fertility or even c r e a t i o n . O n e exa m p l e of this is the sacrifice of a bull by the Persian s u n - g o d M i t h r a s , from w h i c h s p r a n g the e a r t h with all w e a l t h a n d fruitfulness. In the C h r i s t i a n legend of St. G e o r g e slaying t h e d r a g o n , the p r i m e v a l rite of sacrificial s l a u g h t e r again appears. In the religions a n d religious art of p r a c t i cally every r a c e , a n i m a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e ascribed to t h e s u p r e m e gods, or the gods a r e r e p r e sented as a n i m a l s . T h e a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n s t r a n s l a t e d their gods into the h e a v e n s in the s h a p e of the R a m , the Bull, the C r a b , the Lion, the S c o r p i o n , the Fish, a n d so o n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the signs of the Z o d i a c . T h e E g y p t i a n s r e p r e s e n t e d the goddess H a t h o r as c o w - h e a d e d , the god A m o n as r a m - h e a d e d , a n d T h o t h as ibis-headed or in the s h a p e of a b a b o o n . G a n e s h a , the H i n d u god of good fortune, has a h u m a n b o d y b u t the h e a d

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of a n e l e p h a n t , V i s h n u is a b o a r , H a n u m a n is a n a p e - g o d , etc. ( T h e H i n d u s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , d o not assign the first p l a c e in the h i e r a r c h y of b e i n g to m a n : T h e e l e p h a n t a n d lion s t a n d higher.) G r e e k m y t h o l o g y is full of a n i m a l s y m bolism. Zeus, the father of the gods, often a p p r o a c h e s a girl w h o m he desires in the s h a p e of a s w a n , a bull, or a n eagle. In G e r m a n i c m y t h o l o g y , the cat is sacred to the goddess F r e y a , while the b o a r , the r a v e n , a n d the horse a r e sacred to W o t a n . E v e n in C h r i s t i a n i t y , a n i m a l s y m b o l i s m plays a surprisingly g r e a t p a r t . Three of the E v a n g e lists h a v e a n i m a l e m b l e m s : St. E u k e has the ox, St. M a r k the lion, a n d St. J o h n the eagle. O n l y o n e , St. M a t t h e w , is r e p r e s e n t e d as a m a n or as a n a n g e l . C h r i s t himself symbolically a p p e a r s as the L a m b of G o d or the Fish, b u t he is also the s e r p e n t e x a l t e d o n the cross, the lion, a n d in r a r e r cases t h e u n i c o r n . T h e s e a n i m a l a t t r i b u t e s of Christ i n d i c a t e t h a t even the Son of G o d (the s u p r e m e personification of m a n ) c a n no m o r e dispense w i t h his a n i m a l n a t u r e t h a n with his h i g h e r , spiritual n a t u r e . T h e s u b h u m a n as well as t h e s u p e r h u m a n is felt to belong to the r e a l m of the d i v i n e ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these t w o aspects of m a n is beautifully symbolized in the C h r i s t m a s p i c t u r e of the b i r t h of Christ, in a stable a m o n g a n i m a l s . T h e b o u n d l e s s profusion of a n i m a l symbolism in the religion a n d a r t of all times does not

L e f t , a m a s k u s e d in t h e a n c i e n t No d r a m a of J a p a n , in w h i c h t h e p l a y e r s o f t e n p o r t r a y g o d s , spirits, or d e m o n s . A b o v e r i g h t , m a s k e d p e r f o r m e r s in J a p a n e s e d a n c e t h e a t e r B e l o w r i g h t , an a c t o r in J a p a n ' s K a b u k i d r a m a , d r e s s e d as a m e d i e v a l hero, w i t h m a s k - l i k e m a k e u p

2 8 3


merely e m p h a s i z e the i m p o r t a n c e of t h e symbol ; it shows h o w vital it is for m e n to i n t e g r a t e into their lives the s y m b o l ' s psychic c o n t e n t â&#x20AC;&#x201D; instinct. In itself, a n a n i m a l is n e i t h e r good nor evil; it is a piece of n a t u r e . It c a n n o t desire a n y t h i n g t h a t is n o t in its n a t u r e . T o p u t this a n o t h e r w a y , it obeys its instincts. T h e s e instincts often seem mysterious to us, b u t they h a v e their parallel in h u m a n life: T h e f o u n d a tion of h u m a n n a t u r e is instinct. But in m a n , the " a n i m a l b e i n g " (which lives in him as his instinctual psyche) m a y b e c o m e d a n g e r o u s if it is not r e c o g n i z e d a n d i n t e g r a t e d in life. M a n is the only c r e a t u r e with the p o w e r to control instinct by his o w n will, b u t he is also able to suppress, d i s t o r t , a n d w o u n d it a n d an a n i m a l , t o s p e a k m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , is never so wild a n d d a n g e r o u s as w h e n it is w o u n d e d . S u p pressed instincts c a n g a i n control of a m a n ; they can even destroy h i m . T h e familiar d r e a m in w h i c h the d r e a m e r is p u r s u e d by a n a n i m a l n e a r l y a l w a y s indicates t h a t a n instinct has b e e n split off from consciousness a n d o u g h t to b e (or is t r y i n g to be) r e a d m i t t e d a n d i n t e g r a t e d into life. T h e m o r e d a n g e r o u s the b e h a v i o r of the a n i m a l in the d r e a m , the m o r e u n c o n s c i o u s is the p r i m i t i v e a n d i n s t i n c t u a l soul of t h e d r e a m e r , a n d the m o r e i m p e r a t i v e is its i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o his life if some i r r e p a r a b l e evil is to be forestalled. S u p p r e s s e d a n d w o u n d e d instincts are the d a n g e r s t h r e a t e n i n g civilized m a n ; u n i n h i b i t e d drives a r e the d a n g e r s t h r e a t e n i n g p r i m i t i v e m a n . In b o t h cases the " a n i m a l " is a l i e n a t e d from its t r u e n a t u r e ; a n d for b o t h , t h e a c c e p t a n c e of the a n i m a l soul is the c o n d i t i o n f o r wholeness a n d a fully lived life. P r i m i t i v e m a n must t a m e the a n i m a l in himself a n d m a k e it his helpful c o m p a n i o n : civilized m a n must heal the a n i m a l in himself a n d m a k e it his friend. O t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s to this book h a v e discussed the i m p o r t a n c e of the stone a n d a n i m a l motifs in terms of d r e a m a n d m y t h ; I h a v e used t h e m here only as g e n e r a l e x a m p l e s of the a p p e a r a n c e of such living symbols t h r o u g h o u t the history of art ( a n d especially religious a r t ) . Let us n o w e x a m i n e in the s a m e w a y a most powerful a n d universal s y m b o l : t h e circle.

E x a m p l e s of a n i m a l s y m b o l s o f divinities f r o m three religions: T o p of p a g e , t h e H i n d u g o d G a n e s h a (a p a i n t e d s c u l p t u r e f r o m t h e R o y a l Palace of N e p a l ) , g o d of prudence and w i s d o m ; above, the Greek g o d Z e u s in t h e f o r m o f a s w a n ( w i t h Leda); right, on opposite sides of a m e d i e v a l c o i n , t h e c r u c i f i e d Christ s h o w n as a m a n a n d as a s e r p e n t

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The symbol of the circle

Dr. M . - E . von F r a n z has e x p l a i n e d the circle (or sphere) as a s y m b o l of the Self. It expresses the totality of the psyche in all its aspects, inc l u d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a n a n d the whole of n a t u r e . W h e t h e r the s y m b o l of the circle a p p e a r s in p r i m i t i v e sun w o r s h i p or m o d e r n religion, in m y t h s or d r e a m s , in the m a n d a l a s d r a w n by T i b e t a n m o n k s , in the g r o u n d plans of cities, or in the s p h e r i c a l concepts of early a s t r o n o m e r s , it a l w a y s points to the single most vital aspect of life its u l t i m a t e wholeness. An I n d i a n c r e a t i o n m y t h relates that the god B r a h m a , s t a n d i n g on a h u g e , t h o u s a n d petaled lotus, t u r n e d his eyes to the four points of the c o m p a s s . This fourfold survey from the circle of the lotus was a kind of p r e l i m i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n , a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e t a k i n g of b e a r i n g s , before he b e g a n his work of c r e a t i o n .

these four functions t h a t m a n must achieve. (In a r t , the circle is often e i g h t - r a y e d . T h i s expresses a r e c i p r o c a l o v e r l a p p i n g of the four functions of consciousness, so t h a t four further i n t e r m e d i a t e functions c o m e a b o u t — for i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h t colored by feeling or i n t u i t i o n , or feeling tending t o w a r d sensation.) In the visual art of I n d i a a n d the F a r East, the four- or e i g h t - r a y e d circle is the usual p a t tern of the religious i m a g e s t h a t serve as instrum e n t s of m e d i t a t i o n . In T i b e t a n L a m a i s m especially, richly figured m a n d a l a s play a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t . As a rule, these m a n d a l a s r e p r e sent the cosmos in its relation to divine powers.

A similar story is told of B u d d h a . At the m o m e n t of his b i r t h , a lotus flower rose from the e a r t h a n d he s t e p p e d into it to g a z e into the 10 directions of s p a c e . ( T h e lotus in this case was e i g h t - r a y e d ; a n d B u d d h a also gazed u p w a r d a n d d o w n w a r d , m a k i n g 10 directions.) T h i s symbolic gesture of survey was the most concise m e t h o d of s h o w i n g t h a t from the m o m e n t of his b i r t h , the B u d d h a was a u n i q u e personality, p r e d e s t i n e d to receive i l l u m i n a t i o n . His personality a n d his further existence w e r e given the i m p r i n t of wholeness.

But a g r e a t m a n y of the eastern m e d i t a t i o n figures a r e p u r e l y g e o m e t r i c a l in d e s i g n ; these a r e calledyanlras. Aside from the circle, a very c o m m o n y a n t r a motif is formed by t w o interp e n e t r a t i n g triangles, o n e p o i n t - u p w a r d , the o t h e r p o i n t - d o w n w a r d . Traditionally, t h i s s h a p e Symbolizes the u n i o n of Shiva a n d S h a k t i , the m a l e a n d female divinities, a subject t h a t also a p p e a r s in s c u l p t u r e in countless v a r i a t i o n s . In t e r m s of psychological s y m b o l i s m , it expresses the u n i o n of opposites — the u n i o n of the personal, t e m p o r a l world of the ego with the n o n - p e r s o n a l , timeless world of the n o n - e g o . U l t i m a t e l y , this union is the fulfillment a n d goal of all religions: It is the u n i o n of the soul with G o d . The two i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g triangles h a v e a symbolic m e a n i n g similar to that of the m o r e

T h e spatial o r i e n t a t i o n p e r f o r m e d by B r a h m a a n d B u d d h a m a y be r e g a r d e d as symbolic of t h e h u m a n need for psychic o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e four functions of consciousness described by Dr. J u n g in his c h a p t e r , p. 61 t h o u g h t , feeling, intuition, a n d sensation e q u i p m a n to deal with the impressions of the world he receives from within a n d w i t h o u t . It is by m e a n s of these functions that he c o m p r e h e n d s a n d assimilates his e x p e r i e n c e ; it is by m e a n s of t h e m that he can r e s p o n d . B r a h m a ' s four-fold survey of the universe symbolizes the necessary i n t e g r a t i o n of

R i g h t , a yantra (a f o r m of m a n d a l a ) . c o m p o s e d of n i n e l i n k e d t r i a n g l e s The mandala, symbolizing wholeness, is o f t e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l b e i n g s of m y t h or l e g e n d . Far right, a T i b e t a n p a i n t i n g of t h e b i r t h of B u d d h a : in t h e l o w e r left c o r n e r , B u d d h a t a k e s his first s t e p s o n a c r o s s f o r m e d of c i r c u l a r b l o s s o m s . A b o v e r i g h t , t h e b i r t h of A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t (a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t i o n ) h e r a l d e d by c o m e t s — in c i r c u l a r or m a n d a l a f o r m .

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c o m m o n c i r c u l a r m a n d a l a . T h e y represent the wholeness of the psyche or Self, of w h i c h consciousness is just as m u c h a part as the unconscious. In both the t r i a n g l e y a n t r a s a n d the s c u l p t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the union of Shiva a n d S h a k t i , the e m p h a s i s lies on a tension between the opposites. H e n c e the m a r k e d erotic a n d e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of m a n y of t h e m . This d y n a m i c q u a l i t y implies a process the creation, or c o m i n g into being, of wholeness â&#x20AC;&#x201D; while the four- or e i g h t - r a y e d circle represents w h o l e ness as such, as a n existing entity. T h e a b s t r a c t circle also figures in Zen p a i n t ing. S p e a k i n g of a p i c t u r e entitled The Circle, by the famous Z e n priest S a n g a i , a n o t h e r Z e n m a s t e r w r i t e s : " I n the Z e n sect, the circle represents e n l i g h t e n m e n t . It symbolizes h u m a n perfection." A b s t r a c t m a n d a l a s also a p p e a r in E u r o p e a n C h r i s t i a n art. S o m e of the most splendid e x a m p l e s a r e the rose w i n d o w s of the c a t h e d r a l s . T h e s e are r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the Self of m a n transposed o n t o the cosmic p l a n e . (A cosmic m a n d a l a in the s h a p e of a shining w h i t e rose was revealed to D a n t e in a vision.) W e m a y reg a r d as m a n d a l a s the haloes of Christ a n d the C h r i s t i a n saints in religious p a i n t i n g s . In m a n y cases, the halo of Christ is alone divided into lour, a significant allusion to his sufferings as the Son of M a n a n d his d e a t h on the Cross, a n d at the s a m e t i m e a symbol of his differentiated wholeness. O n the walls of early R o m a n e s q u e c h u r c h e s , a b s t r a c t c i r c u l a r figures c a n s o m e times be s e e n ; they m a y go back to p a g a n originals. In n o n - C h r i s t i a n a r t , such circles are called " s u n w h e e l s . " T h e y a p p e a r in rock e n g r a v i n g s that d a t e back to the neolithic epoch before the wheel was i n v e n t e d . As J u n g has p o i n t e d out, the term " s u n w h e e l " denotes only the external aspect of the figure. W h a t really m a t t e r e d at all times was the e x p e r i e n c e of a n a r c h e t y p a l . 241


Left, an e x a m p l e of t h e m a n d a l a in religious architecture: the A n g k o r W a t B u d d h i s t t e m p l e in C a m b o d i a , a s q u a r e b u i l d i n g w i t h e n t r a n c e s at the four corners. Right, the ruins of a f o r t i f i e d c a m p in D e n m a r k (c. A D . 1 0 0 0 ) , w h i c h w a s laid o u t in a c i r c l e - as is t h e f o r t r e s s t o w n ( c e n t e r r i g h t ) of P a l m a n o v a , Italy ( b u i l t in 1 5 9 3 ) , w i t h its stars h a p e d f o r t i f i c a t i o n s . Far r i g h t , t h e streets t h a t m e e t at L'Etoile, Paris, to f o r m a m a n d a l a

i n n e r i m a g e , w h i c h S t o n e Age m a n r e n d e r e d in his art as faithfully as he d e p i c t e d bulls, gazelles, or wild horses. M a n y pictorial m a n d a l a s a r e to be found in C h r i s t i a n a r t : for e x a m p l e , the r a t h e r r a r e picture of the Virgin in the c e n t e r of a c i r c u l a r tree, which is the G o d - s y m b o l of the b u r n i n g bush. The most widely c u r r e n t m a n d a l a s in C h r i s t i a n art a r e those of Christ s u r r o u n d e d by the four Evangelists. T h e s e go back to the a n c i e n t E g y p t i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the god H o r u s a n d his four sons. In a r c h i t e c t u r e the m a n d a l a also plays a n important part b u t o n e that often passes u n n o t i c e d . It forms the g r o u n d plan of both secular a n d sacred buildings in n e a r l y all civiliz a t i o n s ; it enters into classical, m e d i e v a l , a n d even m o d e r n t o w n p l a n n i n g . A classical e x a m p l e a p p e a r s in P l u t a r c h ' s a c c o u n t of the f o u n d a t i o n of R o m e . A c c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h , R o m u l u s sent for b u i l d e r s from E t r u r i a w h o i n s t r u c t e d him by sacred usages a n d w r i t t e n rules a b o u t all the c e r e m o n i e s to be o b s e r v e d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in the s a m e w a y " a s in the m y s t e r i e s . " First they d u g a r o u n d pit w h e r e the C o m i t i u m , or C o u r t of Assembly, now s t a n d s , a n d into this pit they threw symbolic offerings of the fruits of the e a r t h . T h e n e a c h m a n took a small piece of e a r t h of the l a n d from which he c a m e , a n d these w e r e all t h r o w n into the pit together. T h e pit was given the n a m e of mundus (which also m e a n t the cosmos). A r o u n d it R o m u l u s d r e w the b o u n d a r y of the city in a circle with a plow d r a w n by a bull a n d a cow. W h e r e v e r a g a t e was p l a n n e d , the p l o w s h a r e was t a k e n out a n d the plow c a r r i e d over. The city founded in this solemn c e r e m o n y was c i r c u l a r in s h a p e . Yet the old a n d famous

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description of R o m e is urbs quadrata, the s q u a r e city. A c c o r d i n g to o n e t h e o r y t h a t a t t e m p t s to reconcile this c o n t r a d i c t i o n , the word quadrata must be u n d e r s t o o d to m e a n " q u a d r i p a r t i t e " ; t h a t is, the c i r c u l a r city was divided into four p a r t s by two m a i n arteries r u n n i n g from n o r t h to south a n d west to east. The point of intersection coincided with the mundus m e n t i o n e d by P l u t a r c h . A c c o r d i n g to a n o t h e r t h e o r y , the c o n t r a d i c tion can be u n d e r s t o o d only as a s y m b o l , n a m e l y as a visual r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a t h e m a t i c a l l y insoluble p r o b l e m of the s q u a r i n g of the circle, w h i c h h a d greatly p r e o c c u p i e d the G r e e k s a n d was to play so g r e a t a p a r t in a l c h e m y . S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , before d e s c r i b i n g the circle c e r e m o n y of the f o u n d a t i o n of the city by R o m u l u s , P l u t a r c h also speaks of R o m e as Roma quadrata, a s q u a r e city. For h i m , R o m e was both a circle a n d a s q u a r e . In e a c h t h e o r y a true m a n d a l a is involved, a n d t h a t links u p with P l u t a r c h ' s s t a t e m e n t that the f o u n d a t i o n of the city was t a u g h t by the E t r u s c a n s " a s in the m y s t e r i e s , " as a secret rite. It was m o r e t h a n a m e r e o u t w a r d form. By its m a n d a l a g r o u n d p l a n , the city, with its i n h a b i t a n t s , is exalted a b o v e the p u r e l y secular r e a l m . This is further e m p h a s i z e d by the fact t h a t the city has a c e n t e r , the mundus, w h i c h established the city's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the " o t h e r " r e a l m , the a b o d e of the a n c e s t r a l spirits. ( T h e mundus was covered by a g r e a t stone, called the "soul s t o n e . " O n c e r t a i n d a y s the stone was r e m o v e d , a n d t h e n , it was said, the spirits of the d e a d rose from the shaft.) A n u m b e r of m e d i e v a l cities w e r e founded on the g r o u n d p l a n of a m a n d a l a a n d were


s u r r o u n d e d by a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y c i r c u l a r wall. In such a city, as in R o m e , t w o m a i n arteries divided it into " q u a r t e r s " a n d led to the four gates. T h e c h u r c h or c a t h e d r a l stood at the point of intersection of these arteries. T h e inspiration of the m e d i e v a l city with its q u a r t e r s was the H e a v e n l y J e r u s a l e m (in the Book of R e v e l a t i o n ) , which h a d a s q u a r e g r o u n d p l a n and walls with t h r e e times four gates. But J e r u salem h a d n o t e m p l e at its c e n t e r , for G o d ' s i m m e d i a t e presence was the c e n t e r of it. ( T h e m a n d a l a g r o u n d plan for a city is by n o m e a n s o u t m o d e d . A m o d e r n e x a m p l e is the city of Washington, D.C.) W h e t h e r in classical or in p r i m i t i v e foundations, the m a n d a l a g r o u n d p l a n was n e v e r dictated by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of aesthetics or economics. It was a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the city into a n o r d e r e d cosmos, a sacred p l a c e b o u n d by its c e n t e r to t h e o t h e r world. A n d this t r a n s formation a c c o r d e d with the vital feelings a n d needs of religious m a n .

Every b u i l d i n g , sacred or secular, t h a t has a m a n d a l a g r o u n d p l a n is the projection of a n a r c h e t y p a l i m a g e from w i t h i n the h u m a n u n conscious o n t o the o u t e r w o r l d . T h e city, the fortress, a n d the t e m p l e b e c o m e symbols of psychic wholeness, a n d in this w a y exercise a specific influence on the h u m a n b e i n g w h o enters or lives in t h e place. (It need h a r d l y be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t even in a r c h i t e c t u r e the p r o j e c t i o n of the psychic c o n t e n t was a p u r e l y u n conscious process. " S u c h things c a n n o t be t h o u g h t u p , " D r . J u n g has w r i t t e n , " b u t must g r o w a g a i n from the forgotten d e p t h s if they are to express the deepest insights of consciousness a n d the loftiest i n t u i t i o n s of thespirit, t h u s a m a l g a m a t i n g the u n i q u e n e s s of p r e s e n t - d a y consciousness with the age-old past of h u m a n i t y . " ) T h e c e n t r a l s y m b o l of C h r i s t i a n art is not the m a n d a l a , b u t the cross or crucifix. U p to C a r o lingian times, the e q u i l a t e r a l or G r e e k cross was the usual form, a n d therefore the m a n d a l a was indirectly i m p l i e d . But in the course of t i m e the

Medieval religious architecture w a s u s u a l l y b a s e d o n t h e s h a p e of t h e c r o s s . Left, a 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y c h u r c h (in Ethiopia) cut from the rock.

R e n a i s s a n c e r e l i g i o u s art s h o w s a reorientation to the earth and the b o d y : Right, a plan for a circular c h u r c h or b a s i l i c a b a s e d o n t h e b o d y ' s p r o p o r t i o n s , d r a w n by t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y Italian artist a n d architect Francesco di G i o r g i o

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c e n t e r m o v e d u p w a r d until the cross took on the L a t i n form, w i t h the stake a n d the crossb e a m , t h a t is c u s t o m a r y t o d a y . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t is i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e it c o r r e s p o n d s to the i n w a r d d e v e l o p m e n t of C h r i s t i a n i t y u p to the high M i d d l e Ages. In simple t e r m s , it s y m b o lized the t e n d e n c y to r e m o v e the c e n t e r of m a n a n d his faith from the e a r t h a n d to " e l e v a t e " it into the spiritual s p h e r e . T h i s t e n d e n c y s p r a n g from the desire to p u t i n t o a c t i o n C h r i s t ' s saying : " M y k i n g d o m is not of this w o r l d . " E a r t h l y life, the w o r l d , a n d the b o d y w e r e therefore forces that h a d to be o v e r c o m e . M e d i e v a l m a n ' s hopes w e r e thus d i r e c t e d to the b e y o n d , for it was only from p a r a d i s e t h a t the p r o m i s e of fulfillment b e c k o n e d .

the baptisteries, w i t h the font in the c e n t e r , h a v e a true m a n d a l a ground plan). W i t h the d a w n i n g of the R e n a i s s a n c e , a revol u t i o n a r y c h a n g e b e g a n to o c c u r in m a n ' s conc e p t i o n of the world. T h e " u p w a r d " m o v e m e n t (which r e a c h e d its c l i m a x in the late M i d d l e Ages) w e n t i n t o r e v e r s e ; m a n t u r n e d back to the e a r t h . H e rediscovered the beauties of n a t u r e a n d the b o d y , m a d e the first c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n of the globe, a n d p r o v e d the world to be a s p h e r e . T h e laws of m e c h a n i c s a n d causality b e c a m e the f o u n d a t i o n s of science. T h e world of religious feeling, of the i r r a t i o n a l , a n d of mysticism, w h i c h h a d played so great a p a r t in m e d i eval times, was m o r e a n d m o r e s u b m e r g e d by the t r i u m p h s of logical t h o u g h t .

T h i s e n d e a v o r r e a c h e d its c l i m a x in the M i d d l e Ages a n d in medieval mysticism. T h e hopes of the b e y o n d found expression not only in the raising of t h e c e n t e r of the cross; it c a n also be seen in the i n c r e a s i n g h e i g h t of the G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l s , w h i c h seem to set the laws of g r a v i t y at defiance. T h e i r cruciform g r o u n d p l a n is t h a t of the e l o n g a t e d L a t i n cross ( t h o u g h

Similarly, art b e c a m e m o r e realistic a n d sensuous. It b r o k e a w a y from the religious subjects of the M i d d l e Ages a n d e m b r a c e d the whole visible w o r l d . It was o v e r w h e l m e d by the m a n i fbldness of the e a r t h , by its s p l e n d o r a n d h o r r o r , a n d b e c a m e w h a t G o t h i c a r t h a d been before it: a true s y m b o l of the spirit of the age. T h u s it c a n h a r d l y be r e g a r d e d as a c c i d e n t a l that


a c h a n g e also c a m e over ecclesiastical building. In c o n t r a s t to the s o a r i n g G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l s , there w e r e m o r e c i r c u l a r g r o u n d plans. T h e circle r e p l a c e d the L a t i n cross. T h i s c h a n g e in form, h o w e v e r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d this is the i m p o r t a n t point for the history of s y m b o l i s m - must be a t t r i b u t e d to a e s t h e t i c , a n d not to religious, causes. T h a t is the only possible exp l a n a t i o n for the fact t h a t the c e n t e r of these r o u n d c h u r c h e s (the truly " h o l y " place) is e m p t y , a n d t h a t the a l t a r s t a n d s in a recess in a wall a w a y from the c e n t e r . F o r t h a t reason the p l a n c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d as a t r u e m a n d a l a . An i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n is St. Peter's in R o m e , w h i c h was built to ihe p l a n s of Bram a n t e a n d M i c h e l a n g e l o . H e r e the a l t a r s t a n d s in the center. O n e is t e m p t e d , h o w e v e r , to a t t r i b u t e this e x c e p t i o n to t h e genius of the architects, for g r e a t genius is a l w a y s b o t h of a n d b e y o n d its t i m e . In spite of the f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a n g e s in a r t , p h i l o s o p h y , a n d science b r o u g h t a b o u t by the R e n a i s s a n c e , t h e c e n t r a l symbol of C h r i s t i a n i t y r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d . Christ was still r e p r e -

sented on the L a t i n cross, as he is t o d a y . T h a t m e a n t t h a t the c e n t e r of religious m a n rem a i n e d a n c h o r e d on a higher, m o r e spiritual p l a n e t h a n t h a t of e a r t h l y m a n , w h o h a d t u r n e d back to n a t u r e . T h u s a rift arose between m a n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d his r a t i o n a l or intellectual m i n d . Since t h a t time, these two sides of m o d e r n m a n h a v e n e v e r been b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . In the course of the c e n t u r i e s , with m a n ' s g r o w i n g insight i n t o n a t u r e a n d its laws, this division has g r a d u a l l y g r o w n w i d e r ; a n d it still splits the p s y c h e of t h e w e s t e r n C h r i s t i a n in the 20th c e n t u r y . O f course, the brief historical s u m m a r y given h e r e has b e e n over-simplified. M o r e o v e r , it o m i t s the secret religious m o v e m e n t s w i t h i n C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t took a c c o u n t , in t h e i r beliefs, of w h a t was usually i g n o r e d by most C h r i s t i a n s : the q u e s t i o n of evil, the c h t h o n i c (or e a r t h l y ) spirit. S u c h m o v e m e n t s w e r e a l w a y s in a m i n o r i t y a n d s e l d o m h a d a n y very visible influence, b u t in t h e i r w a y they fulfilled the i m p o r t a n t role of a c o n t r a p u n t a l a c c o m p a n i m e n t to C h r i s t i a n spirituality.

T h e R e n a i s s a n c e interest in o u t e r reality p r o d u c e d t h e C o p e r n i c a n s u n centered universe (left) and turned artists a w a y f r o m " i m a g i n a t i v e " art t o n a t u r e : B e l o w left, L e o n a r d o ' s s t u d y of t h e h u m a n heart.

R e n a i s s a n c e art â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w i t h its s e n s u o u s c o n c e r n w i t h light, nature, and the b o d y (far left, a T i n t o r e t t o , 1 6 t h c e n t u r y ) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; set a p a t t e r n t h a t lasted until the Impressionists. B e l o w , a p a i n t i n g by R e n o i r ( 1 8 4 1 - 1 9 1 9 ) .


Far left, t h e s y m b o l i c a l c h e m i c a l c o n c e p t of t h e s q u a r e d c i r c l e — s y m b o l of w h o l e n e s s a n d of t h e u n i o n of o p p o s i t e s ( n o t e t h e male and female figures)-Left, a m o d e r n s q u a r e d c i r c l e by t h e B r i t i s h artist B e n N i c h o l s o n ( b o r n 1 8 9 4 ) : It is a s t r i c t l y g e o m e t r i c a l , e m p t y form possessing aesthetic harmony and beauty but w i t h o u t symbolic meaning.

R i g h t , a "sun w h e e l ' in a p a i n t i n g b y t h e m o d e r n J a p a n e s e artist S o f u T e s h i g a h a r a ( b o r n 1 9 0 0 ) f o l l o w s the t e n d e n c y of m a n y m o d e r n painters, w h e n u s i n g " c i r c u l a r " s h a p e s , t o make them asymmetrical.

A m o n g the m a n y sects a n d m o v e m e n t s t h a t arose a b o u t A . D . 1000, the a l c h e m i s t s p l a y e d a very i m p o r t a n t p a r t . T h e y e x a l t e d the mysteries of m a t t e r a n d set t h e m a l o n g s i d e those of the " h e a v e n l y " spirit of C h r i s t i a n i t y . W h a t they s o u g h t was a wholeness of m a n e n c o m p a s s i n g m i n d a n d b o d y , a n d they i n v e n t e d a t h o u s a n d n a m e s a n d s y m b o l s for it. O n e of t h e i r c e n t r a l symbols was the quadratura circuli (the s q u a r ing of the circle), w h i c h is n o m o r e t h a n the true mandala. T h e a l c h e m i s t s not only r e c o r d e d their work in their w r i t i n g s ; they c r e a t e d a w e a l t h of pictures of t h e i r d r e a m s a n d visions — s y m b o l i c pictures t h a t a r e still as p r o f o u n d as they are baffling. T h e y w e r e inspired by the d a r k side of n a t u r e — evil, the d r e a m , the spirit of e a r t h . T h e m o d e of expression was a l w a y s fabulous, d r e a m l i k e , a n d u n r e a l , in b o t h w o r d a n d pict u r e . T h e g r e a t 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y Flemish p a i n t e r H i e r o n y m u s Bosch m a y be r e g a r d e d as the most i m p o r t a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of this kind of imaginative art. But at the s a m e t i m e , m o r e typical R e n a i s sance p a i n t e r s ( w o r k i n g in the full light of d a y , so to speak) w e r e p r o d u c i n g the most splendid works of sensuous a r t . T h e i r fascination w i t h e a r t h a n d n a t u r e w e n t so d e e p t h a t it p r a c t i cally d e t e r m i n e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of visual art for the next five c e n t u r i e s . T h e last g r e a t r e p r e sentatives of sensuous art, the art of the passing m o m e n t , of light a n d air, w e r e the 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y impressionists. 246

W'e m a y here d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n two radically different m o d e s of artistic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . M a n y a t t e m p t s h a v e been m a d e to define their characteristics. R e c e n t l y H e r b e r t K i i h n (whose work on the c a v e - p a i n t i n g s I h a v e a l r e a d y mentioned) has tried to d r a w a distinction between w h a t he calls the " i m a g i n a t i v e " a n d the "sens o r y " style. T h e " s e n s o r y " style generally depicts a direct r e p r o d u c t i o n of n a t u r e or of the picture-subject. T h e " i m a g i n a t i v e , " on the o t h e r h a n d , presents a fantasy or e x p e r i e n c e of the artist in an " u n r e a l i s t i c , " even d r e a m l i k e , a n d sometimes " a b s t r a c t " m a n n e r . K i i h n ' s two c o n c e p t i o n s seem so simple a n d so clear that I a m glad to m a k e use of t h e m . T h e first b e g i n n i n g s of i m a g i n a t i v e art go back very far in history. In the M e d i t e r r a n e a n basin, its efflorescence d a t e s from the third mille n n i u m B . C . It has only recently been realized t h a t these a n c i e n t works of art are not the results of i n c o m p e t e n c e or i g n o r a n c e ; they are modes of expression of a perfectly definite religious a n d spiritual e m o t i o n . A n d they h a v e a special a p p e a l t o d a y , for, d u r i n g the last halfc e n t u r y , art has been passing once more t h r o u g h a phase that can be described by the term "imaginative." T o d a y the g e o m e t r i c a l , or " a b s t r a c t , " symbol of the circle has a g a i n c o m e to play a considerable role in p a i n t i n g . But with few exceptions the t r a d i t i o n a l m o d e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has u n d e r g o n e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n that c o r r e s p o n d s to the d i l e m m a of m o d e r n m a n ' s ex-


istence. The circle is n o longer a single m e a n ingful figure t h a t e m b r a c e s a whole world a n d d o m i n a t e s the p i c t u r e . S o m e t i m e s the artist has t a k e n it out of its d o m i n a n t position, r e p l a c i n g it by a loosely o r g a n i z e d g r o u p of circles. S o m e times the p l a n e of the circle is a s y m m e t r i c a l . An e x a m p l e of the a s y m m e t r i c a l c i r c u l a r p l a n e m a y be seen in the famous sun disks of the F r e n c h p a i n t e r R o b e r t D e l a u n a y . A p a i n t ing by the m o d e r n English p a i n t e r Ceri R i c h a r d s , now in Dr. J u n g ' s collection, c o n t a i n s a n entirely a s y m m e t r i c a l c i r c u l a r p l a n e , while far to the left t h e r e a p p e a r s a very m u c h smaller a n d e m p t y circle. I n the F r e n c h p a i n t e r H e n r i Matisse's Slill Life with Vase of Nasturtiums, the focus of vision is a green s p h e r e on a s l a n t i n g black b e a m , w h i c h seems to g a t h e r into itself the manifold circles of the n a s t u r t i u m leaves. T h e s p h e r e overlaps a r e c t a n g u l a r figure, the t o p left-hand c o r n e r of w h i c h is folded over. G i v e n the artistic perfection of the p a i n t i n g it is easy to forget that in the past these two abstract figures (the circle a n d the s q u a r e ) would h a v e been u n i t e d , a n d would h a v e expressed a world of t h o u g h t s a n d feelings. But a n y o n e w h o does r e m e m b e r , a n d raises the question of m e a n i n g , will find food for t h o u g h t : T h e two figures that from the b e g i n n i n g of time h a v e formed a whole a r e in this p a i n t i n g torn a p a r t or i n c o h e r e n t l y related. Yet b o t h a r e t h e r e a n d a r e t o u c h i n g each other. In a p i c t u r e p a i n t e d by the R u s s i a n - b o r n artist VVassily K a n d i n s k y t h e r e is a loose assembly of colored balls or circles that seem to be drifting like soap b u b b l e s . They. too. are t e n u ously c o n n e c t e d with a b a c k g r o u n d of one large r e c t a n g l e with two small, almost s q u a r e rectangles c o n t a i n e d in it. I n a n o t h e r p i c t u r e , which he called A Few Circles, a d a r k cloud (or is it a

Left, Limits of Understanding by Paul Klee ( 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 4 0 ) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; o n e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g in w h i c h t h e s y m b o l o f t h e c i r c l e retains a dominant position.

*47


s w o o p i n g b i r d ? ) a g a i n b e a r s a loosely a r r a n g e d g r o u p of b r i g h t balls or circles. Circles often a p p e a r in u n e x p e c t e d connections in the mysterious compositions ol the British artist P a u l N a s h . In the p r i m e v a l solit u d e of his l a n d s c a p e Event on the Downs, a ball lies in the right f o r e g r o u n d . T h o u g h it is a p p a r e n t l y a tennis ball, the design on its surface forms the Tai-gi-tit, the C h i n e s e symbol of e t e r n i t y ; thus it opens u p a new d i m e n s i o n in the loneliness of the l a n d s c a p e . S o m e t h i n g similar h a p p e n s in N a s h ' s Landscape from a Dream. Balls are rolling out of sight in a n infinitely w i d e m i r r o r e d l a n d s c a p e , with a h u g e sun visible on the horizon. A n o t h e r ball lies in the f o r e g r o u n d , in front of the r o u g h l y square mirror. In his d r a w i n g Limits of Understanding, the Swiss artist Paul Klee places t h e simple figure of a s p h e r e or a circle a b o v e a c o m p l e x struc-

C i r c l e s a p p e a r b r o k e n or l o o s e l y s c a t t e r e d in The Sun and the Moon. top, by Robert Delaunay ( 1 8 8 5 1 9 4 1 ) ; in A Few Circles, left, b y K a n d i n s k y ( 1 8 6 6 - 1 9 4 4 ) ; a n d in Landscape from a Dream, r i g h t , b y Paul N a s h ( 1 8 8 9 - 1 9 4 6 ) B e l o w , Composition by Piet M o n d r i a n ( 1 8 7 2 - 1 9 4 4 ) is d o m i n a t e d by squares.

248


ture of l a d d e r s a n d lines. Dr. J u n g has p o i n t e d out thai a true symbol a p p e a r s only w h e n there is a need to express w h a t t h o u g h t c a n n o t think or what is only divined or felt; that is the p u r pose of R i c e ' s simple figure at the " l i m i t s of understanding." It is i m p o r t a n t to note t h a t the s q u a r e , or g r o u p s of rectangles a n d s q u a r e s , or rectangles a n d r h o m b o i d s , h a v e a p p e a r e d in m o d e r n art just as often as the circle. The m a s t e r of h a r m o n i o u s (indeed, " m u s i c a l " ) compositions with squares is the D u t c h - b o r n artist Piet M o n d r i a n . As a rule t h e r e is n o a c t u a l c e n t e r in a n y of his pictures, yet they form a n o r d e r e d w h o l e in their own strict, almost ascetic fashion. Still m o r e c o m m o n are p a i n t i n g s by o t h e r artists with i r r e g u l a r q u a t e r n a r y compositions, or n u m e r o u s r e c t a n g l e s c o m b i n e d in m o r e or less loose g r o u p s . T h e circle is a symbol of the psyche even Plato d e s c r i b e d the psyche as a s p h e r e ) . T h e s q u a r e ' a n d often the r e c t a n g l e is a symbol o f e a r t h b o u n d m a t t e r , of the body a n d reality. In most m o d e r n a r t , the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n these two p r i m a r y forms is e i t h e r n o n e x i s t e n t , or loose a n d casual. Their s e p a r a t i o n is a n o t h e r symbolic expression of the psychic state of 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y m a n : His soul has lost its roots a n d he is t h r e a t e n e d bv dissocia-

tion. Even in the world situation of fas Dr. J u n g p o i n t e d out in his o p e n i n g t e r ) , this split has b e c o m e e v i d e n t : T h e ern a n d eastern halves of the e a r t h are a t e d by a n I r o n C u r t a i n .

today chapwestsepar-

But the frequency with w h i c h the s q u a r e a n d the circle a p p e a r must not be overlooked. There seems to be a n u n i n t e r r u p t e d psychic u r g e to b r i n g into consciousness the basic factors of life that they symbolize. Also, in c e r t a i n a b s t r a c t pictures of o u r t i m e (which merely r e p r e s e n t a colored s t r u c t u r e or a kind of " p r i m a l m a t t e r " ), these forms occasionally a p p e a r as if they w e r e g e r m s of n e w g r o w t h . The symbol of the circle has played a c u r i o u s p a r t in a very different p h e n o m e n o n of the life of o u r d a y , a n d occasionally still does so. In the last years of the Second W o r l d W a r , t h e r e arose the " v i s i o n a r y r u m o r " of r o u n d flying bodies that b e c a m e k n o w n as "flying s a u c e r s " or I T ' O s unidentified flying objects). J u n g has e x p l a i n e d the U F O s as a projection of a psychic c o n t e n t (of wholeness that has at all times been symbolized by the circle. In o t h e r w i n d s , this " v i s i o n a r y r u m o r , " as can also be seen in m a n y d r e a m s of o u r t i m e , is an a t t e m p t by the unconscious collective psyche to heal the split in o u r a p o c a l y p t i c age by m e a n s of the symbol of the circle.

A b o v e , an illustration from a 1 6th c e n t u r y G e r m a n b r o a d s h e e t of s o m e s t r a n g e c i r c u l a r o b j e c t s seen in t h e s k y - similar to t h e " f l y i n g s a u c e r s " t h a t h a v e b e e n seen in recent years. J u n g h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u c h v i s i o n s are p r o j e c t i o n s of t h e a r c h e t y p e of w h o l e n e s s .

- 1')


Modern painting as a symbol

T h e terms " m o d e r n a r t " and " m o d e r n painti n g " a r e used in this c h a p t e r as the l a y m a n uses t h e m . W h a t I will be d e a l i n g w i t h , to use Kiihn"s t e r m , is m o d e r n imaginative p a i n t i n g . Pictures of this kind c a n be " a b s t r a c t " (or r a t h e r " n o n - f i g u r a t i v e " ) b u t t h e y need not a l w a y s be so. T h e r e will be no a t t e m p t to distinguish a m o n g such v a r i o u s forms as fauvism, c u b i s m , expressionism, futurism, s u p r e m a t i s m , constructivism, o r p h i s m , a n d so on. A n y specific allusion to o n e or the o t h e r of these g r o u p s will be q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l . A n d I a m n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n aesthetic differentiation of m o d e r n p a i n t i n g s ; nor, a b o v e all, with artistic e v a l u a t i o n s . M o d e r n i m a g i n a tive p a i n t i n g is h e r e t a k e n simply as a p h e n o m e n o n of o u r t i m e . T h a t is the only w a y in w h i c h the q u e s t i o n of its s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t c a n be j u s t i fied a n d a n s w e r e d . I n this brief c h a p t e r it is possible to m e n t i o n only a few artists, a n d to select a few of t h e i r works m o r e or less at r a n d o m . I must c o n t e n t myself w i t h discussing m o d e r n p a i n t i n g in t e r m s of a small n u m b e r of its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . M y s t a r t i n g point is the psychological fact t h a t the artist has at all times b e e n t h e instrum e n t a n d s p o k e s m a n of the spirit of his age. His work c a n be only p a r t l y u n d e r s t o o d in t e r m s of his p e r s o n a l psychology. Consciously or unconsciously, the artist gives form to the n a t u r e a n d values of his t i m e , w h i c h in their t u r n form h i m . T h e m o d e r n artist himself often recognizes the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the work of a r t a n d its t i m e . T h u s the F r e n c h critic a n d p a i n t e r J e a n Bazaine writes in his Notes on Contemporary Painting: " N o b o d y p a i n t s as he likes. All a p a i n t e r can d o is to will with all his m i g h t the p a i n t i n g his age is c a p a b l e of." T h e G e r m a n artist F r a n z M a r c , w h o died in the First W o r l d W a r , s a i d : " T h e g r e a t artists d o not seek their forms in the mist of the past, b u t t a k e the d e e p est s o u n d i n g s they c a n of the g e n u i n e , p r o 250

foundest c e n t e r of g r a v i t y of their a g e . " A n d , as far b a c k as 1911, K a n d i n s k y w r o t e in his famous essay " C o n c e r n i n g the S p i r i t u a l in A r t " : " E v e r y e p o c h is given its o w n m e a s u r e of artistic freedom, a n d even the most creative genius m a y not l e a p over t h e b o u n d a r y of that freedom." F o r the last 50 years, " m o d e r n a r t " has b e e n a g e n e r a l b o n e of c o n t e n t i o n , a n d the discussion has lost n o n e of its h e a t . T h e " y e a s " a r e as p a s s i o n a t e as the " n a y s " ; yet the r e i t e r a t e d p r o p h e c y t h a t " m o d e r n " a r t is finished has n e v e r c o m e t r u e . T h e n e w w a y of expression has been t r i u m p h a n t to a n u n i m a g i n e d degree. If it is t h r e a t e n e d at all, it will be because it has d e g e n e r a t e d into m a n n e r i s m a n d m o d i s h ness. ( I n the Soviet U n i o n , w h e r e non-figurative a r t has often been officially d i s c o u r a g e d a n d p r o d u c e d only in p r i v a t e , figurative art is t h r e a t e n e d by a similar d e g e n e r a t i o n . ) T h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , in E u r o p e at a n y r a t e , is still in the h e a t of the b a t t l e . T h e violence of the discussion shows t h a t feeling r u n s high in b o t h c a m p s . E v e n those w h o a r e hostile to m o d e r n a r t c a n n o t avoid b e i n g impressed by the works they reject; they are i r r i t a t e d or repelled, b u t (as the violence of their feelings shows) they are m o v e d . As a rule, the negative fascination is n o less s t r o n g t h a n the positive. T h e s t r e a m of visitors to exhibitions of m o d e r n art, w h e r e v e r a n d w h e n e v e r they take place, testifies to s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n curiosity. Curiosity w o u l d be satisfied sooner. A n d the fantastic prices t h a t are p a i d for works of m o d e r n a r t are a m e a s u r e of the status conferred u p o n t h e m by society. F a s c i n a t i o n arises w h e n the u n c o n s c i o u s has been m o v e d . T h e effect p r o d u c e d by works of m o d e r n art c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d entirely by their visible form. T o the eye t r a i n e d in " c l a s s i c " or " s e n s o r y " art," they a r e n e w a n d alien. N o t h i n g in works of non-figurative a r t r e m i n d s the s p e c t a t o r of his o w n world no objects in


their o w n e v e r y d a y s u r r o u n d i n g s , n o h u m a n b e i n g or a n i m a l t h a t speaks a familiar lang u a g e . T h e r e is no w e l c o m e , no visible a c c o r d in the cosmos c r e a t e d by the artist. A n d yet, w i t h o u t a n y q u e s t i o n , t h e r e is a h u m a n b o n d . It m a y be even m o r e intense t h a n in works of sensory a r t , w h i c h m a k e a direct a p p e a l to feeling a n d e m p a t h y . It is the a i m of t h e m o d e r n artist to give expression to his i n n e r vision of m a n , to the spiritual b a c k g r o u n d of life a n d the world. T h e m o d e r n work of art has a b a n d o n e d not only the r e a l m of the c o n c r e t e , " n a t u r a l , " sensuous world, b u t also t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l . It has b e c o m e highly collective a n d therefore (even in the a b b r e v i a t i o n of the pictorial h i e r o g l y p h ) touches not only the few b u t the m a n y . W h a t r e m a i n s i n d i v i d u a l is the m a n n e r of r e p r e s e n tation, the style a n d q u a l i t y of the m o d e r n work of a r t . It is often difficult for the l a y m a n to recognize w h e t h e r the artist's i n t e n t i o n s a r e g e n u i n e a n d his expressions s p o n t a n e o u s , n e i t h e r i m i t a t e d n o r a i m e d at effect. In m a n y cases he must a c c u s t o m himself to n e w kinds of line a n d color. H e m u s t l e a r n t h e m , as he w o u l d learn a foreign l a n g u a g e , before he c a n j u d g e their expressiveness a n d q u a l i t y . T h e pioneers of m o d e r n art h a v e a p p a r e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d how m u c h they w e r e asking of the p u b l i c . N e v e r h a v e artists p u b l i s h e d so m a n y "manifestoes'" a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s of their a i m s as in the 20th c e n t u r y . It is, h o w e v e r , not only to others t h a t they a r e striving to e x p l a i n a n d

justify w h a t they a r e d o i n g ; it is also to t h e m selves. For the most p a r t , these manifestoes are artistic confessions of faith â&#x20AC;&#x201D;poetic a n d often confused or self-contradictory a t t e m p t s to give clarity to the s t r a n g e o u t c o m e of t o d a y ' s artistic activities. W h a t really m a t t e r s , of course, is ( a n d always has been) the direct e n c o u n t e r with the work of a r t . Yet, for the psychologist w h o is c o n c e r n e d with the symbolic c o n t e n t of m o d e r n a r t , the s t u d y of these writings is most i n s t r u c tive. For t h a t reason the artists, w h e r e v e r possible, will be allowed in the following discussion to speak for themselves. T h e b e g i n n i n g s of m o d e r n art a p p e a r e d in the early 1900s. O n e of the most impressive personalities of t h a t initiatory p h a s e was K a n dinsky, whose influence is still clearly t r a c e a b l e in the p a i n t i n g s of the second half of the cent u r y . M a n y of his ideas h a v e p r o v e d p r o p h e t i c . In his essay " C o n c e r n i n g F o r m , " he w r i t e s : " T h e a r t of t o d a y e m b o d i e s the spiritual m a t u r e d to the p o i n t of revelation. T h e forms of this e m b o d i m e n t m a y be a r r a n g e d b e t w e e n two p o l e s : (1) g r e a t a b s t r a c t i o n ; (2) g r e a t realism. T h e s e t w o poles o p e n t w o p a t h s , w h i c h b o t h lead to one goal in the e n d . T h e s e t w o e l e m e n t s h a v e a l w a y s been p r e s e n t in a r t ; the first was expressed in the second. T o d a y it looks as if they w e r e a b o u t to c a r r y on s e p a r a t e existences. Art seems to h a v e p u t a n e n d to the p l e a s a n t c o m pletion of the a b s t r a c t by the c o n c r e t e , a n d vice v e r s a . "

S e n s o r y (or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ) art versus i m a g i n a t i v e (or " u n r e a l i s t i c " ) art: R i g h t , a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h artist W i l l i a m Frith, part of a s e q u e n c e d e p i c t i n g a g a m b l e r ' s d o w n f a l l . T h i s is o n e e x t r e m e of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l art: It has d e c l i n e d i n t o m a n n e r i s m a n d s e n t i m e n t . Left, an e x t r e m e o f i m a g i n a t i v e ( a n d , here, " a b s t r a c t " ) art b y Kasimir M a l e v i c h ( 1 8 7 8 - 1 9 3 5 ) .

Suprematist Composition. White on White 1918. Collection. The Museum of Modern Art. New York


Left a n d a b o v e , t w o c o m p o s i t i o n s by Kurt S c h w i t t e r s ( 1 8 8 7 - 1 9 4 8 ) . H i s k i n d of i m a g i n a t i v e art uses (and transforms) ordinary things— in t h i s case, o l d t i c k e t s , p a p e r , m e t a l , etc. B e l o w left, p i e c e s o f w o o d s i m i l a r l y u s e d by H a n s A r p ( 1 8 8 7 - 1 9 6 6 ) . B e l o w , in a s c u l p t u r e by P i c a s s o ( 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 7 3 ) , o r d i n a r y o b j e c t s — l e a v e s — a r e part of the s u b j e c t rather t h a n t h e m a t e r i a l .


T o illustrate K a n d i n s k y ' s point t h a t the t w o elements of art, the a b s t r a c t a n d the c o n c r e t e , h a v e p a r t e d c o m p a n y : I n 1913, the R u s s i a n painter Kasimir Malevich painted a picture t h a t consisted only of a black s q u a r e on a w h i t e g r o u n d . It was p e r h a p s t h e first p u r e l y " a b s t r a c t " p i c t u r e ever p a i n t e d . H e w r o t e of i t : " I n my d e s p e r a t e struggle to l i b e r a t e art from the ballast of the w o r l d of objects, I took refuge in the form of the s q u a r e . " A y e a r later, the F r e n c h p a i n t e r M a r c e l D u c h a m p set u p a n object chosen at r a n d o m (a bottle rack) on a pedestal a n d e x h i b i t e d it. J e a n B a z a i n e w r o t e of it: " T h i s bottle rack, torn from its u t i l i t a r i a n c o n t e x t a n d w a s h e d up on the b e a c h , has been invested w i t h the lonely dignity of the derelict. G o o d for n o t h i n g , t h e r e to be used, r e a d y for a n y t h i n g , it is alive. It lives o n the fringe of existence its o w n d i s t u r b i n g , a b s u r d life. T h e d i s t u r b i n g object t h a t is the first step to a r t . " In its weird d i g n i t y a n d a b a n d o n m e n t , the object was i m m e a s u r a b l y exalted a n d given significance t h a t c a n only be called m a g i c a l . H e n c e its " d i s t u r b i n g , a b s u r d life." It b e c a m e a n idol a n d at the s a m e t i m e an object of m o c k e r y . Its intrinsic reality was a n n i h i l a t e d . Both M a l c v i c h ' s s q u a r e a n d D u c h a m p ' s bottle rack w e r e s y m b o l i c gestures t h a t h a d n o t h i n g to d o w i t h art in the strict sense of the w o r d . Yet they m a r k the two e x t r e m e s ( " g r e a t a b s t r a c t i o n " a n d " g r e a t r e a l i s m " ) between w h i c h the i m a g i n a t i v e a r t of the succeeding d e c a d e s m a y be aligned a n d u n d e r s t o o d . F r o m the psychological s t a n d p o i n t , the two gestures t o w a r d the n a k e d object ( m a t t e r ) a n d the n a k e d n o n - o b j e c t (spirit) p o i n t to a collective psychic rift t h a t c r e a t e d its symbolic expression in the years before the c a t a s t r o p h e of the First W o r l d W a r . T h i s rift h a d first a p p e a r e d in the R e n a i s s a n c e , w h e n it b e c a m e manifest as a conflict b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e a n d faith. M e a n while, civilization was r e m o v i n g m a n further a n d further from his i n s t i n c t u a l f o u n d a t i o n , so t h a t a gulf o p e n e d b e t w e e n n a t u r e a n d m i n d , b e t w e e n the u n c o n s c i o u s a n d consciousness. T h e s e opposites c h a r a c t e r i z e the psychic situation t h a t is seeking expression in m o d e r n a r t .

The secret soul of things

As we h a v e seen, the s t a r t i n g point of " t h e c o n c r e t e " was D u c h a m p ' s famous â&#x20AC;&#x201D; or n o t o r i ousâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; bottle rack. T h e bottle rack was not int e n d e d to be artistic in itself. D u c h a m p called himself a n " a n t i - a r t i s t . " But it b r o u g h t to light an e l e m e n t t h a t was to m e a n a g r e a t d e a l to artists for a long t i m e to c o m e . T h e n a m e they gave to it was objel Iroiwe or " r e a d y - m a d e . " T h e Spanish p a i n t e r J o a n M i r o , for i n s t a n c e , goes to the b e a c h every d a w n " t o collect things w a s h e d u p by the tide. T h i n g s lying t h e r e , w a i t i n g for s o m e o n e to discover their persona l i t y . " H e keeps his finds in his studio. N o w a n d t h e n he assembles some of t h e m a n d the most c u r i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n s r e s u l t : " T h e artist is often surprised himself at the shapes of his own creation." As far b a c k as 1912, the S p a n i s h - b o r n artist P a b l o Picasso a n d the F r e n c h artist Georges B r a q u e m a d e w h a t they called " c o l l a g e s " from scraps of r u b b i s h . M a x E r n s t cut clippings from the illustrated p a p e r s of the so-called age of big business, assembled t h e m as t h e fancy took h i m , a n d so t r a n s f o r m e d t h e stuffy solidity of the b o u r g e o i s age i n t o a d e m o n i c , d r e a m l i k e u n reality. T h e G e r m a n p a i n t e r K u r t Schwitters w o r k e d with the c o n t e n t s of his ash c a n : H e used nails, b r o w n p a p e r , r a g g e d scraps of newsp a p e r , r a i l w a y tickets, a n d r e m n a n t s of cloth. H e succeeded in a s s e m b l i n g this r u b b i s h with such seriousness a n d freshness t h a t surprising effects of s t r a n g e b e a u t y c a m e a b o u t . In S c h w i t t e r s ' obsession with things, however, this m a n n e r of c o m p o s i t i o n occasionally b e c a m e merely a b s u r d . H e m a d e a c o n s t r u c t i o n of r u b b i s h t h a t he called " a c a t h e d r a l built for t h i n g s . " S c h w i t t e r s w o r k e d on it for 10 years, a n d t h r e e stories of his own house h a d to be demolished to give him the space he n e e d e d . S c h w i t t e r s ' w o r k , a n d the m a g i c a l e x a l t a t i o n of the object, give the first h i n t of the p l a c e of m o d e r n art in the history of the h u m a n m i n d , a n d of its symbolic significance. T h e y reveal 253


the t r a d i t i o n t h a t was b e i n g unconsciously perp e t u a t e d . It is the t r a d i t i o n of the h e r m e t i c C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r h o o d s of the M i d d l e Ages, a n d of the alchemists, w h o conferred even o n m a t t e r , the stuff of the e a r t h , the d i g n i t y of their religious c o n t e m p l a t i o n . S c h w i t t e r s ' e x a l t a t i o n of t h e grossest m a t e r i a l to the r a n k of a r t , to a " c a t h e d r a l " (in w h i c h the r u b b i s h w o u l d leave n o r o o m for a h u m a n b e i n g ) , faithfully followed the old a l c h e m i c a l tenet a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h the sought-for p r e cious object is to be found in filth. K a n d i n s k y expressed the s a m e ideas w h e n he w r o t e : " E v e r y t h i n g t h a t is dead quivers. N o t only the things of p o e t r y , stars, m o o n , w o o d , flowers, b u t even a w h i t e trouser b u t t o n g l i t t e r i n g out of a p u d d l e in the street . . . . E v e r y t h i n g has a secret soul, w h i c h is silent m o r e often t h a n it speaks." W h a t the artists, like the alchemists, p r o b ably did not realize was the psychological fact t h a t they w e r e p r o j e c t i n g p a r t of their psyche into m a t t e r or i n a n i m a t e objects. H e n c e the " m y s t e r i o u s a n i m a t i o n " t h a t e n t e r e d into such things, a n d the g r e a t v a l u e a t t a c h e d even to r u b b i s h . T h e y projected t h e i r o w n darkness, their e a r t h l y s h a d o w , a psychic c o n t e n t t h a t they a n d t h e i r t i m e h a d lost a n d a b a n d o n e d . U n l i k e the alchemists, h o w e v e r , m e n like S c h w i t t e r s w e r e not c o n t a i n e d in a n d p r o t e c t e d by the C h r i s t i a n o r d e r . In o n e sense, Schwitters' work is o p p o s e d to it: A kind of m o n o m a n i a binds h i m to m a t t e r , while C h r i s t i a n i t y seeks to v a n q u i s h m a t t e r . A n d yet, p a r a d o x i cally, it is S c h w i t t e r s ' m o n o m a n i a t h a t robs the m a t e r i a l in his creations of its i n h e r e n t signific a n c e as c o n c r e t e reality. I n his pictures, m a t t e r is t r a n s f o r m e d into a n " a b s t r a c t " c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e it begins to d i s c a r d its s u b s t a n t i a l i t y , a n d to dissolve. I n t h a t very process, these pictures b e c o m e a s y m b o l i c expression of o u r t i m e , w h i c h has seen the c o n c e p t of the " a b s o l u t e " concreteness of m a t t e r u n d e r m i n e d by m o d e r n a t o m i c physics. P a i n t e r s b e g a n to think a b o u t the " m a g i c o b j e c t " a n d the " s e c r e t s o u l " of things. T h e Italian p a i n t e r C a r l o C a r r a w r o t e : " I t is c o m m o n things t h a t reveal those forms of 254

simplicity t h r o u g h w h i c h wc c a n realize t h a t h i g h e r , m o r e significant c o n d i t i o n of being w h e r e the w h o l e s p l e n d o r of a r t resides." P a u l K l e e s a i d : " T h e object e x p a n d s beyond the b o u n d s of its a p p e a r a n c e by o u r k n o w l e d g e t h a t the t h i n g is m o r e t h a n its exterior presents to o u r e y e s . " A n d J e a n B a z a i n e w r o t e : " A n object a w a k e n s o u r love just b e c a u s e it seems to be the b e a r e r of p o w e r s t h a t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n itself." Sayings of this kind recall the old a l c h e m i c a l c o n c e p t of a " s p i r i t in m a t t e r , " believed to be the spirit in a n d b e h i n d i n a n i m a t e objects like m e t a l or stone. Psychologically i n t e r p r e t e d , this spirit is the u n c o n s c i o u s . It always manifests itself w h e n conscious or r a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e has r e a c h e d its limits a n d mystery sets in, for m a n t e n d s to fill the i n e x p l i c a b l e a n d mysterious w i t h the c o n t e n t s of his u n c o n s c i o u s . H e p r o jects t h e m , as it w e r e , into a d a r k , e m p t y vessel. The feeling t h a t the object was " m o r e t h a n met the e y e , " w h i c h was s h a r e d by m a n y artists, found a most r e m a r k a b l e expression in the work of the I t a l i a n p a i n t e r G i o r g i o de C h i r i c o . H e was a mystic by t e m p e r a m e n t , a n d a tragic seeker w h o never found w h a t he sought. O n his self-portrait (1908) he w r o t e : El quid, amabo nisi quod aenigma esl ( " A n d w h a t a m I to love if not the e n i g m a ? " ) . C h i r i c o was the f o u n d e r of the so-called pillura melajisica. " E v e r y o b j e c t , " he wrote, " h a s two a s p e c t s : T h e c o m m o n aspect, which is the o n e we generally sec a n d w h i c h is seen by e v e r y o n e , a n d the ghostly a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l aspect, w h i c h only r a r e i n d i v i d u a l s see at m o m e n t s of c l a i r v o y a n c e a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l m e d i t a t i o n . A work of art must relate somet h i n g t h a t does not a p p e a r in its visible f o r m . " C h i r i c o ' s works reveal this " g h o s t l y a s p e c t " of things. T h e y are d r e a m l i k e transpositions of reality, w h i c h arise as visions from the u n c o n scious. But his " m e t a p h y s i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n " is expressed in a p a n i c - s t r i c k e n rigidity, a n d the a t m o s p h e r e of the pictures is o n e of n i g h t m a r e a n d of fathomless m e l a n c h o l y . T h e city squares of Italy, the towers a n d objects, a r e set in an o v e r - a c u t e perspective, as if they w e r e in a v a c u u m , i l l u m i n a t e d by a merciless, cold light


A n e x a m p l e of " s u r r e a l i s t " art: Les Souliers Rouges, b y t h e F r e n c h painter Rene M a g n t t e ( 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 6 7 ) M u c h o f t h e d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t of surrealist p a i n t i n g c o m e s f r o m its a s s o c i a t i o n a n d j u x t a p o s i t i o n of unrelated objects often absurd, irrational, and dreamlike

from a n unseen source. A n t i q u e h e a d s or statues of gods c o n j u r e u p the classical past. In o n e of the most terrifying of his pictures, he has placed beside the m a r b l e h e a d oi a goddess a pair of red r u b b e r gloves, a " m a g i c object'" in the m o d e r n sense. A green ball on the g r o u n d acts as a s y m b o l , u n i t i n g the crass o p p o s i t e s ; w i t h o u t it, t h e r e w o u l d be m o r e t h a n a hint of psychic d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . T h i s p i c t u r e was clearly not the result of over-sophisticated d e liberation ; it must be t a k e n as a d r e a m p i c t u r e . C h i r i c o was d e e p l y influenced by the philosophies of Nietzsche a n d S c h o p e n h a u e r . H e w r o t e : " S c h o p e n h a u e r a n d Nietzsche were the first to teach the d e e p significance of the senselessness of life, a n d to show h o w this senselessness could be t r a n s f o r m e d into art . . . . T h e dreadful void they discovered is the very soulless a n d u n t r o u b l e d b e a u t y of m a t t e r . " It m a y be d o u b t e d w h e t h e r C h i r i c o succeeded in t r a n s posing the " d r e a d f u l v o i d " into " u n t r o u b l e d b e a u t y . " S o m e of his p i c t u r e s are e x t r e m e l y d i s t u r b i n g ; m a n y are as terrifying as n i g h t mares. But in his effort to find artistic expres-

sion for the void, he p e n e t r a t e d to the core of the existential d i l e m m a of c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n . N i e t z s c h e , w h o m C h i r i c o q u o t e s as his a u t h ority, has given a n a m e to the " d r e a d f u l v o i d " in his saying " G o d is d e a d . " W i t h o u t referring to Nietzsche, K a n d i n s k y w r o t e in On the Spiritual in Art: " H e a v e n is e m p t y . G o d is d e a d . " A p h r a s e of this kind m a y s o u n d a b o m i n a b l e . But it is not new. T h e idea of the " d e a t h of G o d " a n d its i m m e d i a t e c o n s e q u e n c e , the " m e t a physical v o i d . " h a d t r o u b l e d the m i n d s of 19thc e n t u r y poets, especially in F r a n c e a n d G e r m a n y . It was a long d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t , in the 20th c e n t u r y , r e a c h e d the stage of o p e n discussion a n d found expression in a r t . The cleavage b e t w e e n m o d e r n art a n d C h r i s t i a n i t y was finally a c c o m p l i s h e d . Dr. J u n g also c a m e to realize that this s t r a n g e a n d mysterious p h e n o m e n o n of the d e a t h of G o d is a psychic fact of o u r time. In 1937 he w r o t e : " I k n o w a n d here I a m expressing w h a t countless o t h e r p e o p l e know that the present time is the t i m e of G o d ' s disa p p e a r a n c e a n d d e a t h . " For years he h a d o b served the C h r i s t i a n G o d - i m a g e fading in his patients" d r e a m s t h a t is, in the unconscious of m o d e r n m e n . T h e loss of t h a t i m a g e is the loss of the s u p r e m e factor t h a t gives life a m e a n i n g . It must be p o i n t e d o u t , however, that n e i t h e r Nietzsche's assertion t h a t G o d is d e a d , nor C h i r i c o ' s ""metaphysical v o i d , " n o r J u n g ' s ded u c t i o n s from u n c o n s c i o u s images, h a v e a n y thing final to say a b o u t the reality a n d existence of God or of a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l being or n o t - b e i n g . T h e y a r e h u m a n assertions. In each case they a r e based, as J u n g h a s s h o w n in Psychology and Religion, on c o n t e n t s of the unconscious psyche t h a t h a v e e n t e r e d consciousness in t a n g i b l e form as i m a g e s , d r e a m s , ideas, or i n t u i t i o n s . T h e origin of these c o n t e n t s , a n d the cause of such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (from a living to a d e a d G o d ) , must r e m a i n u n k n o w n , on the frontier of mystery. C h i r i c o n e v e r c a m e to a solution ol the p r o blem p r e s e n t e d to him by the unconscious. His failure m a y be seen most clearly in his represent a t i o n of the h u m a n figure. G i v e n the present religious situation, it is man himself to whom


Both Giorgio de Chirico (born 1888) and Marc Chagall (born 1887) have s o u g h t to look behind the o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e s of t h i n g s ; t h e i r w o r k s e e m s t o h a v e risen f r o m t h e d e p t h s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . B u t C h i r i c o ' s v i s i o n ( b e l o w , his Philosopher and Poet) w a s g l o o m y , m e l a n c h o l y , e v e n n i g h t m a r i s h . C h a g a l l ' s has a l w a y s b e e n r i c h , w a r m , a n d alive. R i g h t , o n e of his great s t a i n e d - g l a s s w i n d o w s c r e a t e d in 1 9 6 2 f o r a Jerusalem synagogue

In C h m c o ' s Song of Love ( l e f t ) , the m a r b l e h e a d of t h e g o d d e s s a n d t h e r u b b e r g l o v e are crass o p p o s i t e s T h e g r e e n ball s e e m s t o act as a u n i t i n g s y m b o l

R i g h t , Metaphysical

Muse

by â&#x20AC;&#x201D; C a r l o

Carra ( 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 6 6 ) T h e faceless manikin w a s a frequent theme of C h i r i c o ' s as w e l l .

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6


should be a c c o r d e d a n e w , if i m p e r s o n a l , dignity a n d responsibility. ( J u n g d e s c r i b e d it as a responsibility to consciousness.) But in C h i r i c o ' s work, m a n is d e p r i v e d of his soul; he b e c o m e s a mamchino, a p u p p e t w i t h o u t a face ( a n d therefore also w i t h o u t consciousness). In the v a r i o u s versions of his Great Metaphysician, a faceless figure is e n t h r o n e d on a pedestal m a d e of r u b b i s h . T h e figure is a consciously or unconsciously ironical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a n w h o strives to discover the " t r u t h " a b o u t m e t a p h y s i c s , a n d at the s a m e t i m e a symbol of u l t i m a t e loneliness a n d senselessness. O r p e r h a p s the manichini (which also h a u n t the works of o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y artists) a r e a p r e m o n i t i o n of t h e faceless mass m a n . W h e n he was 40, C h i r i c o , a b a n d o n e d his/;//lura metafisica; he t u r n e d back to t r a d i t i o n a l m o d e s , b u t his w o r k lost d e p t h . H e r e is c e r t a i n proof t h a t t h e r e is no " b a c k to w h e r e you c a m e f r o m " for the c r e a t i v e m i n d whose unconscious has been involved in the f u n d a m e n t a l d i l e m m a of m o d e r n existence. A c o u n t e r p a r t to C h i r i c o m i g h t be seen in the R u s s i a n - b o r n p a i n t e r M a r c C h a g a l l . His quest in his work is also a " m y s t e r i o u s a n d lonely p o e t r y " a n d " t h e ghostly aspect of things t h a t only r a r e i n d i v i d u a l s m a y s e e . " But C h a gall's rich s y m b o l i s m is r o o t e d in the piety of E a s t e r n J e w i s h Hassidism a n d in a w a r m feeling for life. H e was faced with n e i t h e r the p r o b l e m of the void nor the d e a t h of G o d . H e w r o t e : " E v e r y t h i n g m a y c h a n g e in o u r d e m o r alized world except the h e a r t , m a n ' s love, a n d his striving to k n o w the d i v i n e . P a i n t i n g , like all p o e t r y , has its p a r t in the d i v i n e ; people feel this t o d a y just as m u c h as they used t o . "

u n d e r s t a n d i n g of symbolism in m o d e r n a r t : H o w does the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n consciousness a n d the u n c o n s c i o u s take s h a p e in the work of m o d e r n artists? O r , to p u t it a n o t h e r w a y , w h e r e does m a n s t a n d ? O n e a n s w e r m a y be found in the m o v e m e n t called s u r r e a l i s m , of w h i c h the F r e n c h poet A n d r e Breton is r e g a r d e d as the founder. (Chirico too m a y be d e s c r i b e d as a surrealist.) As a s t u d e n t of m e d i c i n e , Breton h a d been i n t r o d u c e d to t h e work of F r e u d . T h u s d r e a m s c a m e to play a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in his ideas. " C a n d r e a m s not be used to solve the f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m s of life?" he w r o t e . " I believe t h a t the a p p a r e n t a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n d r e a m a n d reality will be resolved in a kind of absolute reality â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in s u r r e a l i t y . " B r e t o n g r a s p e d the p o i n t a d m i r a b l y . W h a t he s o u g h t was a reconciliation of the opposites, consciousness a n d the u n c o n s c i o u s . But the way he took to r e a c h his goal could only lead him astray. H e b e g a n to e x p e r i m e n t with F r e u d ' s m e t h o d of free association as well as with a u t o m a t i c w r i t i n g , in w h i c h the words a n d phrases arising from the u n c o n s c i o u s a r e set d o w n without a n y conscious c o n t r o l . Breton called it: " t h o u g h t ' s d i c t a t i o n , i n d e p e n d e n t of a n v aesthetic or m o r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n . "

T h e British a u t h o r Sir H e r b e r t R e a d o n c e w r o t e of C h a g a l l t h a t he n e v e r q u i t e crossed the t h r e s h o l d into the u n c o n s c i o u s , b u t " h a s always k e p t one foot on t h e e a r t h t h a t h a d n o u r i s h e d h i m . " T h i s is exactly t h e " r i g h t " relation to the u n c o n s c i o u s . It is all the m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t , as R e a d e m p h a s i z e s , " C h a g a l l has r e m a i n e d o n e of the most influential artists of our time."

But t h a t process simply m e a n s t h a t the way is o p e n e d to the s t r e a m of unconscious images, a n d the i m p o r t a n t or even decisive p a r t to be p l a y e d by consciousness is i g n o r e d . As D r . J u n g has s h o w n in his c h a p t e r , it is consciousness t h a t holds the key to the values of the u n c o n scious, a n d t h a t therefore plays the decisive p a r t . Consciousness alone is c o m p e t e n t to det e r m i n e the m e a n i n g of the images a n d to recognize their significance for m a n here a n d n o w , in the c o n c r e t e reality of the present. O n l y in a n interplay of consciousness a n d the u n c o n scious c a n the u n c o n s c i o u s p r o v e its v a l u e , a n d p e r h a p s even show a w a y to o v e r c o m e the mela n c h o l y of the void. If the unconscious, o n c e in a c t i o n , is left to itself, t h e r e is a risk t h a t its contents will b e c o m e o v e r p o w e r i n g or will m a n i fest their n e g a t i v e , d e s t r u c t i v e side.

W i t h the c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n C h a g a l l a n d C h i rico, a q u e s t i o n arises t h a t is i m p o r t a n t for the

If we look at surrealist pictures (like S a l v a d o r Dali's The Burning Giraffe) with this in m i n d .

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we m a y feel the w e a l t h of their fantasy a n d the o v e r w h e l m i n g p o w e r of their unconscious i m a g e r y , b u t we realize t h e h o r r o r a n d the symbolism of the e n d of all things t h a t speaks from m a n y of t h e m . T h e u n c o n s c i o u s is p u r e n a t u r e , a n d , like n a t u r e , p o u r s o u t its gifts in profusion. But left to itself a n d w i t h o u t t h e h u m a n response from consciousness, it c a n (again like n a t u r e ) destroy its o w n gifts a n d sooner or l a t e r sweep t h e m i n t o a n n i h i l a t i o n . T h e q u e s t i o n of the role of consciousness in m o d e r n p a i n t i n g also arises in c o n n e c t i o n with t h e use of chance as a m e a n s of c o m p o s i n g p a i n t i n g s . I n Beyond Painting M a x Ernst w r o t e : " T h e association of a sewing m a c h i n e a n d a n u m b r e l l a o n a surgical t a b l e [he is q u o t i n g from the poet L a u t r e a m o n t ] is a familiar e x a m p l e , w h i c h has n o w b e c o m e classical, of the p h e n o m e n o n discovered by the s u r r e a l ists, t h a t t h e association of two (or m o r e ) a p p a r e n t l y alien e l e m e n t s on a p l a n e alien to b o t h is the most p o t e n t ignition of p o e t r y . " T h a t is p r o b a b l y as difficult for t h e l a y m a n to c o m p r e h e n d as the c o m m e n t Breton m a d e to the s a m e effect: " T h e m a n w h o c a n n o t visualize a horse g a l l o p i n g o n a t o m a t o is a n i d i o t . "

O n e of t h e b e s t - k n o w n of m o d e r n " s u r r e a l i s t " p a i n t e r s is S a l v a d o r Dali ( b o r n 1 9 0 4 ) A b o v e , h i s f a m o u s p a i n t i n g The Burning Giraffe. B e l o w , o n e of M a x Ernst's frottages (usually rubbings taken from scratches on tiles), f r o m his Natural History.

2 8 5

Ernst's Natural History resembles t h e interest t a k e n in t h e past in " a c c i d e n t a l " p a t t e r n s in n a t u r e . B e l o w , an e n g r a v i n g of an 1 8 t h century D u t c h m u s e u m exhibit that is also a k i n d o f surrealist " n a t u r a l h i s t o r y " w i t h its i n c l u s i o n o f c o r a l , stones, and skeletons.


(We m i g h t recall h e r e the " c h a n c e " association of a m a r b l e h e a d a n d red r u b b e r gloves in C h i rico's p i c t u r e . ) O f course, m a n y of these associations w e r e i n t e n d e d as jokes a n d nonsense. But most m o d e r n artists h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d with s o m e t h i n g r a d i c a l l y different from jokes. C h a n c e plays a significant p a r t in the work of the F r e n c h s c u l p t o r J e a n (or H a n s ) A r p . His w o o d c u t s of leaves a n d o t h e r forms, t h r o w n together a t r a n d o m , w e r e a n o t h e r expression of the quest for, as he p u t it, " a secret, p r i m a l m e a n i n g s l u m b e r i n g b e n e a t h the w o r l d of a p p e a r a n c e s . " H e called t h e m Leaves arranged according to the laws of chance a n d Squares arranged according to the laws of chance. I n these c o m positions it is c h a n c e t h a t gives d e p t h to the work of a r t ; it points to a n u n k n o w n b u t active principle of o r d e r a n d m e a n i n g t h a t b e c o m e s manifest in things as their " s e c r e t s o u l . " It was a b o v e all the desire to " m a k e c h a n c e essential" (in P a u l K l e e ' s words) t h a t u n d e r l a y the surrealists' efforts to t a k e the g r a i n of w o o d , cloud formations, a n d so on as a s t a r t i n g point for their visionary p a i n t i n g . M a x E r n s t , for instance, w e n t b a c k to L e o n a r d o d a V i n c i , w h o wrote a n essay o n Botticelli's r e m a r k t h a t if

you t h r o w a p a i n t - s o a k e d s p o n g e at a wall, in the splashes it m a k e s you will see h e a d s , a n i m a l s , l a n d s c a p e s , a n d a host of o t h e r configurations. Ernst has d e s c r i b e d h o w a vision p u r s u e d h i m in 1925. It forced itself on h i m as he was s t a r i n g at a tiled floor m a r k e d by t h o u s a n d s of scratches. " I n o r d e r to give f o u n d a t i o n to m y powers of m e d i t a t i o n a n d h a l l u c i n a t i o n , I m a d e a series of d r a w i n g s of the tiles by l a y i n g sheets of p a p e r on t h e m at r a n d o m a n d then t a k i n g g r a p h i t e r u b b i n g s . W h e n I fixed m y eyes on the result, I was a s t o u n d e d by a s u d d e n l y s h a r p e n e d sense of a h a l l u c i n a t o r y series of c o n t r a s t i n g a n d s u p e r p o s e d pictures. I m a d e a collection of the first results o b t a i n e d from these 'frottages' a n d called it Hisloire Nalurelle." It is i m p o r t a n t to n o t e t h a t Ernst p l a c e d over or b e h i n d some of these frottages a r i n g or circle, w h i c h gives the p i c t u r e a p e c u l i a r a t m o s p h e r e a n d d e p t h . H e r e t h e psychologist c a n recognize the u n c o n s c i o u s d r i v e to o p p o s e the c h a o t i c h a z a r d s of the i m a g e ' s n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e by the symbol of a self-contained psychic whole, thus establishing e q u i l i b r i u m . T h e r i n g or circle d o m i n a t e s the p i c t u r e . Psychic wholeness rules n a t u r e , itself m e a n i n g f u l a n d giving m e a n i n g .

R i g h t . R o m a n c o i n s u s e d in p l a c e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y farther a w a y f r o m R o m e . O n the last c o i n ( f a r t h e s t f r o m t h e controlling center) the face has disintegrated. This strangely corresponds to the p s y c h i c d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t h a t such d r u g s as L S D 2 5 c a n i n d u c e . B e l o w , d r a w i n g s d o n e by an artist w h o t o o k t h i s d r u g in a test h e l d in G e r m a n y in 1 9 5 1 . T h e d r a w i n g s g r o w m o r e a b s t r a c t as c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l is o v e r c o m e by t h e u n c o n s c i o u s .

2

59


Iii M a x Ernst's efforts to p u r s u e the secret p a t t e r n in things, we m a y d e t e c t a n affinity with the 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y R o m a n t i c s . T h e y spoke of n a t u r e ' s " h a n d w r i t i n g , " ' w h i c h c a n be seen e v e r y w h e r e , on wings, eggshells, in clouds, snow, ice crystals, a n d o t h e r " s t r a n g e c o n j u n c tions of c h a n c e " j u s t as m u c h as in d r e a m s or visions. T h e y saw e v e r y t h i n g as the expression of o n e a n d the s a m e " p i c t o r i a l l a n g u a g e of n a t u r e . " T h u s it was a g e n u i n e l y r o m a n t i c gest u r e w h e n M a x Ernst called the p i c t u r e s p r o d u c e d by his e x p e r i m e n t s " n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . " A n d he was right, for t h e u n c o n s c i o u s (which h a d c o n j u r e d u p the p i c t u r e s in t h e c h a n c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of things) is n a t u r e . It is with E r n s t ' s Natural History or A r p ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s of c h a n c e t h a t the reflections of the psychologist b e g i n . H e is faced w i t h the question of w h a t m e a n i n g a c h a n c e a r r a n g e m e n t — w h e r e v e r a n d w h e n e v e r it comes a b o u t — can h a v e for the m a n w h o h a p p e n s on it. W i t h this q u e s t i o n , m a n a n d consciousness c o m e into the m a t t e r , a n d with t h e m the possibility of m e a n i n g . The c h a n c e - c r e a t e d p i c t u r e m a y b e beautiful or ugly, h a r m o n i o u s or d i s c o r d a n t , rich or p o o r in c o n t e n t , well- or ill-painted. T h e s e factors d e t e r m i n e its artistic v a l u e , b u t they c a n n o t satisfy the psychologist (often to the distress of the artist or of a n y o n e w h o finds s u p r e m e satisfaction in the c o n t e m p l a t i o n of form). T h e psychologist seeks further a n d tries to u n d e r s t a n d the "secret c o d e " of c h a n c e a r r a n g e m e n t - i n so far as m a n c a n d e c i p h e r it a t all. T h e n u m b e r a n d form of the objects t h r o w n t o g e t h e r at r a n d o m by A r p raise as m a n y q u e s t i o n s as a n y

detail of E r n s t ' s fantastic frottages. F o r the psychologist, they are s y m b o l s ; a n d therefore they c a n not only be felt b u t ( u p to a c e r t a i n p o i n t ) c a n also be i n t e r p r e t e d . T h e a p p a r e n t or a c t u a l r e t r e a t of m a n from m a n y m o d e r n works of a r t , the lack of reflection, a n d the p r e d o m i n a n c e of the u n c o n s c i o u s over consciousness offer critics f r e q u e n t points of a t t a c k . T h e y speak of p a t h o l o g i c a l art or c o m p a r e it with pictures by the i n s a n e , for it is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of psychosis t h a t consciousness a n d the e g o - p e r s o n a l i t y a r e s u b m e r g e d a n d " d r o w n e d " by floods of c o n t e n t s from the unconscious regions of the psyche. It is t r u e t h a t the c o m p a r i s o n is not so odious t o d a y as it was even a g e n e r a t i o n a g o . W h e n D r . J u n g first p o i n t e d out a c o n n e c t i o n of this kind in his essay on Picasso (1932), it p r o v o k e d a s t o r m of i n d i g n a t i o n . T o d a y , t h e c a t a l o g u e of a w e l l - k n o w n Z u r i c h art gallery speaks of the " a l m o s t s c h i z o p h r e n i c obsession" of a famous artist, a n d the G e r m a n w r i t e r R u d o l f K a s s n e r d e s c r i b e d G e o r g T r a k l as " o n e of the greatest G e r m a n p o e t s , " c o n t i n u i n g : " T h e r e was s o m e t h i n g s c h i z o p h r e n i c a b o u t h i m . It c a n be felt in his w o r k ; t h e r e is a t o u c h of s c h i z o p h r e n i a in it too. Yes, T r a k l is a g r e a t p o e t . " It is n o w realized t h a t a state of schizop h r e n i a a n d the artistic vision a r e not m u t u a l l y exclusive. T o m y m i n d , the famous e x p e r i m e n t s with mescalin a n d similar d r u g s have contrib u t e d to this c h a n g e of a t t i t u d e . T h e s e d r u g s c r e a t e a c o n d i t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d by intense visions of colors a n d forms — not unlike schizop h r e n i a . M o r e t h a n o n e artist of t o d a y has s o u g h t i n s p i r a t i o n in such a d r u g .


The retreat from reality

F r a n z M a r c o n c e said : " T h e a r t t h a t is c o m i n g will give formal expression to o u r scientific conv i c t i o n . " T h i s was a t r u l y p r o p h e t i c saying. W e h a v e t r a c e d the influence on artists of F r e u d ' s p s y c h o a n a l y s i s a n d of the discovery (or rediscovery) of the u n c o n s c i o u s in the early years of t h e 20th c e n t u r y . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t point is the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n m o d e r n art a n d the results of research in n u c l e a r physics. T o p u t it in s i m p l e , nonscientific t e r m s , n u clear physics has r o b b e d the basic units of m a t t e r of their a b s o l u t e concreteness. It has m a d e m a t t e r mysterious. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , mass a n d e n e r g y , w a v e a n d p a r t i c l e , h a v e p r o v e d to be i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . The laws of cause a n d effect h a v e b e c o m e valid only u p to a c e r t a i n point. It does not m a t t e r at all t h a t these relativities, discontinuities, a n d p a r a d o x e s hold good only on the m a r g i n s of o u r world only for the infinitely small (the a t o m ) a n d the infinitely g r e a t (the cosmos). T h e y h a v e caused a r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e in t h e c o n c e p t of reality, for a n e w . totally different, a n d i r r a t i o n a l reality has d a w n e d b e h i n d the reality of o u r " n a t u r a l " w o r l d , w h i c h is ruled by the laws of classical physics. C o r r e s p o n d i n g relativities a n d p a r a d o x e s were discovered in the d o m a i n of the psyche. H e r e . too. a n o t h e r world d a w n e d on the m a r gin of the world of consciousness, g o v e r n e d by new a n d h i t h e r t o u n k n o w n laws that a r e

strangely akin to the laws of n u c l e a r physics. T h e parallelism b e t w e e n n u c l e a r physics a n d the psychology of the collective unconscious was often a subject of discussion b e t w e e n J u n g a n d W o l f g a n g Pauli, the X o b e l p r i z e w i n n e r in physics. T h e s p a c e - t i m e c o n t i n u u m of physics a n d the collective u n c o n s c i o u s c a n be seen, so to speak, as the o u t e r a n d i n n e r aspects of one a n d the s a m e reality b e h i n d a p p e a r a n c e s . ( T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n physics a n d psychology will be discussed by D r . M . - L . von F r a n z in h e r c o n c l u d i n g essay.) It is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this one world b e h i n d the worlds of physics a n d the psyche t h a t its laws, processes, a n d c o n t e n t s are u n i m a g i n a b l e . T h a t is a fact of o u t s t a n d i n g i m p o r t a n c e for the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the art of o u r time. For the m a i n subject of m o d e r n a r t is, in a c e r t a i n sense, u n i m a g i n a b l e too. T h e r e f o r e m u c h m o d ern art has b e c o m e " a b s t r a c t . " T h e g r e a t artists of this c e n t u r y h a v e s o u g h t to give visible form to the "life b e h i n d t h i n g s " a n d so their works a r e a s y m b o l i c expression of a world b e h i n d

T h e p a i n t i n g s o n t h e s e p a g e s , all by Franz M a r c ( 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 1 6 ) , s h o w his g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a w a y f r o m a concern w i t h outward things, toward a m o r e c o m p l e t e l y " a b s t r a c t " art Far left, Blue Horses ( 1 9 1 1 ); c e n t e r , Roesina Wood ( 1 9 1 3 - 1 4 ) ; b e l o w , Play of Forms ( 1 9 1 4 ) ,


Left, Piet M o n d r i a n ' s Painting No 7 — a n e x a m p l e of t h e m o d e r n approach to "pure f o r m " (Mondrian's t e r m ) t h r o u g h t h e use o f w h o l l y abstract, geometrical shapes.

T h e art of Paul Klee is a v i s u a l e x p l o r a t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n of t h e spirit in a n d b e h i n d n a t u r e — t h e u n c o n s c i o u s or, as he t e r m e d it, t h e "secretly p e r c e i v e d . " S o m e t i m e s his v i s i o n c a n b e d i s t u r b i n g a n d d e m o n i c , as in his Death and Fire, r i g h t ; or it c a n b e a m o r e p o e t i c k i n d o f f a n t a s y , as in his Sinbad the Sailor (far r i g h t ) .

P a i n t i n g N o . 1 , 1 926.Co//ect/on. Modern Art, New York

The Museum

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consciousness (or, i n d e e d , b e h i n d d r e a m s , for d r e a m s a r e only rarely n o n - f i g u r a t i v e ) . T h u s they p o i n t to t h e " o n e " reality, the " o n e " life, w h i c h seems to be the c o m m o n b a c k g r o u n d of the two d o m a i n s of physical a n d psychicappearances. O n l y a few artists realized the c o n n e c t i o n between their form of expression a n d physics a n d psychology. K a n d i n s k y is o n e of the m a s t e r s w h o expressed the d e e p e m o t i o n he felt at the early discoveries of m o d e r n physical r e s e a r c h . " I n my m i n d , t h e collapse of the a t o m was the c o l l a p s e of the whole w o r l d : S u d d e n l y the stoutest walls fell. E v e r y t h i n g t u r n e d u n s t a b l e , insecure, a n d soft. I w o u l d not h a v e b e e n surprised if a stone h a d m e l t e d into thin air before m y eyes. Science s e e m e d to h a v e b e e n a n n i h i l a t e d . " W h a t resulted from this disillusion was the artist's w i t h d r a w a l from the " r e a l m of n a t u r e , " from the " p o p u l o u s f o r e g r o u n d of t h i n g s . " " I t s e e m e d , " K a n d i n s k y a d d e d , " a s if I saw a r t steadily d i s e n g a g i n g itself from nature." T h i s s e p a r a t i o n from the w o r l d of things h a p p e n e d m o r e or less a t t h e s a m e t i m e to o t h e r artists, too. F r a n z M a r c w r o t e : " H a v e we n o t l e a r n e d from a t h o u s a n d years of exp e r i e n c e t h a t things cease to speak the m o r e we hold u p to t h e m t h e visual m i r r o r of their a p p e a r a n c e ? A p p e a r a n c e is e t e r n a l l y flat. . . . " F o r M a r c , the goal of a r t was " t o reveal u n e a r t h l y life d w e l l i n g b e h i n d e v e r y t h i n g , to b r e a k the m i r r o r of life so t h a t we m a y look b e i n g in the f a c e . " P a u l K l e e w r o t e : " T h e artist does not ascribe to the n a t u r a l form of

a p p e a r a n c e the s a m e c o n v i n c i n g significance as the realists w h o a r e his critics. H e does not feel so i n t i m a t e l y b o u n d to t h a t reality, b e c a u s e he c a n n o t see in the formal p r o d u c t s of n a t u r e the essence of the c r e a t i v e process. H e is m o r e conc e r n e d with formative p o w e r s t h a n w i t h formal p r o d u c t s . " Piet M o n d r i a n accused c u b i s m of not h a v i n g p u r s u e d a b s t r a c t i o n to its logical e n d , " t h e expression of p u r e r e a l i t y . " T h a t can only be a t t a i n e d by the " c r e a t i o n of p u r e f o r m , " u n c o n d i t i o n e d by subjective feelings a n d ideas. " B e h i n d c h a n g i n g n a t u r a l forms t h e r e lies changeless p u r e r e a l i t y . " A g r e a t n u m b e r of artists w e r e seeking to get past a p p e a r a n c e s i n t o the " r e a l i t y " of the b a c k g r o u n d or the "spirit in m a t t e r " by a t r a n s m u t a t i o n of things — t h r o u g h fantasy, s u r r e a l ism, d r e a m p i c t u r e s , the use of c h a n c e , etc. T h e " a b s t r a c t " artists, h o w e v e r , t u r n e d their backs on things. T h e i r p a i n t i n g s c o n t a i n e d n o i d e n t i fiable c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s ; they w e r e , in M o n d r i a n ' s w o r d s , simply " p u r e f o r m . " But it m u s t be realized t h a t w h a t these artists w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h was s o m e t h i n g far g r e a t e r t h a n a p r o b l e m of form a n d the distinction between "concrete" and "abstract," figurative a a d non-figurative. T h e i r goal was the c e n t e r of life a n d things, their changeless b a c k g r o u n d , and an inward certitude. Art had become mysticism. T h e spirit in whose m y s t e r y a r t was s u b m e r g e d was a n e a r t h l y spirit, w h i c h the m e d i eval a l c h e m i s t s h a d called M e r c u r i u s . H e is a s y m b o l of the spirit t h a t these artists d i v i n e d or s o u g h t b e h i n d n a t u r e a n d things, " b e h i n d the


a p p e a r a n c e of n a t u r e . " T h e i r mysticism was alien to C h r i s t i a n i t y , for t h a t " M e r c u r i a l " spirit is alien to a " h e a v e n l y " spirit. I n d e e d , it was C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s d a r k a d v e r s a r y t h a t was forging its w a y in a r t . H e r e we begin to see the real historical a n d s y m b o l i c significance of " m o d e r n a r t . " Like the h e r m e t i c m o v e m e n t s in the M i d d l e Ages, it m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d as a mysticism of the spirit of e a r t h , a n d therefore as a n expression of o u r t i m e c o m p e n s a t o r y to Christianity. N o artist sensed this mystic b a c k g r o u n d of art m o r e clearly or spoke of it with g r e a t e r passion t h a n K a n d i n s k y . T h e i m p o r t a n c e of the g r e a t works of a r t of all t i m e did not lie, in his eyes, " o n the surface, in e x t e r n a l s , b u t in the root of all roots — in the mystical c o n t e n t of a r t . " T h e r e f o r e he s a y s : " T h e artist's eye should a l w a y s be t u r n e d in u p o n his i n n e r life, a n d his e a r s h o u l d be a l w a y s alert for the voice of i n w a r d necessity. T h i s is the only w a y of giving expression to w h a t the mystic vision commands." K a n d i n s k y called his p i c t u r e s a spiritual expression of the cosmos, a music of the spheres, a h a r m o n y of colors a n d forms. " F o r m , even if it is q u i t e a b s t r a c t a n d g e o m e t r i c a l , has a n i n w a r d c l a n g ; it is a s p i r i t u a l b e i n g w i t h effects that coincide a b s o l u t e l y w i t h t h a t f o r m . " " T h e i m p a c t of the a c u t e a n g l e of a t r i a n g l e on a circle is a c t u a l l y as o v e r w h e l m i n g in effect as the finger of G o d t o u c h i n g the finger of A d a m in M i c h e l a n g e l o . " In 1914, F r a n z M a r c w r o t e in his Aphorisms: " M a t t e r is a t h i n g t h a t m a n c a n a t best

t o l e r a t e ; he refuses to r e c o g n i z e it. T h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n of the world has b e c o m e the p e n e t r a t i o n of the w o r l d . T h e r e is n o mystic w h o , in his m o m e n t s of sublimest r a p t u r e , ever a t t a i n e d the perfect a b s t r a c t i o n of m o d e r n t h o u g h t , or took his s o u n d i n g s w i t h a d e e p e r p l u m m e t . " P a u l K l e e , w h o m a y be r e g a r d e d as the poet a m o n g m o d e r n p a i n t e r s , says: " I t is t h e artist's mission to p e n e t r a t e as far as m a y be t o w a r d t h a t secret g r o u n d w h e r e p r i m a l law feeds g r o w t h . W h i c h artist w o u l d not wish to dwell at the c e n t r a l o r g a n of all m o t i o n in s p a c e - t i m e (be it the b r a i n or the h e a r t of c r e a t i o n ) from w h i c h all functions d e r i v e their life? I n the w o m b of n a t u r e , in the p r i m a l g r o u n d of creation, w h e r e t h e secret key to all things lies h i d d e n ? . . . O u r b e a t i n g h e a r t drives us d o w n w a r d , far d o w n to the p r i m a l g r o u n d . " W h a t is e n c o u n t e r e d on this j o u r n e y " m u s t be t a k e n most seriously w h e n it is perfectly fused w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e artistic m e a n s in visible f o r m , " b e c a u s e , as K l e e a d d s , it is not a q u e s t i o n of m e r e l y r e p r o d u c i n g w h a t is s e e n ; " t h e secretly p e r c e i v e d is m a d e v i s i b l e . " K l e e ' s w o r k is r o o t e d in t h a t p r i m a l g r o u n d . " M y h a n d is entirely the i n s t r u m e n t of a m o r e d i s t a n t s p h e r e . N o r is it m y h e a d t h a t functions in m y w o r k ; it is s o m e t h i n g else . . . . " I n his w o r k the spirit o f ' n a t u r e a n d the spirit of the u n c o n s c i o u s b e c a m e inseparable. T h e y have d r a w n him and draw us, t h e onlookers, i n t o t h e i r m a g i c circle. K l e e ' s work is the most c o m p l e x expression — n o w poetic, n o w d e m o n i c — of t h e c h t h o n i c spirit. H u m o r a n d b i z a r r e ideas b u i l d a b r i d g e from t h e r e a l m of the d a r k u n d e r w o r l d to the 263


h u m a n w o r l d ; the b o n d b e t w e e n his fantasy a n d the e a r t h is the careful o b s e r v a t i o n of the laws of n a t u r e a n d the love for all c r e a t u r e s . " F o r the a r t i s t , " he o n c e w r o t e , " t h e d i a l o g u e with n a t u r e is t h e conditio sine qua non of his work." A different expression of the h i d d e n u n c o n scious spirit c a n be found in o n e of the most n o t a b l e of the y o u n g e r " a b s t r a c t " p a i n t e r s , Jackson Pollock, a n A m e r i c a n w h o was killed in a c a r a c c i d e n t w h e n he was 44. His work has h a d a g r e a t influence on the y o u n g e r artists of o u r t i m e . In My Painting, he revealed t h a t he p a i n t e d in a kind of t r a n c e : " W h e n I a m in m y p a i n t i n g I a m not a w a r e of w h a t I a m d o i n g . It is only after a sort o f ' g e t a c q u a i n t e d ' period that I see w h a t I h a v e been a b o u t . I h a v e n o fears a b o u t m a k i n g c h a n g e s , destroying the i m a g e , etc., because the p a i n t i n g has a life of its o w n . I try to let it c o m e t h r o u g h . It is only w h e n I lose c o n t a c t with the p a i n t i n g t h a t the result is a mess. O t h e r w i s e t h e r e is p u r e h a r m o n y , a n easy give a n d t a k e , a n d the p a i n t i n g comes out w e l l . " Pollock's p i c t u r e s , w h i c h w e r e p a i n t e d p r a c tically unconsciously, a r c c h a r g e d with b o u n d less e m o t i o n a l v e h e m e n c e . In their lack of s t r u c t u r e they a r e almost c h a o t i c , a g l o w i n g lava s t r e a m of colors, lines, p l a n e s , a n d points. T h e y m a y be r e g a r d e d as a parallel to w h a t the alchemists called the mass a confusa, the prima

materia, or chaos â&#x20AC;&#x201D; all ways of defining the precious p r i m e m a t t e r of the a l c h e m i c a l p r o cess, the s t a r t i n g point of the quest for the essence of b e i n g . Pollock's p i c t u r e s represent the n o t h i n g t h a t is e v e r y t h i n g â&#x20AC;&#x201D; t h a t is, the u n conscious itself. T h e y seem to live in a t i m e before the e m e r g e n c e of consciousness a n d being, or to be fantastic l a n d s c a p e s of a time after the e x t i n c t i o n of consciousness a n d being. In the m i d d l e ol o u r c e n t u r y , the p u r e l y a b stract p i c t u r e w i t h o u t a n y r e g u l a r o r d e r of forms a n d colors has b e c o m e the most frequent expression in p a i n t i n g . T h e d e e p e r the dissolution of " r e a l i t y , " the m o r e the p i c t u r e loses its s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t . T h e reason for this lies in the n a t u r e of the symbol a n d its function. T h e symbol is a n object of the k n o w n world h i n t i n g at s o m e t h i n g u n k n o w n ; it is the k n o w n expressing the life a n d sense of the inexpressible. But in merely a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g s , the world of the k n o w n has c o m p l e t e l y v a n i s h e d . N o t h i n g is left to form a b r i d g e to the u n k n o w n . O n the o t h e r h a n d , these p a i n t i n g s reveal a n u n e x p e c t e d b a c k g r o u n d , a h i d d e n sense. T h e y often t u r n out to be m o r e or less exact images of n a t u r e itself, s h o w i n g a n a s t o u n d i n g similarity with the m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of o r g a n i c a n d i n o r g a n i c e l e m e n t s of n a t u r e . T h i s is a perplexing fact. P u r e a b s t r a c t i o n has b e c o m e a n i m a g e of c o n c r e t e n a t u r e . But J u n g m a y give us the key to u n d e r s t a n d i n g :


" T h e d e e p e r layers of the p s y c h e , " h e has said, "lose t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l u n i q u e n e s s as they r e t r e a t farther a n d f a r t h e r i n t o d a r k n e s s . ' L o w e r down," t h a t is to say, as they a p p r o a c h the a u t o n o m o u s functional systems, they b e c o m e increasingly collective until they a r c universalized a n d e x t i n g u i s h e d in the b o d y ' s m a t e r i a l i t y , i.e. in c h e m i c a l substances. T h e b o d y ' s c a r b o n is simply c a r b o n . H e n c e 'at b o t t o m ' the psyche is simply ' w o r l d . ' A c o m p a r i s o n of a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g s a n d m i c r o p h o t o g r a p h s shows t h a t u t t e r a b s t r a c t i o n of i m a g i n a t i v e a r t has in a secret a n d surprising w a y b e c o m e " n a t u r a l i s t i c , " its subject being e l e m e n t s of m a t t e r . T h e " g r e a t a b s t r a c t i o n " a n d the " g r e a t r e a l i s m , " w h i c h p a r t e d at the b e g i n n i n g of o u r c e n t u r y , h a v e c o m e t o g e t h e r again. We r e m e m b e r Kandinsky's words: " T h e poles o p e n t w o p a t h s , w h i c h both lead to one goal at the e n d . " T h i s " g o a l , " the point of u n i o n , is r e a c h e d in m o d e r n a b s t r a c t p a i n t i n g s . But it is a t t a i n e d c o m p l e t e l y unconsciously. The artist's i n t e n t i o n plays n o p a r t in the process. T h i s point leads to a most i m p o r t a n t fact a b o u t m o d e r n a r t : T h e artist is, as it w e r e , not so free in his c r e a t i v e work as he m a y think he is. If his w o r k is p e r f o r m e d in a m o r e or less unconscious w a y , it is controlled by laws of n a t u r e t h a t , on the deepest level, c o r r e s p o n d to the laws of the psyche, a n d vice versa. T h e g r e a t pioneers of m o d e r n a r t g a v e clearest expression to its t r u e a i m s a n d to the d e p t h s from w h i c h the spirit rose t h a t left its i m p r i n t on t h e m . T h i s point is i m p o r t a n t , t h o u g h later artists, w h o m a y h a v e failed to realize it, did not a l w a y s p l u m b the s a m e d e p t h s . Yet n e i t h e r K a n d i n s k y , n o r K l e e , n o r a n y o t h e r of the early masters of m o d e r n p a i n t i n g , was ever a w a r e of the g r a v e psychological d a n g e r he was u n d e r going with the mystical s u b m e r s i o n in the c h t h o n i c spirit a n d the p r i m a l g r o u n d of n a t u r e . That d a n g e r must n o w be e x p l a i n e d . As a s t a r t i n g point we m a y take a n o t h e r aspect of a b s t r a c t a r t . T h e G e r m a n w r i t e r Wilhelm W o r r i n g e r i n t e r p r e t e d a b s t r a c t a r t as the expression of a m e t a p h y s i c a l u n e a s e a n d a n x iety t h a t seemed to h i m to be m o r e p r o n o u n c e d a m o n g n o r t h e r n peoples. As he e x p l a i n e d , they

suffer from reality. T h e n a t u r a l n e s s of the s o u t h e r n peoples is d e n i e d to t h e m a n d they long for a s u p e r - r e a l a n d super-sensual world to w h i c h they give expression in i m a g i n a t i v e or a b s t r a c t art. But. as Sir H e r b e r t R e a d r e m a r k s in his Concise History of Modern Art, m e t a p h y s i c a l a n x i e t y is n o longer only G e r m a n i c a n d n o r t h ern ; it n o w c h a r a c t e r i z e s the whole of the m o d ern world. R e a d q u o t e s K l e e , w h o w r o t e in his Diary at the b e g i n n i n g of 1915: " T h e m o r e horrifying this world b e c o m e s (as it is in these days) the m o r e a r t b e c o m e s a b s t r a c t ; while a world at p e a c e p r o d u c e s realistic a r t . " T o F r a n z M a r c , a b s t r a c t i o n offered a refuge from the evil a n d ugliness in this world. " V e r y early in life I felt that m a n was ugly- T h e a n i m a l s seemed to be m o r e lovely a n d p u r e , yet even a m o n g t h e m I discovered so m u c h that was revolting a n d h i d e o u s t h a t my p a i n t i n g b e c a m e more and more schematic and abstract." A good d e a l m a y be l e a r n e d from a conversation t h a t took p l a c e in 1958 b e t w e e n the I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r M a r i n o M a r i n i a n d the writer E d o u a r d R o d i t i . T h e d o m i n a n t subject t h a t M a r i n i t r e a t e d for years in m a n y v a r i a t i o n s is the n u d e figure of a y o u t h on a horse. In the early versions, w h i c h he described in the conversation as " s y m b o l s of h o p e a n d g r a t i t u d e " (after the e n d of the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r ) , the rider sits his horse with o u t s t r e t c h e d a r m s , his

T h e p a i n t i n g s of J a c k s o n P o l l o c k (left, h i s / V o 23) w e r e p a i n t e d in a t r a n c e ( u n c o n s c i o u s l y ) as are t h e w o r k s of o t h e r m o d e r n a r t i s t s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; s u c h asthe French " a c t i o n " painter Georges M a t h i e u (far l e f t ) . T h e c h a o t i c b u t p o w e r f u l result m a y b e c o m p a r e d t o t h e massa confusa of a l c h e m y , a n d strangely resembles the hitherto h i d d e n f o r m s of m a t t e r as r e v e a l e d in m i c r o p h o t o g r a p h s (see p 2 2 ) . R i g h t , a similar c o n f i g u r a t i o n : a v i b r a t i o n p a t t e r n m a d e by s o u n d w a v e s in g l y c e r i n e .


b o d y b e n d i n g slightly b a c k w a r d . In t h e course of years t h e t r e a t m e n t of the subject b e c a m e m o r e " a b s t r a c t . " T h e m o r e or less " c l a s s i c a l " form of the r i d e r g r a d u a l l y dissolved. S p e a k i n g of the feeling u n d e r l y i n g this c h a n g e , M a r i n i s a i d : " I f you look at m y e q u e s t r i a n statues of t h e last 12 years in o r d e r of t i m e , you will notice t h a t the a n i m a l ' s p a n i c steadily increases, b u t t h a t it is frozen w i t h terror and stands paralyzed rather than rearing or t a k i n g flight. T h a t is all b e c a u s e I b e lieve t h a t we a r e a p p r o a c h i n g t h e e n d of the w o r l d . In every figure, I strove to express a d e e p e n i n g fear a n d d e s p a i r . In this w a y I a m a t t e m p t i n g to s y m b o l i z e the last stage of a d y i n g m y t h , the m y t h of the i n d i v i d u a l , victorious h e r o , of t h e h u m a n i s t ' s m a n of v i r t u e . " In fairy tale a n d m y t h , the " v i c t o r i o u s h e r o " is a symbol of consciousness. His defeat, as M a r i n i says himself, m e a n s the d e a t h of the i n d i v i d u a l , a p h e n o m e n o n t h a t a p p e a r s in a social c o n t e x t as the s u b m e r g e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l in the mass, a n d in a r t as the d e c l i n e of the h u m a n element. W h e n R o d i t i asked w h e t h e r M a r i n i ' s style was a b a n d o n i n g t h e classical c a n o n on its w a y to b e c o m i n g " a b s t r a c t , " M a r i n i replied, " A s soon as art has to express fear, it m u s t of itself d e p a r t from t h e classical i d e a l . " H e found subjects for his w o r k in the bodies e x c a v a t e d at P o m p e i i . R o d i t i called M a r i n i ' s art a " H i r o s h i m a s t y l e , " for it conjures u p visions of the end of a w o r l d . M a r i n i a d m i t t e d it. H e felt, he said, as if h e h a d b e e n expelled from a n e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . " U n t i l recently, the s c u l p t o r a i m e d at full sensual a n d powerful^forms. But for the last 15 years, s c u l p t u r e prefers forms in disintegration." T h e conversation between Marini and Roditi explains the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f ' s e n s o r y " a r t i n t o a b s t r a c t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be clear to a n y o n e w h o has ever w a l k e d o p e n - e y e d t h r o u g h a n e x h i b i tion of m o d e r n a r t . H o w e v e r m u c h h e m a y a p p r e c i a t e or a d m i r e its formal q u a l i t i e s , he c a n scarcely fail to sense the fear, d e s p a i r , a g gression, a n d m o c k e r y t h a t s o u n d s like a cry from m a n y works. T h e " m e t a p h y s i c a l a n x i e t y " t h a t is expressed by the distress in these p i c t u r e s 266


a n d s c u l p t u r e s m a y h a v e arisen from the desp a i r of a d o o m e d w o r l d , as it d i d w i t h M a r i n i . I n o t h e r cases, t h e e m p h a s i s m a y lie o n the religious factor, on t h e feeling t h a t G o d is d e a d . T h e r e is a close c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the two. At the root of this i n n e r distress lies t h e d e feat (or r a t h e r the r e t r e a t ) of consciousness. I n t h e u p s u r g e of mystical e x p e r i e n c e , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t o n c e b o u n d m a n to the h u m a n w o r l d , to e a r t h , to t i m e a n d space, to m a t t e r a n d the n a t u r a l living of life, has b e e n cast aside or dissolved. But unless t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is b a l a n c e d b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e of consciousness, it will i m p l a c a b l y reveal its c o n t r a r y or n e g a t i v e aspect. T h e w e a l t h of c r e a t i v e s o u n d t h a t m a d e the h a r m o n y of the spheres, or t h e wonderful mysteries of the p r i m a l g r o u n d , h a v e yielded to d e s t r u c t i o n a n d d e s p a i r . I n m o r e t h a n o n e case the artist has b e c o m e t h e passive v i c t i m of the unconscious. I n physics, too, t h e w o r l d of t h e b a c k g r o u n d has r e v e a l e d its p a r a d o x i c a l n a t u r e ; the laws of t h e i n m o s t e l e m e n t s of n a t u r e , t h e newly discovered s t r u c t u r e s a n d relations in its basic u n i t , the a t o m , h a v e b e c o m e the scientific found a t i o n for u n p r e c e d e n t e d w e a p o n s of d e s t r u c tion, a n d o p e n e d t h e w a y to a n n i h i l a t i o n . U l t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e a n d the d e s t r u c t i o n of the w o r l d a r e t h e t w o aspects of t h e discovery of the p r i m a l g r o u n d of n a t u r e . J u n g , w h o was as familiar w i t h t h e d a n g e r ous d u a l n a t u r e of the u n c o n s c i o u s as w i t h the

T o p left a n d c e n t e r , t w o s c u l p t u r e s by Marino Marini (1901 - 6 6 ) , from 1 9 4 5 and 1951 respectively, s h o w h o w t h e t h e m e of horse a n d rider w a s a l t e r e d f r o m an e x p r e s s i o n o f t r a n q u i l i t y t o o n e o f t o r t u r e d fear and despair, w h i l e the sculptures themselves grew correspondingly m o r e a n d m o r e a b s t r a c t . M a r i n i ' s later w o r k w a s influenced by the equally panic-stricken shapes of bodies f o u n d at P o m p e i i ( l e f t ) .

i m p o r t a n c e of h u m a n consciousness, could offer m a n k i n d only o n e w e a p o n a g a i n s t c a t a s t r o p h e : t h e call for i n d i v i d u a l consciousness, w h i c h seems so simple a n d yet is so a r d u o u s . Consciousness is not only i n d i s p e n s a b l e as a c o u n t e r p o i s e to the u n c o n s c i o u s , a n d n o t only gives the possibility of m e a n i n g to life. I t has also a n e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l function. T h e evil witnessed in the w o r l d o u t s i d e , in n e i g h b o r s or n e i g h b o r i n g peoples, c a n be m a d e conscious as evil c o n t e n t s of o u r o w n psyche as well, a n d this insight w o u l d be the first step to a r a d i c a l c h a n g e in o u r a t t i t u d e to o u r n e i g h b o r s . E n v y , lust, sensuality, lies, a n d all k n o w n vices a r e the n e g a t i v e , " d a r k " aspect of the u n conscious, w h i c h c a n manifest itself in two ways. I n the positive sense, it a p p e a r s as a "spirit of n a t u r e , " creatively a n i m a t i n g m a n , things, a n d t h e w o r l d . I t is t h e " c h t h o n i c s p i r i t " t h a t has b e e n m e n t i o n e d so often in this c h a p t e r . I n the n e g a t i v e sense, the unconscious ( t h a t s a m e spirit) manifests itself as a spirit of evil, as a d r i v e to destroy. As has a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t , the a l c h e mists personified this spirit as " t h e spirit M e r c u r i u s " a n d called it, w i t h good reason, Mercurius duplex (the two-faced, d u a l M e r c u r i u s ) . I n the religious l a n g u a g e of C h r i s t i a n i t y , it is called t h e devil. But, h o w e v e r i m p r o b a b l e it m a y seem, t h e devil too has a d u a l aspect. I n the positive sense, h e a p p e a r s as Luciferâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;literally, the light-bringer. L o o k e d at in the light of these difficult a n d p a r a d o x i c a l ideas, m o d e r n a r t ( w h i c h we h a v e r e c o g n i z e d as symbolic of the c h t h o n i c spirit) also has a d u a l aspect. I n t h e positive sense it is the expression of a mysteriously p r o f o u n d n a t u r e - m y s t i c i s m ; in the n e g a t i v e , it c a n only b e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e expression of a n evil- or d e s t r u c t i v e spirit. T h e two sides b e l o n g tog e t h e r , for the p a r a d o x is o n e of the basic qualities of the u n c o n s c i o u s a n d its c o n t e n t s . T o p r e v e n t a n y m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , it m u s t o n c e m o r e be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t these c o n s i d e r a tions h a v e n o t h i n g to d o w i t h artistic a n d aesthetic values, b u t a r e solely c o n c e r n e d with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m o d e r n a r t as a s y m b o l of our time. 267


Union of opposites

T h e r e is one m o r e p o i n t to be m a d e . T h e spirit of the age is in c o n s t a n t m o v e m e n t . It is like a river t h a t flows on, invisibly b u t surely, a n d given the m o m e n t u m of life in o u r c e n t u r y , even 10 years is a long t i m e . A b o u t the m i d d l e of this c e n t u r y a c h a n g e b e g a n to c o m e over p a i n t i n g . It was n o t h i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y , n o t h i n g like the c h a n g e t h a t h a p p e n e d a b o u t 1910, w h i c h m e a n t t h e r e c o n struction of art to its v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s . But t h e r e w e r e g r o u p s of artists w h o f o r m u l a t e d their aims in w a y s not h e a r d before. T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is g o i n g on w i t h i n the frontiers of abstract painting. T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n c r e t e reality, w h i c h springs from the p r i m a l h u m a n need of c a t c h ing the passing m o m e n t on the w i n g , has bec o m e a t r u l y c o n c r e t e sensuous a r t in the p h o t o g r a p h y of such m e n as F r a n c e ' s H e n r i C a r t i e r Bresson, S w i t z e r l a n d ' s W e r n e r Bischof, a n d others. W e c a n therefore u n d e r s t a n d w h y artists c o n t i n u e d on t h e i r o w n w a y of i n w a r d n e s s a n d i m a g i n a t i o n . F o r a good m a n y of the y o u n g artists, h o w e v e r , a b s t r a c t a r t as it h a d b e e n p r a c t i c e d for m a n y years offered n o a d v e n t u r e , no field of c o n q u e s t . Seeking t h e n e w , they found it in w h a t lay nearest, yet h a d b e e n lost — in n a t u r e a n d m a n . T h e y were not a n d are not c o n c e r n e d with the r e p r o d u c t i o n of n a t u r e in pictures, b u t w i t h the expression of their own e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of n a t u r e . T h e F r e n c h p a i n t e r Alfred M a n e s s i e r defined the aims of his a r t in these w o r d s : " W h a t we h a v e to r e c o n q u e r is the w e i g h t of lost reality. W e m u s t m a k e for ourselves a n e w h e a r t , a n e w spirit, a n e w soul, in the m e a s u r e of m a n . T h e p a i n t e r ' s t r u e reality lies n e i t h e r in a b s t r a c t i o n n o r in realism, b u t in the r e c o n q u e s t of his w e i g h t as a h u m a n b e i n g . At p r e s e n t non-figu r a t i v e art seems to m e to offer the o n e o p p o r tunity for the p a i n t e r to a p p r o a c h the i n w a r d reality of himself a n d to g r a s p the consciousness of his essential self, or even of his being. It is

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68

only by the r c c o n q u e s t of his position, I believe, t h a t the p a i n t e r will be a b l e , in the t i m e to c o m e , to r e t u r n slowly to himself, to rediscover his o w n w e i g h t a n d so to s t r e n g t h e n it t h a t it c a n even r e a c h t h e o u t w a r d reality of the world." J e a n B a z a i n e speaks in similar t e r m s : " I t is a g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n for the p a i n t e r of t o d a y to p a i n t the p u r e r h y t h m of his feeling, the most secret pulse of his h e a r t , instead of e m b o d y i n g it in a c o n c r e t e form. T h a t , h o w e v e r , leads only to a desiccated m a t h e m a t i c s or a k i n d of a b stract expressionism, w h i c h ends in m o n o t o n y a n d a progressive i m p o v e r i s h m e n t of form. . . . But a form t h a t c a n reconcile m a n with his world is a n ' a r t of c o m m u n i o n ' by w h i c h m a n , at a n y m o m e n t , c a n recognize his o w n u n formed c o u n t e n a n c e in the w o r l d . " W h a t in fact artists n o w h a v e at h e a r t is a conscious r e u n i o n of their o w n i n w a r d reality w i t h the reality of the w o r l d or of n a t u r e ; or, in the last resort, a n e w u n i o n of b o d y a n d soul, m a t t e r a n d spirit. T h a t is their w a y to the " r e c o n q u e s t of their weight as h u m a n b e i n g s . " O n l y n o w is the g r e a t rift t h a t set in w i t h m o d e r n art ( b e t w e e n " g r e a t a b s t r a c t i o n " a n d " g r e a t r e a l i s m " ) b e i n g m a d e conscious a n d on the w a y to b e i n g h e a l e d . F o r the onlooker, this first b e c o m e s evident in the c h a n g e d a t m o s p h e r e in the works of these artists. T h e r e r a d i a t e s from the p i c t u r e s of such artists as Alfred M a n e s s i e r or the B e l g i a n - b o r n p a i n t e r G u s t a v e Singier, in spite of all a b s t r a c tion, a belief in the w o r l d , a n d , in spite of all intensity of feeling, a h a r m o n y of forms a n d colors t h a t often a t t a i n s serenity. I n the F r e n c h p a i n t e r Jean L u r c a t ' s f a m o u s tapestries of the In this century the depiction of actuality—once the province of the painter and sculptor—has been taken over by the photographer, whose camera can not only record but (like any landscape painting of past centuries) can express the photographer's own emotional experience of the subject. Right, a Japanese scene photographed by Werner Bischof (1916-54).


1950s the e x u b e r a n c e of n a t u r e p e r v a d e s the p i c t u r e . His a r t could b e called sensuous as well as i m a g i n a t i v e . W e find a serene h a r m o n y of forms a n d colors also in the work of Paul K l e e . T h i s h a r m o n y was w h a t he h a d a l w a y s been striving for. A b o v e all, h e h a d realized the necessity of not d e n y i n g evil. " E v e n evil must not be a t r i u m p h a n t or d e g r a d i n g e n e m y , b u t a p o w e r c o l l a b o r a t i n g in the w h o l e . " But K l e e ' s s t a r t i n g point was not the s a m e . H e lived n e a r " t h e d e a d a n d the u n b o r n " at a n almost cosmic dist a n c e from this w o r l d , while the y o u n g e r gene r a t i o n of p a i n t e r s c a n b e said to be m o r e firmly rooted in e a r t h . An i m p o r t a n t point to notice is t h a t m o d e r n p a i n t i n g , just w h e n it has a d v a n c e d far e n o u g h to discern the u n i o n of the opposites, has t a k e n u p religious t h e m e s . T h e " m e t a p h y s i c a l v o i d " seems to h a v e b e e n o v e r c o m e . A n d the utterly u n e x p e c t e d has h a p p e n e d : T h e C h u r c h has bec o m e a p a t r o n of m o d e r n a r t . W e need only m e n t i o n h e r e All Saints at Basle, with w i n d o w s by Alfred M a n e s s i e r ; Assy c h u r c h , w i t h pictures by a l a r g e n u m b e r of m o d e r n a r t i s t s ; the Matisse c h a p e l at V e n c e ; a n d the c h u r c h at A u d i n c o u r t , w h i c h has works by J e a n B a z a i n e a n d the F r e n c h artist F e r n a n d Leger. T h e admission of m o d e r n a r t to the C h u r c h m e a n s m o r e t h a n a n act of b r o a d m i n d e d n e s s 270

on the p a r t of its p a t r o n s . It is s y m b o l i c of the fact t h a t the p a r t p l a y e d by m o d e r n a r t in relation to C h r i s t i a n i t y is c h a n g i n g . T h e c o m p e n satory function of the old h e r m e t i c m o v e m e n t s has m a d e w a y for the possibility of c o l l a b o r a tion. In discussing the a n i m a l symbols of Christ, it was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the light a n d the c h t h o nic spirits b e l o n g e d to e a c h o t h e r . It seems as if the m o m e n t h a d c o m e t o d a y w h e n a new stage in the solution of this millennial p r o b l e m m i g h t be r e a c h e d . W h a t the future will yield we c a n n o t k n o w â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w h e t h e r the b r i d g i n g of the opposites will give positive results, or w h e t h e r t h e w a y will lead t h r o u g h yet m o r e u n i m a g i n a b l e c a t a s t r o p h e s . T h e r e is too m u c h a n x i e t y a n d too m u c h d r e a d at work in the w o r l d , a n d this is still the p r e d o m i n a n t factor in a r t a n d society. A b o v e all, t h e r e is still too m u c h unwillingness on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l to a p p l y to himself a n d his life the conclusions t h a t c a n be d r a w n from a r t , a l t h o u g h he m i g h t be r e a d y to a c c e p t t h e m in art. T h e artist c a n often express m a n y things, unconsciously a n d w i t h o u t a w a k e n i n g hostility, w h i c h a r e resented w h e n they a r e expressed by a psychologist (a fact t h a t could be d e m o n s t r a t e d even m o r e conclusively in l i t e r a t u r e t h a n in the visual a r t s ) . C o n f r o n t e d by t h e s t a t e m e n t s of the psychologist, the i n d i v i d u a l feels directly c h a l l e n g e d ; b u t w h a t the artist has to say, p a r t i c u -


larly in o u r c e n t u r y , usually r e m a i n s in a n impersonal sphere. A n d yet it seems i m p o r t a n t t h a t the suggestion of a m o r e w h o l e , a n d therefore m o r e h u m a n , form of expression should h a v e bec o m e visible in o u r t i m e . It is a g l i m m e r of h o p e , s y m b o l i z e d for m e (at the t i m e of writi n g : 1961) by a n u m b e r of p a i n t i n g s by t h e F r e n c h artist P i e r r e Soulages. B e h i n d a c a t a r a c t of h u g e , black rafters t h e r e g l i m m e r s a clear, p u r e b l u e or a r a d i a n t yellow. L i g h t is d a w n ing b e h i n d d a r k n e s s .

M i d - 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y art s e e m s t o be moving away from a Marini-like d e s p a i r â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s is seen in t h e g e s t u r e of J e a n L u r c a t , w h o e x h i b i t e d his w o r k in a f i e l d ( t o p l e f t ) , a link w i t h nature and the earth. A b o v e , Dedicace a Sainte Marie Madeleine by A l f r e d M a n e s s i e r ( b o r n 1 9 1 1 ) . T o p right, Pour la Naissance du Surhomme by F r a n c e ' s P i e r r e - Y v e s Tremois (born 1921) Both w o r k s i n d i c a t e a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d life a n d w h o l e n e s s . T h e p a i n t i n g , right, b y Pierre S o u l a g e s ( b o r n 1 9 1 9 ) m i g h t be u n d e r s t o o d as a s y m b o l o f h o p e : Behind the cataclysmic darkness c a n be seen a g l i m m e r o f l i g h t .


i

S y m b o l s in an i n d i v i d u a l analysis

Jolande Jacob!

A 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g of " T h e Palace o f D r e a m s . "


Symbols in an individual analysis

The beginning of the analysis

T h e r e is a w i d e s p r e a d belief t h a t the m e t h o d s of J u n g i a n psychology a r e a p p l i c a b l e only to middle-aged people. T r u e , m a n y men and w o m e n r e a c h m i d d l e age w i t h o u t a c h i e v i n g psychological m a t u r i t y , a n d it is therefore necessary to h e l p t h e m t h r o u g h t h e n e g l e c t e d phases of their d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e y h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e d the first p a r t of the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n t h a t D r . M . - L . von F r a n z has d e scribed. But it is also t r u e t h a t a y o u n g person c a n e n c o u n t e r serious p r o b l e m s as h e grows u p . If a y o u n g person is afraid of life a n d finds it h a r d to adjust to reality, h e m i g h t prefer to dwell in his fantasies or to r e m a i n a child. I n such a y o u n g person (especially if he is i n t r o v e r t e d ) o n e c a n s o m e t i m e s discover u n e x p e c t e d treasures in the u n c o n s c i o u s , a n d b y b r i n g i n g t h e m into consciousness s t r e n g t h e n his ego a n d give h i m the psychic e n e r g y he needs to g r o w into a m a t u r e p e r s o n . T h a t is the function of the powerful s y m b o l i s m of o u r d r e a m s . O t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s to this book h a v e described the n a t u r e of these symbols a n d the role they p l a y in m a n ' s psychological n a t u r e . I wish to show h o w analysis c a n aid the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process by t a k i n g the e x a m p l e of a y o u n g engineer, aged 25, w h o m I shall call H e n r y . H e n r y c a m e from a r u r a l district in e a s t e r n S w i t z e r l a n d . His father, of P r o t e s t a n t p e a s a n t stock, was a g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r : H e n r y described h i m as a m a n with high m o r a l s t a n d a r d s , b u t a r a t h e r w i t h d r a w n person w h o found it difficult to r e l a t e to o t h e r p e o p l e . H e was m o r e of a father to his p a t i e n t s t h a n to his c h i l d r e n . At h o m e , H e n r y ' s m o t h e r was the d o m i n a n t p e r s o n a l i t y . " W e w e r e raised by the s t r o n g h a n d of o u r m o t h e r , " he said on o n e occasion. S h e c a m e from a family w i t h a n a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d a n d w i d e artistic interests. S h e herself, in spite of h e r strictness, h a d a b r o a d spiritual h o r i z o n ; she was impulsive a n d r o m a n t i c (she h a d a g r e a t love for I t a l y ) . T h o u g h she was by birth a C a t h o l i c , h e r c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n 274

b r o u g h t u p in the P r o t e s t a n t i s m of their father. H e n r y h a d a sister, older t h a n himself, with w h o m he h a d a good r e l a t i o n s h i p . H e n r y was i n t r o v e r t e d , shy, finely d r a w n , a n d very tall, with light h a i r , a high pale foreh e a d , a n d b l u e eyes w i t h d a r k s h a d o w s . H e did n o t t h i n k t h a t neurosis (the most usual reason) h a d b r o u g h t h i m to m e , b u t r a t h e r a n i n n e r u r g e to work o n his psyche. A s t r o n g m o t h e r tie, h o w e v e r , a n d a fear of c o m m i t t i n g himself to life w e r e h i d d e n b e h i n d this u r g e ; b u t these w e r e only discovered d u r i n g the a n a l y t i c a l work w i t h m e . H e h a d j u s t c o m p l e t e d his studies a n d t a k e n a position in a l a r g e factory, a n d h e was facing the m a n y p r o b l e m s of a y o u n g m a n on the t h r e s h o l d of m a n h o o d . " I t a p p e a r s to m e , " he w r o t e in a letter asking for a n i n t e r v i e w , " t h a t this p h a s e of m y life is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t a n d meaningful. I m u s t d e c i d e either to r e m a i n u n c o n s c i o u s in a w e l l - p r o t e c t e d security, or else to v e n t u r e o n a yet u n k n o w n w a y of w h i c h I h a v e g r e a t h o p e s . " T h e choice thus c o n f r o n t i n g h i m was w h e t h e r to r e m a i n a lonely, vacillating, a n d unrealistic y o u t h or to b e c o m e a self-sufficient a n d responsible a d u l t . H e n r y told m e t h a t he preferred books to society; he felt i n h i b i t e d a m o n g p e o p l e , a n d was often t o r m e n t e d by d o u b t s a n d self-criticism. H e was well r e a d for his age a n d h a d a l e a n i n g t o w a r d aesthetic i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . After a n earlier atheistic stage, he b e c a m e rigorously P r o t e s t a n t , b u t finally his religious a t t i t u d e b e c a m e c o m p l e t e l y n e u t r a l . H e h a d chosen a t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e h e felt his talents lay in m a t h e m a t i c s a n d g e o m e t r y . H e possessed a logical m i n d , t r a i n e d in t h e n a t u r a l sciences, b u t he also h a d a p r o p e n s i t y t o w a r d t h e i r r a tional a n d mystical t h a t he did n o t w a n t to a d m i t even to himself. A b o u t two years before his analysis b e g a n , H e n r y h a d b e c o m e e n g a g e d to a C a t h o l i c girl from the F r e n c h p a r t of S w i t z e r l a n d . H e d e scribed her as c h a r m i n g , efficient, a n d full of


initiative. Nevertheless, he was u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r he should u n d e r t a k e the responsibility of m a r r i a g e . Since he h a d so little a c q u a i n t a n c e with girls, he t h o u g h t it m i g h t be b e t t e r to wait, or even to r e m a i n a b a c h e l o r d e d i c a t e d to a scholarly life. His d o u b t s w e r e s t r o n g e n o u g h to p r e v e n t his r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n ; he n e e d e d a further step t o w a r d m a t u r i t y before he could feel sure of himself. A l t h o u g h qualities of b o t h ' h i s p a r e n t s w e r e c o m b i n e d in H e n r y , he was m a r k e d l y m o t h e r b o u n d . In his consciousness,'he was identified with his real (or " l i g h t " ) m o t h e r , w h o r e p r e sented high ideals a n d intellectual a m b i t i o n s . But in his unconscious he was d e e p l y in t h e p o w e r of the d a r k aspects of his m o t h e r - b o u n d c o n d i t i o n . His u n c o n s c i o u s still held his ego in a s t r a n g l e - h o l d . All his c l e a r - c u t t h i n k i n g a n d his efforts to find a firm s t a n d p o i n t in t h e purely r a t i o n a l r e m a i n e d n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a n intellectual exercise. T h e need to escape from this " m o t h e r p r i s o n " was expressed in hostile reactions to his real m o t h e r a n d a rejection of the " i n n e r m o t h e r " as a s y m b o l of t h e feminine side of the unconscious. But a n i n n e r p o w e r s o u g h t to hold h i m back in the c o n d i t i o n of c h i l d h o o d , resisting e v e r y t h i n g t h a t a t t r a c t e d h i m to the outside w o r l d . Even the a t t r a c t i o n s of his fiancee w e r e not e n o u g h to free h i m from his mother-ties, a n d thus h e l p him find himself. H e

was not a w a r e t h a t his i n n e r u r g e for g r o w t h ( w h i c h h e felt strongly) i n c l u d e d the need to d e t a c h himself from his m o t h e r . M y a n a l y t i c a l work with H e n r y lasted nine m o n t h s . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e r e w e r e 35 sessions in w h i c h he p r e s e n t e d 50 d r e a m s . So short a n analysis is r a r e . It is only possible w h e n energyl a d e n d r e a m s like H e n r y ' s speed u p the process of d e v e l o p m e n t . O f course, from the J u n g i a n p o i n t of view, t h e r e is n o rule for the l e n g t h of t i m e r e q u i r e d for a successful analysis. All dep e n d s on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s readiness to realize i n n e r facts a n d o n the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d by his unconscious. Like most i n t r o v e r t s , H e n r y led a r a t h e r m o n o t o n o u s o u t e r life. D u r i n g the d a y h e was c o m p l e t e l y involved in his j o b . In the evenings he s o m e t i m e s w e n t out with his fiancee or with friends, with w h o m he liked to h a v e literary discussions. Q u i t e often he sat in his lodgings a b s o r b e d in a book or in his o w n t h o u g h t s . T h o u g h we r e g u l a r l y discussed the h a p p e n i n g s of his daily life, a n d also his c h i l d h o o d a n d y o u t h , we usually got fairly q u i c k l y to the investigation of his d r e a m s a n d the p r o b l e m s his i n n e r life p r e s e n t e d to h i m . It was e x t r a o r d i n a r y to see h o w strongly his d r e a m s e m p h a s i z e d his " c a l l " to spiritual d e v e l o p m e n t . But I must m a k e it clear t h a t not e v e r y t h i n g d e s c r i b e d h e r e was told to H e n r y . In analysis o n e must a l w a y s r e m a i n conscious of h o w ex-

Left, t h e palace a n d m o n a s t e r y of Escorial, S p a i n , built by P h i l i p II a b o u t 1 5 6 3 Its fortress s t r u c t u r e images the introvert's w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e w o r l d B e l o w , a d r a w i n g by H e n r y of a b a r n he b u i l t as a c h i l d w i t h fortress-like battlements.

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plosive the d r e a m e r ' s d r e a m symbols m a y b e for h i m . The a n a l y s t c a n h a r d l y b e too careful a n d reserved. If too b r i g h t a light is t h r o w n o n the d r e a m - l a n g u a g e of symbols, t h e d r e a m e r c a n b e d r i v e n i n t o a n x i e t y , a n d t h u s led into r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n as a defense m e c h a n i s m . O r he c a n n o longer assimilate t h e m , a n d c a n fall into a severe psychic crisis. Also, the d r e a m s r e p o r t e d a n d c o m m e n t e d on h e r e a r c by n o m e a n s all the d r e a m s t h a t H e n r y h a d d u r i n g his analysis. I c a n discuss only a n i m p o r t a n t few t h a t influenced his d e v e l o p m e n t . I n the b e g i n n i n g of o u r w o r k , c h i l d h o o d m e m o r i e s with i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s c a m e u p . The oldest d a t e d b a c k to H e n r y ' s fourth year. H e s a i d : " O n e m o r n i n g I was allowed to go w i t h m y m o t h e r to the b a k e r ' s s h o p a n d t h e r e I received a crescent roll from the b a k e r ' s wife. I did not eat t h e roll b u t c a r r i e d it p r o u d l y in my h a n d . O n l y m y m o t h e r a n d the b a k e r ' s wife w e r e p r e s e n t , so I was the only m a n . " S u c h crescents a r e p o p u l a r l y called " m o o n - t e e t h , " a n d this symbolic allusion to the m o o n u n d e r l i n e s the d o m i n a t i n g p o w e r of the feminine a p o w e r to w h i c h the little boy m a y h a v e felt exposed a n d w h i c h , as the " o n l y m a n , " he was p r o u d of b e i n g a b l e to confront. A n o t h e r c h i l d h o o d m e m o r y c a m e from his fifth year. It c o n c e r n e d H e n r y ' s sister, w h o c a m e h o m e after h e r e x a m i n a t i o n s at school a n d found h i m c o n s t r u c t i n g a toy b a r n . T h e b a r n was m a d e w i t h blocks of w o o d a r r a n g e d in the form of a s q u a r e a n d s u r r o u n d e d with a kind of h e d g e t h a t looked like the b a t t l e m e n t s of a castle. H e n r y was pleased with his a c h i e v e m e n t , a n d said teasingly to his sister: " Y o u h a v e s t a r t e d school b u t y o u ' r e a l r e a d y on h o l i d a y . " H e r reply, t h a t h e was on h o l i d a y all year, upset h i m terribly. H e felt d e e p l y h u r t t h a t his " a c h i e v e m e n t " was not t a k e n seriously. E v e n years l a t e r H e n r y h a d not forgotten the b i t t e r h u r t a n d injustice t h a t he h a d felt w h e n his c o n s t r u c t i o n was rejected. His later p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n i n g the assertion of his m a s culinity a n d the conflict b e t w e e n r a t i o n a l a n d fantasy values a r e a l r e a d y visible in this e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e . A n d these p r o b l e m s a r e also to b e seen in the i m a g e s of his first d r e a m . 2 6 7


The initial dream

T h e d a y after H e n r y ' s first visit to m e , he h a d the following d r e a m :

I was on an excursion with a group of people I did not know. We were going to the Zinalrothorn. We had started from Samaden. We only walked about an hour because we were to camp and have some theatricals. I was not given an active part. I especially remember one performer â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a young woman in a pathetic role wearing a long flowing robe. It was midday and I wanted to go on to the pass. As all the others preferred to remain, I went up alone, leaving my equipment behind. However, I found myself right back in the valley and completely lost my orientation. I wanted to return to my party but did not know which mountainside I should climb. I was hesitant about asking. Finally, an old woman showed me the way I must go. Then I ascended from a different starting point than our group had used in the morning. It was a matter of making a turn at the right altitude and then following the mountain slope to return to the party. I climbed 'along a cogwheel mountain railway on the right side. On my left little cars constantly passed me, each containing one hidden bloated little man in a blue suit. It is said they are dead. I was afraid of other cars coming from behind and kept turning around to look, so as not to be run over. My anxiety was needless. At the point where I had to turn off. to the right, there were people awaiting me. They took me to an inn. A cloudburst came up. I regretted that my equipment my rucksack, and my motor bikeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;were not there, but I was told not to get them till next morning. I accepted the advice.

One of Henry's c h i l d h o o d memories i n v o l v e d a c r e s c e n t roll, w h i c h he d r e w ( t o p left). Center, the same shape o n a m o d e r n S w i s s b a k e r y s i g n . T h e c r e s c e n t s h a p e has l o n g b e e n linked w i t h the m o o n and thus w i t h t h e f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e , as in t h e c r o w n ( l e f t ) of t h e g o d d e s s Ishtar of t h i r d - c e n t u r y B.C. B a b y l o n .

D r . J u n g assigned g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e to the first d r e a m in a n analysis, for, a c c o r d i n g to h i m , it often has a n t i c i p a t o r y v a l u e . A decision to go i n t o analysis is usually a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n e m o t i o n a l u p h e a v a l t h a t d i s t u r b s the d e e p psychic levels from w h i c h a r c h e t y p a l symbols arise. T h e first d r e a m s therefore often p r e s e n t "collective i m a g e s " t h a t p r o v i d e a perspective for the analysis as a w h o l e a n d c a n give the t h e r a p i s t insight i n t o the d r e a m e r ' s psychic conflicts. W h a t does the a b o v e d r e a m tell us of H e n r y ' s future d e v e l o p m e n t ? W e m u s t first e x a m i n e some of the associations t h a t H e n r y himself s u p plied. T h e village of S a m a d e n h a d b e e n t h e h o m e of J i i r g J e n a t s c h , a f a m o u s 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y Swiss freedom-fighter. T h e " t h e a t r i c a l s " called u p the t h o u g h t of G o e t h e ' s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, w h i c h H e n r y liked very m u c h . I n t h e w o m a n h e saw a r e s e m b l a n c e to t h e figure in a p a i n t i n g called The Island of Ihe Dead by the 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y Swiss artist A r n o l d Bocklin. T h e " w i s e old w o m a n , " as h e called h e r , seemed to b e associated o n t h e o n e h a n d to his a n a l y s t , o n the o t h e r to the c h a r w o m a n in J . B. Priestley's p l a y They Came to a City. T h e cog-wheel r a i l w a y r e m i n d e d h i m of t h e b a r n (with b a t t l e m e n t s ) t h a t h e h a d b u i l t as a child. T h e d r e a m describes a n " e x c u r s i o n " (a sort of " w a l k i n g t o u r " ) , w h i c h is a striking p a r a l l e l to H e n r y ' s decision to u n d e r t a k e analysis. T h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n process is often s y m b o l i z e d by a v o y a g e of discovery to u n k n o w n l a n d s . S u c h a v o y a g e takes p l a c e in J o h n B u n y a n ' s Pilgrim's Progress, or in D a n t e ' s Divina Commedia. T h e " t r a v e l e r " in D a n t e ' s p o e m , s e a r c h i n g for a w a y , c o m e s to a m o u n t a i n t h a t h e decides to c l i m b . But b e c a u s e of t h r e e s t r a n g e a n i m a l s (a motif t h a t will also a p p e a r in o n e of H e n r y ' s later d r e a m s ) h e is forced to d e s c e n d i n t o the valley a n d even i n t o hell. ( L a t e r h e ascends a g a i n to p u r g a t o r y a n d finally r e a c h e s p a r a dise.) F r o m this parallel o n e could d e d u c e t h a t

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The initial stage of t h e p r o c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n c a n s o m e t i m e s be a p e r i o d of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a s w a s t h e case w i t h H e n r y . Left, t h e first w o o d c u t from the 1 5th century book The Dream of Poliphilo s h o w s the dreamer fearfully entering a dark w o o d â&#x20AC;&#x201D; p e r h a p s r e p r e s e n t i n g his entrance into the u n k n o w n .

A s s o c i a t i o n s p r o d u c e d by H e n r y to his first d r e a m : right, Island of the Deadby the 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y S w i s s artist A r n o l d B o c k l i n . Far right, a s c e n e f r o m t h e 1 9 4 4 L o n d o n p r o d u c t i o n of J . B. Priestley's They Came to a City, w h i c h c o n c e r n s t h e r e a c t i o n s of a g r o u p of p e o p l e f r o m m a n y w a l k s of life t o an "ideal city." One of the central characters is a c h a r w o m a n , left of p i c t u r e .

there m i g h t be a similar p e r i o d of d i s o r i e n t a tion a n d lonely seeking in store for H e n r y . The first p a r t of this life-journey, r e p r e s e n t e d as c l i m b i n g a m o u n t a i n , offers ascent from the u n c o n s c i o u s to a n elevated p o i n t of view of the ego i.e. to a n increased consciousness. S a m a d e n is n a m e d as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of the excursion. T h i s is w h e r e J e n a t s c h ( w h o m we m a y t a k e as e m b o d y i n g the "freedom-seeki n g " sense w i t h i n H e n r y ' s unconscious) s t a r t e d his c a m p a i g n for the l i b e r a t i o n of the Veltlin region of S w i t z e r l a n d from the F r e n c h . J e n a t s c h h a d o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in c o m m o n with H e n r y : H e was a P r o t e s t a n t w h o fell in love with a C a t h o l i c g i r l ; a n d , like H e n r y , whose analysis was to free h i m from his m o t h e r ties a n d from fear of life, J e n a t s c h also fought for l i b e r a t i o n . O n e could i n t e r p r e t this as a favorable a u g u r y for t h e success of H e n r y ' s o w n fight for freedom. T h e goal of the excursion is the Z i n a l r o t h o r n , a m o u n t a i n in w e s t e r n Switz e r l a n d t h a t he d i d not k n o w . T h e w o r d rol ( " r e d " ) in Z i n a l r o / h o r n t o u c h e s on H e n r y ' s e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . R e d is usually s y m b o l i c of feeling or p a s s i o n ; h e r e it p o i n t s to t h e v a l u e of the feeling-function, w h i c h was insufficiently d e v e l o p e d in H e n r y . A n d t h e w o r d " h o r n " r e m i n d s o n e of t h e crescent roll in the b a k e r ' s shop of H e n r y ' s c h i l d h o o d . After a short walk, a h a l t is called, a n d H e n r y c a n r e t u r n to a state of passivity. T h i s 2 8 7

also belongs to his n a t u r e . T h e p o i n t is u n d e r lined by the " t h e a t r i c a l s . " A t t e n d i n g the t h e a t r e (which is a n i m i t a t i o n of real life) is a p o p u l a r w a y of e v a d i n g a n active p a r t in life's d r a m a . The s p e c t a t o r c a n identify w i t h the p l a y , yet c o n t i n u e to p a n d e r to his fantasies. T h i s kind of identification p e r m i t t e d the G r e e k s to experie n c e c a t h a r s i s , m u c h as the p s y c h o - d r a m a initia t e d by the A m e r i c a n psychiatrist J . L. M o r e n o is n o w used as a t h e r a p e u t i c aid. S o m e such process m a y h a v e e n a b l e d H e n r y to u n d e r g o a n i n n e r d e v e l o p m e n t w h e n his associations raised m e m o r i e s of Wilhelm Meisler, G o e t h e ' s story of the m a t u r i n g of a y o u n g m a n . T h a t H e n r y should h a v e been impressed by the r o m a n t i c a p p e a r a n c e of a w o m a n is also not s u r p r i s i n g . T h i s figure resembles H e n r y ' s m o t h e r a n d is at t h e s a m e t i m e a personification of his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s feminine side. T h e c o n n e c t i o n H e n r \ makes between her a n d Bocklin's Island of Ihe Dead points to his depressive m o o d , so well expressed by the p a i n t i n g , w h i c h shows a w h i t e - r o b e d priest-like figure steering a b o a t b e a r i n g a coffin t o w a r d a n island. W e h a v e here a significant d o u b l e p a r a d o x : T h e keel of the b o a t seems to suggest a c o n t r a r y course, a w a y from the island; a n d the " p r i e s t " is a figure of u n c e r t a i n sex. In H e n r y ' s associations, this figure is certainly h e r m a p h r o d i t i c . T h e d o u b l e p a r a d o x coincides with H e n r y ' s a m b i v a l e n c e : T h e opposites in


his soul a r e still too u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d to be clearly s e p a r a t e d . After this i n t e r l u d e in the d r e a m . H e n r y s u d d e n l y b e c o m e s a w a r e t h a t it is n o o n a n d he m u s t go o n . So he a g a i n starts for the pass. A m o u n t a i n pass is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l for a " s i t u a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n " t h a t leads from a n old a t t i t u d e of m i n d to a n e w o n e . H e n r y m u s t go a l o n e ; it is essential for his ego to s u r m o u n t the test u n a i d e d . Thus he leaves his kit b e h i n d a n a c t i o n that signifies t h a t his m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t has b e c o m e a b u r d e n , or t h a t h e must c h a n g e his n o r m a l w a y of g o i n g a b o u t things. But he does not r e a c h t h e pass. H e loses his b e a r i n g s a n d finds himself back in the valley. This failure shows t h a t while H e n r y ' s ego d e cides on activity, his o t h e r psychic entities (rep r e s e n t e d by the o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e p a r t y ) r e m a i n in the old s t a t e of passivity a n d refuse to a c c o m p a n y t h e ego. ( W h e n t h e d r e a m e r himself a p p e a r s in a d r e a m , he usually r e p r e sents only his conscious e g o ; the o t h e r figures s t a n d for his m o r e or less u n k n o w n , u n c o n scious qualities.) H e n r y is in a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e h e is helpless, yet a s h a m e d to a d m i t it. At this m o m e n t he meets a n old w o m a n w h o i n d i c a t e s t h e right w a y to h i m . H e can d o n o t h i n g b u t a c c e p t her a d v i c e . The helpful " o l d w o m a n " is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l in m y t h s a n d fairy talcs for the wisdom of the e t e r n a l female n a t u r e . T h e

rationalist H e n r y hesitates to a c c e p t her h e l p b e c a u s e such a c c e p t a n c e r e q u i r e s a sacrificium intelleclusâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a sacrifice, or d i s c a r d i n g , of a r a t i o n a l w a y of t h o u g h t . ( T h i s d e m a n d will often be m a d e of H e n r y in later d r e a m s . ) S u c h a sacrifice is u n a v o i d a b l e ; it applies to his r e l a t i o n s h i p with the analysis as well as with e v e r y d a y life. H e associated the figure of the " o l d w o m a n " to the c h a r w o m a n in Priestley's play a b o u t a new " d r e a m " city ( p e r h a p s a n a n a l o g y to the N e w J e r s u s a l e m of the A p o c a l y p s e ) into w h i c h the c h a r a c t e r s c a n e n t e r only after a kind of initiation. T h i s association s e e m s to s h o w that H e n r y h a d intuitively r e c o g n i z e d this confront a t i o n as s o m e t h i n g decisive for h i m . T h e c h a r w o m a n in Priestley's play says t h a t in the city " t h e y h a v e p r o m i s e d m e a r o o m of m y o w n . " There she will be self-reliant a n d i n d e p e n d e n t , as H e n r y seeks to b e . If such a technically m i n d e d y o u n g m a n as H e n r y is consciously to choose the w a y of psychic d e v e l o p m e n t , he must be p r e p a r e d for a reversal of his old a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , on the a d v i c e of the w o m a n , he m u s t s t a r t his c l i m b from a different spot. O n l y t h e n will it be possible for him to j u d g e at w h a t level he must d e v i a t e to r e a c h t h e g r o u p â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the o t h e r qualities of his psyche t h a t he h a d left b e h i n d . 1 l e climbs a cog-wheel rail\va\ track a motif p e r h a p s reflecting his t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ) a n d *79


keeps to the right side of t h e track â&#x20AC;&#x201D; w h i c h is the conscious side. ( I n the history of s y m b o l i s m , t h e right side g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the r e a l m of consciousness; the left, the unconscious.) F r o m the left, little cars a r e c o m i n g d o w n , a n d in e a c h a little m a n is h i d d e n . H e n r y is afraid t h a t a n u n n o t i c e d u p w a r d - b o u n d c a r m i g h t hit h i m from the rear. His a n x i e t y proves g r o u n d l e s s , b u t it reveals t h a t H e n r y is afraid of w h a t , so to speak, lies b e h i n d his ego. T h e b l o a t e d , b l u e - c l o t h e d m e n m i g h t symbolize sterile intellectual t h o u g h t s t h a t a r e b e ing b r o u g h t d o w n m e c h a n i c a l l y . Blue often d e n o t e s the function of t h i n k i n g . T h u s the

m e n m i g h t be symbols of ideas or a t t i t u d e s t h a t h a v e died o n the intellectual heights w h e r e the air is too t h i n . T h e y could also r e p r e s e n t lifeless i n n e r p a r t s of H e n r y ' s psyche. A c o m m e n t o n these m e n is m a d e in the d r e a m : " I t is said they a r e d e a d . " But H e n r y is a l o n e . W h o m a k e s this s t a t e m e n t ? It is a voice â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a n d w h e n a voice is h e a r d in a d r e a m it is a most m e a n i n g f u l o c c u r r e n c e . D r . J u n g identified the a p p e a r a n c e of a voice in d r e a m s w i t h a n i n t e r v e n t i o n of the Self. It s t a n d s for a k n o w l e d g e t h a t has its roots in t h e collective f u n d a m e n t s of the psyche. W h a t t h e voice says c a n n o t be d i s p u t e d . T h e insight H e n r y has g a i n e d a b o u t the " d e a d " formulas, to w h i c h he has b e e n too c o m m i t t e d , m a r k s a t u r n i n g point in the d r e a m . H e has at last r e a c h e d the right p l a c e for taking a n e w d i r e c t i o n , to the right (the conscious d i r e c t i o n ) , t o w a r d the conscious a n d the o u t e r w o r l d . T h e r e he finds t h e p e o p l e he left b e h i n d w a i t i n g for h i m ; a n d thus h e c a n b e c o m e conscious of previously u n k n o w n aspects of his personality. Since his ego has s u r m o u n t e d the d a n g e r s it confronted a l o n e (an a c c o m p l i s h m e n t t h a t could m a k e h i m m o r e m a t u r e a n d s t a b l e ) , h e c a n rejoin the g r o u p or " c o l l e c t i v e " a n d get shelter a n d food. T h e n c o m e s the r a i n , a c l o u d b u r s t t h a t relaxes tension a n d m a k e s the e a r t h fertile. In m y t h o l o g y , rain was often t h o u g h t to be a " l o v e - u n i o n " b e t w e e n h e a v e n a n d e a r t h . In the Eleusinian mysteries, for i n s t a n c e , after everyt h i n g h a d been purified by w a t e r , the call w e n t u p to h e a v e n : " L e t it r a i n ! " a n d d o w n to

Left, t h e Greek m a i d e n D a n a e , w h o w a s i m p r e g n a t e d by Z e u s in t h e f o r m of a s h o w e r of g o l d ( f r o m a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y F l e m i s h artist J a n G o s s a e r t ) Like H e n r y ' s d r e a m , t h i s m y t h reflects t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e c l o u d b u r s t as a sacred m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n heaven and earth.

In a n o t h e r of H e n r y ' s d r e a m s a d o e a p p e a r s - a n i m a g e o f shy f e m i n i n i t y as is t h e f a w n in t h e p a i n t i n g , right, by t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h artist E d w i n L a n d s e e r


e a r t h : " B e fruitful!" T h i s was u n d e r s t o o d as a sacred m a r r i a g e of the gods. In this w a y r a i n c a n b e said to r e p r e s e n t a " s o l u t i o n " in the literal sense of the w o r d . C o m i n g d o w n , H e n r y a g a i n meets the collective values s y m b o l i z e d by the rucksack a n d m o t o r c y c l e . H e has passed t h r o u g h a p h a s e in w h i c h he has s t r e n g t h e n e d his ego-consciousness by p r o v i n g he c a n hold his o w n , a n d he has a r e n e w e d need for social c o n t a c t . H o w e v e r , he a c c e p t s the suggestion of his friends t h a t he should wait a n d fetch his things the next m o r n ing. T h u s he s u b m i t s for the second t i m e to a d v i c e t h a t c o m e s from e l s e w h e r e : the first t i m e , to the a d v i c e of the old w o m a n , to a subjective p o w e r , a n a r c h e t y p a l figure; the second t i m e , to a collective p a t t e r n . W i t h this step H e n r y has passed a milestone on the r o a d to m a t u r i t y . As a n a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i n n e r d e v e l o p m e n t that H e n r y could h o p e to a c h i e v e t h r o u g h analysis, this d r e a m was e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p r o mising. T h e conflicting opposites t h a t kept H e n r y s soul in tension w e r e impressively symbolized. O n the o n e h a n d , t h e r e was his conscious u r g e to a s c e n d , a n d o n t h e o t h e r his t e n d e n c y to passive c o n t e m p l a t i o n . Also, t h e i m a g e of the p a t h e t i c y o u n g w o m a n in h e r w h i t e robes ( r e p r e s e n t i n g H e n r y ' s sensitive a n d r o m a n t i c feelings) c o n t r a s t s w i t h the b l o a t e d corpses in b l u e suits ( r e p r e s e n t i n g his sterile intellectual w o r l d ) . H o w e v e r , to o v e r c o m e these obstacles a n d b r i n g a b o u t a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m w o u l d be possible for H e n r y only after the most severe trials.

Fear of the unconscious

T h e p r o b l e m s we e n c o u n t e r e d in H e n r y ' s initial d r e a m showed u p in m a n y others problems like vacillation b e t w e e n m a s c u l i n e activity a n d feminine passivity, or a t e n d e n c y to h i d e beh i n d intellectual asceticism. H e feared the w o r l d , yet was a t t r a c t e d to it. F u n d a m e n t a l l y , he feared the obligations of m a r r i a g e , which d e m a n d e d t h a t he form a responsible relationship with a w o m a n . S u c h a n a m b i v a l e n c e is not u n u s u a l for s o m e o n e on t h e threshold of m a n h o o d . T h o u g h in t e r m s of age H e n r y h a d left t h a t p h a s e b e h i n d h i m , his i n n e r m a t u r i t y did not m a t c h his years. T h i s p r o b l e m is often m e t in the i n t r o v e r t , with his fear of reality a n d o u t e r life. T h e fourth d r e a m t h a t H e n r y r e c o u n t e d p r o v i d e d a striking illustration of his psychological s t a t e :

It seems to me that I have had this dream endless times. Military service, long-distance race. Alone I go on my way. I never reach the goal. Will I be the last? T h e course is well known to me, all of it deja vu. T h e start is in a little wood, and the ground is covered with dry leaves. The terrain slopes gently to an idyllic little brook that invites one to tarry. Later, there is a dusty country road. It leads toward Hombrechtikon, a small village near the upper lake of Zurich. A brook bordered by willows similar to a painting of Bocklin's in which a dreamy female figure follows the course of the water. Night falls. In a village I ask for directions to the road. I am told the road leads on for seven hours over a pass. I gather myself together and go on. However, this time the end of the dream differs. After the willow-bordered brook I get into a wood. There I discover a doe that runs away. I am proud of this observation. T h e doe has appeared on the left side and now I turn to the right. Here I see three strange creatures, hall pig, half dog, with the legs of a kangaroo. The faces are quite undifferentiated, with large drooping dog ears. Maybe they are costumed people. As a boy, I once masqueraded in the circus costume of a donkey. 28l


T h e b e g i n n i n g of the d r e a m is conspicuously like H e n r y ' s initial d r e a m . A d r e a m l i k e female figure a g a i n a p p e a r s , a n d the setting of the d r e a m is associated w i t h a n o t h e r p a i n t i n g by Bocklin. T h i s p a i n t i n g , called Autumn 'Thoughts, a n d the d r y leaves m e n t i o n e d earlier in the d r e a m u n d e r l i n e the a u t u m n a l m o o d . A r o m a n t i c a t m o s p h e r e also r e a p p e a r s in this d r e a m . A p p a r e n t l y this i n n e r l a n d s c a p e , r e p r e senting H e n r y ' s m e l a n c h o l y , is very familiar to h i m . A g a i n h e is in a collective of p e o p l e , b u t this t i m e with m i l i t a r y c o m r a d e s on a longdistance race. T h i s w h o l e situation (as the m i l i t a r y service also suggests) m i g h t be r e g a r d e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n a v e r a g e m a n ' s fate. H e n r y h i m self s a i d : " I t ' s a s y m b o l of life." But the d r e a m e r does not w a n t to adjust to it. H e goes on a l o n e - w h i c h was p r o b a b l y a l w a y s the case with H e n r y . T h a t is w h y he has t h e i m p r e s sion t h a t e v e r y t h i n g is dejci vu. His t h o u g h t ("I n e v e r r e a c h the g o a l " ) i n d i c a t e s s t r o n g feelings of inferiority a n d a belief t h a t he c a n n o t win the " l o n g - d i s t a n c e r a c e . " His w a y leads to H o r n b r e c h t i k o n , a n a m e t h a t r e m i n d s h i m of his secret p l a n s to b r e a k a w a y from h o m e (Horn = h o m e , brechen = to b r e a k ) . But b e c a u s e this b r e a k i n g a w a y does n o t o c c u r , he a g a i n (as in the initial d r e a m ) loses his sense of o r i e n t a t i o n a n d must ask for directions. D r e a m s c o m p e n s a t e m o r e or less explicitly for the d r e a m e r ' s conscious a t t i t u d e of m i n d .

T h e r o m a n t i c , m a i d e n l y figure of H e n r y ' s conscious ideal is b a l a n c e d by the a p p e a r a n c e of the s t r a n g e , female-like a n i m a l s . H e n r y ' s world of instincts is s y m b o l i z e d by s o m e t h i n g femin i n e . T h e w o o d is a s y m b o l of a n unconscious a r e a , a d a r k p l a c e w h e r e a n i m a l s live. At first a d o e — a s y m b o l of shy, fugitive, i n n o c e n t w o m a n l i n e s s — e m e r g e s , b u t only for a m o m e n t . T h e n H e n r y sees t h r e e m i x e d - u p a n i m a l s of a s t r a n g e a n d repulsive a p p e a r a n c e . They seem to r e p r e s e n t u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s t i n c t u a l i t y — a sort of confused mass of his instincts, c o n t a i n ing the r a w m a t e r i a l for a l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e i r most striking c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is t h a t they are all v i r t u a l l y faceless, a n d thus w i t h o u t the slightest g l i m m e r i n g s of consciousness. In the m i n d s of m a n y p e o p l e , the pig is closely associated to d i r t y sexuality. (Circe, for e x a m p l e , c h a n g e d the m e n w h o desired her i n t o swine.) T h e d o g m a y s t a n d for loyalty, b u t also for p r o m i s c u i t y , b e c a u s e it shows n o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in its choice of p a r t n e r s . T h e k a n g a r o o , h o w e v e r , is often a symbol for m o t h erliness a n d t e n d e r c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . All these a n i m a l s p r e s e n t only r u d i m e n t a r y traits, a n d even these a r e senselessly c o n t a m i n a t e d . In a l c h e m y , the " p r i m e m a t e r i a l " was often r e p r e s e n t e d by such m o n s t r o u s a n d fabulous c r e a t u r e s m i x e d forms of a n i m a l s . In psychological t e r m s , they w o u l d p r o b a b l y symbolize the original total unconsciousness, out of w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ego c a n rise a n d begin to d e v e l o p t o w a r d m a t u r i t y .

Left, H e n r y ' s d r a w i n g o f t h e s t r a n g e a n i m a l s o f his d r e a m . T h e y are m u t e and blind, unable to communicate, a n d so represent his u n c o n s c i o u s state T h e a n i m a l o n t h e g r o u n d ( w h i c h he c o l o r e d g r e e n , t h e c o l o r o f v e g e t a t i o n a n d n a t u r e , a n d in f o l k lore a s y m b o l o f h o p e ) h i n t s at possibilities of g r o w t h and a chance of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .


H e n r y ' s fear of t h e m o n s t e r s b e c o m e s evident by his a t t e m p t to m a k e t h e m seem h a r m l e s s . H e w a n t s to c o n v i n c e himself t h a t they a r e only d r e s s e d - u p p e o p l e , like himself in a boyhood m a s q u e r a d e . His a n x i e t y is n a t u r a l . A m a n discovering such i n h u m a n m o n s t e r s in his i n n e r self, as symbols of c e r t a i n traits of his u n c o n s c i o u s , has every reason to be afraid. A n o t h e r d r e a m also shows H e n r y ' s fear of the d e p t h s of the u n c o n s c i o u s : I am a cabin boy in a sailing boat. Paradoxically, the sails are spread, though there is a complete calm. My task consists of holding a rope that serves to fasten a mast. Strangely enough, the railing is a wall covered with stone slabs. This whole structure lies exactly on the border betwren the water and the sailing boat that floats there alone. I hold fast to the rope (not to the mast) and I am forbidden to look into the water.

In this d r e a m H e n r y is in a psychological b o r d e r l i n e s i t u a t i o n . The railing is a wall t h a t protects him b u t at the s a m e t i m e o b s t r u c t s his view. H e is f o r b i d d e n to look into the w a t e r ( w h e r e he m i g h t discover u n k n o w n p o w e r s ) . All these i m a g e s reveal his d o u b t a n d fear. The m a n w h o fears t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of his i n n e r d e p t h s (like H e n r y ) is as m u c h afraid of the feminine e l e m e n t in himself as he is of real w o m e n . At o n e m o m e n t he is fascinated by her, at a n o t h e r he tries to e s c a p e ; fascinated a n d terrified, he flees so as not to b e c o m e her

T h e p i g like a n i m a l of t h e d r e a m c o n n o t e s bestiality and l u s t f u l n e s s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; as in t h e m y t h of Circe, w h o t u r n e d m e n i n t o s w i n e A b o v e left, f r o m a Greek vase, a p i g - m a n , O d y s s e u s , a n d Circe, R i g h t , in o n e of t h e c a r t o o n s by G e o r g e Grosz a t t a c k i n g pre w a r G e r m a n s o c i e t y , a m a n ( w i t h a p r o s t i t u t e ) is g i v e n a p i g ' s h e a d t o s h o w his v u l g a r i t y

" p r e y . " H e does not d a r e to a p p r o a c h a beloved ( a n d therefore idealized) p a r t n e r with his a n i m a l - l i k e sexuality. As a typical result of his m o t h e r - t i e , H e n r y h a d difficulty in giving b o t h feeling a n d sensuality to the s a m e w o m a n . A g a i n a n d a g a i n his d r e a m s b r o u g h t proof of his desire to free h i m sell from this d i l e m m a In o n e d r e a m he was a " m o n k on a secret m i s s i o n . " I n a n o t h e r , his instincts t e m p t e d him into a b r o t h e l : Together with a military comrade who has had many erotic adventures I find myself waiting in front of a house on a dark street in an unknown city. Entrance is permitted only to women. Therefore, in the hall, my friend puts on a little carnival mask of a woman's face and goes up the stairs. Possibly I did the same as he, but I do not remember clearlv. W h a t this d r e a m proposes would satisfy H e n r y ' s curiosity â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b u t o n l y a t t h e price of a fraud. As a m a n he lacks the c o u r a g e to enter the house, w h i c h is obviously a b r o t h e l . But if h e divests himself of his m a s c u l i n i t y , he might gain an insight i n t o this f o r b i d d e n world forb i d d e n by his conscious m i n d . T h e d r e a m , h o w e v e r , does not tell us w h e t h e r he decides to e n t e r . H e n r y h a d not yet o v e r c o m e his inhibitions a n u n d e r s t a n d a b l e failure if we consider the i m p l i c a t i o n s of g o i n g into the b r o t h e l . The a b o v e d r e a m seemed to m e to reveal a h o m o e r o t i c s t r a i n in H e n r y : H e a p p e a r e d to feel t h a t a feminine " m a s k " w o u l d m a k e him


a t t r a c t i v e to m e n . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s s u p p o r t e d by t h e following d r e a m :

I find myself back in rny fifth or sixth year. My playmate of those days tells me how he participated in an obscene act with the director of a factory. My friend laid his right hand on the man's penis to keep it warm and at the same time to warm his own hand. T h e director was an intimate friend of my father's whom I venerated for his broad and varied interests. But he was laughed at by us as an "eternal y o u t h . " F o r c h i l d r e n of t h a t a g e h o m o e r o t i c p l a y is n o t u n u s u a l . T h a t H e n r y still c a m e to it in his d r e a m suggests t h a t it w a s l o a d e d w i t h g u i l t feelings, a n d t h e r e f o r e s t r o n g l y r e p r e s s e d . S u c h feelings w e r e l i n k e d to his d e e p fear a b o u t formi n g a l a s t i n g tie w i t h a w o m a n . A n o t h e r d r e a m a n d its associations i l l u s t r a t e d this conflict: I take part in the wedding of an unknown couple. At one in the morning the little wedding party returns from the festivitiesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the bridal couple, the best m a n , and the maid of honor. T h e y enter a large courtyard where I await them. It seems that the newlyweds have already had a quarrel, as well as the other couple. They finally find the solution by having the two men and the two women retire separately. H e n r y e x p l a i n e d : " Y o u see h e r e t h e w a r of the sexes as G i r a u d o u x d e s c r i b e s i t . " A n d t h e n h e a d d e d : " T h e p a l a c e in B a v a r i a , w h e r e I r e m e m b e r seeing this d r e a m - c o u r t y a r d , h a s u n t i l lately b e e n disfigured b y e m e r g e n c y h o u s i n g for p o o r p e o p l e . W h e n I visited t h e r e , I asked myself if it w o u l d n o t b e p r e f e r a b l e to eke o u t a p o o r e x i s t e n c e in t h e r u i n s of classic b e a u t y t h a n to lead a n a c t i v e life s u r r o u n d e d b y t h e ugliness of a g r e a t city. I also asked myself w h e n I w a s a witness at t h e w e d d i n g of a c o m r a d e w h e t h e r his m a r r i a g e w o u l d last, for his b r i d e m a d e a n u n f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on m e . " T h e l o n g i n g to w i t h d r a w i n t o passivity a n d i n t r o v e r s i o n , t h e fear of a n unsuccessful m a r r i a g e , t h e d r e a m ' s s e p a r a t i o n of t h e sexes â&#x20AC;&#x201D; all these a r e u n m i s t a k a b l e s y m p t o m s of t h e secret d o u b t s h i d d e n b e n e a t h H e n r y ' s consciousness. 284

The saint and the prostitute

H e n r y ' s p s y c h i c c o n d i t i o n w a s most i m p r e s sively d e p i c t e d in t h e following d r e a m , w h i c h e x p o s e d his fear of p r i m i t i v e s e n s u a l i t y a n d his desire to e s c a p e i n t o a k i n d of asceticism. I n it o n e c a n see t h e d i r e c t i o n his d e v e l o p m e n t w a s t a k i n g . F o r this r e a s o n t h e d r e a m will be interpreted at greater length. I find myself on a narrow mountain road. O n the left (going down) there is a deep abyss, on the right a wall of rock. Along the road there are several caves, shelters, cut out of the rock, as protection from the weather for lonely wanderers. In one of these caves, half hidden, a prostitute has taken refuge. Strangely, I see her from behind, from the rock side. She has a formless, spongy body. I look at her with curiosity and touch her buttocks. Perhaps, it suddenly seems to me, she is not a woman but a kind of male prostitute. This same creature comes then to the fore as a saint with a short crimson coat thrown around his shoulders. He strides down the road and goes into another, much larger cave fitted with roughhewn chairs and benches. With a haughty look he drives out all those already present, also me. Then he and his followers move in and establish themselves. T h e personal association that H e n r y contrib u t e d to t h e p r o s t i t u t e w a s t h e " V e n u s of W i l l e n d o r f , " a little c a r v e d figure (from t h e p a l e o -


litliic age) of a fleshy w o m a n , p r o b a b l y a n a t u r e or fertility goddess. T h e n h e a d d e d : " I first h e a r d t h a t t o u c h i n g the b u t t o c k s is a fertility rite w h e n I was o n a t o u r t h r o u g h the Wallis [a c a n t o n in F r e n c h S w i t z e r l a n d ], w h e r e I visited a n c i e n t Celtic g r a v e s a n d e x c a v a t i o n s . T h e r e I was told t h a t t h e r e was o n c e a s m o o t h sloping surface of tiles s m e a r e d w i t h all kinds of s u b s t a n c e s . Infertile w o m e n h a d to slide d o w n on their b a r e b u t t o c k s in o r d e r to c u r e their s t e r i l i t y . " T o the coat of the " s a i n t , " H e n r y associated t h i s : " M y fiancee o w n s a j a c k e t of similar s h a p e , b u t it's w h i t e . O n the e v e n i n g before the d r e a m we w e r e o u t d a n c i n g , a n d she was w e a r i n g this w h i t e jacket. A n o t h e r girl, w h o is h e r friend, was w i t h us. S h e h a d a c r i m s o n jacket t h a t I liked b e t t e r . " If d r e a m s a r e not wish-fulfillments (as F r e u d t a u g h t ) b u t r a t h e r , as J u n g a s s u m e d , "self-rep r e s e n t a t i o n s of the u n c o n s c i o u s , " t h e n we must a d m i t that H e n r y ' s psychic c o n d i t i o n could h a r d l y be b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h a n in the d e scription given in t h e " s a i n t " d r e a m . H e n r y is a " l o n e l y w a n d e r e r " on the n a r r o w p a t h . But ( p e r h a p s t h a n k s to analysis)" h e is a l r e a d y o n his w a y d o w n from i n h o s p i t a b l e heights. T o the left, o n t h e side of the u n c o n scious, his r o a d is b o r d e r e d by the terrifying

d e p t h s of a n abyss. O n the right side, the side of consciousness, the w a y is blocked by the rigid rock wall of his conscious views. H o w ever, in t h e caves (which m i g h t r e p r e s e n t , so to speak, u n c o n s c i o u s a r e a s in H e n r y ' s field of consciousness) t h e r e a r e places w h e r e refuge c a n be found w h e n b a d w e a t h e r c o m e s in o t h e r w o r d s , w h e n o u t s i d e tensions b e c o m e too threatening. T h e caves a r e t h e result of purposeful h u m a n w o r k : cut i n t o t h e rock. In a w a y they res e m b l e the g a p s t h a t o c c u r in o u r consciousness w h e n o u r p o w e r of c o n c e n t r a t i o n has r e a c h e d its limits a n d is b r o k e n , so t h a t the stuff of fantasy c a n p e n e t r a t e w i t h o u t restraint. At such times s o m e t h i n g u n e x p e c t e d c a n reveal itself a n d allow a d e e p insight i n t o the backg r o u n d of the psyche a glimpse into the unconscious regions w h e r e o u r i m a g i n a t i o n has free play. M o r e o v e r , rock caves m a y be symbols of the w o m b of M o t h e r E a r t h , a p p e a r i n g as mysterious c a v e r n s in w h i c h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and rebirth can come about. T h u s the d r e a m seems to r e p r e s e n t H e n r y ' s i n t r o v e r t e d w i t h d r a w a l — w h e n the world becomes too difficult for h i m - i n t o a " c a v e " w i t h in his consciousness w h e r e h e c a n s u c c u m b to subjective fantasies. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d also e x p l a i n w h y he seeks t h e female figure -

Left, H e n r y ' s d r a w i n g o f t h e b o a t of his d r e a m , w i t h a s t o n e w a l l f o r a r a i l i n g — a n o t h e r i m a g e o f his i n t r o v e r s i o n a n d fear of life

Right, the prehistoric sculpture k n o w n as t h e " V e n u s of W i l l e n d o r f " - one of Henry's associations to t h e i m a g e of t h e p r o s t i t u t e in his d r e a m . In t h e s a m e d r e a m , t h e saint is seen in a s a c r e d c a v e . M a n y a c t u a l c a v e s are h o l y p l a c e s — l i k e t h e C a v e of B e r n a d e t t e (far r i g h t ) at L o u r d e s , w h e r e a v i s i o n o f t h e Virgin M a r y appeared to a girl.

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a replica of some of the i n n e r feminine traits of his psyche. She is a formless, s p o n g y , halfh i d d e n p r o s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t i n g the repressed i m a g e in his u n c o n s c i o u s of a w o m a n w h o m H e n r y w o u l d n e v e r h a v e a p p r o a c h e d in conscious life. She w o u l d a l w a y s h a v e b e e n strictly t a b o o to him in spite of the fact t h a t (as the opposite of a t o o - m u c h - v e n e r a t e d m o t h e r ) the p r o s t i t u t e w o u l d h a v e a secret fascination for h i m â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as for every son w i t h a m o t h e r - c o m p l e x . T h e idea of restricting a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a w o m a n to a p u r e l y a n i m a l - l i k e sensuality, exc l u d i n g all feelings, is often e n t i c i n g to such a y o u n g m a n . I n such a u n i o n he c a n k e e p his feelings split off, a n d t h u s c a n r e m a i n " t r u e " to his m o t h e r in a n u l t i m a t e sense. T h u s , in spite of e v e r y t h i n g , the t a b o o set by the m o t h e r against every o t h e r w o m a n r e m a i n s inflexibly effective in the psyche of the son. H e n r y , w h o seems to h a v e w i t h d r a w n totally to the b a c k g r o u n d of his fantasy-cave, sees the p r o s t i t u t e only " f r o m b e h i n d . " H e d a r e s not look h e r in the face. But " f r o m the b a c k " also m e a n s from her least h u m a n side h e r b u t t o c k s

(i.e. the p a r t of her b o d y t h a t will s t i m u l a t e the sensual activity of the m a l e ) . By t o u c h i n g the b u t t o c k s of the p r o s t i t u t e , H e n r y unconsciously carries o u t a kind of fertility rite, similar to the rites t h a t a r e p r a c t i c e d in m a n y p r i m i t i v e tribes. T h e l a y i n g o n of h a n d s a n d h e a l i n g often g o t o g e t h e r ; in the s a m e w a y , t o u c h i n g w i t h the h a n d c a n be e i t h e r a defense or a curse. I m m e d i a t e l y the idea arises t h a t the figure is not a w o m a n after all b u t a m a l e p r o s t i t u t e . T h e figure thus b e c o m e s h e r m a p h r o d i t i c , like m a n y m y t h o l o g i c a l figures ( a n d like the " p r i e s t " figure of the first d r e a m ) . I n s e c u r i t y c o n c e r n i n g his o w n sex c a n often be o b s e r v e d in a p u b e s c e n t i n d i v i d u a l ; a n d for this reason h o m o s e x u ality in a d o l e s c e n c e is not c o n s i d e r e d u n u s u a l . N o r is such u n c e r t a i n t y e x c e p t i o n a l for a y o u n g m a n with H e n r y ' s psychological s t r u c t u r e ; he h a d a l r e a d y i m p l i e d this in some of his earlier dreams. But repression (as well as sexual u n c e r t a i n t y ) m a y h a v e c a u s e d the confusion a b o u t the sex of the p r o s t i t u t e . T h e female figure t h a t has

A coat can often symbolize the outer m a s k or persona t h a t o n e p r e s e n t s t o t h e w o r l d . T h e m a n t l e of t h e p r o p h e t Elijah bore a similar m e a n i n g : W h e n he a s c e n d e d t o h e a v e n (left, in a S w e d i s h p e a s a n t p a i n t i n g ) , he left t h e m a n t l e b e h i n d for his s u c c e s s o r Elisha T h u s t h e m a n t l e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p r o p h e t ' s p o w e r a n d role, t o be a s s u m e d by his s u c c e s s o r ( I n t h e p a i n t i n g the m a n t l e is red, like t h e s a i n t ' s c o a t in H e n r y ' s d r e a m . )


b o t h a t t r a c t e d a n d repelled the d r e a m e r is t r a n s f o r m e d first of all into a m a n a n d t h e n into a saint. T h e second t r a n s f o r m a t i o n eliminates e v e r y t h i n g sexual from the i m a g e , a n d implies t h a t the only m e a n s of escape from the reality of sex lies in the a d o p t i o n of a n ascetic a n d holy life, d e n y i n g the flesh. S u c h d r a m a t i c reversals a r e c o m m o n in d r e a m s : S o m e t h i n g t u r n s into its o p p o s i t e (as the p r o s t i t u t e becomes a saint) as if to d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t by t r a n s m u t a tion even e x t r e m e opposites can c h a n g e into each o t h e r . H e n r y also saw s o m e t h i n g significant in the saint's coat. A coat is often a symbol of the p r o t e c t i v e cover or mask (which J u n g called the persona) that a n i n d i v i d u a l presents to the world. It has two p u r p o s e s : first, to m a k e a specific impression on o t h e r p e o p l e : second, to conceal the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n n e r self from their p r y i n g eyes. T h e persona t h a t H e n r y ' s d r e a m gives the saint tells us s o m e t h i n g a b o u t his a t t i t u d e to his fiancee a n d her friend. T h e saint's coat has the color of the friend's j a c k e t , w h i c h H e n r y h a d a d m i r e d , b u t it also h a d the s h a p e of his fiancee's coat. T h i s m a y i m p l y that H e n r y ' s u n c o n s c i o u s w a n t e d to confer the q u a l i t y of saintliness on b o t h w o m e n , in o r d e r to p r o t e c t himself a g a i n s t their w o m a n l y a t t r a c tiveness. Also, the coat is red, w h i c h (as has been noted before) is t r a d i t i o n a l l y the symbolic color of feeling a n d passion. It t h u s gives the saint figure a kind of eroticized spirituality â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a

H e n r y ' s t o u c h i n g the p r o s t i t u t e c a n be r e l a t e d t o t h e belief in t h e m a g i c a l e f f e c t of a t o u c h : Left, the 1 7 t h c e n t u r y I r i s h m a n V a l e n t i n e G r e a t r a k e s , f a m o u s for h e a l i n g b y l a y i n g o n of h a n d s

Right, another example of the persona The clothing w o r n by rebellious British "beatnik" y o u t h s in t h e 1 9 6 0 s i n d i c a t e d t h e v a l u e s a n d w a y of life that t h e y w a n t e d t o display to the outer w o r l d .

q u a l i t y t h a t is frequently found in m e n w h o repress their o w n sexuality a n d try to rely solely on their " s p i r i t " or reason. S u c h a n escape from the world of the flesh, h o w e v e r , is u n n a t u r a l in a y o u n g person. In the first half of life, we should l e a r n to accept o u r sexuality : It is essential to the p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u a t i o n of o u r species. T h e d r e a m seems to be r e m i n d i n g H e n r y of just this point. W h e n the saint leaves the c a v e a n d walks d o w n the r o a d ( d e s c e n d i n g from the heights t o w a r d the v a l l e y ) , he e n t e r s a second cave with r o u g h - h e w n b e n c h e s a n d chairs, which r e m i n d s o n e of the early C h r i s t i a n s ' places of w o r s h i p a n d refuge from p e r s e c u t i o n . T h i s cave seems to be a h e a l i n g , holy place a place of m e d i t a t i o n a n d of the mystery of t r a n s f o r m a tion from the e a r t h l y to the h e a v e n l y , from the c a r n a l to the s p i r i t u a l . H e n r y is not p e r m i t t e d to follow the saint, b u t is t u r n e d out of the cave w i t h all those present (that is, with his u n c o n s c i o u s entities). S e e m i n g l y . H e n r y a n d all the o t h e r s w h o a r e not followers of t h e saint a r e b e i n g told t h a t they must live in the o u t s i d e world. T h e d r e a m seems to say t h a t H e n r y must first succeed in o u t e r life before h e will be a b l e to i m m e r s e h i m self in a religious or spiritual s p h e r e . T h e figure of the saint also seems to symbolize (in a relatively u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , a n t i c i p a t o r y fashion) the Self; b u t H e n r y is not yet m a t u r e e n o u g h to stay in the i m m e d i a t e vicinity of this figure.


How the analysis developed

In spite of a n initial skepticism a n d resistance, H e n r y b e g a n to take a lively interest in the inner h a p p e n i n g s of his p s y c h e . H e was obviously impressed by his d r e a m s . T h e y s e e m e d to c o m p e n s a t e for his u n c o n s c i o u s life in a m e a n ingful w a y a n d to give h i m v a l u a b l e insights into his a m b i v a l e n c e , his v a c i l l a t i o n , a n d his preference for passivity. After a t i m e m o r e positive d r e a m s a p p e a r e d that showed t h a t H e n r y was a l r e a d y "well on his w a y . " T w o m o n t h s after his analysis h a d b e g u n he r e p o r t e d this d r e a m :

In the harbor of a little place not far from my home, on the shore of a lake in the neighborhood, locomotives and freight cars are being raised from the bottom of the lake where they had been sunk in the last war. First a large cylinder like a locomotive boiler is brought up. Then an enormous, rusty freight car. T h e whole picture pre-

sents a horrible yet romantic sight. T h e recovered pieces have to be transported away under the rails and cables of the nearby railway station. Then the bottom of the lake changes into a green meadow. H e r e we see w h a t a r e m a r k a b l e i n n e r a d v a n c e H e n r y has m a d e . L o c o m o t i v e s ( p r o b a b l y symbols of e n e r g y a n d d y n a m i s m ) h a v e been " s u n k " â&#x20AC;&#x201D;i.e. repressed into t h e u n c o n s c i o u s â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b u t a r e n o w b e i n g b r o u g h t into the light of d a y . W i t h t h e m are freight cars, in which all kinds of v a l u a b l e c a r g o (psychic qualities) c a n be t r a n s p o r t e d . N o w t h a t these " o b j e c t s " h a v e a g a i n b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e for H e n r y ' s conscious life, he c a n begin to realize h o w m u c h active p o w e r could b e at his disposal. T h e t r a n s f o r m a tion of the d a r k lake b o t t o m into a m e a d o w u n d e r l i n e s his p o t e n t i a l for positive a c t i o n . S o m e t i m e s , on H e n r y ' s " l o n e l y j o u r n e y " tow a r d m a t u r i t y , he also received h e l p from his


feminine side. In his 24th d r e a m he meets a "humpbacked girl": I am on the way to a school together with an unknown young lady of small and daintv appearance but disfigured by a hump. Many other people also go into the schoolhouse. While the others disperse to different rooms for singing lessons, the girl and I sit at a little square table. She gives me a private singing lesson. I feel an impulse of pity for her and therefore kiss her on the mouth. I am conscious, however, that by this act I am unfaithful to my fiancee- even though it may be excusable. S i n g i n g is o n e of the i m m e d i a t e expressions of feelings. But (as we h a v e seen) H e n r y is afraid of his feelings; he k n o w s t h e m only in a n idealized adolescent form. Nevertheless, in this d r e a m he is t a u g h t singing (the expression of feelings) at a s q u a r e t a b l e . T h e t a b l e , with its four e q u a l sides, is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the " f o u r f o l d n e s s " motif, usually a s y m b o l of c o m pleteness. Thus the relation b e t w e e n singing A s in t h e p a i n t i n g , left ( b y t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h artist W i l l i a m T u r n e r ) , e n t i t l e d Rain, Steam, and Speed, t h e l o c o m o t i v e is clearly a n i m a g e of d r i v i n g , d y n a m i c e n e r g y In H e n r y ' s d r e a m ( w h i c h h e d r e w , b e l o w ) , l o c o m o t i v e s are raised o u t of a lake â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e release of a p o t e n t i a l for v a l u a b l e a c t i o n that h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n repressed i n t o his u n c o n s c i o u s

a n d the s q u a r e t a b l e seems to i n d i c a t e that H e n r y must i n t e g r a t e his " f e e l i n g " side before he c a n a c h i e v e psychic wholeness. In fact, the singing lesson does m o v e his feelings, a n d he kisses the girl o n her m o u t h . T h e r e b y he has, in a sense, " e s p o u s e d " her (otherwise h e w o u l d not feel " u n f a i t h f u l " ) ; he has l e a r n e d to relate to " t h e w o m a n w i t h