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contents Uzbek IDPs in western Afghanistan: to move onward, to stay or to return by Elca Stigter............................................................................ 37 Promoting sustainable return and integration of IDPs in Indonesia by Patrick Sweeting, George Conway and Nabila Hameed .......................................................................... 39 CARERE/Seila – foundation stone for a new Cambodia compiled by the FMR editors ................................................. 42

General articles

Making return and reintegration sustainable, transparent and participatory by Betsy Lippman and John Rogge ......................................... 4 Protection and support of spontaneously returning Sudanese by John Rogge ............................................................................. 6 The 4Rs: the way ahead? by Betsy Lippman and Sajjad Malik........................................ 9 Restitution of land and property rights by Anne Davies ......................................................................... 12 Post-conflict property restitution in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina: legal rationale and practical implementation by Rhodri Williams ................................................................... 15 Protecting displaced population from landmines – a call for joint action by Sayed Aqa, Katrin Kinzelbach, Oren Schlein and Pontus Ohrstedt........................................................................ 17 From emergency to development: assessing UNDP’s role in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Moises Venancio, Svetlana Pavelic, Sabina Zunic, Goran Vukmir and Massimo Diana ....................................... 19 Learning lessons from IDP resettlement: villagisation in north-west Rwanda by Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt .............................................. 23 Reintegration challenges for Burundi compiled by the FMR editors ................................................. 26 From warriors to peacemakers: people-to-people peacemaking in southern Sudan by Michael Ouko ....................................................................... 28 The return and reintegration of ‘child soldiers’ in Sudan: the challenges ahead by Chris Robertson and Una McCauley ............................... 30 Return and resettlement in Liberia by Jessica Schultz ..................................................................... 33 A closing window? Are Afghanistan’s IDPs being forgotten? by Pete Spink ............................................................................. 34

Speaker’s Corner Why Médecins Sans Frontières has pulled out of Afghanistan - by Anouk Delafortrie.............................. 46 Darfur: no quick fix - by Alex de Waal................................ 47 ‘Hanging out’ with forced migrants: methodological and ethical challenges by Graeme Rodgers .................................................................. 48 Compassion and pragmatism: softening of Australian asylum policy? by Val Colic-Peisker ................................................................. 50 North Caucasus: upholding IDPs’ right to ‘voluntary’ return by Tullio Santini ....................................................................... 53 The role of migrant organisations and personal networks in the Russian Federation by Moya Flynn ........................................................................... 55 The Merowe Dam: controversy and displacement in Sudan by Ali K Askouri ....................................................................... 56 The challenge of internal displacement in Africa by Bahame Tom Nyanduga ..................................................... 58

Regular features Refugee Studies Centre ......................................................... 59 NRC: Housing and reintegration of amputees and war-wounded in Sierra Leone .................................. 60 Global IDP Project: International response to internal displacement – recent developments............. 61 Brookings-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement: A recipe to end internal displacement .......................... 62 UNHCR: Translating the 4Rs into an operational tool .................................................................. 63 Fritz Institute: Leveraging private expertise for humanitarian supply chains ..................................... 64 Updates ...................................................................................... 66 Publications .............................................................................. 67 Endnote: Laying down the guns ............................................ 68




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9

FMR 21

The 4Rs: the way ahead?

by Betsy Lippman and Sajjad Malik

The 4Rs (repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction) is an integrated, inter-agency ‘relief to development’ approach for sustainable reintegration as part of transition.

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hroughout the 1980s and 1990s UNHCR found itself increasingly challenged to ensure the sustainability of returns with regard to the extent and timeframe of its engagement in repatriation and resettlement. This led to the recognition that more effective sustainable reintegration and incorporation of the needs of returning refugees and other displaced people into longer-term national development plans would be addressed only if development-oriented actors were engaged much earlier in the process. In 1999 UNHCR initiated the Brookings Process, a partnership with UNDP and the World Bank, to undertake, with donor support, a pilot integrated approach in Sierra Leone. While this early effort stalled, in part because it was perceived as too headquarters-driven and because of renewed civil war in Sierra Leone, its spirit of integrated planning remained very much alive. The arrival of Ruud Lubbers as UNHCR High Commissioner re-initiated the focus on voluntary repatriation and reintegration as the preferred durable solution for displaced populations. Because of the clear repatriation, rehabilitation and reconstruction mandates of the three agencies, a new partnership was revived in March 2002. This resulted in the 4Rs and agreement was reached to select Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Eritrea as pilots. However, there was never an intention to make this an exclusive agreement and other agencies (UNICEF, WFP, WHO, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), UNFPA, UN-HABITAT, OCHA and its Internal Displacement Division) soon joined the effort in recognition of the breadth and scope of activities needed to comprehensively address sustainable reintegration. The 4Rs is an approach to address the immediate, medium and longer-

term development needs of returning displaced people in a comprehensive and integrated manner. It is area-based and incorporates a community-driven approach and conflict-prevention lens. It additionally seeks to strengthen the linkages between communities and decentralised government and provides capacity building for local government administrations responsible for meeting the immediate and longer-term needs of receiving communities. Over time, it should link to national-level development priorities and budgets.

personality or by intersections of various agencies’ interests limited to certain country contexts. The 4Rs attempts to make UN efforts less ad hoc and more predictable, thus ensuring that agencies involved in post-conflict activities engage, and continue to engage, in an integrated inter-agency planning process at both policy and practice levels.

Sierra Leone

The 4Rs was launched in Sierra Leone some four years after the signing of the Lomé Agreement; ideally, the integrated approach should be launched immediately after cessation of conflict. As part of the 4Rs process, in September 2003 the UN Country Team (UNCT) established a Transition Support Team (TST). The The 4Rs is, in essence, the reintegraTST answers directly to the UNCT tion piece of a general transition and works closely with the UN peacestrategy for countries emerging from keeping mission in Sierra Leone (UNviolent conflict. As such, it fits neatly AMSIL), all UN field units as well as within the UN’s current efforts to adgovernment district councils and line dress transition through the UNDG/ ministries. It is ECHA (UN planned to extend The 4Rs attempts to make UN Development TST support from Group/Execuefforts less ad hoc the initial three tive Committee regions of highest on Humanitarian Affairs) Working returns (Kono, Kailahun and Kambia) Group on Transitions and has been to cover all regions. lauded as a concrete attempt to operationalise and institutionalise UN Through the existing coordination inter-agency collaboration. mechanisms, TST Field Officers assess gaps in social services, liveliWhile some in the community of hoods and capacity of government UN reintegration practitioners may authorities at the local level. Specific consider the 4Rs a mere re-labelgaps identified have often been ling of existing activities, there is simple but usually have longer-term broad agreement that the attempt implications. For example, the TST to systematically institutionalise the identified a critical gap in support to process is important in developing the surgical ward in Kailahun District a more consistent, reliable process Hospital as the NGO with emergency to address the longer-term needs of funding withdrew and long-term returning displaced people in every European Union funding was not yet situation of return. Former efforts, available. TST intervention kept the while positive, were often driven by ward open and prevented loss of the


10 The 4Rs: the way ahead?

FMR 21

UNHCR/C Shirley

Refugees from Sierra Leone register for voluntary repatriation, BO Waterside camp, Liberia.

investment already made. In another example, recognising the lack of capacity in the 14 District Recovery Councils to use available data for prioritising spending, the TST in cooperation with partners provided training on planning, data handling and formulation of district-oriented transition policy papers.

Sri Lanka Under the 4Rs programme supported by DANIDA in Sri Lanka, ILO, UNDP, UNICEF and UNHCR have adopted an integrated participatory area-based approach linked to the UN and national transition and recovery strategies. It has focused on three selected areas in north-eastern Sri Lanka to support the sustainable return of 345,000 IDPs and 5,000 returning refugees. The areas were chosen because of high levels of returnees, extensive physical destruction of infrastructure, the high degree of vulnerability and poverty and the need to balance support to areas controlled by the Sri Lankan government and by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Six core areas of intervention have been identified: protection; income generation; community infrastructure; health,

water and sanitation; education; and local governance capacity building. District situational analysis has led to inter-agency district work which outlines how the various agencies link, coordinate and phase in/out over time. The sequence of planned phase-in and phase-out is guided by the overall strategy of the UNCT. The area-based 4Rs approach is promoting cost-effectiveness through sharing of resources, security and technical expertise.

■ early involvement of local government authorities in assessments, site visits and monitoring and evaluation: capacity should be built not only in displacementrelated ministries but also in all state agencies with longer-term responsibilities. ■ community participation: communities should be at the heart of the process, participating in assessments, implementation and monitoring and evaluation.

Lessons learned to date We have realised the importance of: ■ early engagement of development actors: if all agencies are involved in initial discussions on repatriation, recovery and longer-term programming, issues can be addressed to ensure that adequate linkages are forged between relief and development initiatives and that there is a smooth transition from the provision of humanitarian aid to sustainable reconstruction and development. ■ national ownership and incorporation within national transition strategies

■ availability and accessibility of resources: flexible funds must be made available to the development agencies in transition situations to act as quickly as the more emergency-oriented agencies to set up joint planning structures, open sub-offices (or share in the cost of joint offices), initiate early capacity building and mobilise communities. ■ joint planning units, managed by the UN Resident Coordinator (head of the UNCT) to ensure multi-agency ‘buy-in’: these should eventually cease to exist as integrated planning becomes institutionalised.


FMR 21 ■ integrated donor support to unite agencies: several donors, specifically the Japanese, Norwegian and Danish, have encouraged a unified approach through innovative funding mechanisms that encourage integrated, joint UN agency proposals. ■ flexibility: as post-conflict situations change – especially with regard to security – agencies and donors must remain adaptable and adjust programmes, staff levels and funding as required. ■ mutual respect between headquarters and field staff: while agency staff on the ground are best placed to understand the local context and develop response strategies, headquarters staff often intervene as they believe they have a broader perspective. The best approach is a field-driven process in which field-based staff

The 4Rs: the way ahead? initiate headquarters involvement by requesting necessary, targeted support. ■ common information management systems that incorporate developmentally-relevant data from the outset: early involvement of government authorities in the collection, management and dissemination of information greatly benefits long-term capacity building. Sierra Leone’s Information System (SLIS) provides a good example of a system with potential to address this data gap.

Where do we go from here? The examples of Sri Lanka and Sierra Leone show promising results of UN inter-agency collaboration on comprehensive, integrated planning for sustainable reintegration of displaced populations in post-conflict countries. UNCTs in Angola, Burundi

and Sudan have requested assistance to develop their own integrated strategies and a 4Rs programme has begun in Liberia. In order to improve the prospects of success for new 4Rs initiatives in countries emerging from conflict, much more needs to be done to include NGO partners, record and learn from experience and develop useful tools for those responsible for their development and implementation. Betsy Lippman, a special adviser to this issue of FMR, works at the Geneva office of UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery. www.undp.org/bcpr. Email: betsy.lippman@undp.org Sajjad Malik works at the UNHCR Headquarters, Geneva, in the Division of Operational Support. www.unhcr.ch; E-mail: malik@unhcr.ch The views expressed here are person al and do not necessarily represent those of the UN.

Vocational training for returnee girls, FAWE Girls Centre, Grafton, Sierra Leone.

UNHCR/L Taylor

11




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Forced Migration Review Issue 21  

Home for Good? Challenges of return and reintegration