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- Note This report relates our work in the frame of the class called Interactive Furniture, hold by Michel Guglielmi at the Danmarks Designskole, from the 25th of April to the 23rd or June 2011. The first research part was done with the whole class group, and the concept brainstorming for the Second Skin project also involved other students : Johannes Kunz, Martin Krogh, Nikolai Hansen and Essi Ilola. But the developpement of the project and its finalization was the result of our own hard work. The texts, images and layout of this book result of our common work.

Marlene Fischer, Coline Fontaine, Delphine Piault, Zeynep Sen, & Nina Wester printed on the 20.06.2011


Introduction

The Interactive furniture class was delivered in two parts. First part consisted of theory and the possible application done with interactive technologies. The second part was intensive Arduino workshops, where we learned the basics of programming, the ways of using and making sensors and the doors that Arduino opens for further projects. After the Ardunio workshops, the 100 Dancers project was introduced where we were given two weeks to use the skills we had learnt since the beginning of the Interactive Furniture class. The goal was to implement both theory and practical skills we have gathered into one artifact that would be used in the 100 Dancers project, which is going to take place in August 2011 in Copenhagen. Our goal was not to only design an artifact that can be worn by the dancers but we also wanted the object to have it’s own presence without the existence of the dancer. We believe the approach we took was only appropriate since the name of the course is called Interactive Furniture.

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Contents Part I - Interactive artifacts - BACKGROUND RESEARCH

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approaching the interactive world 8

introduction to the Arduino chip

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visit of Art+COM, Berlin 14 Part II - Second skin - PROJECT

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Introduction 18 Problem formulation 21 Requirements 21 Process 22

Making the prototype

Conclusion 66 Personnal Conclusions 75 Marlene Fischer 76 Coline Fontaine 78 Delphine Piault 80 Zeynep Sen 82 Nina Wester 84 Annex 87

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interactive artifacts background research

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Approaching the interactive world the person standing in front and translates the pictures in movement of the wooden squares. So the flip in different angels and form the picture of the person in front of out of lightened and shadowed squares. A very smart idea to turn a analog situation in a interesting, good working digital one.

At the beginning of our 10 weeks course, the topic was ÂŤinteractive furnitureÂť. This was the content of the first lessons, in which we got to know a lot of new technologies, new textiles and materials. New materials we got to know was for example the smart glass. A kind of glass, which can be clear and also can be turned opaque. We were working with this new material by thinking about different situations you could use it. Another material which was also really interesting: thermochrom. A colour which disappears or rather appears in different levels of temperature. A colour, nobody of us heard before, but gave a nice inspiration. The Wooden Mirror by Daniel Rozin was also an interesting new idea within the broad field of interaction. A pattern of wooden squares, which get exposed from the top. A small camera captures

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Another interesting but funny interactive idea is pingpongplus. A ping pong table which reacts in different way of the ball touching the table. It was for example projected like a lake, with fishes swimming, and the ball was occurring waves on the top of the water. A nice idea to make a common game more interactive. A third installation, we really got excited about was the one from art+com for BMW. A installation existing of many balls, attached to a motor by nilon threat. The motors are moving the balls up and down, through which the balls form patterns and forms. A simple installation which performs in a very complex way. This installation was the inspiration for our trip to Berlin, where we visited Art+com. As the 10-weeks course also offered the possibility to work with interactive wearable, we were introduced to new textiles, too. For example conductive fabric, which warps if you plug electricity to it. Or a jacket, on which you can operate your mp3 player directly on the fabric.


INTERACTIVE ARTIFACTS - background research

Interesting new fabrics, which we didn’t know at all before. Interesting to see, what new materials are on the market. These research was really interesting and inspiring. Also surprising how many new materials and technologies are out there, we didn’t know. Inspiring for this course and for our future work.

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Introduction to the Arduino chip «Arduino for Hipsters» with David Cuarteles This three hours workshop was framed by David Cuartielles, one of the founder of the Arduino software. There, we learned the basics of the Arduino langage and how to connect simple components together.

« Arduino is an open-source single-board microcontroller, descendant of the open-source Wiring platform, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. The hardware consists of a simple open hardware design for the Arduino board with an Atmel AVR processor and onboard I/O support. The software consists of a standard programming language compiler and the boot loader that runs on the board. » Wikipedia, 16.06.2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino

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INTERACTIVE ARTIFACTS - background research

One week workshop with David Sjunnesson We also had a one week crash course at the DKDS with David Sjunnesson from the office “1scale1, a partner of David Cuartielles, we were working with in MalmĂś. After a short introduction on what Arduino is, out of which parts it consists and how these are working, we started really soon to code our own fading LEDs with the help of the teacher. The principle of the course was: getting the knowledge of how to connect different devices, resistors and wires to the Arduino board. Also how we can write a code or find one in the open source pools online. We had to solve homework until the next day, to try and learn it on our own. At the end of this one week we were able to light up LEDs in different ways, run motors and activate piezo speakers. Thanks to that we had an overview on how Ardunio is working and which possibilities we had for our project, later on.

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introduction to the Arduino chip

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INTERACTIVE ARTIFACTS - background research

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Visit of Art+COM, Berlin

We were offered to go to Berlin, in order to visit the studio of ART+com, a designer group born 25 years ago, formed by a very varied team of 80 employees, counting artists and designers, software developers, media technicians and engineers, communication and product designer, scientist and project manager. Their goal is to use interactive technologies in a smart and beautiful way, in very different fields of application: from an interface, to an exhibition artifact, or to being an art installation on itself. Through the presentation of their work, what most stood out was the importance, for them, of being as simple as possible; firstly, because we can create great effects with very simple devices and secondly, because the sensor should be very obvious so that the object is well understood and appreciated by the user. We were able to have physical note about that through our visit of Berlin, catching different of their installations around the city : so that the interaction device doesn’t take over the message and the sensitive experience, this one has to be integrated in a very simple way.

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INTERACTIVE ARTIFACTS - background research

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Second skin an interactive artifact designed for the 100 dancers project

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Introduction

Pipaluk Supernova is a dancer and choreographer who is at the origin of a project called Live Art Installations, which concept is to invest the public space with ephemeral dance performances. They’re mainly based on contact improvisation, set in spaces with a strong city or industrial identity, and question the presence of a human body in such an environment, in connection with the surrounding architecture and landscape, and invite the audience to look at these public scenes with a different eye. As she describes it, the goal is to offer intense and unique live experiences. To create these experiences, she uses the collaboration of different creative fields, from designers to engineers, and thus build together spectacular projects (integrating for example fireworks or submarines).

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The 100 dancers project, initiated in the frame of Live Art installations, will be set in Copenhagen in august 2011. The idea is to gather a hundred dancers from all around the world, who will meet for a few days then perform for four days in different places of the city. In that context, we were asked to develop an interactive artifact, to be used during the dance performances, by one or several of the dancers. The decision of the number of artifacts (whether one for each of the hundred dancers, or only a few) was up to us; but the object we were about to design was still to be considered as multiple, and therefore we should imagine, while designing it, how it would behave when repeated.


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Problem formulation Requirements

There were only few requirements for the interactive wearable.

First limitation: Material The material we should work with is silicone.

How can we design an interactive artifact that is meaningful and visually pleasing for the 100 dancers project while the input is the movement, and the light is the output, and where the dancers and their movement are still the focal point?

The form of the wearable could be anything: a hat, a glove etc, but should not be something you wear like a shirt, but more something you attach to your body, more an object or an artifact.

Second limitation: Interaction The behaviour of the wearable should depend on the speed, the rotation and the altitude of the dancer. That is the input, meaning, the data we use for the interaction. The output, meaning in which way the wearable reacts to the input, should be visualized with light.

Third limitation: Light This interaction should work with Arduino. Because of the fixed number of output-pins on the Arduino, we can work with six zones of light.

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Process Group brainstorming: getting the idea and the concept

In the beginning of the brainstorming we got the idea of a scarf-like object that could be attached on or wrapped around the body. We also thought about the idea of giving the possibility of connecting two pieces together. From that came the ideas of using velcro or magnets to be able to attach the object on the body or to an other object.

What is contact improvisation? To begin the brainstorming we had to try to find out what contact improvisation is, because the field of contact improvising was new to all of us. We tried to form an understanding of how the dancers could interact with each other or objects surrounding them, by looking at pictures and videos of contact improvisation dance.

A piece of clothing or an artifact? We discussed if it should be a piece of clothing or more an artifact, an object.

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The idea of the scarf also evolved into an idea of a tubular scarf, that the dancer could dive into. The idea of the scarf also evolved further looking into rhythmic gymnastics, where the gymnast interacts with different pieces of apparatus, for example ropes, hoops, balls, clubs and ribbons. We wanted to look into how the interaction would work if the artifact could be passed on from one dancer to an other. We also wanted to look into how the interaction with the artifact would change if for example one end of the scarf would have more weigh then the other end, just like the ribbons they use in the rhythmic gymnastics. We were also influenced by the installation «The Walker» from Science Center Otto Bock, from the Berlin trip, where the body’s movement and the mood of the person, could be seen from only a certain number of point on the body. We were thinking, if there would be a way of showing the speed, rotation and altitude with similar dots or stripes of LED along the body.


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process - group brainstorming

Characteristic of the light: Obvious vs unexpected? During the brainstorming phase we listed up what we could do with the light. At this point we liked the fading in an out of the light, to mimic the notion of breathing. We also discussed the possibility of giving the light the properties of water in motion. The most important question to solve was how the light could react to the movement, so that it would enhance the movement of the dancing instead of taking over the show. We realized that there is a really fine balance between making the light behave in an obvious vs the unexpected way. Therefore it was hard to come to any decision at this point.

Random vs organized? To obtain a smooth moving light fading in and out, it is good to have as many zones of LEDs as possible, therefor we decided to use all of the 6 zones we had the possibility to. We thought about how to organize the LEDs in the different zones. After making a quick photoshopping showing the fading of the light, when the LEDs were organized in rows vs placed randomly, we saw that the fading in and out looked much more natural with the LEDs placed randomly.

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Silicone probes by Diffus As we got the possibility to have a look at some silicone test made by studio Diffus (which was originally in charge of realizing this project for Pipalul Supernova and the 100 dancers, but gave us instead the possibility to develop it), we realized one can put almost anything inside the silicone to give it texture or structure. We were particularly interested in the probes that had a thin layer of silicone on top of textile with a wrinkled texture and also the probe that had garlic inside the silicone. After seeing the probes we where also concerned of the weight of the material. The question of how to get the LEDs covered and safe inside the silicone without giving the object to much thickness and by that weigh. When looking at the probes, we also got the idea that we would like to try out to put metallic wire inside the silicone, to try go give a more rigid structure and shape. We hoped that, we in that way we might be able to give the silicone a more three dimensional shape, since the silicone it self wouldn’t hold a shape.

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Process Evolution of the form and details

Sketching with mock-ups For this project, the mockups were extremely important. There were various generations of mockups, which were all tested by people in order to make a more ergonomic and an intuitive prototype. Also, the mockups gave us ideas about how to approach the interaction between the artifact and the dancer. Moreover, it helped us determine the size, the form, the weight ergonomy and also how the artifact acted in different environments.

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The first set of mock-ups consisted of “the tube” and the “scarf”. They were tested by many and the highlights of the feedback we have gotten helped us shape the second set of mock-ups. First of all, the ribbon used in rhythmic gymnastics inspired «The Scarf». When this was getting tested, it flew with the wind and it was hard to control. When weight was added to the ends, it was easier to control but still awkward to use. When the dancer was using it, he was having a hard time handling it. On the other hand, «The Tube» easier to use and handle however, the possibilities were very limited.


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After the first set of observations and feedback, we went back to brainstorming. One of the things we had noticed was the fact that it was hard to grab ÂŤThe ScarfÂť from the ends. Therefore, we looked into possibilities that would make handling easier and more intuitive which led us into different directions. The idea of having parts where you can put your arms through came after watching the first set of mock-up testing. The scarf became smaller, and wider into a rectangular form. Then the idea of integrating Velcro and magnets came in. We, as a group decided that it would be interesting if the dancer could put their arms in and wear it around the arms and also could undo the Velcro/magnets and wear it around the neck.

Another mock up was made to test out the results. In the mean time, we started the silicone tests. Velcro and magnets were embedded into the silicone test pieces. The results were not as successful as expected. Some of them fell off before we even got to test them on mockups. These results led us into another direction; Putting holes into the artifact for making it wearable around the arms to allow the dancer more freedom while making the artifact work with the dancer.

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process - evolution of the form and details

For the second set of mock-ups, fabric was used. The first prototype of the second set of mock-ups was called “The Cloak” due to its form, meant to have Velcro/magnets at the ends, which changed slightly during the process. When it was tried on, we saw that it needed more structure. Therefore, chicken-wire was introduced into the mock-up to give it necessary support. Later, we did another testing ourselves and observed that it was good to wear around the arms however; it did not function as smoothly as expected. Then the other mock-up, “The Oval” was born with the idea of simplifying what we already had while making it somehow more intuitive. It is when the idea of adding Velcro/magnets was dropped and the holes were introduced. “The Oval” was completely symmetrical with holes on both sides and a slit in the middle. The form was satisfying however since it was just fabric, it didn’t have any support and that’s when we stitched a wire around the edges. After the stitching, we dipped the whole thing into a white glue& water solution to simulate the effect of silicone.

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Then we did the second set of mock-up tests, with Mayte Vaos, a dancer from Malmo. We got her to test both “The Cloak” and “The Oval”. That is when we realized that the idea of having a hole in the middle worked as she put her head through and had the option to dance with both hands free or one arm and head or just the arms. In addition, after getting feedback from her, we moved away from “the Cloak” since it didn’t allow her to dance as freely as she did with “the Oval”. Further, we came to the conclusion that by not adding extra materials such as Velcro and magnets, we could cut down the cost, and also make the prototyping process smoother. In addition, one of Maite Vaos’ comments: “having it work with the dancer”, made us think about how to take “The Oval” a step further. We also saw that the slit looked too much like a vagina therefore we tried to find a solution to avoid that. We sketched many other form solutions to depart from that look however we kept running into a brick wall; that’s how we concluded that if the form was no longer symmetrical, we could get rid of the problem.


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In the mean time, the silicone test pieces were already done. We saw examples of embedded LEDs, cables and other items embedded in silicone as well as silicone-fabric pieces. When we were observing the silicone-fabric test piece, we realized it felt very much like flesh. We were also deciding on the aesthetics of the piece and deciding how the cables, sensors, the Arduino board and the battery should be embedded at the same time.

With the final mock up we tried it on again and looked into possibilities for different interaction possibilities that had a meaning. Accordingly, we decided to divide the zones into 6 and the number of LEDs in each zone was decided. The final mock up was intuitive and it also was flexible enough to let the dancer have more than one way of using the artifact.

Inspired by the idea of ‘the dancer giving life to the object’, we decided to make the cables visible to complete the aesthetics of the artifact. Combination of ‘dancer giving life to the object’ and vein like cables and sensor, battery, and the board resembled a living organism. That idea led us to our new form; lung like asymmetrical form. The asymmetrical form with one big hole and a smaller one, departed from any suggestions as well as giving the dancer more flexibility. It doesn’t dictate the dancer as for what to do, but it suggests and gives possibilities to the dancer. One hole is big enough for the arm, the other one big enough for the head and a shoulder and if the dancer wants to grab the other end of the artifact, he/she can easily do that. The wiring stitched around the edges of the form would not only give it more structure but it would also help the dancer grab the artifact and crush it if necessary.

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process - evolution of the form and details

Experimentation with dancers At different steps in the development process of our artifact, it was important for us to test it in use. Therefore, besides trying to move around with it by ourselves, we asked dancers to try them out, to observe they’re relation with this object that they didn’t know, and use their comments to make it evolve. We documented all these live experiments through pictures and videos, which we used afterwards to observe thoroughly the different movements a dancer could give to the artifact, and use it as a base for the light patterns we wanted to implement on it. The comments the dancers would have were primarily important since our idea for this object was that it was made to be felt and to have a special relation with the dancer. For instance, at first, when it was a scarf, notions of length and weight were capital, and evolved through the contact with the dancer.

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Then, when Maite Vaos (Spanish dancer who will be part of the 100 dancers project) tested our second series of prototypes, she reacted very differently with the two propositions we had, and she said she could relate to one of them in a very clear and present way. It was the one which structure gave it, as she described it, a life of its own. The way that she played around with it, hiding, wrapping it around her, using holes not only as handles but also as masks, was very inspirational for us and gave our project more depth, in some ways we hadn’t previously thought about. To resume, these experiments were the occasion for us to work simultaneously on the visual aspect of our artifact as well as on the individual relation the dancer would have with it, a capital matter for a performance based on improvisation.


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process - evolution of the form and details

First Silicone approach During the first silicone workshop we got first hand experience of handling the material and it’s properties. We learned how to mix the silicone in the right way and what tools to use. The first trial with the silicone gave a good insight into how we should do the prototype.

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- Fastening -

- Giving shape -

With the following test we wanted to see if magnets and velcro could be used for attaching the artifact to the body or to each other. Also to test if they could be used for the idea of the tubular scarf.

We wanted to try out the following materials to find out, if it would be possible for us to give the silicone a form that it could maintain. - Chicken wire on top of textile embedded in silicone

- Velcro fastened on top of the silicone - Magnets embedded in the silicone

- 4 pieces of 1 mm thick wire folded into the edge of silicone + textile - 0.5 x10 mm metal strap folded into the edge of silicone + textile

To be able to embed the magnets in the silicone there need to be quite a thick layer of silicone around the magnet to hold it in place. Already in the transport from the office of Diffus to school some of the magnets had fallen out. Luckily we were still able to test how the remaining magnets worked. The same problem occurred with the velcro strips. They worked fine a few times, but then some of the strips fell off. We decided not to use either the magnet nor the velcro, because they wouldn’t hold good enough and the fact that fastening the artifact like that wouldn’t be the most smooth and intuitive way for the dancer to interact with the artifact. The interaction needed to be something simpler.

The chicken wired with the silicone proved to be too stiff, we were able to shape it, but not as much as we would have liked to. But both the metal strap and thin wire worked as we wanted. We are able to give structure and shape the piece of silicone and textile and it would maintain the shape until it was reshaped.

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process - evolution of the form and details

- LEDs embedded in the silicone The following test about the LEDs was to help us figure out which LED we should use, what the light looks like inside the silicone and how they should be placed. - LEDs strip back and forwards, with and without textile on both sides - Soldered lose LEDs on pieces of breadboard with wires - 2 Patterns of paper forms simulating 5 mm long LED-strip - Bare wire to simulate the wires for the LEDs

After testing both the LED-strip and the lose LEDs with light inside the silicone, we decided to go for the lose LEDs, due to the important fact that the light from them spread in all directions. In that way we wouldn’t end up with an artifact with a front and a backside, as in the case using the LED-strip. The lose LEDs also spread the light more evenly and the light pattern was less spotty and could be made more random looking as with the LED strip. The lose LEDs were also much less expensive then the LED-strip. By using the lose LEDs we would also have the possibility to enhance the wiring of the LEDs, which we was an idea we really liked. Due to the fact that there would be a lot of wires we thought it wouldn’t make sense to try to hide them, but to enhance them instead. We also realized that the both LED paper patterns we tried out, were placed to close to each other, due to the fact that the silicone diffuses the light a really nice way. Therefore it wouldn’t be necessary to have that many LEDs so close to each other. And since we would only have the maximum amount of 50 LEDs per artifact, the total number of LEDs needed to be evenly spread out.

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process - evolution of the form and details

- Size and pocket test With the size and pocket test we wanted to get a feel for the size and weight, as well as try out how we could embed the sensitive electronic components into the silicone. - 1 m long scarf of silicone with a pocket for electronics in one end, and 4 magnets, one in each corner

The scarf form was made in a mold. The pocket was made by placing an Arduino sized cardboard piece inside a plastic bag merged into the silicone. The scarf proved to be too heavy and hard to handle, because of the amount of silicone we had to use to embed the magnet and making the pocket. The pocket wouldn’t work properly, but we got a good insight in how we could make the pocket for the final prototype, without increasing the weight and thickness of the silicone.

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- Giving texture With the following test we wanted to try out different ways of giving texture to the silicone. - Garlic embedded in silicone - Salt embedded in silicone - Wrinkles made by pinching textile covered with a thin layer of silicone

The garlic and salt looked nice, and especially the salt diffused the light in a nice way. But it would be too much to use the salt or the garlic with the LEDs and the wires. We felt there was no motive to use them. We got really fond of the wrinkles on the other hand. When one set of LEDs where placed underneath the wrinkled texture, the pattern diffused the light in a really nice way. As the LEDs were programmed to fade in and out in the rate of a sleeping human breathing, the piece of texture almost came alive. By using two layers of wrinkles fabric and silicone, we could easily merge the LEDs, wires and electronics in between the layers.

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process - evolution of the form and details

Designing The Digital Interaction The designing of the light interaction was a big and important part of the project. To get inspired, we were researching on different light-patterns. We also were looking on innovative ways of interaction with light. We found things like interactive staircase, where the light is following you or a bar which creates interactivity by light connecting the glasses, standing on the lighted table etc. One first and important conclusion out of this research was, that we have to keep the interaction and the light-pattern as simple as possible. Too much light and too much change of the light-pattern takes over and gets just too much. So we decided to narrow down the three inputs, rotation, speed and altitude only to two patterns: the rotation combined with speed and the altitude combined with the speed. Because of the speed being always a part of movement, it was just logical to do this.

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We were thinking about letting the lightpatterns change in a hierarchy. If the rotation dominates, the light-pattern of the rotation starts. If the altitude dominates, the light-pattern of the altitude starts. But we thought it could be too much, if the pattern is changing all the time. So we implement a button with which the dancer can switch between the two patterns.

There were ideas about letting the light doing exactly the different movement of what the dancer is doing. Means: If he is rotating, the light on the wearable rotates in the other direction, etc. Or the idea of the light behaving quite randomly. As for example, if the dancer is moving, the different zones light up randomly in a constant intensity.

So we started to sketch different kinds of patterns and thinking of how they could behave. We also took the pictures we had taken while testing the first wearable prototypes and photoshoped possible light behaviours.

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process - evolution of the form and details

But we decided that this is getting too far from our idea of having it simple and intuitive. The light should adapt the movement and support it. There should be also a diversified intensity of light, depending on the speed of the movement. This was also a point, which Pipaluk Supernova pointed out: «It is nice to work for it. If you don’t move that fast, it should stay quite dark. If you spinning faster and faster it should light up.»

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So our first idea about the rotation was to let the outer circle of the zones fade from on to the next in a circle. But as we were studying the films, in which the dancers were acting, we could see, that this light pattern can probably not be recognized that good. If the dancer wrapes the wearable around himself, the audience can’t see the circled animation of the light. So we decided, to do it even more abstract. So for the dancer rotating, all of the zones are fading up and down together. The faster the dancer moves, the more intense the light gets. If the dancer moves slower, the intensity of the light, breathing, gets less. So even for an audience being far away, the pattern can be seen good. There is not too much going on, what could confuse. But the interactive light picks up the movement and the speed of the dancer and mirrors it.


SECOND SKIN - project

For the altitude we were really from the beginning inspired by water. We liked the interactive digital devices, which were behaving like analog water. A really digital thing can look quite analog by that. So we decided to give the light some weight, some gravity by letting it act like water. If the dancer is in the ÂŤ altitude mode Âť, the light fades from the outer zone, where the hand whole is, over the middle part of the wearable, to the opposite outer zone. It is a fading from on side to the other, like the wave which occurs if you drop a stone into water. The fading-speed is depending on how fast the dancer is moving. The same as with the rotation, we choose a simple, intuitive pattern, which supports the movement and is not taking away the focus from the dancer.

All these information we gathered and defined really detailed, to give it to David Sjunnesson, who programmed the code. We were defining which reaction happens when, and for how many seconds etc.

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process - evolution of the form and details

So we knew, which kind of reaction of the light pattern we would use. Now the next defiance was the placing of the LEDs. As the Arduino-board has only six output-pins, we had the possibility to work with six zones of light, in which several LEDs could be placed. And as we experienced in the talks with the dancers we worked with during the design process, they would like to have the possibility to change the behaviour of the light or rather the light-pattern. So we wanted the zones to light as many different patterns as possible. We did this by sketching a lot of different possible zones and talking about these. We also got inspired by different books. So we came up with the following idea you can see in the picture. The zones are placed in a circle, so we have the possibility of the light fading from left to right, from up and down. Also from the inner part of the wearable to the outer zones or even rotation. So we can achieve our ideas of the lightpattern and also provide the possibility to have different light patterns if needed.

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process - evolution of the form and details

Technical plans - Shape -

1480

ø 150 0

23

A’ 310

A

1020

16

30

All the mesurements are in millimeters

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Technical plans - General Layout Arduino board

Battery

Sensors

zone 1

zone 5

zone 4

zone 6 zone 2 zone 3

The main components (Arduino board, battery and sensors) are located in two specific zones, which can be open easily in order to charge the battery or update the Arduino board.

LEDs are spread in six different zones, so that we can controle them separately and offer lots of programing possibilities.

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process - evolution of the form and details

Technical plans Section AA’

Metal wire ø 1.5 mm

Silicone dot

Silicone + Fabric (Polyesther veil)

Silicone Stitch

Silicone strip LED 5mm Fold

Void

INSIDE EDGE

OUTSIDE EDGE

After making the prototype we realized that we should have done some things in a different way. So, this technical drawing does not show exactly how the prototype is made but how it should be. We added a silicone joint on the stitching to reinforce the outside edges and make it more waterproof. We created a silicone strip for the big and small holes to make edges more resistant. We merge the LED into some silicone in order to fix them according to a pattern and protect them from chocs.

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Technical plans

The main electrical components need to be protected against impacts and at the same time easy to reach. We create three boxes for each big component: Arduino board, Sensors and Battery. We use two acrylic sheet with we stitch together.

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Process Making the prototype

The Connection Of The Electronic Parts

What we have: - One 3.5V Battery - One Arduino Fio - 42 LEDs - One Sensor, which measures acceleration in three directions of rotation and three directions of altitude - A lot of wires

After having decided on how the pattern of the light is behaving and placing the zones of light we started with connecting the electric parts.

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We started with printing a paper mock up of the real form of the wearable and drawing the zones on it. After calculating, that we can power 42 LEDs with the battery we use, we tried to find the pattern of the LEDs. It should not be too regularly, but more randomly. Even though every zone should have nearly the same amount of LEDs. So first of all we tried some patterns with nutshells on the paper mock-up, to get a first idea. After that we placed the LEDs and decided the final structure by shifting them, taking pictures and photoshop light spots on the pictures to see how the real light pattern could look. After fixing the LEDs, we cut the wires and decided how they should lay in the silicon. After fixing all this, we soldered all the LEDs in one zone in parallel. At the end we had the network of the wired LEDs in the six zones, fixed on the paper mock up. So we could bring it to the silicon workshop and place it on the silicon, as we established.


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process - making the prototype

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3V3

D3 D5

A0

Sensor

D6

A1

Sensor

D4

A2

D9

A3

D10

A4

D11

Sensor

Sensor

Sensor

A5

Sensor

GND

After having implemented the LED-network within the siliconed fabric, we linked the arduino board to a breadboard to be able to solder all the connections. After that we soldered the wires of the sensor to the Arduino and attached the battery to it. So the Arduino on the breadboard and the battery are one package, placed at the whole for the head. That is the place of the wearable, where it should move the least. Therefore it is the safest place. Only the sensor is placed between the hole for the hand and the edge. This is the part of the scarf where a lot of movement and acceleration is, in order to get high values.

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process - making the prototype

Construction of the prototype 1. We prepared the silicone, which is a mix of silicone and hardner. The proportion to respect for the mixture is 1g of hadener for 10g of silicone.

4. We moved the pattern of LEDs that we had already prepared on a paper shape to the fabric with the silicone.

2. We spread the silicone with spatulas on all the polyester veil, which is on a sheet of plastic on a flat surface.

5. We merged the LEDs into some silicone to attach them to the fabric and reinforce them against impacts.

3. We pinched the fabric impregnated of silicone to make folds and let it dry a little.

6. We covered the first layer of silicone and the electronic installation with a second layer of fabric impregnated of silicone and started again to fold the fabric.

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SECOND SKIN - project

7.To create an objet with a kind of form memory, we sewed all around the outside edge a metal wire. With it, it is easier for the dancer to grab the costume. 8. We put some pins around to hole before cutting them and gluing them with some silicone.

10. We forgot to integrated in our prototype height wires coming from the sensors to the Arduino board. So, we added them on the back of the costume and we covered them with some fabric and silicone to glue it.

9. David Sjunnesson made the last soldering on the Arduino board and uploaded the program.

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Conclusion Comments

- Organisation-

- Shape-

The start of the course was quite unorganized and unclear.

After the Arduino workshop we had two intense weeks, in which we developed the shape and the interactive part and also realized it.

We did not get a lot of information about how the course is structured or will take place. We did not meet really often, once a week normally for two hours. We were watching films about new materials and new technologies, what was inspiring, but we didn’t get started to work on a project. One reason might have been the fact, that the course also offered, to work with the 100 dancers on the interactive wearable, what started later.

- 100 DancersSo, some students formed groups and started on own projects, dealing with furniture. Our group, who decided to work with the 100 dancers started the course with the Arduino workshop, what took place in the 5th week. This was really interesting and we got a good basic knowledge for our future work, even though it was quite late.

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The definition of what we want to do went quite fast. The discussion in the group with the teacher was inspiring and came to a fast conclusion. The development of the shape of the wearable happened in a good work-flow. Sketching, talking about it, making fast mock ups and test them. Thanks to video-prototyping and fotos we could evaluate our idea and develop it further. The prototype we were doing should not be a prototype but a full working artifact, ready to use for the 100 dancers. The problem was, that we could not work with the actual material for mock ups. Ours were out of paper, foil or fabric. So it was quite a surprise, how the final artifact would behave. Of course we had small samples of silicon, but we should have tested one prototype in real size with the final material to be sure how it would behave. But out of time pressure and low budget, it was not possible for us. And with the chosen technique of using fabric covered with silicon, we came quite close to our tested prototypes.


SECOND SKIN - project

- Electronics The decisions about which LEDs we finally take was quite late. We didn’t test it at the beginning, what we should have done to get earlier started with that. Also the final interaction of the light was quite late. The shape was the prior work, so the interaction part was developed after the shape was finalized. We should have structured it better and split up the jobs better. Everyone was working on everything somehow. We also didn’t give proper information to the programmer, because everyone thought, someone else did it. What we learned out of that: organisation and one person being in charge of it and having an overview is really important.

All in one, the course turned out to be a very interesting field of work. We got to know new techniques and new material, we can work with in future. We had some problems with organization and timing, but we could finish the fully working second skin in time. We are very satisfied with our result, and pleased to have had very good feedbacks from Pipaluk Supernova on the final product.

For developing the interaction, we had an idea, how it can work, thanks to the workshop. So we had an overview, could develop an idea and communicate it to the programmer later. Of course we didn’t became experts, but we got a good basic knowledge, which ables us to work with and speak about.

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Conclusion Opening

What we end up with, now, is a functional prototype of an artifact, that of course could improve on the finishes, but whose shape, texture, and behavior, support our original concept. The next step for us would be to integrate it in an adequate context. Even if it’s a unique piece for now, it will be multiple for the actual performance. Plus, the space it will/would be set in could have a great impact of the way the audience would perceive it.

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Since the 100 dancers project is thought as a “nomadic tribe”, any scenographical devices should be flexible to different environments, easy to install and uninstall – and also inexpensive to make since the budget of the project is very limited. In that context, the way we see the optimum environment for our project, would be for instance around the island in Christiania, a place that has on one hand a very strong image in the creation field of Copenhagen, and also offers a beautiful setting with water and nature. We would use different existing spots (the central island and the bridge) associated with built platforms made with recycled wood and containers around them, forming an informal stage that can be seen from different points of view, from close as well as from afar.


SECOND SKIN - project

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Personnal Conclusions 75


Marlene Fischer 3rd year Communication Design - Munich University of applied sciences, Munich, Germany

Even though the start of the project was unorganized and confusing it turned out to be a very interesting field of work. We were a big group and it took some while for everyone to focus and know what he or she wanted to do, what is problematic if you only have this little time we had. But we were making up groups for the different jobs, came together to talk about or even let the others be a part of the development, while designing. Of course some things went wrong, as for example nobody really informed the programmer, what he should code, because everybody thought the others were doing that. But this is a issue I really learned a lot about while

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having this teamwork: it is nice and inspiring to work in such a big group. It is also nice to be able to separate the work. But there must be one person being the center, the supervisor or whatever you want to call him/her. But you need one person in charge of having the overview and the organizational part. Anyway, for me it as really inspiring to work with a material like silicon, i never worked before. So this course brought this amazing material into my mind, what is really inspiring for the future and other projects. It was nice to be able to experiment with it and try it out.


Personnal Conclusions

Also the Arduino part of the course was perfect for me and one important reason why I choose this course. I want to focus on interaction design in future, so i was working with Arduino before, even not that intense. But it was very interesting to get a basic course from a professional. Really helpful for the future. So it was more then interesting for me to work that applied with electronic devices, programming and new materials. If we could have used the full 10 weeks and split up better we could have achieve more, of course, but for the time and our knowledge in Arduino and electronics, I think we developed a really interesting and good working artifact.

All in one, it turned out to be an interesting work of field, what inspired me, also for my future work.

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Coline Fontaine 4th year in Product Design - Ecole boulle Paris, France

The reason why I signed up for the “Interactive Furniture” course was that I felt the need of approaching what I had never worked with before, but which is one of the major fields of development in the design of the future: digital interaction, associated to objects and furniture. Plus, the fact that it would be a group work was also very important for me, since I mostly worked individually before, and think it’s a great quality to develop to be able to build projects with a team, the same way that it will most probably happen in my later working life, and finally because it’s a way of producing a project that would inevitably be different from one’s usual works, since it results of the combination of different minds, backgrounds, and ways of working. Now at the end of this project, I still think this is one of the major aspects of the learning experience I went through. Not only were we a group, but a large one (nine people for the firsts brainstorming sessions, and then five), a team composed with students of very different educations and nationalities. And if I was first scared of the possible efficiency of the common work of such a large group, I was actually

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completely amazed with a working effusion I had never experienced before. Maybe is it because we had the five first weeks of theory learning before the actual start of the project to get to know each other, or maybe because we had such a short time to develop and produce our prototype, but it was for me incredible to see how fast ideas and concepts would get built and evolve, bouncing from one person to the other, and every time getting stronger. Plus, in these extreme conditions of timing, it was also capital on one hand not to be too stuck to some of my own ideas, and realize my own view was not always the best one and had to be combined with others to lead to something even more convincing; and on the other hand, when I was completely convinced that a change of direction had to be made, to be able to convince the others. As for the project itself, though it was not exactly what I thought it would be, it was a great proof of the possible interconnection between the creative fields. We were all quite skeptical on the idea of designing “costumes”, since we imagined it as a work for fashion designers, who have specific qualities and knowledge in that field. But in the end, we approached the idea of the costume on a broader angle, and from the very first discussions on what we could do we decided that it would more be an artifact, an object, meaning not something we had to know sewing and cutting techniques! So finally, my work


Personnal Conclusions

in this project was not so different from a product design project: we had to work with technical constraints, appearance, the notion of use, and the relation with the body. Still, obviously, the greater difference with an industrial design project is that it consisted in conceiving a product that would be realized in limited series, manually, and therefore didn’t have to fit industrial production constraints. But I guess there could be a way of adapting the product if it was to be developed for mass production (creating molds for the shape and the texture, and precise patterns for the localization of the LEDs, etc.). The notion of budget is also quite ambiguous, since at the same time it was very limited and so we couldn’t go crazy on the amount of material used and of electronic devices implied for instance; but at the same time, our way of producing it was definitely more pricy than in a proper series production. The technical skills and knowledge I gained through the project are also unquestionable: whether on the possibilities offered by silicone and how to work with it, or the introduction to the Arduino chip and the world of digital interaction and sensors, I feel like I gathered new competences that I can use later on for other projects. Plus, the fact that we had to work for a show-piece gave us, I think, more freedom in the experimentations, and enabled us to go further on the possibilities of what we could do, compared to a more industrially oriented project.

Finally, I also got quite involved in documenting the project, through videos and then summary clips to keep trace of our actions. I guess it was because there was such an effusion in the team group, then it was maybe more obvious that ideas were evolving fast, and that you could almost see it happen. All the videos we gathered this way were then not only a great working tool (to look back more further on the danced experimentations for instance), but they are also the now very useful communicative tools on what we did and our process. And they could only be taken at the right instant. This is something I, for sure, will try to remember… To resume, if the project evolved a lot from what I first thought I would work on (even when the subject of the 100 dancers project was first mentioned, I thought I would more work on scenography and space, as we discussed several times with Delphine), I still acquired the knowledge I was looking for, and others that were more unexpected. We ended up with a project I care a lot about, and actually in such a way that Delphine and I will have the opportunity to continue to work on it – finalizing it and producing two other pieces for the actual dance performance, and also participating in the development of other ideas (for scenographic elements, and smaller costume pieces associated to our project) for this dance event. A lesson on how leaving some room for the unexpected is not always a bad thing…

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Delphine Piault 4th year in Interior Architecture - ESAG Penninghen Paris, France

This ten-weeks project began very slowly (comparing with my previous one) and with lots of misunderstanding between students and teacher. It was very complicated to understand what we were going to work on, because the course was called «interactive furniture» while our first introduction was only about interactive textile/wearable and a specific project called «100 Dancers». At the beginning, I thought that designing an interactive wearable will not interest me, but a scenographic project for a dance show in Copenhagen could be a way to work on something I like with a link to the project proposed. I was interested about working in a small team (with Coline) on a scenography for the 100 Dancers project, which integrated two different levels of interaction : the dancer with his own costume and the dancer with the environment.

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Finally, we had to work in a big team, which gradually narrows to finally be a five girls team. It was my first experience of working in such a big team. When you are so many it is sometimes difficult because we have to be sure that everybody understand the same thing, because of the language (english). Simple and obvious things for me can be very dark and confused for someone else, moreover if when we do not have the same education (industrial design, communication design or interior architecture). It was very interesting and a good learning to deal with that mostly because it works that way in many design studio. The Arduino workshop was extremely interested because it made something abstract for me, becoming concrete, precise and scientific. I learnt it as a tools, which offers me more possibilities and open me more doors. I think that it is very interesting to understand how the Arduino works and all the possibilities, however I feel that my role as a designer is more to try to think about how to try to use Arduino in a design project than to «geek» on the Arduino language all the day.


Personnal Conclusions

For instance, in Berlin, we saw a very good example, with the Otto Bock Center, about how to use sensors in a specific and useful goal, the medical way. Using new technologies to help people, to make things easiest, to make people react or to give a message is for me the way we have to use it as designer. In our project, which is very emotional and romantic, we try to make people react and play with light.

In this project, I might have been frustrated no to work on a scenographic project, but it is not the case because I have the opportunity go further and work with Coline all July around the ÂŤ100 DancersÂť project with Pipaluk Supernova and propose scenographic elements and ideas for the event.

The use of silicone learnt me a lot because it was the first time i had to make a functional prototype. The different ways of using silicone open many doors in interior architecture, temporary design or furniture design. I really enjoy using this materiel and experiment things with it. I would like to go deeper with this materiel in my personal future project to experiment new things. This project show me all closed are different area of design and that we can mix it. The borders between architecture, textile, furniture, fashion are very diffuse and this is what was so interesting in this project. Indeed, our final prototype is not a really a wearable but it is not really a furniture or a textile, it is something in the middle.

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Zeynep Sen 3rd year Industrial Design - OCAD University, Toronto, Canada

In my opinion, The 100 dancers project was a very interesting and quite satisfying. I not only learnt things about the specific project, but I also gained skills that helped me with my development as a designer. First of all, I will talk about the specific things I’ve learnt for this project. When we began the project, I did not have any knowledge about interactive artifacts. We watched and learnt about the applications in class. During Berlin trip, everyday was an eye opener. Especially the trip to The Otto Bock Science Centre and Art+ Com was very inspirational. Seeing the different applications in person had a great impact on me. After we got back, we started the Arduino workshops, where earned about basic programming and had an intro to the possible applications. The workshop helped me figure out what my limitations would be, and also what I should be paying attention with my designs, as knowing your limitations can make a difference with the design.

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Later after we got the intro to the 100 Dancers project, I realized that I did not know much about dance and nothing about contact improvisation. With the amount and quality of research done, the project took a really satisfying turn and therefore, this exercise reinforced the importance of research. I will no longer be intimidated by the fact that I have very minimal understanding about the subject I am supposed to design. During this project, we did a lot of testing with both materials and mock-ups. Throughout my bachelor’s education, we had always been told to do so. However, with this project, the process was very intense and seeing how the feedback from both the user and our own observation changed and improved the design, was very lifting. User based design made a big difference. In addition, when it comes to the group work, I have also learnt very valuable lessons. When we started the project, we were about 10 people, which later on went down to 5. I had never worked in such a big group of people and there is so much I learnt from it. I got a good sense of how


Personnal Conclusions

it would be in the professional field, how to deal with different people, how to let them know when you are pleased with something they have done or the other way around without getting personal. I think I was lacking some of those skills but after this project, I feel more confident about letting someone know if I am not pleased with the result or an action. Overall, it was really great to work as a group with people from different backgrounds. It added to the design as one picked up a detail that the other would not necessarily think about.

Overall, I think it was a fun and exciting project. I enjoyed the project very much and learnt things that are very specific to this project as well as other skills that can be applied to other design solutions, therefore I am satisfied and happy for having to work on it.

Moreover, the other important skill I have gained was getting to the actualization. I usually have a hard time starting the actualization part of the project as I brainstorm for a long time, have too many ideas, and then have a hard time knowing when to actually stop and take a step further. This project was very different for me in that sense. I actually had to take a step and go with one idea and the rest came with it. It was very encouraging especially after seeing the results. Now, I am confident that I can do it and I will be holding on to it.

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Nina Wester 3rd year in Interior Architecture - Lahti University of Applied Sciences - Institute of Design, Lahti, Finland

During the course and the design process of the wearable for the 100 dancers project, I learned a lot, not only things that were useful for this project, but things that will inspire and influence my work in the future. I also learned a lot about myself as a designer. Due to the unfortunate accident I was involved in during the first week of the course, I felt I wasn’t able to fully participate in the theory and Arduino part of the course. Therefor I decided to join the Arduino course offered by the school, to obtain the same skills the others got during the Arduino crash course. The course was spread out during two weeks and had the same content as the crash course, but since there was more time, there was the possibility of going deeper with the assignments. Unfortunately my injury also prevented me from participating in the Berlin trip, so instead, I did a lot of research on my own. I highly value the understanding and the skills I learned during the research phase and during the Arduino course. It gave me a greater understanding of the endless possibilities of what interaction between people and their surrounding can be. Especially since interaction design is a

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relatively new and upcoming field, I think it’s very interesting and furthermore I believe it will have remarkable importance of how we interact with our surrounding in the future. Also the fact that there are a lot of possibilities to incorporate interaction in my own field of design; interior architecture and furniture design, made this course very interesting for me. The Arduino part was a really healthy add on to the research part, where we had to write the code and do quick mock-ups of small interactive objects. During the course we had to make an interactive game, an instrument and an object with an emotion. To make objects on small scale and write the code for them ourselves, gave a much greater understanding of how things around us works and what is possible to plan and design. When the 100 dancers project was introduced to us, I was eager to participate in the project, since I hadn’t worked in a group for a while. The fact that we were a group of students from different countries, cultures and backgrounds with different skills and study fields, gave a good start for the brainstorming phase and was of significant value for the end result. I’m grateful that I got to participate in all the different areas of the design process. The things we learned during the Arduino course where really


Personnal Conclusions

helpful when trying to find a solution for the light pattern, behavior of the light, get an understanding of how the sensors work, connecting the LEDs with the electronics and so forth. It was also really interesting to see how the evolution of the form took place. How it evolved from the idea of the scarf after a lot of testing and trying out the materials and different mock-ups. In the end, I think the form of the lung was a really good solution, the fact that the artifact wasn’t symmetrical anymore, gave the dancers more possibilities of using it and interacting with it. I think this is the first project where, I got to take part in such an extensive and effective prototyping phase. Because of my field of study, I hardly get to take part in projects where there is a possibility to try out and really get fast and important feedback from first hand testing of the mock-ups. I really understood the importance of prototyping, and I will try to use it as much as possible in my future projects. Im also really grateful that this is probably one of the best documented projects, I took part in. I really enjoyed all the filming and since the testing of the mock-ups and prototypes of this project are hard to illustrate using pictures and drawings. We also used the films as a tool for analyzing the mock-ups, which was new for me.

The dynamics of the group was a little unorganized in the beginning, especially at the time we were 10 people involved, because I felt the project didn’t have a clear leader or supervisor. But when the number of people dropped down to 5, the workflow was quite smooth, even without a leader. I think, I also learned an important lesson, due to my injury. In the past group projects I took part in, I usually had a leading role in the design process, but because of my injury I felt, I needed to have a different role in this project. As I had to put my own health on first priority, I couldn’t be present at all times. I was still able to participate in all parts of the process and had the possibility to give my thoughts, feedback, ideas and in that way contribute to the design process. With a more relaxed approach to the design process, I think I had more freedom and time to observe, think and finding solutions. Also the tight time schedule added to this effect of letting go, there was no time to focus on unimportant details or research for too long, but try to focus on keeping the project moving forward. We really had to go on and test the ideas we had, to find out, if they worked or not. One can say that the project came together thanks to the wast amount of testing and prototyping.

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Annex 87


References and contacts

- 100 Dancers project http://www.liveartinstallations.com/100dancers/

- Arduino Defininition found on Wikipedia, (16.06.2011 ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino

a collaboration bewteen http://www.arduino.cc/ Pipaluk Supernova representing Live Art Installations info@copenhagendreamhouse.com http://www.liveartinstallations.com/

Malmรถ workshop, 28.04.2011 with David Cuartielles (on of the creators of the Arduino Chip).

and Studio DIFFUS Michel Guglielmi & Hanne Louise Johannesen info@diffus.dk http://www.diffus.dk/

http://medea.mah.se/2011/04/arduino-forhipsters-at-fabriken/

Arduino code for the Second Skin project and great technical help by David Sjunnesson sjunnesson@gmail.com from the office 1scale1 http://www.1scale1.com/ board@1scale1.com

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Annex

- Interaction Design Conference by Bill Verplank, one of the pioneers of Interaction Design

- Us Videos on : http://vimeo.com/user7359660

Subject: Motors and music Contact: CIID (Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design), 7.06.2011

Marlene Fischer : fischer_marlene@gmx.de

http://ciid.dk/

Coline Fontaine : fontaine.coline@gmail.com Delphine Piault : delphine.piault@free.fr Zeynep Sen : senzey@gmail.com Nina Wester : nina.wester@gmail.com

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Arduino Code for the Second Skin prototype

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Annex

91


RESEARCH

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Second Skin - Interactive Artifact