Page 150

Since 2005, a series of unfavourable weather episodes in major producing countries has combined with reduced levels of investment and stockholding to generate sudden increases in international prices. Increases in non-food uses of cereals, such as the use of cereal feedstocks in the fuel ethanol sector, have put additional pressure on prices, while creating incentives to increase production.

CHART 57: Per capita rice production (2000-2010)

The geographical concentration of major grain supplies versus the geographical dispersion of demand suggests that trade will continue to be important in fulfilling grain requirements, particularly for wheat and maize. With most production located in the temperate zones of developed countries, increasing requirements in developing economies have increased the dependence on exports of these countries.

Africa

Asia

Oceania

Americas

Europe

World

150

The bulk of world rice production is destined for food use, although some is used in domestic animal feeding. Rice is the primary staple for more than half the world’s population, with Asia representing the largest producing and consuming region. In recent years, rice has also become an important staple throughout Africa. More of the earth’s surface is covered by wheat than by any other food crop. Wheat production is the third largest cereal production in the world, after maize and rice. In terms of dietary intake, however, wheat comes second to rice as a main food crop, given the more extensive use of maize as animal feed.

kg/cap

100

While rice is produced in vast areas of the world, the physical requirements for growing it are limited to certain zones. Economically viable cultivation typically requires high average temperatures during the growing season, abundant supplies of water applied in a timely manner, smooth land surfaces to facilitate uniform flooding and drainage, and a subsoil stratum that inhibits the percolation of water.

50

0 2000

2004

2006

2008

2010

Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT).

CHART 58: Per capita wheat production (2000-2010)

Wheat is a hardy crop that can grow in a wide range of environmental conditions and that permits large-scale cultivation and long-term storage, making it key to the emergence of urban societies for millennia. Currently, about 65 percent of the wheat crop is used for food, 17 percent for animal feed, and 12 percent in industrial applications, including biofuels.

Africa

Asia

Oceania

Americas

Europe

World

800

600

kg/cap

Growth in global wheat consumption has been facilitated by imports, particularly into developing countries, including both the many tropical non-wheat producing countries and those where increasing land and water constraints hinder production growth.

2002

400

200

0 2000

2002

2004

2006

Source: FAO, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT).

132

2008

2010

FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013  

The FAO Statistical Yearbook is the foremost collection of statistical data on world food and agriculture. It provides a snapshot of economi...

FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013  

The FAO Statistical Yearbook is the foremost collection of statistical data on world food and agriculture. It provides a snapshot of economi...

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