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Research on How to diversify microrayon A pattern language for user control facilitating urban design in large postwar estates. The case of Pļavnieki, Rīga Main mentor: Egbert Stolk, Architecture, Urbanism, chair of Environmental Design

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Second mentor: Dr.ir. P.L.M. Stouten Architecture, Urbanism, chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy

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Student: Aleksandrs Feltins 4188810 Urbanism Master Track Explore Lab graduation studio

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Double Fascination • Microrayon – Large post-war housing estate – Lived space

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• Design method for regeneration • Knowledge based design: – Kinds of knowledge – Use in design – Precedents – Transfer • To imagine difference taking into the account many constraints P5 A.Feltins

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1963

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Imanta 1965-1975 10644 /49,698 inh. (2010) 49 ha/900 ha

2013

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PÄźavnieki 1976-1991 11119res/48,176 res (2010) 57/298 ha P5 A.Feltins

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Microrayon

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Structure of the report

1 Understanding problem 2 Urban renewal and regeneration 3 Understanding theory 4 Understanding of the user 5 Understanding what was built 6 Diagnosis 7 Pattern language 8 Design diagrams

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Pattern language So, the real work of any process of design lies in this task of making up the language, from which you can later generate the one particular design. (...) The individual buildings which you make, will live, or not, according to the depth and wholeness of the language which you use to make them with. But of course, once you have it, this language is general. If it has the power to make a single building live, it can be used a thousand times, to make a thousand buildings live Alexander C (1979) The timeless way of building. New York, Oxford University Press.

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User control • • • • • •

Neighbourhood: a tool for user control an environmental variable (de Jong, 2012) evolving and changing (Lynch, 1981) value for its users subject to path dependencies and sudden change no holistic picture and exact predictions possible

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Project goal to design transformations, with a programmatic requirement of re-distributing control of living environment to make it safe, responsibly controlled, and congruent with needs of changing users.

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Project goal to diversify the residential environment of the microrayons, to allow user control to evolve in the future context

• Why – inquiry of the user • How – morphological, structural, functional • What – User control variables, morphology

De Jong TM (2012) Diversifying environments through design. Delft.

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Design study

(de Jong, 2012)

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(according to Stolk, 2012) 11


Problems of the microrayons • Multiple problems: Structural, spatial, internal social, financial, management and organizational • Mutually reinforcing character • Emphasis on residential environment and spatial problems

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Urban regeneration • Physical renewal • Residential environment • Broader aims through morphological, structural and functional diversification

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(Saskanas centrs, 2013) 13


Urban regeneration • • • •

La Duchere Marzahn Dutch examples Morphological, structural and functional diversification

(ANRU,2008) 09/07/2013

(berlin.de,n.d.)

(van Schagen architekten, 1996.) P5 A.Feltins

(Palmbout Urban Landscapes,n.d.)

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Urban regeneration

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Understanding theory • How residential environment facilitate user control? • Literature analysis • Form-operationperformance • Design by analogy

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Understanding theory Is a

Built Environment

City Form

Is a

Form

Ask for affordances

Operation

Ask for affordances

Operation

Ask for affordances

Form (morphology)

Conflict avoided by

Congruence

Spatial rights:

Re

n po

sib

ility

s

Ce

rta in

ty

Consensus External control Co-existence Spatial separation Temporal separation

Ask for affordances

Operation

Ask for affordances

Spatial relation with neighbours

stimulation

(Lawson,2005)

Sitting area Circulation Play area

Shape Positive space L-shaped inner corner

Routine Circulation Stay outdoors Social contact

Is a

Built environment

Defensible Space

has

Ask for affordances

Operation

Ask for affordances

Personal involvement Recognizable residents and strangers

Form land-use characteristics of routes scale spatial organization of public and private areas Public lighting

Performance

Territoriality Natural surveillance Image Milieu

Visibility of circulation areas from outside Accessibility

(Newman,1978)

Visibility of semi-public areas from inside

From victim's point of view From delinquent's point of view

Accessible for residents and strangers Pedestrian traffic

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Type of entrance Type of access Number of access

Car traffic Character of access

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Complex artefact

has

Perceived/actual presence of people Sense of responsibility

density

Contain other spaces

security identity

Visibility and clarity

Size of the units

Defence

Hearth

Performance

Is a

Support of spatial needs Of individual and group

Rivalry

has

Built environment

Form

Edge (boundary)

Territorial behaviour

Territory Communication systems Control system and variations

Of presence To exclude others To behave freely To appropriate To modify

(Lynch,1981)

Performance

Complex artefact Territory

Performances

Ask for affordances

Complex artefact

(Voordt and Wegen, 1988) 17


Performancesvariables • Control quality in relation to values (Lynch): congruence, responsibility and certainty • Territory and territorial behavior (Lawson) • Defensible space (Newman) (De Jong 2012)

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4. Understanding of the user • How users evaluate control of their residential environment? • Inquiry (Zeisel, 1984): direct and indirect observation • focused interviews and behavioural traces • Seven focused interviews in two cases

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Fieldwork maps

“elephant paths� Parking patterns Social spaces Places of weak controls Planted trees Fences, self-made barriers

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Coded interviews

Coding: Causes of control problems Form, operation and peformance Performances ďƒ misfits

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Large scale neighbourhood

has

Form (morphology)

Interface system

Physical system

Neighbourhood

has

Physical structure

Is kind of

Communication system

Neighbourhood

has

Horizontal

Understanding what was built

Territorial system

has

Interface

Is kind of

Control system

Neighbourhood

has

Vertical

Control hierarchy

has

Territorial unit

Is kind of

Hearth

Edge

Spatial organisation

has

Physical control system

Edge

Two sides

Control hierarchy

Is

Has

Infrastructure

Building

Assembly Dependence

real

symbolic

Permeable

Insulating

Systems

Territories Gates

Territorial District Range Site interpretation

Symbolic

Real

Kind of

Line

Plane

Fence

Column Construction Enclosure Supply Door

Gate

Road

Wall

Road Merchant/ networks customer

ROADS&PATHS crossings Urban designer, planner

district networks

city, big companies, entrepreneurs

neighbourhood

city,big companies, land owners, institutions, entrepreneurs

courtyards and sites

city, companies, land owners, housing managers,resident associations

front- and backyards

city, housing managers,resident associations

dwellings and shops

residents, small entrepreneurs, housing managers

CITY STREETS neighbourhood edge

BLOCKS gates

Neighbourhood masterplan, architectural project

ADDRESS UNITS building edge BUILDING UNITS inside-outside connection

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Understanding what was built

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Level of the district

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Level of the microrayon

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Level of the building ensemble

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Neighbourhood boundary Field A kind of vacancy

Waterways A kind of entrances 09/07/2013

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Neighbourhood boundary

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Neighbourhood boundary

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Common

School

Supermarket Blocks

Common

Scale Bus

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Common Supermarket

School Blocks

Common

Scale

S-bahn

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Common

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Common

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Research conclusions • • • •

Causal or Conditional? Function or content? Research and study? Evaluated or designed

(Guney, 2012)

(de Jong, 2012) 09/07/2013

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6.Diagnosis • How control variables are distributed in Pļavnieki? • Alexander, C. (1975) «masterplan shows what is right for the future, diagnosis shows what is wrong in the present» • Revised theory: formulation of control variables (de Jong 2012) (Alexander,1975) UO Pattern Language. Available from: http://uplan.uor egon.edu/faq/F AQPatternLanq uage.html (accessed 24 June 2013).

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PÄźavnieki

11,119 inhabitants Area 57 ha Built 1976–1989 Representative for latest microrayons Some social problems surfaced recently


Diagnosis • • • • •

Landuse plan as a base Streetscape Pedestrian realms Parking problem Divided ownerhip problem

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Diagnosis: Streets

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Diagnosis: Streets

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Diagnosis: Pedestrian realms

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Pedestrian realms

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Parking problem

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Divided ownership problem

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Pattern language • • • • • • •

Patterns as an exact set of variables Context, problems, configuration Variables  Interlocking sets Road to unambiguity Research  patterns Patterns  design Design  patterns

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Structure of the language

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Road to unambiguity

(de Jong,Rosemann n.d.) 09/07/2013

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Narratives for patterns • Social patterns: «human dimension», quality of use • Diagnosis patterns: resultant properties, control of space • Design principles: «rules of thumb» for building, site layout, street scape • Assymetrical relationship

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Pattern internal structure Pattern name as a misfit Pattern type Double statement Theoretical reflection

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Social patterns

Paths between goals; global local place; 3+ activities in one place; sunny place; common interest shared problems; stroll trajectories Movement networks ďƒ inequality in use ďƒ  paths

Lynch 1961 Portugali 2011

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Social patterns

Paths between goals; global local place; 3+ activities in one place; sunny place; common interest shared problems; stroll trajectories Movement networks ďƒ inequality in use ďƒ  paths

Lynch 1961 Portugali 2011 09/07/2013

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Diagnosis patterns

long sightlines; half-closed corners, wasteland, place hidden from windows, explicit presence Long sightlines: Non-convex spaces, Compositional approach ďƒ visual cues ďƒ  pedestrian shortcuts

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Design principles

Free standing building; building ensemble; small parking lots; symmetrical streets; star nodes; neighbourhood transition These patterns are revised in design. Spatial context ďƒ territoriality ďƒ  edge and the hearth

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Design What design interventions are possible to enhance performance of user control in Pļavnieki? • Diagrams: three story lines linking patterns • Principles: generic solutions • Projects: specific responses to multiple problems

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Diagrams

“thick edge”

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“neighbourhood transition”

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“connected pedestrian realms”

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“thick edge”

Principles Possible interventions to facilitate territoriality

“neighbourhood transition”

Planning tools in response to the urban context

“connected pedestrian realms”

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Possibilities to restructure pedestrian realm

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Masterplan

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Seven projects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

School site Courts of J. Grestes street New local centrality Suburban edge J. Grestes street T카nu탑u courts T카nu탑u entrance

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Thick edge

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Thick edge

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Thick edge

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Thick edge

Symbolic boundaries

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School site

Principle: thick edge Patterns: wastelands, long sightlines, 3+ activities in one place; stroll trajectories Design: building ensemble, symmetrical street,

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School site

Before and after

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School site edges

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J. Grestes street courtyards Principle: thick edge

Patterns: wastelands, explicit presence, sunny place Design: building ensemble, symmetrical street

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J. Grestes street courtyards Before and after Building ensemble

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Neighbourhood transition

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Neighbourhood transition

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Neighbourhood transition

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Urban edge. New local centrality Principle: neighbourhood transition Patterns: global-local place, paths between goals, Design: building ensemble, symmetrical street

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Urban edge. New local centrality Principle: neighbourhood transition Patterns: global-local place, paths between goals, Design: symmetrical street, building ensemble

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Suburban edge

Principle: neighbourhood transition Patterns: neighbourhood transition, explicit presence Design: neighbourhood transition, building ensemble,

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Suburban edge

Reference: Ballersdorf, Potsdam, DE

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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Connected pedestrian realms

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J. Grestes street

Principle: connected pedestrian realms Patterns: paths between goals, Design: Symmetrical street

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J. Grestes street

Principle: connected pedestrian realms Patterns: paths between goals, Design: Symmetrical street

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T카nu탑u courts

Principle: connected pedestrian realms and thick edge Patterns: paths between goals, wastelands Design: Small parking lots

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T카nu탑u street entrance

Principle: connected pedestrian realms, neighbourhood transition Patterns: paths between goals, neighbourhood transition Design: Building ensemble

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Reflection • Patterns proved to be useful. • Drawing is a limitation and constraint • Great potential for communication: researchers, policy makers, residents.

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The end.

THANK YOU! 09/07/2013

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P5:Research on How to Diversify Microrayon Final Presentation.  

A Pattern Language or User-Control Facilitating Urban Design in Large Postwar Estate. The Case of Pļavnieki, Rīga. This is final presentatio...

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