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1


Raw materials Silk Leather Fur Wool Wood Cork Cotton Linen Marble Sand Clay Physical process Chemical process Technological process Wooden boards

The image above is from the Science Museum in London. The 'materials house' - a sandwich of 170 layers of materials: carpets, plastics, metals, glass, and more staff?

To classify raw materials Materials are taken from nature: from animals, plants and minerals To distinguish between a chemical and physical process We transform raw materials with physical and chemical processes About the steps for a technological process Extraction from nature, transformation into prepared materials, and manufacture of the technological product.

Asking for help (Classroom expressions) 

How do you spell R - A - W?

How do you pronounce this word?

Can you repeat, please?

What is the meaning of “agree”?

2


Lesson 1 Raw materials Raw materials are defined as materials that come directly from nature. Some examples…  From animals: wool, fur, leather, and silk.

From plants: wood, cork, cotton, linen.

From minerals: marble, sand, clay.

When we use raw materials we need to transform them with physical and chemical processes. We call these materials after transformation prepared materials. A physical process: the material is altered without changing the material’s composition. For example: drying wood after cutting. A chemical process: the material chemical composition is changed. For example: creating plastic from raw petroleum. Some prepared materials include: Paper, wooden boards, plastic, metal, glass, and cloth.

3


Technological products Technological products are any products created to satisfy a human necessity. They are usually made with more than one type of materials. For example: an umbrella, a pen, a computer‌ To make an umbrella we need: cloth, iron and wood. iron

cloth

wood

The basic steps for making technological products are: 1. 2. 3.

Extract raw materials from nature. Transform the raw materials into prepared materials. Make the technological product.

For example, these are the steps for making a piece of furniture:

Cut down trees in a forest to get wood

Prepare the wood by cutting it into boards

Use the boards to build a piece of furniture

4

1

unit


Lesson 2 Activities 1

List 5 raw materials and what 2 we use them for.

Animal

Raw material Use Wood Furniture

3

Classify the following based on the origin: linen, marble, cotton, cotton, clay, cork, sand and silk.

Plant

Mineral

Where do the following materials come from? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

Windows are made from ____________ and ______________, Bottles are made from _______________ or ______________. Ties are made from ____________. Underwear is made from______________. Furniture is made from ________________. Books are made from_____________. Toys are made from _____________. Gloves are made from_____________. Statues are made from_____________. Swords are made from______________.

4

Explain the difference between a chemical and a physical process.

5

Name 5 technological products created for these fields: a. b. c. d.

Telecommunications: Housework: Industry: Fashion:

5


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites GROUPING AND CHANGING MATERIALS Visit the following website and do the activities on it: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/6_7/grouping_materials.shtml

Name the four objects in each box (wood, metal, glass and rubber)

CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS Go to this website and learn about the characteristics of materials: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/activities/materials.shtml

What materials are waterproof? Metal Paper Rubber Glass Plastic

6

1 unit


Review

Visual Glossary VOCABULARY RAW MATERIALS

From animals:

wool From plants:

wood From minerals:

marble

fur

leather

cork

silk

cotton

sand

linen

clay

GRAMMAR REVIEW COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE A chair Furniture A pen plastic A notebook paper With uncountable nouns we don't use “a/an” , we say: A piece of paper: un papel A piece of furniture: un mueble Uncountable nouns cannot be plural: Two papers Two pieces of paper

7

GRAMMAR PASSIVE VOICE To Be + Past participle (Verb-ed) Example: The material is altered. El material es alterado The material is changed. El material es cambiado


Key Points

STUDY TIP: USE THE MIND MAP TO REMEMBER THE CONCEPTS IN THIS UNIT

RAW MATERIALS

CLASSIFICATION ORIGIN

MINERALS

PLANTS

STEPS TO MAKE A TECHNOLOGICAL

ANIMALS

PHYSICAL PROCESS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION DOES NOT CHANGE CHEMICAL PROCESS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHANGES

8

EXTRACT MATERIALS

TRANSFORM MATERIALS MAKE PRODUCTS

1

unit


1

unit

Progress Check

1. Raw materials come from a) Nature b) Factories c) Petroleum 2. Silk comes from a) Minerals b) Animals c) Plants 3. Technological products are made to a) Have furniture b) Pollute the environment c) Satisfy human necessities 4. In a physical process we don’t change a) The volume of the material b) The chemical composition of the material c) Anything 5. In a chemical process a) The composition doesn’t change b) The chemical composition changes c) Nothing change

6. Steel is a a) Metal b) Plastic c) Type of wood 7. Before using materials they must be a) Clean b) Cut c) Prepared 8. Glass is a a) Prepared material b) Raw material c) Product 9. The steps to get a technological product are a) Extract and make technological product. b) Extract, transform materials and make technological products. c) Extract and transform materials. 10. Furniture is made from a) Wood b) Glass c) Metal

I l ear nt

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

abo

ut

I l ike d

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better!

lik

e ..

4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

.

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-c , 4-b , 5-b , 6-a ,7-c , 8-a , 9-b , 10-a .

9

...


Wood or timber Tabletop Plywood Hardwood Leaf Chipboard Softwood Seed Pine Moisture Manufactured board Spruce Mahogany Oak

Classify raw materials Distinguish between a chemical and physical process Know the steps for a technological process

Reading Strategies 

The word “wood” has two different meanings in Spanish: Bosque and madera. In English there is another word for bosque. Do you know which word it is?

After a first reading try to guess the meaning of the words you don't understand Then look up the meaning in the dictionary.

10


Lesson 1 Timber There are two different types of wood or timber, hardwoods and softwoods (natural). Natural timbers have a number of disadvantages: 1. They suffer from changes in moisture contend, they twist if they are not properly dried. 2. They are relatively expensive to buy. 3. They don't come in large sizes, so several pieces will need to be joined to form a tabletop. Hardwoods come from trees that carry their seeds in fruits. They lose their leaves in the winter. They are generally slow growing (60-100 years to mature), strong and tough. Although most hardwoods are hard, there are exceptions: e.g balsa wood. Examples: mahogany, oak and beech.

Mahogany tree

Oak tree

Beech tree

11


Materials

2 unit

Softwooods come from trees called conifers. They are evergreen (“always green”). They are fast growing ( 20-30 years to mature), making them ideal for growing commercially. However they are weaker than hardwoods and they can split easily. They are much cheaper to buy and work. They are used in the paper industry. Some examples are: pine, spruce and cypress:

Pine

Spruce

Cypress

Manufactured boards These can be produced in large sizes– up to 3 metres x 2 metres. They are relatively cheap, and more stable. Some examples are: plywood, chipboard and medium density fibreboard (MDF): Plywood: Made from layers of wood. It is very resistant.

Chipboard: Chips of variety of timbers joined using synthetic glue

Medium density fibreboard (MDF): A sort of thicker, smoother, better quality hardboard

12


Lesson 2 Activities

1

Complete the following table with the characteristics of the different types of timbers. C

Hardwoods

2

Softwoods

Match the two columns with arrows : Spruce Mahogany Cypress Plywood MDF Pine Chipboard Oak

Hardwoods Softwoods Manufactured boards

3

Manufactured woods

Using information on internet choose a type of wood for the following objects. More than one type of wood could be used. Constructional work Garden furniture Paper industry Ladders

4

Identify the following manufactured boards.

--------------

----------------

13

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W.orking W.ith W.ebsites

2 unit

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TIMBER Visit the following website and learn about the different types of timber: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/resistantmaterials/ materialsmaterialsrev4.shtml Remember that there are two types of timber: softwood and hardwood. Softwood timbers usually come from coniferous trees - that is, evergreen, needle-leaved, cone-bearing trees such as fir and pine. They do not have the hard cell structure that gives hardwood trees their name. Hardwood timbers come from broad-leaved, deciduous trees, and are more important in Design and Technology than softwood timbers. The main hardwood timbers are ash, beech, birch, cherry, elm, iroko, mahogany, meranti, oak, obeche, sapele and teak. In this website you will find a table with the properties and uses of the hardwood timbers.

Design a sample board with the different types of timber and their properties. It would be fantastic to find small pieces of the most usual types to paste them in the sample board.

14


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

Wood or timber Tabletop Plywood Hardwood Leaf Chipboard Softwood Seed Pine Moisture Manufactured board Spruce Mahogany Oak

GRAMMAR REVIEW

GRAMMAR There is/There are Example: There is a pine in the garden Hay un pino en el jardĂ­n There are differents types of wood Hay diferentes tipos de madera

15


Key Points

WOOD They are relatively expensive to buy

CLASSIFICATION

HARDWOODS They are generally slow growing, strong and tough

MANUFACTURED BOARDS

SOFTWOODS They are fast growing, making them ideal for growing commercially

PLYWOOD

MEDIUM DENSITY FIBRE BOARD

CHIPBOARD Examples: Mahogany, oak and beech

Examples: Pine, spruce ans cypress

16

2 unit


2 unit

Progress Check

1. Moisture content is a) water quantity b) a part of the tree c) a type of timber 2. Evergreen means a) Never green b) Always green c) Sometimes green 3. Spruce is an example of a) Hardwood b) Softwood c) Manufactured boards 4. This type of timber is very tough and resistant a) Cork b) Softwood c) Hardwood 5. Plywood has a) Small particles of metal b) Different layers of wood c) Synthetic glue

6. MDF means a) Medium density fibre board b) Medium density full board c) High density fibre board 7. Wood is a material that is relatively a) Expensive to buy b) Cheap to buy c) Difficult to buy 8. Chipboard contains a) Metal b) Synthetic glue c) Layers of wood 9. Mahogany is an example of a) Manufactured wood b) Softwood c) Hardwood 10. They are used in the paper industry a) Softwoods b) Hardwoods c) Both of them

I l ear nt

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

abo

ut

I l ike d

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better!

lik

e ..

4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

.

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-b , 4-c , 5-b , 6-a ,7-a , 8-b , 9-c , 10-a .

17

...


Title block Ratio Measurements Enlargement Scale Size To draw

Use scales Calculate scales in technical drawings

Studying techniques A scale factor is a number which scales, or multiplies some quantity



Remember: A little studying every day will make a huge different.



Do your homework and correct the exercises.

18


Lesson 1 Scales Obviously, the paper surface is limited. If we use a DIN A-4 sized sheet in vertical position, the useful surface is 180 x 277 mm. If some dimension of the object of the drawing is bigger than paper, it doesn’t go into the paper. And inversely, if the object we want to draw is too small, we can’t notice its details. To solve these problems, we can proportionally reduce or enlarge (extend) all the measurements of the figure. All orthographic drawings must be drawn to a scale, which is in the title block or elsewhere on the drawing. A scale is a ratio and has no units. The scale of a drawing is the ratio between the drawing and the object, not the other way around. Scale= Size in the drawing/ Size of the object 1:1 indicates that the drawing is full size. NATURAL SCALE 1:2 indicates that the drawing is half the size of the object. REDUCTION SCALE 3:1 three times the size of the object. ENLARGEMENT SCALE

Drafting scales can be classified into four types: mechanical, architectural, civil and combination. Mechanical scales, such as 1/4"=1" (quarter size) or 1/2"=1" (half size), are used for machine parts, tools, toys, etc. Architectural scale, such as 1/4"=1'0" (1/48 size) or 1/8"=1'-0" (1/96 size) are used for houses and buildings. Civil scales, such as 1"=10' or 1"=50', are used for highways, dams and housing developments.

The combination scale is triangular in shape and includes mechanical, architectural, civil and sometimes metric scales. See Realistic Views of Combination Scale.

Mechanical scales equate inches to inches (1/2"=1" and 1/4"=1") and can be expressed in fractional or decimal units.

Architectural scales equate inches to feet (1/4"=1'-0" or 1/8"=1'-0") and are expressed in feet and fractional inch units.

Civil engineers scales equate inches to feet, yards or miles (1"=50.0' or 1"=50 yds.) and are expressed in decimal inches, feet, yard or mile units.

Metric scales equate meters to parts of a meter (1:100 or 1:50) and are expressed in millimeters.

19


Technical drawing equipment

FLEXIBLE CURVE TRIANGULAR SCALE ruler

TECHNICAL RANGE

PANTOGRAPH

20

3

unit


Lesson 2 Activities

Calculate the measure of these distances in the drawing.

1

40 cm in a scale 1:20 2 cm in a scale 3:1 50 cm in a scale 1: 1000

2

There are 8 cm between two towns on a map with a scale 1: 1000. What is the real distance between the towns?

3

We need to draw a building of 25 m on a drawing board with these measures (30 cm x 21 cm). What is the scale we need to use?

4

5

Draw the main views of your Technology class book in a scale 1:3.

See the figures below and find out which scale we have used.

21


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites

Visit the following website and watch the video, afterwards do the interactive activities on it.

Remembe:r inch is a measurement unit in the English system. We use the international system of units 1 inch=2,54 cm

http://www.brainpop.com/artsandmusic/artconcepts/scaledrawing/ 6

Could you paint a drawing from a picture on a piece of paper as the robot did? Try it.

22

3

unit


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

Title block Ratio Measurements Enlargement Scale Size To draw

GRAMMAR REVIEW MODAL VERBS CAN/HAVE TO/MUST

GRAMMAR

Examples: I can play tennis at weekends I must study for the exams I have to get up early everyday

23


Key Points

SCALE Scale= Size in the drawing/ Size of the object

A scale is a ratio and has no units

REDUCTION SCALE

CLASSIFICATION

NATURAL SCALE

24

ENLARGEMENT SCALE

3

unit


3

unit

Progress Check

1) A scale has no a) Units b) Meaning c) Numbers 2) We use a ________ scale to draw the map of a city a) Natural scale b) Reduction scale c) Enlargement scale 3) We use a ______ scale to draw a rubber a) Natural scale b) Reduction scale c) Enlargement scale 4) Scale is a) The ratio between the drawing and the object. b) The ratio between the object and the drawing c) The ratio between the drawings divided into two 5) A scale 3:1 means a) The object is three times bigger than the drawing b) The drawing is three times bigger than the object c) The drawing is four times bigger than the object

6) A scale 2:1 means a) The object is two times bigger than the drawing b) The drawing is two times bigger than the object c) The drawing is four times bigger than the object 7) A scale 1:4 means a) The object is four times bigger than the drawing b) The drawing is four times bigger than the object c) The object is two times smaller than the drawing. 8. The distance between two villages separated 5 cm on a map with a scale 1:20000 is a) 1 Km b) 100000 cm c) Both answers are right 9. The distance between two villages separated 5 cm on a map with a scale 1:100000 is a) 5 Km b) 50000 cm c) 50000 m 10. The scale of a drawing must … a) Be in the title block b) Have units. c) Always be in the technical drawings

I l ear nt

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

abo

ut

I l ike d

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better!

lik

e ..

4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

.

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-c , 4-a , 5-b , 6-b ,7-a , 8-a , 9-a , 10-c .

25

...


Toughness Hardness Ductility Malleability Brightness Pipe Wire To scratch

The image above is from the Science Museum in London. The 'materials house' - a sandwich of 170 layers of materials: carpets, plastics, metals, glass, and more stuff.

The basic properties of the metals Toughness, hardness, ductility. malleability and brightness Three different properties of metals Physical, chemical and ecological properties To select the appropriate metal to build a product We must select the metal depending on the use of the product

Asking for help (Classroom expressions) 

How do you spell R - A - W?

How do you pronounce this word?

Can you repeat, please?

What is the meaning of “agree”?

26


Lesson 1 Properties of materials All materials have properties that make them ideally suited for particular products. Design specification informs the choice of materials for a design. Metallic materials are hard, cold and they have very flat surfaces because they have been polished . Moreover they have metallic brightness . This is the classification of the properties of metals: a) Physical properties: 1. Toughness: how well the material absorbs impact.

2. Hardness: a measure of how easily a material is scratched.

3. Plastic or elastic behaviour: a measure of how much a material is deformed.

4. Ductility: the ability of a material to be worked in wire shapes.

5. Malleability: the ability of a material to be worked into panel shapes.

27


Materials 7. Electrical conductivity: how well a material conducts electricity

8. Magnetism: some materials are able to attract metals.

b) Chemical properties: 1. Resistance to corrosion: how slowly the material oxidises.

c) Ecologic properties: 1. Recycling: metals can be used more than once.

28

4 unit


Lesson 2 Activities 1

Write the most important property in producing electrical wires, pipes, bridges, hammers and pans.

2

Fill in the blanks: Hardness is a ________ of how _______ a material is _________. Toughness is a _________ of how _______ the material _______ impact. If a material doesn’t conduct electricity it is a __________ and if it conducts electricity, it is a _____________.

3

Name a conductor material, an insulator material, a hard material, a thermal conductor, and an electrical conductor.

4

Choose the correct answer: We can avoid corrosion of metals... a. Leaving them into water. b. Painting the surface. c. Heating them.

5

Match with arrows. Toughness

Physical property

Ductility Recyclable Chemical property Hardness Resistance to corrosion Malleability

Ecological property

29


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites

4

PROPERTIES OF METALS 1. Visit the following website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/resistantmaterials/ materialsmaterialsrev3.shtml With this website you will find information about ferrous metals. Ferrous metals contain iron. Examples are cast iron, mild steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, stainless steel, and high speed steel. We can see a table with the composition, properties and uses of some common ferrous metals. 2. Now visit this website: http://www.btinternet.com/%7Ehognosesam/gcse/page11.html

What properties of materials are explained on the website?

3. Finally, let´s learn about ecology and play this interactive game: http://www.scrib.org/education_zone/interactive_quiz/interactive_quiz.asp

Listen the story of the two cans and write down the stages of the process to recycle the aluminium.

30

unit


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

Toughness Hardness Ductility Malleability Brightness Pipe Wire To scratch

GRAMMAR REVIEW ADVERBS Good  Well Slow  Slowly

GRAMMAR CAN + BE + PARTICIPLE Ex.: Metals can be used ore than once.

HOW  COMO How well  Cómo How easily  Con qué facilidad How slowly  Cómo de lento How much  Cuánto

31


Key Points

PROPERTIES OF METALS

Physical

Malleability Ductility Electrical Conductivity Thermal Conductivity Plastic or Elastic behaviour Hardness Toughness

Chemical

Ecological

Resistance to corrosion

32

Recycling

4 unit


4 unit

Progress Check

1 Properties can be ... a) Physical, chemical and ecological b) Physical, educational and ecological c) Physical, chemical and modern 2 Toughness is a … a) Chemical property b) Physical property c) Ecological property 3 Resistance to corrosion is a … a) Chemical property b) Physical property c) Ecological property 4 Hardness is a … a) Chemical property b) Physical property c) Ecological property 5 Ductility and malleability are ... a) Chemical properties b) Physical properties c) Ecological properties

6 We paint surfaces to avoid ... a) Ductility b) Malleability c) Corrosion 7 Plastic or elastic behaviour measures … a) Hardness b) Malleability c) Deformation produced after a force 8 An insulator material is … a) A metallic spoon b) A plastic spoon c) A ring 9 A thermal conductor is … a) A metallic spoon b) A plastic spoon c) A wooden spoon 10 The properties are important to … a) Sell products b) Buy products c) Design products

I l ear nt

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

abo

ut

I l ike d

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better!

lik

e ..

4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

.

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-a , 4-b , 5-b , 6-c ,7-c , 8-b , 9-a , 10-c .

33

...


Copper Brass bronze Lead Tin Zinc Aluminium Titanium Alloy Iron

About the most common non ferrous metals

The properties of non ferrous metals

The main uses of non ferrous metals

Asking for help (Classroom expressions) Bronze is the most popular metal for top-quality bells. Nearly all professional cymbals are made from a bronze alloy.

What is the meaning of Tin?

Could you explain it again?

Can you repeat, please?

34


Lesson 1 Non ferrous metals Non ferrous metals do not contain iron. They are not magnetic and are usually more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals. Examples are aluminium, copper, lead. zinc and tin. The most common examples are in the following table.

COPPER (Cu)

Malleable and ductile. Uses: Wires, elecGood conductor and tronic circuits and expensive pipes.

BRASS

Alloy of copper and Uses: For watches and zinc. Hard and corro- metals work. sion resistant

BRONZE

Alloy of copper and Uses: For pumps, tin. Strong and corro- gears, bells and coins. sion resistant.

LEAD (Pb)

Heavy, ductile and Uses: For batteries corrosion resistant. and in small quantities Expensive in petrol

35


Non ferrous metals TIN (Sn)

Soft and weak. Ductile Uses: Tins and joins. and malleable. Corrosion resistant

ZINC (Zn)

Soft and grey

ALUMINIUM (Al)

Good conductor, ex- Uses: Windows, cars, pensive and very bicycles and planes strong.

TITANIUM (Ti)

High corrosion resis- Uses: Modern buildtant ings, rockets, jewellery and medical prothesis

MAGNESIUM (Mg)

Malleable, white

36

soft

Uses: Gutters

and Uses: Aeronautic industry, fireworks, cars and bikes.

5 unit


Lesson 2 Activities

1

2

3

4

Draw one use of each metal in your notebook.

What is an alloy? Do you know an alloy? Which metals are made from?

The densities of iron, tin, lead, magnesium are 7.88, 7.29, 11.34 and 1.74 (g/cc). Calculate the mass of 5 cc of each metal. Remember density=ρ=m/v.

Circle the right answer: Materials to produce wires must be … a)

Good conductor

b) Bad conductor

Titanium is used to build … a)

Modern buildings

b) Coins

Aluminium is used in bicycles because it is

37


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites METALS 1. Visit this website: http://www.brainpop.com/science/ matterandchemistry/metals/ Learn about the elements and alloys we call metal. Find out about their physical properties, like ductility and hardness, as well as their chemical properties, like positive valence and the tendency to oxidize. Take a look at how metals are subdivided on the periodic table of elements. You'll learn about why metal is so important to people, too. Discover its many uses, from cars to silverware to cell phones...to medals!

Listen to the video and play the quiz.

2. Now go to this site and complete the tasks: http://www.seed.slb.com/en/scictr/lab/buoy_exp/index.htm Balsa wood

Ebony wood

Oak wo- Marble od

Granite

Gold

Ice

Butter

Water Olive oil Ethanol Honey Sea water Mercury

Write conclusions about the experiment. Which material is the heaviest? What are differences between water and sea water?

Write the results of the experiments in the following table.

38

5

unit


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

Copper Brass bronze Lead Tin Zinc Aluminium Titanium Alloy Iron

GRAMMAR REVIEW COMPARATIVE Good  Better Bad  Worse

GRAMMAR

SUPERLATIVE Good  Best Bad  Worst

39


Key Points

METALS

Classification

Ferrous

Metals

with iron Example: steel

Non-Ferrous

Titanium Aluminum Copper Bronze Magnesium Tin Zinc Lead Brass

40

Alloys: A mixture of elements—at least one of them must be a metal.

5

unit


5

unit

Progress Check

1. An alloy is a …. a) Metal made from a mixture of two or more metals b) Ferrous metal c) Non ferrous metal 2. Brass is used … a) For bells b) For metallic decorations c) For tins 3. Copper is used … a) For wires b) For rockets c) For televisions 4 . Brass is an alloy with ….. a) Zinc and silver b) Copper and silver c) Copper and zinc 5 . Bronze is an alloy with a) Gold and tin b) Tin and copper c) Gold and copper

6. Copper is …. a) Good conductor b) Soft and weak c) Cheap 7. Brass is a) Corrosion resistant b) Good conductor c) Both answers 8. Lead is used for… a) Coins b) Batteries c) Windows 9. Zinc is… a) Hard and brown b) Soft and grey c) Soft and blue 10. Magnesium is used in … a) Rockets and fireworks b) Watches c) Windows and tab

I l ear nt abo ut ...

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

I l ike d …

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t lik e .. .

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better! 4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-a , 4-c , 5-b , 6-a ,7-c , 8-b , 9-b , 10-a .

41


Proton Neutron Electron Atom Nuclens Conductor Inslator Electrical current Posittive charge Electrical charge Negative charge Motor Wire Wires crossed Wires connected Switch Push botton Chargeower switch Resistor Voltimeter Fuse Ammeter

To know the nature of the electricity

To distinguish between different conductors and inslator materials To draw electrical circuits appropiately

Asking for help (Classroom expressions) 

Could you explain it again?

What about homework?

Can you help me, please?

42


Lesson 1 Electrical Current Electrical current is the continual movement of electrons.

Electricity passes through materials called conductors. Metals are conductors.

Electricity doesn’t pass through materials called insulators. Plastic and wood are insulators

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT An electrical circuit is a union of elements where electrical current flows. The four main elements of an electrical circuit are: 1.Generator: It is the power source. 2.Conductive wire: A pathway for electrons 3.Switch : Stop and start the circuit. Electrical circuit can work without switches, they are for safety and control. 4.Receptor: Light bulb, motor or resistors.

43


Electrical Current The symbols below are used to represent components found in electrical circuits

Motor

Push button

44

Buzzer

6 unit


Lesson 2 Activities

1

Fill in the blanks: Electricity is the continual movement of _____________. Electricity passes though materials called ____________. Electricity doesn’t pass though materials called ___________.

2

Join with arrows: Insulator Conductor

3

Spoon Plastic bottle Security gloves Ring Paper Scissor Nail

Draw an atom with the protons, neutrons and electrons.

4

What are the four main elements of a electrical circuit?

5

Draw an electrical circuit with two resistors and a bulb in series.

6

Draw an electrical circuit with a motor and a bulb in parallel.

7

Draw the electrical symbols of a battery, a switch, a buzzer and a fuse

45


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites

8

6

Watch the movies and answer the questions clicking on quiz. The subtitles of the movies will help you to understand better. You can stop the movies as many times as you need. http://www.brainpop.com/technology/energytechnology/electricity/preview.weml http://www.brainpop.com/technology/energytechnology/currentelectricity/preview.weml http://www.brainpop.com/technology/energytechnology/electriccircuits/preview.weml http://www.brainpop.com/technology/energytechnology/batteries/preview.weml

9

Draw a simple and a parallel circuits using the symbols in this website. Use each symbol once at least. http://www.cleo.net.uk/resources/displayframe.php?src=207/consultants_resources/ science/circuitWorld/index.html

Experiments: http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/lightningact.html http://pbskids.org/zoom/activities/sci/staticelectricity.html

46

unit


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

Proton Neutron Electron Atom Nuclens Conductor Inslator Electrical current Posittive charge Electrical charge Negative charge Motor Wire Wires crossed Wires connected Switch Push botton Chargeower switch Resistor Voltimeter

GRAMMAR REVIEW

PRESENT SIMPLE GRAMMAR

Positive/Negative Sentences Examples: Electricity passes ….. Electricity doesn’t pass …….

47


Key Points

Everything is made up by atoms. They contain:

Protons: Particles with positive charge

Electrons: Particles with negative charge

Neutrons: Particles without charge

Electricity is the continual movement of electrons in an electrical circuit

Insulators materials They don’t conduct electricity

48

Conductor materials They conduct electricity

6

unit


6

unit

Progress Check

1. Everything is made up of a) Cells b) Atoms c) Wood 2. Protons are a) In the nucleus b) Around the nucleus c) Very far from the nucleus 3. Electrons have a) Positive charge b) Negative charge c) Neutral charge 4. Electrical current is the a) The volume of the material b) The chemical composition of the material c) Continual movement of electrons 5. Particles with the same type of charges ________ each other a) Reflect b) Attract c) Repel

6. Electricity passes through materials called ... a) Conductors b) Insulator c) Both answers are right 7. The symbol of a motor is… a) b) c) 8. The symbol of a buzzer is… a) b) c)

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say? 8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude. 6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better! 4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

ANSWERS: 1-b , 2-a , 3-b , 4-c , 5-c , 6-a , 7-a , 8-c

49


Bricks Concrete Glass Iron Plastic Steel Stone Wood Tower Beam Foundation Vault

To classify different types of structures To distinguish the conditions to be a structure

About the materials used for constructing structures

Asking for help (Classroom expressions)

The image above is from the Science Museum in London. The 'materials house' - a sandwich of 170 layers of materials: carpets, plastics, metals, glass, and more staff?

Which homework are for the next day?

I don´t understand this exercise

Could you write that on the board?

50


Lesson 1 Structures In nature there are many forces, for example: gravity, the wind* or the force of our muscles*. A force is capable of deforming a body or altering its state of rest* or movement. Structure: elements of a body which bear* the effects of the forces that act on it, keeping* its form. There are two types of structures: natural and artificial. Natural: seashells or bones.

Artificial: a chair and a building

CONDITIONS TO BE A STRUCTURE Stability: The structures cannot overturn easily. Resistance: They cannot break when we apply force. Controlled deformation: The deformation should be controlled. ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES Artificial structures are in all technological objects, simple and small objects (chair, pen or telephone) as well as massive or complicated constructions (cathedrals, bridges or rockets). The structure must have resistance to keep its form and it must minimize the amount of material to save money. Constructions materials have changed over time. Some materials used are: Stone Wood Iron Concrete Brick Plastic Steel Glass The form of the structure depends on the force exerted upon it, for example: a dam. TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES Massive structures: They are built with many materials, and no space is left inside. e.g: Pyramids

51

Vaulted structures: They have arches and vaults inside. It is possible to build very tall constructions with a lot of space inside, like cathedrals.


Artificial strutures

7

unit

Stacked in layers: structures found in buildings. Elements of stacked structures are: Foundations: a foundation is the base of a building. It is underground beneath the structure. Pillars: they support the weight of the structure vertically.

Beams: they support the weight of the structure horizontally.

Beams and pillars can have different shapes. Depending on the shape, a beam or pillar can support more or less weight. They can be TRIANGLE, SQUARE, L-SHAPE, U-SHAPE ETC.

Triangle structures: There are structures made of bars. They usually are wooden or metallic bars. The triangle does not deform, that is why we use triangular structure to build roofs or bridges. Suspensions structures: suspension structures are supported by cables.

52


Lesson 2 Activities 1

Write the names of five natural and five artificial structures

2

Structures Natural Artificial

Write the names of five construction materials.

Construction mate-

Identify the structures of these pictures.

3

a

b

d

g

4

c

e

f

h

i

Draw a pillar, a beam, an arch, and a vault and write the name of the efforts they support

53


W.orking W.ith W.ebsites 5

Search about Santiago Calatrava and Gaudí.

6

Internet Game: “TOWERS OF THE WORLD”. This is a game. you must follow the following instructions to win. Observe these pictures of the famous towers and complete the gaps in the tables using infor-

7

unit

ER SEARS TOW

WER EIFFEL TO

ARCHITECT

CT ARCHITE

HEIGHT

HEIGHT

AR CTION YE CONSTRU

CONSTRUC

TION YEAR

TRY CITY, COUN

UNTRY CITY, CO

PETRO NAS T OWER ARCH ITECT HEIGH T CONS TRUCT ION Y EAR CITY, COUN TRY

PRICE TOW ER ARCHITECT HEIGHT CONSTRUC

TION YEAR CITY, COUN TRY

WER ON TO FLATIR EC T ARCHIT

TOWER WATTS EC T ARCHIT HEIGHT YEAR UCTION R T S N CO Y OUNTR CITY, C

HEIGHT N YEAR RUCTIO CONST Y OUNTR CITY, C

EMPIRE

BANK OF C HINA ARCHITECT

STATES

ARCHIT EC T

BUILDIN

HEIGHT

HEIGHT

CONSTR UCTION

CONSTRUCT ION YEAR CITY, COUN TRY

CITY, CO UNTRY

54

YEAR

G


Review

Visual Glossary

VOCABULARY

bricks

plastic

concrete

glass

steel

stone

beam

foundation

iron

wood

vault

tower

GRAMMAR REVIEW THERE IS / THERE ARE (hay) Singular plural Ex. There are two types of structures. MODAL VERBS CAN poder  CANNOT / CAN´T MUST deber  MUST NOT/ MUSTN´T SHOULD debería SHOULDN´T ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS VERTICAL  VERTICAL-LY vertical  verticalmente HORIZONTAL  HORIZONTAL-LY

GRAMMAR PAST PARTICIPLES REGULAR VERB-ED USE usar USED usado IRREGULAR BUILD construir BUILT construido LEAVE dejar  LEFT dejado FIND encontrar FOUND encontrado MAKE hacer  MADE hecho

EASY  EASI-LY

55


Key Points

STRUCTURES

Classification

Conditions to be a structure

Stability

Natural structure

Resistance

Triangular

Vaulted Massive

Stacked

Controlled deformation

56

Artificial structure

Suspensi贸n

7

unit


7

unit

Progress Check

1. A natural structure is a a) Tower b) Building c) Seashell 2. Artificial structures are made by a) Humans beings b) Animals c) Plants 3. Necessary conditions to be a structure are a) Stability, deformation and movement b) Stability, resistance and controlled deformation c) Resistance, controlled deformation and hardness 4. Materials to build artificial structures are a) Concrete, bricks and leather b) Glass, concrete and steel c) Plastic, paper and leather 5. A vaulted structure is a a) Cathedral b) Chair c) Pyramid

6. Foundations are __________ buildings a) Inside b) On the top of c) In the base of 7. Santiago Calatrava and Norman Foster are famous a) Scientists b) Architects c) Engineers 8. Pillars support the weight of the structure a) Vertically b) Horizontally c) Diagonally 9. The Eiffel Tower is a a) Vaulted structure b) Suspension structure c) Triangular structure 10. Beams support the weight of the structure a) Horizontally b) Vertically c) Diagonally

I l ear nt

10-9 correct answers Wow, that’s incredible! What can I say?

abo

ut

I l ike d

8-7 correct answers Well done! You’ve got a good attitude.

I d idn ´t

6-5 correct answers OK, but you can do it better!

lik

e ..

4-0 correct answers Game over. This is not your favourite subject!

.

ANSWERS: 1-a , 2-b , 3-a , 4-c , 5-b , 6-a ,7-c , 8-b , 9-b , 10-a .

57

...

Tecnología Bilingüe 2º ESO  

Cuadernillo bilingüe para 2º ESO de Tecnología

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