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FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation

Fidelity

Bravery

integrity

100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008

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Message from Director Mueller: The FBI Commemorates 100 Years of Service One hundred years ago, a new federal investigative force, the Bureau of Investigation, was created under the Department of Justice to protect America against federal crimes and to ensure justice for all citizens. In 1935, the agency became known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation. From its earliest days, the FBI successfully confronted crime, corruption and terrorism. The Bureau’s reputation grew and the dedicated men and women serving within its ranks gained recognition as skilled and consummate professionals. Today, the FBI is among the world’s few intelligence and law enforcement agencies that combine both of those disciplines within one organization. All of us in the FBI are proud to be part of this enduring legacy. As we commemorate 100 years of service to our Nation, let us reaffirm our commitment to protect America against future threats. We should take a moment to consider how we are focusing our efforts to face the challenges of the next century. The Bureau has taken a number of steps to adapt to a new and ever-changing landscape of criminal and national security threats. The tragic events of September 11, 2001, prompted significant changes, transforming the FBI from an agency that was primarily responsible for investigating crimes after the fact to one charged with actively preventing and disrupting destructive and illegal acts before they occur. We have adopted a more threat-based, intelligence-driven approach to our operations. And we are striving to be more proactive, predictive, and preventive to counter dangerous threats. As a result, today we are better positioned to protect our Nation. As we have throughout our history, let us remain open to new ideas and changes while honoring those who served before us. By building upon the lessons of the past we can be vigilant in confronting future threats. Let us not forget that the mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal and international agencies and partners. To the men and women of the FBI, thank you for your tireless service and commitment; and to the American people, thank you for your support of our mission. Robert S. Mueller, III

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Contents The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Inc................................................. 12 The FBI: The First Century....................................................... 16 By Craig Collins

Gaining the Edge How the FBI won the technological arms race launched in the gangster era – and fought to stay on top..................................................... 36 By Craig Collins

Federal Bureau of Investigation Directors................ 44 By Iwalani Kahikina

The FBI in the Public Eye For 100 years, the Bureau has reflected – and often shaped – the American narrative................................................................................... 56 By Craig Collins

Intelligence Gathering Propels the FBI The National Security Branch builds upon a powerful law enforcement heritage............................................................................... 64 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate Combating the terrorist WMD threat........................................................72 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

Language Skills Blunt Terrorism The FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence translations correspond with foreign collection priorities....................................................................... 78 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

Meeting multiple Challenges, Defeating Multiple Threats The Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch................................ 84 By J.R. Wilson

Distinguished Past, Dynamic Future The Criminal Investigative Division......................................................... 90 By J.R. Wilson

Office of International operations A joint response to crime and terrorism................................................... 100 By J.R. Wilson

100 Years of Protecting America

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7/14/08 2:05:48 PM


HmfdqrnkkQ`mcvntkckhjdsnbnmfq`stk`sdsgd Edcdq`kAtqd`tneHmudrshf`shnmnm0//xd`qr nejddohmf`kknetrr`ed`mcrdbtqdThank you for allowing us to keep your buildings safe and secure, too. For 100 years the Federal Bureau of Investigation has worked tirelessly to protect and secure people and property across the United States. Like you, Ingersoll Rand has been protecting people and property for 100 years with reliable and innovative security solutions. We are honored to be one of the FBIĂ•s partners in keeping the people, property and assets of this Ăžne organization safe and secure too, so that they can focus on what they do best. www.securitytechnologies.ingersollrand.com

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Improving Enforcement & Security Performance Through Education The Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation Building domestic partnerships................................................................ 106 By J.R. Wilson

The FBI’s Cyber Division Fighting crime and terrorism on the electronic frontier............................ 112 By J.R. Wilson

To Save Lives: The FBI Hostage Rescue Team..................... 124 By J.R. Wilson

Keeping It Fair The FBI Sports Presentation Program...................................................... 128 By J.R. Wilson

Science and Technology Branch The new division since September 11 has roots reaching back to the FBI’s beginnings..................................................................................... 134 By Julie Sturgeon

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At the Heart of it All Terrorists and criminals may have the perfect plan in hand ... but thanks to the FBI Laboratory, it’s getting tougher and tougher to get by with it anonymously.................................................................. 142

Computer & Information Security

By Julie Sturgeon

Homeland Security

Criminal Justice Information Services When it comes to finding trouble, the brains in the CJIS Division are the best.............................................................................................. 152

Public Administration

By Julie Sturgeon

Behind the Suits HAZMAT teams shun a jacket and tie for vapor-tight encapsulation coveralls............................................................................ 162 By Julie Sturgeon

FBI’s Office of the Chief Information Officer A true CIO guides the FBI through its long-overdue IT transformation.... 169 By Craig Collins

Human Resources Hits Overdrive An expanding and evolving workforce reflects the Bureau’s 21st century mandate..................................................................................... 174

Criminal Justice

Business, Corporate & Campus Security

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The FBI Academy Realigned to combat modern crime........................................................ 182 By Michael A. Robinson

Hall of Honor............................................................................. 190

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100 Years of Protecting America

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Contact us at 866-776-0331 www.ncu.edu/FBI100 7/14/08 2:06:11 PM


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Together, the Right Partners Secure Freedom and Deliver Justice Congratulations on 100 years of protecting and serving our country with fidelity, integrity, and bravery. GTSI and Sun Microsystems are proud to support the FBI in its missions. For 25 years, we have delivered leading information technology solutions, and we look forward to our relationship growing stronger in the decades ahead.

Visit GTSI.com/Sun-FBI to view our technology solutions. Š 2008 GTSI Corp. All rights reserved. GTSI and GTSI.com are registered trademarks of GTSI Corp. in the United States and other countries. All trade names are the property of their respective owners. Sun, Sun Microsystems and the Sun logo are trademarks or registered trademarks and Partner Advantage Program is a service mark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. (FBI-8708-A-08)

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In partnership with

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Federal Bureau of Investigation 100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008 Publishers Ross W. Jobson and Peter M. Antell Editorial Director Charles Oldham chuck.oldham@faircount.com

Chief Operating Officer Lawrence Roberts lawrence.roberts@faircount.com

Editors Rhonda Carpenter Ana E. Lopez

Assistant General Manager Robin Jobson robin.jobson@faircount.com

Assistant Editors Iwalani Kahikina Michael J. Tully

Business Development Edward J. Matthews ted.matthews@faircount.com

Art Director Robin K. McDowall Project Designer Daniel Mrgan Design & Production Rebecca Laborde Lorena Noya Production Assistant Kenia Y. Perez Interns Anson Alexander Alec McLean Writers Craig Collins Clarence A. Robinson, Jr. Michael A. Robinson Julie Sturgeon J.R. Wilson

Project Manager Bob Wilson bob.wilson@faircount.com Advertising Account Executives Arthur Dubuc III, Paul Martin Steve Chidel, John Anderson Jay Powers, Tanya Wydick Charlie Poe, Earl Hengtgen Controller Robert John Thorne robert.thorne@faircount.com Assistant to the Publisher Alexis Vars Director of Information Systems John Madden john.madden@faircount.com Administrative Assistants Heidi Reis, Aisha Shazer

Special thanks: Neal Schiff, Scott Erskine and Ernie Porter

North American Headquarters 701 North West Shore Blvd. Tampa, FL 33609 Tel. (813) 639-1900 Fax (813) 639-4344

European Headquarters 5 Ella Mews, Hampstead, London NW3 2NH UK Tel. 44 (0) 207-428-7000 Fax 44 (0) 207-284-2118

Asian-Pacific Headquarters Level 21, Tower 2101 Grafton Street Bondi Junction NSW 2022, Australia Tel. 61 (0) 2 8063-4800 Fax 61 (0) 2 8580-5047

ŠCopyright Faircount LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction of editorial content in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. Faircount LLC. does not assume responsibility for the advertisements, nor any representation made therein, nor the quality or deliverability of the products themselves. Reproduction of articles and photographs, in whole or in part, contained herein is prohibited without expressed written consent of the publisher, with the exception of reprinting for news media use. Printed in the United States of America. Various images and text in this publication in no way are used to imply an endorsement by the FBI or the U.S. government for any claims or representations therein. None of the advertising contained herein implies endorsement by U.S. government or the FBI of any private entity or enterprise.

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Message from Society President Richard J. Bernes The men and women of the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI salute the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 100 years of dedicated service to our country. For more than 70 years, the Society has provided resolute and steadfast support to the Bureau and will continue to offer our unwavering advocacy in the future. Society members, all former Special Agents, have contributed to the FBI’s phenomenal success for the past 100 years. Their determined participation in the Bureau’s investigations of violent crimes, hate crimes, organized crime, cyber crimes, terrorism, and foreign counterintelligence within the framework of the Constitution have helped establish the FBI as the preeminent investigative agency in the World. As Director Robert S. Mueller stated, “The events of September 11th have forever changed our Nation and the FBI.” As a result, the FBI’s investigative priorities have been refocused and the Society’s Associate members, current onboard Special Agents, continue the tradition of excellence in their investigations of the Bureau’s traditional investigative matters as well as in preventing future terrorist attacks against our country. The strength of the FBI has always been and will continue to be the employees of the FBI. Their dedication and resolve, coupled with the American public’s support of the FBI’s mission, will enable the FBI to continue to be one of America’s great institutions. Happy 100th Anniversary! Richard J. Bernes

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The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Inc.

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n 1937, the Society was established as a fraternal and social organization of men and women who, through their service to the FBI, share the same common backgrounds as well as the same ideals and values. The Society’s mission was then and continues now to be the preservation of the FBI heritage and the FBI family through friendship, loyalty, and goodwill. Through the spirit of fidelity, bravery, and integrity, the Society provides support to the FBI, the mission of the FBI, and current FBI Special Agent personnel. FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, along with other former FBI Directors, has praised the contributions of the Society and has asserted, “Today, the Bureau is building

on the solid foundation, which the former Agents, members of the Society, have established.” The saga of the Bureau and the history of the FBI were developed by the dedicated efforts of the men and women who served in the Bureau and each one can take justifiable pride in his or her contribution. The bonds of such service were well expressed in an address by former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who noted: “There is a valid distinction between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and simply The Bureau, even though the separate threads are closely woven. The Federal Bureau of Investigation consists of people, buildings, and equipment. The Bureau is

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spirit, pride, and family. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is respected, but The Bureau is loved. The Federal Bureau of Investigation grants retirement or resignation, but one never leaves The Bureau.” There are 8,000 former Special Agents of the FBI who are members of the Society

conducted by FBI personnel assigned to the Special Intelligence Service in World War II, the FBI’s investigations during the Civil Rights Era, the Watergate investigation, Cold War counterespionage investigations, and organized crime investigations. The Society’s Information Committee provides

As a professional organization, the Society sponsors many projects dedicated to the support of its members, the FBI, and other law enforcement agencies throughout the country. and who meet regularly within 135 chapters around the country. The Society, as a social organization, sponsors an annual national convention and numerous annual regional conferences. These events are held in cities across America and feature nationally prominent speakers and entertainers as well as educational and professional training seminars for the benefit of Society members and their families. Through the Society’s Web site, www.socxf bi.org, members are provided with Society event information, information on chapter activities, employment opportunities, information regarding FBI activities, and other important member services. In addition, the Society publishes a monthly magazine, the Grapevine, which provides members with interesting information on Society activities across the country and articles on historical FBI information, health issues, investments, and member achievements, awards, and anniversaries. As a professional organization, the Society sponsors many projects dedicated to the support of its members, the FBI, and other law enforcement agencies throughout the country. The Society’s Oral History Project has preserved the rich history of the Bureau through the recording and transcription of the personal involvement of former Agents in many of the historic major cases conducted by the FBI. These include investigations

fair, correct, and factual information to the media and the public in support of the FBI and in furtherance of the FBI’s mission. The Society has also produced audio/ visual presentations to educate the public of the importance of the counterterrorism, intelligence, and law enforcement functions of the FBI.

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The Former Agents of the FBI Foundation, “the Heart of the Society,” was founded in 1957 as a permanent trust. The purpose of the Foundation is to use the earnings of the trust to contribute to the public welfare through the alleviation of human suffering and the advancement of science, education, and cultural arts. The Foundation’s programs and benefits include financial assistance to former FBI Special Agents and their families. Such assistance may take the form of individual grants, or, when necessary, subsistence payments for periods ranging from a few months to several years. From basic necessities to home modification and special vehicles for injured family members, the Foundation tries to help in ways that other social service programs cannot. Through the Disaster Relief Program, the Foundation provides assistance to Society members and their families, as well as FBI personnel, who suffer financial hardship as a result of natural disasters. The Foundation recently provided assistance to Society members and current FBI personnel who suffered financial loss from Hurricane Katrina and from the wild fires in San Diego, Calif. The Foundation provides college scholarships to the children and grandchildren of former FBI Special Agents, based on financial need, scholarship, self-help, and civic involvement. The scholarships are for one year of undergraduate studies, applicable to tuition only. They range from $1,000 to $10,000 annually. In addition, the Foundation awards scholarships to the children of current FBI National Academy Associates, whose parents are actively engaged in law enforcement. Other scholarships are provided through the J. Edgar Hoover Memorial Scholarships, which are awarded annually to colleges and universities chosen by Society members from each of the eight Society regions and one from the host chapter of the national convention in the amount of $2,500. The awards are designated for the

institution’s general scholarship fund with an expressed preference for law enforcement curriculum, if one is available. Other Foundation programs include the Frances M. Keogh Memorial Fund, which provides donations to charitable organizations that are devoted to the care of the sick, poor, and homeless people of our country. The Humanitarian Service Award is provided yearly by the Foundation to a Society member or a member’s spouse who goes above and beyond the call of civic and civil duty. Over the years, many Society members and their spouses have been recognized for their extraordinary humanitarian efforts. Select grants are also

From basic necessities to home modification and special vehicles for injured family members, the Foundation tries to help in ways that other social service programs cannot. provided by the Foundation to other charitable organizations, which are not related to the Society, but have performed services for the benefit of the Society, its members, or the law enforcement community. Over the past 70 years, the Society, the Society’s Foundation, and our members continue to be vital members of “the FBI family.” The status of the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI in American history was noted by President Ronald Reagan’s comment in connection with the Society’s 50th anniversary: “Your gathering cannot help but call to mind your tremendous contributions to the safety and well-being of every American. Your service and sacrifice in the line of duty – your vigilance and your quiet heroism – bespeak of a love of country that time will never efface. You have justly won the lasting esteem and gratitude of the American people.”

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GRAPHICS, INC

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America’s a big country. And the FBI has been defending her for 100 years now. At Blue Cross Blue Shield, we applaud your commitment to keeping our nation safe. We understand what it means to look out for others, because we’ve been looking out for the health care of federal employees for more than 45 years. So congratulations on the FBI’s 100th anniversary. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association is an association of independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans.

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fbi history

The FBI: The First Century By Craig Collins

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he FBI’s own historian, Dr. John Fox, calls it a “tempest in a teapot.” But to U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte and his opponents in Congress, the political battle that resulted in the creation of a 34-man corps of investigative Special Agents in 1908 was a barn burner – and President Theodore Roosevelt helped fan the flames. At the turn of the 19th century, only one executive branch agency had a permanent force of investigative professionals: the Secret Service, in the Department of the Treasury.

an absent-without-leave naval officer, stumbled upon the officer’s affair with a married woman, sparked a public outcry. “The husband [of the woman] ended up calling on the Secret Service detectives to testify in the divorce proceedings,” said Fox. “And so people were wondering: ‘Why is the government looking into these private matters?’” Congress, which had already engaged in several battles with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, promptly passed a law that prevented all other executive branch agencies from hiring Secret Service operatives. With no appar-

Since the 1870s, other agencies with the authority to investigate crimes, including the Department of Justice, had hired these Secret Service detectives on an ad hoc basis. To Bonaparte – a Progressive, like his friend Teddy Roosevelt, who believed that government service should be awarded on merit, rather than political spoils – the arrangement with the Secret Service had always been frustrating. While well-trained and dedicated, the investigators were expensive, and they answered not to the attorney general, but to the chief of the Secret Service. Bonaparte wanted control of the investigations under his jurisdiction. Several high-profile cases, in 1906 and 1907, inspired a legislative power play that forced Bonaparte’s hand. “A couple of those cases had to do with land fraud out in the West,” explained Fox. But a more sensational case, in which Secret Service operatives, investigating the whereabouts of

ent option available to Bonaparte, who needed detectives to investigate federal crimes, the Attorney General appointed a force of Special Agents in the Justice Department. On July 26, 1908, Bonaparte ordered the 34 Agents to report to chief examiner Stanley W. Finch. Congressional legislators, accustomed to an ongoing battle with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, didn’t protest Bonaparte’s move but took great umbrage at Roosevelt, well into the “lame duck” period of his administration, when he publicly taunted them over their earlier legislative move that led to the creation of the Bureau. This led to heated debate over the winter of 1908-1909 but had no impact on Bonaparte’s experiment. Soon enough, Congress found they would need the services of these detectives, whom Bonaparte’s successor, George Wickersham, had named the Bureau of Investigation.

National Archives

Congress, which had already engaged in several battles with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, promptly passed a law that prevented all other executive branch agencies from hiring Secret Service operatives. With no apparent option available to Bonaparte, who needed detectives to investigate federal crimes, the Attorney General appointed a force of Special Agents in the Justice Department.

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National Archives

Opposite: An FBI Agent badge circa 1908. Above, left: Charles Joseph Bonaparte (circa 1903), grandnephew of Napoleon I and the Attorney General of the United States. Under his direction, the FBI was formed. Above, right: A young J. Edgar Hoover.

There weren’t many federal crimes when the Bureau was established; the new detective force mostly investigated violations of federal statutes governing banking, naturalization, antitrust violations, land fraud, and peonage (involuntary servitude, resulting from abuses in the sharecropping system). The first major expansion of the Bureau’s jurisdiction came with the passage of the Mann Act of 1910, which made it a crime to transport women across state lines for immoral purposes – the Bureau doubled in size in order to respond to the demand for investigators. By the time World War I began, the Bureau employed more than 300 Special Agents whose work was supported by another 300 employees. World War I shifted the Bureau’s focus to national security issues. Bureau of Investigation Agents were responsible for investigating violations of the Espionage, Selective

Service, and Sabotage Acts. In the wake of the war’s end and Russia’s 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, labor unrest and a series of mail-bomb attacks on government and business leaders throughout the United States prompted Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer – himself the survivor of two bombing assassination attempts, one of which destroyed part of his home – to place a young Justice Department supervisor, J. Edgar Hoover, in charge of collecting domestic intelligence on anarchists and radical political activists. Beginning in November 1919, the Bureau and local police in 30 cities orchestrated a number of controversial raids that resulted in thousands of arrests over the next two months. The “Palmer Raids” were a black mark on the young Bureau’s reputation: Poorly planned and coordinated, they were indiscriminate; the Department had warrants for only a few, not the large numbers actually taken in by their local

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fbi history

allies. The public and Congress were not impressed. The constitutionality of the raids was questioned, and Palmer and Hoover were both criticized for their overzealous approach. The Bureau learned several valuable lessons through this misadventure, including the need for careful orchestration of counterintelligence operations, and the fine line between assuring collective security and protecting individual civil liberties. G-Men

When the Prohibition Amendment and the Volstead Act went into effect in 1920, it was the Treasury Department, rather than Justice, that was initially responsible for enforcing them. The Bureau of Investigation was faced with a dilemma it would be compelled to solve creatively: It would

have to attack federal crimes within the scope of its narrow jurisdiction. The Bureau investigated the notorious gangster Al Capone, for example, not as a crime boss but as a “fugitive federal witness,” and it also sent the imperial kleagle of the Louisiana Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Edward Young Clarke, to jail by proving he had violated the Mann Act. The Osage Indian murders of 1921-1923 were a public drama that served to educate the public about the Bureau’s jurisdiction, which covered capital crimes on Indian reservations. When more than a dozen people on northern Oklahoma’s oil-rich Osage Indian Reservation died under suspicious circumstances, tribal members suspected a local strongman, William King Hale, of murdering them in order to collect insurance money and to acquire their head rights to oil revenues. The tribal council turned to the Bureau of Investigation, whose Agents infiltrated the

National Archives

Special Agents engaged in firearms practice at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Range, United States Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C.

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Above: The Bureau’s Identification Division in the 1930s. Below: Special Agent target practice during the 1930s.

upon taking office, Hoover responded promptly, calling for the nation’s fingerprint cards to be sent from law enforcement and correctional facilities across the country. Over time, the Bureau became the central repository not only for fingerprint cards, but also for all the nation’s criminal identification records. Today, as part of the Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS), the Bureau’s electronic fingerprint identification system includes more than 250 million fingerprint records, both criminal and civilian.

National Archives

reservation and, posing as cattlemen, salesmen, and even medicine men, eventually gathered enough evidence to solve the case. Hale, his nephew, and several ranch-hand accomplices were convicted of murder and served long sentences in federal prison. In the midst of a major political scandal in 1924, the newly appointed President, Calvin Coolidge, chose Harlan Fiske Stone, an esteemed jurist, as the new Attorney General. Stone’s mission was to clean house and he immediately fired the Bureau’s Director. To lead the Bureau of Investigation, Stone chose 29-year-old Hoover, who assumed the directorship on May 10, 1924. At that time, the Bureau employed about 650 people, 441 of whom were Special Agents who worked in field offices in nine cities. Hoover was a reformer who brought Progressive-era ideals to the Bureau. He immediately fired Agents he considered unqualified or incompetent, scheduled inspections of field offices, and ordered individual performance reviews. He abolished the seniority rule of promotion and introduced uniform performance appraisals. In January 1928, Hoover established a formal training course for new Agents. It was Hoover’s goal to transform the FBI into a highly respected organization, the model of professionalism in law enforcement. One of Hoover’s most significant reforms was to create the Identification Division. Three years before he was named director, Congress had recognized the growing need and demand for law enforcement officials to have a national repository and clearinghouse for fingerprint records, and

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fbi history

Hoover was also determined to place the Bureau on the cutting edge of scientific crime solving by applying technologies such as serology, fingerprint comparison, handwriting and typewriter analysis, ballistics, and toxicology. Rather than continue to hire outside consultants on a caseby-case basis, Hoover created the Technical Laboratory in September 1932. At the beginning, the lab was a one-man, one-room show, operated by Special Agent Charles Appel. Almost as soon as it had opened, the laboratory proved crucial in solving a crime that had recently come under the Bureau’s jurisdiction: the kidnapping and murder of Charles

Lindbergh, Jr., the infant son of the famous aviator and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh. The crime horrified the public, and Congress responded swiftly, making kidnapping a federal crime. When Appel was able to match the handwriting on the ransom note to that of the primary suspect, Bruno Hauptmann, he helped secure an indictment that eventually resulted in Hauptmann’s conviction. As Hoover was working to make the Bureau of Investigation more professional, a new crime wave was sweeping across the country. Prohibition had sparked an unprecedented demand for alcohol, and with prices skyrocketing,

National Archives

On Oct. 2, 1933, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, handcuffed and shackled, is led, under heavy guard, from Shelby County jail en route to the Memphis airport and Oklahoma City where he was tried for the kidnapping of Charles F. Urshel.

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National Archives

fbi history

criminal gangs in America’s largest cities fought for control of the profitable illegal trade. In 1925, the Bureau became a victim of the resulting surge in violence: Edwin C. Shanahan became the first Agent to be killed in the line of duty when he was fatally shot while attempting to arrest a car thief in Chicago. The following year, the U.S. murder rate had skyrocketed to more than 10,000. The staggering rise in violent crime was one result of the Depression-era economy; another was an increase in the public’s appetite for escapism. Hoover astutely recognized that, to the public, the exploits of Tommy gun toting gangsters such as John Dillinger, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, “Baby Face” Nelson, and Charles Arthur “Pretty Boy” Floyd were a form of entertainment – and that the daring gangster had become a perverse kind of folk hero for disaffected Americans. Hoover worked assiduously to publicize the work of the Bureau – in 1932, for example, publishing the first issue of Fugitives Wanted by Police, an early version of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Hoover became as proficient at publicizing the work of the Bureau as he was at administering it, and he was helped by a series of events that helped turned public opinion in favor of the Bureau. In the Kansas City Massacre, which occurred in July 1933, a Bureau Agent was killed and two other Agents wounded when a group of three men ambushed law enforcement officers who were escorting an escaped convict, Frank Nash, back to Leavenworth Penitentiary. Nash and two local police officers were also killed in the assault and, within a year, Bureau Agents were given statutory authority to carry firearms and make arrests. Before that authority was granted, the Bureau’s image benefited from the surprise arrest of Kelly in Memphis.

According to one popular legend – a legend Hoover and the Bureau did nothing to discourage – Kelly was so shocked at the sudden swarm of law enforcement officers that he shouted: “Don’t shoot, G-men! Don’t shoot!” According to one popular legend – a legend Hoover and the Bureau did nothing to discourage – Kelly was so shocked at the sudden swarm of law enforcement officers that he shouted: “Don’t shoot, G-men! Don’t shoot!” Kelly was sentenced to life in prison for kidnapping and other crimes, and the legend of the heroic, competent – and well-attired – government man, or “G-man,” was born. By the time the Bureau had taken down the man Hoover had dubbed “Public Enemy No. 1” – Dillinger, who was killed after drawing a gun on a group of Agents who had surrounded him as he was leaving a movie theater – the public was firmly on the side of the G-men. A series of statutes increased the Bureau’s jurisdiction, and on July 1, 1935, the Bureau was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and officially given the mandate, authority, and tools to fight gangland crime. By the end of 1936, most of the celebrity criminals of the Prohibition era had been captured or killed. The raised profile of the Bureau led to much interest in its approach to crime solving, and at the time, very few states or municipalities offered formal training in investigative techniques to officers. In 1935, the FBI National Academy

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UNICOR thanks the FBI for 100 years of dedicated service. And for over 70 years of helping us transform lives.

UNICOR understands change: from the changing needs of law enforcement to the way an offender’s life can be changed with the right rehabilitation programs. Through the decades, UNICOR has proudly supplied government agencies with an ever-evolving line of high-quality goods and services. And your patronage has helped us transform lives along the way.

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fbi history

The FBI’s development of new training and investigative techniques, as well as new technologies, had transformed the Bureau into an elite law enforcement organization by the eve of World War II. was opened to train police officers from all over the country, and within a few years, it began to train officers from countries overseas. By the end of the decade, the FBI hardly resembled the small detective corps of 20 years earlier; it now had field offices in 42 cities and employed 654 Special Agents, with a support staff of 1,141.

National Archives

The Wartime Bureau

In the late 1930s, just as violent crime was on the ebb in the United States, much of the rest of the world suffered serious upheavals, as Germany, Italy, and Japan launched campaigns of aggression against neighboring countries. At the same time, Spain was thrown into a civil war that pitted leftists

against fascists. While the United States clung officially to neutrality, the country once again proved a fertile climate for radicalism. Both the American Communist Party and American fascist groups gained adherents during the 1930s. Presidential directives in 1936 and 1939 strengthened the FBI’s authority to investigate these subversive groups, a move reinforced by Congress in the 1940 passage of the Smith Act, which outlawed advocating the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. As war broke out in Europe, Agents were sent to field offices to protect the nation’s defense plants and other important assets, while other operatives worked to develop a nationwide information network. The FBI’s first major counterintelligence case was, by the Bureau’s own measure, a flawed investigation. Acting on a tip

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from British intelligence, the FBI, which had been delegated the lead agency by the War Department, nabbed a Nazi spy named Guenther Rumrich, who promised to provide the names of a dozen or more accomplices. But the Agent in charge of the investigation botched the case, allowing many to flee the country. He also leaked details of the investigation to the media, and was later fired for breaking the FBI oath. Despite three convictions in the Rumrich case, the most important suspects escaped, and the FBI was embarrassed by the outcome. The Bureau immediately overhauled its counterintelligence operations, instituting a training program in conducting espionage investigations. These new preparations

paid off within two years, when the FBI, with the help of a German-born double agent named William Sebold, began to uncover an extensive Nazi spy ring operating throughout New York City. The investigation resulted in the conviction and sentencing of 33 members of the “Duquesne Spy Ring,” in January 1942, to a total of 300 years, making the

Once the United States entered the war, the FBI and each of its 54 field offices were placed on 24-hour schedules. The Bureau immediately augmented its Agent force with National Academy graduates, who took an abbreviated training course.

National Archives

Duquesne case – to this day – the largest espionage case in U.S. history that resulted in convictions. It proved to be a backbreaking case for German intelligence efforts. Once the United States entered the war, the FBI and each of its 54 field offices were placed on 24-hour schedules. The Bureau immediately augmented its Agent force with National Academy graduates, who took an abbreviated training course. By 1943, the total number of FBI employees had risen to more than 13,000, including about 4,000 Special Agents. In 1942, the FBI helped to foil a major attempt at sabotage on U.S. soil. In June, two German submarines dropped off four saboteurs each at beaches on Long Island and Florida, with bomb-making equipment and instructions to target industrial and defense production sites. Within two weeks, all eight of the saboteurs were arrested without having committed any acts of sabotage, and they were

Top: A photo of Frederick Duquesne and William Sebold, taken by FBI Agents May 29, 1940. Left: Frederick Duquesne, leader of the Duquesne Spy Ring, in the office of William G. Sebold, June 25, 1941.

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tried and convicted by a military commission – the legitimacy of which was challenged, and upheld, in the U.S. Supreme Court. While Bureau personnel at home worked war-related or criminal cases, one contingent, the Special Intelligence Service – a corps of Agents working with legal attachés – provided information on Axis activities in South America. At war’s end, the world in which the FBI operated bore no resemblance to the one that had existed just six years earlier. Soviet Premier Josef Stalin all but declared the Cold War in 1946, claiming that future wars were inevitable until

National Archives

Above: Left to right: Werner Thiel, Richard Quirin, an Army officer, Hermann Otto Neubauer, and Edward Kerling in court. Right: Contents of a box brought by the German saboteurs, showing electric blasting caps, pen and pencil delay mechanisms, detonators, ampoules of acid, and other timedelay devices.

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Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, separated by heavy wire screen, as they leave the U.S. Courthouse after being found guilty by the jury of espionage. Communism replaced capitalism around the globe. Within a year, the Bureau and other intelligence agencies had uncovered an abundance of evidence that pro-Soviet operatives had infiltrated the United States, and the Bureau’s authority to protect the country from foreign operatives was again strengthened, including the expansion of its authority to perform background checks on prospective and current government employees. It was also ordered, by Presidents Truman and Eisenhower, to investigate allegations of disloyalty among federal employees. This new threat and the reaction to it has come to be characterized in the controversial Cold War spy case of

breakthrough, by the Army had given the Bureau and its partners crucial clues, too secret to tell the public, that put the investigaters on a trail of spies leading to a former civilian inspector for the Army Signal Corps, Julius Rosenberg, and his wife Ethel, both of whom were found guilty of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union and later executed. As the FBI worked to diminish the influence of the Communist Party inside the United States, it also strengthened its relationships with state and local law enforcement organizations. And it continued to seek public support and help through the media. On March 14, 1950, it issued its first “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” list in order to facilitate the capture of dangerous fugitives by informing the public of dangerous wanted fugitives. Since then more than 450 fugitives have been listed and the public has helped capture more than 150 of them. In 1957, a New York state police officer stumbled across what became known as the Apalachin Meeting: a historic summit of more than 100 leaders of the American Mafia, or La Cosa Nostra, who had gathered from all over the country. The FBI collected information on all the people identified at the meeting, but it wasn’t until an Agent convinced mob insider Joseph Valachi to testify publicly that the American public learned of the existence of La Cosa Nostra. It would be more than a decade before federal law enforcement officials would have the tools necessary to do much damage to such a pervasive organization. A Lapse of Faith

The 1960s were a period of remarkable civil strife: As a diverse group of American protesters arose in opposition to the United States’ escalating involvement in the Vietnam War, African-Americans also began to organize in

At war’s end, the world in which the FBI operated bore no resemblance to the one that had existed just six years earlier. Soviet Premier Josef Stalin all but declared the Cold War in 1946, claiming that future wars were inevitable until Communism replaced capitalism around the globe. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. When the Soviet Union detonated its own atomic bomb in 1949, many in the United States intelligence community, including Hoover, already knew that atomic espionage had occurred. A cryptographic

protest against unequal treatment in American society. At the time, the FBI’s jurisdiction in protecting civil rights was limited. Few civil rights violations, even the most violent, fell under the FBI’s jurisdiction.

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Mark J. Cheviron, Corporate Vice President, Director of Corporate Security and Services and the entire ADM Corporate Security Staff

congratulate the Federal Bureau of Investigation on 100 years of dedicated service and partnership with the private sector

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fbi history

Lyndon B. Johnson – who assumed the presidency on Nov. 22, 1963, in the wake of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination – immediately signaled to the FBI that he preferred to use their services first, and resolve questions of jurisdiction later. He ordered the FBI to investigate Kennedy’s assassination, which was, at that time, no different under the law from any other local homicide. Later, Congress passed a law making the murder of a president a federal crime. Similarly, when three young civil rights workers disappeared in northern Mississippi in the summer of 1964, Johnson responded swiftly, ordering Director Hoover to dispatch a corps of Agents to investigate. While the FBI had been investigating a number of violent cases like the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala. – there wasn’t a clear link, at the time, to FBI jurisdiction. Arguing the matter was like a kidnapping, Hoover’s Agents soon uncovered a conspiracy between a local sheriff’s deputy and KKK members, who had murdered the three activists and buried their bodies in an earthen dam near Philadelphia, Miss. The Mississippi crisis of 1964 was a turning point in federal civil rights actions. Public outrage led to prompt passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and later the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Supreme Court, in a 1966 ruling that arose from the Mississippi murders, affirmed that federal law could be used to prosecute civil rights violations

Courtesy of FBI

The Mississippi crisis of 1964 was a turning point in federal civil rights actions. – a ruling that, in turn, affirmed the Bureau’s authority to investigate them. While the prosecution of such cases proved difficult – seven men were convicted in the Mississippi case, but none of actually committing murder – the FBI had turned a corner. The Bureau routinely carried out civil rights investigations thereafter, including the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1963 murder of Medgar Evers, Mississippi’s most prominent AfricanAmerican leader.

An FBI poster seeking help in finding three young missing civil rights workers during the Mississippi Burning (MIBURN) investigation. Despite the jurisdictional issues, Hoover’s critics have alleged that his initial reluctance to devote Bureau resources to civil rights violations was rooted in the fact that he associated the movement with leftist radical groups. During the 1960s, as the United States became increasingly engaged in the Vietnam War, an unprecedented antiwar protest movement swept across the nation. While mostly peaceful, the movement contained a radical fringe that became increasingly violent in its tactics. By 1970, an estimated 3,000 bombings, and 50,000 bomb threats, occurred in the United States. The nation was fighting two wars, in Vietnam and at home, and Hoover’s FBI found itself in the middle of a troubling convergence of crime, violence, civil rights issues, and potential national security issues. Because guidelines for Agents conducting national security investigations had not yet been issued by Attorneys General or legislated by Congress – and would not be until 1976 – the FBI addressed the threats from this militant “New Left” as it had from those of the Communists during the 1950s and of the KKK in the 1960s: It combined traditional investigations with counterintelligence programs (COINTELPRO) to prevent violence and infiltrate organizations suspected of involvement. These controversial tactics, which included wiretaps, were eventually discouraged by Hoover, who formally terminated all COINTELPRO operations after stolen documents associated with the programs were published in The New York Times and The Washington Post. The COINTELPRO incident and the Watergate scandal – which Hoover did not live to see – combined to cause serious damage to the FBI’s public image, damage that would take several years to begin healing. On May 2, 1972, after nearly 48 years of service as FBI director, Hoover died in his sleep at the age of 77. The next day his body lay in state in the rotunda of the Capitol, an honor that had been accorded to only 21 other Americans. President Richard M. Nixon promptly appointed L. Patrick Gray as Acting Director, and several weeks later the

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Watergate scandal began with a break-in at Washington’s Watergate Hotel. Within hours, FBI Agents were investigating, but Gray was soon accused in the press of trying to derail the investigation, and eventually resigned. His successor, William Ruckelshaus, served for only a few weeks before resigning rather than obey an order from Nixon to fire the Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox. The first Director to be appointed by the presidential nomination/Senate confirmation process was Clarence M. Kelley, who was sworn in about a month before Nixon’s resignation. Kelley believed one of his most important tasks would be to restore the public’s trust in the FBI and law enforcement. He instituted a number of policy changes that focused on the training and selection of FBI and law enforcement leaders, including Career Review Boards and recruitment programs. He also ordered a prioritization of the Bureau’s criminal and national security programs, and a clear articulation of the procedures for investigative intelligence collection. Kelley’s most significant contribution to the management of the Bureau was introducing the concept of “Quality over Quantity” investigations – he directed field offices to concentrate resources on the criminals who did the most damage. He modeled this concept by establishing three top priorities for the Bureau at the national level: foreign counterintelligence, organized crime, and white-collar crime. By the late 1970s, the Bureau employed 8,000 Special Agents and 11,000 support personnel in 59 field offices and 13 legal attaché offices.

Anthony “Tony Ducks” Corallo enters U.S. Federal Court in New York as jury selection began for the trial of eight men accused of participating in the Mafia’s ruling council in this Sept. 8, 1986 photo. The RICO act was an important tool used to help indict the Mafia’s ruling commission.

Kelley’s priorities were validated in the 1980s, when the FBI was led by his successor, William H. Webster. The United States suffered a wave of white-collar crime: widespread bank fraud that caused the failure of more than 1,000 savings and loan associations (S&Ls), as well as several public corruption cases. The FBI investigated many of these cases, and was ultimately given additional resources for fraud investigations by the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enhancement Act of 1989. The FBI’s ability to fight organized crime was strengthened in 1982 when Attorney General William French Smith gave the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) concurrent jurisdiction over narcotics violations. The Department of Justice’s increasing attention to the international narcotics trade led to several major arrests and the dismantling of important drug rings – the

most famous of which was probably the “Pizza Connection” case, tried between 1985 and 1987 and involving a Sicilian mafia scheme to distribute drugs and the proceeds from them through pizza parlors. The lead prosecutor for the trial was former FBI Agent and future Director Louis B. Freeh, who worked closely with the FBI and New York and Italian police to build the government’s case. The FBI finally began to make significant progress against organized crime in the 1980s, aided by a 1970 law, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. “RICO,” said Fox, the FBI historian, “was huge for the FBI in organized crime investigation. It says that if a group of people engages in a pattern of criminal activity, and you can show that members of this group have committed crimes in furtherance of group goals, then you can charge the members of the group together as a conspiracy. Because

AP Photo/Rick Maiman

The Bureau Goes Global

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The FBI finally began to make significant progress against organized crime in the 1980s, aided by a 1970 law, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. of the significant monetary and prison-term penalties that went along with the RICO statute, we were finally able to start dismantling the hierarchy of the groups, instead of just putting the lower-level guys away for a couple of years on this or that crime.” In the famous Commission Case of 1986, evidence gathered by the FBI led to the indictment of 11 organized crime figures, including the heads of New York’s so-called “Five Families.” Time Magazine called the case possibly “the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943.” The Bureau also emphasized its counterintelligence role in the 1980s, and its efforts were showcased in 1985, dubbed “The Year of the Spy” by the media because of numerous

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arrests of foreign spies operating on U.S. soil. Most of these spies were working for Communist countries, including John W. Walker, Larry Wu-Tai Chin, Edward Lee Howard, and Ronald William Pelton. As the Cold War came to an end with the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, the FBI’s counterintelligence mission underwent a swift and dramatic alteration – suddenly, counterintelligence was no longer focused primarily on containing the Soviet Union or fending off its hostile agents and East Bloc allies. The Bureau shifted its focus to protecting American information and technologies, such as trade secrets and proprietary information. In 1991, the FBI created a National Security Threat List, to clearly articulate the categories of activity that constitute national security concerns. Two events occurred in late 1992 and early 1993 that had a major impact on the policies and operational protocols of the FBI: the FBI’s response to the shooting death of a U.S. marshal at the home of federal fugitive Randall Weaver in Ruby Ridge, Idaho; and the 51-day standoff with members of a heavily armed religious sect who had killed officers of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Both incidents resulted in unintended deaths for which the Bureau, after several months of internal and external

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review, was judged to be at least partly at fault. Freeh, who became the Bureau’s new Director less than five months after the Waco tragedy, guided the FBI in the 1994 formation of its Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG), a specialized unit designed to strategize and manage hostage or siege situations, and if possible resolve them without loss of life. Freeh had the misfortune of assuming office just as the United States was suffering a new wave of terrorist attacks: the 1993 World Trade Center bombing; the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing; the Unabomber’s continuing mail- and pipe-bomb attacks; Atlanta’s 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing; and the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing on a Western housing complex in Saudi Arabia. Counterterrorism had been receiving increased attention from the FBI since 1982, when Webster had made it a fourth top priority

for the Bureau, and the FBI’s elite Hostage Rescue Team had been created in 1984 to prevent the kind of violence that had occurred in the 1972 Munich Olympics, when terrorists murdered Israeli athletes. Throughout the 1990s, the FBI, aided by expanded authorities granted it by Congress, stepped up its efforts to investigate such attacks. The fall of the Iron Curtain and the proliferation of computer and telecommunications technology made for a world that seemed increasingly integrated and borderless, leading President Bill Clinton to proclaim, in 1994, that “national security now means economic security.” One of Freeh’s most significant contributions to the Bureau’s policies was to recognize the importance of strong international police partnerships. In 1994, he led a delegation of high-level diplomats and federal law enforcement officials to meet with

DoD photo

U.S. and Saudi military personnel survey the damage to Khobar Towers caused by the explosion of a fuel truck outside the northern fence of the facility on King Abdul Aziz Air Base near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996. Several buildings were damaged and there were numerous U.S. casualties. Throughout the 1990s, the FBI increased its efforts to stop terrorist attacks.

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Members of the FBI meet outside the Pentagon building hours after American Airlines Fight 77 was piloted by terrorists into the building during the September 11 attacks.

their counterparts from 11 European nations on international crime issues. To sharpen its joint efforts against drug trafficking, terrorism, and organized crime, the FBI opened 21 new legal attaché offices overseas and sent representatives to the first International Law Enforcement Academy, which opened in 1995 in Budapest, Hungary.

DoD photo by PH2 Jim Watson; USN

The Post-September 11 World

Between 1993 and 2001, under Freeh, the FBI had undergone a remarkable transformation, expanding to address the increasingly international nature of crime inside the United States. It had developed a number of weapons aimed at rapidly developing information technologies, including the 1991 maturation of its Computer Analysis and Response Team’s (CART) ability to retrieve evidence from

computers, as well as the 1998 creation of the Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs. Along with these developments, the FBI increased its attention to electronic surveillance, in order to adapt to the rapid advancements in telecommunications. Through the Innocent Images program, launched in 1995, the Bureau has arrested and secured the indictment of large numbers of pedophiles, who have used the Internet to view pornography and stalk young children. Freeh was compelled to order a comprehensive review of the Bureau’s information and security programs upon the arrest, in February 2001, of FBI Special Agent Robert Hanssen, who had been selling U.S. secret intelligence to the

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UNIVERSAL PICTURES SALUTES THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION ON ITS 100TH ANNIVERSARY

© UNIVERSAL STUDIOS

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Soviet Union, and later Russia, for more than 20 years. Hanssen pled guilty to 15 counts of espionage and was sentenced to life in prison. An FBI computer expert, Hanssen’s ability to obtain classified intelligence information, for such an extended period of time, was described by a Justice Department-ordered commission as “possibly the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history.” The FBI’s new Director, Robert S. Mueller, who was sworn in on Sept. 4, 2001, announced a renewed focus on upgrading the FBI’s information technology infrastructure; addressing records management issues; and enhancing foreign counterintelligence analysis and security. While the post-Cold War transformation of the FBI’s priorities was dramatic, it was not as monumental as the one implemented after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Within a month of the attacks, as the FBI led the massive investigative effort, President George W. Bush had assigned Mueller’s FBI the responsibility for protecting Americans against future terrorist attacks. In May 2002 – the same month in which Attorney General John Ashcroft issued investigative guidelines to assist the Bureau’s counterterrorism efforts – Mueller announced a comprehensive reorganization of the FBI’s structure and operations. Mueller’s list of the FBI’s top 10 priorities began with the following top three: preventing terrorist attacks, countering foreign intelligence

operations, and fighting hightech and Internet crimes. The FBI’s authority to fight terrorism was expanded by a controversial set of provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act, a law that eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering inside the United States and increased the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, e-mail, and other records. It also expanded the discretion of law enforcement authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The history of the United States contains abundant reminders of how Americans and their government can, in the effort to protect the United States from attacks, engage in activities that actually infringe upon the civil liberties of Americans. Mueller, in an address he delivered to Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government in April 2007, expressed his own feelings on balancing the tension between freedom and security – in words similar to those he has repeated many times since passage of the USA PATRIOT Act. “History,” he said, “will determine not just whether we defeat terrorism, but also whether we safeguard the liberties for which we are fighting, and maintain the trust of the American people. We know that if we win one struggle at the expense of the other – either way – we will have lost on both counts. In the fullness of time, I believe future generations will look back and judge that the FBI accomplished both missions.”

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Gaining the Edge How the FBI won the technological arms race launched in the gangster era – and fought to stay on top t’s difficult today to look back on the “Crime Wave” of the Depression Era and – confronted with names like Machine Gun Kelly, Pretty Boy Floyd, Bonnie and Clyde, and John Dillinger – separate fact from myth. But it’s also hard to deny that, at the outset of J. Edgar Hoover’s dramatic War on Crime, his small corps of investigators – many of them glorified accountants, without the legal authority to carry firearms or make arrests – was overmatched. The nation’s most notorious criminals carried Thompson submachine guns, or “Tommy guns,” capable of spewing 800 .45-caliber slugs a minute. They fled the scenes of their crimes in big, powerful cars equipped with V-8 engines and electric starters that could be fired up in seconds. Some of them wore bulletproof vests to protect themselves from local police, or perhaps from the growing number of G-men who had determined, given the arsenal of their opponents, that to work the job unarmed was suicidal. While another often-debated point about FBI history is whether Hoover may have held the position of Director too long – a career that bridged the administrations of Calvin Coolidge and Richard Nixon – there isn’t much question that he was the right person, at the right time, to lead the Bureau of Investigation. Hoover was exactly what the Bureau needed in 1924: He was a bit of a goody-goody, fed up with government corruption. He was a reformer, determined to change law enforcement into a scientific profession. He was, perhaps even to his own surprise, something of a raconteur, able to weave a myth powerful enough to counter the strange cult of hero worship surrounding America’s most wanted criminals. Perhaps most important, Hoover was a librarian. While attending night school at George Washington University, the young Hoover worked at the Library of Congress for five years, beginning as a messenger before being promoted to cataloguer and eventually clerk. According to a biographer, Curt Gentry, one of Hoover’s coworkers believed he was destined to be chief librarian had he remained at the Library of Congress.

Trained in the science of cataloguing and crossreferencing, Hoover became the nation’s top law enforcement official instead, and his quest to compile and make accessible vast amounts of data – records of fingerprints, shoeprints, fibers, tire treads, crime records, bank robbery notes, and now such arcane scientific data as trace-chemical spectral displays and DNA profiles – helped the FBI to bring criminalistics, and government bureaucracy itself, into the Information Age. It also gave Hoover’s FBI a new ally in the War on Crime: knowledge.

An FBI Agent at the training facility in Quantico demonstrates some of the Bureau’s weapons. He holds a Thompson submachine gun. In the foreground is a Colt “Monitor,” a modified version of the Browning Automatic Rifle.

National Archives

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National Archives

Fighting Crime with Science

Of course, knowledge alone was of little use against a Tommy gun, and after the 1933 Kansas City Massacre, in which an FBI Agent was killed and two others wounded, Hoover joined the public’s outrage with his own, and bolstered the campaign for arming federal police officers. Congress obliged, and Bureau Agents were issued their first official fighting rifle: the Colt “Monitor,” a derivation of John Browning’s bar automatic rifle. The Monitor, with its 18-inch barrel, was easily handled by Agents, though its .30-06 ammunition was powerful enough to stop a blockade-running beer truck in its tracks. Some Agents were later issued militarized versions of the Thompson submachine gun, each in The cavernous FBI Identification Division in Washington, D.C., during World War II. a special carrying case that contained a brass cleaning rod, spare parts, and 20- and 50-round magazines. After modest beginning. In November 1932, the Criminal acquiring these new weapons, FBI Agents were at last on Laboratory was opened in a single room – which doubled equal footing with their opponents. The Thompson would as the Bureau’s smoking lounge – in the nearby Southern remain in the FBI arsenal until the mid-1970s. Railway Building on 13th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue Hoover, of course, wanted more than an equal footing. He wanted to maintain an advantage over America’s in Washington, D.C. The room was chosen because it public enemies. One of his first acts of leadership was in had a sink, and easily accommodated the totality of the the librarian’s role: In 1925, he consolidated the nation’s Bureau’s scientific equipment: a borrowed microscope, a fingerprint records under the umbrella of the FBI. At wiretapping kit, some ultraviolet lights, a kit for making the time, there were two major fingerprint collections in plaster casts, and a spiral probe known as a “helixometer,” the United States: a huge file maintained in Chicago by for examining the inside of gun barrels. the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the The Laboratory – later the Technical Laboratory and U.S. Department of Justice’s Division of Identification ultimately the Laboratory Division – was run for the first and Information, which held some 810,000 fingerprint year by a single Special Agent, Charles Appel, whose cards at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, handwriting analysis of the ransom note in the Lindbergh Kan. With the creation of the Bureau’s own Identification kidnapping case led to the indictment of Bruno Hauptmann. Division, these records were brought together to form For the first three years of the Laboratory’s existence, Appel what would become the largest collection of fingerprint began compiling the Bureau’s vast reference collections: the records in the world. Typewriter Standards File, the Anonymous Letter File, the It wasn’t until several years after the establishment of the National Automotive Paint File, the National Fraudulent Identification Division that Hoover was able to implement Check File, and the famous Reference Firearms Collection, another reform that, despite the vaunted reputation the whose more than 5,000 catalogued specimens today are FBI Laboratory would later acquire, was a relatively used to identify evidence firearms and components. The

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Standard Ammunition File (SAF), added later, is today a collection of more than 15,000 military and commercial ammunition specimens, intact as well as disassembled. A Photographic Operations Unit was added to the Laboratory in 1935, and the Bureau’s first full-time chemist came aboard in 1937, at about the same time the Bureau began offering free services to state and local law enforcement agencies that did not have their own lab facilities. Metallurgical services were added in 1939. Appel, busily conducting his own analysis and compiling reference collections, had little time to launch new research initiatives during the Laboratory’s formative years, but as new capabilities were added, he and his colleagues began to study the fields of ballistics, ciphers, dyes for extortion packages, blood groups, and the chemical development of latent

fingerprints – the often invisible impressions left behind by the ridged skin on human fingers, palms, and foot soles. The Bureau assumed a leadership role in the development of latent prints. Its print examiners, along with the rest of the nation’s crime scene investigators, had mastered the art of “dusting” for fingerprints by the early 20th century – but dusting required the existence of sweaty or oily secretions, ruling out all but the most recently deposited prints. The Bureau led the way in other approaches, including the silver nitrate method, which linked members of the Doc Barker/Alvin Karpis gang to the 1933 kidnapping of millionaire brewer Theodore A. Hamm. By painting the ransom notes – which were by then several weeks old – with silver nitrate solution, the Bureau’s Lab scientists initiated a chemical reaction with the salt contained in

National Archives

A view of an assortment of scientific instruments used in the first Technical Laboratory of the FBI, taken in November 1932.

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National Archives

A technician in the single fingerprint section of the FBI Identification Division examining the hand of a deceased person in an effort to secure fingerprints. fingerprints, revealing a distinct white fingerprint pattern. The Lab had performed a “forensic first” in using the silver nitrate method – the prints were matched to members of the Barker/Karpis gang, who were promptly arrested. The silver nitrate method was promising, but only in certain situations. The FBI’s print examiners continued to study other methods of developing latent prints; in 1954, they implemented the use of ninhydrin, a chemical used to detect the amines, or protein residues, left behind by fingerprints, on porous surfaces. In the late 1970s, they tested and began to use lasers to detect latent prints. More recent developments have included the use of cyanoacrylate (superglue fumes), fluorescent powders and dyes, and alternate light sources. A look through the FBI’s Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints reveals how enormously

sophisticated the art of detecting, enhancing, and analyzing latent prints has become. The type of chemical, powder, and light or laser used to reveal a print depends on a number of variables, including the type and condition of the surface on which the prints are deposited, as well as the kind of residue left behind by the print. According to Deputy Assistant Director for the FBI Laboratory’s Forensic Analysis Branch Melissa Smrz, then Acting Assistant Director of the FBI’s Laboratory Division, the FBI’s expertise in latent print development is not limited to present-day criminal cases. It’s also useful in missing person cases or “in mass disasters, disasters where you’ve got remains that don’t have the outer layer of the skin, but they do have the lower level. We have techniques that enable us to enhance the friction ridges so you can roll a print.”

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After the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, members of the FBI Disaster Squad learned one of these techniques from the Missing Persons Bureau of the New York Police Department: the boiling technique, which was used to raise the friction ridges on recovered bodies and help identify victims. The FBI took this technique to Thailand after the South Asian tsunami in 2004, and produced identifiable friction ridge impressions from recovered bodies; the Bureau’s Disaster Squad also used the technique on bodies recovered weeks after Hurricane Katrina, which struck the U.S Gulf Coast region in August 2005. The technique resulted in friction ridge impressions that were used to determine and confirm the identities of hurricane victims.

the Information Age

In becoming so adept at developing latent fingerprints, the FBI created a new problem for itself: It had so many prints on file, both identified and unidentified, and so many new cases each year that it had become virtually impossible to conduct a manual search that could match a print to one in the national database. After its collection of fingerprint records had become the world’s largest, the Bureau initiated research and development of computerized scanning equipment to read and record the identifying characteristics of fingerprints. The prototype for this system, developed by Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, was delivered to the FBI in 1972, and now resides at the Smithsonian Institution. The ultimate result of these research efforts, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), which became operational in 1999 – and which immediately helped solve a number of decades-old crimes by matching prints lifted from crime scenes to those in the database – now processes millions of prints each month, selecting possible matches from among the network’s vast archive. Because the Bureau had already applied Hoover’s notion of information science to its investigative work, the migration of vast reference collections to computer networks came naturally to the FBI. Today, these searchable archives include the Automated Counterfeiting Identification Database, which contains images of counterfeit checks and other information; the Bank Robbery Note File, used to compare notes from different bank robberies; the Explosives Reference Tool Database, to help identify the components

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) false-color pictures of the site of the former Twin Towers. LIDAR is used by the FBI Laboratory’s Special Projects Unit to provide a 360-degree, spherical panoramic image of a venue such as a sports stadium or other landmark that may be vulnerable to attack.

and manufacturers of explosive and incendiary devices; and SoleSearcher, a shoe print database that contains thousands of outsoles from hundreds of shoe manufacturers, to help identify the brand or manufacturer of shoes when footwear impressions are left behind at a crime scene. Completed in 1989, DRUGFIRE – a multimedia investigative database that automates the comparison of images of bullets, shotshells, and cartridge cases – was first put to use in 1992, the year that the Bureau’s Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART) was established. DRUGFIRE has been useful in linking shooting incidents and identifying weapons used in gang- and drug-related crimes. Probably one of the best-known FBI-maintained databases, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), became fully operational in 1998, and was produced through the expertise of the FBI’s DNA Analysis Unit, created 10 years earlier – making the Laboratory the first public crime lab in the United States to perform forensic DNA analysis. In the 1990s, the FBI began to study ways to analyze a different kind of DNA – mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, which remains in very old or degraded tissue or fluid samples. The Bureau became the first crime laboratory to use mtDNA to identify a person in 1996, and it has played a leadership role in mtDNA analysis ever since, essentially funding the establishment of and training for four regional mtDNA labs in Phoenix, Ariz.; Meriden, Conn.; St. Paul,

Courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The Next Level: Forensic Science Enters

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Minn.; and Trenton, N.J. The regional program, said Smrz, “has doubled the capacity for mitochondrial DNA analysis in this country. They do missing person cases; they do certain homicides and violent crimes. And they also help us with some of our own cases that involve explosive devices, any kind of trace evidence that might come off of those.” Beyond Forensics

In 1941, just after the United States had entered World War II, Director Hoover hosted a visit from the British Director of Naval Intelligence, Adm. John Godfrey, and a delegation that included a young intelligence officer named Ian Fleming – later the author of 12 novels about a fictional British intelligence officer, James Bond. Fleming was, according to written accounts of the visit, impressed not only by the Bureau’s technological advantages, but also by their simplicity – Tommy guns, fingerprinting, and comprehensive cross-referencing of data were hardly revolutionary, but they presented a formidable front against America’s adversaries. In many cases, the refinement of computer technology has made the retrieval of information almost instantaneous for FBI personnel. For example, the Laboratory’s Scientific

and ranks the individual hits to aid in my evaluation of the unknown. This concept can describe many searchable chemical libraries; however, prior to SLICE, this type of data could not be assessed in this manner.” Information technology has been applied to many of the Bureau’s operational functions, as well as its forensic science units. In order to help with major event planning, for example, the Laboratory’s Special Projects Unit may perform 3D laser scanning, or a technique called light detection and ranging (LIDAR) to provide a 360-degree, spherical panoramic image of a venue such as a sports stadium or other landmark that may be vulnerable to attack. “The product they prepare is used by the command and technical personnel for documenting these venues,” said Smrz, “to determine – among other things – ingress and egress points, breaching points, sniper encounter, sniper locations, emergency evacuation plans, helicopter landing areas, desirable routes of travel, and other important logistical information.” For all the FBI’s ability to develop, adapt, or refine the most promising crime-fighting technologies – it is the most technically sophisticated law enforcement agency in the world today, with several capabilities that are unique to public law enforcement – its greatest technological strength still probably

For all the FBI’s ability to develop, adapt, or refine the most promising crime-fighting technologies … its greatest technological strength still probably consists of its vast warehouses of information. Analysis Section employs the Spectral Library Identification Classification Explorer (SLICE), a searchable database of the physical characteristics and elemental composition of trace substances found at crime scenes. SLICE, developed by FBI chemist Dennis C. Ward and an outside consultant, allows technicians to conduct a general pattern search, matching unknown crime-scene substances to known substances in the database. Andria Mehltrettr, a scientist with the Paints and Polymers Subunit, said SLICE – a technology now commercially available – makes the identification of certain substances nearly automatic by displaying the elemental composition as a spectrum on X and Y axes. “I analyze a material and obtain a spectrum for that material. Then I use SLICE to search for comparable spectra of previously analyzed known materials. The software produces a hit list

consists of its vast warehouses of information. The mainstay of the Bureau’s work, emphasized repeatedly by Hoover, the former librarian, this century’s worth of knowledge has been pushed to FBI personnel to an unprecedented degree in recent years. The National Crime Information Center, established more than 40 years ago, ensures that most of this information can be accessed around-the-clock by a police officer in his squad car, or by any of the 90,000 agencies now connected to this database. The new Sentinel case management system, introduced in June 2007, will eventually bring most of this information down to the desktop – and possibly the portable handheld device – of every FBI employee. While many of the crime-fighting capabilities of information technology have yet to be explored, one thing is given: The FBI, alone or in partnership with the nation’s best technical minds, will be at the forefront.

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FBI Directors

Federal Bureau of Investigation Directors By iwaLani Kahikina

Body

Robert S. Mueller, III Director Sept. 4, 2001 - Present

As FBI Director from just before September 11 to the present, Robert S. Mueller, III, has overseen one of the most far-reaching transformations of the FBI in history. Mueller has restructured the Bureau, added new capabilities, hired more personnel, and shifted personnel and resources toward intelligence and antiterrorism operations, in order to protect the United States from the threat of terrorism. Mueller was born in New York City and grew up outside of Philadelphia. After graduation from Princeton University in 1966, Mueller later earned

his master’s degree in International Relations from New York University. Mueller served in the U.S. Marine Corps after college as an officer for three years. He led a rifle platoon of the 3rd Marine Division in Vietnam. He is the recipient of the Bronze Star, two Navy Commendation Medals, the Purple Heart, and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry. After his military service, in 1973, Mueller earned a law degree from the University of Virginia Law School and served on the Law Review. After earning his degrees, Mueller worked as a litigator in San Francisco and then served for 12 years in U.S. Attorneys’ offices. In 1982, Mueller served as an assistant U.S. Attorney in Boston, where he investigated and prosecuted major financial fraud, terrorist, and public corruption cases, as well as narcotics conspiracies and international money launderers. In 1989, Mueller was called to public service in the U.S. Department of Justice as an assistant to the Attorney General. In 1990, he took charge of its Criminal Division and in 1991, he was elected Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers. Mueller was partner at another firm in 1993 that specialized in complex white-collar crime litigation. In 1995, he served as senior litigator in the homicide section of the District of Columbia U.S. Attorney’s Office and assumed the position as Chief in 1997. In 1998, Mueller was confirmed by the Senate as

U.S. Attorney in San Francisco and held that position until 2001 when President George W. Bush nominated Mueller as FBI Director on Sept. 4.

Thomas J. Pickard Acting Director June 25, 2001 - Sept. 4, 2001

Thomas J. Pickard was born in Woodside, Queens, New York. He graduated from St. Francis College, Brooklyn, and subsequently received his master’s degree from St. John’s University, Jamaica, New York. He is a Certified Public Accountant, licensed by the State of New York. Pickard began his career as an FBI Special Agent Jan. 13, 1975, and after a period of training, he was initially assigned to the New York City field

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office. In April 1979, Pickard was transferred to the Washington, D.C., field office, where he worked in an undercover capacity on the case codenamed “ABSCAM.” In July 1980, he was promoted to FBI Headquarters, serving in the Inspection and Criminal Investigative Divisions. In October 1984, Pickard reported to the New York City field office as a Supervisor in the White-Collar Crime section and later was appointed to be the Assistant Special Agent in Charge for all white-collar crime investigations and violent crime matters in New York. In 1989, Pickard was selected for the FBI’s senior executive service and was transferred to FBI Headquarters, where he oversaw the FBI’s finance operations and subsequently its personnel operations. In 1993, Pickard was transferred to the New York City office once again, to serve as the Special Agent in Charge of the National Security Division, supervising such matters as the trials of the World Trade Center defendants, the trial of the Blind Sheik and his coconspirators, the Manila Air conviction of Ramzi Youssef and his associates, and the July 1996 TWA Flight 800 explosion. On Sept. 10, 1996, FBI Director Louis Freeh named Pickard to the position of Assistant Director in Charge of the Washington field office (WFO). During his tenure at WFO, he supervised such matters as the investigation and arrest of FBI Special Agent Earl Pitts for espionage and the capture of convicted CIA killer Mir Aimal Kasi. On Feb. 2, 1998, Pickard assumed the position of Assistant Director of the FBI’s Criminal Investigative Division at FBI Headquarters. On Nov. 1, 1999, Pickard was appointed Deputy Director, the No. 2 position at the FBI. Pickard was appointed Acting Director of the FBI by Attorney General John Ashcroft on June 25, 2001.

20, 1993. He was confirmed by the Senate on Aug. 6, 1993, and officially sworn in on Sept. 1, 1993. Freeh received various awards during his career as a civil servant. In 1987 and 1991, he received the Attorney General’s Award for Distinguished Service, the second highest annual honor given by the Department of Justice. Freeh also received the John Marshall Award for Preparation of Litigation and the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association Award. Louis J. Freeh Director Sept. 1, 1993 - June 25, 2001

Louis J. Freeh was born in Jersey City, N.J. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Rutgers College in 1971, received a J.D. degree from Rutgers Law School in 1974, and earned an LL.M. degree in criminal law from New York University Law School in 1984. He also served in the U.S. Army Reserve as a first lieutenant. During his career, Freeh supervised several major case investigations. He was lead prosecutor in the Pizza Connection case and in 1990, he oversaw the investigation of the VANPAC case involving the mail-bomb murders of a federal judge and a civil rights leader. Freeh served as an FBI Special Agent in the New York City field office and at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C., from 1975 to 1981. Freeh then joined the U.S. Attorney’s office for the southern district of New York as an Assistant U.S. Attorney. He held positions as Chief of the Organized Crime Unit, Deputy U.S. Attorney, and Associate U.S. Attorney. President George H.W. Bush named Freeh the U.S. District Court Judge for the southern district of New York in July 1991. Freeh served in this position until President Bill Clinton appointed him to be the Director of the FBI, July

Floyd I. Clarke Acting Director July 19, 1993 - Sept. 1, 1993

Floyd I. Clarke was appointed Acting Director by President Bill Clinton on July 19, 1993. He served in this capacity until Sept. 1, 1993. Clarke was born and grew up in Arizona. He attended George Washington University, Washington, D.C., and then joined the FBI in 1964. As a Special Agent, Clarke worked in the Birmingham, Boston, Philadelphia, and Kansas City divisions, and at FBI Headquarters. He specialized in handling organized and violent crime matters. During his dedicated career in the Bureau, Clarke served as Supervisor,

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Assistant Special Agent in Charge, Special Agent in Charge, Assistant Director, Executive Assistant Director, Deputy Director and, last, Acting Director. While serving in the FBI Criminal Investigative Division, the FBI developed its first artificial intelligence capability and named the program “Big Floyd” after Clarke. Clarke has received awards including the Attorney General’s Award for Exceptional Leadership, the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award, and the Attorney General’s Edmund J. Randolph Award. President George H.W. Bush named Clarke a Distinguished Executive in 1989 and a Meritorious Executive in 1990.

William Steele Sessions Director Nov. 2, 1987 - July 19, 1993

William Steele Sessions was born in Fort Smith, Ark. After graduating from Northeast High School in Kansas City, Mo., in 1948, Sessions enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in 1951, receiving his wings and commission in October 1952.

Thereafter, he served on active duty until October 1955. In 1956, he received a bachelor’s degree from Baylor University, Waco, Texas, and in 1958, he received an LL.B. degree from the Baylor University School of Law. Sessions practiced privately in Waco from 1958 to 1969, when he left his firm to join the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., as Chief of the Government Operations Section, Criminal Division. He was appointed U.S. Attorney for the western district of Texas in 1971, U.S. District Judge in 1974, and then Chief Judge in 1980. He served on the board of the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D.C., and on the Texas State Bar and the Judicial Conference of the United States committees. Sessions resigned as District Judge in November 1987 to become Director of the FBI. As Director, Sessions introduced the post of Deputy Director. The Deputy Director would be responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Bureau and be assisted by two Associate Deputy Directors. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War, Sessions also shifted personnel who had formerly worked in counterintelligence to investigating white-collar and violent crimes. Sessions is a member of the American Bar Association and has served as an officer or on the board of directors of the Federal Bar Association of San Antonio, the American Judicature Society, the San Antonio Bar Association, the Waco-McLennan County Bar Association, and the District Judges’ Association of the Fifth Circuit. He was appointed as a commissioner of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday Commission, and, in November 1991, was elected for a three-year term as a delegate for the

Americas to the Executive Committee of ICPO-Interpol. Sessions has received many awards and honors, including: the Baylor University Distinguished Alumni Award; the Baylor Law School’s Lawyer of the Year in 1988; Father of the Year for public service; the Golden Plate Award from the American Academy of Achievement; the 1989 Law Enforcement Leadership Award from the Association of Federal Investigators and the DAR Medal of Honor; the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1990; the Good Scout Award; the Person of the Year Award from the American Society for Industrial Security; the 1990 Magna Charta Award from the Baronial Order of the Magna Charta; and the Ellis Island Congressional Medal of Honor in 1992. He also received honorary degrees from the John C. Marshall Law School, St. Mary’s University, Dickinson School of Law, and Flagler College.

John E. Otto Acting Director May 26, 1987 - Nov. 2, 1987

Attorney General Edwin Meese appointed John E. Otto to serve as the Acting Director of the FBI between May and November 1987. Otto was born Dec. 18, 1938, in St. Paul, Minn. After high school, he served in the U.S. Marines for two years. Otto earned his bachelor’s degree from St. Cloud States College in Minnesota in 1960. From 1960 to 1964, he took graduate courses in educational administration

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at the University of Minnesota. During this time, Otto served on the Ramsey County, Minn., sheriff’s patrol. He also taught courses at St. Paul junior high school. Otto joined the Oakland, Calif., police department’s special duty tactical squad in 1963. On Oct. 12, 1964, Otto joined the FBI as a Special Agent, subsequently serving in the Newark and Dallas divisions. In March 1971, he was assigned to FBI Headquarters, where he assumed supervisory duties in the Public Affairs Office and then the Technical Services Division, the Planning and Inspection Division, and the Criminal Investigative Division. In January 1975, he was named Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the Portland Division. Over the next decade, Otto served in a number of leadership capacities in the field and at Headquarters, including positions as Special Agent in Charge and an Assistant Director. After Sessions took over as Director, he appointed Otto Associate Deputy Director for administration, and later awarded Otto the first Medal of Meritorious Achievement. He retired from the Bureau in 1987.

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William H. Webster Director Feb. 23, 1978 - May 25, 1987

William H. Webster was born in St. Louis, Mo. He received his bachelor’s degree from Amherst College, Mass., in 1947, and his J.D. degree from Washington University Law School, St. Louis, in 1949. He served as a lieutenant in the Navy during World War II and again in the Korean War. Webster practiced law with a St. Louis law firm from 1949 to 1959, and served

as U.S. Attorney for the eastern district of Missouri from 1960 to 1961, returning to private practice in 1961. He was a member of the Missouri Board of Law Examiners from 1964 to 1969. In 1970, Webster was appointed a judge of the U.S. District Court for the eastern district of Missouri and then to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in 1973. During his service on the bench, Webster was chairman of the Judiciary Conference Advisory Committee on the Criminal Rules and was a member of the Ad Hoc Committee on Habeas Corpus and the Committee of Court Administration. Webster was also a member of the American Bar Association; the Council of the American Law Institute; the Order of the Coif; the Missouri Bar Integrated; and the Metropolitan St. Louis Bar Association. He also served as chairman of the Corporation, Banking and Business Law Section of the American Bar Association; and is a fellow of the American Bar Foundation. Webster resigned from his post to the U.S. Court of Appeals on Feb. 23, 1978, to become Director of the FBI. As Director, Webster continued to diversify the FBI’s workforce, and presided

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FBI Directors

over major public corruption investigations including the ABSCAM and Greylord sting operations. Under Webster, the FBI’s budget doubled, and relationships with international law enforcement agencies as well as the domestic Drug Enforcement Administration were strengthened. He remained at the FBI until President Ronald Reagan appointed him as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Webster is a member of the Board of Trustees of Washington University, the University of Colorado Law School Board of Visitors, and the National Advisory Board of the American University. Webster has received other honors and awards, including: Washington University Alumni Citation for contributions to the field of law; the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Washington University Law School; the William Greenleaf Elliot Award from Washington University; the Fordham Law School Louis Stein Award; the Thomas Jefferson Award in Law from the University of Virginia; honorary degrees from DePauw University, William Woods College, Drury College, Washington University, Columbia College, University of Dayton School of Law, University of Notre Dame, Centre College, Dickinson School of Law, University of Miami, DePaul University, American University, and John Jay College of Criminal Justice; Man of the Year, 1980, by the St. Louis Globe-Democrat; the Riot Relief Fund Award in New York City; International Platform Association Theodore Roosevelt Award for excellence in public service; the Jefferson Award for the Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official; the Freedoms Foundation National Service Medal in Valley Forge, Pa.; the First Annual Patrick V. Murphy Award from the Police Foundation, Washington, D.C., for distinguished service in law enforcement; and Father of the Year for Public Service in 1986.

Webster was elected to active membership in the National Academy of Public Administration in October 1981 and, in May 1985, named president of the Institute of Judicial Administration.

Director/Deputy Associate Director for Investigations in 1974, served as Acting Director in early 1978, and was appointed Associate Director – the No. 2 position in the Bureau – on April 6, 1978. Adams received the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award in 1978 and was the recipient of the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal in 1979. Upon his retirement from the Bureau on May 11, 1979, Adams returned to Texas where he continued to serve in law enforcement positions until 1987.

James Blackburn Adams Acting Director Feb. 15, 1978 - Feb. 23, 1978

James Balckburn Adams was born in Corsicana, Texas, Dec. 21, 1926. He earned a bachelor’s degree and a law degree from Baylor University following military service in the Army. While serving, he became a Japanese language interpreter and served overseas. Adams became a prosecutor and legislator in Texas, and later resigned his seat in the state legislature to enter on duty with the Bureau on July 9, 1951. Adams served in the Seattle, San Francisco, and Administrative Services divisions as a Special Agent. He was appointed Assistant Special Agent in Charge of Minneapolis in 1959 and subsequently served in several leadership positions before being appointed Special Agent in Charge of San Antonio in 1972. In 1973, he was appointed Assistant Director of the Office of Planning and Evaluation. He was appointed Assistant to the

Clarence M. Kelley Director July 9, 1973 - Feb. 15, 1978

Clarence M. Kelley was raised in Fairmount, Mo. He received a bachelor’s degree from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, in 1936, and an LL.B. degree from the University of Kansas City School of Law in 1940. He was also admitted to the Missouri Bar in 1940. Before graduation, the head of the FBI’s Kansas City field office influenced Kelley to consider the Bureau as a career choice. Kelley started his FBI service on Oct. 7, 1940, as a Special Agent. He gained extensive experience in many important

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fields of investigative activity early in his career, while he served in field offices in Huntington, W.Va.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Des Moines, Iowa; and the FBI Training Center, Quantico, Va., as a firearms instructor. While on military leave, Kelley served in the U.S. Navy from 1944 to 1946. Kelley’s Navy service included a tour in the South Pacific aboard a transport attack ship. Kelley reapplied to the Bureau after his military service and was assigned to the Kansas City office; he was given supervisory duties at FBI Headquarters, Washington, D.C., in 1951. Kelley soon returned to the Kansas City Division as a Field Supervisor. In July 1953, Kelley was transferred to the Houston office, where he served as Assistant Special Agent in Charge. He was then assigned to the Seattle office in the same capacity in 1955. In 1956, Kelley transferred to the San Francisco field office as Assistant Special Agent in Charge. Kelley was transferred to the Training and Inspection Division at FBI Headquarters in 1957 and, shortly thereafter, designated as an Inspector. In 1957, Kelley was given the assignment of Special Agent in Charge of the Birmingham office; in 1960, he was reassigned to the Memphis office in the same capacity and served there until his retirement in 1961. After retirement, Kelley became Kansas City’s chief of police. He was also on the board of directors of the Boys’ Club and the United Fund. He also held membership in the Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Chamber of Commerce; and Rotary International. Kelley

was on the executive committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and was a member of both the Missouri Chiefs of Police Association, and the Tennessee and Mississippi Peace Officers Association. Kelley received the J. Edgar Hoover Gold Medal for Outstanding Job Service in 1970, presented by the Veterans of Foreign Wars. He was named to the Presidential Advisory Committee in 1971. And, in 1972, Kelley received the Outstanding Officer of the Year Award, presented by the Metropolitan Chiefs and Sheriffs Association. In addition, Kelley served on the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals and on the FBI National Academy Review Committee, both during the period 1972-1973. He served as chairman of the Florida Governor’s Task Force to Evaluate Public Safety and Related Support Services at the 1972 National Political Convention. President Richard M. Nixon nominated Kelley Director of the FBI on June 7, 1973, upon the death of J. Edgar Hoover. The U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination and on July 9, 1973, Kelley was sworn in in Kansas City, Mo. Kelley presided over a major reorganization of the Bureau in the wake of the Watergate scandal. He instituted new guidelines mandated by the Attorney General to restrict domestic surveillance, but also made his own changes, including emphasizing the quality of cases solved rather than sheer quantity of investigations. Kelley received numerous honors and awards such as the Alumnus of the Year of the Kansas City

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School of Law at the University of Missouri; the 17th Annual Award from the Society of Professional Investigators; and Honorary Doctor of Laws Degrees from Baker University, Baldwin City, Kan., and Culver-Stockton College, Canton, Mo. Kelley also received the Harry S. Truman Commemorative Good Neighbor Award from the Eddie Jacobson Memorial Foundation in Kansas City. He participated in the John Findley Green Lecture Series at Westminster College in Fulton, Mo., and received an honorary doctoral of political science degree.

to the Indiana State Legislature where he served as House majority leader. Ruckelshaus served in a number of state offices before being appointed to the Justice Department. In 1970, Ruckelshaus became the first administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He served in the EPA until his appointment as Acting Director. With the appointment of Clarence M. Kelley as Director, Ruckelshaus left to become Deputy Attorney General of the United States, but resigned on Oct. 23, 1973, instead of following President Richard M. Nixon’s order to fire Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor demanding access to White House tapes detailing the administration’s part in the Watergate cover-up. Ruckelshaus returned to private practice and in 1983, he returned to Washington as the fifth administrator of the EPA, serving there until 1985.

William Doyle Ruckelshaus Acting Director April 30, 1973 - July 9, 1973

William Doyle Ruckelshaus was born in Indianapolis, Ind., on July 24, 1932. He received a bachelor’s degree from Princeton University, graduating cum laude in 1957. He earned his J.D. from Harvard University in 1960. Ruckelshaus served in the U.S. Army for two years. In 1966, Ruckelshaus was elected

Louis Patrick Gray, III Acting Director May 3, 1972 - April 27, 1973

Louis Patrick Gray, III, was born in St. Louis, Mo. He attended schools in St. Louis and Houston, Texas. After high school he attended Rice University and then enrolled at the Naval Academy, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1940. The Navy commissioned Gray as a line officer and he served during World War II and the Korean War. Gray received a J.D. degree from George Washington University Law School in 1949, between his two tours of duty. He was admitted to practice before the Washington, D.C., Bar in 1949. He was also later admitted to practice law by the Connecticut State Bar, the Military Court of Appeals, the U.S. Court of Appeals, the U.S. Court of Claims, and the U.S. Supreme Court. After retiring from the Navy in 1960 as a captain, Gray served as military assistant to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1961, he entered private practice. Gray returned to the federal government and worked during the Nixon administration in several different positions during the late 1960s. In 1970, President Nixon named Gray Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division in the Department of Justice. In 1972, Gray was appointed Deputy Attorney General, but before the full Senate could confirm him, his nomination was withdrawn; Nixon instead designated him as Acting Director of the FBI. As Acting Director, he made a number of administrative changes to the FBI, including appointing the first female Special Agents since the 1920s, relaxing some of J. Edgar Hoover’s regulations on Agents’ dress and weight requirements, and hiring assistants from outside the FBI. In the wake of the Watergate investigation, Gray requested his name be withdrawn from consideration by Congress as the future FBI Director.

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Thank you for 100 years of service. Booz Allen Hamilton salutes the men and women of the Federal Bureau of Investigation— past and present—for 100 years of exceptional service. The FBI is tasked with a mission of critical importance, and has earned a reputation for excellence and leadership within the global law enforcement community. Booz Allen is privileged to have partnered with the FBI on some of its most complex responsibilities and objectives, and through our work, we've come to know well the caliber of people who make up the FBI. Booz Allen, a global strategy and technology consulting firm, works with clients to deliver results that endure.

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FBI Directors

John Edgar Hoover Director May 10, 1924 - May 2, 1972

John Edgar Hoover was born Jan. 1, 1895, and raised in Washington, D.C. After high school, he worked at the Library of Congress and attended night classes at George Washington University Law School. He was awarded his LL.B. in 1916 and his LL.M. in 1917. Hoover started his career with the Department of Justice on July 26, 1917, and rose quickly in government service. He led the Department’s General Intelligence Division (GID) and was named Assistant to the Attorney General in 1918. When the GID was moved in the BOI (Bureau of Investigation) in 1921, William Burns named Hoover BOI Assistant Director. In 1924, Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone appointed Hoover, only 29 years old, as Acting Director of the BOI and by December 1924, Hoover was named Director. The Bureau grew in responsibility and importance, becoming an integral part of the national government and an icon in American popular culture during

Hoover’s tenure. Hoover put into effect a number of institutional changes to correct criticisms made of his predecessor’s administration. Hoover fired incompetent and unqualified Agents. He ordered background checks, interviews, and physical testing for new Agent applicants and he revived the earlier Bureau policies of requiring legal or accounting training. In the 1930s, the FBI attacked violent gangster crime, which earned the Bureau a higher profile. Hoover recognized the attention and emphasized the Bureau’s need to maintain public confidence. The FBI also began implementing programs to professionalize U.S. law enforcement through training and forensic assistance. In 1935, Hoover established the FBI National Police Academy to train policemen. Graduates would then return home to train their peers. During his tenure, Hoover often complied with presidents’ requests for the Bureau to assist in collecting information on political rivals. Hoover shared whatever derogatory information on officials he uncovered in his searches. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Bureau, and Hoover, garnered headlines for its staunch efforts against Nazi and Communist espionage. During World War II, the Bureau took the lead in domestic counterintelligence, counterespionage, and countersabotage investigations. President Roosevelt also tasked the Bureau with running a foreign intelligence service in the Western Hemisphere. This operation was called the Special Intelligence Service. In the early years of the Cold War, the Bureau took on the added responsibility of investigating the backgrounds of government employees to ensure that foreign agents did not infiltrate the government. In the 1960s and early 1970s, the Bureau took on investigations in the field of civil rights and organized crime. The

threat of political violence and foreign espionage demanded much of the Bureau’s resources. After the 1970s, Hoover’s anticommunist crusade was widely known and often considered excessive. Hoover’s vendettas affected the public’s perception of him. With the American public’s skepticism toward the government following Watergate, many of Hoover’s achievements were overshadowed or ignored. Hoover led the FBI for 48 years.

William J. Burns Director Aug. 22, 1921 - June 14, 1924

William J. Burns was born in Baltimore, Md., and educated in Columbus, Ohio. As a young man, Burns performed well as a Secret Service agent and parleyed his reputation into the William J. Burns International Detective Agency. A combination of good casework and an instinct for publicity made Burns a

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national figure. His exploits made national news, New York newspaper gossip columns, and the pages of detective magazines, in which he published “true crime” stories based on his exploits. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty appointed Burns Director of the BOI on Aug. 22, 1921. Under Burns, the Bureau’s personnel shrank from its 1920 high of 1,000-plus to about 600 in 1923, but he also ensured the establishment of a training program for Special Agents. In 1924, at the request of Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone, he resigned because of his connection with the Teapot Dome scandal that involved the secret leasing of naval oil reserve lands to private companies. Burns retired to Florida and published detective and mystery stories based on his long career for several years. He died in Sarasota, Fla., in April 1932.

as a Secret Service agent. Flynn gained recognition in 1911 when he successfully reorganized the New York City detective force and returned to the Secret Service as chief. Flynn served as Chief of the U.S. Railroad Secret Service during World War I, investigating threats of sabotage. In 1919, Flynn was named BOI’s Director. Attorney General Palmer praised his new appointee as “the leading, organizing detective of America ... Flynn is an anarchist chaser ... the greatest anarchist expert in the United States.” However, the investigations of radical activists and anarchists that took place under Flynn’s leadership, culminating in the “Palmer Raids” of January 1920, became increasingly controversial. On Sept. 27, 1921, Flynn resigned, saying he had a “private business matter to accept.” Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted the resignation immediately and appointed William J. Burns as his replacement, to take over on Aug. 22, 1921.

Before his appointment, Allen served as assistant in war matters to the Chief of the Bureau of Investigation. Allen’s resignation became effective June 30, 1919, when William J. Flynn replaced him.

Alexander Bruce Bielaski Director April 30, 1912 - Feb. 10, 1919

William J. Flynn Director July 1, 1919 - Aug. 21, 1921

William J. Flynn was born in New York City in 1867. He began his government career in 1897 after a public school education. His first assignment was

William E. Allen Acting Director Feb. 10, 1919 - June 30, 1919

In February 1919, William E. Allen of Texas began serving as Acting Director.

Alexander Bruce Bielaski was born in Montgomery County, Md. He received his law degree from George Washington University in 1904 and joined the Department of Justice. Like his predecessor, Bielaski worked his way up through the department. He served as a special examiner in Oklahoma and aided in the reorganization of its court system when the Oklahoma territory became a state. Returning to Washington, Bielaski entered the BOI and rose to become Finch’s Assistant. In this position, he was in charge of administrative matters for the Bureau. At the end of April 1912, Attorney General Wickersham appointed Bielaski to replace Finch. As chief, Bielaski oversaw a steady increase in the resources and responsibilities assigned to the Bureau.

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After leaving the Bureau in 1919, Bielaski entered into private law practice. According to The New York Times, while on a trip to Cuernavaca, Mexico, in 1921, Bielaski was kidnapped. He escaped three days later, saving himself and the $10,000 gathered to rescue him. Bielaski worked undercover as a Prohibition agent operating a decoy speakeasy in New York City. From 1929 to 1959, he was head of the National Board of Fire Underwriters team of arson investigators. In 1938, Bielaski served as President of the Society of Former Special Agents. He died in February 1964, at the age of 80.

Stanley W. Finch Director July 26, 1908 - April 30, 1912

Stanley W. Finch served as the first Director of the Bureau of Investigation. Finch was born in Monticello, N.Y., on July 20, 1872. He attended Baker University in Kansas, the Corcoran Scientific School in

Washington, D.C., and business colleges in Albany, N.Y., and Washington, D.C. In 1893, he accepted appointment as a Department of Justice clerk, where he worked off and on for 40 years. Finch also served as chief examiner from 1893 to 1908. While working in the Justice Department, Finch earned his LL.B. and LL.M. degrees from the National University Law School. The District of Columbia Bar admitted him to practice in 1911. As chief examiner, Finch advocated the creation of an investigative squad within the Justice Department, eventually becoming its first leader. Finch was assigned oversight of the newly organized Special Agent force that was created by Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte. He worked to put in place many policies and procedures that helped professionalize and organize the investigative unit. Finch had a particular interest in stopping “white slavery,” and lobbied Congress to pass the Mann Act, which made it a federal crime to transport women over state lines for immoral purposes. In 1912, he left the BOI and was named Special Commissioner for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic. In 1913, he became a special assistant to the Attorney General. From 1913 to the 1930s, Finch alternated between private employment – primarily in the novelty-manufacturing business – and positions in the Department of Justice. Finch retired from the department in 1940 and died in 1951.

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FBI History

The FBI in the Public Eye For 100 years, the Bureau has reflected – and often shaped – the American narrative By Craig Collins

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he Bureau of Investigation created in 1908 was a small contingent of criminal investigators, focused on a narrow range of federal crimes that often flew under the radar of America’s collective consciousness: violations of banking statutes, land fraud, or antitrust violations, for example. The passage of the Mann Act in 1910 – which charged the Bureau with investigating cases of the transport over state lines of “any woman or girl for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery … or for any other immoral purpose” – apparently hinted at enough salaciousness to bump up the Bureau’s profile a bit, but for the most part, the Bureau’s work remained relatively obscure. The Bureau’s first taste of the limelight was a bitter one, and it came in the wake of the first major expansion of its mission. Charged with enforcing the Espionage, Selective Service, and Sabotage Acts passed following U.S. entry into World War I, the Bureau, under the impassioned leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, coordinated what became known as the “Palmer Raids.” In 30 U.S. cities, Bureau Agents and local law enforcement officers rounded up suspected anarchists and radicals. Now widely regarded as indiscriminate as well as poorly planned and executed, the Palmer Raids were roundly criticized, a high-profile misstep. Soon after the raids, during the notoriously corrupt administration of President Warren G. Harding, the Bureau received another black eye when Attorney General Harry Daugherty was accused of using federal investigators to intimidate senators who had exposed the Teapot Dome scandal. Many executive branch agencies were tainted by corruption during the Harding administration, but the FBI’s reputation seemed to suffer more damage than most; by 1924, when the young J. Edgar Hoover was named Director of the Bureau of Investigation, the agency had become symbolic of a government widely viewed as shadowy and dysfunctional. The Rise of the G-Man

As he assumed leadership of the Bureau, Hoover was specifically instructed by his boss, Attorney General Harlan

Fiske Stone, to focus on investigating crimes and to keep the Bureau out of the public eye. Hoover was in a unique position to elevate the Bureau’s crime-fighting status: At the urging of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the Justice Department had tasked the Bureau with administering the nationwide clearinghouse of fingerprint files. This new Identification Division offered invaluable assistance to state and local law enforcement officers, and made the Bureau indispensable to police work. With various other reforms, Hoover helped professionalize law enforcement to an unprecedented degree, developing a corps of college-educated Agents and analysts who solved crime through scientific inquiry. By the end of the 1920s, the Bureau had gained respect throughout much of America’s law enforcement community. In the early years of the Great Depression, however, the mass media – newspaper journalists and Hollywood filmmakers alike – reflected a darkening of the public mood. Author and historian Richard G. Powers, who has written about the FBI’s public image in The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide (2000), calls this time a “Cultural Depression,” during which America regarded celebrity criminals – gangsters such as Al Capone and John Dillinger – with awestruck ambivalence. The writing in American newspapers revealed an urban gangland that had achieved folkloric status, with rival chieftains battling for power as they tried to outrun the law. Whether they loved or hated them, Americans were certainly fascinated by gangsters; in 1931 alone, more than 50 gangster films hit U.S. theaters. More often than not, the heroes of these films were the criminals themselves, living lives of power, luxury, and absolute independence, while law enforcement officers tended to be portrayed as impotent or criminally corrupt. Little Caesar (1930), for example, starred Edward G. Robinson as gang leader Caesar Enrico Bandello, or “Rico,” who rises to power and meets his demise in a world devoid of order or moral authority. In The Public Enemy (1931), James Cagney plays Tommy Powers, the charismatic brute who becomes a gang leader by mowing down everyone in his path – before falling at the hands of a fellow gangster.

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National Archives

Posters for a documentary-style short showing the inner workings of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

“Gangster movies of the 1930s,” wrote Powers, “revealed how much the image of the public enemy had become embedded in the popular imagination, had become a symbol of national defeat and despair. More than that, gangster movies showed that American popular culture understood the public enemy as a reproach to the times, and as a preview of what the future held should the nation’s morale and commitment to traditional values and institutions continue to decline.” Slowly – helped along by several crimes that shocked the public conscience, such as the Kansas City Massacre and the Lindbergh and Urschel kidnappings – American public opinion began to turn. The grassroots anticrime campaign that sprang up in communities across the nation was accompanied by government efforts to fight the crime wave – as well as a savvy public relations blitz by Hoover and Attorney General Homer S. Cummings. Cummings made the murder of FBI Agent Raymond S. Caffrey, killed in the Kansas City Massacre, into a rallying cry, declaring war on violent crime: a military engagement, he called it, between the nation’s law enforcement officials and “the underworld army.” Serially declaring each of these gangsters “Public Enemy No. 1,” Hoover’s Bureau – still a small corps of detectives, limited both by size and its statutory jurisdiction – hunted them down, one by one,

culminating in the July 1934 death of John Dillinger, who was killed while pulling a gun on surrounding Agents. While the highly publicized manhunts captured the public’s imagination, Cummings lobbied Congress for new anticrime legislation – including an expansion of FBI authority. It was George “Machine Gun” Kelly, according to legend, who first used the term “G-men” for Bureau Agents, and Cummings and Hoover took the moniker and ran with it, creating a smart (and smartly dressed) crime-fighting action hero to counter America’s gangland antiheroes. The Gman was everything the gangster was not: noble, intelligent, and courageous. While American newspapers breathlessly reported the FBI’s war on crime, Hoover and the Bureau, helped by sympathetic reporters such as The Washington Star’s Rex Collier, began to mold the narrative.

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by newspaper journalists and gangsters, Before long, Hollywood had joined marked a turning point in the relationthe chorus, in part because it had been ship between the FBI and the American threatened by religious groups with a public. Despite the ups and downs the boycott on films that glorified vice and Bureau’s reputation would later undercrime. The 1935 film “G” Men, in which go, the image of the heroic, intelligent, James Cagney played a heroic FBI Agent and trustworthy Agent has endured. fighting to bring murderers to justice, “I’ll give Hoover credit for this,” was the first and most important of the said Fox. “The idea that a law enforceG-man films of the 1930s. “G” Men is ment organization needs a good public an anthem to the federal Agent, in which image in order to do its job I think is Cagney’s Brick Davis, an incorruptvery much true. Without public trust, ible former lawyer, explicitly bemoans you don’t have people willing to come the statutory constraints placed on him – such as his inability to carry firearms The 1930s saw the creation of the G- forward and tell you the things you (which most Agents did by then anyway, man, who quickly came to be respected need to know to do your job. If the and which was remedied by Congress as a heroic, trustworthy, and very public doesn’t trust us, David Kaczynski doesn’t tell us: ‘You know, that soon after) – while becoming an avatar capable figure. manifesto that was just published in of FBI values: teamwork, discipline, and The New York Times sounds a lot like organization. Brick Davis became the arthe stuff my brother writes’ … Without that trust, it’s a chetype for the next 20 years’ worth of Hollywood’s law enlot harder to do the job.” forcement heroes, and the line between G-man and HollyAmerica’s fascination with the G-man wasn’t limited to wood actor become somewhat blurred later that year when portrayals in movies and radio. The 1930s and early 1940s Melvin Purvis, the Agent who had orchestrated the capture were a Golden Age for the FBI’s public image. The Gof Dillinger, left the FBI for show business. man was featured in countless pulp magazines, including Hoover played no role in crafting the message of “G” two monthlies dedicated almost exclusively to the Bureau’s Men, but as the FBI gained stature, he gained power and inadventures: G-Men and The Feds. Members of G-Men’s ofdependence within the government, and soon had a hand ficial club were issued bronze badges that bore the inscripin several cultural offerings. At his urging, Collier and antion: “G-Men Club: Special Agent.” other journalist, Courtney Ryley Cooper, turned several Perhaps the most interesting cultural phenomena of the FBI “Interesting Case” memos – which the Bureau used 1930s and 1940s were the Junior G-Man clubs that popped to present its perspective on specific cases to the media up from coast to coast as a law enforcement-themed alterna– into radio shows. The result was the immensely popular tive to the Boy Scouts. Melvin Purvis became chief of the G-Men, which later, after the official FBI connection was sevPost Toasties Junior G-Men, hosting a weekly radio show ered, became Gang Busters, with each episode dramatizing an and urging young members to redeem cereal box tops for authentic police case history, and ending with an appeal to the public’s help in catching a fugitive. Gang Busters was immensely popular, running continuously for the next 21 years. Playing off the success of the Dick Tracy comic serial, Hoover and Collier also teamed up for a comic strip series, War on Crime, which opened in 45 papers nationwide in 1936. various items of FBI paraphernalia: handcuffs, badges, cap Hoover himself maintained control over every detail of the pistols, microscopes, and more. Hollywood caught the Junior comic strip, which made his Agents – and the Director himG-Man wave with movie serials that lasted into the 1950s, self – the heroes of an epic chronicle, kicked off by the Kansas and several books were published specifically for the juvenile City Massacre and culminating in the Dillinger manhunt. market. There were even six competing series of bubble gum According to Dr. John Fox, the FBI’s own historian, cards printed in the 1930s, devoted to the FBI and picturing Hoover’s skill and passion in getting in front of public Agents, public enemies, and iconic moments in FBI history. opinion, rather than allowing the Bureau to be defined

National Archives

The G-man was everything the gangster was not: noble, intelligent, and courageous.

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FBI History

World War II and the Cold War: The Domestic Front

Prior the United States’ entry into World War II, the FBI worked to dampen the kind of hysteria that had afflicted the public in World War I, but these efforts were foiled by one of its own Agents, Leon G. Turrou, who had actively investigated Nazi spy rings during the 1930s. Turrou published a sensational account of his work, Confessions of a Nazi Spy, which was promptly made into a movie of the same name starring Edward G. Robinson. Hoover, outraged, began a public relations campaign in which he acknowledged the existence of foreign spies, but advised the public that the Bureau had things under control. The 1930s gang wars, as well as World War II, made the battle against evil into a relatively simple matter: The enemy was confronted directly, with force. The later transition into a more ambiguous – and, given the existence of the atomic bomb, more frightening – Cold War with a former Soviet ally played out gradually in the FBI’s public relations, and over time, the image of the G-man underwent a subtle transformation. Hoover reasserted control over the FBI’s public image with the 1945 launch of the only radio series to carry the official approval of the FBI: This Is Your FBI. The show’s producer/director, Jerry Devine, was given closed case files as the basis for its weekly stories, which were presented in a semi-documentary style that featured dramatic newsreeltype music and a narrative voice that introduced different chapters in the evolution of a case. Devine himself was even allowed to attend a two-week training session at the FBI Academy in order to get a feel for the Bureau’s inner workings, and made regular trips to Washington throughout the series’ run. This Is Your FBI was a huge hit for the young American Broadcasting Network, and ran for eight years, going off the air in 1953.

Melvin H. Purvis, Jr., and J. Edgar Hoover after Dillinger’s capture and death. Purvis was the FBI Agent who led the investigation that led to Dillinger’s death.

radio program, wrote Powers, began to portray Agents “who acted less like action heroes than social workers, who through sympathy and understanding instead of guns or fingerprints caught and reformed criminals.”

The final episodes of This Is Your FBI were the first to indicate a refinement of the image Hoover wanted to present of the Cold War FBI Agent. While postwar Hollywood continued to crank out retreads of the G-men formula or spy thrillers about fighting off the Red Menace, Hoover’s

In the 1959 film The FBI Story, based on the book written by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Don Whitehead, Jimmy Stewart, as FBI Agent Chip Hardesty, plays this new embodiment of the sensitive, cerebral G-man. Aimed at a mass-market family audience, the film offers a hero for the domestic

National Archives

The image of the FBI Agent it presented – collegial, avuncular, upbeat – had reached a kind of peak among the American public. It was relentlessly positive and uncomplicated – and, given the political turmoil facing the nation, it was doomed to end.

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1950s: a paragon of fatherhood and marital fidelity who has worked for the Bureau from its early, creaky beginnings up to its 1950s heyday. The film’s theme was a perfect distillation of Hoover’s own assertion, in his 1958 book Masters of Deceit, that the threat of communism would be defeated by faith, not bullets. This new FBI Agent’s most powerful weapon against communism wasn’t his gun or his microscope or the Bureau’s vaunted organizational prowess, but rather the simple American values that made the United States a superior nation: love of family, friends, and country; generosity to strangers; the worship of God; and fidelity to all. The Bureau’s last major involvement in mass entertainment, the television series The FBI (1965-1974), starring Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., carried parts of this image into the 1970s. The Agents of Zimbalist’s FBI didn’t get into shootouts with gangsters or play cat-and-mouse with dangerous spies; they mostly worked together like a family to solve cases, under the watchful guidance of their patriarch, Zimbalist’s Inspector Lewis Erskine. The show, down to its casting decisions, was completely controlled by the Bureau, and each episode opened and closed with the image of the Bureau’s official seal. Once a month, the show ran a mug shot of one of America’s most wanted, and appealed to the public for help in catching the fugitive. By the time of Hoover’s death in 1972, The FBI was one of the most popular shows on television, attracting 40 million viewers every week. The image of the FBI Agent it presented – collegial, avuncular, upbeat – had reached a kind of peak among the American public. It was relentlessly positive and uncomplicated – and, given the political turmoil facing the nation, it was doomed to end.

National Archives

From Watergate to a “Postmodern” FBI

Increasingly, throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s, Hoover found his old-school, law-and-order values in conflict with a younger generation of Americans who were outraged about the conduct of the Vietnam War and the

continuing struggles of some groups for their civil rights. The reputation of the U.S. government – and by association, the FBI – suffered a prompt and total collapse that began with the 1971 revelation of the Bureau’s domestic counterintelligence programs (COINTELPRO) and ended with the Watergate scandal. The American public, and especially members of the media, were more likely than ever, in the aftermath of Vietnam, to assume the worst of their government, and the FBI became a common target for scorn. “All of the sudden,” said Fox, “the FBI’s image in popular culture plummets, along with that of the government and the press and pretty much every major institution, everything from churches to the military to the presidency. America really has a sense of crisis. President Jimmy Carter called it a ‘malaise,’ and certainly it was, at least as a descriptive term, very appropriate.” Not since the Palmer Raids had the Bureau been viewed so negatively. In films such as Dog Day Afternoon (1975), and in novels such as Irving Wallace’s The R Document (1976), and Robert Ludlum’s The Chancellor Manuscript (1977), the FBI was portrayed not as the embodiment of American values, but as the sinister antithesis of truth and goodness. The 1977 film The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover is a campy farce that openly mocks the entire history of the FBI, ridiculing Hoover and some of the Bureau’s most legendary cases. The FBI’s image had been taken out of its hands, perhaps permanently. What arose from the ashes of the 1970s was a more complex, more nebulous picture of the FBI than had ever existed. Throughout much of the 1980s, the Bureau’s depictions in popular culture were overwhelmingly negative. The 1988 film Mississippi Burning, which shows a group of Agents working to solve the church bombing cases of the 1960s, offered a mixed portrait of the Agents involved – they solved their cases, but only by acting in ways that were sometimes brutal and illegal – but the film

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Gillian Anderson in her role as Dana Scully of The X-Files. The popular television show and movies have presented two sides of the FBI’s pop culture image. was attacked nevertheless by some FBI critics for presenting too positive an image of the Bureau. By the 1990s, the FBI’s image began to seem as if it were being randomly assembled from the bits and pieces of its former public selves. Both Powers and Fox described it as a “postmodern” FBI, combining equal parts of paranoia and hero worship. The year 1991, for example, saw the release of two feature films that focused on the work of the FBI, but could not have been more different in their treatment: Oliver Stone’s JFK, which was an extreme portrayal of the FBI as a conspiratorial tool of power-mad fascists, and The Silence of the Lambs, which starred Jodie Foster as the idealistic and sincere young Special Agent, Clarice Starling, whose use of the Bureau’s psychological profiling techniques guided her pursuit of a killer. Powers, in his essay for The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide, noted that the film caused a spike in the Bureau’s applications for appointments as Special Agents, especially from young women. At about the same time as these films were released, the television series Twin Peaks premiered on the ABC Network. Twin Peaks was a groundbreaking series for many reasons, not least of which was the surreal approach taken by its creator, David Lynch. The series’ star, Kyle MacLachlan, portrayed Agent Dale Cooper as someone who avoided the use of science and technology altogether, instead relying on his own intuition – and often, mystical trance-like states – to find the truth. “James Cagney and Jimmy Stewart once wielded their microscopes like witch doctors,” wrote Powers. “In contrast, Agent Cooper seems oblivious to any difference between scientific criminology and his own way of sorting

out suspects by tossing rocks at a bottle while calling out their names.” Twin Peaks – even today, a series with a dedicated cult following – proved too strange for a mass media audience, lasting only two seasons. It was canceled in 1991. Another series featuring the FBI – The X-Files, starring David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson – enjoyed more mainstream success, running on the FOX Network from 1993 to 2002. The show’s widespread popularity seemed to occur almost in spite of the fact that it shared much of Twin Peaks’s fascination with the occult: Agent Fox Mulder (Duchovny) relies almost entirely on intuition while investigating rumors of alien abduction, demon fetal harvests, and widespread government conspiracy, with Agent Dana Scully (Anderson) serving both as his foil and partner. Mulder both rejects Scully’s reliance on empirical science and regards her as the only person in the world worthy of his trust. The two of them are perhaps a perfect illustration of the yin and yang of the FBI’s pop culture image. “It’s almost an ironic image,” said Fox, “because you’ve got these contradictory aspects of it. Although Mulder and Scully come out positively, the Bureau perhaps as a whole is a little more shadowy. Yeah, you’ve got these dedicated truth-seekers, but their superiors are working behind closed doors and not necessarily to be trusted. You can’t even trust Special Agent in Charge Skinner [Mulder and Scully’s supervisor].” It may be that this image of the FBI Agent – the humble truth-seeker who battles conspiracies both within and without the Bureau and the government, using whatever works (whether textbook science or New Age clairvoyance) – is the one that will prove more lasting than any of the others the Bureau has experienced in the last century. Then again, it may not. “Paradoxically,” Powers wrote in 2000, “the country is more deeply ambiguous about science and power than ever, just as it has always been uneasy about authority, law, and government. This paradox makes the FBI’s image in American popular culture an unmatched gauge for taking the measure of America’s attitude toward government – and toward itself.” In spite of, or perhaps because of, all that has happened since Powers wrote these words – September 11, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq – they seem even more true today, as the FBI celebrates its first century. Source: The FBI in American Popular Culture, by Richard G. Powers, in The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide, edited by Athan G. Theoharis. 2000, Checkmark Books, New York.

Courtesy of 20th Century Fox

FBI History

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national security branch

Intelligence Gathering Propels the FBI The National Security Branch builds upon a powerful law enforcement heritage By Clarence A. Robinson, JR.

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ramatic shifts within the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) serve to strengthen its ability to combat terrorism. The use of intelligence information woven throughout every program and operation is behind the Bureau’s ability to identify, disrupt, and dismantle terrorist networks. The FBI employs an enterprise-wide approach in understanding threats, and in strategically targeting its resources to dismantle these dangers. The Bureau maximizes intelligence gathered from its investigations to develop a greater awareness of risks facing the nation. By exploiting all intelligence collected, the Bureau can stay ahead of terrorists, deliberately and strategically deciding where and when to take action. Both law enforcement and intelligence tools play major roles in enhancing FBI capabilities. A significant transformation, implemented in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, integrates intelligence and operational elements to counter the most critical hazards. Among major Bureau modifications is the formation of the National Security Branch (NSB). This Branch encompasses the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division, Counterintelligence Division, Directorate of Intelligence, Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, and Terrorist Screening Center.

additional actions were necessary to meet evolving challenges to U.S. national security. Based on recommendations from the Commission on Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), the president directed the Attorney General to implement a National Security Service within the FBI. Before September 11, the Bureau often investigated crimes after the fact. Today, intelligence drives all operations to stop criminals and terrorists before they can strike. For FBI purposes, “intelligence” refers to vital information about those who would cause harm. “Some 2,100 intelligence analysts have been hired, and Field Intelligence Groups [FIGs] have been formed in each of the Bureau’s 56 field offices,” said Philip Mudd, Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB. “FIG Agents, analysts, surveillance experts, and language specialists collect and analyze intelligence data. They use intelligence capabilities to connect cases and individuals, and to identify gaps in the Bureau’s knowledge,” Mudd said. “This information also helps anticipate problems that may be on the horizon.” The FIGs are structured to better coordinate with each other, with street Agents, with analysts, and Agents in FBI Headquarters. A scalable

A significant transformation, implemented in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, integrates intelligence and operational elements to counter the most critical hazards. The FBI has always used intelligence in criminal and national security investigations, according to senior Bureau officials. That is how Nazi spies were thwarted during World War II, Soviet espionage during the Cold War, and La Cosa Nostra in the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless, in June 2005, President George W. Bush determined that

model enables each FIG to increase collaboration between intelligence and operations, and provide accountability for intelligence gathering, analyses, use, and production. Over the past five years, the Bureau developed new techniques, new sources, and new partnerships to better understand the scope and nature of terrorism. The number

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DoD photo by Sgt. Carmen L. Burgess

Two days after the September 11 attacks, former Secretary of the Army Thomas E. White (in white shirt) and Maj. Gen. James T. Jackson, USA, former Commanding General, U.S. Army Military District of Washington, are briefed by FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) officials at the crash site of the terrorist attack on the Pentagon. Since 2001, the number of JTTFs has gone from 33 to more than 100.

of Joint Terrorism Task Forces ( JTTFs), as an example, has increased from 33 to more than 100. These JTTFs combine the resources of the FBI, CIA, Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), Army Criminal Investigation Division (CID), and state and local police. The FBI’s JTTFs are on the nation’s front lines – small units of highly trained, locally based, passionately committed investigators, analysts, linguists, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) experts from dozens of law enforcement and intelligence agencies, Mudd said. “These JTTFs may also include foreign partners as well as CIA and other

intelligence community representatives. The units do not concentrate only on national security problems but also may assist with something like organized crime, which could have its roots reaching into areas such as Eastern Europe.” The JTTFs chase down leads, gather evidence, make arrests, provide security for special events, conduct training, collect and share intelligence, and respond to threats and incidents at a moment’s notice. Based in locations nationwide, there is at least one JTTF in each of the FBI’s 56 field offices. These task forces have played active and decisive roles in breaking up and arresting widespread terror cells from Oregon to New York to northern Virginia, Mudd said.

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An interagency National JTTF, or NJTTF, working out of FBI Headquarters, generally coordinates efforts, making certain that information and intelligence flow freely among local JTTFs, Mudd explained. “Comprised of some 35 government agencies, NJTTF representatives are from intelligence, law enforcement, diplomatic, defense, public safety, and homeland security communities.” With 3,723 members throughout the country – more than four times the number prior to September 11 – JTTFs include a total of 2,196 FBI Special Agents, 838 state and local law enforcement officers, and 689 professionals from other government agencies (the Department of Homeland Security, the CIA, and the Transportation Security Administration, to name a few). “Information sharing around the world looks a lot different than it did seven years ago, but there is always room for improvement,” Mudd observed. FBI Agents also are embedded within U.S. intelligence organizations and various major military commands, including combat forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, Mudd pointed out. The Bureau shares its counterterrorism, intelligence and law enforcement activities with those commands. In turn, the Department of Defense (DoD) and subordinate theater-wide organizations share counterterrorism strategies and initiatives with the FBI. Hundreds of FBI employees have been embedded on a rotating basis with combat units in theater over the last four years. FBI Agents in combat zones join forces with the military to interrogate detainees, collect biometric data, analyze pocket litter and explosive devices, and investigate terrorist financing. For example, Agents and linguists work in tandem with the military to interview detainees and collect fingerprints and DNA samples. The days of rolled ink prints on index cards are long gone. Today, 10 prints can be electronically captured in less than 15 seconds. Prints are run via satellite against more than 50 million prints in the Bureau’s database and a response is received in less than 2 minutes. Agents and analysts exploit evidence from detainees to connect cases, individuals, and organizations. FBI Agents may travel with the military to conduct nighttime raids, collect intelligence, and secure terrorist safe houses. A handwritten note, as an example, could lead to a training camp, or a phone number might provide a link to identify a terrorist operative. One bit of evidence could be the key in preventing an attack and protecting soldiers on the front lines, Mudd emphasized. “The Bureau believes that having Agents where the action is helps identify, evaluate, and resolve terrorist threats

An Agent from the Federal Bureau of Investigation screens a pile of dirt and sand from a possible burial site in Qwesat, Iraq, Nov. 25, 2007, during a search of the area for possible remains of Spc. Alex Jimenez and Pvt. Byron Fouty of the 10th Mountain Division, who were both abducted May 12, 2007.

faster and more efficiently than ever before,” Mudd said. “Having investigative expertise on the ground with combat forces also provides forensics, developing evidence that could lead to terrorist identification and capture. “It is fundamental to our mission and vision that we not only ensure enforcement of federal law violations in the United States, but also provide overall security for the nation. This includes preemption of terrorism,” he said. “With this as a mindset, there are a lot of national security organizational changes that compliment our traditional law enforcement mission. With a greater focus on intelligence, we can be preemptive and thus provide greater security.

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That’s why some 2,000 plus FBI intelligence analysts examine what is taking place and help us understand the undercurrents – not just as discrete data points but translating the data into information and actionable intelligence.” The national security mission also brings essential changes to FBI Agent basic training, Mudd said. “Not only are new prospective Agents, including analysts, entering the FBI Academy at Quantico, Va., exposed to traditional criminal law enforcement training, they also receive a heavy emphasis on counterintelligence and counterterrorism. This exposure helps provide a more thorough understanding of a vastly different kind of adversary. The concept is to blend law enforcement and domestic intelligence to help defeat terrorism.” Part of the FBI’s national security mission also involves substantive organizational changes. These adjustments encompass the ways in which resources, including human resources, are allocated, Mudd continued. “We are transitioning a lot of our resources over to work against national security targets in areas of counterterrorism and counterintelligence, siphoning some Agents from criminal investigations. There is, however, rough Agent parity, with slightly more than half of our Agents involved in criminal activities and the remainder in national security investigations.” Appointed in January 2008, Arthur M. Cummings II heads the NSB as the FBI’s Executive Assistant Director. A Mandarin Chinese speaker and former U.S. Navy SEAL, he is the official responsible for coordination and liaison with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the rest of the intelligence community. A graduate of the University of California, San Diego, Cummings became an FBI Agent in 1987 and has been assigned to five field offices, and to the counterterrorism division at Bureau Headquarters on three occasions. He managed counterterrorism, counterintelligence, violent crimes, and drug programs at several field offices and has deployed overseas to support several counterterrorism investigations. Cummings played a critical role in the reorganization of the counterterrorism division at FBI Headquarters. He also developed and managed Bureau strategy and operations directed at al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations and networks. His Bureau accomplishments brought him the Attorney General’s Award for Exceptional Service and the 2006 Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executive. As one of Cummings’ two deputies, Mudd served as an intelligence community professional before joining the

FBI in 2005. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from Villanova University and a Master of Arts from the University of Virginia. Previously serving as deputy director to the director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorism Center, Mudd earned a dozen intelligence community honors, including the William L. Langer Award for Outstanding Leadership; the George H.W. Bush Award for Excellence in Counterterrorism; and the CIA’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal. He also served at the National Security Council as director for Gulf Affairs, Near East, and North Africa Affairs. Since joining the CIA in 1985, his work emphasized terrorism in the Middle East. Mudd’s counterpart as the NSB’s other Associate Executive Assistant Director is Thomas J. Harrington. He began his FBI career as a Special Agent in 1984, and received the Presidential Rank Award for Distinguished Executive in 2006. A graduate of Mount St. Mary’s College, Emmitsburg, Md., with a master’s degree in banking from the University of Delaware, his role includes leading the Bureau’s Strategic Execution Team (SET). This team builds and accelerates efforts to enhance the FBI’s performance in the national security area. Harrington’s FBI background includes managing organized crime, violent crimes, and major offenders’ programs in the Philadelphia Division. SET helps drive implementation of changes across the Bureau. This team involves approximately 90 Agents, analysts, and other professional staff from FBI Headquarters and 27 field offices. SET efforts are being focused in three critical areas: intelligence operations, human capital, and program management. The NSB’s goals are to develop a comprehensive understanding of threats and to penetrate national and transnational networks seeking to harm the United States. These networks include terrorist organizations, foreign intelligence services, those that seek to proliferate weapons of mass destruction, and criminal enterprises. “There is also an imperative on intelligence reporting at all Bureau levels and that is the job of the field divisions, not only to execute well but to ensure that we know all of what we know in areas that are increasingly national, international, and networked,” Mudd stated. “How would we know what our adversaries look like if Topeka doesn’t talk to Albuquerque with valuable intelligence reporting? There is a much greater reporting emphasis on everything from terror financing to organizational structures, so that, again, all hands know what we know, constantly adding updated information. At least to me, as

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about what information may be worth disseminating throughout the intelligence community. These questions include whether to ask the source base for additional case information, and, increasingly, what the FBI calls the domain management initiative, Mudd said. Domain questions are often asked even before an organization may learn that it is being targeted From left to right: Arthur M. Cummings II, FBI’s Executive Assistant Director, head of NSB; by a foreign intelligence service. Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB Philip Mudd; Thomas J. Harrington, Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB. These groups often include universities conducting research and industries involved in cutting-edge technology developan intelligence professional, this is very fundamental – enment. Targeted technologies may, indeed, be sensitive but terprise-wide reporting for both terror and criminal acunclassified and in the early stages of development. tivities. People outside the FBI could look at the formation “The focus of the domain management initiative is preof the NSB and the internal changes and believe that they emptive in nature and simply good security practices,” are a consolidation of national security elements within Mudd explained. Companies could be developing advancthe Bureau, but that would be misleading,” Mudd said. es in technologies that would later become very sensitive “This is an enterprise-wide proposition to simultaneously when applied to military programs. “The Bureau doesn’t address all of the issues, criminal and national security. wait until those technologies are classified before talking “With the increasingly global nature of terrorism, the to their security directors and asking pertinent questions FBI now has agents operating at 60 overseas posts, more – have you seen any suspicious activity? Tell me how you than U.S. main offices,” he said. “There are numerous train your personnel to make certain they are cognizant that teams working in the field, including combat areas, with they could become targets at conferences or trade shows? the U.S. military and intelligence agencies. Country teams What aberrations are being observed in your computer sysoperating out of U.S. embassies from London to Rome tems that might indicate you are subjected to phishing?” to Saudi Arabia include FBI Agents, operating under the

aegis of legal attachés. This team approach also emphasizes a greater responsibility to share information. “Several dozen Agents are detailed from the Bureau to U.S. intelligence organizations, such as the CIA. There, they not only share information, but also examine intelligence input from an FBI perspective, or optic, the way the Bureau views certain problems. This intelligence approach is, in turn, pushed out domestically to the field,” Mudd noted. The Bureau continues to fine-tune its FIGs, which also must repeatedly ask questions, not only about what may be happening in regard to specific cases, but also questions

The FIGs also have a responsibility to pull from cases information that offers intelligence value and to push this information across the field division, to look across its domain and understand the situation well enough to be preemptive. “But because terrorism is an asymmetric threat, we cannot focus only on what an adversary might be doing or what industrial widgets are being hunted and how they might be targeted. In this counterintelligence area, the threat may not only be against facilities, but also students or professors at academic conferences. In an open society, it is difficult to determine which areas to be most concerned about,” Mudd continued.

Courtesy of FBI

The NSB’s goals are to develop a comprehensive understanding of threats and to penetrate national and transnational networks seeking to harm the United States.

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“Our adversaries are not stupid. They realize that instead of targeting hard research at the classified level, they can gather information on technologies at the unclassified level, which, within a few years, could become highly classified – information in areas such as new kinds of metals, or metallurgy, is an example,” Mudd stated. “Information accessed through the Internet also could provide trends in metals research and where the technology might be headed. The government could be paying for this research in five years. The concept is for the FBI to become involved now, before the damage is done.” Domain management is a methodological approach by the FBI that defines the national security mission, and by extension, criminal and cyber missions. As intelligence expands within the FBI beyond case-driven investigations, the focus is to remain ahead of the threat, Mudd disclosed. “The goal of the domain management effort is to develop a comprehensive understanding of an organization’s threats and vulnerabilities, so that managers can effectively deploy resources for the greatest impact. Our focus is on building relationships in business and academia through alliances, and the Bureau has secured the cooperation of a number of major aerospace and defense contractors,” Mudd said. Combining the national security workforce and mission under one leadership umbrella enhances FBI performance. NSB provides an opportunity to leverage resources from the U.S. intelligence community, as well as federal state, local, and tribal law enforcement partners, with the top priority the prevention of another terrorist attack.

The FBI’s Strategic Information Operations Center A vital asset in protecting America By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

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national, multi agency command post, a beehive of activity, instantly gears up to meet crises at a moment’s notice. This Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Strategic Information Operations Center buzzes around the clock as the nerve center for U.S. intelligence – designed to help prevent acts of terrorism. Deep in the FBI’s Headquarters, the Strategic Information Operations Center, or SIOC, is busy, with some 57 people from 38 U.S. agencies – law enforcement, diplomatic, defense, public safety, and homeland security – always on duty. Functioning with the National Joint Terrorism Task Force (NJTTF), the SIOC brings people together from throughout the FBI and every U.S. intelligence agency to help collect and process terrorist information. Each U.S. intelligence agency SIOC representative is assembled in one location, hooked into his own and FBI intelligence databases. The NJTTF and SIOC have a universe of terrorist information available at the fingertips of intelligence officials – to share, to query, to coordinate, to answer questions, and to give direction to Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) spread around the country. Using the concept of fusion, terrorism intelligence is instantly shared vertically from FBI Headquarters to the JTTFs, and horizontally to all NJTTF agencies. A typical day’s activities in SIOC are long, intense, and often rewarding. Each morning at 5:00 a.m., the hot issues from multiple sources are assembled and circulated for everyone in the center to digest, process, and query. By 8:00 a.m., there is a small coordination meeting with the Counterterrorism (CT) Watch and the center’s supervisors for the day’s briefings. At 9:30 a.m., all communications devices are turned off – computers and telephones – to hold an intense formatted briefing. Input is solicited from everyone in the room on all of the “hot” issues and the breaking news from each person’s organization. A detailed briefing is conducted by the CT Watch on the current threat stream; questions are fielded; and strategies and logistics discussed. Afterward, work continues in the SIOC with items of interest transmitted to various home agencies. Answers to questions these agencies have asked, in turn, are relayed back. Agency databases are queried to answer thousands of questions from

far-flung JTTFs. Those assembled in the SIOC also coordinate special JTTF projects, unleashing all of the task forces to address an issue, fill an intelligence gap, solve a problem, or activate a single JTTF to address a local threat. The task forces, in turn, look for patterns from collected data to identify potential terrorists and ask questions of specific industries about suspicious behavior, as examples. Within minutes after the September 11 attacks, the SIOC was operational. Efforts began with the search and rescue mission, as SIOC provided multi agency analytical, logistical, and administrative support for teams on the ground in New York, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon. As the days passed, the focus shifted from rescue to one of crime scenes at the sites, as the tedious process of evidence collection began. Soon, the focus in the SIOC again shifted to a large-scale global terrorism investigation. Continually focusing on terrorism, the SIOC is not just standing at the ready in case of attacks. Like the rest of the FBI and the intelligence community, the center works to prevent them through its 24/7 availability. The solution involves information-sharing efforts to process and provide leads and tips, often submitted through the FBI’s Web site. The SIOC facility is approximately 40,000 square feet (30,000 for the center itself and 10,000 for an Information Systems Support, or ISS, area); seats 380 in the center and 50 in the ISS; and 20 rooms support operations, including briefing theaters, watch floor, and control room. Equipment includes 1,110 telephones lines (35 miles worth); 60 miles of fiber optic cable; 225 computer terminals, with access to three local area networks – the FBINET, the Internet and the FBI Intelligence Information System – and eight large video display screens. The FBI is keenly aware that every agency represented in the SIOC plays a critical role in combating terrorism. The facility is both a crisis management center, supporting the exercise of operational oversight, and an information-processing center. SIOC can gear up at a moment’s notice to centrally manage a major emergency of any kind, and simultaneously several small crises. With the daily specter of possible terrorist strikes, cyber attacks, and other global crimes, the SIOC is a valuable asset in protecting America.

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The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate Combating the terrorist WMD threat

By Clarence A. Robinson, JR.

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hwarting the acquisition and use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist adversaries is the top priority for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The National Counterterrorism Center’s threat assessment confirms that terrorists will seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against Americans at home and abroad for the foreseeable future, and the Bureau is bringing all of its prodigious intelligence and counterintelligence resources and those of the intelligence community to bear in efforts to foil such attempts. The FBI’s National Security Branch (NSB) integrated various components into a Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (WMDD) in 2006. Once spread throughout the Bureau by capabilities, the directorate is now formed into key functional sections. This WMDD integrates and links the FBI’s necessary counterterrorism, intelligence, counterintelligence, and scientific and technological components to accomplish the Bureau’s overall anti-WMD mission. This new WMDD structure provides flexibility for growth and development, and its design also allows for optimal coordination with interagency partners. “The theft of sensitive technologies doesn’t make news like a terrorist bomb, but it’s a grave threat that we take very seriously,” said Dr. Vahid Majidi, who heads the WMDD. “It’s all about prevention – making sure our technologies don’t come back to hurt us or another country one day. The directorate assigns specific program responsibilities and provides a mechanism to perform essential capabilities: intelligence; countermeasures; preparedness; assessment and response; investigative; science and technology support; and policy and planning.” The WMDD’s vision is to eliminate the illicit use of nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical materials and devices. The directorate’s mission is to prevent such attacks,

identify and respond to these threats, and fully coordinate the investigative response. This approach involves integrating intelligence and leading law enforcement operations to identify, detect, and disrupt WMD possibilities. “For sheer devastation, damage, and loss, few threats fall into the same class as nuclear terrorism. Few threats strike such fear in the hearts of the public. And few threats are so appealing to terrorists around the world, for the same reason,” FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, told Global Initiative Nuclear Terrorism Conference attendees in Miami, Fla. “It has been said that the September 11 attacks were a ‘failure of imagination.’ We cannot fail to imagine the consequences of a nuclear terrorist attack. Nor can we fail to imagine that there are those for whom such an event is an end game. Prevention must be our end game.” By some estimates, there is enough highly enriched uranium in global stockpiles to construct thousands of nuclear weapons, Mueller pointed out. And it is safe to assume that there are many individuals who would not think twice about using such weapons. “The economics of supply and demand dictate that someone, somewhere, will provide nuclear material to the highest bidder, and that material will end up in the hands of terrorists,” Mueller added. “And al Qaeda has demonstrated a clear intent to acquire WMDs. In 1993, Osama bin Laden attempted to buy uranium from a source in the Sudan. He has stated that it is al Qaeda’s duty to acquire WMDs. And he has made repeated recruiting pitches for experts in chemistry, physics, and explosives to join his terrorist movement,” Mueller said. “Unfortunately, al Qaeda is not the only U.S. concern,” he continued. “We face threats from other terrorist cells around the world, and from homegrown terrorists who are not affiliated with al Qaeda, but who are inspired by its message of hatred and violence.”

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FEMA News photo by Jocelyn Augustion

Photos courtesy of FBI

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Clockwise from left: FBI Agents brief a FEMA Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) team from nearby Montgomery County, Md., before entering the Pentagon crash site in Arlington, Va., Sept. 12, 2001; an FBI SWAT team member is checked for possible radiological contamination as part of a staged drill at the Orange Bowl in Miami to show the basics of response to a threat involving a weapon of mass destruction; a member of the FBI Hazardous Materials Response Team uses a long pole to safely collect evidence related to a “dirty bomb” scenario in Miami during the FBI’s Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Law Enforcement Conference.

Within the U.S. government, the FBI has been assigned responsibility for critical Render Safe Program (RSP) operations against WMDs. This responsibility encompasses the national capital region, and extends RSP operations against WMDs throughout the remainder of the United States. The program’s mission includes both tactical and technical response to incidents involving WMDs within the United States and its territories. Developments of robust RSP crisis-response contingencies require essential command and control capabilities. Command and control provide the means for RSP deployments by the Bureau’s WMDD experts, and provides the FBI and U.S. leaders with information required to make time-critical decisions. The WMDD was created to better integrate and leverage FBI counter-proliferation and WMD intelligence analysis and prevention programs. Counter-proliferation activities are key in preventing an adversary’s access to WMD materials and technologies. Indeed, counter-proliferation is a complicated business that requires an understanding of intricate export laws, international diplomatic sensitivities, and a variety of complex technologies. Moreover, counter-proliferation also

encompasses several different yet unrelated threats – terrorism, international espionage, and the theft of intellectual property and its tracking on black market trade networks. Increases in funding for WMDD activities are being sought for fiscal year 2009, which would allow the Bureau to continue enhancing its national asset response staffing beyond current levels. The Bureau’s new budget request to Congress includes $65.8 million to enhance capabilities to prevent, prepare for, and respond to the threat of WMD incidents. This funding would provide an additional 132 WMDD positions – 43 Special Agents and 89 professional support staff. Additional WMDD funding also would allow the FBI to enhance strategic partnerships with foreign intelligence, law enforcement, security, public health, agricultural, chemical, and other public and private sector agencies and organizations. The Bureau considers these foreign partnerships vital for the early detection of a potential WMD incident. This funding boost also would facilitate adequate training, equipment, supplies, and services for WMDD personnel. Likewise, increases in funding would allow the FBI to

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upgrade Render Safe Program tools so that operators will have the latest and most effective technology at hand to meet and dispose of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological devices. Bureau officials claim that the capacity to carry out extended covert surveillance of subjects and targets involved in possible WMD activities is absolutely critical to counterterrorism and counterintelligence programs. The WMD threat is real, and an extremely grave issue. The anthrax attacks of 2001 killed five Americans and terrorized the nation. Meanwhile, al Qaeda openly pursues WMDs and would likely use any weapon they could build or buy against America, FBI officials emphasized. The FBI’s top priority, as with all forms of terrorism, is prevention – making sure that WMD attacks never get off the ground. But protecting a country as large as the United States with approximately 13,000 Agents, who have many other investigative and intelligence responsibilities, is a tall order. Outreach and education programs, however, can buttress protection. With such outreach efforts and partnerships developed over the years, protection from WMDs can become less daunting. The FBI boosts WMD preparedness by regularly training with first responders, law enforcement, and health agencies in cities and communities across the nation. Various mock exercises are staged to test the

Bureau’s ability to investigate and respond to the use of WMDs. Outreach is largely at the local level. Each of the FBI’s 56 field offices has a WMD coordinator who has built relationships across government and private industry. FBI Agents attend national conferences, association meetings, and trade shows of different manufacturing groups to explain the Bureau’s role in preventing terrorist attacks. Agents also visit universities to ensure that students and faculty are aware that universities are possible targets as well as potential recruiting and training sites for terrorists. One example of possible prevention involves a vulnerability assessment for at-risk businesses and organizations, such as chemical plants, to point out potential weak spots and suspicious warning signs. Under the Atomic Energy Act, the

The WMD threat is real, and an extremely grave issue. FBI is responsible for investigating illegal activities involving the use of nuclear materials within the United States, including terrorist threats to use special nuclear materials. A Nuclear Emergency Support Team (NEST) from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) assists the FBI and the Department of Defense (DoD). NEST

Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office

A National Nuclear Security Administration WMD/Counterterrorism training exercise at the Department of Energy’s Nevada test site. Nuclear Emergency Support Teams (NESTs) support the FBI in search and recovery operations.

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Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories/ Randy Wong

prepares and equips specialized response teams to deal with the technical aspects of radiological terrorism. The FBI is the lead federal agency and NNSA and NEST help coordinate search and recovery operations for nuclear materials, weapons, or devices. NNSA’s assistance extends to identifying and deactivating improvised nuclear devices or radiological dispersal devices. NEST experts include engineers, scientists, and technicians from nuclear weapons laboratories and facilities that include Los Alamos, Sandia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Remote Sensing Laboratory, and the Pantex Plant. NNSA’s Joint Technical Operations Team provides specialized capabilities to the FBI and DoD to render safe a nuclear or radiological weapon before it does damage. In addition, the team determines if the weapon or device is safe to move for further analysis, and safe to ship to a site for disposition. The WMDD tasks the Bureau’s field offices to conduct investigations of sources of possible WMD proliferation in the United States. Intelligence provided to field offices led to more than 100 counterproliferation investigations last year. One nuclear engineer suspected of mailing multiple WMD hoax letters was indicted, as was another person responsible for an Internet-based threat to attack football stadiums with an improvised radiological device. The FBI also assisted the U.K. in a high-profile murder investigation involving the use of polonium-210.

Nick Mascarenhas, physicist and principal investigator at Sandia National Laboratories in California, prepares a neutron scatter camera detector for a test. The neutron scatter camera detects radiation at significant standoff distances and through shielding, and pinpoints radiation sources.

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Multiagency Center Spurns Threats The FBI, Homeland Security, State, Justice, and Treasury Departments merge database By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

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dynamic global network called the Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) supports the detection of terrorists by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other law enforcement agencies. This center consolidates, coordinates, and facilitates the government’s terrorist information for the nation and the international community. The TSC maintains a consolidated terrorist watch list, a database of the names and other identifying information on all known or suspected terrorists. This Terrorist-Screening Database (TSDB) contains information on known or suspected terrorists – individuals known or believed to have been engaged in, related to, or to have aided terrorism. The TSC also supports federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies and some foreign governments. The TSC was placed under FBI administration because of the Bureau’s technical experience in watch list integration; however, the center is clearly an interagency effort. Indeed, the Justice, State, and Homeland Security Departments, the intelligence community, and other federal agencies assign representatives to the TSC. Each of these agencies is responsible for specific aspects of the center’s operations. Information in the TSDB involves only known or suspected terrorists, not those persons without any known connections to terrorism. TSC’s 24-hour call center also supports agencies’ screening processes by determining whether the person being screened is an identity match to the database. The TSC supports agencies such as the State Department’s passport and visa applications and the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection for border crossing and international airline flights. The TSDB also extends to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Transportation Security Administration for domestic flights, as examples. Information on terrorist identities is also accessible from the TSC by the National Crime Information Center system. This information database for law enforcement officers includes 870,000 state and local officers nationwide, adding resources to the fight against terrorism. The information also helps protect

against future terrorist attacks aimed at the United States and its allies. Queries can come ino the TSC anytime day or night from checkpoints across the country and the world via telephone or via computer with only one question: Do I have a known or suspected terrorist on my hands? That is precisely what the TSC can answer. The center exists to provide information to the people who can stop dangerous persons from entering the United States, and who can identify dodgy types already on U.S. streets and arrest them. Creation of the TSC is one of several initiatives that increase information sharing at all levels of government. The Justice Department’s information analysis and infrastructure protection program takes specific actions to enhance information sharing. This program makes sure that all members of the federal government’s intelligence community have access to the same information. The TSC’s job is to get that information out to agents on U.S. borders and those on the front lines, and to get it there fast. The TSC is an important step in an ongoing effort to integrate America’s best intelligence and analyses in one place, enabling investigators from multiple departments to work as a team to put together pieces of the puzzle. Before the TSC was formed in 2003, numerous watch lists existed. Consolidation of these lists under one center staffed by multiple agencies greatly simplified and expedited the process in screening those terrorists seeking to enter this country. The TSC ensures that government investigators, screeners, and agents working off the same unified, comprehensive set of antiterrorist information have access that enables them to act quickly. The intelligence community also has ready access to this same information. The TSC watch list provides one-stop shopping so that every federal antiterrorist screener is working off the same page – whether it’s an airport screener, an embassy official issuing visas overseas, or FBI Agents on the street. The center means that all government agents can run name checks against the same comprehensive list with the most accurate, up-to-date information about potential terrorists. This is an important method to stop terrorists before they can launch an attack.

Additionally, numerous international training conferences and seminars have been organized by WMDD, which also supported the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. This is a joint U.S.-Russian initiative that seeks to enlist the support of willing partner nations to combat nuclear terrorism. The FBI employs physical, electronic, and human source surveillance and operational technology to meet national security requirements. Surveillance capabilities – physical and electronic – provide an insight and awareness of U.S. adversaries. This insight and awareness, in turn, creates opportunities to identify sleeper cells and disrupt support networks, communications, and asset recruiting. Robust surveillance is the key to staying on top of known and emerging targets, according to senior Bureau officials. Additionally, the FBI develops and deploys new operational technologies and techniques to counter a more technically sophisticated adversary, and to exploit and share the information being gathered. The Bureau’s 2009 budget request also seeks an additional $88.5 million to strengthen its surveillance capabilities, including those directed against possible terrorist acquisition of WMDs. This request calls for an enhancement of 145 positions: 10 Special Agents and 135 professional support staff. These added resources would enable the FBI to increase the number of physical surveillance teams, replace aging surveillance aircraft, develop new techniques and tools to address emerging technologies, meet the demands for new audio and data collection, upgrade or replace obsolete digital collection systems, and develop new techniques for tactical operations. Surveillance is the lifeblood of all FBI counterterrorism activities. The

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ability to carry out extended covert States. The FTTTF also has access court-ordered surveillance of subjects to more than 70 sources of data conand targets is critical to the Bureau’s taining lists of known or suspected counterterrorism and counterintelliforeign terrorists or their supporters. gence programs, according to top-level This organization shares its data with Bureau officials. the U.S. intelligence community and Nevertheless, there is no clearly deother government agencies to crefined enemy and al Qaeda is shadowy ate a centralized data mart for use by and nebulous, with no headquarters trained FTTTF analysts. or obvious hierarchy. They seek out The Terrorist Screening Center new staging grounds for recruiting (TSC) – now under the umbrella of and training, and they promote from the NSB – manages the one, consoliThe co-chairs of the Global Initiative to within. They use seasoned operatives dated watch list. This list provides key Combat Nuclear Terrorism organized by to plan attacks around the world. Evresources for screeners and law enWMDD. U.S. Under Secretary of State for ery day, al Qaeda seeks to rebuild what forcement personnel. A single coorArms Control and International Security U.S. forces have torn down. There is dination point for terrorist screening Robert Joseph (right) and Russian also a new threat – homegrown terdata, the TSC is a 24/7 call center for Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Kislyak (left) appeared with Moroccan Secretary rorism. Al Qaeda is no longer merely encounter identification assistance, General Omar Hilale (center) at a press one cell; it is a movement. This nation access to a coordinated law enforceconference announcing the endorsement faces two distinct threats: al Qaeda itment response center, feedback to of the Statement of Principles at the self and extremists the world over who appropriate authorities, and a process Initiative’s inaugural meeting in Rabat, may not be connected. to address misidentification issues. Morocco, Oct. 30, 2006. Just as there is clearly no defined enDeveloping an enterprise-wide apemy, there is no clearly defined battleproach to understanding the nature of field. No country is immune. The war zone stretches from threats, the NSB’s Counterterrorism Division realigned its Baghdad to Britain and from Battery Park to Bali. While International Terrorism Operations Sections (ITOS). This globalization has made the world smaller, technology has realignment, in January 2008, aids in creating a compregiven terrorists a multitude of weapons, from dirty bombs hensive understanding of the threat environment, rather to improvised explosive devices to mobile phones and the than just one aspect of a larger threat. Instead of being Internet. structured by program, such as al Qaeda, Hezbollah, or One of the important tools the FBI uses is the Foreign Hamas, ITOS sections are now aligned geographically to Terrorist Tracking Task Force (FTTTF). This organization target comprehensive intelligence collection on terrorists uses innovative analytical processes and unique proprietary and their activities. technologies to find, track, and remove known or susTwo ITOS strategic operations units – staffed with desk pected terrorists. The FTTTF accomplishes this function officers – exploit subject matter expertise on the presence, by tracking their electronic footprints. The group collects nature, and scope of terrorist enterprises and their activities and analyzes a wide range of FBI, U.S. government, and to drive operations against their networks. These counterpublic source data, from biometric data to travel records, terrorism desk officers work closely with desk officers from to keep foreign terrorists and their supporters out of the the FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence, as well as with the inUnited States, and if necessary, to locate, detain, remove, telligence community, to build a global understanding of or prosecute such persons. terrorists and to target and dismantle their enterprises. Participants in the FTTTF include the FBI, DoD, U.S. Combating terrorism, including nuclear terrorism, is a Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Customs and collective function. While the FBI investigates all acts of Border Protection, and other representatives of the intelterrorism in the United States, the prevention of nuclear ligence community. The FTTTF also works with foreign attack is a responsibility shared by many. Investigations partners including Canada, Australia, and the United are multiagency in every sense. Kingdom in this effort. To meet its mission, the FTTTF In the past six years, the FBI has dramatically strengthened has put in place information-sharing agreements among its ability to combat terrorism with great success by focusing participating agencies and other public and proprietary on prevention, not simply prosecution. The Bureau’s shift companies. These agreements help in locating terrorists is away from detecting, deterring, and disrupting terrorists and their supporters who are or have been in the United to detecting, penetrating, and dismantling their endeavors.

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Language Skills Blunt Terrorism The FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence translations correspond with foreign collection priorities

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By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.

inguists who not only speak a language, but also understand the culture and country involved, play a vital role within the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Directorate of Intelligence. The demand for linguists, who also can pick up language subtleties, is especially significant for operations in farflung areas of the world. There, vague figures operate from the shadows against Americans. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) continues to seek language proficiency experts for positions in the Directorate of Intelligence (DI) or on a contract basis. A Language Services Translation Center in the Bureau’s Washington, D.C., headquarters provides centralized management of its foreign language program. This center also provides a command and control structure at headquarters to ensure that the Bureau’s resource base of more than 1,400 translators, distributed across 56 field offices, is strategically aligned with priorities. This alignment is set by operational divisions and with U.S. intelligence community priorities. Integrating language services into the DI’s management structure also delivers a crosscutting platform for future improvements throughout all program areas, including translation quality control. The DI operates within the National Security Branch of the FBI, which continues integrating linguists into Field Intelligence Groups (FIGs) in each field office, where their roles expand to include more intelligence reporting and analysis. The Bureau believes that integration of linguists into the FIGs helps establish a clear chain of command for the management and development of language personnel. As their roles evolve, FBI linguists receive greater training opportunities and language analysts have greater promotion potential within the organization. The DI works across all FBI offices, ensuring that intelligence is embedded in all investigative programs

– counterterrorism, counterintelligence, weapons of mass destruction, cyber, and criminal – and in all field offices. Bureau-instituted prioritization processes help ensure that foreign language collection is translated in accordance with a clear list of requirements. The foreign language program receives regular weekly updates to Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) prioritization. The Bureau is careful to ensure that its priorities are consistent with those set by the FISA prioritization board, established by the Director of National Intelligence. FBI participation on the FISA board serves to ensure compliance. Increases in language capability, new technologies, and the prioritization processes allow the FBI to address all of the highest precedence counterterrorism intelligence, often within 24 hours. The Bureau’s National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) matches excess translation capacity needs within the intelligence community. In certain highpriority languages, such as those of the Middle East and North Africa, the numbers of linguists have increased by 250 percent or more. One example is Arabic, where the number of linguists has grown from 70 in 2001 to 269 today, an increase of 284 percent. As part of language training, the FBI also provides self-study and cultural materials, and partners with the Foreign Service Institute for translation training and foreign-duty instruction. More than 3,000 FBI employees and contractors have certified language proficiency scores at or above a basic working proficiency (level II), including 406 language analysts and 959 contract linguists. More than 95 percent of FBI linguists are native speakers of their foreign language and hold Top Secret security clearances. Their native-level fluencies and long-term immersions within a foreign culture not only ensure a firm grasp of colloquial and idiomatic speech, but also a heavily nuanced language containing religious, cultural, and historical references.

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AP Photo/Matt York

Everette Jordan, Director of the National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC), addresses the American Translators Association’s annual conference on Thursday, Nov. 6, 2003, in Phoenix, Ariz. Jordan stressed the government’s need for trained linguists who can decipher both classified and sensitive material. Beyond these qualities, more than 80 percent of Bureau linguists hold at least a bachelor’s degree, and 37 percent hold graduate-level degrees. The FBI’s foreign language proficiency pay program also offers financial incentives for specific skills. Grant awards for achieving certain reading and speaking levels in a foreign language help boost proficiency. Flexibility, in terms of promotions, includes an opportunity for linguists to train in intelligence work and earn intelligence officer certification. The DI’s goal calls for two-thirds of the translation services to be provided by full-time employees, with contractors supplying the remaining services.

The intelligence community’s executive authority for the NVTC rests with the FBI, with the goal of augmenting existing government translation capabilities by acting as a clearinghouse to facilitate the use of interagency translators. The NVTC permits partnering with elements of the government, academia, and private industry for translator resources and to engage their services. The concept is to build a nationwide team of highly qualified, motivated linguists and translators connected virtually to the program office in Washington, D.C. Applying stateof-the-art technology maximizes translator efficiency, according to Everette E. Jordan, Director of the NVTC.

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“The NVTC is an interagency element,” Jordan explained, “with a small but diverse office staff that comes from different government agencies, academia, and industry. The center provides expertise and experience in a variety of fields and organizations. The center connects virtually to active-duty military personnel, reservists, active and retired government employees, academia, and private industry. NVTC strives to be innovative, creative, and relevant as it meets the challenges of today’s national security environment.” With new policies and procedures to manage translation requirements, the NVTC created a virtual informationsharing architecture that connects translation tasks, language resources, and linguists anywhere in the United States. For instance, as a method of ensuring that vital linguists applying to government agencies can be used while awaiting their clearances and background investigation completion, the center offers to bring these people aboard to work on unclassified overflow material from one of its 42 intelligence community customers. When the parent agency is ready to bring them on, the NVTC releases them, Jordan said. The FBI partners with international law enforcement and intelligence agencies to identify transnational criminals and terrorists and put them out of business. But often,

contains up-to-date information on available translators to conduct work, offering an ever-increasing pool of translation resources. The application of technology connects all FBI linguists via secure networks that allow those in one office to work on projects for another office. A secure network also allows efficient routing of FISA audio collection materials to any Bureau field office and, therefore, a more effective use of the national translator base. Workflow management software tracks translation response times. The FBI currently provides translation capabilities in approximately 100 languages. Of the several hundred thousand hours of audio materials and several million pages of text collected in connection with counterterrorism investigations over the last few years, the backlog is only a small percentage. Approximately 1.8 percent of all audio – some 8,354 hours of 418,855 hours collected – and 0.8 percent of all electronic data files – 36,667 out of 4.1 million files collected – remain as backlog. Some of the languages in the backlog are so rare that no proficiency exists within the intelligence community, and in other cases the technical quality is extremely poor from using recording techniques not expected to yield intelligence of tactically high value. The Bureau addresses

The FBI partners with international law enforcement and intelligence agencies to identify transnational criminals and terrorists and put them out of business. But often, when the evidence is in Pashto, Urdu, or Chinese, it makes it more difficult to use. when the evidence is in Pashto, Urdu, or Chinese, it makes it more difficult to use. That is where the Bureau’s linguists come in and the NVTC can connect over secure computer networks to program offices. In some cases, linguists may not have to leave the comfort of their own home to be part of this virtual network. “Federal agencies decide when to use the translation center. It’s almost like a federal contractor. As with most members of the intelligence community, the FBI relies on its own highly trained linguists first. The NVTC linguists are used when the FBI faces a critical overload of intelligence, a tight deadline, or translation needs in a specific language for which it does not have resources,” Jordan said. The center provides a shared database that

the rare language issue through intense recruiting efforts and, as an example, has hired nine linguists in one vary rare language. A triage system also expedites priority translations by sifting through collected materials. Once a document is received, a linguist quickly provides a cursory review and sets aside documents with pertinent information for future translation and summary. On audio lines that are mixed with several languages, a linguist reviews all the calls and forwards the foreign language sessions to the appropriate linguist for review and a summary of pertinent sections. Specific intelligence collection is also routed through the DI’s English Monitoring Center (EMC). There, English monitor analysts review the collection, summarize and report pertinent

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English materials, and forward the remaining foreign language items to the appropriate linguists who concentrate on that country. This EMC process allows Bureau linguists to concentrate on the review, analysis, translation, and reporting of foreign language materials. On some audio FISA materials, where the FBI is seeking a particular piece of information, a linguist will quickly review and triage the audio for future translation. Bureau officials believe that sufficient translation capabilities exist to promptly address the highest priority counterterrorism intelligence. The prioritization and triage processes have greatly helped the FBI in reducing the backlog. Linguists are also recruited by the Bureau on a contract basis. However, they must be U.S. citizens with proficiency in English and at least one other language, especially Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese (all dialects), Pashto, Farsi, Hindi, and Urdu, as well as numerous others. Contract linguists also undergo language testing, a polygraph examination, and a comprehensive background investigation. All FBI linguists are subject to at least an annual quality control review through a program in the Bureau’s language services section. In addition, all translations presented in court or otherwise designated for public release, as well as the first 40 hours of translation work performed by new linguists (after an initial training period), are subjected to full quality control reviews, Jordan pointed out. Indeed, there are also more than 200 quality control reviewers. They conduct workshops on a monthly basis to retain linguists certified to conduct quality control reviews.

The FBI meets the needs of Special Agent linguists by hiring those who already have language skills, and also by offering Agents training in critical foreign languages. Special Agents are proficient in 45 foreign languages. There also are 1,340 Special Agents who have level II foreign language proficiency, including 35 Agents who speak Arabic. The DI’s training and oversight unit provides high-quality, cost-effective foreign language and language-related training to Special Agents whose job requires them to use foreign languages, work from non-Roman alphabets, or have an understanding of foreign cultures. The DI manages the Special Agent linguist program, assessing deployments of agents who are proficient in a foreign language, and recommends permanent or temporary placement of new and experienced agents with language capabilities in response to investigative priorities. Special agents proficient in foreign languages are assigned to field offices, legal attaches, headquarters, and the FBI Academy. The FBI’s foreign language program is considered a key to success in both intelligence and law enforcement missions. The DI has established a specialized and integrated national intelligence workforce – intelligence analysts, language analysts, physical surveillance specialists, and Special Agents. In coordinating national security activities, the DI also is developing an intelligence career service that addresses the full range of human resource issues – from hiring to training to professional development and retention. Integral language services are part of this effort.

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Meeting Multiple Challenges, Defeating Multiple Threats The Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch

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By J.R. Wilson

he post-September 11 restructuring of the FBI included the creation of the Law Enforcement Services Branch (LESB), a massive new entity combining much of the Bureau’s traditional criminal investigative operations with expanded new efforts targeting the rapidly growing field of cyber crimes. But both the LESB and its immediate successor were short-lived, as subsequent reorganizations further realigned and refocused the nation’s premier investigative agency. “At the time, there were just two branches; now there are five, all headed by Executive Assistant Directors [EADs], who basically are No. 4 in the hierarchy,” explained EAD Steve Tidwell. “We began as the Law Enforcement Services

“Everything I had learned about being an FBI executive went out the window on 9/11.” Steve Tidwell, FBI Executive Assistant Director, Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch Branch, including the lab and training. As more branches were added, the lab moved to Science and Technology and training to Human Resources and what was left behind was called the Criminal Investigations Branch.

“But the Senate did not believe that name accurately reflected what we did, which included the Criminal Investigative Division [CID] and the Cyber Division, so we became the Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch [CCRSB]. ‘Response’ is for the Critical Issues Response Group [CIRG] and ‘Services’ is the OIO [Office of International Operations], which includes all the legal attachés [LEGATS], and the OLEC [Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation].” Under the initial change, any FBI operation that had a near, immediate, and large intersection with local, state, or tribal law enforcement was resident in the Law Enforcement Services Branch. With the institution of five branches, investigative operational systems within the FBI were split between CCRSB and the National Security Branch. “The latest iteration has three parts: criminal and cyber are operational investigative entities; CIRG is a shared services entity; and all of the investigative operational divisions and other FBI entities are involved in supporting the counterterrorism mission,” noted Tidwell, who now heads the CCRSB. “OIO in some ways has all the responsibilities of an operational investigative division, but because the LEGATs operate from the offices of the ambassador or chief of mission in the embassies where they are based, they have broad responsibilities, from investigative to operating under State [Department] policies, procedures, and protocols, and the directions of the ambassador, who has

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FEMA News photo by Jocelyn Augustion

FBI Director Robert Mueller talks about the reorganization of the FBI during a news conference at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C., May 29, 2002. One reorganization change required the Bureau to hire new Agents nationwide, mostly specialists in computers, foreign languages, and sciences. CCRSB was one eventual result of the reorganization.

a say in who is there. OIO also is responsible to all needs of their people [overseas].” OIO was created right after September 11 to ensure the FBI had all the bridges built and working relationships in place with other law enforcement agencies around the world. Tidwell said FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, also wanted an office dedicated solely to the Bureau’s federal, state, and tribal partners, leading to the creation of OLEC.

While reflecting a change in priorities, the reorganization did not abandon the FBI’s traditional role in fighting “ordinary” crime. “To meet our national security mission, the FBI had to shift personnel and resources, but we remain committed to our major criminal responsibilities. While Americans justifiably worry about terrorism, it is crime that most directly touches their lives,” Mueller told the Senate Judiciary Committee in March 2008.

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“Currently, we have roughly a 50/50 balance between national security and criminal programs. To make the best use of these resources, we will continue to focus on those areas where we bring something unique to the table and to target those criminal threats against which we have the most substantial and lasting impact,” he said. How the FBI views the post-9/11 world and its role in it was set forth in the Bureau’s five-year Strategic Plan for 2004-2009: “The current and foreseeable threat environment requires the FBI to evolve constantly. The FBI has a proud history of adapting to changing threat environments. After the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, the FBI once again faced the need to adapt. Since then, new leadership, organizational structure, priorities, technologies, resources, and enabling legislation have better positioned the FBI to fulfill its vital mission in a changing world.

“Those who wish to sow terror, however, are determined and adaptable and should never be underestimated. Hence, the FBI must continue to evolve to address tomorrow’s threats. Implementing an enterprise-wide intelligence capability second to none and modernizing our information technology systems are critical to the FBI’s transformation. To achieve dramatic improvements, the FBI adopted the ‘reengineering’ method, which has been a successful business practice in the private sector for decades.” These changes have reflected both the new threat landscape – international and homegrown terrorists, transnational gangs, new breeds of organized crime that have supplanted the traditional Mafia in the lives of many victims and police agencies – and the technologies that have made it possible to globalize virtually any criminal enterprise.

AP Photo/Adam Rountree

Mohammed Lakhdar, center, is escorted out of the FBI’s New York field office by Special Agents Timothy O’Brien, left, and Scott McGarnn Wednesday, June 28, 2006. Lakhdar was one of 13 people arrested for allegedly making and marketing pirated copies of movies. While the FBI’s reorganization reflected a change in priorities, CCRSB continues to fight criminal enterprises.

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“Criminals no longer need to be in the same room – or even the same country – to commit large-scale crimes, from computer intrusions and child pornography to financial fraud,” Mueller told the National Press Club in May 2008. “Terrorists no longer need training camps; they need only have a laptop and Internet access to learn how to make a bomb or how to mix industrial chemicals into weapons of mass destruction.

traditional criminal investigations. And I’m proud of how the organization has made those adjustments.” He said a large part of the realignment resulted from a determination that the basic approach the FBI had always taken to investigate organized crime, gangs, and white-collar crime also worked well in the new environment. “In the CID, the foundation of how we do business is to operate from the criminal enterprise theory of

“With all this technology, we face an overwhelming amount of information, but sometimes real knowledge is scarce. The old calculus was not a question of if, but when. The contemporary calculus is not a question of when, but how and of how much damage.” Robert S. Mueller, III, FBI Director “With all this technology, we face an overwhelming amount of information, but sometimes real knowledge is scarce. The old calculus was not a question of if, but when. The contemporary calculus is not a question of when, but how and of how much damage.” To address this new reality, Mueller determined the best approach was to give one official – the CCRSB EAD – the responsibility for criminal and cyber investigations, coordination with law enforcement, international operations, and crisis response. That, he concluded, would ensure the criminal programs received strategic guidance and support, and that the FBI maintained an unparalleled level of excellence in criminal investigations. However, the reorganization did not come with a massive increase in manpower, so agents were moved from traditional FBI investigations, such as bank robberies, to the new focus on terrorism, cyber crimes, and interagency and international cooperation. “I’ve watched the criminal folks become much more lean, mean, effective, and efficient, making do with what they’ve got,” Tidwell said. “That has raised questions about should we or should we not handle bank robberies. We adopted a measured response, so instead of sending an entire squad, we now send three or four Agents to work with locals. “We’ve learned that ensuring there is sufficient manpower to fight the Global War on Terror [GWOT] required support from the criminal side. For example, a homegrown group in California was doing gas station and convenience store robberies to support attacks on synagogues and military recruiting stations. So we might find a criminal thread that leads to a terrorist group. But we’ve also had to focus down and adjust how we target

investigation – we want to attack the enterprise,” Tidwell explained. “It is not too far a stretch to imagine a terrorist cell as that same type of enterprise, with people having the capacity to do transportation, recruitment, weapons acquisition, finances, etc. So after 9/11, large numbers of supervisors were tapped to start the Counterterrorism Division and large numbers of criminal folks in the field were stood up in new joint terrorism and counterterrorism squads to translate that enterprise experience in complex investigations.” The reorganization also has given the FBI a more corporate structure, he added: “We’ve gotten more businesslike and have a corporate resource planning board and are, in many ways, behaving more like corporate America. Part of that requirement is an executive council that functions much like a board of directors. “A branch is like a business line in a big corporation with a lot of different product lines. In my branch, my business line is criminal investigations and response. The National Security Branch is counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence. The divisions are subunits of the branch. In essence, we are program managers here and the 56 field offices would equate to the corporate elements that build things, in our case, assembling investigations. The five EADs [who head the five branches] are part of the executive council; if compared to the military, we’re the joint chiefs.” When it was first founded as the Bureau of Investigation, the FBI’s primary targets were white-collar criminals, and most Agents had degrees in accounting and business administration. That evolved as the scope of FBI investigations broadened through the decades that followed, but the

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post-9/11 FBI is a significantly different agency from what it had been in the 20th century, leading to another major change in both recruiting and training. “We have some core requirements that align with our priorities,” Tidwell said of the CCRSB. “Right now we need Agents with certain language skills. Because cyber crime is [the Bureau’s] No. 3 priority, we need folks with computer and programming skills and electrical engineers. We’ve always been an intel-driven organization, but we’ve had to adjust that to our new reality, so we’re looking to

both former military and private sector intelligence experience. So while we still hire lawyers, accountants, and cops, the recruiting pipelines have been adjusted to first reflect those skill sets that match our top-most priorities. “Training also has changed. When I first went through 25 years ago, it was 16 weeks – now we’re up to 21 weeks. Again, we’ve been able to adjust training to our new priorities. We also now have career paths similar to the military MOSes [Military Occupational Specialties]. So how we get folks on board has changed, the priorities have changed, and how we train has radically changed.” The same applies to the technological advances being utilized by the FBI today. “Like everybody else in public safety and the military, we’re taking big leaps in utilizing and keeping up with the technologies available. That is most prominent in the CIRG, particularly the tactical missions – HRT [Hostage Rescue Team] and SWAT. We also have the surveillance and aviation elements of the Bureau there,” Tidwell said. “Some of the leaps we have taken, such as our capacity with surveillance and aviation, match what is happening in the military. “It’s just amazing what we can do now. With the support CIRG has to give to counterterrorism and the GWOT in

AP Photo/Suzanne Plunkett

An FBI Agent escorts Gariat Iousoupbekov from the Federal Building in New York. Iousoupbekov was one of seven suspects arrested by authorities in connection with an alleged Russian mob group, which authorities say terrorized Russian communities in New York. The men were charged with hostage-taking and extortion. Today, the ability of such organizations to cross geographic and political boundaries, and the fact that their profits sometimes fund terrorist groups, mean that the FBI must continually evolve to combat them.

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the combat theaters, we’ve had to make adjustments on equipment and technology solutions. CIRG, CID, and Cyber work very closely with the Science and Technology Branch and Cyber also very closely with the Chief Information Officer’s office, which deals with software and hardware solutions. The one thing that stands out is how the new generation of Agents we have, who will be leading the FBI in the out-years, is so tech savvy. It’s such a part of who they are, it will be interesting to see what the Bureau becomes.” However, the criminal and terrorist organizations the FBI now targets have made those same adjustments, recruiting their own tech-savvy members and utilizing the latest in cutting-edge technology. With billions of dollars from drug trafficking and other criminal activities – as well as financial support from some whose wealth is tied to oil production – the combined funds available to such groups may equal or exceed what the FBI allocates for equipment and training from its $6.4 billion FY 08 budget (which itself is twice what the Bureau received 10 years ago). Mueller said the ubiquitous access to modern technology has flattened the landscape on which the FBI and its adversaries now do battle. “Yes, the world is flat now, as are the criminal and terrorist worlds,” Tidwell agreed. “So we have had to take steps to flatten our world. [Criminals] are evolving and using the Internet and faster travel capacities, which is why we are hiring the folks we are on the cyber side and adapting how we investigate. We now have squads in field offices that are cyber/counterterrorism. They are looking for what might be being done in terms of counterterrorism just in the Ethernet world.

The FBI Strategic Plan concludes this new world is one in which sub-national and nongovernmental entities will play an increasingly powerful role, in some cases even supplanting the control of traditional nation states over the flow of information, resources, technology, services, and even people. The forecast level of globalization and networking of economies the reorganization of the Bureau and its priorities were intended to confront has, in some ways, exceeded expectations. The result is a constant and ever-changing blurring of distinctions between what is corporate, financial, or national in nature. Considered the most significant global transformation since the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, these advances, especially in information technology, have provided criminal and terrorist groups with a global network capability that directly threatens the security of the United States and every other nation on Earth. While the end of the Cold War was expected to transform what had become a bipolar world, dominated by two great superpowers, into a multipolar landscape across which the only remaining superpower would be thinly spread, reality has seen the rise of powerful non-state criminal and terrorist entities – sometimes allied when the money involved is sufficient to overcome any concern about intent. Hiding behind a web of online anonymity, it has become easier and cheaper to acquire and move everything from weapons and illegal drugs to counterfeit pharmaceuticals and machine parts. Crossing geographic and political boundaries with impunity, such organizations make it possible for a drug buy on an American street or a bank robbery in Europe or a ship hijacking in the Straits of Malacca to further the interests of drug cartels, organized crime, gangs, and

Crossing geographic and political boundaries with impunity, such organizations make it possible for a drug buy on an American street or a bank robbery in Europe or a ship hijacking in the Straits of Malacca to further the interests of drug cartels, organized crime, gangs, and terrorists halfway around the world. “The same thing is happening on the criminal side. A big issue right now is mortgage fraud. With all the computerization in the business of mortgages, things can happen real quick involving a lot of victims.” Despite the Bureau’s best efforts, however, Tidwell remains concerned about its ability to keep up with future leaps in phone and cellular communications and how those will affect the FBI’s ability to intercept criminal communications.

terrorists halfway around the world. And it is this new blend of threats and criminal activities CCRSB and its sister branches must continuously evolve to combat. “We are not the same organization we were before 9/11,” Tidwell concluded. “We’ve worked hard to make that change. What the director calls us now is a national security agency. All that defines how we deploy our resources, plan budgets, and operate to deliver security for the homeland and security for the community.”

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Distinguished Past, Dynamic Future The Criminal Investigative Division

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By J.R. Wilson

ost-September 11 reorganizations have created a new FBI dramatically different from what existed for most of the Bureau’s first century. But the Criminal Investigative Division (CID), direct descendant of one of the first components established under J. Edgar Hoover, in many ways represents the heart of the old FBI. Now part of the Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch (CCRSB), the CID continues to pursue the Bureau’s traditional targets – organized crime (from the old Mafia to new gangs coming out of Russia and Eurasia), public corruption, kidnapping, welfare fraud, crimes against children, white-collar crime, violent gangs, and criminal efforts to infiltrate professional and college sports. At the same time, the new structure has changed how the CID does its work, from the recruiting, training, and equipping of Agents to at what point a criminal activity now rises to the level of FBI involvement. More than half of the estimated 9,500 FBI Agents performing day-to-day investigations in the United States work for CID, although that is about 30 percent fewer than were assigned to those cases prior to September 11. “That does not include all cleared task force officers – local law enforcement officers cleared up to top secret with

said Ken Kaiser, FBI Assistant Director in Charge of CID. “That caused us to make up for that loss by using more sophisticated investigative techniques, increasing the task forces – which are a force multiplier – and prioritizing what we want to work – more into public corruption than before, more gang investigations using the criminal enterprise theory and a focus on corporate and health care fraud and gang and organized crime. We’ve also had an influx of intelligence analysts since 9/11, hiring more of those who can focus our investigations and lead us to the targets we should be working. “Pre-9/11, the CID had responsibility for 249 joint FBI/ state/local task forces. Today, we have expanded that to 441 task forces throughout the country. So in addition to 4,900 FBI Agents, we have more than 2,000 non-FBI officers devoted to violent crime, Indian reservation, gang, white-collar, and organized crime task forces. They have access to FBI databases and computer systems, are assigned cases just like FBI Agents, and are subject to the same rules as an FBI Agent. All 441 task forces have an FBI Supervisor and are attached to various FBI squads.” The diversity of the task forces and Agent assignments can be seen in CID’s violent crimes unit, which is responsible for kidnappings, bank robberies, interstate fugitives,

… the new structure has changed how CID does its work, from the recruiting, training, and equipping of Agents to at what point a criminal activity now rises to the level of FBI involvement. the FBI and permanently assigned to work with us on a daily basis on gang and organized crime task forces,” CID Deputy Assistant Director Daniel Roberts said. “We had to refocus about 1,800 agents from traditional criminal programs to the Global War on Terror [GWOT] since 9/11, including sending some to counterintelligence,”

forgery, piracy and counterfeiting, and theft of interstate shipments, among other crimes. “A stand-alone counterfeiting case would be a low priority because we don’t have the resources to work those we had prior to 9/11, but if it is related to a Russian or Asian organized crime group, that is when we would focus on

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AP Photo/Adam Rountree

The covers of counterfeit DVDs and equipment used to make them were displayed at a news conference where the FBI announced a largescale raid on an international movie piracy ring in New York, June 28, 2006. Piracy and counterfeiting are growing problems that are being fought by the FBI.

it,” Roberts said. “We see a lot of that at major sporting events, such as the Olympics and the Super Bowl. “Most people think about bank robberies, fugitives, and the Top Ten Most Wanted when they think about the FBI and that’s all us. However, a lot of smaller dollar fraud schemes we might have put Agents on prior to 9/11 – say $10,000 – if it’s under $200,000 or $300,000, we probably don’t touch it any more. It’s the same with drugs; we used to devote a lot of assets to cartel cases and, while we still keep our fingers in that because they are involved in other things, our other partners, such as DEA [Drug Enforcement Administration], have picked up the slack.” The FBI’s “Most Wanted” list, created on March 14, 1950, to get leads and tips from the public, continues to be a high-return effort for the Bureau, with an overall 93

percent success rate, about a third of those arrests stemming from tips from the public. The Bureau also is expanding its battle against pirates and counterfeiters – not of the Bluebeard or phony $100 bill variety, but those who illegally reproduce and sell copyrighted intellectual property. The most familiar element of that campaign is the FBI warning that appears at the start of commercial videotapes and DVDs. That text warning, which can be used by anyone protected by copyright law without requiring FBI permission, has now been enhanced by an official FBI Anti-Piracy Seal, which does require Bureau approval to use. As of August 2006, the FBI has authorized the seal’s use by the Motion Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, the Software & Information

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Industry Association, the Business Software Alliance, and the Entertainment Software Association – all major victims of one of the largest and fastest-growing international crimes. As the FBI constantly monitors and reassesses how it is allocating resources to combat various criminal activities, operations that have been assigned to one unit may be transferred to another if it directly relates to a larger program already in place. “The FBI’s Criminal Division has assumed administrative and operational responsibility from the Office of International Operations for the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative [SECI], which is headquartered in Bucharest, Romania,” FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III told the

“When you have multiple counties and district attorneys, it is difficult for the states to prosecute but is tailor-made for the federal system. In the state system, you have to coordinate multiple DAs, but in the federal system, that doesn’t matter.” Ken Kaiser, FBI Assistant Director in Charge of CID

House Judiciary Committee in April 2008 about one such change. “SECI serves as a clearinghouse for information and intelligence for member and observer countries, as well as supporting specialized task forces addressing such transborder crimes, including human trafficking, financial crimes, smuggling of goods, terrorism, and other crimes.” Allocating fewer Agents across an expanded list of criminal activities may have increased the limits on which cases CID can do, but Kaiser says it has not significantly reduced the overall number of prosecutions resulting from CID investigations. In FY 2007, CID handled more than 53,000 cases, resulting in 17,728 arrests, 21,893 indictments, and 12,406 convictions. According to Mueller, that was accomplished by maximizing resources through the use of intelligence to identify emerging trends and target the greatest threats.

“We’ve lost a significant number of Agents, so we have used a combination of increased task forces, more technology, and a greater focus on the intelligence aspect. The limits on what we investigate have been increased, so we may not work certain cases anymore,” he stated. “And with fewer Agents and manpower, the number of individual cases and prosecutions has gone down somewhat. We still get a significant number of prosecutions, however, and the sentences we get are significant, as well, despite an obvious decline in resources and the number of cases prosecuted in criminal programs.” The nature of such prosecutions also has changed. “The prosecution strategy has gone toward more enterprise-type investigations, really complex schemes involving organized crime or gangs rather than one simple bank robbery,” Roberts added. “So where in the past you saw cases with one or two subjects indicted, now they are multiple. It’s not unusual in a gang case to see 35 or 40 defendants.” CID does retain the flexibility to go after the same kind of notorious individuals they would have in the past, largely depending on the number and seriousness of the crimes committed and if they cover multiple jurisdictions. “When you have multiple counties and district attorneys, it is difficult for the states to prosecute but is tailor-made for the federal system,” Kaiser said. “In the state system, you have to coordinate multiple DAs, but in the federal system, that doesn’t matter.” Kidnapping and missing persons cases involving children remain an FBI priority, to which CID Agents respond fully and quickly, as well as investigations involving child prostitution and other crimes against children. “We’ve had several successful prosecutions of adults who have taken runaways. We had child pornography for awhile, but that has now been moved to our Cyber Division because most of that is over the Internet,” Kaiser said. “It’s often said we have to wait 24 hours to become involved, but that is not true,” Roberts added. “In a true kidnapping of a child, we become involved immediately. Our response often depends on the location and local resources, so it would be different in Chicago, which has great local resources, from rural Montana, which may not have a local entity for many miles around. “We also have responsibility for tourists kidnapped overseas or persons on missions who are kidnapped or killed. That also depends on working with whatever law enforcement agency is available.”

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Shell Oil Company congratulates and salutes the Men and Women of the FBI for 100 years of Fidelity, Bravery and Integrity in protecting the freedoms of the United States and the free world. Best Wishes and success in the future. www.shell.com/us

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Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch

AP Photo/Ric Francis

FBI Special Agents Scott Cruse, left, and Ron Mosback, center, get information pertaining to local road maps from Sharon Sweeney, public affairs officer with Lolo National Forest, July 6, 2005, at a remote campsite where suspect Joseph Edward Duncan III is believed to have spent time with two kidnapped children in St. Regis, Mont. Kidnapping and missing persons cases concerning children remain a top priority.

Another priority area that appears to be on a rapid growth curve harkens back to one of the primary reasons trust-busting President Theodore Roosevelt wanted a federal investigative unit: illegal activity within the offices of American businesses. “As they say, ‘The more things change, the more they stay the same.’ The robber barons of today have brought a laundry list of corporations to ruin. Billions of dollars lost, thousands of shareholders victimized, and pension funds destroyed,” Mueller told the American Bar Association’s (ABA) Litigation Section Annual Conference in April 2008. “The number of corporate fraud cases we investigate has increased by more than 80 percent since 2003, despite the change in our priorities.

“Hearing anyone say they are surprised by such behavior is like the police chief in the movie Casablanca announcing that he is ‘shocked … shocked’ to find gambling going on under his nose in Rick’s Café – just moments before he collects his roulette winnings from the night before. ... Unfortunately, the private sector has by no means cornered the market on greed. Public corruption is our top criminal priority, for the simple reason that it is different from other crimes. Corruption does not merely strike at the heart of good government, it may strike at the security of our communities.” Public corruption ranks fourth among the FBI’s top 10 priorities, behind only terrorism, espionage, and cyber crimes, and is the No. 1 priority for CID.

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“We focus on any elected official, whether state, local, or federal, as well as law enforcement and judicial corruption,” Kaiser said. A public corruption investigation may involve embezzlement, voter fraud, illegal kickbacks, bribery, extortion, and a host of other specific crimes. The significance of any given case is not the amount of money that may be involved, however, but the impact it could have on everything from neighborhood safety to border security, the quality of roads and public buildings, the reliability of public health and fire safety inspections, and the public’s faith in the court system and democracy itself.

“Today, there are roughly 680 Special Agents dedicated to more than 2,500 pending investigations. The number of pending cases has increased by 51 percent since 2003; the number of Agents working such cases has increased by 62 percent. The number of convictions is high: In the past two years alone, we have convicted more than 1,800 federal, state, and local officials,” Mueller said. “The Public Corruption program also targets governmental fraud and corrupt practices. The number of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act investigations has increased dramatically in recent years, from 13 cases prior to 2004 to more than 75 today, with 33 new matters in 2007 alone.

AP Photo/Mel Evans

FBI Special Agent in Charge Weysan Dun, center at microphones, speaks to the media as he stands with other officials outside the Clarkson S. Fisher Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Trenton, N.J., Sept. 6, 2007, about the investigation that led to the arrests of 11 public officials in towns across New Jersey on charges of taking bribes in exchange for influencing the awarding of public contracts. Two of those arrested were state lawmakers, two were mayors, three were city councilmen, and several served on the school board in Pleasantville, where the scandal began. The FBI established a fake insurance brokerage purporting to employ the government’s two informants along with undercover Agents.

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The Entertainment Software Association Commends The Federal Bureau of Investigation for Its 100 Years of Service and Thanks the Agents, Employees and Staff for Their Dedication and Hard Work in Combating Entertainment Software Piracy

www.theESA.com **The Federal Bureau of Investigation did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement

Microsoft Congratulates the Federal Bureau of Investigation on its 100 Year Anniversary.

Microsoft applauds the Federal Bureau of Investigation for partnering with industry to protect intellectual property and stop software counterfeiters from victimizing consumers throughout the world. Working together, governments and intellectual property rights holders can help protect consumers from becoming victims of piracy.

To learn more about the risks of counterfeit or unlicensed software, the benefits of genuine software, and Microsoft’s legalization solutions, visit www.microsoft.com/piracy. To report suspected piracy, contact piracy@microsoft.com.

The FBI did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.

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Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch

“To combat international corruption, the FBI’s Public Corruption Unit has created a number of target-specific programs. For example, the International Contract Corruption Initiative addresses growing corruption within the global community. The International Contract Corruption Task Force addresses the systemic, long-term, multibillion-dollar contract corruption and procurement fraud crime problem linked to the war and reconstruction efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This multiagency task force combines the efforts of the FBI, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service, Army CID, the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, U.S. AID, and the Department of State. We have Agents on the ground in the Middle East, investigating nearly 60 cases.” On the domestic front, in an environment in which the No. 1 FBI priority is to keep terrorists from entering the country or committing new acts of terrorism, taking bribes for fake driver’s licenses, ID cards, and even hazardous materials transport licenses or to let someone slip across the border or into a port could set the stage for a future September 11. The level of that concern increased significantly when post-September 11 investigations revealed 18 of the 19 terrorists who hijacked planes that day had an assortment of fake IDs, including driver’s licenses. “For a nation built on the rule of law – and on faith in a government of the people, by the people, and for the people – we can and should do better. Ultimately, democracy and corruption cannot coexist,” Mueller told the ABA. “Politicians who betray the trust of their constituents harm the integrity of our government. Executives who betray the trust of their employees and their shareholders harm the integrity of the marketplace. Left unchecked, corporate fraud and public corruption will rip the very fabric of our democracy. “The FBI is uniquely situated to address public corruption. We have the skills to conduct sophisticated investigations. But more than that, we are insulated from political pressure. We are able to go where the evidence leads us, without fear of reprisal or recrimination.” Both the GWOT and the expanding global reach of traditional criminal activities has led to another major change in many investigations conducted by CID – the need to work with authorities from other countries, something Kaiser said was rare when he first joined the FBI in the early 1980s. “Now, with the advent of the Internet and easy access to fast air travel, the CID has more international cases and

task forces – 12 or 13 overseas, working with other nations’ law enforcement agencies,” he stated. “We have FBI task forces in Albania, Romania, Hungary, Thailand, Mexico, Colombia, El Salvador, for example, doing criminal investigations. There are FBI Agents assigned to those working with local agents. “We also coordinate with our legal attaches overseas [LEGATs – FBI Agents assigned to U.S. embassies and consulates in more than 70 countries], but the investigations and direction come from CID. We have to get permission from the State Department and coordinate with local law enforcement, most of whom are very receptive.” FBI task forces and Agents also are embedded with every U.S. military command, mostly focused on terrorists. That soon will include the newest command – AFRICOM – scheduled to stand up by the end of 2008. “Africa runs the gamut from white-collar crimes to drug trafficking,” Roberts said. “Many drugs are now coming out of Colombia, for example, and up the West African coast into Europe.” The new structure, both within CID and the FBI as a whole, has created more opportunities for both new and veteran Agents. “When a new Agent comes in, we look at his background, past investigative work and professional work, and try to assign him to that area of expertise. We have an investigator assigned to mortgage fraud, for example, who, prior to coming into the FBI, worked in that industry and has a good working knowledge. So we do try to match them up,” Kaiser explained. “People come into the FBI with varying degrees of skills, so we also have a pretty good training scenario, ongoing in-service education in specialized areas, and have them work with senior Agents. But it is very competitive and there is still the basic requirement of a college degree and work experience – accountants, lawyers, cyber background, foreign languages, intel experience. “Of all the federal agencies, the FBI probably keeps employees the longest, so the ability to move around and do something different is important. In the CID, you may work drug investigations for a while, then switch over to white-collar crime if you get burned out. A lot of our best terrorism Agents started out in criminal investigations, for example. In 26 years, I’ve worked terrorism, drugs, violent crimes, [and] white-collar crime. So you get that variety and that’s desirable to a lot of people who don’t want to do the same thing for 25 years or more.”

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Office of International Operations A joint response to crime and terrorism

he new century has seen a wave of violent terrorist attacks across the globe, from September 11 in the United States, to the 2002 car-bombing of a popular tourist night club in Bali, to the 2002 siege of a Moscow theater and the 2004 Madrid train station bombings. At the same time, trafficking in illegal drugs and people, industrial espionage, cyber crimes, and every other form of criminal activity have risen to record levels throughout the world. With the near universal availability of the Internet, global cell phone service, and the ability to fly half-way around the world in single day, it has become possible for terrorists and criminal gangs to “plan in Europe, finance their operations in North America, train in the Middle East, and carry out attacks anywhere in the world,” as FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III told attendees of a Ministerial Summit in Budapest, Hungary, in 2005. With criminals from the far corners of the world able to communicate instantly and form international networks that are difficult to track, it has become crucial to build a strong cooperative communications and investigative network of international law enforcement agencies. The FBI actually began its international programs during World War II, when President Roosevelt directed the Bureau to monitor activities of the Axis powers (Germany, Japan, and Italy) in other countries. Such counterintelligence functions were handed over to the newly created CIA under the National Security Act of 1947 and are now conducted by 15 U.S. intelligence agencies. That did not end the FBI’s international interest or presence, however. As the Cold War once again changed the focus of the Bureau and other agencies, the FBI provided legal attachés (LEGATS) to serve as legal advisors to U.S. ambassadors. “In the 1950s, the LEGAT offices were largely involved with new law enforcement agencies being created around

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the world, especially in the former occupied countries of the Axis, beginning with Tokyo and Europe,” said FBI Assistant Director Thomas V. Fuentes, who heads up the Bureau’s Office of International Operations (OIO). “Over the years, that gradually expanded – until recently. After 9/11, we went from about 45 overseas offices to 75 full LEGAT offices and an additional 15 suboffices, either in a U.S. consulate or another embassy in the region. “In Canada and Mexico, for example, we have a main office in the capital city embassy and subo-ffices elsewhere in the country. In Belgium, we have a main office in Brussels and a sub-office in The Hague, where we have our relationship with EUROPOL [European Police Office], which has a network housing representatives from the 26 EU [European Union] countries and separately, an organization

Thomas Fuentes, Special Agent, Office of International Operations, Federal Bureau of Investigation, at a Washington Foreign Press Center briefing on the FBI’s International Operations.

U.S. Department of State photo

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by J.R. Wilson

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called EuroJustice [a network of European prosecutors]; the U.S. and Canada have ‘observer status’ with Europol.” The FBI also has Agents assigned to the Lyon, France, headquarters and the New York City and Washington, D.C., offices of INTERPOL [International Criminal Police Organization] – founded in 1923 and now having 186 member nations. “The main function of the LEGATs is to establish a working partnership with the host country services that cover the issues we have responsibility for,” Fuentes said. “They identify which services – intel, law enforcement, etc. – we work with and within those agencies, identify special components or divisions we can go to if we have issues involving terrorism, cyber crime, training programs, etc. “Last year, we covered more than 125,000 leads overseas, from within the FBI and from host countries. We operate with the permission of those countries – we can’t just go in and do what we want, but they want to help us and we want to help them. For example, we could have a terrorism investigation in a U.S. field office and in the course of going through phone calls placed by some of the main subjects, we might want to know who is making calls to them from a particular country. So we would go to that country’s agencies, which would start a parallel investigation.” A growing part of the OIO’s mandate involves what, a generation ago, was considered a local problem – street gangs. Today, the FBI estimates there are more than 800,000 members in more than 30,000 gangs in communities across the United States. But deepening gang involvement in illegal drugs and weapons, combined with the ease of global reach via the Internet, have turned many U.S. gangs into international organizations, often allied with gangs and criminal entities in other countries.

The U.S. Embassy’s Legal Attaché Office or “LEGAT” -- the local representative of the FBI – conducted a five-day workshop on “Major Case Management” in September 2004. Piper Campbell, the U.S. Embassy’s deputy chief of mission (DCM), opened the workshop on Sept. 17, 2007. The training took place at the Cambodian National Counterterrorism Committee facility in Phnom Penh and was attended by approximately 50 high-ranking police and military officers. Although this was not the first training session in Cambodia sponsored by the FBI, it was the first since the opening of the Embassy’s Legal Attaché Office in 2007.

2008. “That’s where the FBI and our federal partners can help. We can combine our strengths with those of state and local law enforcement to tackle gangs as a team. Gangs can easily cross jurisdictions; so must law enforcement. The most powerful response is a joint response. “From a national perspective, the FBI focuses its efforts on the violent gangs that present the greatest multi-jurisdictional threat. Our traditional approach to combating

U.S. Department of State photo

With criminals from the far corners of the world able to communicate instantly and form international networks that are difficult to track, it has become crucial to build a strong cooperative communications and investigative network of international law enforcement agencies. “Modern gangs are more diverse, more dispersed and more dangerous. All of this makes your jobs much more difficult,” FBI Deputy Director John S. Pistole told the International Association of Chiefs of Police’s second annual Summit on Transnational Gangs in Los Angeles in March

gangs has been to go after them as enterprises – much like how we tackled organized crime. Gangs have connections to many facets of society, from the military to the prison system. Their tentacles encompass a wide range of criminal activities, from alien smuggling to mortgage fraud,

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another critical information-sharing from identity theft to extortion. And tool for domestic anti-gang efforts. they are becoming increasingly savvy But NGIC also has an international when it comes to technology – esperole, providing input on members of cially the Internet.” transnational gangs into the Violent Recently, the FBI took its domestic Gang Terrorist Organization File experience with the use of anti-gang (VGTOF), created in December 1994 task forces and formed the Transnato disseminate identifying informational Anti-Gang Initiative (TAG) in tion about violent criminal gang and partnership with El Salvador’s national terrorist organization members to the civil police force, the PNC. TAG inglobal law enforcement community. cludes sharing information whenever All of these efforts at the internaan investigation in one country turns tional level by the FBI and OIO are in up a connection to another, such as response to criminal activity that now an individual arrested on immigration operates across a flat landscape, uncharges in the U.S. who was wanted bounded by national borders, politics, for multiple homicides in El Salvador. economic systems, or any other geoIn September 2007, TAG’s first political concern. joint operation led to the arrests of 10 “In today’s ‘flat world,’ our role canmembers of the U.S.-based MS-13 not be limited to the domestic front. gang, the seizure of firearms, and the Just as there are no borders for crime recovery of a 3-year-old child who and terrorism, there can be no borders had been missing since his mother’s for justice and the rule of law,” Mueller death in 2005. Top: Suspected MS-13 gang members told the Senate Judiciary Committee “The MS-13 National Gang Task are arrested. The FBI has been placing in March 2008. “To respond to this Force and the PNC have also spearmore and more resources on the front lines of the MS-13 problem. Above: An new threat landscape, the FBI must headed the Central American FingerMS-13 suspect bearing gang tattoos is be an international law enforcement print Exploitation Initiative, known as handcuffed. In 2004, the FBI created the and intelligence agency. We must CAFÉ,” Pistole told the conference. MS-13 National Gang Task Force. A year create new partnerships and solidify “Through CAFÉ, criminal biometric later, the FBI helped create the National old friendships with our counterparts data and fingerprints from Mexico, El Gang Intelligence Center. around the world. Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, and Hon“Twenty years ago, the idea of regduras are collected, stored, then incorularly communicating with our law enforcement and inporated into the FBI’s database. We make them available telligence counterparts around the world was as foreign to all U.S. law enforcement personnel. CAFÉ also provides as the Internet or the mobile phone. Today, advances in training and equipment to help participating countries do technology, travel, and communication have broken their own digital fingerprint identification and analysis.” down walls between countries, continents, and individuThe FBI also has opened its Law Enforcement Online als. To that end, we have strengthened our relationships (LEO) Web site to police in Central America. LEO prowith our international law enforcement partners and we vides a platform to share information and experiences, not have expanded our global reach through our Office of Inonly between the FBI and other agencies, but through speternational Operations. cial interest groups that can discuss information specific to “Together we are identifying people and groups that what they do, such as SWAT teams or hostage negotiators. provide financial support to terrorists. We are collaboratIt also is used to securely transmit sensitive but unclassified ing closely with our counterparts in Russia, Eastern Euglobal intelligence. rope, and Asia to combat global nuclear terrorism. We are The National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC), led working with the Italian National Police and the Hunby the FBI but comprising representatives from a number garian National Police to investigate organized criminal of law enforcement, defense, and intelligence agencies, is

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On Sept. 20, 2005, the Salvadoran Minister of Government Rene Figueroa (left) and United States Ambassador Douglas Barclay (right) signed the Bilateral Agreement establishing the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in San Salvador. The agreement was subsequently forwarded to the Salvadoran Legislative Assembly for ratification. “Our LEGAT personnel have to be investigators as well as diplomats,” Fuentes said. “So if we send someone to a fully developed country, they have made their bones as investigators and know how to develop sources, use intel, have an investigative strategy that leads to a successful prosecution or the dismantling of a criminal organization. They also have to have the diplomatic and personal liaison skills we need. “If we are sending someone to a developing country, they need the same skills so they can mentor a country getting their law enforcement agencies off the ground or rebuilding their skill sets. We also get calls from field offices about what help we can provide in a particular country, or, if necessary, send someone with the needed skill sets to help them. So that is a critical role, both within the FBI and within the U.S. law enforcement community. As a result of that expertise, our advice and counsel to operations overseas will always be sought.” Just as is the case with the FBI’s efforts to build solid relationships with domestic law enforcement, OIO’s goal is to ensure the Bureau can count on its global partners – and that those nations see the FBI in the same light. “Our motto is, ‘to have a friend, you should be a friend.’ What we foster around the world is whether you are in a country with similar government and policies to the U.S. or not, the protection of loved ones remains the same,” Fuentes explained. “At the most fundamental level, safety

U.S. Department of State photo

syndicates that continue to immigrate to the United States. We are working with our foreign counterparts to cut off the proliferation of child pornography on the Internet. These international partnerships remain vital to our collective security.” The FBI also is lending support and personnel to international efforts to train law enforcement officers worldwide to improve their ability to work together, and to collect, share, and understand the fruits of modern intelligence gathering. One such effort is the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, a joint effort begun by the FBI and Hungarian law enforcement in 1995 to train police in the newly emerging democracies of Eastern and Central Europe. ILEA hosts five Law Enforcement Executive Development (LEED) eight-week courses for mid-level officers each year, plus another 15 specialized one- and two-week courses focusing on such topics as transnational terrorism, crime scene investigation, illegal migration, and trafficking in persons. The director of ILEA Budapest is an FBI supervisory Special Agent and the deputy director is a U.S. State Department Diplomatic Security Service supervisory Special Agent. The rest of the staff are Hungarian, from ministry employees to police officers to contractors, while the instructors are brought in from the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, The Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Italy, INTERPOL, and EUROPOL. Initially, the plan was to rotate the administration of ILEA among various U.S. agencies, with the FBI taking first watch. But the program proved so successful, additional ILEAs were set up around the world, leaving the FBI to administer the original school in Budapest and other agencies permanently charged to oversee the new locations. The first of those was established in Bangkok, Thailand, with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) in charge, in cooperation with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). The next, under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), was opened in Botswana to serve 14 nations in southern Africa. A fourth ILEA in El Salvador, to train officers from throughout Latin America, is currently under the joint management of FBI, DEA, and DHS. A fifth version of ILEA also has now been set up in Roswell, N.M., as a sort of graduate school of criminal justice management. In all of the FBI’s overseas activities, OIO’s LEGATs play an essential role, involving duties not typical for domestic Agents.

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11/20/07

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and security of the people is a primary function of government in general. We refer to it as our ‘cop-to-cop relationship.’ The synergy of working with colleagues around the world that helps make the streets of the U.S. or some other country safer is best for everyone.” On any given day, OIO’s 300 full-time employees overseas are helping to coordinate the foreign travel of more than 1,000 other FBI Agents and employees, who are part of the globalization of the FBI in recent years. But LEGATs also are part of the U.S. ambassador’s country team and, as such, function as diplomats, representing U.S. foreign policy. Or they may, with the ambassador’s concurrence, respond to a request from the host country for FBI expertise, as happened after the Asian tsunami, when the FBI was asked to help in the identification of thousands of bodies. Such requests also may involve major criminal investigations, especially if a third country is involved. “The FBI has the most extensive network of law enforcement attaches around the world,” Fuentes said. “So if a host country we work with has a problem in another country where they do not have personnel, they may ask us, if we do have a presence there, for help. And that works both ways, so if we need something and they can help, it becomes reciprocal. “The LEGATs around the world are an extension of all FBI programs, as well as diplomacy and being part of the country team. If CID [Criminal Investigative Division] is conducting a complex organized crime case, for example, where about 80 percent of the cases are international, the LEGATs are CID’s extension around the world. We also coordinate other overseas training programs, often funded by State in conjunction with our LEGAT offices to do specialized training in a specific country on money laundering or forensic investigation.” In addition, Fuentes and his counterparts at more than twodozen other federal agencies meet six times a year to discuss common areas of concern related to what their respective agencies are doing internationally. “If anybody is relying on a pension fund, 401k, or some system to assure their retirement income, those funds are invested in companies conducting business around the world – and to do that, we need rule of law and a safe and cooperative environment around the world. You don’t want contracts to fail because organized crime or terrorists have taken over, requiring a large U.S. military or economic aid intervention, which also affects the economy of the United States,” Fuentes concluded. “So what we do at OIO, day in and day out, matters to everyone, even if they don’t see it.”

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Proud to be your partners in crime

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Office of Law Enforcement cooperation

The Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation Building domestic partnerships

In

by J.R. Wilson

October 2001, only weeks after September 11 reordered the priorities of the FBI and every other federal agency, newly appointed Director Robert S. Mueller, III, met with the International Association of Police Chiefs in Toronto, Canada, to discuss the new environment in which local, national, and international law enforcement suddenly found themselves. While Mueller’s primary directive from President George W. Bush was to refocus the FBI on counterterrorism as its top priority and counterintelligence as second, the police chiefs voiced concern that the Bureau would forget about its other partners and their priorities, which, in most cases, remained more traditional criminal activities. “They recommended to the Director that state and local law enforcement should be more in tune and involved with the FBI as we began developing strategies to keep the country safe,” recalled FBI Assistant Director Louis Quijas, the first outsider ever brought into the Bureau as an Assistant Director, who was given the mandate to create the Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation (OLEC) from scratch. “The Director responded that he realized the days of FBI relationships with 800,000 cops and their agencies were no longer a luxury but a necessity and a critical part of FBI strategy. He wanted to create an office to ensure those relationships were developed, maintained, and that would give him a true sense of what was going on in the broader law enforcement arena. “There are about 30,000 members of the FBI, but only about 12,500 Agents in the field worldwide. The local cops probably would be most likely to come across, intercept, or help prevent another terrorist attack. So it is our job to promote and enhance existing relationships between the FBI and local law enforcement through 56 field offices as we continually develop our strategies and processes to help combat terrorism and violent crime. It is the responsibility of everybody in the FBI to do this, but it is [also] our job to

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provide insight to the Director as to how to help the state and local police and FBI work together.” Quijas, who had spent 25 years rising through the ranks of the Kansas City, Mo., police department before becoming chief of police in High Point, N.C., added that Mueller felt a working cop would be better attuned to the needs and concerns of law enforcement at the local level. “The Director felt very strongly that we didn’t need an Agent who had been a cop, but an active police chief to do that mission,” noted FBI Executive Assistant Director Steve Tidwell, who heads the Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch of which OLEC is part. “And Louis also was an FBI National Academy graduate.” Since its inception in 1935, more than 36,000 mid- and upper-level state, local, territorial, and international law enforcement officials have graduated from the FBI National Academy in Quantico, Va. In addition to learning from and sharing with the FBI experiences, ideas, and techniques, those graduates have formed lifelong relationships with each other and the Bureau. In addition to strengthening existing ties between local authorities and the FBI’s field offices, OLEC tapped into the Academy network to build new and expanded links. “We depend upon those 800,000 officers out there to help us, so we have assisted and streamlined the processes for security clearances to better collect, correct, and share information with state and local officers to help them protect their communities,” Quijas said. “We always try to stay ahead of the curve on those issues that directly impact those officers. We have a representative in each field office, most of them ASACs [Assistant Special Agent in Charge], who are the second in command. It is their collateral duty to be that office’s primary point of contact [POC] for locals, which also shows the level of FBI commitment to those partnerships. In our headquarters office, there is one Agent responsible for every office in each region.

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U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Christian Thomas

Finn McClafferty and his K-9, Max, of the Beverly Hills Police Department, search an ambulance for explosive ordnance prior to the detonation of 500 pounds of explosive being used to demolish the vehicle for use in the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s post-blast investigator training. Federal, state, and local law enforcement officers involved in bombing crime scene investigations participate in this one-week course that places an emphasis on the identification and collection of fragmented and mutilated bomb components. “We also have training coordinators in each field office who handle both FBI and state and local training, such as officer survival and terrorism. If we get a question or concern, we go right to the training coordinator, who usually has a more day-to-day contact with local authorities. We also go to major city chiefs conferences and find out what their concerns are, research those, and get information out to our POCs in the field offices to share with all state and local partners, including those [who are] not members of the major city chiefs organizations.” The Academy relationship also works at the international level (about 7 percent of graduates are from outside the United States), which brings OLEC into a partnership with the FBI’s Office of International Operations (OIO). “We mirror domestically what OIO does internationally; my primary focus is domestic with some international, theirs is international but with some domestic links,” Quijas

explained. “One of the first things we did was coordinate a meeting with the Academy and OIO to find out how to use our LEGATs [FBI Agents working as legal attachés in more than 70 U.S. embassies and consulates around the world] to help identify Academy graduates, who turn out to be the heads of national police agencies. Now both OIO and OLEC attend the regional meetings of the Academy associations. “It’s all about relationships. Say an officer in Jordan roomed with an officer from Texas at the Academy; if our office can create an opportunity for them to stay in contact and help develop and maintain their relationship, it addresses the global side of law enforcement.” OLEC does the same domestically, working with a variety of state, regional, and national law enforcement associations. “One of my jobs is to deal with the major metropolitan chiefs and agency heads, including campus security, which

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A car bomb explodes on the ordnance range at Fort Dix, N.J., as part of the FBI Large Vehicle Bomb Countermeasure Course. The course offered a chance for students from federal and state law enforcement agencies and military explosive ordnance personnel to learn how to defeat vehicle bombs and techniques for investigating incidents to learn more about employing countermeasures. “We give them the same top-secret clearance Agents have and tell them to ask questions – how and why do you do that, could you do it this way,” he explained. “To date we’ve had 32 officers from all over the country, all sizes of departments. Everyone meets the Director while here, who tells them to make sure the FBI stays focused and on track and does everything we can to help enhance their ability to keep their communities safe. I think it is one of the most effective things we do, because those officers then go home and add value to their agencies and to their relationship with the FBI. “One of our first executive fellows, from the Los Angeles Police Department, helped our new Directorate of Intelligence write their CONOPs [concept of operations] to help work with state and local agencies because the intel people did not have local police experience. We’ve also sent Agents to other countries to both work on related issues and also to make connections with those agencies.” In its first seven years of operation, OLEC has been tested and applied in ways few, if any, had considered when it was created. “After Katrina, the U.S. Attorney General met with the Assistant Director – CID [Criminal Investigative Division] and me, and five police chiefs from comparably-sized departments to determine how to best help the New Orleans police stand up again,” Quijas recalled. “I don’t think any other agency could have done it because we had the contacts to get it done without a lot of paperwork and bureaucracy.”

Photo by Ed Mingin, Fort Dix Public Affairs

has become a much higher priority group since Virginia Tech [where in 2007 a student killed 32 and wounded many more in the deadliest single gunman shooting rampage in U.S. history]. I have one Agent who does nothing but college law enforcement,” Quijas said. “I’ve belonged to most of the organizations I now deal with at the executive level, talking to them on a regular basis and asking about issues. And our field office POCs may be responsible for working with five associations each. “My main task is striking a balance. Our No. 1 priority in the FBI today is terrorism, which is not the No. 1 priority for state and local police. So I try to mesh our priorities and theirs – from copper thefts to shootings, burglaries, kidnapping – and ensure our executives here keep their eye on those issues, as well. For example, we had eight major city chiefs here meeting with the director and we hadn’t even thought about the wave of multimillion dollar copper thefts they are dealing with in foreclosed homes, schools, and new construction. We need to help provide the resources they need to address those and also show them how to help us.” What local law enforcement can do for the FBI, as Mueller noted in creating OLEC, is to greatly expand the flow of information that may help identify terrorist-related activities that, pre-September 11, probably would never have been connected. “Not all criminals are terrorists, but all terrorists are criminals and are involved in many of the issues local cops deal with long before we do,” Quijas explained. “If we don’t have a good relationship with those officers, that’s when things fall through the cracks. And in this environment, we can’t afford not to keep the dots connected. “Something that happens in Texas can have a direct connection to something going on in Chile. That’s something we have learned – how small the world really is. If the FBI can use its global reach to help bring domestic and foreign law enforcement together, it’s in everyone’s best interests.” Another part of that relationship-building was the creation of executive fellows programs, in which officers (most at the lieutenant and captain levels) from both large and small state and local agencies and campus police departments are brought in – at the Bureau’s expense – to work cases with FBI Agents. The goal is to ensure the FBI leadership not only has solid input from state and local law enforcement, but also is providing them with the information and intelligence they want, not just what the FBI thinks they need, Quijas said.

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7/3/08 12:08:06 PM


Bristol-Myers Squibb salutes the dedicated Special Agents of the

Federal Bureau of Investigation who have protected and defended our great country for 100 years.

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Congratulations & Thank You To the men and women of the FBI for 100 years of dedicated service to the people of this great nation

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We look forward to continuing to build strong partnerships with the FBI as we work to protect our nation together. Representing the 86 InfraGard Members Alliances Nationwide Acadiana ~ Albany ~ Alaska ~ Arkansas ~ Atlanta ~ Baton Rouge ~ Birmingham ~ Boston Buffalo ~ Charlotte ~ Chattahoochee ~ Central Indiana ~ Central Missouri ~ Central Ohio Central Pennsylvania ~ Central Texas ~ Chicago ~ Cincinnati ~ Coastal Empire ~ Connecticut Dallas ~ Dayton ~ Delaware ~ Denver ~ Eastern Carolina ~ El Paso ~ Evergreen State ~ Honolulu Houston ~ Idaho ~ Iowa ~ Jacksonville ~ Kansas City ~ Kentucky ~ Knoxville ~ Long Island Los Angeles ~ Madison ~ Maine ~ Maryland ~ Memphis ~ Michigan ~ Middle Tennessee Milwaukee ~ Minnesota ~ Mississippi ~ Mobile ~ Nation’s Capital ~ Nebraska ~ New Jersey New Mexico ~ New York City Metro ~ Norfolk ~ North Dakota ~ Northeast Indiana ~ Northern Ohio Northwest Florida ~ Oklahoma City ~ Oregon ~ Orlando ~ Philadelphia ~ Phoenix ~ Pittsburgh Puerto Rico ~ Richmond ~ Rochester ~ Sacramento ~ Salt Lake City ~ San Antonio ~ San Diego San Francisco Bay Area ~ Sierra Nevada ~ South Carolina ~ South Dakota ~ South East Louisiana South Florida ~ Southeast Tennessee ~ Southern Arizona ~ Southern Nevada ~ Springfield St. Louis ~ Tallahassee ~ Tampa Bay ~ Toledo ~ Vermont ~ West Virginia INMA Board of Directors and Officers 2007-2008 Dyann Bradbury ~ William Casey ~ Michael Dahn ~ Ronald Dick ~ Jerry Dixon ~ Sheri Donahue Richard T. Garcia ~ Raymond Geoffroy ~ Kathleen Kiernan ~ Paul Kurtz ~ David McIntyre ~ Sue Mencer Freeman Mendell ~ Rob Pate ~ Jeff Schmidt ~ Robert Schmidt ~ Phyllis Schneck ~ Bryant Tow ~ Alan Young

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Office of Law Enforcement cooperation

Not having had another terrorist attack on U.S. soil since September 11 has given the FBI the time and opportunity to identify problems and needs, and seek out and build better relationships, which has had the side effect of greatly improving the perception of and attitude toward the FBI in other agencies. “It also has created a new-found respect and appreciation at the FBI for the ability of state and local law enforcement to address and prevent crime in their communities,” he said. “Prior to 9/11, the FBI was the best reactive force, but was not in the business of preventing crime. That was the responsibility of local law enforcement. I’ve seen it from both sides and now I see how much the FBI is learning from the state and locals about crime prevention. I see this office continually beating that drum – that we can learn a lot from state and local law enforcement. “I’d like to see us make relationship-building part of our organizational DNA, because there is nothing we can do without those relationships. In order to have partners, you have to be a partner. And if we want state and local to be our partners, they have to be full partners, not junior partners, in the war on terror. “The Director has made sure [this office] is actively involved [in FBI executive-level decision-making]. I sit in on a 9 a.m. meeting with the Director and other operational division chiefs every morning. I’ve never been reluctant to ask how what the other chiefs are doing impacts our state and local partners; they sometimes get focused on their operations without thinking about that. But today, when I’m sitting in a meeting, I don’t have to ask what something will mean for state and locals, because somebody else will tell me.” This expanded relationship with other law enforcement agencies also has helped the FBI identify what new technologies are coming out almost every day and how those can best be applied to the wide range of criminal investigations being conducted at all levels. “We’re leveraging technology better to serve our customers, such as Law Enforcement Online [LEO, which also is FBI shorthand for local law enforcement officers]. LEO wasn’t very user friendly or properly leveraged before 9/11, but now we have special interest groups and put intel information on it. A SWAT commander can share information, concerns, and best practices with other SWAT commanders, for example,” Quijas said. “We’ve now moved from information sharing to information access, information they can act on. Almost every division has something on LEO now and local cops can go on

and compare that to what is happening in their local communities, and develop their own intel. “We also have helped other agencies, domestic and foreign, develop technologies to run fingerprints as part of our effort to bring the needs, concerns, and ideas of local law enforcement back to FBI Headquarters and find what technologies we have to help.” A major implementation of that can be seen in the establishment of 16 regional forensic labs around the country, each run by state and local law enforcement agencies in partnership with the FBI. Quijas said he uses the many successes of those labs in helping solve local cases in his role as the FBI’s “ambassador” to local law enforcement. Such stories of successful cooperation, combined with all the other efforts OLEC has put into practice, have gone a long way toward ending the perception of federal “interference” among local police, who increasingly now see the Bureau as a valued partner. “When locals call the FBI, we have a mechanism in place to assist them. If a local agency asks us to help in a missing person or kidnapping, no matter how long it has been, we will send someone to their command post – not as the lead, but to provide what assistance we can. The Agents are briefed by the locals, then tell them what help they can provide, such as notifying other agencies that might be involved. The local police generally do not have those contacts,” Quijas said, adding that kind of response does not involve OLEC, per se, because it is not an investigative office. But OLEC nevertheless plays an important part in ensuring all of the elements required – from attitude to contacts – are in place, enhancing the ability of FBI Field Agents to work on investigations with their state, local, federal, and even international counterparts. In that role, OLEC acts as a force multiplier, expanding the Bureau’s information pipeline in the war on terror and other federal priorities, while doing the same for its partners as they pursue their own primary investigative and crime prevention objectives. “We’ve been able to leverage our relationships internally and externally through this office with people who would not have come together prior to 9/11. This office helped make sense of those interactions and used the clout of the Director’s office, of which we are a part, to help cultivate those relationships,” Quijas concluded. “Our outside partners have often said this is one of the best things the FBI has done, to give them a voice in the Bureau. I think we have brought a lot of value to the Bureau and the overall law enforcement community.”

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cyber division

The FBI’s Cyber Division Fighting crime and terrorism on the electronic frontier

T

by J.R. Wilson

he rise and increasing importance of the Internet in almost every aspect of modern life, combined with the advent of the Global War on Terrorism, led the FBI to a major change in both structure and focus at the dawn of the 21st century. One of the most significant components in that change, reflective of all the others, was the creation of the Cyber Division in 2002. Prior to that reorganization, cyber crimes were handled by the FBI’s white-collar crimes squad.

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“The cyber threat was growing as more of our daily activities, as well as financial institutions, military, and government entities, were connecting to the Internet. As a result, various crimes and intrusions into those networks began to occur,” noted James E. Finch, FBI Assistant Director of the Cyber Division. “As a result, we pulled people with technical backgrounds from various squads throughout the FBI to form cyber squads. These Agents had been working in counterintelligence, counterterrorism,

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cyber division

criminal investigations – we just had to locate the necessary backgrounds. And for those with an interest who lacked that background, we provided training. “The scope of the problem is significant and expanding daily as the United States and the world become more dependent on computers and the Internet. The FBI and our state, local, federal, and international law enforcement partners have combined our technological expertise and experience to focus on cyber threats, including intrusions, child pornography, violations of intellectual property rights, and counterfeiting, especially of airplane, auto, and heavy machine parts, as well as movies and music.” While cyber crimes might not seem as important to some as terrorist attacks, bank robberies, hijackings, drug trafficking, and other traditional “real-world” crimes, the Internet not only has become a vital component in the commission of those crimes, but has opened new vistas for criminals worldwide. The FBI identifies its expanded cyber mission as having four primary goals; 1. To stop those behind the most serious computer intrusions and the spread of malicious code; 2. To identify and thwart online sexual predators who use the Internet to meet and exploit children and to produce, possess, or share child pornography; 3. To counteract operations that target U.S. intellectual property (copyrights and patents), endangering both national security and competitiveness; and 4. To dismantle national and transnational organized criminal enterprises engaging in Internet fraud. One of the most potentially dangerous of the new crimes made possible by the Internet is the “botnet” – robot networks compromising computers belonging to individuals, businesses, or even government agencies that have come under the remote command and control of computer hackers, typically through the use of e-mail or Web site-delivered malicious software. Once established, the hacker can send out a signal to hundreds or thousands of infected computers, using them to launch a massive spam e-mail that cannot be traced back to the perpetrator or flood a network with so many messages it results in a Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS). “Botnets are considered the Swiss Army knives of cyber crime. You name it, they can do it, from attacking networks, sending spam, and collecting data to infecting computers and injecting spyware,” warned FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III. “Botnets do not require highly technical skills, yet the national security implications are

broad. A botnet could shut down a power grid, flood an emergency call center with millions of spam messages, or disable a military command post.” If sufficiently massive, such attacks can even affect the Internet as a whole, all without the knowledge of the owners of the computers being used by the hacker. An ongoing FBI-Department of Justice initiative – “Operation Bot Roast” – has identified and shut down numerous botnets and charged the hackers involved with computer fraud and abuse.

While cyber crimes might not seem as important to some as terrorist attacks, bank robberies, hijackings, drug trafficking, and other traditional “realworld” crimes, the Internet not only has become a vital component in the commission of those crimes, but has opened new vistas for criminals worldwide. Cyber threats from outside the United States are increasing daily, from bored teenagers looking for online excitement to criminals, terrorists, and even early experiments in state-sponsored cyber warfare. “Our Cyber Action Teams travel around the world on a moment’s notice to assist in computer intrusion cases, whether in government, military, or commercial systems. These teams gather vital intelligence that helps us identify the cyber crimes that are most dangerous to our national security and to our economy,” Mueller told the Senate Judiciary Committee in March 2008. “In 2005, for example, cyber teams comprising investigators and experts in malicious code and computer forensics worked closely with Microsoft® Corporation and with law enforcement officials from Turkey and Morocco to find the criminals responsible for creating and spreading the ‘Mytob’ and ‘Zotob’ worms. We resolved this case within just weeks of the attack, in large part because of the intelligence we received from our international and private-sector partners.”

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One of society’s oldest and most abhorrent crimes – child exploitation – also surged with the advent of the Internet, with the FBI reporting an increase in Internet child pornography and related crimes from 113 cases in 1996 (three years after the World Wide Web went public) to more than 2,400 cases in FY 2007. During that span, more than 6,800 child predators were convicted. To help combat such crimes, the FBI launched what Mueller termed “one of our most important cyber programs” – the Innocent Images National Initiative, an intelligence-driven, multiagency investigative effort. Tactics used to locate and build cases against these child predators include FBI Cyber Agents and their state and local counterparts going undercover online, posing as children the criminals target or as fellow “collectors” looking to share images through peer-to-peer networks. They also coordinate investigations with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children® to identify children and adults featured in child pornography and train local police officers in the skills and techniques they need to pursue cases in their own jurisdictions. It is a global concern, leading to the creation of the Innocent Images International Task Force, in which Cyber Division Agents and law enforcement officers from 18 other nations work closely to identify child pornographers and their victims. To date, more than 3,000 leads have been generated and sent to the Department of Justice-funded Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces, FBI field offices, and international law enforcement agencies to use in the apprehension and prosecution of offenders. Another major cooperative effort to combat cyber crimes is the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), an alliance between the FBI and the National White Collar Crime Center. While originally established in May 2000 as the Internet Fraud Complaint Center for victims to report white-collar crimes, it was renamed in October 2003 to reflect the broad range of criminal activity with an Internet nexus. To date, IC3 has received more than 1 million complaints, ranging from online fraud to computer intrusions to child pornography, and referred more than half of those to federal, state, local, and international law enforcement agencies for investigation. “Consider it the 9-1-1 of the Internet,” Finch said. “Any crime committed over the Internet can be reported to IC3 and from there, if it is not a crime the FBI investigates, we will refer it to other law enforcement partners for their consideration. The most common crimes reported to IC3

have been fraud schemes involving phony auctions, dating schemes, identity theft, advanced fee schemes, treasure-recovery schemes – there are a lot of twists.” The FBI also tries to educate the public on these activities in hopes of reducing the number who fall victim to them. “We have a site called LooksTooGoodToBeTrue.com that publishes important consumer protection information to educate the public and increase their awareness of new threats. That is a collaborative effort of IC3 and the U.S. Postal Service,” he added. “IC3 also has its own Web site – IC3.gov – and Cyber Agents from all 56 FBI field offices go out to schools, career fairs, and so on to give public awareness presentations. But we are always looking for new ways to spread the word, because people continue to be victimized by Internet fraudsters.” IC3 also is part of the global cyber crime prevention and enforcement effort, with about 10 percent of complaints filed with the Center coming from foreign victims of U.S.-based criminals and an even larger percentage from U.S. victims about foreign-based Internet crimes. In both cases, the FBI provides the information to the appropriate law enforcement agencies in the countries involved and works with them, as needed, to pursue those complaints that prove out. That also applies to criminal activity extending beyond cyberspace. “If they report it to IC3, it will get to the proper office or agency addressing that crime,” Finch said. “Cyber cuts across every operational program the FBI has – criminal, counterterrorism, counterintelligence, etc. So we have to maintain a very close working relationship with other divisions. “With the number of new users entering the Internet each day, there has to be a place to report cyber crime. People already know to pick up the phone and call 9-1-1 if they see someone attacked; if they see a crime on the Internet and know about IC3, I think they will use it. Absent that, they may call their local police, from which it may or may not be referred on.” Which does not mean IC3 is the only way cyber crime victims can take action. “I certainly don’t discourage people from calling their local FBI office, either, because we have Cyber Agents there who will take their complaint,” Finch said, noting the FBI’s overall attention to the wide spectrum of online criminal activity. “You have no idea what kind of damage a virus or malware might have, released into the wild and infecting hundreds or thousands of computers.

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cyber division

That’s a serious crime and very important to the FBI and the Cyber Division. “When you look at the role the Internet plays in our daily lives and economy, our government, and military, we need to know when something threatens any of that, from individual citizens to critical infrastructure. And due to the pervasive global nature of the Internet, our partnerships with federal, state, local, and international law enforcement are vital. We could have the greatest physical tools around, but considering Internet crime occurs all over the world, plaguing other nations as they plague the U.S., we also must have those partnerships in our arsenal.” Other collaborative efforts in which the Cyber Division is involved include the Cyber Initiative Resource Fusion

The variety of ways to use the Internet as a weapon seems limited only by human imagination … Unit (CIRFU), InfraGard, and expanding campaigns against theft of intellectual property. “CIRFU is a fusion center, combining the resources and the expertise of law enforcement and the private sector,” Mueller told lawmakers. “One can think of CIRFU as a hub, with spokes that range from federal agencies, software companies, and Internet service providers to merchants and members of the financial sector. Industry experts from corporations sit side-by-side with the FBI, postal inspectors, the Federal Trade Commission, and many others, sharing information and ideas. Together, we have created a neutral space where cyber experts and competitors who might not otherwise collaborate can talk about cyber threats and security breaches. “The FBI’s InfraGard program is a more localized example of our private sector partnerships. Members from a host of industries, from computer security to the chemical sector, share information about threats to their own companies, in their own communities, through a secure computer server. To date, there are more than 23,000 members of InfraGard, from Fortune 500 companies to small businesses.” As some investigations progress, the FBI may form a special partnership with specific nations to deal with isolated cyber issues. One such partnership with Romania is going after organized cyber criminals there who target

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victims throughout the United States and Europe. Another, in 2007, was the FBI’s first-ever joint Intellectual Property Rights investigation with Chinese law enforcement authorities. FBI Cyber Agents also are involved with the Strategic Alliance Cyber Crime Working Group, a collaborative effort by Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States to develop ways to address the most serious Internet-based criminal threats facing all the member countries. Each year, as cyber criminals find new ways to exploit the Internet in furtherance of direct online crimes or to support offline activities, the Cyber Division adjusts its training, concept of operations, tactics, techniques, and procedures accordingly. Some of those changes naturally evolve from within, others result from requests from domestic and international partners, and some are mandated by Congress or the White House. In January 2008, President George W. Bush signed a directive under which the Cyber Division is taking part in a government-wide effort to protect federal computer systems against a rising number of attacks. That directive resulted, in part, from a series of attacks in 2007 against DoD, Department of Energy, and other federal agency systems, as well as cyber attacks that seriously disrupted government and private sector networks in other countries. For example, in April 2007 a massive DDOS attack created what has been termed a “cyber blockade” in Estonia, shutting down banks, stores, newspapers, television stations, emergency phone lines, and even the prime minister’s office. Belgium and India are among a growing number of countries reporting both DDOS attacks and cyber espionage – sending e-mails containing spyware to government agencies, those responsible for vital infrastructure (water, electricity, telephones, etc.) and major corporations. Almost daily attacks by hackers and others attempting to penetrate major networks or e-mail servers are reported by the Pentagon, military bases, government offices, corporations, power companies, and so on in the United States, which the FBI estimates is targeted 10 times more often than any other nation. The variety of ways to use the Internet as a weapon seems limited only by human imagination, as evidenced by a new – and potentially deadly – practice called “swatting,” in which someone, often using information hacked from the Internet, calls 9-1-1 and reports a nonexistent violent crime in progress.

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

7/3/08 12:09:57 PM


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C O N G R AT U L AT I O N S O N 1 0 0 Y E A R S O F L AW E N F O RC E M E N T L E A D E R S H I P Just as the Federal Bureau of Investigation has enforced the law in our society for a century, Loomis has managed the flow of cash in our society for over one hundred and fifty years. When those who break the law conspire to divert the lawful flow of cash in our society, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is there to ensure that they are quickly captured and brought to justice. For the many times that the FBI has served our society with their law enforcement leadership, we offer our heartfelt praise, our undying support, and our eternal gratitude.

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6/3/08 10:50:02 5:07:29 PM 7/7/08 AM


cyber division

Depending on the nature of the “crime” and how believable the caller seems – sometimes enhanced by manipulating phone company computers and switching equipment (“spoofing”) to make it appear the call is coming from the “victim’s” home or neighbor – police may dispatch a SWAT unit. In some cases, the swatter also has created an environment in which his victim believes he or she is about to be attacked by criminals pretending to be police, leading to an armed confrontation with a high chance for injury or death. Between 2002 and 2006, using information hacked from presumably secure computers, five swatters targeted more than 100 victims in some 60 cities across the nation, disrupting telecommunications services and endangering lives, both directly and indirectly as emergency responders, tied up with the phony event, were unavailable to answer real calls for help. In material terms, the overall cost was estimated at more than a quarter of a million dollars as the swatters’ “practical jokes” forced the delay of sporting events due to bomb threats, the evacuation of a hotel after “armed and dangerous” intruders were reported and

One of the most notorious examples was among the first to be sentenced to prison for using the Internet to incite terrorism – Younis Tsouli, a 22-year-old British national whose online persona was “Irhabi 007” (Arabic for “Terrorist 007”). Although having no previous known connection to al Qaeda, he became a key part of its global propaganda campaign, using bandwidth stolen from Internet servers around the world to post thousands of video files online, including beheadings and detailed instructions on how to build a car bomb. Tsouli also worked with other al Qaeda sympathizers and operatives to steal credit card information from thousands of phishing victims, laundering the money they stole from the cards through multiple Internet gambling sites, then using it to acquire more than $3 million worth of equipment, such as night vision goggles and GPS devices, for other extremists – including terrorist plotters in the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Bosnia – for whom he acted as a communications hub. Shortly before his arrest, Tsouli created what he hoped would become a YouTube for terrorists, a Web site he

It is estimated some 1 billion people – more than 15 percent of the human population – are now active on the Internet. On average, more than 18 percent of those visit YouTube every day, giving a site that did not exist until 2005 the third highest traffic on the Internet today. That growth demonstrates just how quickly it is possible for a minimally funded newcomer with the right skills and determination to acquire global reach. disruptions to the lives of public officials and ordinary citizens after threats were made against them or public parks and buildings. Such redirection of law enforcement personnel also could be used by terrorists, either to send emergency responders into a trap or to keep them busy while the real target is attacked elsewhere. Terrorists have found a true home on the Internet, using it as a repository for malicious software, to spread manuals on bomb-making, to recruit new members, to instruct cells on new attacks, to solicit and move funds, to make it possible for a small group of people scattered throughout the world to organize and act as one.

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called “You Bomb It.” While his role is now concluded, there potentially are millions of others with the skills to take his place. It is estimated some 1 billion people – more than 15 percent of the human population – are now active on the Internet. On average, more than 18 percent of those visit YouTube every day, giving a site that did not exist until 2005, the third highest traffic on the Internet today. That growth demonstrates just how quickly it is possible for a minimally funded newcomer with the right skills and determination to acquire global reach. This is why the FBI Cyber Division must evolve on a daily basis to keep up with the online trends and technologies criminals of all stripes can tap.

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

7/9/08 5:41:59 PM


cyber division

AP Photo/Reed Saxon

At a news conference at FBI Headquarters in Los Angeles, Aug. 10, 2007, Peter Brust, Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Cyber Division in Los Angeles, spoke beside a display of some items used to entice young children, including shoes, stuffed animals, and flowers, recovered from several suspected pedophiles.

“More than 70 percent of 4-year-olds in the United States have used a computer at least once. And Internet users query Google™ nearly 3 billion times each month,” according to Mueller. “The Internet has changed the way we communicate, learn, and work. It has also become the primary means by which we conduct business, store data, and connect operating systems, from air traffic control to power grids. But that widespread use has also left us vulnerable to attack from hostile foreign powers, hackers, and even terrorists.” As the Internet matures and related technologies continue to evolve, criminal technical skills and knowledge

of and familiarity with the Internet have led to more formidable cyber threats. That danger to the public is further exacerbated by the ever-growing availability of prepackaged malicious software on the Web that can be used to exploit computer networks. With no end in sight to either, the FBI is becoming more and more cyber-savvy and active itself. “I see our role as both proactive and reactive,” Finch explained. “From a proactive aspect, we run a number of undercover investigations, keep up with the advanced technology, and take advantage of it to advance our cases, sharing the advances we make with our state, local,

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cyber division

federal, and international law enforcement partners. Naturally we can’t be everywhere, and as a result, when business and government computer networks, both in the U.S. and abroad, are compromised it is not always immediately reported to us. When it does come to our attention, we have to respond in a reactive manner. “Most of the hardware and software tools we use are related to the normal network tools used by Internet system administrators. For example, we have made advances in dealing with everything from botnets and list servers used by pornographers to software such as Kazaa and LimeWire and peer-to-peer networks. I’m hesitant to be more specific as to the advances we’ve made in cyber investigations because the last thing I want to do is help the bad guys victimize our citizens.” For FBI Cyber Agents, training – and the ability to pass that training on to others, both inside and outside the Bureau, and learn from them in return – is unceasing and paramount. “The Internet works the same for everyone, so the training we give our people is largely the same training that is given in the private sector. What is lacking from a system administrator’s training is the investigative portion. Cyber Agents have the same investigative training common to all Agents, but with many technical certifications that allow them to exploit the tools available to address computer networks,” Finch said. “We have an entire curriculum for our Cyber Agents that starts out with the basics of operating systems and hardware, then becomes more complex. Once we give them that foundation, the curriculum becomes more specific, looking at the security of networks and how they are vulnerable based on architecture, configuration – firewalls, routers, etc. – because once you understand those things, it helps you identify how an intruder compromised a particular computer. “In addition to our own comprehensive and thorough cybercentric training program, through our cyber joint task force and our relationship with the intelligence community and our foreign law enforcement partners, our Agents gain a familiarity with a myriad of training and expertise. It would limit our Agents extensively if they did not have exposure to what others are doing in their training programs.” The FBI came into existence a century ago with a heavy emphasis on forensic accounting – bringing criminals to justice through the basic premise of “follow the money.” In the decades that followed, it evolved in both the kind of individuals recruited to be Agents, the techniques and technologies they employed and the types of crimes and criminals on which they focused.

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cyber division

In the computer- and Internet-centric Information Age that led into the 21st century, the Cyber Division demonstrates how far the FBI has come and how much it is willing to adapt to not only keep pace with but, to the degree possible, stay ahead of the skills, tools, and knowledge employed by the criminal world, and to dramatically increase its level of collaboration and cooperation with other law enforcement agencies at all levels, domestic and foreign. “The virtual world and its criminal activity creates electronic records instead of paper records and electronic clues instead of hair, fingerprints, and body fluids at crime scenes. It also creates identity, geographical, and legal challenges,” Finch noted. “It is almost impossible to address cyber crime without the partnerships of other law enforcement, despite barriers in some cases because of laws in other countries. We are not finding that to be an insurmountable problem, however. As a matter of fact, it seems to be working quite well because those nations are motivated to overcome any lack of laws addressing cyber crime.” At the same time, he added, the potential victims of cyber crimes must take responsibility for protecting themselves by becoming more knowledgeable about the threat and the tools available to combat it – then putting that knowledge into action. “I think the world is awakening to a couple of facts. We spend a lot of money on brick and mortar security – guards, alarms, etc. – to protect assets. But today, actually getting to those assets, such as money, most of which moves by wire now, doesn’t require you to breach that brick and mortar world – you can breach that facility through the network,” he said. “It is becoming obvious we should dedicate the same focus and resources to cyber security we do to physical security. If we value an asset, we want to protect it and that requires what I consider a redirection of resources to cyber security. “When you talk about threats to our critical infrastructure – power, water, transportation – any threat is serious, whether physical or cyber. And the focus of government, of the FBI, is squarely on that critical infrastructure. We work with our industry partners to maintain a relationship that will allow us to respond to an incident, but also allow us to help them be proactive in protecting that infrastructure, which protects the citizens who rely on those services.”

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7/14/08 10:37:16 AM


hostage rescue team

To Save Lives: The FBI Hostage Rescue Team preparations for the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles moved into high gear, a decision was made to create a special federal law enforcement capability to respond to any eventuality. Foremost in that concern was preventing a situation similar to what occurred during the 1972 Munich Olympics, when members of the Israeli team were taken hostage by terrorists and later died during a rescue attempt. But Munich was not the only catalyst for founding the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT).

“Several incidents in the 1970s motivated the U.S. government to recognize they needed a counterterrorism agency that could operate in the domestic arena similar to what the military possessed outside the U.S.,” said HRT Commander Steven R. Fiddler, Tactical Section Chief of the FBI’s Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG). “There are laws that preclude full-time military from being involved in civilian law enforcement, but a counterterrorism capability did not exist within U.S. law enforcement.

Members of the FBI and the Chicago Police Department’s SWAT team responded to a bank robbery Aug. 30, 2007, on Chicago’s North Side. A gunman who tried to rob a bank escaped and police were searching for him several hours later after scouring the building. Authorities initially said the gunman had taken hostages, but at an afternoon news conference, said that none of the 35 people in the bank, all employees, were ever taken hostage. No one was injured.

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AP Photo/M. Spencer Green

As

By J.R. Wilson

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hostage rescue team

“After Munich and, critically important, other significant incidents of hostage-taking and aircraft and ship hijackings, the government became concerned about how we would deal with that type of situation inside the U.S. as a law enforcement response. As the FBI had the lead within the federal law enforcement community to investigate incidents of terrorism and hostage-taking, it was the logical agency to be given that responsibility, so in

go through individual training for six months on HRT operations and, if they successfully complete that, are assigned to an HRT element.” The HRT is divided into four operational squads, three composed of two assault teams and a sniper team each; the fourth is a mobility team, specialists in operating helicopters, armored vehicles, boats, and other specialized vehicles. All HRT elements reside at Quantico and have an

“We are here to deal with the most sophisticated enemy the government might face. HRT operators, because of the selection we put them through and the training we provide, are some of the best Agents in the FBI.” HRT Commander Steven R. Fiddler 1982, HRT was created. The name reflected the predominant type of terrorist acts the capability was being used to counter. Now, 25 years later, that is still an area of responsibility, but HRT has expanded into many other areas of expertise.” After a successful deployment at the Chicago games, HRT continued operating as a permanent domestic counterterrorism unit. Potential members are chosen from among top active Agents with at least three years in the FBI, who then go through a two-week selection process at the Bureau’s primary training facility at Quantico, Va. “The course is very demanding and assesses a lot of factors, including judgment, emotional stability, trainability, physical endurance, and so on,” Fiddler explained. “From those who complete the course, we will select those determined the most suitable to be HRT operators. Once they are transferred to Quantico, they

airlift capability to move quickly to any part of the country, as needed. Much of HRT’s equipment comes from the latest available military technology, although that sharing works both ways. That includes the most sophisticated types of armor, electronic sighting devices, intelligence/surveillance/reconnaissance (ISR) and communications equipment, etc. Anything available within the FBI – but not organic to HRT – can be acquired on short notice as needed, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). “We are here to deal with the most sophisticated enemy the government might face. HRT operators, because of the selection we put them through and the training we provide, are some of the best Agents in the FBI,” Fiddler said. “If we tried to do this part-time, there would be room for error. But by doing it full-time, there is no excuse not to be the best the U.S. government has to apply to a bad situation.”

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That level of cooperation – domestic and foreign, civilian and military – also allows HRT to learn about new equipment, tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) and share its own with those partners. As a result, the overall counterterrorism capability available to deal with U.S. concerns is constantly advancing and improving. “The preparation and training regime we go through to maintain our fundamental skills is continually evolving. We possess sophisticated TTPs that are shared within a fairly small community internationally; many of those techniques are co-developed through joint projects. All are analyzed according to what worked, what didn’t, and the need to identify different tactics and procedures [for different situations],” Fiddler explained. “We work closely with many national and interMembers of the FBI searched the streets of New Orleans for people who had not evacuated Sept. 20, 2005. With a new hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico, national partners to share experiences, try to help the area was under a mandatory evacuation order. HRT was deployed in the each other identify how we might do things better, aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, along with other FBI personnel. compare notes on cultural differences that are [a] challenge to each of us. We evolve, so what may have been effective 25 years ago might not be so effective today; the weapons we use today and the types of As the nation’s only full-time civilian national countechnologies we can employ in sighting and other tools are terterrorism unit, HRT works closely with other federal different. We’ve also seen changes in the types of vessels, agencies and with state and local law enforcement. It has vehicles, and aircraft we use or may have to target. All those developed close ties with international law enforcement mean we have to continually evaluate and make changes to agencies, as well. our methods to stay ahead of the power curve.” “In countless domestic situations, we were asked to come While the FBI does not publicly discuss to what specific in and share jurisdiction and, because of that, established events HRT may be assigned, the team has an active role in permanent and very good relationships with our federal,

state, and local partners. Within the federal government, we have been called in with the only [counterterrorism] team to resolve tactical situations other law enforcement organizations found themselves involved in that had deteriorated. We provide services both at the request of other law enforcement agencies and at the direction of the U.S. Attorney General and Director of the FBI,” Fiddler said. “We also provide training to our partners through those long-standing relationships at all levels of government and with many foreign governments, training regularly with those partners throughout the world, including a very regular exchange program.”

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planning for support it might provide to major national or local events, from the Super Bowl to political conventions to presidential inaugurations. And, as Fiddler noted, not all HRT responses involve hostage situations – nor even manmade problems. “We were deployed to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, for example, because we had the mobility to move about the devastated area by both boat and aircraft. We are mandated to work with the Coast Guard for law enforcement and disaster management activities, but also work closely with other law enforcement agencies where we share responsibility, based on executive-level directives,

AP Photo/Ric Francis

As the nation’s only full-time civilian national counterterrorism unit, HRT works closely with other federal agencies and with state and local law enforcement.

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hostage rescue team

Courtesy of Office of the Inspector General

The HRT “fast roping” onto the deck of a ship during an exercise.

to coordinate, control, or manage national disaster or law enforcement disorders,” Fiddler said. “We participate in many national-level field training exercises every year, some with other law enforcement agencies with crisis management as their primary responsibility, others with consequence management responsibility, like FEMA [Federal Emergency Management Agency].” The team’s activities also are not limited to major events or multiple victims. “The scale of the event is irrelevant. Federal violation of the law, where the FBI has jurisdiction or shares jurisdiction with state or local counterparts and where sophisticated capabilities are required is where we will offer our assistance or have lead responsibility,” he added “The typical response to a hostage-taking during the commission of another crime would be by the local and state police and the FBI SWAT team for that geographic area. If for any reason a situation exceeded the capabilities of those resources, any field office can request the assistance of HRT and we can scale our response

accordingly, perhaps only sending a limited number of operators to augment an FBI SWAT team or in large enough groups to function as a SWAT team, if necessary.” HRT’s skills, equipment, and experience have evolved constantly since its formation in 1982, to such a degree that the terrorist attacks on September 11 had only a minor impact on the team’s concept of operations. Today, HRT has become both proactive and reactive in its approach to a wide variety of situations it may face, from tracking fugitives in remote or environmentally harsh locales to responding to requests for assistance during national disasters, prison riots, large-scale events that are prospective terrorist targets, or wherever its special skills may be required. It is a role Fiddler believes will only continue to expand. “We do many things to prepare and position ourselves strategically to those things we know about, but also are positioned to react to spontaneous events and are required to be deployable to anywhere inside the U.S. or, in terms of territorial responsibilities, outside the 50 states, as well,” he concluded. “Our responsibility to ourselves and the American public is to make sure, as a fulltime team, we are looking at, developing, and evolving in every area we can to make sure we are providing cutting-edge TTPs to the way we do our job. “We exist to resolve a situation the American public hopes will never happen. That’s a difficult situation to train and train for, but that’s what we do, every day.”

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Congratulating the FBI on 100 years of service and contributions, with special thanks and appreciation for the contributions of the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division We look forward to partnering with the FBI in the next 100 years

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics

www.search.org 2008 The FBI did not select or approve this advertiser and does not endorse and is not responsible for the views or statements contained in this advertisement.

7/14/08 9:57:53 AM


criminal investigative division

Keeping It Fair The FBI Sports Presentation Program By J.R. Wilson

T

raditionally, the FBI has had an investigative rather than crime prevention focus. While that has begun to change under a post-September 11 reorganization that has significantly broadened the Bureau’s partnership with state and local law enforcement, one preemptive effort has been considered a high priority for some time, although it may be among the least known to the general public. The FBI Sports Presentation Program is designed to educate both professional and college athletes and coaches about the methods criminals will use to try to co-opt them. “We run that out of our organized crime section because a lot of those groups prey on the sports industry,” said FBI Deputy Assistant Director Daniel Roberts of the Criminal Investigative Division (CID). “We’ve had professional and student athletes corrupted, for lack of a better term, by organized criminal elements. So we have gone out to a lot of pro- and college-level sports entities and explained to the athletes how they could get in trouble on multiple levels, not just drugs, but gambling, extortion, etc. It’s been very well received.” In part, that reception may be due to a strong linkage between the FBI and the sports world. A number of Agents are former college or professional athletes and the chiefs of security at both the National Football League and the National Basketball Association are former FBI Special Agents. One of those individuals is Milt Ahlerich, vice president of security for the NFL and a strong proponent of the Sports Presentation Program for both student and professional athletes. “First and foremost, they do a great deal of very good work for us before players ever come into the NFL, speaking to players at the college and university level. So those players have heard the concerns and received the benefits of knowing about organized crime and the amount of gambling and the very powerful illicit forces at play on games at the collegiate level,” he said.

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“The second element is the use of the program inside the NFL, which varies a great deal from team to team. Many teams rely heavily on the program to keep their players updated on exactly the same issues – organized crime, gambling, gambling associations. It really makes our job much easier, at the NFL and team levels. We can then follow in behind the FBI briefings to give our message about how to deal with that.” The world’s largest student athletic organization is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), in which colleges and universities voluntarily join one of three divisions to bring standard rules and regulations to intercollegiate sports. A major part of that is to ensure the integrity

“Fixing” a sporting event can bring big money to the criminal entities behind it – and to the players or others doing their bidding – through both legal and illegal bets placed on the winner or the point spread. of games, especially at the championship level, by educating student athletes and coaches about the full range of gambling-related problems they may face. “In 2003, we did a study relating to gambling, in which we surveyed about 21,000 Division I, II, and III male and female student-athletes,” said Rachel Newman, director of Agent, Gambling and Amateurism Activities within the NCAA enforcement services office. “Of those, 17 of 388 men’s basketball players and 102 of 2,000 football players said they had been approached for purposes of affecting the

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

7/7/08 4:02:18 PM


criminal investigative division

AP Photo/Jane Kalinowsky

Patrons watch television as they wait in the Caesars Palace Sports Book for the 2006 Men’s College Basketball Tournament bidding sheets in Las Vegas, Nev. The explosion of gambling, both legal and illegal, centering on sports has given added emphasis to the FBI’s Sports Presentation Program.

outcome of a game, had shared information, or knew of a teammate who had shared information, or had done something or knew a teammate who had done something to affect the outcome of a game. “That served as a wake-up call that we needed to do something and that’s when you saw the beginning of an intense barrage of materials from our office and the FBI presentations beefed up. The biggest reasons the students gave for engaging in such activities was for fun or excitement, although money also was high on the list. We took that information and tried to make our students understand that this activity is not just an NCAA infraction but an illegal

activity. And that is where the FBI has been extremely effective, telling of individual cases where they have arrested individuals.” At the time the study was released, NCAA President Myles Brand termed the scope of sports wagering among intercollegiate student-athletes “startling and disturbing.” The report found that 69 percent of male and 47 percent of female student-athletes had participated in some form of gambling in the previous year, 35 percent of males and 10 percent of females had wagered on sporting events – a direct violation of NCAA bylaws – and 20 percent of male and 5 percent of female student-athletes on collegiate sports.

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criminal investigative division

The report also found student-athletes at the larger Division I schools – the primary targets of the FBI and NCAA efforts – were the most knowledgeable about NCAA regulations and the least likely to violate them. Nevertheless, based on the size of the study, which surveyed some 2,000 individual teams at more than 1,000 member schools, the NCAA concluded that “these findings indicate that nearly 80,000 NCAA student-athletes per year are engaging in some type of sports wagering at the risk of their athletics eligibility.” FBI Assistant Director Ken Kaiser, who heads up CID, said that is one of many ways in which criminals gain leverage over both college and professional sports, exploiting any opening they can find – or create. “We’ve had several cases where athletes or referees get into debt gambling and are approached to eliminate that debt by fumbling or missing a shot or, in the case of an NBA ref, calling an exorbitant number of fouls. While the majority of cases involve gaming and gambling, we’ve also had sports teams involved in drug trafficking. So it is a whole gamut of things,” he said. “I think the program has been very effective. We still have cases, but we’re pretty active, going out to the colleges, and each field office goes out every year to their area pro teams. The coaches and owners are very receptive and we have a good relationship with the pro teams, so they know who we are if a case comes up. Some young athletes coming out of college into the pros just don’t realize how they potentially can be used. After a lot of presentations, some have come up and said they didn’t even know those things could happen.” “Fixing” a sporting event can bring big money to the criminal entities behind it – and to the players or others doing their bidding – through both legal and illegal bets placed on the winner or the point spread. Among both student and professional athletes, the involvement often is the result of naivety or ignorance. “One of the messages the FBI always gives to our kids is if there is a bookmaking operation in their vicinity – and there always is one, if you really look – the majority have some tie back to organized crime. Just sharing that piece of information with our student-athletes has been very eyeopening to them,” Newman said. “One of the first messages we convey, of course, is that gambling on sports is illegal, except in Nevada and on the Internet in the United States, and that they are not allowed to solicit or accept a bet on any intercollegiate athletic

event. They are adults and will make their own decisions, of course, but it is important for us to provide them with the information they need to make good decisions and understand the consequences.” Once they reach the pros, even with four years of FBI and NCAA education, ongoing reinforcement is mandatory, according to Ahlerich, who adds the star players are not the only targets of criminals, who also look for backdoor ways to get valuable “inside” information. “The most prevalent problem – and the hardest for us to explain – is the need to keep information confidential,” he said. “It’s hard to convince some of these guys whose

Criminals gain leverage over both college and professional sports, exploiting any opening they can find – or create. names are not at the top of the marquee that what they do or overhear in the locker room is something organized crime would like to get their hands on. We believe in repetition, so we keep coming back with it, time after time.” For the FBI, the collegiate case that best represents the problem – and one frequently cited in talks to student-athletes nearly a decade and a half later – involved two Arizona State University (ASU) basketball players who received nearly $100,000 each to fix four games during the 1994 collegiate season. The scheme caught the attention of the Nevada Gaming Control Board, casinos, and the FBI when more than $1 million was wagered on one game that typically would have seen only about $50,000 in total bets. ASU initially was picked to win by 11 points, but that dropped to 3 because of heavy betting. The team reportedly was told at halftime they were under scrutiny and went on to win by 18 points. In the investigation that followed, Agents learned one player had $32,000 in gambling debts erased and was paid an additional $60,000 to make certain the scoring and outcome of the games went according to the desires of two components of La Cosa Nostra and an unrelated group of campus bookies who took advantage of the scheme. The first player had recruited a teammate, who was paid $25,000 per game, to help ensure the plan worked.

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criminal investigative division

It was shortly afterward that the NCAA and FBI began what has grown into a close partnership to combat gambling-related influences on student athletes. “Probably the more high profile presentations are those made during our Division I tournaments – football bowl games, the College World Series, men’s ice hockey Frozen Four, and both men’s and women’s Sweet 16 in basketball,” Newman said. “We also get calls every year from FBI field offices across the country for material to help them with presentations requested by our schools during the season and we sometimes go along to make a joint presentation. We encourage our members to reach out to their local FBI offices for that, which results in multiple presentations every year. “I think the athletes are very interested in these presentations. It also allows an opportunity for those students who may be interested in a law enforcement career to have one-onone meetings with an FBI Agent. So in addition to raising their knowledge about potential problems with gambling and such, it gives them a chance to further their knowledge about future career choices.” The FBI Sports Presentation Program can be a part of an athlete’s life for many years, from college through a professional career. As a preventive effort, it is difficult to measure how successful it has been, but those involved, from the FBI Agents who speak to athletes to the association security chiefs, believe it has made a difference and is a partnership that should continue to grow. “I always think there is more to be done and I wouldn’t be doing my job if I didn’t look for new things to

do,” Newman said. “But as we try to come up with new ways of providing education and even of enforcing our gambling legislation, at both the NCAA level as well as state and federal laws, the partnership between our two organizations is crucial. And if there are new initiatives either of us want to implement, that partnership will make it happen. “We will continue to make a difference if we work in concert. And not just in terms of [what] the FBI has done through the Sports Presentation Program, but the general sharing of information that has enabled both of us to do our jobs better.” That same sentiment is echoed at the professional level. “We are blessed by the very high rate of success we’ve had with educating our players and coaches and keeping this out of our game,” Ahlerich concluded. “We won’t rest, but the idea there is an ongoing large amount of this happening inside the NFL, we’re pretty well convinced, is not the case. Certainly, approaches have been made. It may be someone who’s told a relative who then passes information along, or gambling debts that become a problem. Anything that can result in leverage against a player or coach – extortion, bribery, debt – can result in an unhappy situation. “The mandatory required presentations to teams means players, coaches, equipment managers, and trainers … receive the same warnings and are subject to the same penalties, which are severe. Some of these young men have had an awful lot thrown at them and it can be hard to impress a 22-year-old superstar, but the fact the FBI takes it seriously lends a lot of credibility to the initiative here to keep our game clean.”

To the men and women of the FBI:

Congratulations! The Agent, Gambling and Amateurism Activities (AGA) staff of the National Collegiate Athletic Association humbly submits this congratulatory note to all past, present and future “G-Men and Women” for 100 years of dedicated service to our nation. We salute and support your unyielding desire to make the world a safer and better place for all law-abiding citizens. In particular, the AGA staff greatly appreciates your investigatory expertise and insight as we work together to ensure the integrity of collegiate athletics. We are proud partners in the important and ongoing effort to educate the collegiate community and the public regarding the dangers of sports wagering and its impact on intercollegiate sports. We look forward to working with you for the next hundred years on this important mission! Rachel Newman Baker

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Science and Technology Branch

The new division since September 11 has roots reaching back to the FBI’s beginnings

To

By Julie Sturgeon

many Americans, the FBI is synonymous with “cool.” It was our G-men who squared off with the likes of Bonnie and Clyde in the 1930s. Hollywood chose none other than James Stewart to portray Chip Hardesty in its drama The FBI Story, which lent panache to “the fury of America’s fight for decency,” as the movie’s tagline reads. Hardesty may have been fictional, but J. Edgar Hoover’s co-producer role on the set wasn’t, so moviegoers were treated to an inside glimpse of this dynamic world. Americans were also privy, via newspaper headlines, when the FBI found a vehicle identification number among the rubble of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York. Amid the dust and debris, Agents found the one clue that would lead to an apartment where four nowconvicted men built the bomb and stored “enough cyanide gas to wipe out a town,” as the newspapers reported. It’s the organization that spawned gutsy heroes like Donnie Brasco (a.k.a. Joe Piscone) and the intelligence he employed to infiltrate and bring down “the Mob.” It’s the agency with incredible equipment such as the ShotSpotter,

“I would characterize us in James Bond terms as the Q people.” Kerry E. Haynes, Executive Assistant Director of the Science and Technology Branch a crime-fighting tool police departments use to measure sound waves to locate and track gunfire – the technology that helped catch the Columbus, Ohio, sniper in November 2003. Combine these classic brains and brawn, and the result is a formidable reputation. No wonder street vendors in Washington, D.C., need to order a steady supply of FBI T-shirts, caps, and mugs to meet tourist demands. And at the heart of this fascination

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lies the Science and Technology Branch, which pumps out answers and solutions to life’s mysteries – beginning with a profile of the Lindbergh baby’s kidnapper based on handwriting technology available at the then-new Scientific Crime Lab. “I would characterize us in James Bond terms as the Q people,” said Kerry E. Haynes, Executive Assistant Director of this division. “One of the impacts, I would say with great confidence, is that we are involved in nearly every operation that the FBI runs. That’s quite a significant accomplishment.” A New Start

FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III officially took the reins just seven days before the world of crime-fighting changed on September 11, ironically turning out to be a new man for new times. Those four hijacked planes created a pressing need to revamp the agency’s structure on many levels – including its information-gathering tactics. “We didn’t just start from scratch. We were able to throw all the bones out on the table,” Haynes noted. Eventually the FBI took a page from the organizational chart of other law enforcement entities like the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to bring its resources under one command and manage them as a capability provider. Thus, the Science and Technology Branch was born in July 2006 – a new entity with a very mature history of experience. It’s not “information technology,” officials are quick to point out. Think of it instead as the forensic collection business, structured so that the right hand knows what the left hand is doing to avoid duplicate efforts. “I don’t think 20 years ago the FBI recognized the importance of some of the collections, the surveillance that was being done,” said Lewis Grever, the Deputy Assistant Director of this branch. “We appreciated it, but we

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Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories

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didn’t take full advantage of it. Nowadays, we are able to take as much advantage as our partners do, and in some cases we are in a unique position to provide capability that they don’t have.” Currently, the Science and Technology Branch consists of four departments: •Criminal Justice Information Services Division: Best explained as identity management, this group headquartered in Clarksburg, W.Va., is in charge of state-ofthe-art technologies and statistical services. That includes everything from name checks and criminal background information to arrest warrants, gun license checks, and other similar research elements. The public best recognizes this office as the home of crime statistics and automated fingerprint systems. •Laboratory Division: This division provides forensic examinations, technical support, expert witness testimony, and training to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. It breaks down evidence at a crime scene, so acronyms like DNA and CODIS are common in its halls at the FBI’s Quantico, Va., building. •Operational Technology Division (OTD): According to the FBI’s Web site, these experts provide “the vision, leadership, and direction necessary to ensure the operational availability of state-of-the-art investigative and intelligence gathering technologies to all FBI offices. OTD also provides the Dave Hannum of Sandia National Laboratories demonstrates a portable support and expertise necessary to enable and swipe-analysis tool development for the FBI. enhance the FBI’s forensic services and capabilities related to the collection, processing, and exploitation of computer, audio, and viAlthough it contains only four offices, Science and Techsual media. OTD’s services support the counterterrorism, nology is the largest branch in the Bureau, employing more counterintelligence, cyber, and criminal programs of the than 4,500 staff and administering nearly a billion dollars FBI, the intelligence community, and the law enforcement in funding. The reality is that the technology and science community.” •Special Technologies and Applications Office: is very expensive. “But we try to provide service across the board – from cyber crime to weapons of mass destruction, Personnel here ensure that the FBI continues to provide exceptional service to the law enforcement community and counterterrorism and counterintelligence,” said Haynes. stays on top of technical innovation and developments in Eventually, Mueller selected Haynes, a political science major at California State University with advanced degrees the sciences to support investigative and intelligence-gathering activities. in government and international relations from Claremont

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science and technology branch

Graduate School, who had served with the CIA since 1980. There, he compiled an impressive résumé, including a stint as chief of a multifaceted operational division providing technical support to counterterrorism and other agency activities. He received several awards, including the Donovan Award for extensive accomplishments against the counterterrorism mission, a Certificate of Merit for performance under wartime conditions, and the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal. He retired from the CIA’s Directorate of Science and Technology on Aug. 2, 2005, and reported to the FBI as Assistant Director of OTD on Aug. 3, 2005. Before the year was out, he was promoted to head of the entire branch, and received the 2006 Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executive. Haynes put it more humbly: “I’m from the intelligence community and in terms of the operational use, development, and deployment of technology, I have a fairly substantial background.” In contrast, Grever – a former police officer – came up through the traditional ranks, spending 20 years with the FBI as a Special Agent. After field assignments grew stale, he asked to explore his interest in technology, and joined the Laboratory Division. “I’m actually a bit of what you might consider a balancer for Mr. Haynes,” he said with a laugh. “Kerry brought a lot of outside innovative thinking, and what I’m supposed to do is take his ideas and translate them into the real-world reality of the Bureau. I run interference.”

Mueller saw the “new” Science and Technology Branch as part of his master plan to make the FBI into an agile domestic intelligence agency, a move of equal importance to increasing the number of counterterrorism Agents to meet today’s threats. Haynes described the branch as an enabler, a force multiplier. “We tackle the tough challenges as an innovator – and I use that word because we are dealing with modern technologies and constantly have to be one step ahead, or at least abreast of the rapid changes that are occurring,” he explained. “We do react and anticipate, but we still have to be out in front.” As a result of the restructuring, Haynes’ group now enjoys a clear and precise vision of its future and its potential impacts. The People

Take, for instance, the entire wireless movement. By combining its various resources, the FBI is building a cohesive plan for everything, from lawfully authorized telephone intercepts to computer technologies. “We’re able to consolidate like things and get maximum efficiency,” Haynes noted. As a bonus, this strategy enables career paths for people who are involved in science. “That’s very important. That did not exist before in a disparate organization, but now, in terms of career path, people can see their future from where they are. And that makes the FBI attractive and

Myth Understandings

H

aving the best technology in the world has its advantages – and often those strengths scare the wits out of average Americans who respect technology’s power. So Kerry E. Haynes, Executive Assistant Director of the FBI’s Science and Technology Branch, finds himself patiently explaining one simple fact repeatedly: The FBI does not “fish.” “We are not out there collecting information with a large dragnet, pulling it up and trying to find out what we have.

Everything is done under lawful authorization,” he said. Logistics alone bear this out. New York City, for instance, has roughly 40,000 law enforcement personnel on its payroll. The FBI employs approximately 13,000 Agents to cover the entire United States. So the idea of agents listening to private citizens’ phone conversations at random doesn’t scale. “We are here to put criminals in jail and protect rights,” said Haynes.

In reality, the branch doesn’t turn its technology on a target until that person falls under suspicion, and the courts determine the only way to get information is to use such technical means. Only then does the FBI enter the picture, and it requires time to set up its equipment. “The perception that the FBI at any moment’s notice can somehow tap into any information about people and start to baseline that information is not true,” Haynes added.

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competitive with private industry and other government organizations,” he added. There’s no question this branch needs the best and brightest to stay ahead of the curve. Currently the FBI is collaborating with student co-op programs at universities to offer paid opportunities to mold potential candidates into model leaders. West Virginia University, for example, has created a curriculum in biometrics specifically to meet the FBI’s needs. The FBI itself is refining its entry-level training program to focus more sharply on fundamental analytic tradecraft skills (i.e., critical thinking, expository writing, and briefing), as Deputy Director John S. Pistole testified before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in January 2007. But that doesn’t mean the FBI won’t also reach out to other members of the intelligence community for experts looking for a change of scenery. They even have an exchange program or joint duty assignments, if you will. The Bureau trains a guest in its mission while an equivalent senior executive G-man does the same at the other agency. “We’re fairly successful in reaching out now,” said Haynes in an understatement.

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The Technology

The bad news: Since the reorganization, some business areas within the FBI have increased their workloads by 50,000 to 60,000 percent, according to Haynes.“That is not going to occur every year, I promise,” Haynes joked. “We are beginning to be overwhelmed by the technologies that are out there. Our occupational pace has increased significantly.” For example, a total of 175 crime labs (in all 50 states and Puerto Rico, as well as the FBI Lab and the U.S. Army Crime Lab) have access to the FBI’s Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS. In a sign of how effective the system is, 31 labs in 18 nations worldwide also use CODIS, but they are not connected to any DNA databases here in the United States. They simply borrow the FBI’s technology to help investigations in their own countries. Executives score its success by keeping tabs on the number of investigations that have been developed due to CODIS matches. In February 2004, that total was 10,770. As of February 2007, CODIS’s hits had quadrupled to more than 45,400 matches, assisting in more than 46,300 investigations.

Courtesy of U.S. Embassy in Uruguay

Uruguayan Minister of the Interior Daisy Tourne and FBI’s CODIS Unit Chief Thomas Callaghan look on as U.S. Ambassador Frank E. Baxter signs a CODIS agreement May 11, 2007, between the FBI and the Uruguayan Ministry of the Interior to enhance the value of DNA testing by permitting automated searches of DNA databases. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) provides software and support services to enable forensic laboratories to establish databases of convicted offenders, unsolved crime scenes, and missing persons. CODIS allows these laboratories to exchange and compare DNA profiles electronically, thereby linking serial violent crimes, especially sexual assaults, to each other, and to identify suspects by matching DNA from crime scenes to convicted offenders.

The result is a group of no less than nine FBI employees who earned one of the most prestigious honors in government in 2007: the Presidential Meritorious Rank Executive. Today, the award sits in James Bernazzani’s office, to thank this Special Agent for foreseeing possible crime problems in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and helping establish the multiagency Katrina Fraud Command Center and the multiagency Violent Crime Intelligence Center. There’s also Daniel R. Dzwilewski, the Special Agent in Charge of the San Diego Field Office. In the past three years, Dzwilewski has promoted information-sharing and cooperation and has increased participation on the San Diego Joint Terrorism Task Force by more than 300 percent. He led the FBI’s efforts to increase communication between U.S. and Mexican officials in order to stop terrorist groups and criminal enterprises from entering the United States. Together, the two nations have identified and dismantled several human trafficking and drug smuggling organizations operating along the Mexican border. In another effort to improve information-sharing, Dzwilewski helped to create the San Diego Regional Intelligence Network – an “alert network” that collects and shares information related to terrorist and criminal activities with law enforcement, other government agencies, and the private sector.

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Meanwhile, the Regional Computer Forensics Laboratories (RCFL) – a network of 14 digital forensics labs the FBI sponsors across the country to assist law enforcement agencies – has an interesting pattern of numbers, too. During 2007, RCFL experts conducted 4,634 exams, processing 1,288 terabytes of information – for comparison, all the books in the Library of Congress equal only about 20 terabytes. Local law enforcement examined a total of 76,581 digital devices, with CDs as the most popular media (37,424) followed by hard-disk drives (17,378), floppy disks (11,781), and DVDs (4,374). The number of CDs, cell phones, and flash media devices examined doubled from the previous year. The good news: Business is up 50,000 to 60,000 percent and therefore the environment in which the FBI works – which in the past was field-centric and based on territory because everything was localized in nature – had no choice but to get “leaner and meaner,” as Grever saw. Take, for instance, communication technology. “In the past, each of our field offices had a little bit of forensic capability embedded into it, a little bit of technology. Now we have been able to gain efficiencies,” he said. In 2008, the Science and Technology Branch’s ability to leverage such things on a national level to service local needs is a daily reality. “The FBI post-9/11 has transformed itself into an intelligence and a criminal-oriented organization,” added Haynes. “We have two different missions now. The application of science and technology, while we are agnostic in terms of the mission area, the rules and authorities, policies and laws under which we operate are different for each one of those mission sets. Consolidating all of these resources into one branch has applied a great focus.” So the tougher challenge today is to develop technology that is appropriate for each of those missions, deploying different equipment based on the authorization and target. It has one major ace up its sleeve: Science and Technology is playing in its own backyard – a strong home-field advantage. Consequently, when the FBI approaches, say, a telecommunications company or a public records organization, that entity knows that the FBI has all the lawful authority to request what it is asking of them. Approximately 30 percent of the Bureau’s budget is built around complying with policy, law, court decisions, authorizations, and interpretations, all with a goal of protecting individual rights. “I don’t know of any other organization that spends a third of their budget just doing that,” Haynes said.

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“Companies are more apt to cooperate with us because they know we will provide them with the necessary paperwork, warrants, orders, and those kings of things. We are able to take some risk because we’re not doing something wrong that will get them thrown in jail,” he explained. Even

Science and Technology is playing in its own backyard – a strong home field advantage. in the U.S. intelligence community, the FBI is considered a valuable tool, in a position to help the rest of the intelligence community by its contacts and liaison capabilities. Count the military as one of those allies. In the past, military operations had a single focus in defeating an enemy – usually with the use of overwhelming military force. The current war environment, however, comes with intelligence and counterterrorism objectives too. The Department of Defense is recognizing that some of the traditional law enforcement services – forensics, biometrics, fingerprints – can help the warfighter. FBI technology and tools are currently in two theaters of operation, partnering with the CIA and the National Security Administration. “That is an entirely new dynamic for us,” Grever said. “We are a big part of these military complexes overseas. Obviously the FBI is pretty small compared to the United States military organizations, but we are attempting to bring their capability to use in some of these counterterrorism areas, so they have alternative tools to use. We are in essence training the trainers.” Most of the requests that flow into the Science and Technology Branch are reasonable, and the internal policy is that personnel can’t say no to such a plea. “That doesn’t mean I can fulfill your request,” Haynes stated. “Laws of physics might be against you. But what we do is look for alternative options in terms of what you are really trying to do. If it’s one of those impossible demands, we find some means to get close.” The CSI franchises, 24, and Arnold Schwarzenegger films, he added, are the branch’s biggest enemies. “We are constantly battling those kinds of perceptions. “But the fact that every one of the operating divisions regularly ask for our services is actually a very humbling and nice position to be in,” said Haynes. “This is a great organization.”

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science and technology branch

At the Heart of It All Terrorists and criminals may have the perfect plan in hand … but thanks to the FBI Laboratory, it’s getting tougher and tougher to get by with it anonymously

he real case work activity that goes on within the walls of the FBI complex in Quantico, Va., would put Marg Helgenberger, Gary Sinise, and David Caruso to shame. After all, the popular CSI series of shows are merely a glimpse at what the real-world professionals are accomplishing when they use science and technology as an investigative tool. Originally known as the “Criminology Research Laboratory,” today this division of the Bureau’s reputation is such that it needs no fancy introduction or distinction. Its official name is FBI Laboratory. From the days when FBI scientists were able to convict a burglar based on plaster casts of his shoe soles to the building of a multi-tiered DNA index system, this division of the Science and Technology Branch has commanded the respect of the Bureau, American citizens – and the criminals it has helped track down. Overall, FBI Laboratory personnel provide forensic examinations, technical support, expert witness testimony, and training to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies free of charge. Under its umbrella, you’ll find experts in: •Cryptanalysis racketeering •Latent prints •Questioned documents •Chemical biological sciences •Explosives •Evidence response •Hazardous material response •Photographic & imaging •Chemistry •DNA-nuclear and DNA-mitochondrial •Trace evidence •Firearms/toolmarks •Counterterrorism and forensic science research •Forensic science support •Crime scene survey •Facial reconstruction •Evidence control

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No wonder it’s considered one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world. The casework from its 2005 archives alone show an almost dizzying variety of skills: In March, a man named Howard Harner tried to bilk some unsuspecting eBay® buyer of $47,000 from the sale of historical documents and signatures he stole from the National Archives Reading Room in Washington, D.C.

In the FBI Lab, Washington, D.C., a plaster cast is compared with the shoe print file to determine the manufacturer of a shoe worn by a subject.

National Archives

T

By Julie Sturgeon

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

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science and technology branch

AP Photo/Charles Dharapak

Lab workers perform the early stages of mitochondrial DNA extraction at the FBI’s then-new state-of-the-art crime lab in Quantico, Va., April 24, 2003.

Investigators theorized that Harner had checked out a letter dated June 4, 1861, signed by Confederate Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Armistead, cut out the signature, and returned the document to the unsuspecting curator. It should have been easy to match the paper fragment edges of the signature to the letter for the National Archives, but Harner had removed many signatures from many documents, and the precisely cut edges of the documents required microscopic evaluation to determine if they had been attached at one time. The overwhelming proof came when examiners in the FBI’s Questioned Documents Unit used ultraviolet light to find a glowing, inverted image of Armistead’s signature below the cut out area on the letter. It was caused by the excitation of latent

ink properties that had transferred to an area on the letter that had been in contact with the original signature. The examiner positioned the fragment into the cut out area of the letter and photographed it under ultraviolet light. A

… the popular CSI series of shows are merely a glimpse at what the real-world professionals are accomplishing when they use science and technology as an investigative tool.

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transparent print of the letter was made and folded in the same manner as the original letter. The signatures aligned perfectly, and Harner was sentenced to two years in prison and fined $10,000 for his crime. In October, the DNA Analysis Unit II used hair from murder victim Shauna Howe’s Girl Scout sash and a sock to finally convict James and Timothy O’Brien of her murder on Halloween 12 years before in Oil City, Pa. The town consequently allowed trick-or-treating activities for the first time since 1992. A month later, three near-simultaneous suicide bomb attacks occurred at the Radisson SAS, Grand Hyatt, and Days Inn hotels in Amman, Jordan. At the Radisson, the

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bomber infiltrated a wedding reception and detonated an IED just as the bride and groom were arriving. When the Jordanian authorities tracked down a suspect, they found an IED hidden at the house where the suspect had been taken into custody, and made it available to the FBI. DNA evidence found on a suicide vest may help trace the source of these IEDs back to the bomb maker. Nor is a job in the FBI Laboratory strictly a desk position. Thanks to the flexibility of skills – for instance the Evidence Response Unit has specialized in collecting, packaging, and documenting evidence for the Laboratory – these personnel have found themselves in a position to help during natural disasters. In 2005 alone, the

DoD photo by PH2 Jim Watson; USN

Members of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Evidence Team met outside the Pentagon hours after the September 11 attacks.

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Laboratory’s Disaster Squad deployed three times between February and April to Phuket, Thailand, to identify tsunami victims, where it printed approximately 1,500 victims using technology and techniques appropriate for decomposed remains. It was on the job, too, after Hurricane Katrina, bringing closure to 155 families through its identifications. Behind the Scenes at the Real-Life CSI

Deputy Assistant Director for the FBI Laboratory’s Forensic Analysis Branch Melissa Smrz, then Acting Director of the FBI Laboratory, described this division as a service role. “We support a lot of investigations, but are we involved in every single one? No. Due to the nature of the violations the FBI investigates, there are many investigations which do not present with traditional forensic evidence or do not require evidence to undergo the traditional forensic analyses,” she said. But the mood inside the walls at 2501 Investigation Parkway is typically serious, and there’s never a shortage of work. “But even though you use the same protocols on your evidence, every case is different and you don’t know what the answer will be until you finish your analysis,” she said. “Maybe it will lead to the person who did this, but in many cases, it can lead them to saying this person didn’t do it. And it’s actually as important and gratifying to exonerate somebody.” Since becoming a part of the Science and Technology Branch in 2006, the Laboratory has been better able to leverage resources and apply for additional funding.

“It’s a great feeling when our analysis helps take a dangerous criminal off the streets. That’s what makes every day here interesting and worthwhile.”

Courtesy of FBI

Cary Oien, Chief of the FBI Laboratory’s Trace Evidence Unit They’ve also optimized communications, Smrz reported – the new Biometric Center of Excellence may be under the auspices of Criminal Justice Information Services for example, but all of the divisions have formed a partnership to develop research ideas for it.

An FBI scientist makes a visual inspection for forensic evidence on clothing. And it’s a place that currently tends to attract fresh faces – the shining stars of college graduating classes who are eager to make a difference. Here’s a slice of the many ways these professionals are contributing to law enforcement from lab stations and in the field:

Trace Evidence Unit “Without a trace” is a rare phrase for the 18 forensic examiners, physical scientists, and geologists who man these stations. Using techniques like X-ray diffraction to study soil and an infrared spectrophotometer to discriminate between colors and types of polymers in fibers, the team on the third floor examines 10,000 bits of shard glass, hair strands, paint chips, soil clods, feathers, rocks, and building materials – to name a few – to determine what happened. Experts in the unit can tell if a strand of hair is dyed or burned and whether it came from an animal or a human, if it was shed or pulled out and what part of the body it came from. They can tell you from which direction the blow came that shattered glass. They testified in the O.J. Simpson murder trial, and examined clues in the D.C. snipers case. But they don’t necessarily have to sit at their assigned desk, peering through a microscope. Evidence personnel arrived on the scene in hurricane-ravaged New Orleans to help police there process crime scenes after their equipment was destroyed by flooding. They were part of the FBI team on the ground after the tsunami throughout Asia as well. “We’re all about using science to solve crimes,” said Cary Oien, Chief of the unit. “But there is a very personal side to what we do. Some of the cases we’re involved in – whether it’s a missing child or a brutal murder – are heart wrenching. It’s a great feeling when our analysis helps take

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supported investigations into the terrorist attack on the USS Cole. It found a handgun buried in 3 inches of silt in a rushing, muddy North Carolina River. And after the 1996 bombing at the Atlanta Olympics, these divers even spent many nights checking for possible explosive devices on the underwater structure of a massive stand for 15,000 spectators.

a dangerous criminal off the streets. That’s what makes every day here interesting and worthwhile.”

Underwater Search and Evidence Response Teams (USERTs)

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Investigative and Prosecutive Graphic Unit (IPGU)

Top: Underwater Search and Evidence Response Team used scanners and submersible remote operated vehicles to map the area around the I-35W bridge in Minneapolis, Minn., after its collapse in August 2007 to look for victims. Above: An FBI diver prepares a small remote operated vehicle (ROV) for operation. The ROV, the smaller of two that divers brought to the site, was able to explore areas underwater that divers might enter to look for victims or evidence. detect debris in mud and silt, metal detectors that work underwater, dry suits with full face masks and communicators so divers can talk to each other as well as operations above the surface. Their miniature remote-controlled submarines can send real-time color video to the surface for immediate identification and can make videotapes of underwater searches for future uses. Since this unit was formed in 1982, it has been called to scour a 40-square-mile patch of ocean floor to recover the remains of all 230 victims and airplane parts from the TWA Flight 800 explosion. It

Just hours after the Oklahoma City bombing, an FBI Laboratory forensic artist sketched a suspect based on eyewitness accounts at a Junction City, Kan., truck rental shop. Agents began showing the drawing around town, and employees at a local motel recognized him immediately – that was Timothy McVeigh. And it was enough to keep police from releasing McVeigh from an Oklahoma jail where he was being held on unrelated charges. But what makes the Lab’s forensic artists any different from a police department sketch artist? These professionals consist of a team of visual information specialists with backgrounds ranging from fine arts to mechanical engineering, and they not only work with faces, but create crime scene reconstructions, animated and interactive two-dimensional and three-dimensional digital models, diagrams, maps, charts, and other visual aids to help solve cases. They can take dated pictures of suspects and victims, apply facial age progression and photo retouching to show what the people might look like today with a beard, a different hair style, and so forth. They can reconstruct a face using skeletal

Courtesy of FBI

Diving may sound like a fun vacation activity in the Caribbean, but what happens when you’re looking for a body, a murder weapon, or other incriminating evidence instead of tropical fish? Or if a ship or harbor is attacked by terrorists? The FBI dive teams know the difference. These underwater experts can find clues and map out crime scenes not only in traditional bodies of water, but under ice, around piers and bridges, and under extreme conditions. Take, for instance, the Minneapolis I-35W bridge collapse on Aug. 1, 2007. Early in the investigation, the FBI and the U.S. Navy sent teams of divers to map the scene in a strong zero-visibility current strewn with bridge debris. “If we can see our hands in front of our face, that’s good visibility,” Supervisory Special Agent Kevin Horn, program manager of USERT said at the time. The teams used sonar, underwater cameras, and remotely operated vehicles, or ROVs, to map the debris field and look for passageways in and around “the pile” for divers to search for victims and forensic evidence. The divers are used to working under the worst circumstances – having been dispatched to Iraq – but the debris field in the Mississippi River was a world of its own. “The entanglement risk was just constant,” Horn reported. Their technology is top-notch: Side-scan sonar machines that can

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remains, and create virtual fly-throughs (i.e., walking through a scene via a computer) and computer animations that map out debris fields, measure bomb craters, and show bullet trajectories. And it was IPGU that digitally surveyed the 16 D.C.-area sniper crime scenes and created the timeline for John Allen Muhammad’s trial. Team members receive hundreds of calls a year from around the world. With state-of-the-art video teleconferencing, they can conduct some of these interviews right from their offices in Quantico. Unit Chief Richard Berry summed it up: “We’re always learning and using new techniques and technologies. As a result, we’re always involved in major investigative efforts.”

DNA Analysis Unit (DNAAU-1) If it’s an act of terrorism, a violent crime, a bank robbery, extortion, or threatening letter, chances are great the biologists, forensic examiners, and DNA program specialists in this

individual, and involves comparing stains identified serologically to reference samples obtained from the victim. Nuclear DNA testing can also find who licked an envelope, drank from a bottle, smoked a cigarette, or wore a hat. Thanks to the polymerase chain reaction technique these scientists use, it takes only a trace of fluid stains to produce results. Certainly the family of Carlie Brucia is grateful for this technology. A DNA Analysis Unit I examiner extracted a full 13-locus male profile from a semen stain found on the shirt of this 11-year-old child abducted at a Sarasota, Fla., car wash in 2004. The DNA profile from suspect Joseph Smith matched the profile from the evidence – and to top off the case, FBI cryptanalysts cracked a coded letter the accused sent to his brother describing how he disposed of the body and other evidence. In November 2005, a jury found Smith guilty in the little girl’s abduction and murder. The DNAAU-1 team also takes responsibility for the Federal Convicted Offender (FCO) Program,

“We’re always learning and using new techniques and technologies. As a result, we’re always involved in major investigative efforts.” Richard Berry, Chief of the FBI Laboratory’s Investigative and Prosecutive Graphic Unit unit will be part of the fact-finding mission. Overall, they perform two evidence-processing functions: serology and nuclear DNA analysis. Serology means screening materials for biological stains, such as blood in homicides and semen in sexual crimes. Nuclear DNA is the genetic blueprint unique to every

which collects and processes samples from any person convicted of a federal felony. The results are then uploaded to the National DNA Database. Since it was implemented in June 2001, the FCO Program has received more than 100,000 samples, and they continue to pour in at a rate of 7,000 to 8,000 a month. Once

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Congress’ DNA Fingerprint Act of 2005, which expands the list of qualifying federal offenses to include all federal arrestees, gets up to speed, the unit plans to use robotics to handle the volume.

High-tech Tools While it takes a sharp mind to work at the FBI Lab, it would be virtually impossible to solve these cases without cutting-edge technology. The Lab has always been a step ahead – it began using microdot cameras as far back as 1941, and became the first public crime lab in the United States to perform DNA analysis in 1988. It pioneered the use of laser technology to detect latent fingerprints at a crime scene. It was also the first to positively identify individuals based on mitochondrial DNA less than a decade later. Today’s wonder is the CODIS computer system – a three-tiered system of local, state, and national databases that can store DNA information. The FBI maintains the national layer, known as NDIS, which currently contains more than 1.6 million profiles. A total of 175 crime labs in 50 states, as well as the FBI and the U.S. Army Crime Lab, tap into the information stored here – and 31 overseas labs have borrowed the technology to help with investigations in their own countries. How well does it work? In the summer of 1992, Rita Baldo and her daughter Lisa were murdered in their Florida apartment by gunshots to the head. Lisa had been raped. Investigators found DNA in the saliva of three DNA evidence has rapidly become a major investigative tool. cigarette butts found at the scene of these non-smokers, but it didn’t match any of the suspects in the case. Eventually, the profile was uploaded to CODIS, where it sat for three years until a Wisconsin forensic scientist matched a profile for a neighbor in San Francisco. Earlier this decade, FBI from the Dairy State’s convicted offenders database. AdAgents tested the semen sample from the autopsy, and it matched William Speer, a convicted rapist who had been ditional forensic tests on hair found at the scene confirmed confined to an Arizona mental hospital. It’s believed to be they had their guy: James A. Frederick was indicted for the the oldest case CODIS has yet solved. crime. Sometimes old is new, as in the FBI’s need to train law As for cold cases, a 14-year-old girl named Linda Harmon was raped and murdered in 1968 while babysitting enforcement in how to test and examine VHS cassettes.

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CACI– Supporting Law Enforcement Missions from Identification through Prosecution Since1978, CACI has served as a Federal “law enforcement partner.” We are proud to support the FBI, DEA, ATF, the DOJ litigating divisions and attorneys, as well as the Intelligence Community, and the Department of Homeland Security. We understand the complexities of supporting sensitive casework, from the initial intelligence gathering and investigation, through management and prosecution, all of which are the components of CACI’s role as a national asset for national missions. From all of CACI to the Federal Bureau of Investigation on its 100th Anniversary: Congratulations and thank you for helping to safeguard our nation!

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That’s because criminals and terrorists often still use analog devices to commit and cover up their crimes, make propaganda films, or record over surveillance camera tapes. It’s not for wimps – the level of complexity in just this one small facet of forensic science is extreme – but the rewards are great. And then there’s the General Chemistry group, where the objective is to figure out exactly what an unknown compound is. Using direct analysis in real-time, time-of-flight spectrometry, this team can hold up a direct sample – say, a dollar bill – in front of the machine and have it tell them what is on the surface. “They don’t have to cut it up, they don’t have to process it with chemicals,” said Smrz. “We didn’t necessarily develop it, but the way we’re using it is pretty interesting. It’s the closest thing to CSI instantaneous that we have.” In the months and years ahead, look for the FBI Laboratory to also make use of technology like automated, three-dimensional imaging of firearms, toolmarks, and automated nuclear DNA analysis. But in the end, none of this is possible without a dedicated staff. “With all the work we do here … and there’s a lot of data analysis, data and technical review, because we want to make sure when a report goes out the door, the results are accurate,” Smrz said, “most of that is still dependent on a human being.” The CSI Myth

Contrary to what the actors on television dramas portray, forensic lab work cannot be performed in an hour. Nor can you feed data into a

computer and passively watch it spit out an answer a few minutes later. “Some of our analysis is done with instrumentation that’s quite sophisticated,” said Smrz, “but there is sample preparation time, and time allotted for the required proper and accurate analysis.” Not to mention that many examinations – think handwriting analysis or fire and tool marks – use a microscope, but they still require a pair of human eyes before you can make the call. Another discrepancy: On television, an investigator bounces from crime scene collection to the laboratory and back to the field to conduct interviews. In the old days, that occasionally happened, but with the level of sophistication and specialization in the 21st century, those jobs are completely separate. Yes, there is interaction between investigators and laboratory scientists, but it’s rarely day-to-day. (The exceptions to the on-the-spot scientists: Explosives experts may go into the field to study a bomb.) Finally, “People think that you can glean all kinds of forensic evidence from every crime scene. Sometimes you do have a lot and sometimes you might have one little bit of DNA and it’s not informative. You may not have latent prints. It really varies case by case,” said Smrz. “You do a lot of work that may not get a probative result.” On the other hand, Hollywood’s attention has led to an uptick in suitable employee candidates over the years. According to Smrz, the folks who show an interest and aptitude in this work have a very conversant idea of what forensic science involves, “even if they are getting the CSI perspective,” she noted.

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Criminal Justice Information Services When it comes to finding trouble, the brains in the CJIS Division are the best

T

By Julie Sturgeon

homas E. Bush, III, built quite a reputation of making sure crime didn’t pay in his neck of the woods. He joined the FBI in September 1975 working in the Identification Division, and became an Agent within four years. He spent time working bank robbery and fugitive cases, and was eventually promoted to a supervisory Special Agent role. He worked in D.C.; Jackson, Miss.; Atlanta, West Virginia, and St. Louis, specializing in violent crime, drug, and civil rights situations. He was a street Agent, the Marines of the FBI. But on Dec. 23, 2004, Director Robert S. Mueller, III, appointed Bush as Assistant Director of the Criminal Justice Information Services Division – the transformed Identification Division where the experienced Agent began two decades before. “My whole career has been about putting bad guys in jail. CJIS does it daily on a bigger, worldwide scale,” said Bush. And ironically, those on the wrong side of the law

“People ask me, ‘What is your vision?’ Bigger, better, faster. That’s the bottom line.” Thomas E. Bush, III Assistant Director of the Criminal Justice Information Services Division are being done in as much by the research technicians under his direction as by Field Agents. When Bush first reported for duty, he peered through a magnifying glass, studying fingerprints and forcing his colleagues to decipher his scribbling writing to enter his findings into a computer. In 1975, it took anywhere from 30 to 60 days to turn around a fingerprint card from the time the

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law enforcement agency mailed it in until the FBI waded through the backlog to classify it and search for a match. Often, the criminal had already been released from jail. “And had been using a false name that the police obviously didn’t know about. We were really becoming irrelevant to law enforcement,” he admitted. By 1992, officials revamped the department and gave it a new name to reflect CJIS’ role as the focal point and central repository for criminal justice information services within the Bureau. Still, the staff continued to process information in nearly the same way it had for the first 70 years of the division’s history. Today, “It’s hard to even think it was just 1999 that we were still doing this stuff manually,” Bush said. Now, thanks to the FBI’s success in integrating the automated fingerprint identification system that had been scattered across the country since its introduction in the 1980s, folks with Bush’s original GS2 classification can read 140,000 fingerprints in 24 hours. A great majority of searches are done in 15 minutes, and there’s no backlog of requests. “People ask me, ‘What is your vision?’ Bigger, better, faster. That’s the bottom line,” the Assistant Director said simply. Yes, We Can Help

CJIS’ official mission statement contains a few more words: “To reduce terrorist and criminal activities by maximizing the ability to provide timely and relevant criminal justice information to the FBI and to qualified law enforcement, criminal justice, civilian, academic, employment, and licensing agencies concerning individuals, stolen property, criminal organizations and activities, and other law enforcement related data.” It was the first division Director J. Edgar Hoover created when he assumed responsibility of the FBI – CJIS is still known as division No. 1 in internal paperwork – and it has grown to be the largest FBI division, with approximately

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AP Photo/Clarksburg Exponent Telegram, Bob Shaw

Thomas E. Bush, III, Assistant Director of the Criminal Justice Information Services Division, center, speaks at a news conference flanked by Scott Swann, supervisory IT specialist, left, Briony Poe, counselor, and Chris DelGreco, IT specialist, far right, at the FBI fingerprint facility in Clarksburg, W. Va., on Sept. 7, 2006. Bush is working to modernize and expand the organization.

2,700 employees. In October 1991, the FBI began building a centralized complex to house these employees on a 986acre plot in Clarksburg, W.Va. The building, measuring almost the length of three football fields, was completed on time and under budget. The cafeteria alone seats 600, the auditorium was built to address 500 people, and the majority of the complex is devoted to your typical office building functions. But it’s the 100,000-square-foot computer center that says it all. CJIS needs that much space to hold the massive databases it maintains, which include: National Crime Information Center (NCIC). Most Americans know about this electronic clearinghouse of criminal information from the reverent references to it on TV crime dramas. Insiders call this the unsung hero of crimefighting, because more than 90,000 agencies are connected

to the host computer in West Virginia, allowing a police officer in his squad car immediate access to its data. NCIC stores and searches names, fingerprints, mug shots, crime records, parole and probation information, information on terrorists, national and international fugitives, convicted sex offenders, prisoners, missing and unidentified persons, violent gang members, and immigration violators. The database contains seven categories of stolen property listings and photos. No wonder it handles 5.5 million queries around the clock every day. Most search results are spit back within half a second. That’s quite a time saving from the first license plate NCIC ran for a patrolman in New York City. He had to wait a full 90 seconds to learn the car had been reported stolen in Boston. (Of course, the system only had to search 95,000 records then.) “It would be hard to find a more reliable, widely used, and important law enforcement tool over the last 40 years,” said Bush.

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AP Photo/Denis Poroy

U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection senior agent Arnie Villarreal holds a card of fingerprints printed with the Automated Fingerprint Identification System at the Brown Field Station along the U.S.-Mexico border in San Diego, Oct. 7, 2004. Today, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System maintains the largest biometric database in the world.

Just how well does it work? Ask the Field Investigations Office of the New York Division of Motor Vehicles, which asked for an offline NCIC search when someone noticed a discrepancy in the vehicle identification number of a 1961 Jaguar. The search revealed the dream sports car had been stolen in 1981. Some lucky owner recovered a $100,000 collector’s item. After an informant gave an FBI Agent information about an organized drug group operating between Arizona and the Midwest, NCIC staff conducted searches on names that the informant provided from January 1994 to February 1996. They found inquiries that verified the suspected geographic travel patterns of many of the subjects. This information

aided local and federal authorities in securing indictments of the individuals for conspiracy to distribute marijuana. Local and federal authorities subsequently searched the suspects’ property and recovered cash and drugs valued at $350,000. Nine individuals were arrested. Then there was the case of the kidnap alibi. An FBI field division contacted NCIC staff to request a search concerning a kidnapping with a ransom demand. The staff searched NCIC for the victim’s name and license plate number from the date of last contact to the current day. The results indicated that Texas authorities had queried the license plate several times. An FBI Agent contacted the officer who had conducted one of the license plate

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While newer methods of identification are being developed, the old reliable fingerprint remains an important law enforcement tool.

inquiries. The officer advised him that the driver of the vehicle was suspected of robbing a convenience store and that officers had been following the vehicle throughout the day. The driver was the lone occupant of the vehicle, and his physical description was very similar to that of the alleged kidnapping victim. Following a second robbery, the suspect led law enforcement officers on a high-speed car chase that ended when the suspectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vehi-

cle crashed. Officers could not use a photograph of the suspect taken at the time of the accident because facial injuries suffered by the suspect in the crash left him unrecognizable by witnesses. However, a photo provided by the FBI from the kidnapping investigation was then shown to the witnesses. They identified the suspect, and law enforcement officers issued a warrant and formally arrested the suspect on two counts of robbery and one count of extortion for the fabricated kidnapping.

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National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS). Not to be confused with its close cousin acronym, NICS fulfills the provisions of the Brady Act that went into effect in 1998. Its purpose is to confirm whether receipt of a firearm by a prospective buyer would violate either Title 18 of the United States Code or any state laws. NICS is on the job 17 hours a day, seven days a week, except for Christmas. If you have been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment of more than a year; are a fugitive of justice; area a controlled substance user convicted for unlawful use or possession within the last year; are declared mentally defective or involuntarily committed to a mental institution; are on illegal alien; are military dishonorably discharged; have renounced U.S. citizenship; are the subject of protective orders due to harassing, stalking, or threatening behavior toward partners or children; or are convicted of a misdemeanor crime using physical force or a deadly weapon against an immediate family member, your name is stored here. Uniform Crime Records. With Al Capone on the loose, Bonnie and Clyde terrorizing the South, and John

Thanks to latent fingerprints and other forensic data lifted from improvised explosive devices (IED) in the Middle East theaters, for instance, the FBI has identified 22 bomb makers. Dillinger in jail picking up great bank robbery tips, was America’s safe neighborhood legacy starting to slide into chaos? Frightened Americans wanted to know, so Hoover decided to start tracking such incidents. It wasn’t a new idea, but it took the FBI to move from talking about collecting statistics to doing it. The first Uniform Crime Report bulletin hit the streets in January 1930, with news on crime patterns in 400 cities and 43 states. Today, this system tracks and publishes Crime in the United States, Hate Crime Statistics, and Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted annually. Its Crime Index total includes the violent crimes of murder

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and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, with the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Because they are not consistently available, arson figures are not included in the Crime Index total, but they do make up the Modified Crime Index total. Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS). It always comes back to the fingerprints. The IAFIS provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The official line is that agencies receive electronic responses to criminal 10-print fingerprint submissions within two hours and within 24 hours for civil fingerprint submissions. Now that the spirit of cooperation means the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of State (DoS) are sharing information with the FBI, IAFIS spells trouble for foreign terrorists on the other side of the globe, too. With a name-based system, malefactors could find ways to get fake passports and visas. “But when you have to put your hand down on a glass to take a fingerprint, that has to be a little jittery,” Bush said. And trust them when they say they have the goods on these guys. Thanks to latent fingerprints and other forensic data lifted from improvised explosive devices (IED) in the Middle East theaters, for

instance, the FBI has identified 22 bomb makers. “That one is priceless,” he noted. “Every day we make thousands of arrests, making a contribution to law enforcement and to the safety of this country. But that’s just about as cool as it gets.” Today the IAFIS maintains the largest biometric database in the world, containing the fingerprints and corresponding criminal history information for more than 55 million subjects in the Criminal Master File. Consider that the DoD, DHS, and DoS are also stuffing the database with their information, and the country has information on nearly 56 million troublemakers. “We put bad guys in jail, and we keep bad guys out of the country,” Bush noted. And still that’s not enough for either the FBI or Bush. In May 2008, the contract was approved to begin moving into next-generation identification, which will allow the Bureau to add more biometrics, and store and search physical features such as scars, skin markings, and tattoos. It intends to add palm readings – a capability some smaller countries have already adopted – and modalities like iris, ear lobe configuration, and other facial readings. “DNA needs to be a part of this in the next-generation system, too,” Bush insisted. It also needs to be available to other countries that want to know, for instance, if sex offenders have moved to their borders. Certainly the FBI can help, but it’s on a caseby-case request rather than the seamless, automatic connections IAFIS has with state and local law enforcement.

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Bush and WVU President Mike Garrison sign an agreement to make the university a lead academic partner in biometrics research. The FBI is partnering with WVU to develop the next generation of biometric identification technologies.

He is currently piloting a spin-off sub database with law officials in Wisconsin that carves out the “worst of the worst” million or so fingerprint records for top terrorists. “Our turnaround time right now is 22 seconds – and this guy on the street with no identification and acting suspicious is revealed as a mastermind serial killer,” he reported. Once it’s proven in the United States, Bush fully intends to make this tool available in an encrypted manner to other countries as well. It’s not a cheap solution – the nextgeneration IAFIS represents a $10 billion investment alone. But weigh that cost against the fact that 20 percent of the latent prints lifted from a crime scene are from palms, for example, and it’s easy to see the return on investment. Certainly biometrics are an important enough addition to warrant CJIS co-locating with the DoD to create a Biometrics Fusion Center at West Virginia University,

with its scientists providing the research arm. So far, Bush has found just one flaw in CJIS’ direction. “Now that we are all connected and getting access to the same data, sharing and exchanging information across agency systems, everybody wants answers faster. It’s like crack cocaine – they can’t get enough of it,” he said. But on a more serious note, the result is that this country is measurably safer than it was on September 11. “We haven’t filled all the gaps post9/11,” he admitted, “but we have filled a heck of a lot of them. When a bad guy has to give us his fingerprint for access and we can search against more than one agency database, that closes a significant loophole.” That’s just one of the factors that makes his job gratifying. Bush was eligible to retire five years ago, but he continues to don a suit and report to the office each morning. “This job is so much fun, I’d have a really hard time leaving,” he insisted.

Brian Persinger/West Virgina University

Sharing” is the new buzzword in Washington, D.C., this decade, and the FBI is at the leading edge. To encourage law enforcement officers around the world to share their findings and opinions, CJIS maintains Law Enforcement Online, affectionately known as LEO. It’s a secure, Internet-based communications portal for everyone from police officers to first responders, and anti-terrorism agency staff. More than 100,000 international members rely on LEO today – not bad for a community that began as a dial-up service in 1995 with just 20 people. Users have access to: •a national alert system directing members to the LEO site for information on emergencies (like the London bombings, for example); •roughly 540 special interest groups that allow members who share expertise or interests to connect with each other, including sections on terrorism, street gangs, and bombs; •access to important and useful databases, like those run by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children; •e-mail services, which enable members to submit fingerprints to the FBI for processing by the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System; •a Virtual Command Center – an information sharing and crisis management tool that allows the law enforcement community to use LEO at local and remote sites as an electronic command center to submit and view information and intelligence; •distance learning, with several online learning modules on topics like terrorism response, forensic anthropology, and leadership; and •a multimedia library of publications, documents, studies, research, technical bulletins, and other reports of interest to LEO users.

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

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HMRU

Behind the Suits HAZMAT teams shun a jacket and tie for vapor-tight encapsulation coveralls By Julie Sturgeon

B

uried among the headlines announcing that justice in the form of the FBI has caught up with the criminals and terrorists are the reports of things that didn’t happen, thanks to the Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU). The trained professionals in this department at the Quantico, Va., complex come running in response to any incidents involving hazardous materials that are immediate threats. It’s bravery in the raw. As James F. Jarboe, the FBI’s Section Chief, Counterterrorism Division, Domestic Terrorism

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Section, told the House Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Crime less than two months after September 11, “The response to an actual threat or one that is later determined to be not credible, or a hoax, is indistinguishable … The first responders must treat each incident as a real event until scientific analysis proves that the material is not a biological agent.” According to Jarboe, in 1998, the FBI opened 181 cases related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) events; 112 were biological in nature. There were 187 biological threats in 1999, and 115 in 2000.

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HMRU

To date, the HMRU team has been deployed on more than 550 operational missions and helped guard more than 100 special events. And although they’re quiet, their role has been vital. Prior to September 11, the FBI had 67 biological investigations on the books that year. After the combined terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the calls for help from the public shot off the charts. From midSeptember until Jarboe’s testimony, the FBI responded to more than 7,000 suspicious anthrax letter reports and initiated 305 new anthrax-related investigations, which virtually doubled the normal annual average of all WMD cases.

FBI photos

Getting Down to Business

The HMRU team consists of Special Agents, physical security specialists (HAZMAT and nuclear), chemists, microbiologists, management and program analysts, and logistics management specialists. Among the tasks that fall to this group, are to: •Assist FBI investigations by deploying to hazardous crime scenes, including reports of ricin, anthrax, and other biological and chemical attacks; •Support other divisions within the FBI by providing assessments of incidents involving hazardous material (HAZMAT); •Provide response readiness at special events, including the Republican and Democratic National Conventions; Olympic Games, presidential debates, and at each Super Bowl game; •In coordination with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the FBI’s International Training Unit, support the U.S. government’s counterproliferation program by providing training to law enforcement personnel in former Soviet bloc countries; and •Provide technical and scientific response to FBI investigations involving HAZMAT, including WMDs. To date, the HMRU team has been deployed on more than 550 operational missions and helped guard more than 100 special events. And although they’re quiet, their role has been vital.

Two “Amerithrax” letters. The case has brought home the danger of biological and chemical attacks on America. For instance, who would have guessed it was HMRU to the rescue when a man in Tbilisi, Georgia, tried to attack President George W. Bush with a hand grenade during the president’s speech in Freedom Square in that former Soviet Union country? After Georgian officials captured Vladimir Arutinian and discovered a chemistry lab in his apartment

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U.S. Air Force photo/Staff Sgt. John Gordinier

FBI photo

Defense Dept. photo by Clem Gaines

HMRU

Clockwise from left: Dr. Sheri Bettis, a chemist with the FBI’s Hazardous Materials Response Unit, talks with Shaw Air Force Base personnel during an FBI HMRU training class about how scientific readings can be misrepresented. Four FBI Agents visited Shaw to give airmen an overview of interactions, procedures, and law as well as dissection of field sampling equipment and their pitfalls; One of the Hazardous Materials Response Teams performs decontamination during a WMD training exercise; Rob Weiderhold (right), FBI hazardous materials specialist, guides Azeri soldiers, wearing Level C chemical protection suits, as they practice field screening, sampling, and evidence collection during an International Counterproliferation Program Field Exercise in Baku, Azerbaijan.

basement, HMRU led the charge (along with the Explosives Unit, Photographic Operations and Imaging Services, and Latent Print Units) into the space to get the scientific and technical oversight needed to identify and remove the substances. Without the FBI’s equipment and personnel, it turns out certain chemical substances would have definitely killed or maimed the Georgian team members attempting to recover them. Earlier that same year, the Georgian government relied on the HMRU’s ability to measure the air quality in an apartment where the country’s prime minister and deputy governor were found dead by apparent carbon monoxide poisoning. Nothing in the tests indicated foul play – they in fact pointed the finger at a faulty heater – and the government was able to quell public speculation that the men died under suspicious circumstances. Even a Norfolk Southern freight train wreck that spilled a load of chlorine became a dangerous situation for members of the HMRU team called to the scene to retrieve the railroad switch lock and handle involved in the accident. But

the men donned their Level A personal protection equipment and waded in to get the evidence. What they can’t do, however, is bring hazardous material back to Quantico for examination, noted the Laboratory’s then Acting Director, Melissa Smrz, who is now Deputy Assistant Director for the FBI Laboratory Forensic Anaysis Branch. The building isn’t coded for things like nuclear devices and ricin, “nor would we want to be,” she pointed out. On the other hand, they don’t want to ask other agency officials or academia to conduct the investigative work, as different laboratories have different protocols. For instance, chain of custody is extremely important to the FBI, whereas other organizations may not emphasize it the same way. So rather than build a separate building for the HMRU teams to house the evidence, the FBI has cleared its scientists to conduct their studies at one of four certified laboratories across the country. The concept is unique to the Bureau, “particularly in this age of terrorism,” she explained. But to find the answers, after all, is the FBI’s ultimate mission.

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HMRU

Amerithrax Update By Julie Sturgeon

FBI photo

S

oon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, letters laced with anthrax began appearing in the U.S. mail. Five Americans were killed in what became the worst biological attacks in U.S. history. The ensuing investigation by the FBI and its partners – code-named “Amerithrax” – has been one of the largest and most complex in the history of law enforcement. The Bureau conducted more than 9,100 interviews and issued 6,100 subpoenas. Nineteen FBI Agents, working with eight inspectors from the U.S. Postal Service, continue to pursue each and every lead aggressively. Eight panels of scientific experts have been convened to develop a comprehensive analytical scheme for evaluating and analyzing the anthrax evidence. If there is a positive side, officials say, the scientific advances gained from this case are unprecedented and have greatly strengthened the nation’s ability to prepare for – and investigate – biological attacks. The FBI Laboratory has expanded the Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) with additional professional first responders, hazardous materials officers, doctorate-level scientists, and former clinicians. These individuals conduct threat assessments, respond to WMD (weapons of mass destruction)

crime scenes, and manage and train field personnel distributed in FBI Field Offices to effectively respond to collect, package, and transport hazardous evidence to specialized laboratories, including the FBI Laboratory. The FBI Laboratory has created or expanded three new scientific working groups (SWGs) consisting of scientists from academia, private industry, the national laboratories, other U.S. federal government agencies, physicians, and researchers. These working groups identify areas where scientific advancements can be applied to terrorism investigations. The FBI Laboratory has created a new unit, the Chemical Biological Sciences Unit (CBSU), staffed with forensic scientists with advanced degrees in chemistry, biology, and nuclear chemistry. CBSU has developed and

A variety of chemicals are applied to an envelope and letter at the FBI Laboratory to develop any latent prints for possible identification.

validated new analytical procedures to better characterize hazardous evidence, including anthrax, and has evaluated and applied existing methodologies in new and novel ways. The FBI has also expanded its international liaison activities to

… the scientific advances gained from this case are unprecedented and have greatly strengthened the nation’s ability to prepare for – and investigate – biological attacks. include professional scientists in other countries in support of counterterrorism investigations. The FBI Laboratory has supported an ongoing Department of Homeland Security initiative to build a dedicated bio-forensic laboratory at Fort Detrick, Md. An interim laboratory is currently operational. The permanent facility, supported by a series of partner laboratories, will significantly increase forensic analytical capabilities and reduce analytical timelines.

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office of the chief information officer

FBI’s Office of the Chief Information Officer A true CIO guides the FBI through its long-overdue IT transformation

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By Craig Collins

he year 2001, historic for so many reasons, was especially so for the Information Resources Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation: As the office within the FBI that most closely resembled a modern-day information technology division, it learned not one, but two painful lessons that year. In February, the FBI learned that one of its own Agents, Robert Hanssen, had been extracting secret U.S. intelligence from its information system and selling it to the Russians for more than 20 years. About nine months later, in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the nation learned that there had been, prior to the attacks, several memoranda and reports filed by members of the U.S. intelligence community that, if widely shared and combined into a cohesive whole, might have focused leaders more closely on the activities of suspected terrorists inside the United States. Whether such a focus could have prevented the September 11 attacks will always be an unanswerable question, but FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, who was one week into his tenure when the attacks occurred, was among the U.S. leaders who were convinced the U.S. intelligence community, and the Bureau, could have done better. The Hanssen case and September 11 are two perfect illustrations of any IT office’s continuous dilemma: the need to keep sensitive information secure, while at the same time making sure it gets into the hands of as many people as possible who have the power to do some good with it. Both the Hanssen case and September 11 offered dramatic proof that for the FBI, this tension between information security and availability is a matter of life and death. The great structural reorganization ordered by Mueller in the wake of September 11 involved not just the Bureau’s operational units, but its information technology as well. At the time, the Information Resources Division provided centralized planning and management for the Bureau’s information technology assets, but the division suffered several significant shortcomings, one of which was that it did not actually make budget decisions; these were left to the Bureau’s operating divisions. The result was a stovepiped group of generally old, slow, and outdated information networks that often did not work well together.

“From a historical perspective,” explained Dean Hall, the FBI’s Deputy Chief Information Officer, “from the mid’90s to the time prior to the current Director’s arrival, there wasn’t a lot of IT activity occurring, as far as new introductions. And that’s part of why we’ve seen a tremendous infusion of technology services into the FBI since, and we also have a Director who’s very oriented in that area.” Sharing Information

The first major attempt at IT recapitalization – a threephase program called Trilogy, which brought a common desktop environment to all Bureau employees – was already under way at the FBI when Mueller took charge. It was long overdue. At the time, according to an August 2006 article in The Washington Post, the FBI’s shared networks – mainframe systems with text-only “green screens” that had to be searched by keyword and could not store or display graphic images – were so ponderous that many Agents simply abandoned them, opting instead for paper and filing cabinets. The FBI immediately grasped that its new post-September 11 mission had transformed the Bureau’s primary mandate from investigating crimes after they occur to finding criminals and terrorists before they attack – and that this new mandate would require an unprecedented level of real-time information sharing between agencies and Agents. What the Bureau was slower to realize was that its new mission would require a complete restructuring of its information technology; after November 2001, the Bureau went through five different CIOs, each of whom generally responded to the urgency of the Bureau’s IT needs by pushing harder for implementation of Trilogy. Trilogy, said Hall, succeeded in replacing the Bureau’s outdated hardware and providing a high-speed, secure network that allowed personnel to share data worldwide, including audio, video, and image files. But the program’s third and most ambitious phase, the Virtual Case File (VCF) – an intended replacement for the old Automated Case Support System (ACS), which processed data at the end of every workday – was plagued with problems and delays,

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office of the chief information officer

The FBI’s National Data Exchange (N-DEx) Program will allow state, local, and tribal law enforcement investigators access to federal information and intelligence data relevant to investigations under their jurisdictions. and finally was shelved in 2004. The demise of the VCF was attributable to a number of reasons, not least of which was the fact that it had been conceived before the Bureau’s dramatic mission transformation and reorganization. Mueller promptly launched a dramatic overhaul of the Bureau’s IT management, and named Zalmai Azmi – a CIO who had pulled off an impressive IT turnaround at the Executive Office for United States Attorneys – the FBI’s Acting Chief Information Officer. Six months later, with the creation of the Bureau’s Information and Technology Branch, the “acting” was dropped from Azmi’s title, and he picked up another title: Executive Assistant Director for Information and Technology. He was charged with developing IT architecture for the Bureau and creating a system of

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checks and balances designed to keep projects on schedule and on budget. As Azmi helped guide existing reforms to completion, he went back to the drawing board on the development of an automated case file network that would allow Agents to enter information directly into a computer, receive electronic approvals, and upload information into the database, where it would be immediately available to others who needed access to it: Agents, analysts, other federal employees, and state and local officials. Meanwhile, the FBI continued with other IT reforms that were in line with Mueller’s vision. When Hall joined the FBI in 2002, it was specifically for the purpose of helping to implement an information assurance program that had been launched after the Hanssen affair. Rather than restricting access to information, the program relied on the application of different layers of security that dealt more with policies, procedures, risk assessments, and training rather than the information itself. In fact, the Bureau was focused on loosening access to its information. “I would say one of the first things I saw when I got here was a movement toward a need to share, rather than a need to restrict,” said Hall. “We saw many of the case files that were restricted opened up to viewing and access by most of, if not all, the employees. We still have very sensitive case information that has to be protected through privacy or source information, but for the most part there has been a significant push in that area, and also in our partnership with other agencies such as the CIA through NCTC [the National Counterterrorism Center].” The Bureau takes its data-sharing initiative seriously, and it has extended it even further: In June 2005, it rolled out its Regional Data Exchange (R-DEx), a program that allows state, local, and tribal law enforcement investigators access to federal information and intelligence data relevant to investigations under their jurisdictions. The R-DEx pilot program, in the St. Louis metropolitan area, allows the FBI, the Illinois State Police, the Missouri State Highway Patrol, the St. Louis Metropolitan Police, the St. Louis County Police, and the St. Clair County (Illinois) Sheriff’s Department to research each others’ case information. Hall pointed out that the R-DEx is already more than merely a “regional” exchange: “It’s really the exchange of federal data and state and local data across multiple regions, across the United States, also in partnership with the NCIS [Naval Criminal Investigative Service], to some of the administrative systems within the FBI itself.” Nevertheless, the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO), in April 2008, activated the first part of a more ambitious, allencompassing information-sharing system, the National Data Exchange (N-DEx). Once it is fully operational and

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office of the chief information officer

Zalmai Azmi, Executive Assistant Director for Information and Technology.

fully deployed in 2010, the N-DEx will tie together more than 200,000 investigators working in 18,000 local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies across jurisdictional boundaries and heterogeneous information systems. Today’s OCIO

Courtesy of FBI

Over the past several years, Azmi’s role as CIO has become atypical of federal CIOs in certain aspects. For example, in 2005, he was given control of the entire Bureau’s IT budget

– the first officer in the Bureau’s history with this authority. “What this allowed us to do,” said Hall, “was develop a cohesive enterprise approach with regard to the IT being developed and delivered to the FBI – both the reduction of unwanted costs and additional resources necessary to do this. It also allowed for better cohesiveness of what’s being established – to have a true plan in place and to understand where the FBI is going with regard to its services that are going to be provided both within the FBI itself and to its mission partners.” As the officer in charge of developing the FBI’s long-term IT plans, developing and managing its technology assets, and providing technical direction for the reengineering of the Bureau’s business practices, Azmi has already achieved much in his four-year tenure – he is by far the longest-serving FBI CIO since September 11. He has established and continues to refine the Life Cycle Management Directive (LCMD), which was developed specifically to avoid another huge, four-year contract such as the Virtual Case File. The LCMD governs how projects are managed from their inception, using seven review points as a mechanism for management, decision-making, and coordination. Azmi has also installed a Chief Knowledge Officer, whose job,

“We saw many of the case files that were restricted opened up to viewing and access by most of, if not all, the employees. We still have very sensitive case information that has to be protected through privacy or source information, but for the most part there has been a significant push in that area …” Dean Hall, FBI Deputy Chief Information Officer

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office of the chief information officer

FBI Agents walk across the lawn of FBI Agent Robert Philip Hanssen’s home in Vienna, Va., Feb. 20, 2001. Hanssen, a 27-year FBI veteran, was arrested for espionage at this home outside Washington after he allegedly dropped off a package of classified information at a Virginia park. The Hanssen case drove, in part, a new information assurance emphasis for the Bureau.

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A Service-Oriented Bureau

Azmi has helped guide the Bureau toward a serviceoriented architecture, one that focuses on moving information to people rather than simply storing it in a single armored repository. Probably the best example of this approach is the Sentinel program, the new case file system introduced in 2005. Designed to be an intuitive Web-based information management system, Sentinel will make it easier for Agents, analysts, and supervisors

AP Photo/Doug Mills

explained Hall, is “looking at the information that’s contained within the FBI and how that can be made more readily available, and how we can mine that information for use beyond probably the abilities we had considered in the earlier days.” A Bureau that “knows what it knows” more completely will, Hall said, be better equipped to use its knowledge assets more efficiently, and share them with other law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Azmi’s leadership has continued the Bureau’s trend toward consolidation, said Hall – and that has been a very good thing. “I think one of the biggest changes, particularly with Zal’s arrival, is a real sense of structure,” he said. “We really did not have an enterprise architecture in place prior to his arrival. We now have a good, firm architecture in place. We did not have a Life Cycle Management process that was well-defined and documented across the FBI. And we have that. We have an asset management program and a portfolio management program in place: We know what we have and where it’s at, and its current contribution to the FBI, and its aging period – when is the time to sunset it, and when to replace it. These are all aspects of structure that were not in place. Before, it was fairly scattered, much like the security organization was prior to the Hanssen issue.” Today’s Office of the Chief Information Officer is divided into four operational areas: policy and planning; program management; systems development; and operations. Azmi has said this structure “provides for end-to-end management of IT projects within the FBI and incorporates best practices for governing a large IT organization.” As

Executive Assistant Director for Information and Technology, Azmi has daily meetings with Mueller and the entire FBI executive management team, ensuring that IT decisions are Bureau decisions, integral to the FBI’s daily functions. Now more than ever, of course, the Bureau is in the business of information, but as Hall pointed out, the information business is much trickier for the FBI than it is for most agencies, as its dual mission involves several layers of information security. “We operate three major enclaves, three major networks, for this organization,” said Hall. One network contains information classified as top secret/special compartmented information (TC/SCI) – information that is typically integral to the Bureau’s intelligence mission. Another contains controlled, unclassified information (CUI – until very recently known as sensitive but unclassified, or SBU), which is predominantly used in law enforcement work. What Hall calls the Bureau’s “main environment,” the FBI NET, contains secret information, which overlays both the intelligence and law enforcement missions. “Each of these,” said Hall, “is worldwide. The FBI’s in a very unique relationship in that we straddle both environments, the law enforcement and the intelligence mission.”

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office of the chief information officer

to manage cases and share information. The first phase of Sentinel – the first portion of the system interface, linking personnel to the legacy system, the ACS – was successfully delivered in June 2007, ahead of schedule. “They’ve already begun the first deliveries of phase two, which was an enterprise-wide portal to all users across the FBI,” said Hall. “And then ... they’re looking to deliver more capability across the board to the FBI users.” As more of Sentinel comes online, more of the FBI’s legacy applications will be retired, such as the ACS, the Criminal Information Management System, the Bank Robbery Statistical Application, and the Financial Institution Fraud and Integrated Statistical Reporting Analysis Application. Once the Sentinel portal is fully functional, it will allow Agents, analysts, and supervisors to share case files, automate workflow, and access links to other law enforcement and intelligence databases. For the first time, the FBI will be pushing information to employees, rather than compelling them to hunt for it. The proactive, service-oriented approach is one of the important developments to occur within the Bureau’s OCIO over the past several years; another is the proliferation of handheld devices and wireless technology, and their importance to the Bureau’s work in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating valuable intelligence information. The FBI recently completed its worldwide deployment of

19,500 BlackBerry® handheld devices to enable Agents and staff to function anywhere in the world. The devices will allow FBI employees to access not only the Internet and email, but also mission-critical applications such as the no-fly list, missing and kidnapped persons, crime alerts, and other applications. “Currently we’re in the process of fielding a capability called Orion,” said Hall, “which addresses the ability to establish multiple command posts in case of an event such as the one that occurred in the D.C. area with the [2002] sniper case. We could run those multiple command centers, be able to share that information in real time, and be able to address the concerns others have had with version control, for example – having the latest and greatest information made available.” Mobile, remote-access technology is likely to be the wave of the future, especially for the FBI, and the Bureau sees the first phase of Sentinel to be a solid foundation for such connectivity. “The involvement of our customer is always an absolute,” Hall said, “and understanding what their requirements are, and delivering those capabilities as planned and as needed. We’ve come a long way from the earlier days of this century – I think the fact that we now have structured processes that have been adopted and accepted across the FBI is a major milestone for us. We’re delivering real capability that the FBI can use to satisfy its mission.”

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human resources branch

Human Resources Hits Overdrive An expanding and evolving workforce reflects the Bureau’s 21st century mandate

T

By Michael A. Robinson

ransforming itself to keep pace with rapidly evolving terrorist threats to the nation, the Federal Bureau of Investigation is taking a strategic approach to human resources. The Bureau’s management structure, hiring practices, and training programs are all shifting to assure a nimble law enforcement and national security organization. Indeed, many of the adjustments underway within the FBI relate directly to recruitment and retention of personnel whose backgrounds coincide with a realigned organizational structure into five branches – National

The rapid increase in the number of Special Agents assigned to counterterrorism and the doubling of intelligence analysts and linguists place a premium on finding qualified applicants. Security; Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch (CCRSB); Human Resources; Science and Technology; and the Office of the Chief Information Officer. New legislative authority enables the FBI to compete with other homeland security and intelligence organizations, which often recruited employees away from the Bureau. Recruitment bonuses for potential new hires, and retention and relocation bonuses for existing employees with job offers from other government agencies are now available to the FBI, making this organization far more competitive. The rapid increase in the number of Special Agents assigned to counterterrorism and the doubling of intelligence analysts and linguists place a premium on finding qualified applicants, according to John G. Raucci,

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Assistant Director for Human Resources at FBI Headquarters. Raucci’s demanding job reflects the profound changes under way at this 100-year-old agency in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Human resources programs do not exist in a vacuum. They must be integrated with the larger FBI mission. As an example, the National Security Branch’s human resource initiatives include defining core competencies and revising recruiting practices that target applicants with those skills. The Branch also is implementing a four-stage national security career path that will result in a career-long specialization for intelligence analysts and Special Agents. Moreover, as the Bureau has shifted emphasis away from bank robberies and interstate auto thefts, it has a strong mandate to combat terrorism, cyber crimes, and public corruption. This transformation significantly increased demand for Field Agents as well as a wide range of support staff, from forensic specialists to interpreters to professional managers armed with master’s degrees in business. Fortunately for Raucci and his department, Human Resources itself was reorganized in the last few years to focus more on personnel and was freed from the tasks of running facilities or undertaking construction of new buildings, responsibilities that were shifted to the Administrative Services Division. As a barometer of the agency’s 21st century mission, simply examine the volume of new hires and applications. In a recent telephone interview, Raucci used September 11 as a comparison date. At that time, the FBI had about 7,100 pending Special Agent applications. Six years later the number had increased more than six-fold to 43,380. Service and support applications more than tripled to 112,800. The FBI now employs 32,500 people worldwide, of which about 12,000 are Field Agents. Attrition for the Bureau runs at just under 4 percent annually.

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AP Photo/University of Southern Mississippi, Steve Rouse

Amelia Griffith, a student at the University of Southern Mississippi, talks during a career fair on the Southern Miss campus in Hattiesburg to FBI recruiter Jeffery Artis about job opportunities with the FBI. The FBI has increased university recruiting in recent years.

“We streamlined and we reorganized and I think we have gained a lot of efficiencies in the way we do business,” Raucci said. “We have also given our managers direct hiring authority. “So rather than going through the computerized system and getting clogged up in our online application process, we do a lot of university recruiting. We go out to the community, we actively recruit for specific positions, then we collect actual applications, do interviews, and issue conditional job offers right on the spot.” In its drive to increase diversity, the FBI also recruits from historically black colleges

and universities, and also targets the Hispanic community, though Raucci pointed out the agency has no quota for minorities or women. Making an actual hire, however, remains difficult, Raucci said, in no small measure because of rigorous background checks that include a polygraph and getting the candidate a top-secret clearance. The latter scares off many applicants, not because they pose a security or intelligence risk, but because the process can take up to a year to complete before the prospective employee goes to the Bureau’s Quantico Academy for training, which

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adds nearly another five months before the job actually begins. The FBI finds a candidate’s character to be particularly important, Raucci said. For that reason, the agency will ward off applicants who neglect to pay certain debts, who may have filed for bankruptcy, had drug convictions, or have received a ticket for driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. “We look at the total person,” Raucci continued. “You know, if you had experimented with drugs one time when you were 15, that’s one thing, but if you were a frequent heroin user, no, you’re not getting in. If you’ve used hard drugs within the last 10 years you’re not getting in. If you have smoked marijuana, but it is outside certain drug standards, yes, we will take you. “During the pre-test of the polygraph where the examiner actually sits down with the young man or woman and they go over their background or their lifestyle, [the examiners] tell them right up front, ‘We are going to ask you some hard questions. Is there anything that you wish to change on the application now or do you need to be more forthcoming than you were in writing?’ And sometimes, people make further disclosures or sometimes they say, ‘You know what, in retrospect, thanks, but no thanks.”’ The laborious hiring process is one element that makes recruiting female Field Agents more difficult for the FBI, Raucci said. He added the FBI’s requirement that most Field Agents receive their first posting away from their hometowns adds another obstacle in general but seems to have a disproportionate negative impact on female candidates. Most Field Agents will start in smaller bureaus and get transferred to a larger city. In contrast, New York and San Francisco rank as two cities where applicants can return to their hometowns right out of Quantico for their first assignments, Raucci said, because natives know and accept the notoriously high costs of living in those cities. For the last several years, the proportion of female candidates for Field Agent positions remains between 20 and 25 percent, and was at 22 percent earlier this year. “Sometimes we’ll have a good year where we seem to recruit more females into the organization,” he observed. “But other years, no matter what we try … again, the numbers speak for themselves.” Most Field Agents will choose one of two main career paths, Raucci said. The first involves spending the bulk of a career literally as an Agent out in the field, though most of that time may occur at one of the Bureau’s big-city

The FBI’s standard recruiting process includes rigorous background checks that incorporate a polygraph test.

offices. Indeed, Agents posted to the top 17 offices in cities like Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles are not required to rotate through other locations, he explained. The FBI has 56 field offices centrally located in major metropolitan areas throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. The Bureau also maintains 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns across the nation. Statistically speaking, most Agents will start in smaller offices and will then work their way to larger population centers, with heavier crime loads and more challenging assignments. Those who opt for what Raucci called the “career development path” can get on a fast track where they move often and inevitably work at the FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C. Those individuals generally relocate to another office with each promotion. Raucci himself took this very career direction and his résumé serves as an overview of how the process can work. At an early age, he knew he wanted a career in law enforcement. So, when he was just 18, he took a job as a 911 emergency dispatcher. The youngest of nine children of an Italian immigrant father and Irish mother, Raucci grew up in Chicago’s storied West Side. He started his career just about a 30-minute drive west of there in Itasca, Ill. Two years later, he moved up from dispatcher to become an officer with the Itasca Police Department. He remained there until he was 27, earning his bachelor’s, master’s, and law degrees while working as a police officer.

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A proud history. A strong tradition.

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After a brief stint as a practicing attorney, Raucci found his true calling: the FBI. As is the case with most new Field Agents, Raucci received his first assignment away from his hometown. In many ways, the change of culture proved more dramatic than the change in careers. “My first assignment back in the ‘80s was on the Navajo Indian Reservation in northern Arizona,” Raucci recalled. “I grew up in the inner city. I had never been to the desert. I had never seen mountains, and this was a whole new way of life for me. “So, there was a lot I had to learn when I first went out there. The tribal police became extraordinary friends, and they are great assets to the FBI. The police detectives I worked with were very, very helpful and the FBI and the Navajo Division of Public Safety enjoy a very long, good relationship.” After his first assignment to the Navajo nation in 1987, he took field assignments in Detroit and Chicago. Those first three positions gave him valuable experience in violent crimes, counterintelligence, and drug violations. He moved to the Office of Professional Responsibility at FBI Headquarters in 1998, and transferred the next year to the Inspection Division. In July 2000, he was assigned to the Chicago Division as a Field Supervisor over an Organized Crime Squad, followed by his promotion to Assistant Special Agent in Charge (ASAC), where he managed Chicago Division’s five Counterterrorism Squads, O’Hare and Midway airports, and a Resident Agency. In June 2003, he assumed responsibilities as the Chicago Division’s Administrative ASAC. Nine months later, he became Section Chief of

Security Operations in the Security Division at FBI Headquarters. In July 2005, he took over as Special Agent in Charge of the Jackson Division in Mississippi. He assumed his current duties as head of Human Resources in November 2006. One thing the Bureau doesn’t have to worry about with hiring Field Agents is the lure of big money in the civilian world. Generally speaking, law enforcement personnel enter the field in large part because they have a calling to do so. “In the technical jobs, for example, in our non-Agent attorney positions, we’re competing with the private sector and in some of the private sector jobs, they can start out making much, much more than they can in the FBI. In the Agent positions, yes, we know exactly who we need to hire, how many we need to hire, and who our competition is.” Asked to list some key character traits the FBI finds attractive, Raucci came right to the point: “Responsibility. Civic duty. Patriotism. There are a lot of those people out there,” he said. “I guess one might consider it a subtle nuance, but it’s part of the strong character that we look for. Someone who has maybe left the military after a number of years or left another law enforcement agency, but yet they have that knowledge, skill, and ability that we seek. “Those are great people because they’ve already been vetted by another agency. They have a real good idea of what they’re getting into when they get here. What we don’t want is a person who believes that the FBI is what they see on Friday night TV shows, where it’s going to be guns and ammo all day and bells and whistles. That’s not reality.

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“The position of Special Agent can be somewhat difficult in that it’s long hours, it can involve extraordinary travel, it can mean some days doing something that is rather monotonous: counting large sums of money, labeling evidence, putting it into an evidence control room, filling out forms, getting two Agents to witness everything you’re doing, and some of it can be rather tedious. “Other days, yes, it can be rather exciting – chasing down a bad guy or doing something really exciting just like on TV. But, that’s not every day, so we need to find a person who can balance the reality of the job. That’s not to say there aren’t excellent positions within the Bureau for adrenaline junkies. Such individuals can work on violent crimes squad or a field office SWAT team or hostage rescue,” Raucci continued. Meanwhile, the FBI has beefed up its presence overseas in part as a response to the Global War on Terrorism and

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also to help thwart other crimes against U.S. citizens. The Bureau sends both Field Agents and non-Agent personnel abroad to assist state, local, and national law enforcement agencies with such matters at antiterrorism and organized crime. Though he declined to say how many overseas employees the Bureau maintains, Raucci said the number has tripled in recent years. Bureau employees posted overseas work in one of more than 40 Legal Attaché offices or one of five sub-offices. FBI personnel deployed overseas, a practice that began in World War II, do not have law enforcement powers in the host country and operate in an advisory capacity. Raucci said the FBI fills all its overseas positions internally and seeks highly experienced employees for these posts because of the complexity of intergovernmental operations and the subtleties of international affairs. The Bureau seeks self-starters, preferring those who have

AP Photo/Douglas C. Pizac

Skiers pass by an FBI Agent at Park City Mountain Resort in Park City, Utah. The Bureau hit the slopes to talk to skiers about employment opportunities.

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previously lived abroad. Being fluent in the language of the host country also is important. For those Agents who need to improve language skills, the FBI often relies on the Defense Language Institute, an organization founded in 1941 and based in Monterey, Calif. The Bureau also sends employees to Middlebury College in Vermont, an internationally known institution that offers summer immersion programs in 10 languages. As part of its expanding global operations, the FBI is striving to increase its presence in the turbulent Middle East. For those positions, competition for top candidates remains intense, Raucci said. “The federal government is now competing against private sector people because as we enter into emerging markets, everybody realizes the value of having a foreign language speaker on their staffs,” he explained. “So, not only are we competing against the CIA for linguists and translators, we’re now competing against Booz Allen and Northrop Grumman and all the other larger corporations that have a presence in the Middle East.” For his part, Raucci said his law degree and his experience as a former divorce attorney help him in another part of his job as head of Human Resources: employee discipline, which can include separation from the Bureau in certain instances. In this capacity, Raucci serves as a de facto administrative law judge in charge of the five-member Disciplinary Review Board. “We are like any other organization in the world,” Raucci said. “We’re just a microcosm. We have people that have problems every now and then, and we hold everybody to

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the highest standards. So we apply a strict scrutiny to our employees and so you know, we clearly do not tolerate onboard drug usage, drinking and driving, things like that. If you get arrested by the police, bad things will happen. “I think I probably have an easier time, because I can synthesize the data and the content of the petitions as they

“Other days, yes, it can be rather exciting – chasing down a bad guy or doing something really exciting just like on TV. But, that’s not every day, so we need to find a person who can balance the reality of the job.” John G. Raucci, Assistant Director for Human Resources come in. Whereas someone who maybe sat in this position and didn’t have that [legal] training might struggle to figure out whether procedural due process was followed or whether certain employee protections were followed. “I find it another part of my position. I’m not going to suggest I enjoy it but I don’t sweat it. It’s not that difficult for me. I understand it’s part of my sworn duty and obligation to my fellow workers to maintain the high trust and integrity of the organization.”

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The FBI Academy Realigned to combat modern crime

By Michael A. Robinson

W

hether it’s investigating public corruption, fighting white-collar crime or thwarting terrorist attacks on the United States, the FBI must ensure that its Agents receive the proper training needed to handle the increasingly complex demands placed on law enforcement in the 21st century. That all begins on a 385-acre wooded tract at the Marine Corps Base at Quantico, Va., site of the world-renowned FBI Academy. There, the FBI grooms hundreds of new Field Agents each year before sending them to one of its myriad offices located throughout the United States and its territories. In addition, as part of the Bureau’s new mandate stemming from the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Academy recently began training intelligence analysts who work for the FBI but who also will interact on a daily basis with

Counterterrorism, and the Intelligence Directorate, Lamkin said. Perhaps the most obvious change, and one that might seem counterintuitive, would be the decision to shorten an Agent’s training regimen by one week to 20 weeks. Academy officials found several ways to make the course load more efficient, meaning Agents are learning more relevant material in less time. “We want to make sure that we’re putting the right stuff in there, that it’s in the right sequence and that it’s relevant to today’s demands,” said Lamkin, a 21-year FBI veteran. “When I was coming through the Academy, the priorities, the landscape, everything was much different. For instance, I can’t recall using the computer for much of anything other than word processing.

“We want to make sure that we’re putting the right stuff in there, that it’s in the right sequence and that it’s relevant to today’s demands.” Brian Lamkin, Assistant Director of the FBI’s Training Division various other intelligence units of the federal government and often will report directly to those units. Academy officials completed a thorough review of the organization’s entire curricula and training programs in the fall of 2007, explained Brian Lamkin, Assistant Director of the FBI’s Training Division. They further sought input from the Bureau’s five operational divisions – Cyber Crime, Counter Intelligence, Criminal Investigation,

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“Today, computers are an integral part of our training. We also have to be in tune with, for example, the Criminal Division or the Counterterrorism Division, and making sure we are developing the curricula along with the priorities that have been established by those divisions. It’s paramount to getting the job done right.” Lamkin has program oversight and responsibility for developing the FBI’s entire training program, domestically

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AP Photo/Vince Lupo

New FBI Agents take part in a vehicle arrest training session as FBI trainers, right, look on at the FBI Academy on the Quantico Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Va. The Academy processes about 900 new Agents and 300 analysts every year.

and internationally. This includes both the FBI Academy and the Bureau’s comprehensive career path training for all of its employees. He also oversees the FBI National Academy, which trains leaders and managers of state and local police, sheriffs’ departments, military police organizations, and federal law enforcement agencies. Participants come from every U.S. state and territory as well as from more than 150 foreign nations. Participation is by invitation only through a nomination process. Lamkin said he is confident the recent overhaul means students will receive top-notch educations that will allow them to hit the ground running in an era of new threats and criminal enterprises. For instance, the curricula review found redundancies in both course material and lectures.

That discovery stemmed from a “job task analysis” of exactly what an Agent is supposed to know upon leaving the Academy. At the same time, some of the information previously provided to trainees was more advanced than they might be required to know on the job for as much as several years. That in turn meant some of the information was essentially wasted and time would be better spent on making sure course work was suited for immediate work in a field office. Moreover, relying heavily on class lectures seemed a bit, well, old school. Instead, the Academy is moving toward what Lamkin calls “blended learning,” a combination of course work, class lectures, and self-directed studies that include use of the Internet.

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Of course, the FBI has operated a Web-based Virtual Academy for several years. But Lamkin pointed out the portal only became a cornerstone of the intelligence curriculum this year and will continue to grow in importance over the next several years for all new Agents as well as providing important updates for veterans. The Virtual Academy was “actually very rudimentary when it started out,” Lamkin said. “It was merely familiarization type of instruction. You know, it wasn’t really interactive. “Now, we have well over 3,600 courses on the Virtual Academy. And for all of the operational divisions, basically it’s corporate policy that to design a curriculum, they have to work with Quantico. I have on staff here professional instruction designers. I’ve got Ph.D.s, folks on campus here who are experts in adult learning.” Academy officials also want to use the Internet to make better use of the time between when a new Agent is offered a job with the Bureau and actually arrives at Quantico, which typically takes nine months to a year. In the interim, these new Agents can begin course work via a non-secure Web site. Lamkin said officials want to

thE nEW sig saUEr

maintain the momentum and excitement new Agents have at the time of their physicals and polygraph examinations. So, in the next few years, new students at Quantico will arrive already steeped in FBI culture, education, and analysis by having done course work via the Web. For his part, Lamkin has a strong motivation to continue improving the Academy. After all, he has fond childhood memories of a visit to Quantico. That’s because his father, now deceased, served on the Louisville Police Department in Kentucky and attended the National Academy roughly 42 years ago. At that time, the television show The FBI was a top-rated program and its star Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., who played Inspector Lewis Erskine, was a hero to millions of children. So, who should speak at the graduation of Lamkin’s father but Zimbalist, along with J. Edgar Hoover. “It’s a permanent footprint,” Lamkin said in recalling that momentous occasion. “At the time, it was pretty impressive.” Lamkin said Quantico starts a new Agents class every two weeks, with class sizes ranging from 40 to 50 trainees. Training for intelligence analysts runs 10 weeks, Lamkin

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human resources branch

“For lack of a better term, it’s the gold standard for senior leadership,” Lamkin observed. “Any law enforcement department that is advertising for a chief of police – in all likelihood you’re going to see them require that a candidate must be an FBI National Academy graduate.” said, adding that the Academy will process about 900 new Agents and 300 analysts a year. Meanwhile, the FBI National Academy processes nearly 1,100 students annually in 10-week segments given four times a year. Lamkin said law enforcement leaders consider a stop at the National Academy a necessary step in building a top-level career. “For lack of a better term, it’s the gold standard for senior leadership,” Lamkin observed. “Any law enforcement

department that is advertising for a chief of police – in all likelihood you’re going to see them require that a candidate must be an FBI National Academy graduate.” And when it comes to training new Field Agents, Lamkin will be the first to tell you Quantico puts its people through the paces. It is a physically and mentally challenging atmosphere that includes a heavy emphasis on legal knowledge to make sure that cases don’t evaporate because an Agent violated someone’s constitutional rights. All New Agent Trainees (NATs), as they are officially known, immerse themselves in three basic curriculum components – investigative/tactical, non-investigative, and administrative. Those components comprise nearly 800 hours of instruction, which are in turn spread over four major concentrations. These are academics, firearms, operational skills, and the integrated case scenario. To qualify as an Agent, a trainee must pass nine academic examinations with a score of at least 85 percent, according to the Academy’s Web site. Trainees also take two legal exams as well as two exams for investigative techniques – basic and advanced. The other tests cover

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behavioral science, ethics, forensic science, interrogation, and interviewing. During the first, seventh, and 14th weeks at Quantico, each trainee takes a physical test, referred to as a PT, and must get a minimum of 12 points covering four areas. They also must score at least one point in all four – sit-ups, a 300-meter run, push-ups, and a 1.5-mile run. NATS also are required to pass a test for defensive tactics, which focuses on grappling and boxing, handcuffing, control holds, searching subjects, weapon retention, and disarming techniques. Firearms testing remains a key component of the training process. Each NAT must qualify twice with a Bureauissued handgun and once with the shotgun. To qualify,

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a NAT must shoot 80 percent or better on two of three qualification courses with the pistol, as well as earn a cumulative score of 80 percent on all three qualifications. The NAT must also demonstrate familiarity with a Bureau submachine gun. By the time the process is complete, each trainee will have fired between 3,000 and 5,000 rounds of ammunition, according to thorough course descriptions provided by the Academy’s Web site. Lamkin said descriptions of the Academy’s core curricula only scratch the surface of the overall education process at Quantico, adding, “We offer so many different courses here. “We partner with Harvard University on a counterterrorism leadership course that’s four weeks out of the year

Courtesy of Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania

A Physical Training Unit instructor lectures to trainees at the Academy.

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with international partners,” he continued. “We have leadership courses with Northwestern University and the Kellogg School of Management. “We run 66 different sabbaticals out of here with various other colleges as well as our military war colleges and the National Defense University. We run our whole university education program out of here, basically administering with several universities the ability of our workforce to get advanced degrees.” No description of the Academy would be complete without taking a look at the activities that occur in a mock urban environment known as Hogan’s Alley, which also is used by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration for training its new agents.

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A part of the Academy’s Practical Applications Unit, Hogan’s Alley opened in 1987. The idea is to have trainees pull together various aspects of their training, including legal, firearms, and self-defense. For instance, new Agents test their skills of surveillance, arrest procedures, and tactical street-survival techniques. The new Agents are then taken through realistic training exercises such as a bank robbery, surveillance for both day and night, a kidnapping, and an assault on a federal officer. They also are exposed to compliant and armed-anddangerous arrest scenarios as well as exercises using paintball guns designed to test tactical skills. The Academy hires contractors who confront trainees and portray various roles to create reactions that are more spontaneous and

AP Photo/Vince Lupo

New FBI Agents take part in an apartment situation arrest training session as FBI Agent-instructor Anthony Gonzalez, right, looks on at the FBI Academy.

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human resources branch

representative of the general population. The FBI first arrived at Quantico in 1934. That was one year after an event that became known as “the Kansas City Massacre,” when three police officers and one Bureau Agent escorting a prisoner through a train station on the Missouri side of that border city died after “Pretty Boy” Floyd and other criminals opened fire. Following the public outcry, FBI Agents were given the authority to make arrests and to carry weapons for the first time. Over the next four decades, the Academy underwent steady improvements. A new and expanded facility opened in 1972. Today, the complex includes three dormitory buildings, a dining hall, a library, a classroom building, a Forensic Science Research and Training Center, a 1,000-seat auditorium, a chapel, administrative offices, a large gymnasium and outside track, and a fully equipped garage. In keeping with the events of the digital age, the Academy also hosts an Investigative Computer Training Unit (ICTU) that delivers investigative computer instruction, training, and curriculum development to FBI and other law enforcement personnel throughout the world. Training covers a wide variety of topics, including how to use the computer as an investigative tool, communications device, research platform, and for examining and/or analyzing digital evidence.

Academy officials note ICTU staff members have developed partnerships with other divisions of the FBI and law enforcement agencies to provide training to regional computer crime squads. These include Evidence Response Team members, undercover investigators working crimes against children, National Infrastructure Protection Center personnel, and white-collar crime and National Security Division Agents. The ICTU covers best practices for search and seizure of computers, how individuals utilize computers to facilitate criminal acts, and how to investigate cyber crime. In addition, the unit has provided investigative computer training internationally, including participation in law enforcement schools in Europe, Africa, and Asia. “As we’ve had new challenges, whether it was the German saboteurs of World War II or the events of today like human trafficking and cyber crime, we want to make sure that the right training is brought to the table,” Lamkin concluded. “The entire workforce needs to understand the Bureau’s priorities. “And today, things are as complex as they have ever been. The demands are high. The stakes are high. I’ve been able to see that anybody who has a stake in developing our new Agents and new intelligence analysts comes ready to make sure the best product is turned out. I think that’s the key to this organization – how well we pull together to make that happen.”

100 Years of Protecting America

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remembrance

Hall of Honor

FBI Agents Killed in the Performance of a Law Enforcement Duty Albert L. Ingle

Michael James Lynch

1903 - 1931

1947 - 1982

Percy E. Foxworth

James K. McAllister

1906 - 1943

1951 - 1986

Harold Dennis Haberfeld

Scott K. Carey

1912 - 1943

1952 - 1988

Richard Blackstone Brown

Stanley Ronquest, Jr.

1916 - 1943

Trenwith S. Basford 1916 - 1977

Mark A. Kirkland 1944 - 1977

Robert W. Conners

1939 - 1992

Paul A. LeVeille 1959 - 1999

Robert R. Hardesty 1965 - 2005

Gregory J. Rahoi 1968 - 2006

1946 - 1982

Charles L. Ellington 1946 - 1982

Terry Burnett Hereford 1948 - 1982

100 Years of Protecting America

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remembrance

Hall of Honor FBI Agents Killed as the Result of an Adversarial Action

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Edwin C. Shanahan

John Brady Murphy

Robin L. Ahrens

1898 - 1925

1917 - 1953

1952 - 1985

Paul E. Reynolds

Richard Purcell Horan

Jerry L. Dove

1899 - 1929

1922 - 1957

1956 - 1986

Raymond J. Caffrey

Terry R. Anderson

Benjamin P. Grogan

1902 - 1933

1924 - 1966

1933 - 1986

W. Carter Baum

Douglas M. Price

L. Douglas Abram

1904 - 1934

1941 - 1968

1942 - 1990

Samuel P. Cowley

Anthony Palmisano

John L. Bailey

1899 - 1934

1942 - 1969

1942 - 1990

Herman E. Hollis

Edwin R. Woodriffe

Martha Dixon Martinez

1903 - 1934

1941 - 1969

1959 - 1994

Nelson B. Klein

Gregory W. Spinelli

Michael John Miller

1898 - 1935

1949 - 1973

1953 - 1994

Wimberly W. Baker

Jack R. Coler

William Christian, Jr.

1910 - 1937

1947 - 1975

1946 - 1995

Truett E. Rowe

Ronald A. Williams

Charles Leo Reed

1904 - 1937

1947 - 1975

1951 - 1996

William R. Ramsey

Johnnie L. Oliver

Leonard W. Hatton

1903 - 1938

1944 - 1979

1956 - 2001

Hubert J. Treacy, Jr.

Charles W. Elmore

Barry Lee Bush

1913 - 1942

1945 - 1979

1954 - 2007

Joseph J. Brock

Jared Robert Porter

1908 - 1952

1935 - 1979

Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity

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Profile for Faircount Media Group

Federal Bureau of Investigation: 100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008  

Federal Bureau of Investigation: 100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008