FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008
7/14/08 11:08:03 AM
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Message from Director Mueller: The FBI Commemorates 100 Years of Service One hundred years ago, a new federal investigative force, the Bureau of Investigation, was created under the Department of Justice to protect America against federal crimes and to ensure justice for all citizens. In 1935, the agency became known as the Federal Bureau of Investigation. From its earliest days, the FBI successfully confronted crime, corruption and terrorism. The Bureauâ€™s reputation grew and the dedicated men and women serving within its ranks gained recognition as skilled and consummate professionals. Today, the FBI is among the worldâ€™s few intelligence and law enforcement agencies that combine both of those disciplines within one organization. All of us in the FBI are proud to be part of this enduring legacy. As we commemorate 100 years of service to our Nation, let us reaffirm our commitment to protect America against future threats. We should take a moment to consider how we are focusing our efforts to face the challenges of the next century. The Bureau has taken a number of steps to adapt to a new and ever-changing landscape of criminal and national security threats. The tragic events of September 11, 2001, prompted significant changes, transforming the FBI from an agency that was primarily responsible for investigating crimes after the fact to one charged with actively preventing and disrupting destructive and illegal acts before they occur. We have adopted a more threat-based, intelligence-driven approach to our operations. And we are striving to be more proactive, predictive, and preventive to counter dangerous threats. As a result, today we are better positioned to protect our Nation. As we have throughout our history, let us remain open to new ideas and changes while honoring those who served before us. By building upon the lessons of the past we can be vigilant in confronting future threats. Let us not forget that the mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal and international agencies and partners. To the men and women of the FBI, thank you for your tireless service and commitment; and to the American people, thank you for your support of our mission. Robert S. Mueller, III
7/7/08 5:00:58 PM
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Contents The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Inc................................................. 12 The FBI: The First Century....................................................... 16 By Craig Collins
Gaining the Edge How the FBI won the technological arms race launched in the gangster era – and fought to stay on top..................................................... 36 By Craig Collins
Federal Bureau of Investigation Directors................ 44 By Iwalani Kahikina
The FBI in the Public Eye For 100 years, the Bureau has reflected – and often shaped – the American narrative................................................................................... 56 By Craig Collins
Intelligence Gathering Propels the FBI The National Security Branch builds upon a powerful law enforcement heritage............................................................................... 64 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate Combating the terrorist WMD threat........................................................72 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
Language Skills Blunt Terrorism The FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence translations correspond with foreign collection priorities....................................................................... 78 By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
Meeting multiple Challenges, Defeating Multiple Threats The Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch................................ 84 By J.R. Wilson
Distinguished Past, Dynamic Future The Criminal Investigative Division......................................................... 90 By J.R. Wilson
Office of International operations A joint response to crime and terrorism................................................... 100 By J.R. Wilson
100 Years of Protecting America
7/14/08 2:05:48 PM
HmfdqrnkkQ`mcvntkckhjdsnbnmfq`stk`sdsgd Edcdq`kAtqd`tneHmudrshf`shnmnm0//xd`qr nejddohmf`kknetrr`ed`mcrdbtqdThank you for allowing us to keep your buildings safe and secure, too. For 100 years the Federal Bureau of Investigation has worked tirelessly to protect and secure people and property across the United States. Like you, Ingersoll Rand has been protecting people and property for 100 years with reliable and innovative security solutions. We are honored to be one of the FBIĂ•s partners in keeping the people, property and assets of this Ăžne organization safe and secure too, so that they can focus on what they do best. www.securitytechnologies.ingersollrand.com
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Improving Enforcement & Security Performance Through Education The Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation Building domestic partnerships................................................................ 106 By J.R. Wilson
The FBI’s Cyber Division Fighting crime and terrorism on the electronic frontier............................ 112 By J.R. Wilson
To Save Lives: The FBI Hostage Rescue Team..................... 124 By J.R. Wilson
Keeping It Fair The FBI Sports Presentation Program...................................................... 128 By J.R. Wilson
Science and Technology Branch The new division since September 11 has roots reaching back to the FBI’s beginnings..................................................................................... 134 By Julie Sturgeon
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At the Heart of it All Terrorists and criminals may have the perfect plan in hand ... but thanks to the FBI Laboratory, it’s getting tougher and tougher to get by with it anonymously.................................................................. 142
Computer & Information Security
By Julie Sturgeon
Criminal Justice Information Services When it comes to finding trouble, the brains in the CJIS Division are the best.............................................................................................. 152
By Julie Sturgeon
Behind the Suits HAZMAT teams shun a jacket and tie for vapor-tight encapsulation coveralls............................................................................ 162 By Julie Sturgeon
FBI’s Office of the Chief Information Officer A true CIO guides the FBI through its long-overdue IT transformation.... 169 By Craig Collins
Human Resources Hits Overdrive An expanding and evolving workforce reflects the Bureau’s 21st century mandate..................................................................................... 174
Business, Corporate & Campus Security
NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY salutes the FBI 's 100th anniversary of service to our country. Special tuition rates for FBI personnel
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The FBI Academy Realigned to combat modern crime........................................................ 182 By Michael A. Robinson
Hall of Honor............................................................................. 190
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100 Years of Protecting America
Contact us at 866-776-0331 www.ncu.edu/FBI100 7/14/08 2:06:11 PM
Together, the Right Partners Secure Freedom and Deliver Justice Congratulations on 100 years of protecting and serving our country with fidelity, integrity, and bravery. GTSI and Sun Microsystems are proud to support the FBI in its missions. For 25 years, we have delivered leading information technology solutions, and we look forward to our relationship growing stronger in the decades ahead.
Visit GTSI.com/Sun-FBI to view our technology solutions. ÂŠ 2008 GTSI Corp. All rights reserved. GTSI and GTSI.com are registered trademarks of GTSI Corp. in the United States and other countries. All trade names are the property of their respective owners. Sun, Sun Microsystems and the Sun logo are trademarks or registered trademarks and Partner Advantage Program is a service mark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. (FBI-8708-A-08)
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In partnership with
2/29/08 3/1/08 3:58:04 2:09:11 PM PM
Federal Bureau of Investigation 100 Years of Protecting America 1908-2008 Publishers Ross W. Jobson and Peter M. Antell Editorial Director Charles Oldham firstname.lastname@example.org
Chief Operating Officer Lawrence Roberts email@example.com
Editors Rhonda Carpenter Ana E. Lopez
Assistant General Manager Robin Jobson firstname.lastname@example.org
Assistant Editors Iwalani Kahikina Michael J. Tully
Business Development Edward J. Matthews email@example.com
Art Director Robin K. McDowall Project Designer Daniel Mrgan Design & Production Rebecca Laborde Lorena Noya Production Assistant Kenia Y. Perez Interns Anson Alexander Alec McLean Writers Craig Collins Clarence A. Robinson, Jr. Michael A. Robinson Julie Sturgeon J.R. Wilson
Project Manager Bob Wilson firstname.lastname@example.org Advertising Account Executives Arthur Dubuc III, Paul Martin Steve Chidel, John Anderson Jay Powers, Tanya Wydick Charlie Poe, Earl Hengtgen Controller Robert John Thorne email@example.com Assistant to the Publisher Alexis Vars Director of Information Systems John Madden firstname.lastname@example.org Administrative Assistants Heidi Reis, Aisha Shazer
Special thanks: Neal Schiff, Scott Erskine and Ernie Porter
North American Headquarters 701 North West Shore Blvd. Tampa, FL 33609 Tel. (813) 639-1900 Fax (813) 639-4344
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ÂŠCopyright Faircount LLC. All rights reserved. Reproduction of editorial content in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. Faircount LLC. does not assume responsibility for the advertisements, nor any representation made therein, nor the quality or deliverability of the products themselves. Reproduction of articles and photographs, in whole or in part, contained herein is prohibited without expressed written consent of the publisher, with the exception of reprinting for news media use. Printed in the United States of America. Various images and text in this publication in no way are used to imply an endorsement by the FBI or the U.S. government for any claims or representations therein. None of the advertising contained herein implies endorsement by U.S. government or the FBI of any private entity or enterprise.
7/14/08 2:36:52 PM
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Message from Society President Richard J. Bernes The men and women of the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI salute the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 100 years of dedicated service to our country. For more than 70 years, the Society has provided resolute and steadfast support to the Bureau and will continue to offer our unwavering advocacy in the future. Society members, all former Special Agents, have contributed to the FBI’s phenomenal success for the past 100 years. Their determined participation in the Bureau’s investigations of violent crimes, hate crimes, organized crime, cyber crimes, terrorism, and foreign counterintelligence within the framework of the Constitution have helped establish the FBI as the preeminent investigative agency in the World. As Director Robert S. Mueller stated, “The events of September 11th have forever changed our Nation and the FBI.” As a result, the FBI’s investigative priorities have been refocused and the Society’s Associate members, current onboard Special Agents, continue the tradition of excellence in their investigations of the Bureau’s traditional investigative matters as well as in preventing future terrorist attacks against our country. The strength of the FBI has always been and will continue to be the employees of the FBI. Their dedication and resolve, coupled with the American public’s support of the FBI’s mission, will enable the FBI to continue to be one of America’s great institutions. Happy 100th Anniversary! Richard J. Bernes
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The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Inc.
n 1937, the Society was established as a fraternal and social organization of men and women who, through their service to the FBI, share the same common backgrounds as well as the same ideals and values. The Society’s mission was then and continues now to be the preservation of the FBI heritage and the FBI family through friendship, loyalty, and goodwill. Through the spirit of fidelity, bravery, and integrity, the Society provides support to the FBI, the mission of the FBI, and current FBI Special Agent personnel. FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, along with other former FBI Directors, has praised the contributions of the Society and has asserted, “Today, the Bureau is building
on the solid foundation, which the former Agents, members of the Society, have established.” The saga of the Bureau and the history of the FBI were developed by the dedicated efforts of the men and women who served in the Bureau and each one can take justifiable pride in his or her contribution. The bonds of such service were well expressed in an address by former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who noted: “There is a valid distinction between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and simply The Bureau, even though the separate threads are closely woven. The Federal Bureau of Investigation consists of people, buildings, and equipment. The Bureau is
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spirit, pride, and family. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is respected, but The Bureau is loved. The Federal Bureau of Investigation grants retirement or resignation, but one never leaves The Bureau.” There are 8,000 former Special Agents of the FBI who are members of the Society
conducted by FBI personnel assigned to the Special Intelligence Service in World War II, the FBI’s investigations during the Civil Rights Era, the Watergate investigation, Cold War counterespionage investigations, and organized crime investigations. The Society’s Information Committee provides
As a professional organization, the Society sponsors many projects dedicated to the support of its members, the FBI, and other law enforcement agencies throughout the country. and who meet regularly within 135 chapters around the country. The Society, as a social organization, sponsors an annual national convention and numerous annual regional conferences. These events are held in cities across America and feature nationally prominent speakers and entertainers as well as educational and professional training seminars for the benefit of Society members and their families. Through the Society’s Web site, www.socxf bi.org, members are provided with Society event information, information on chapter activities, employment opportunities, information regarding FBI activities, and other important member services. In addition, the Society publishes a monthly magazine, the Grapevine, which provides members with interesting information on Society activities across the country and articles on historical FBI information, health issues, investments, and member achievements, awards, and anniversaries. As a professional organization, the Society sponsors many projects dedicated to the support of its members, the FBI, and other law enforcement agencies throughout the country. The Society’s Oral History Project has preserved the rich history of the Bureau through the recording and transcription of the personal involvement of former Agents in many of the historic major cases conducted by the FBI. These include investigations
fair, correct, and factual information to the media and the public in support of the FBI and in furtherance of the FBI’s mission. The Society has also produced audio/ visual presentations to educate the public of the importance of the counterterrorism, intelligence, and law enforcement functions of the FBI.
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The Former Agents of the FBI Foundation, “the Heart of the Society,” was founded in 1957 as a permanent trust. The purpose of the Foundation is to use the earnings of the trust to contribute to the public welfare through the alleviation of human suffering and the advancement of science, education, and cultural arts. The Foundation’s programs and benefits include financial assistance to former FBI Special Agents and their families. Such assistance may take the form of individual grants, or, when necessary, subsistence payments for periods ranging from a few months to several years. From basic necessities to home modification and special vehicles for injured family members, the Foundation tries to help in ways that other social service programs cannot. Through the Disaster Relief Program, the Foundation provides assistance to Society members and their families, as well as FBI personnel, who suffer financial hardship as a result of natural disasters. The Foundation recently provided assistance to Society members and current FBI personnel who suffered financial loss from Hurricane Katrina and from the wild fires in San Diego, Calif. The Foundation provides college scholarships to the children and grandchildren of former FBI Special Agents, based on financial need, scholarship, self-help, and civic involvement. The scholarships are for one year of undergraduate studies, applicable to tuition only. They range from $1,000 to $10,000 annually. In addition, the Foundation awards scholarships to the children of current FBI National Academy Associates, whose parents are actively engaged in law enforcement. Other scholarships are provided through the J. Edgar Hoover Memorial Scholarships, which are awarded annually to colleges and universities chosen by Society members from each of the eight Society regions and one from the host chapter of the national convention in the amount of $2,500. The awards are designated for the
institution’s general scholarship fund with an expressed preference for law enforcement curriculum, if one is available. Other Foundation programs include the Frances M. Keogh Memorial Fund, which provides donations to charitable organizations that are devoted to the care of the sick, poor, and homeless people of our country. The Humanitarian Service Award is provided yearly by the Foundation to a Society member or a member’s spouse who goes above and beyond the call of civic and civil duty. Over the years, many Society members and their spouses have been recognized for their extraordinary humanitarian efforts. Select grants are also
From basic necessities to home modification and special vehicles for injured family members, the Foundation tries to help in ways that other social service programs cannot. provided by the Foundation to other charitable organizations, which are not related to the Society, but have performed services for the benefit of the Society, its members, or the law enforcement community. Over the past 70 years, the Society, the Society’s Foundation, and our members continue to be vital members of “the FBI family.” The status of the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI in American history was noted by President Ronald Reagan’s comment in connection with the Society’s 50th anniversary: “Your gathering cannot help but call to mind your tremendous contributions to the safety and well-being of every American. Your service and sacrifice in the line of duty – your vigilance and your quiet heroism – bespeak of a love of country that time will never efface. You have justly won the lasting esteem and gratitude of the American people.”
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Blue is __________.
America’s a big country. And the FBI has been defending her for 100 years now. At Blue Cross Blue Shield, we applaud your commitment to keeping our nation safe. We understand what it means to look out for others, because we’ve been looking out for the health care of federal employees for more than 45 years. So congratulations on the FBI’s 100th anniversary. Blue Cross Blue Shield Association is an association of independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans.
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The FBI: The First Century By Craig Collins
he FBI’s own historian, Dr. John Fox, calls it a “tempest in a teapot.” But to U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte and his opponents in Congress, the political battle that resulted in the creation of a 34-man corps of investigative Special Agents in 1908 was a barn burner – and President Theodore Roosevelt helped fan the flames. At the turn of the 19th century, only one executive branch agency had a permanent force of investigative professionals: the Secret Service, in the Department of the Treasury.
an absent-without-leave naval officer, stumbled upon the officer’s affair with a married woman, sparked a public outcry. “The husband [of the woman] ended up calling on the Secret Service detectives to testify in the divorce proceedings,” said Fox. “And so people were wondering: ‘Why is the government looking into these private matters?’” Congress, which had already engaged in several battles with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, promptly passed a law that prevented all other executive branch agencies from hiring Secret Service operatives. With no appar-
Since the 1870s, other agencies with the authority to investigate crimes, including the Department of Justice, had hired these Secret Service detectives on an ad hoc basis. To Bonaparte – a Progressive, like his friend Teddy Roosevelt, who believed that government service should be awarded on merit, rather than political spoils – the arrangement with the Secret Service had always been frustrating. While well-trained and dedicated, the investigators were expensive, and they answered not to the attorney general, but to the chief of the Secret Service. Bonaparte wanted control of the investigations under his jurisdiction. Several high-profile cases, in 1906 and 1907, inspired a legislative power play that forced Bonaparte’s hand. “A couple of those cases had to do with land fraud out in the West,” explained Fox. But a more sensational case, in which Secret Service operatives, investigating the whereabouts of
ent option available to Bonaparte, who needed detectives to investigate federal crimes, the Attorney General appointed a force of Special Agents in the Justice Department. On July 26, 1908, Bonaparte ordered the 34 Agents to report to chief examiner Stanley W. Finch. Congressional legislators, accustomed to an ongoing battle with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, didn’t protest Bonaparte’s move but took great umbrage at Roosevelt, well into the “lame duck” period of his administration, when he publicly taunted them over their earlier legislative move that led to the creation of the Bureau. This led to heated debate over the winter of 1908-1909 but had no impact on Bonaparte’s experiment. Soon enough, Congress found they would need the services of these detectives, whom Bonaparte’s successor, George Wickersham, had named the Bureau of Investigation.
Congress, which had already engaged in several battles with Roosevelt over the limits of executive power, promptly passed a law that prevented all other executive branch agencies from hiring Secret Service operatives. With no apparent option available to Bonaparte, who needed detectives to investigate federal crimes, the Attorney General appointed a force of Special Agents in the Justice Department.
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Opposite: An FBI Agent badge circa 1908. Above, left: Charles Joseph Bonaparte (circa 1903), grandnephew of Napoleon I and the Attorney General of the United States. Under his direction, the FBI was formed. Above, right: A young J. Edgar Hoover.
There weren’t many federal crimes when the Bureau was established; the new detective force mostly investigated violations of federal statutes governing banking, naturalization, antitrust violations, land fraud, and peonage (involuntary servitude, resulting from abuses in the sharecropping system). The first major expansion of the Bureau’s jurisdiction came with the passage of the Mann Act of 1910, which made it a crime to transport women across state lines for immoral purposes – the Bureau doubled in size in order to respond to the demand for investigators. By the time World War I began, the Bureau employed more than 300 Special Agents whose work was supported by another 300 employees. World War I shifted the Bureau’s focus to national security issues. Bureau of Investigation Agents were responsible for investigating violations of the Espionage, Selective
Service, and Sabotage Acts. In the wake of the war’s end and Russia’s 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, labor unrest and a series of mail-bomb attacks on government and business leaders throughout the United States prompted Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer – himself the survivor of two bombing assassination attempts, one of which destroyed part of his home – to place a young Justice Department supervisor, J. Edgar Hoover, in charge of collecting domestic intelligence on anarchists and radical political activists. Beginning in November 1919, the Bureau and local police in 30 cities orchestrated a number of controversial raids that resulted in thousands of arrests over the next two months. The “Palmer Raids” were a black mark on the young Bureau’s reputation: Poorly planned and coordinated, they were indiscriminate; the Department had warrants for only a few, not the large numbers actually taken in by their local
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allies. The public and Congress were not impressed. The constitutionality of the raids was questioned, and Palmer and Hoover were both criticized for their overzealous approach. The Bureau learned several valuable lessons through this misadventure, including the need for careful orchestration of counterintelligence operations, and the fine line between assuring collective security and protecting individual civil liberties. G-Men
When the Prohibition Amendment and the Volstead Act went into effect in 1920, it was the Treasury Department, rather than Justice, that was initially responsible for enforcing them. The Bureau of Investigation was faced with a dilemma it would be compelled to solve creatively: It would
have to attack federal crimes within the scope of its narrow jurisdiction. The Bureau investigated the notorious gangster Al Capone, for example, not as a crime boss but as a “fugitive federal witness,” and it also sent the imperial kleagle of the Louisiana Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Edward Young Clarke, to jail by proving he had violated the Mann Act. The Osage Indian murders of 1921-1923 were a public drama that served to educate the public about the Bureau’s jurisdiction, which covered capital crimes on Indian reservations. When more than a dozen people on northern Oklahoma’s oil-rich Osage Indian Reservation died under suspicious circumstances, tribal members suspected a local strongman, William King Hale, of murdering them in order to collect insurance money and to acquire their head rights to oil revenues. The tribal council turned to the Bureau of Investigation, whose Agents infiltrated the
Special Agents engaged in firearms practice at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Range, United States Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C.
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Above: The Bureau’s Identification Division in the 1930s. Below: Special Agent target practice during the 1930s.
upon taking office, Hoover responded promptly, calling for the nation’s fingerprint cards to be sent from law enforcement and correctional facilities across the country. Over time, the Bureau became the central repository not only for fingerprint cards, but also for all the nation’s criminal identification records. Today, as part of the Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS), the Bureau’s electronic fingerprint identification system includes more than 250 million fingerprint records, both criminal and civilian.
reservation and, posing as cattlemen, salesmen, and even medicine men, eventually gathered enough evidence to solve the case. Hale, his nephew, and several ranch-hand accomplices were convicted of murder and served long sentences in federal prison. In the midst of a major political scandal in 1924, the newly appointed President, Calvin Coolidge, chose Harlan Fiske Stone, an esteemed jurist, as the new Attorney General. Stone’s mission was to clean house and he immediately fired the Bureau’s Director. To lead the Bureau of Investigation, Stone chose 29-year-old Hoover, who assumed the directorship on May 10, 1924. At that time, the Bureau employed about 650 people, 441 of whom were Special Agents who worked in field offices in nine cities. Hoover was a reformer who brought Progressive-era ideals to the Bureau. He immediately fired Agents he considered unqualified or incompetent, scheduled inspections of field offices, and ordered individual performance reviews. He abolished the seniority rule of promotion and introduced uniform performance appraisals. In January 1928, Hoover established a formal training course for new Agents. It was Hoover’s goal to transform the FBI into a highly respected organization, the model of professionalism in law enforcement. One of Hoover’s most significant reforms was to create the Identification Division. Three years before he was named director, Congress had recognized the growing need and demand for law enforcement officials to have a national repository and clearinghouse for fingerprint records, and
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Hoover was also determined to place the Bureau on the cutting edge of scientific crime solving by applying technologies such as serology, fingerprint comparison, handwriting and typewriter analysis, ballistics, and toxicology. Rather than continue to hire outside consultants on a caseby-case basis, Hoover created the Technical Laboratory in September 1932. At the beginning, the lab was a one-man, one-room show, operated by Special Agent Charles Appel. Almost as soon as it had opened, the laboratory proved crucial in solving a crime that had recently come under the Bureau’s jurisdiction: the kidnapping and murder of Charles
Lindbergh, Jr., the infant son of the famous aviator and his wife, Anne Morrow Lindbergh. The crime horrified the public, and Congress responded swiftly, making kidnapping a federal crime. When Appel was able to match the handwriting on the ransom note to that of the primary suspect, Bruno Hauptmann, he helped secure an indictment that eventually resulted in Hauptmann’s conviction. As Hoover was working to make the Bureau of Investigation more professional, a new crime wave was sweeping across the country. Prohibition had sparked an unprecedented demand for alcohol, and with prices skyrocketing,
On Oct. 2, 1933, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, handcuffed and shackled, is led, under heavy guard, from Shelby County jail en route to the Memphis airport and Oklahoma City where he was tried for the kidnapping of Charles F. Urshel.
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criminal gangs in America’s largest cities fought for control of the profitable illegal trade. In 1925, the Bureau became a victim of the resulting surge in violence: Edwin C. Shanahan became the first Agent to be killed in the line of duty when he was fatally shot while attempting to arrest a car thief in Chicago. The following year, the U.S. murder rate had skyrocketed to more than 10,000. The staggering rise in violent crime was one result of the Depression-era economy; another was an increase in the public’s appetite for escapism. Hoover astutely recognized that, to the public, the exploits of Tommy gun toting gangsters such as John Dillinger, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, “Baby Face” Nelson, and Charles Arthur “Pretty Boy” Floyd were a form of entertainment – and that the daring gangster had become a perverse kind of folk hero for disaffected Americans. Hoover worked assiduously to publicize the work of the Bureau – in 1932, for example, publishing the first issue of Fugitives Wanted by Police, an early version of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Hoover became as proficient at publicizing the work of the Bureau as he was at administering it, and he was helped by a series of events that helped turned public opinion in favor of the Bureau. In the Kansas City Massacre, which occurred in July 1933, a Bureau Agent was killed and two other Agents wounded when a group of three men ambushed law enforcement officers who were escorting an escaped convict, Frank Nash, back to Leavenworth Penitentiary. Nash and two local police officers were also killed in the assault and, within a year, Bureau Agents were given statutory authority to carry firearms and make arrests. Before that authority was granted, the Bureau’s image benefited from the surprise arrest of Kelly in Memphis.
According to one popular legend – a legend Hoover and the Bureau did nothing to discourage – Kelly was so shocked at the sudden swarm of law enforcement officers that he shouted: “Don’t shoot, G-men! Don’t shoot!” According to one popular legend – a legend Hoover and the Bureau did nothing to discourage – Kelly was so shocked at the sudden swarm of law enforcement officers that he shouted: “Don’t shoot, G-men! Don’t shoot!” Kelly was sentenced to life in prison for kidnapping and other crimes, and the legend of the heroic, competent – and well-attired – government man, or “G-man,” was born. By the time the Bureau had taken down the man Hoover had dubbed “Public Enemy No. 1” – Dillinger, who was killed after drawing a gun on a group of Agents who had surrounded him as he was leaving a movie theater – the public was firmly on the side of the G-men. A series of statutes increased the Bureau’s jurisdiction, and on July 1, 1935, the Bureau was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and officially given the mandate, authority, and tools to fight gangland crime. By the end of 1936, most of the celebrity criminals of the Prohibition era had been captured or killed. The raised profile of the Bureau led to much interest in its approach to crime solving, and at the time, very few states or municipalities offered formal training in investigative techniques to officers. In 1935, the FBI National Academy
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UNICOR thanks the FBI for 100 years of dedicated service. And for over 70 years of helping us transform lives.
UNICOR understands change: from the changing needs of law enforcement to the way an offenderâ€™s life can be changed with the right rehabilitation programs. Through the decades, UNICOR has proudly supplied government agencies with an ever-evolving line of high-quality goods and services. And your patronage has helped us transform lives along the way.
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The FBI’s development of new training and investigative techniques, as well as new technologies, had transformed the Bureau into an elite law enforcement organization by the eve of World War II. was opened to train police officers from all over the country, and within a few years, it began to train officers from countries overseas. By the end of the decade, the FBI hardly resembled the small detective corps of 20 years earlier; it now had field offices in 42 cities and employed 654 Special Agents, with a support staff of 1,141.
The Wartime Bureau
In the late 1930s, just as violent crime was on the ebb in the United States, much of the rest of the world suffered serious upheavals, as Germany, Italy, and Japan launched campaigns of aggression against neighboring countries. At the same time, Spain was thrown into a civil war that pitted leftists
against fascists. While the United States clung officially to neutrality, the country once again proved a fertile climate for radicalism. Both the American Communist Party and American fascist groups gained adherents during the 1930s. Presidential directives in 1936 and 1939 strengthened the FBI’s authority to investigate these subversive groups, a move reinforced by Congress in the 1940 passage of the Smith Act, which outlawed advocating the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. As war broke out in Europe, Agents were sent to field offices to protect the nation’s defense plants and other important assets, while other operatives worked to develop a nationwide information network. The FBI’s first major counterintelligence case was, by the Bureau’s own measure, a flawed investigation. Acting on a tip
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from British intelligence, the FBI, which had been delegated the lead agency by the War Department, nabbed a Nazi spy named Guenther Rumrich, who promised to provide the names of a dozen or more accomplices. But the Agent in charge of the investigation botched the case, allowing many to flee the country. He also leaked details of the investigation to the media, and was later fired for breaking the FBI oath. Despite three convictions in the Rumrich case, the most important suspects escaped, and the FBI was embarrassed by the outcome. The Bureau immediately overhauled its counterintelligence operations, instituting a training program in conducting espionage investigations. These new preparations
paid off within two years, when the FBI, with the help of a German-born double agent named William Sebold, began to uncover an extensive Nazi spy ring operating throughout New York City. The investigation resulted in the conviction and sentencing of 33 members of the “Duquesne Spy Ring,” in January 1942, to a total of 300 years, making the
Once the United States entered the war, the FBI and each of its 54 field offices were placed on 24-hour schedules. The Bureau immediately augmented its Agent force with National Academy graduates, who took an abbreviated training course.
Duquesne case – to this day – the largest espionage case in U.S. history that resulted in convictions. It proved to be a backbreaking case for German intelligence efforts. Once the United States entered the war, the FBI and each of its 54 field offices were placed on 24-hour schedules. The Bureau immediately augmented its Agent force with National Academy graduates, who took an abbreviated training course. By 1943, the total number of FBI employees had risen to more than 13,000, including about 4,000 Special Agents. In 1942, the FBI helped to foil a major attempt at sabotage on U.S. soil. In June, two German submarines dropped off four saboteurs each at beaches on Long Island and Florida, with bomb-making equipment and instructions to target industrial and defense production sites. Within two weeks, all eight of the saboteurs were arrested without having committed any acts of sabotage, and they were
Top: A photo of Frederick Duquesne and William Sebold, taken by FBI Agents May 29, 1940. Left: Frederick Duquesne, leader of the Duquesne Spy Ring, in the office of William G. Sebold, June 25, 1941.
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tried and convicted by a military commission – the legitimacy of which was challenged, and upheld, in the U.S. Supreme Court. While Bureau personnel at home worked war-related or criminal cases, one contingent, the Special Intelligence Service – a corps of Agents working with legal attachés – provided information on Axis activities in South America. At war’s end, the world in which the FBI operated bore no resemblance to the one that had existed just six years earlier. Soviet Premier Josef Stalin all but declared the Cold War in 1946, claiming that future wars were inevitable until
Above: Left to right: Werner Thiel, Richard Quirin, an Army officer, Hermann Otto Neubauer, and Edward Kerling in court. Right: Contents of a box brought by the German saboteurs, showing electric blasting caps, pen and pencil delay mechanisms, detonators, ampoules of acid, and other timedelay devices.
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Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. New York World-Telegram and the Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, separated by heavy wire screen, as they leave the U.S. Courthouse after being found guilty by the jury of espionage. Communism replaced capitalism around the globe. Within a year, the Bureau and other intelligence agencies had uncovered an abundance of evidence that pro-Soviet operatives had infiltrated the United States, and the Bureau’s authority to protect the country from foreign operatives was again strengthened, including the expansion of its authority to perform background checks on prospective and current government employees. It was also ordered, by Presidents Truman and Eisenhower, to investigate allegations of disloyalty among federal employees. This new threat and the reaction to it has come to be characterized in the controversial Cold War spy case of
breakthrough, by the Army had given the Bureau and its partners crucial clues, too secret to tell the public, that put the investigaters on a trail of spies leading to a former civilian inspector for the Army Signal Corps, Julius Rosenberg, and his wife Ethel, both of whom were found guilty of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union and later executed. As the FBI worked to diminish the influence of the Communist Party inside the United States, it also strengthened its relationships with state and local law enforcement organizations. And it continued to seek public support and help through the media. On March 14, 1950, it issued its first “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” list in order to facilitate the capture of dangerous fugitives by informing the public of dangerous wanted fugitives. Since then more than 450 fugitives have been listed and the public has helped capture more than 150 of them. In 1957, a New York state police officer stumbled across what became known as the Apalachin Meeting: a historic summit of more than 100 leaders of the American Mafia, or La Cosa Nostra, who had gathered from all over the country. The FBI collected information on all the people identified at the meeting, but it wasn’t until an Agent convinced mob insider Joseph Valachi to testify publicly that the American public learned of the existence of La Cosa Nostra. It would be more than a decade before federal law enforcement officials would have the tools necessary to do much damage to such a pervasive organization. A Lapse of Faith
The 1960s were a period of remarkable civil strife: As a diverse group of American protesters arose in opposition to the United States’ escalating involvement in the Vietnam War, African-Americans also began to organize in
At war’s end, the world in which the FBI operated bore no resemblance to the one that had existed just six years earlier. Soviet Premier Josef Stalin all but declared the Cold War in 1946, claiming that future wars were inevitable until Communism replaced capitalism around the globe. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. When the Soviet Union detonated its own atomic bomb in 1949, many in the United States intelligence community, including Hoover, already knew that atomic espionage had occurred. A cryptographic
protest against unequal treatment in American society. At the time, the FBI’s jurisdiction in protecting civil rights was limited. Few civil rights violations, even the most violent, fell under the FBI’s jurisdiction.
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Mark J. Cheviron, Corporate Vice President, Director of Corporate Security and Services and the entire ADM Corporate Security Staff
congratulate the Federal Bureau of Investigation on 100 years of dedicated service and partnership with the private sector
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Lyndon B. Johnson – who assumed the presidency on Nov. 22, 1963, in the wake of President John F. Kennedy’s assassination – immediately signaled to the FBI that he preferred to use their services first, and resolve questions of jurisdiction later. He ordered the FBI to investigate Kennedy’s assassination, which was, at that time, no different under the law from any other local homicide. Later, Congress passed a law making the murder of a president a federal crime. Similarly, when three young civil rights workers disappeared in northern Mississippi in the summer of 1964, Johnson responded swiftly, ordering Director Hoover to dispatch a corps of Agents to investigate. While the FBI had been investigating a number of violent cases like the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala. – there wasn’t a clear link, at the time, to FBI jurisdiction. Arguing the matter was like a kidnapping, Hoover’s Agents soon uncovered a conspiracy between a local sheriff’s deputy and KKK members, who had murdered the three activists and buried their bodies in an earthen dam near Philadelphia, Miss. The Mississippi crisis of 1964 was a turning point in federal civil rights actions. Public outrage led to prompt passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and later the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Supreme Court, in a 1966 ruling that arose from the Mississippi murders, affirmed that federal law could be used to prosecute civil rights violations
Courtesy of FBI
The Mississippi crisis of 1964 was a turning point in federal civil rights actions. – a ruling that, in turn, affirmed the Bureau’s authority to investigate them. While the prosecution of such cases proved difficult – seven men were convicted in the Mississippi case, but none of actually committing murder – the FBI had turned a corner. The Bureau routinely carried out civil rights investigations thereafter, including the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1963 murder of Medgar Evers, Mississippi’s most prominent AfricanAmerican leader.
An FBI poster seeking help in finding three young missing civil rights workers during the Mississippi Burning (MIBURN) investigation. Despite the jurisdictional issues, Hoover’s critics have alleged that his initial reluctance to devote Bureau resources to civil rights violations was rooted in the fact that he associated the movement with leftist radical groups. During the 1960s, as the United States became increasingly engaged in the Vietnam War, an unprecedented antiwar protest movement swept across the nation. While mostly peaceful, the movement contained a radical fringe that became increasingly violent in its tactics. By 1970, an estimated 3,000 bombings, and 50,000 bomb threats, occurred in the United States. The nation was fighting two wars, in Vietnam and at home, and Hoover’s FBI found itself in the middle of a troubling convergence of crime, violence, civil rights issues, and potential national security issues. Because guidelines for Agents conducting national security investigations had not yet been issued by Attorneys General or legislated by Congress – and would not be until 1976 – the FBI addressed the threats from this militant “New Left” as it had from those of the Communists during the 1950s and of the KKK in the 1960s: It combined traditional investigations with counterintelligence programs (COINTELPRO) to prevent violence and infiltrate organizations suspected of involvement. These controversial tactics, which included wiretaps, were eventually discouraged by Hoover, who formally terminated all COINTELPRO operations after stolen documents associated with the programs were published in The New York Times and The Washington Post. The COINTELPRO incident and the Watergate scandal – which Hoover did not live to see – combined to cause serious damage to the FBI’s public image, damage that would take several years to begin healing. On May 2, 1972, after nearly 48 years of service as FBI director, Hoover died in his sleep at the age of 77. The next day his body lay in state in the rotunda of the Capitol, an honor that had been accorded to only 21 other Americans. President Richard M. Nixon promptly appointed L. Patrick Gray as Acting Director, and several weeks later the
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Watergate scandal began with a break-in at Washington’s Watergate Hotel. Within hours, FBI Agents were investigating, but Gray was soon accused in the press of trying to derail the investigation, and eventually resigned. His successor, William Ruckelshaus, served for only a few weeks before resigning rather than obey an order from Nixon to fire the Watergate special prosecutor, Archibald Cox. The first Director to be appointed by the presidential nomination/Senate confirmation process was Clarence M. Kelley, who was sworn in about a month before Nixon’s resignation. Kelley believed one of his most important tasks would be to restore the public’s trust in the FBI and law enforcement. He instituted a number of policy changes that focused on the training and selection of FBI and law enforcement leaders, including Career Review Boards and recruitment programs. He also ordered a prioritization of the Bureau’s criminal and national security programs, and a clear articulation of the procedures for investigative intelligence collection. Kelley’s most significant contribution to the management of the Bureau was introducing the concept of “Quality over Quantity” investigations – he directed field offices to concentrate resources on the criminals who did the most damage. He modeled this concept by establishing three top priorities for the Bureau at the national level: foreign counterintelligence, organized crime, and white-collar crime. By the late 1970s, the Bureau employed 8,000 Special Agents and 11,000 support personnel in 59 field offices and 13 legal attaché offices.
Anthony “Tony Ducks” Corallo enters U.S. Federal Court in New York as jury selection began for the trial of eight men accused of participating in the Mafia’s ruling council in this Sept. 8, 1986 photo. The RICO act was an important tool used to help indict the Mafia’s ruling commission.
Kelley’s priorities were validated in the 1980s, when the FBI was led by his successor, William H. Webster. The United States suffered a wave of white-collar crime: widespread bank fraud that caused the failure of more than 1,000 savings and loan associations (S&Ls), as well as several public corruption cases. The FBI investigated many of these cases, and was ultimately given additional resources for fraud investigations by the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enhancement Act of 1989. The FBI’s ability to fight organized crime was strengthened in 1982 when Attorney General William French Smith gave the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) concurrent jurisdiction over narcotics violations. The Department of Justice’s increasing attention to the international narcotics trade led to several major arrests and the dismantling of important drug rings – the
most famous of which was probably the “Pizza Connection” case, tried between 1985 and 1987 and involving a Sicilian mafia scheme to distribute drugs and the proceeds from them through pizza parlors. The lead prosecutor for the trial was former FBI Agent and future Director Louis B. Freeh, who worked closely with the FBI and New York and Italian police to build the government’s case. The FBI finally began to make significant progress against organized crime in the 1980s, aided by a 1970 law, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. “RICO,” said Fox, the FBI historian, “was huge for the FBI in organized crime investigation. It says that if a group of people engages in a pattern of criminal activity, and you can show that members of this group have committed crimes in furtherance of group goals, then you can charge the members of the group together as a conspiracy. Because
AP Photo/Rick Maiman
The Bureau Goes Global
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fbi FBI history
The FBI finally began to make significant progress against organized crime in the 1980s, aided by a 1970 law, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. of the significant monetary and prison-term penalties that went along with the RICO statute, we were finally able to start dismantling the hierarchy of the groups, instead of just putting the lower-level guys away for a couple of years on this or that crime.” In the famous Commission Case of 1986, evidence gathered by the FBI led to the indictment of 11 organized crime figures, including the heads of New York’s so-called “Five Families.” Time Magazine called the case possibly “the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943.” The Bureau also emphasized its counterintelligence role in the 1980s, and its efforts were showcased in 1985, dubbed “The Year of the Spy” by the media because of numerous
arrests of foreign spies operating on U.S. soil. Most of these spies were working for Communist countries, including John W. Walker, Larry Wu-Tai Chin, Edward Lee Howard, and Ronald William Pelton. As the Cold War came to an end with the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, the FBI’s counterintelligence mission underwent a swift and dramatic alteration – suddenly, counterintelligence was no longer focused primarily on containing the Soviet Union or fending off its hostile agents and East Bloc allies. The Bureau shifted its focus to protecting American information and technologies, such as trade secrets and proprietary information. In 1991, the FBI created a National Security Threat List, to clearly articulate the categories of activity that constitute national security concerns. Two events occurred in late 1992 and early 1993 that had a major impact on the policies and operational protocols of the FBI: the FBI’s response to the shooting death of a U.S. marshal at the home of federal fugitive Randall Weaver in Ruby Ridge, Idaho; and the 51-day standoff with members of a heavily armed religious sect who had killed officers of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Both incidents resulted in unintended deaths for which the Bureau, after several months of internal and external
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review, was judged to be at least partly at fault. Freeh, who became the Bureau’s new Director less than five months after the Waco tragedy, guided the FBI in the 1994 formation of its Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG), a specialized unit designed to strategize and manage hostage or siege situations, and if possible resolve them without loss of life. Freeh had the misfortune of assuming office just as the United States was suffering a new wave of terrorist attacks: the 1993 World Trade Center bombing; the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing; the Unabomber’s continuing mail- and pipe-bomb attacks; Atlanta’s 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing; and the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing on a Western housing complex in Saudi Arabia. Counterterrorism had been receiving increased attention from the FBI since 1982, when Webster had made it a fourth top priority
for the Bureau, and the FBI’s elite Hostage Rescue Team had been created in 1984 to prevent the kind of violence that had occurred in the 1972 Munich Olympics, when terrorists murdered Israeli athletes. Throughout the 1990s, the FBI, aided by expanded authorities granted it by Congress, stepped up its efforts to investigate such attacks. The fall of the Iron Curtain and the proliferation of computer and telecommunications technology made for a world that seemed increasingly integrated and borderless, leading President Bill Clinton to proclaim, in 1994, that “national security now means economic security.” One of Freeh’s most significant contributions to the Bureau’s policies was to recognize the importance of strong international police partnerships. In 1994, he led a delegation of high-level diplomats and federal law enforcement officials to meet with
U.S. and Saudi military personnel survey the damage to Khobar Towers caused by the explosion of a fuel truck outside the northern fence of the facility on King Abdul Aziz Air Base near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, on June 25, 1996. Several buildings were damaged and there were numerous U.S. casualties. Throughout the 1990s, the FBI increased its efforts to stop terrorist attacks.
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Members of the FBI meet outside the Pentagon building hours after American Airlines Fight 77 was piloted by terrorists into the building during the September 11 attacks.
their counterparts from 11 European nations on international crime issues. To sharpen its joint efforts against drug trafficking, terrorism, and organized crime, the FBI opened 21 new legal attaché offices overseas and sent representatives to the first International Law Enforcement Academy, which opened in 1995 in Budapest, Hungary.
DoD photo by PH2 Jim Watson; USN
The Post-September 11 World
Between 1993 and 2001, under Freeh, the FBI had undergone a remarkable transformation, expanding to address the increasingly international nature of crime inside the United States. It had developed a number of weapons aimed at rapidly developing information technologies, including the 1991 maturation of its Computer Analysis and Response Team’s (CART) ability to retrieve evidence from
computers, as well as the 1998 creation of the Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs. Along with these developments, the FBI increased its attention to electronic surveillance, in order to adapt to the rapid advancements in telecommunications. Through the Innocent Images program, launched in 1995, the Bureau has arrested and secured the indictment of large numbers of pedophiles, who have used the Internet to view pornography and stalk young children. Freeh was compelled to order a comprehensive review of the Bureau’s information and security programs upon the arrest, in February 2001, of FBI Special Agent Robert Hanssen, who had been selling U.S. secret intelligence to the
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Soviet Union, and later Russia, for more than 20 years. Hanssen pled guilty to 15 counts of espionage and was sentenced to life in prison. An FBI computer expert, Hanssen’s ability to obtain classified intelligence information, for such an extended period of time, was described by a Justice Department-ordered commission as “possibly the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history.” The FBI’s new Director, Robert S. Mueller, who was sworn in on Sept. 4, 2001, announced a renewed focus on upgrading the FBI’s information technology infrastructure; addressing records management issues; and enhancing foreign counterintelligence analysis and security. While the post-Cold War transformation of the FBI’s priorities was dramatic, it was not as monumental as the one implemented after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Within a month of the attacks, as the FBI led the massive investigative effort, President George W. Bush had assigned Mueller’s FBI the responsibility for protecting Americans against future terrorist attacks. In May 2002 – the same month in which Attorney General John Ashcroft issued investigative guidelines to assist the Bureau’s counterterrorism efforts – Mueller announced a comprehensive reorganization of the FBI’s structure and operations. Mueller’s list of the FBI’s top 10 priorities began with the following top three: preventing terrorist attacks, countering foreign intelligence
operations, and fighting hightech and Internet crimes. The FBI’s authority to fight terrorism was expanded by a controversial set of provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act, a law that eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering inside the United States and increased the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, e-mail, and other records. It also expanded the discretion of law enforcement authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts. The history of the United States contains abundant reminders of how Americans and their government can, in the effort to protect the United States from attacks, engage in activities that actually infringe upon the civil liberties of Americans. Mueller, in an address he delivered to Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government in April 2007, expressed his own feelings on balancing the tension between freedom and security – in words similar to those he has repeated many times since passage of the USA PATRIOT Act. “History,” he said, “will determine not just whether we defeat terrorism, but also whether we safeguard the liberties for which we are fighting, and maintain the trust of the American people. We know that if we win one struggle at the expense of the other – either way – we will have lost on both counts. In the fullness of time, I believe future generations will look back and judge that the FBI accomplished both missions.”
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Gaining the Edge How the FBI won the technological arms race launched in the gangster era – and fought to stay on top t’s difficult today to look back on the “Crime Wave” of the Depression Era and – confronted with names like Machine Gun Kelly, Pretty Boy Floyd, Bonnie and Clyde, and John Dillinger – separate fact from myth. But it’s also hard to deny that, at the outset of J. Edgar Hoover’s dramatic War on Crime, his small corps of investigators – many of them glorified accountants, without the legal authority to carry firearms or make arrests – was overmatched. The nation’s most notorious criminals carried Thompson submachine guns, or “Tommy guns,” capable of spewing 800 .45-caliber slugs a minute. They fled the scenes of their crimes in big, powerful cars equipped with V-8 engines and electric starters that could be fired up in seconds. Some of them wore bulletproof vests to protect themselves from local police, or perhaps from the growing number of G-men who had determined, given the arsenal of their opponents, that to work the job unarmed was suicidal. While another often-debated point about FBI history is whether Hoover may have held the position of Director too long – a career that bridged the administrations of Calvin Coolidge and Richard Nixon – there isn’t much question that he was the right person, at the right time, to lead the Bureau of Investigation. Hoover was exactly what the Bureau needed in 1924: He was a bit of a goody-goody, fed up with government corruption. He was a reformer, determined to change law enforcement into a scientific profession. He was, perhaps even to his own surprise, something of a raconteur, able to weave a myth powerful enough to counter the strange cult of hero worship surrounding America’s most wanted criminals. Perhaps most important, Hoover was a librarian. While attending night school at George Washington University, the young Hoover worked at the Library of Congress for five years, beginning as a messenger before being promoted to cataloguer and eventually clerk. According to a biographer, Curt Gentry, one of Hoover’s coworkers believed he was destined to be chief librarian had he remained at the Library of Congress.
Trained in the science of cataloguing and crossreferencing, Hoover became the nation’s top law enforcement official instead, and his quest to compile and make accessible vast amounts of data – records of fingerprints, shoeprints, fibers, tire treads, crime records, bank robbery notes, and now such arcane scientific data as trace-chemical spectral displays and DNA profiles – helped the FBI to bring criminalistics, and government bureaucracy itself, into the Information Age. It also gave Hoover’s FBI a new ally in the War on Crime: knowledge.
An FBI Agent at the training facility in Quantico demonstrates some of the Bureau’s weapons. He holds a Thompson submachine gun. In the foreground is a Colt “Monitor,” a modified version of the Browning Automatic Rifle.
By Craig Collins
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Fighting Crime with Science
Of course, knowledge alone was of little use against a Tommy gun, and after the 1933 Kansas City Massacre, in which an FBI Agent was killed and two others wounded, Hoover joined the public’s outrage with his own, and bolstered the campaign for arming federal police officers. Congress obliged, and Bureau Agents were issued their first official fighting rifle: the Colt “Monitor,” a derivation of John Browning’s bar automatic rifle. The Monitor, with its 18-inch barrel, was easily handled by Agents, though its .30-06 ammunition was powerful enough to stop a blockade-running beer truck in its tracks. Some Agents were later issued militarized versions of the Thompson submachine gun, each in The cavernous FBI Identification Division in Washington, D.C., during World War II. a special carrying case that contained a brass cleaning rod, spare parts, and 20- and 50-round magazines. After modest beginning. In November 1932, the Criminal acquiring these new weapons, FBI Agents were at last on Laboratory was opened in a single room – which doubled equal footing with their opponents. The Thompson would as the Bureau’s smoking lounge – in the nearby Southern remain in the FBI arsenal until the mid-1970s. Railway Building on 13th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue Hoover, of course, wanted more than an equal footing. He wanted to maintain an advantage over America’s in Washington, D.C. The room was chosen because it public enemies. One of his first acts of leadership was in had a sink, and easily accommodated the totality of the the librarian’s role: In 1925, he consolidated the nation’s Bureau’s scientific equipment: a borrowed microscope, a fingerprint records under the umbrella of the FBI. At wiretapping kit, some ultraviolet lights, a kit for making the time, there were two major fingerprint collections in plaster casts, and a spiral probe known as a “helixometer,” the United States: a huge file maintained in Chicago by for examining the inside of gun barrels. the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the The Laboratory – later the Technical Laboratory and U.S. Department of Justice’s Division of Identification ultimately the Laboratory Division – was run for the first and Information, which held some 810,000 fingerprint year by a single Special Agent, Charles Appel, whose cards at the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, handwriting analysis of the ransom note in the Lindbergh Kan. With the creation of the Bureau’s own Identification kidnapping case led to the indictment of Bruno Hauptmann. Division, these records were brought together to form For the first three years of the Laboratory’s existence, Appel what would become the largest collection of fingerprint began compiling the Bureau’s vast reference collections: the records in the world. Typewriter Standards File, the Anonymous Letter File, the It wasn’t until several years after the establishment of the National Automotive Paint File, the National Fraudulent Identification Division that Hoover was able to implement Check File, and the famous Reference Firearms Collection, another reform that, despite the vaunted reputation the whose more than 5,000 catalogued specimens today are FBI Laboratory would later acquire, was a relatively used to identify evidence firearms and components. The
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Standard Ammunition File (SAF), added later, is today a collection of more than 15,000 military and commercial ammunition specimens, intact as well as disassembled. A Photographic Operations Unit was added to the Laboratory in 1935, and the Bureau’s first full-time chemist came aboard in 1937, at about the same time the Bureau began offering free services to state and local law enforcement agencies that did not have their own lab facilities. Metallurgical services were added in 1939. Appel, busily conducting his own analysis and compiling reference collections, had little time to launch new research initiatives during the Laboratory’s formative years, but as new capabilities were added, he and his colleagues began to study the fields of ballistics, ciphers, dyes for extortion packages, blood groups, and the chemical development of latent
fingerprints – the often invisible impressions left behind by the ridged skin on human fingers, palms, and foot soles. The Bureau assumed a leadership role in the development of latent prints. Its print examiners, along with the rest of the nation’s crime scene investigators, had mastered the art of “dusting” for fingerprints by the early 20th century – but dusting required the existence of sweaty or oily secretions, ruling out all but the most recently deposited prints. The Bureau led the way in other approaches, including the silver nitrate method, which linked members of the Doc Barker/Alvin Karpis gang to the 1933 kidnapping of millionaire brewer Theodore A. Hamm. By painting the ransom notes – which were by then several weeks old – with silver nitrate solution, the Bureau’s Lab scientists initiated a chemical reaction with the salt contained in
A view of an assortment of scientific instruments used in the first Technical Laboratory of the FBI, taken in November 1932.
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A technician in the single fingerprint section of the FBI Identification Division examining the hand of a deceased person in an effort to secure fingerprints. fingerprints, revealing a distinct white fingerprint pattern. The Lab had performed a “forensic first” in using the silver nitrate method – the prints were matched to members of the Barker/Karpis gang, who were promptly arrested. The silver nitrate method was promising, but only in certain situations. The FBI’s print examiners continued to study other methods of developing latent prints; in 1954, they implemented the use of ninhydrin, a chemical used to detect the amines, or protein residues, left behind by fingerprints, on porous surfaces. In the late 1970s, they tested and began to use lasers to detect latent prints. More recent developments have included the use of cyanoacrylate (superglue fumes), fluorescent powders and dyes, and alternate light sources. A look through the FBI’s Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints reveals how enormously
sophisticated the art of detecting, enhancing, and analyzing latent prints has become. The type of chemical, powder, and light or laser used to reveal a print depends on a number of variables, including the type and condition of the surface on which the prints are deposited, as well as the kind of residue left behind by the print. According to Deputy Assistant Director for the FBI Laboratory’s Forensic Analysis Branch Melissa Smrz, then Acting Assistant Director of the FBI’s Laboratory Division, the FBI’s expertise in latent print development is not limited to present-day criminal cases. It’s also useful in missing person cases or “in mass disasters, disasters where you’ve got remains that don’t have the outer layer of the skin, but they do have the lower level. We have techniques that enable us to enhance the friction ridges so you can roll a print.”
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After the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, members of the FBI Disaster Squad learned one of these techniques from the Missing Persons Bureau of the New York Police Department: the boiling technique, which was used to raise the friction ridges on recovered bodies and help identify victims. The FBI took this technique to Thailand after the South Asian tsunami in 2004, and produced identifiable friction ridge impressions from recovered bodies; the Bureau’s Disaster Squad also used the technique on bodies recovered weeks after Hurricane Katrina, which struck the U.S Gulf Coast region in August 2005. The technique resulted in friction ridge impressions that were used to determine and confirm the identities of hurricane victims.
the Information Age
In becoming so adept at developing latent fingerprints, the FBI created a new problem for itself: It had so many prints on file, both identified and unidentified, and so many new cases each year that it had become virtually impossible to conduct a manual search that could match a print to one in the national database. After its collection of fingerprint records had become the world’s largest, the Bureau initiated research and development of computerized scanning equipment to read and record the identifying characteristics of fingerprints. The prototype for this system, developed by Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, was delivered to the FBI in 1972, and now resides at the Smithsonian Institution. The ultimate result of these research efforts, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), which became operational in 1999 – and which immediately helped solve a number of decades-old crimes by matching prints lifted from crime scenes to those in the database – now processes millions of prints each month, selecting possible matches from among the network’s vast archive. Because the Bureau had already applied Hoover’s notion of information science to its investigative work, the migration of vast reference collections to computer networks came naturally to the FBI. Today, these searchable archives include the Automated Counterfeiting Identification Database, which contains images of counterfeit checks and other information; the Bank Robbery Note File, used to compare notes from different bank robberies; the Explosives Reference Tool Database, to help identify the components
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) false-color pictures of the site of the former Twin Towers. LIDAR is used by the FBI Laboratory’s Special Projects Unit to provide a 360-degree, spherical panoramic image of a venue such as a sports stadium or other landmark that may be vulnerable to attack.
and manufacturers of explosive and incendiary devices; and SoleSearcher, a shoe print database that contains thousands of outsoles from hundreds of shoe manufacturers, to help identify the brand or manufacturer of shoes when footwear impressions are left behind at a crime scene. Completed in 1989, DRUGFIRE – a multimedia investigative database that automates the comparison of images of bullets, shotshells, and cartridge cases – was first put to use in 1992, the year that the Bureau’s Computer Analysis and Response Team (CART) was established. DRUGFIRE has been useful in linking shooting incidents and identifying weapons used in gang- and drug-related crimes. Probably one of the best-known FBI-maintained databases, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), became fully operational in 1998, and was produced through the expertise of the FBI’s DNA Analysis Unit, created 10 years earlier – making the Laboratory the first public crime lab in the United States to perform forensic DNA analysis. In the 1990s, the FBI began to study ways to analyze a different kind of DNA – mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, which remains in very old or degraded tissue or fluid samples. The Bureau became the first crime laboratory to use mtDNA to identify a person in 1996, and it has played a leadership role in mtDNA analysis ever since, essentially funding the establishment of and training for four regional mtDNA labs in Phoenix, Ariz.; Meriden, Conn.; St. Paul,
Courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The Next Level: Forensic Science Enters
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Minn.; and Trenton, N.J. The regional program, said Smrz, “has doubled the capacity for mitochondrial DNA analysis in this country. They do missing person cases; they do certain homicides and violent crimes. And they also help us with some of our own cases that involve explosive devices, any kind of trace evidence that might come off of those.” Beyond Forensics
In 1941, just after the United States had entered World War II, Director Hoover hosted a visit from the British Director of Naval Intelligence, Adm. John Godfrey, and a delegation that included a young intelligence officer named Ian Fleming – later the author of 12 novels about a fictional British intelligence officer, James Bond. Fleming was, according to written accounts of the visit, impressed not only by the Bureau’s technological advantages, but also by their simplicity – Tommy guns, fingerprinting, and comprehensive cross-referencing of data were hardly revolutionary, but they presented a formidable front against America’s adversaries. In many cases, the refinement of computer technology has made the retrieval of information almost instantaneous for FBI personnel. For example, the Laboratory’s Scientific
and ranks the individual hits to aid in my evaluation of the unknown. This concept can describe many searchable chemical libraries; however, prior to SLICE, this type of data could not be assessed in this manner.” Information technology has been applied to many of the Bureau’s operational functions, as well as its forensic science units. In order to help with major event planning, for example, the Laboratory’s Special Projects Unit may perform 3D laser scanning, or a technique called light detection and ranging (LIDAR) to provide a 360-degree, spherical panoramic image of a venue such as a sports stadium or other landmark that may be vulnerable to attack. “The product they prepare is used by the command and technical personnel for documenting these venues,” said Smrz, “to determine – among other things – ingress and egress points, breaching points, sniper encounter, sniper locations, emergency evacuation plans, helicopter landing areas, desirable routes of travel, and other important logistical information.” For all the FBI’s ability to develop, adapt, or refine the most promising crime-fighting technologies – it is the most technically sophisticated law enforcement agency in the world today, with several capabilities that are unique to public law enforcement – its greatest technological strength still probably
For all the FBI’s ability to develop, adapt, or refine the most promising crime-fighting technologies … its greatest technological strength still probably consists of its vast warehouses of information. Analysis Section employs the Spectral Library Identification Classification Explorer (SLICE), a searchable database of the physical characteristics and elemental composition of trace substances found at crime scenes. SLICE, developed by FBI chemist Dennis C. Ward and an outside consultant, allows technicians to conduct a general pattern search, matching unknown crime-scene substances to known substances in the database. Andria Mehltrettr, a scientist with the Paints and Polymers Subunit, said SLICE – a technology now commercially available – makes the identification of certain substances nearly automatic by displaying the elemental composition as a spectrum on X and Y axes. “I analyze a material and obtain a spectrum for that material. Then I use SLICE to search for comparable spectra of previously analyzed known materials. The software produces a hit list
consists of its vast warehouses of information. The mainstay of the Bureau’s work, emphasized repeatedly by Hoover, the former librarian, this century’s worth of knowledge has been pushed to FBI personnel to an unprecedented degree in recent years. The National Crime Information Center, established more than 40 years ago, ensures that most of this information can be accessed around-the-clock by a police officer in his squad car, or by any of the 90,000 agencies now connected to this database. The new Sentinel case management system, introduced in June 2007, will eventually bring most of this information down to the desktop – and possibly the portable handheld device – of every FBI employee. While many of the crime-fighting capabilities of information technology have yet to be explored, one thing is given: The FBI, alone or in partnership with the nation’s best technical minds, will be at the forefront.
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Federal Bureau of Investigation Directors By iwaLani Kahikina
Robert S. Mueller, III Director Sept. 4, 2001 - Present
As FBI Director from just before September 11 to the present, Robert S. Mueller, III, has overseen one of the most far-reaching transformations of the FBI in history. Mueller has restructured the Bureau, added new capabilities, hired more personnel, and shifted personnel and resources toward intelligence and antiterrorism operations, in order to protect the United States from the threat of terrorism. Mueller was born in New York City and grew up outside of Philadelphia. After graduation from Princeton University in 1966, Mueller later earned
his master’s degree in International Relations from New York University. Mueller served in the U.S. Marine Corps after college as an officer for three years. He led a rifle platoon of the 3rd Marine Division in Vietnam. He is the recipient of the Bronze Star, two Navy Commendation Medals, the Purple Heart, and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry. After his military service, in 1973, Mueller earned a law degree from the University of Virginia Law School and served on the Law Review. After earning his degrees, Mueller worked as a litigator in San Francisco and then served for 12 years in U.S. Attorneys’ offices. In 1982, Mueller served as an assistant U.S. Attorney in Boston, where he investigated and prosecuted major financial fraud, terrorist, and public corruption cases, as well as narcotics conspiracies and international money launderers. In 1989, Mueller was called to public service in the U.S. Department of Justice as an assistant to the Attorney General. In 1990, he took charge of its Criminal Division and in 1991, he was elected Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers. Mueller was partner at another firm in 1993 that specialized in complex white-collar crime litigation. In 1995, he served as senior litigator in the homicide section of the District of Columbia U.S. Attorney’s Office and assumed the position as Chief in 1997. In 1998, Mueller was confirmed by the Senate as
U.S. Attorney in San Francisco and held that position until 2001 when President George W. Bush nominated Mueller as FBI Director on Sept. 4.
Thomas J. Pickard Acting Director June 25, 2001 - Sept. 4, 2001
Thomas J. Pickard was born in Woodside, Queens, New York. He graduated from St. Francis College, Brooklyn, and subsequently received his master’s degree from St. John’s University, Jamaica, New York. He is a Certified Public Accountant, licensed by the State of New York. Pickard began his career as an FBI Special Agent Jan. 13, 1975, and after a period of training, he was initially assigned to the New York City field
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office. In April 1979, Pickard was transferred to the Washington, D.C., field office, where he worked in an undercover capacity on the case codenamed “ABSCAM.” In July 1980, he was promoted to FBI Headquarters, serving in the Inspection and Criminal Investigative Divisions. In October 1984, Pickard reported to the New York City field office as a Supervisor in the White-Collar Crime section and later was appointed to be the Assistant Special Agent in Charge for all white-collar crime investigations and violent crime matters in New York. In 1989, Pickard was selected for the FBI’s senior executive service and was transferred to FBI Headquarters, where he oversaw the FBI’s finance operations and subsequently its personnel operations. In 1993, Pickard was transferred to the New York City office once again, to serve as the Special Agent in Charge of the National Security Division, supervising such matters as the trials of the World Trade Center defendants, the trial of the Blind Sheik and his coconspirators, the Manila Air conviction of Ramzi Youssef and his associates, and the July 1996 TWA Flight 800 explosion. On Sept. 10, 1996, FBI Director Louis Freeh named Pickard to the position of Assistant Director in Charge of the Washington field office (WFO). During his tenure at WFO, he supervised such matters as the investigation and arrest of FBI Special Agent Earl Pitts for espionage and the capture of convicted CIA killer Mir Aimal Kasi. On Feb. 2, 1998, Pickard assumed the position of Assistant Director of the FBI’s Criminal Investigative Division at FBI Headquarters. On Nov. 1, 1999, Pickard was appointed Deputy Director, the No. 2 position at the FBI. Pickard was appointed Acting Director of the FBI by Attorney General John Ashcroft on June 25, 2001.
20, 1993. He was confirmed by the Senate on Aug. 6, 1993, and officially sworn in on Sept. 1, 1993. Freeh received various awards during his career as a civil servant. In 1987 and 1991, he received the Attorney General’s Award for Distinguished Service, the second highest annual honor given by the Department of Justice. Freeh also received the John Marshall Award for Preparation of Litigation and the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association Award. Louis J. Freeh Director Sept. 1, 1993 - June 25, 2001
Louis J. Freeh was born in Jersey City, N.J. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Rutgers College in 1971, received a J.D. degree from Rutgers Law School in 1974, and earned an LL.M. degree in criminal law from New York University Law School in 1984. He also served in the U.S. Army Reserve as a first lieutenant. During his career, Freeh supervised several major case investigations. He was lead prosecutor in the Pizza Connection case and in 1990, he oversaw the investigation of the VANPAC case involving the mail-bomb murders of a federal judge and a civil rights leader. Freeh served as an FBI Special Agent in the New York City field office and at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C., from 1975 to 1981. Freeh then joined the U.S. Attorney’s office for the southern district of New York as an Assistant U.S. Attorney. He held positions as Chief of the Organized Crime Unit, Deputy U.S. Attorney, and Associate U.S. Attorney. President George H.W. Bush named Freeh the U.S. District Court Judge for the southern district of New York in July 1991. Freeh served in this position until President Bill Clinton appointed him to be the Director of the FBI, July
Floyd I. Clarke Acting Director July 19, 1993 - Sept. 1, 1993
Floyd I. Clarke was appointed Acting Director by President Bill Clinton on July 19, 1993. He served in this capacity until Sept. 1, 1993. Clarke was born and grew up in Arizona. He attended George Washington University, Washington, D.C., and then joined the FBI in 1964. As a Special Agent, Clarke worked in the Birmingham, Boston, Philadelphia, and Kansas City divisions, and at FBI Headquarters. He specialized in handling organized and violent crime matters. During his dedicated career in the Bureau, Clarke served as Supervisor,
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Assistant Special Agent in Charge, Special Agent in Charge, Assistant Director, Executive Assistant Director, Deputy Director and, last, Acting Director. While serving in the FBI Criminal Investigative Division, the FBI developed its first artificial intelligence capability and named the program “Big Floyd” after Clarke. Clarke has received awards including the Attorney General’s Award for Exceptional Leadership, the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award, and the Attorney General’s Edmund J. Randolph Award. President George H.W. Bush named Clarke a Distinguished Executive in 1989 and a Meritorious Executive in 1990.
William Steele Sessions Director Nov. 2, 1987 - July 19, 1993
William Steele Sessions was born in Fort Smith, Ark. After graduating from Northeast High School in Kansas City, Mo., in 1948, Sessions enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in 1951, receiving his wings and commission in October 1952.
Thereafter, he served on active duty until October 1955. In 1956, he received a bachelor’s degree from Baylor University, Waco, Texas, and in 1958, he received an LL.B. degree from the Baylor University School of Law. Sessions practiced privately in Waco from 1958 to 1969, when he left his firm to join the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., as Chief of the Government Operations Section, Criminal Division. He was appointed U.S. Attorney for the western district of Texas in 1971, U.S. District Judge in 1974, and then Chief Judge in 1980. He served on the board of the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D.C., and on the Texas State Bar and the Judicial Conference of the United States committees. Sessions resigned as District Judge in November 1987 to become Director of the FBI. As Director, Sessions introduced the post of Deputy Director. The Deputy Director would be responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Bureau and be assisted by two Associate Deputy Directors. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War, Sessions also shifted personnel who had formerly worked in counterintelligence to investigating white-collar and violent crimes. Sessions is a member of the American Bar Association and has served as an officer or on the board of directors of the Federal Bar Association of San Antonio, the American Judicature Society, the San Antonio Bar Association, the Waco-McLennan County Bar Association, and the District Judges’ Association of the Fifth Circuit. He was appointed as a commissioner of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday Commission, and, in November 1991, was elected for a three-year term as a delegate for the
Americas to the Executive Committee of ICPO-Interpol. Sessions has received many awards and honors, including: the Baylor University Distinguished Alumni Award; the Baylor Law School’s Lawyer of the Year in 1988; Father of the Year for public service; the Golden Plate Award from the American Academy of Achievement; the 1989 Law Enforcement Leadership Award from the Association of Federal Investigators and the DAR Medal of Honor; the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1990; the Good Scout Award; the Person of the Year Award from the American Society for Industrial Security; the 1990 Magna Charta Award from the Baronial Order of the Magna Charta; and the Ellis Island Congressional Medal of Honor in 1992. He also received honorary degrees from the John C. Marshall Law School, St. Mary’s University, Dickinson School of Law, and Flagler College.
John E. Otto Acting Director May 26, 1987 - Nov. 2, 1987
Attorney General Edwin Meese appointed John E. Otto to serve as the Acting Director of the FBI between May and November 1987. Otto was born Dec. 18, 1938, in St. Paul, Minn. After high school, he served in the U.S. Marines for two years. Otto earned his bachelor’s degree from St. Cloud States College in Minnesota in 1960. From 1960 to 1964, he took graduate courses in educational administration
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at the University of Minnesota. During this time, Otto served on the Ramsey County, Minn., sheriff’s patrol. He also taught courses at St. Paul junior high school. Otto joined the Oakland, Calif., police department’s special duty tactical squad in 1963. On Oct. 12, 1964, Otto joined the FBI as a Special Agent, subsequently serving in the Newark and Dallas divisions. In March 1971, he was assigned to FBI Headquarters, where he assumed supervisory duties in the Public Affairs Office and then the Technical Services Division, the Planning and Inspection Division, and the Criminal Investigative Division. In January 1975, he was named Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the Portland Division. Over the next decade, Otto served in a number of leadership capacities in the field and at Headquarters, including positions as Special Agent in Charge and an Assistant Director. After Sessions took over as Director, he appointed Otto Associate Deputy Director for administration, and later awarded Otto the first Medal of Meritorious Achievement. He retired from the Bureau in 1987.
William H. Webster Director Feb. 23, 1978 - May 25, 1987
William H. Webster was born in St. Louis, Mo. He received his bachelor’s degree from Amherst College, Mass., in 1947, and his J.D. degree from Washington University Law School, St. Louis, in 1949. He served as a lieutenant in the Navy during World War II and again in the Korean War. Webster practiced law with a St. Louis law firm from 1949 to 1959, and served
as U.S. Attorney for the eastern district of Missouri from 1960 to 1961, returning to private practice in 1961. He was a member of the Missouri Board of Law Examiners from 1964 to 1969. In 1970, Webster was appointed a judge of the U.S. District Court for the eastern district of Missouri and then to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in 1973. During his service on the bench, Webster was chairman of the Judiciary Conference Advisory Committee on the Criminal Rules and was a member of the Ad Hoc Committee on Habeas Corpus and the Committee of Court Administration. Webster was also a member of the American Bar Association; the Council of the American Law Institute; the Order of the Coif; the Missouri Bar Integrated; and the Metropolitan St. Louis Bar Association. He also served as chairman of the Corporation, Banking and Business Law Section of the American Bar Association; and is a fellow of the American Bar Foundation. Webster resigned from his post to the U.S. Court of Appeals on Feb. 23, 1978, to become Director of the FBI. As Director, Webster continued to diversify the FBI’s workforce, and presided
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over major public corruption investigations including the ABSCAM and Greylord sting operations. Under Webster, the FBI’s budget doubled, and relationships with international law enforcement agencies as well as the domestic Drug Enforcement Administration were strengthened. He remained at the FBI until President Ronald Reagan appointed him as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Webster is a member of the Board of Trustees of Washington University, the University of Colorado Law School Board of Visitors, and the National Advisory Board of the American University. Webster has received other honors and awards, including: Washington University Alumni Citation for contributions to the field of law; the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Washington University Law School; the William Greenleaf Elliot Award from Washington University; the Fordham Law School Louis Stein Award; the Thomas Jefferson Award in Law from the University of Virginia; honorary degrees from DePauw University, William Woods College, Drury College, Washington University, Columbia College, University of Dayton School of Law, University of Notre Dame, Centre College, Dickinson School of Law, University of Miami, DePaul University, American University, and John Jay College of Criminal Justice; Man of the Year, 1980, by the St. Louis Globe-Democrat; the Riot Relief Fund Award in New York City; International Platform Association Theodore Roosevelt Award for excellence in public service; the Jefferson Award for the Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official; the Freedoms Foundation National Service Medal in Valley Forge, Pa.; the First Annual Patrick V. Murphy Award from the Police Foundation, Washington, D.C., for distinguished service in law enforcement; and Father of the Year for Public Service in 1986.
Webster was elected to active membership in the National Academy of Public Administration in October 1981 and, in May 1985, named president of the Institute of Judicial Administration.
Director/Deputy Associate Director for Investigations in 1974, served as Acting Director in early 1978, and was appointed Associate Director – the No. 2 position in the Bureau – on April 6, 1978. Adams received the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award in 1978 and was the recipient of the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal in 1979. Upon his retirement from the Bureau on May 11, 1979, Adams returned to Texas where he continued to serve in law enforcement positions until 1987.
James Blackburn Adams Acting Director Feb. 15, 1978 - Feb. 23, 1978
James Balckburn Adams was born in Corsicana, Texas, Dec. 21, 1926. He earned a bachelor’s degree and a law degree from Baylor University following military service in the Army. While serving, he became a Japanese language interpreter and served overseas. Adams became a prosecutor and legislator in Texas, and later resigned his seat in the state legislature to enter on duty with the Bureau on July 9, 1951. Adams served in the Seattle, San Francisco, and Administrative Services divisions as a Special Agent. He was appointed Assistant Special Agent in Charge of Minneapolis in 1959 and subsequently served in several leadership positions before being appointed Special Agent in Charge of San Antonio in 1972. In 1973, he was appointed Assistant Director of the Office of Planning and Evaluation. He was appointed Assistant to the
Clarence M. Kelley Director July 9, 1973 - Feb. 15, 1978
Clarence M. Kelley was raised in Fairmount, Mo. He received a bachelor’s degree from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, in 1936, and an LL.B. degree from the University of Kansas City School of Law in 1940. He was also admitted to the Missouri Bar in 1940. Before graduation, the head of the FBI’s Kansas City field office influenced Kelley to consider the Bureau as a career choice. Kelley started his FBI service on Oct. 7, 1940, as a Special Agent. He gained extensive experience in many important
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fields of investigative activity early in his career, while he served in field offices in Huntington, W.Va.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Des Moines, Iowa; and the FBI Training Center, Quantico, Va., as a firearms instructor. While on military leave, Kelley served in the U.S. Navy from 1944 to 1946. Kelley’s Navy service included a tour in the South Pacific aboard a transport attack ship. Kelley reapplied to the Bureau after his military service and was assigned to the Kansas City office; he was given supervisory duties at FBI Headquarters, Washington, D.C., in 1951. Kelley soon returned to the Kansas City Division as a Field Supervisor. In July 1953, Kelley was transferred to the Houston office, where he served as Assistant Special Agent in Charge. He was then assigned to the Seattle office in the same capacity in 1955. In 1956, Kelley transferred to the San Francisco field office as Assistant Special Agent in Charge. Kelley was transferred to the Training and Inspection Division at FBI Headquarters in 1957 and, shortly thereafter, designated as an Inspector. In 1957, Kelley was given the assignment of Special Agent in Charge of the Birmingham office; in 1960, he was reassigned to the Memphis office in the same capacity and served there until his retirement in 1961. After retirement, Kelley became Kansas City’s chief of police. He was also on the board of directors of the Boys’ Club and the United Fund. He also held membership in the Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Chamber of Commerce; and Rotary International. Kelley
was on the executive committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and was a member of both the Missouri Chiefs of Police Association, and the Tennessee and Mississippi Peace Officers Association. Kelley received the J. Edgar Hoover Gold Medal for Outstanding Job Service in 1970, presented by the Veterans of Foreign Wars. He was named to the Presidential Advisory Committee in 1971. And, in 1972, Kelley received the Outstanding Officer of the Year Award, presented by the Metropolitan Chiefs and Sheriffs Association. In addition, Kelley served on the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals and on the FBI National Academy Review Committee, both during the period 1972-1973. He served as chairman of the Florida Governor’s Task Force to Evaluate Public Safety and Related Support Services at the 1972 National Political Convention. President Richard M. Nixon nominated Kelley Director of the FBI on June 7, 1973, upon the death of J. Edgar Hoover. The U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination and on July 9, 1973, Kelley was sworn in in Kansas City, Mo. Kelley presided over a major reorganization of the Bureau in the wake of the Watergate scandal. He instituted new guidelines mandated by the Attorney General to restrict domestic surveillance, but also made his own changes, including emphasizing the quality of cases solved rather than sheer quantity of investigations. Kelley received numerous honors and awards such as the Alumnus of the Year of the Kansas City
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School of Law at the University of Missouri; the 17th Annual Award from the Society of Professional Investigators; and Honorary Doctor of Laws Degrees from Baker University, Baldwin City, Kan., and Culver-Stockton College, Canton, Mo. Kelley also received the Harry S. Truman Commemorative Good Neighbor Award from the Eddie Jacobson Memorial Foundation in Kansas City. He participated in the John Findley Green Lecture Series at Westminster College in Fulton, Mo., and received an honorary doctoral of political science degree.
to the Indiana State Legislature where he served as House majority leader. Ruckelshaus served in a number of state offices before being appointed to the Justice Department. In 1970, Ruckelshaus became the first administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). He served in the EPA until his appointment as Acting Director. With the appointment of Clarence M. Kelley as Director, Ruckelshaus left to become Deputy Attorney General of the United States, but resigned on Oct. 23, 1973, instead of following President Richard M. Nixon’s order to fire Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor demanding access to White House tapes detailing the administration’s part in the Watergate cover-up. Ruckelshaus returned to private practice and in 1983, he returned to Washington as the fifth administrator of the EPA, serving there until 1985.
William Doyle Ruckelshaus Acting Director April 30, 1973 - July 9, 1973
William Doyle Ruckelshaus was born in Indianapolis, Ind., on July 24, 1932. He received a bachelor’s degree from Princeton University, graduating cum laude in 1957. He earned his J.D. from Harvard University in 1960. Ruckelshaus served in the U.S. Army for two years. In 1966, Ruckelshaus was elected
Louis Patrick Gray, III Acting Director May 3, 1972 - April 27, 1973
Louis Patrick Gray, III, was born in St. Louis, Mo. He attended schools in St. Louis and Houston, Texas. After high school he attended Rice University and then enrolled at the Naval Academy, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1940. The Navy commissioned Gray as a line officer and he served during World War II and the Korean War. Gray received a J.D. degree from George Washington University Law School in 1949, between his two tours of duty. He was admitted to practice before the Washington, D.C., Bar in 1949. He was also later admitted to practice law by the Connecticut State Bar, the Military Court of Appeals, the U.S. Court of Appeals, the U.S. Court of Claims, and the U.S. Supreme Court. After retiring from the Navy in 1960 as a captain, Gray served as military assistant to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1961, he entered private practice. Gray returned to the federal government and worked during the Nixon administration in several different positions during the late 1960s. In 1970, President Nixon named Gray Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division in the Department of Justice. In 1972, Gray was appointed Deputy Attorney General, but before the full Senate could confirm him, his nomination was withdrawn; Nixon instead designated him as Acting Director of the FBI. As Acting Director, he made a number of administrative changes to the FBI, including appointing the first female Special Agents since the 1920s, relaxing some of J. Edgar Hoover’s regulations on Agents’ dress and weight requirements, and hiring assistants from outside the FBI. In the wake of the Watergate investigation, Gray requested his name be withdrawn from consideration by Congress as the future FBI Director.
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Thank you for 100 years of service. Booz Allen Hamilton salutes the men and women of the Federal Bureau of Investigationâ€” past and presentâ€”for 100 years of exceptional service. The FBI is tasked with a mission of critical importance, and has earned a reputation for excellence and leadership within the global law enforcement community. Booz Allen is privileged to have partnered with the FBI on some of its most complex responsibilities and objectives, and through our work, we've come to know well the caliber of people who make up the FBI. Booz Allen, a global strategy and technology consulting firm, works with clients to deliver results that endure.
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John Edgar Hoover Director May 10, 1924 - May 2, 1972
John Edgar Hoover was born Jan. 1, 1895, and raised in Washington, D.C. After high school, he worked at the Library of Congress and attended night classes at George Washington University Law School. He was awarded his LL.B. in 1916 and his LL.M. in 1917. Hoover started his career with the Department of Justice on July 26, 1917, and rose quickly in government service. He led the Department’s General Intelligence Division (GID) and was named Assistant to the Attorney General in 1918. When the GID was moved in the BOI (Bureau of Investigation) in 1921, William Burns named Hoover BOI Assistant Director. In 1924, Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone appointed Hoover, only 29 years old, as Acting Director of the BOI and by December 1924, Hoover was named Director. The Bureau grew in responsibility and importance, becoming an integral part of the national government and an icon in American popular culture during
Hoover’s tenure. Hoover put into effect a number of institutional changes to correct criticisms made of his predecessor’s administration. Hoover fired incompetent and unqualified Agents. He ordered background checks, interviews, and physical testing for new Agent applicants and he revived the earlier Bureau policies of requiring legal or accounting training. In the 1930s, the FBI attacked violent gangster crime, which earned the Bureau a higher profile. Hoover recognized the attention and emphasized the Bureau’s need to maintain public confidence. The FBI also began implementing programs to professionalize U.S. law enforcement through training and forensic assistance. In 1935, Hoover established the FBI National Police Academy to train policemen. Graduates would then return home to train their peers. During his tenure, Hoover often complied with presidents’ requests for the Bureau to assist in collecting information on political rivals. Hoover shared whatever derogatory information on officials he uncovered in his searches. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Bureau, and Hoover, garnered headlines for its staunch efforts against Nazi and Communist espionage. During World War II, the Bureau took the lead in domestic counterintelligence, counterespionage, and countersabotage investigations. President Roosevelt also tasked the Bureau with running a foreign intelligence service in the Western Hemisphere. This operation was called the Special Intelligence Service. In the early years of the Cold War, the Bureau took on the added responsibility of investigating the backgrounds of government employees to ensure that foreign agents did not infiltrate the government. In the 1960s and early 1970s, the Bureau took on investigations in the field of civil rights and organized crime. The
threat of political violence and foreign espionage demanded much of the Bureau’s resources. After the 1970s, Hoover’s anticommunist crusade was widely known and often considered excessive. Hoover’s vendettas affected the public’s perception of him. With the American public’s skepticism toward the government following Watergate, many of Hoover’s achievements were overshadowed or ignored. Hoover led the FBI for 48 years.
William J. Burns Director Aug. 22, 1921 - June 14, 1924
William J. Burns was born in Baltimore, Md., and educated in Columbus, Ohio. As a young man, Burns performed well as a Secret Service agent and parleyed his reputation into the William J. Burns International Detective Agency. A combination of good casework and an instinct for publicity made Burns a
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national figure. His exploits made national news, New York newspaper gossip columns, and the pages of detective magazines, in which he published “true crime” stories based on his exploits. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty appointed Burns Director of the BOI on Aug. 22, 1921. Under Burns, the Bureau’s personnel shrank from its 1920 high of 1,000-plus to about 600 in 1923, but he also ensured the establishment of a training program for Special Agents. In 1924, at the request of Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stone, he resigned because of his connection with the Teapot Dome scandal that involved the secret leasing of naval oil reserve lands to private companies. Burns retired to Florida and published detective and mystery stories based on his long career for several years. He died in Sarasota, Fla., in April 1932.
as a Secret Service agent. Flynn gained recognition in 1911 when he successfully reorganized the New York City detective force and returned to the Secret Service as chief. Flynn served as Chief of the U.S. Railroad Secret Service during World War I, investigating threats of sabotage. In 1919, Flynn was named BOI’s Director. Attorney General Palmer praised his new appointee as “the leading, organizing detective of America ... Flynn is an anarchist chaser ... the greatest anarchist expert in the United States.” However, the investigations of radical activists and anarchists that took place under Flynn’s leadership, culminating in the “Palmer Raids” of January 1920, became increasingly controversial. On Sept. 27, 1921, Flynn resigned, saying he had a “private business matter to accept.” Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted the resignation immediately and appointed William J. Burns as his replacement, to take over on Aug. 22, 1921.
Before his appointment, Allen served as assistant in war matters to the Chief of the Bureau of Investigation. Allen’s resignation became effective June 30, 1919, when William J. Flynn replaced him.
Alexander Bruce Bielaski Director April 30, 1912 - Feb. 10, 1919
William J. Flynn Director July 1, 1919 - Aug. 21, 1921
William J. Flynn was born in New York City in 1867. He began his government career in 1897 after a public school education. His first assignment was
William E. Allen Acting Director Feb. 10, 1919 - June 30, 1919
In February 1919, William E. Allen of Texas began serving as Acting Director.
Alexander Bruce Bielaski was born in Montgomery County, Md. He received his law degree from George Washington University in 1904 and joined the Department of Justice. Like his predecessor, Bielaski worked his way up through the department. He served as a special examiner in Oklahoma and aided in the reorganization of its court system when the Oklahoma territory became a state. Returning to Washington, Bielaski entered the BOI and rose to become Finch’s Assistant. In this position, he was in charge of administrative matters for the Bureau. At the end of April 1912, Attorney General Wickersham appointed Bielaski to replace Finch. As chief, Bielaski oversaw a steady increase in the resources and responsibilities assigned to the Bureau.
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After leaving the Bureau in 1919, Bielaski entered into private law practice. According to The New York Times, while on a trip to Cuernavaca, Mexico, in 1921, Bielaski was kidnapped. He escaped three days later, saving himself and the $10,000 gathered to rescue him. Bielaski worked undercover as a Prohibition agent operating a decoy speakeasy in New York City. From 1929 to 1959, he was head of the National Board of Fire Underwriters team of arson investigators. In 1938, Bielaski served as President of the Society of Former Special Agents. He died in February 1964, at the age of 80.
Stanley W. Finch Director July 26, 1908 - April 30, 1912
Stanley W. Finch served as the first Director of the Bureau of Investigation. Finch was born in Monticello, N.Y., on July 20, 1872. He attended Baker University in Kansas, the Corcoran Scientific School in
Washington, D.C., and business colleges in Albany, N.Y., and Washington, D.C. In 1893, he accepted appointment as a Department of Justice clerk, where he worked off and on for 40 years. Finch also served as chief examiner from 1893 to 1908. While working in the Justice Department, Finch earned his LL.B. and LL.M. degrees from the National University Law School. The District of Columbia Bar admitted him to practice in 1911. As chief examiner, Finch advocated the creation of an investigative squad within the Justice Department, eventually becoming its first leader. Finch was assigned oversight of the newly organized Special Agent force that was created by Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte. He worked to put in place many policies and procedures that helped professionalize and organize the investigative unit. Finch had a particular interest in stopping “white slavery,” and lobbied Congress to pass the Mann Act, which made it a federal crime to transport women over state lines for immoral purposes. In 1912, he left the BOI and was named Special Commissioner for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic. In 1913, he became a special assistant to the Attorney General. From 1913 to the 1930s, Finch alternated between private employment – primarily in the novelty-manufacturing business – and positions in the Department of Justice. Finch retired from the department in 1940 and died in 1951.
100 Years of Protecting America
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The FBI in the Public Eye For 100 years, the Bureau has reflected – and often shaped – the American narrative By Craig Collins
he Bureau of Investigation created in 1908 was a small contingent of criminal investigators, focused on a narrow range of federal crimes that often flew under the radar of America’s collective consciousness: violations of banking statutes, land fraud, or antitrust violations, for example. The passage of the Mann Act in 1910 – which charged the Bureau with investigating cases of the transport over state lines of “any woman or girl for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery … or for any other immoral purpose” – apparently hinted at enough salaciousness to bump up the Bureau’s profile a bit, but for the most part, the Bureau’s work remained relatively obscure. The Bureau’s first taste of the limelight was a bitter one, and it came in the wake of the first major expansion of its mission. Charged with enforcing the Espionage, Selective Service, and Sabotage Acts passed following U.S. entry into World War I, the Bureau, under the impassioned leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, coordinated what became known as the “Palmer Raids.” In 30 U.S. cities, Bureau Agents and local law enforcement officers rounded up suspected anarchists and radicals. Now widely regarded as indiscriminate as well as poorly planned and executed, the Palmer Raids were roundly criticized, a high-profile misstep. Soon after the raids, during the notoriously corrupt administration of President Warren G. Harding, the Bureau received another black eye when Attorney General Harry Daugherty was accused of using federal investigators to intimidate senators who had exposed the Teapot Dome scandal. Many executive branch agencies were tainted by corruption during the Harding administration, but the FBI’s reputation seemed to suffer more damage than most; by 1924, when the young J. Edgar Hoover was named Director of the Bureau of Investigation, the agency had become symbolic of a government widely viewed as shadowy and dysfunctional. The Rise of the G-Man
As he assumed leadership of the Bureau, Hoover was specifically instructed by his boss, Attorney General Harlan
Fiske Stone, to focus on investigating crimes and to keep the Bureau out of the public eye. Hoover was in a unique position to elevate the Bureau’s crime-fighting status: At the urging of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the Justice Department had tasked the Bureau with administering the nationwide clearinghouse of fingerprint files. This new Identification Division offered invaluable assistance to state and local law enforcement officers, and made the Bureau indispensable to police work. With various other reforms, Hoover helped professionalize law enforcement to an unprecedented degree, developing a corps of college-educated Agents and analysts who solved crime through scientific inquiry. By the end of the 1920s, the Bureau had gained respect throughout much of America’s law enforcement community. In the early years of the Great Depression, however, the mass media – newspaper journalists and Hollywood filmmakers alike – reflected a darkening of the public mood. Author and historian Richard G. Powers, who has written about the FBI’s public image in The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide (2000), calls this time a “Cultural Depression,” during which America regarded celebrity criminals – gangsters such as Al Capone and John Dillinger – with awestruck ambivalence. The writing in American newspapers revealed an urban gangland that had achieved folkloric status, with rival chieftains battling for power as they tried to outrun the law. Whether they loved or hated them, Americans were certainly fascinated by gangsters; in 1931 alone, more than 50 gangster films hit U.S. theaters. More often than not, the heroes of these films were the criminals themselves, living lives of power, luxury, and absolute independence, while law enforcement officers tended to be portrayed as impotent or criminally corrupt. Little Caesar (1930), for example, starred Edward G. Robinson as gang leader Caesar Enrico Bandello, or “Rico,” who rises to power and meets his demise in a world devoid of order or moral authority. In The Public Enemy (1931), James Cagney plays Tommy Powers, the charismatic brute who becomes a gang leader by mowing down everyone in his path – before falling at the hands of a fellow gangster.
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Posters for a documentary-style short showing the inner workings of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
“Gangster movies of the 1930s,” wrote Powers, “revealed how much the image of the public enemy had become embedded in the popular imagination, had become a symbol of national defeat and despair. More than that, gangster movies showed that American popular culture understood the public enemy as a reproach to the times, and as a preview of what the future held should the nation’s morale and commitment to traditional values and institutions continue to decline.” Slowly – helped along by several crimes that shocked the public conscience, such as the Kansas City Massacre and the Lindbergh and Urschel kidnappings – American public opinion began to turn. The grassroots anticrime campaign that sprang up in communities across the nation was accompanied by government efforts to fight the crime wave – as well as a savvy public relations blitz by Hoover and Attorney General Homer S. Cummings. Cummings made the murder of FBI Agent Raymond S. Caffrey, killed in the Kansas City Massacre, into a rallying cry, declaring war on violent crime: a military engagement, he called it, between the nation’s law enforcement officials and “the underworld army.” Serially declaring each of these gangsters “Public Enemy No. 1,” Hoover’s Bureau – still a small corps of detectives, limited both by size and its statutory jurisdiction – hunted them down, one by one,
culminating in the July 1934 death of John Dillinger, who was killed while pulling a gun on surrounding Agents. While the highly publicized manhunts captured the public’s imagination, Cummings lobbied Congress for new anticrime legislation – including an expansion of FBI authority. It was George “Machine Gun” Kelly, according to legend, who first used the term “G-men” for Bureau Agents, and Cummings and Hoover took the moniker and ran with it, creating a smart (and smartly dressed) crime-fighting action hero to counter America’s gangland antiheroes. The Gman was everything the gangster was not: noble, intelligent, and courageous. While American newspapers breathlessly reported the FBI’s war on crime, Hoover and the Bureau, helped by sympathetic reporters such as The Washington Star’s Rex Collier, began to mold the narrative.
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by newspaper journalists and gangsters, Before long, Hollywood had joined marked a turning point in the relationthe chorus, in part because it had been ship between the FBI and the American threatened by religious groups with a public. Despite the ups and downs the boycott on films that glorified vice and Bureau’s reputation would later undercrime. The 1935 film “G” Men, in which go, the image of the heroic, intelligent, James Cagney played a heroic FBI Agent and trustworthy Agent has endured. fighting to bring murderers to justice, “I’ll give Hoover credit for this,” was the first and most important of the said Fox. “The idea that a law enforceG-man films of the 1930s. “G” Men is ment organization needs a good public an anthem to the federal Agent, in which image in order to do its job I think is Cagney’s Brick Davis, an incorruptvery much true. Without public trust, ible former lawyer, explicitly bemoans you don’t have people willing to come the statutory constraints placed on him – such as his inability to carry firearms The 1930s saw the creation of the G- forward and tell you the things you (which most Agents did by then anyway, man, who quickly came to be respected need to know to do your job. If the and which was remedied by Congress as a heroic, trustworthy, and very public doesn’t trust us, David Kaczynski doesn’t tell us: ‘You know, that soon after) – while becoming an avatar capable figure. manifesto that was just published in of FBI values: teamwork, discipline, and The New York Times sounds a lot like organization. Brick Davis became the arthe stuff my brother writes’ … Without that trust, it’s a chetype for the next 20 years’ worth of Hollywood’s law enlot harder to do the job.” forcement heroes, and the line between G-man and HollyAmerica’s fascination with the G-man wasn’t limited to wood actor become somewhat blurred later that year when portrayals in movies and radio. The 1930s and early 1940s Melvin Purvis, the Agent who had orchestrated the capture were a Golden Age for the FBI’s public image. The Gof Dillinger, left the FBI for show business. man was featured in countless pulp magazines, including Hoover played no role in crafting the message of “G” two monthlies dedicated almost exclusively to the Bureau’s Men, but as the FBI gained stature, he gained power and inadventures: G-Men and The Feds. Members of G-Men’s ofdependence within the government, and soon had a hand ficial club were issued bronze badges that bore the inscripin several cultural offerings. At his urging, Collier and antion: “G-Men Club: Special Agent.” other journalist, Courtney Ryley Cooper, turned several Perhaps the most interesting cultural phenomena of the FBI “Interesting Case” memos – which the Bureau used 1930s and 1940s were the Junior G-Man clubs that popped to present its perspective on specific cases to the media up from coast to coast as a law enforcement-themed alterna– into radio shows. The result was the immensely popular tive to the Boy Scouts. Melvin Purvis became chief of the G-Men, which later, after the official FBI connection was sevPost Toasties Junior G-Men, hosting a weekly radio show ered, became Gang Busters, with each episode dramatizing an and urging young members to redeem cereal box tops for authentic police case history, and ending with an appeal to the public’s help in catching a fugitive. Gang Busters was immensely popular, running continuously for the next 21 years. Playing off the success of the Dick Tracy comic serial, Hoover and Collier also teamed up for a comic strip series, War on Crime, which opened in 45 papers nationwide in 1936. various items of FBI paraphernalia: handcuffs, badges, cap Hoover himself maintained control over every detail of the pistols, microscopes, and more. Hollywood caught the Junior comic strip, which made his Agents – and the Director himG-Man wave with movie serials that lasted into the 1950s, self – the heroes of an epic chronicle, kicked off by the Kansas and several books were published specifically for the juvenile City Massacre and culminating in the Dillinger manhunt. market. There were even six competing series of bubble gum According to Dr. John Fox, the FBI’s own historian, cards printed in the 1930s, devoted to the FBI and picturing Hoover’s skill and passion in getting in front of public Agents, public enemies, and iconic moments in FBI history. opinion, rather than allowing the Bureau to be defined
The G-man was everything the gangster was not: noble, intelligent, and courageous.
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World War II and the Cold War: The Domestic Front
Prior the United States’ entry into World War II, the FBI worked to dampen the kind of hysteria that had afflicted the public in World War I, but these efforts were foiled by one of its own Agents, Leon G. Turrou, who had actively investigated Nazi spy rings during the 1930s. Turrou published a sensational account of his work, Confessions of a Nazi Spy, which was promptly made into a movie of the same name starring Edward G. Robinson. Hoover, outraged, began a public relations campaign in which he acknowledged the existence of foreign spies, but advised the public that the Bureau had things under control. The 1930s gang wars, as well as World War II, made the battle against evil into a relatively simple matter: The enemy was confronted directly, with force. The later transition into a more ambiguous – and, given the existence of the atomic bomb, more frightening – Cold War with a former Soviet ally played out gradually in the FBI’s public relations, and over time, the image of the G-man underwent a subtle transformation. Hoover reasserted control over the FBI’s public image with the 1945 launch of the only radio series to carry the official approval of the FBI: This Is Your FBI. The show’s producer/director, Jerry Devine, was given closed case files as the basis for its weekly stories, which were presented in a semi-documentary style that featured dramatic newsreeltype music and a narrative voice that introduced different chapters in the evolution of a case. Devine himself was even allowed to attend a two-week training session at the FBI Academy in order to get a feel for the Bureau’s inner workings, and made regular trips to Washington throughout the series’ run. This Is Your FBI was a huge hit for the young American Broadcasting Network, and ran for eight years, going off the air in 1953.
Melvin H. Purvis, Jr., and J. Edgar Hoover after Dillinger’s capture and death. Purvis was the FBI Agent who led the investigation that led to Dillinger’s death.
radio program, wrote Powers, began to portray Agents “who acted less like action heroes than social workers, who through sympathy and understanding instead of guns or fingerprints caught and reformed criminals.”
The final episodes of This Is Your FBI were the first to indicate a refinement of the image Hoover wanted to present of the Cold War FBI Agent. While postwar Hollywood continued to crank out retreads of the G-men formula or spy thrillers about fighting off the Red Menace, Hoover’s
In the 1959 film The FBI Story, based on the book written by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Don Whitehead, Jimmy Stewart, as FBI Agent Chip Hardesty, plays this new embodiment of the sensitive, cerebral G-man. Aimed at a mass-market family audience, the film offers a hero for the domestic
The image of the FBI Agent it presented – collegial, avuncular, upbeat – had reached a kind of peak among the American public. It was relentlessly positive and uncomplicated – and, given the political turmoil facing the nation, it was doomed to end.
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1950s: a paragon of fatherhood and marital fidelity who has worked for the Bureau from its early, creaky beginnings up to its 1950s heyday. The film’s theme was a perfect distillation of Hoover’s own assertion, in his 1958 book Masters of Deceit, that the threat of communism would be defeated by faith, not bullets. This new FBI Agent’s most powerful weapon against communism wasn’t his gun or his microscope or the Bureau’s vaunted organizational prowess, but rather the simple American values that made the United States a superior nation: love of family, friends, and country; generosity to strangers; the worship of God; and fidelity to all. The Bureau’s last major involvement in mass entertainment, the television series The FBI (1965-1974), starring Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., carried parts of this image into the 1970s. The Agents of Zimbalist’s FBI didn’t get into shootouts with gangsters or play cat-and-mouse with dangerous spies; they mostly worked together like a family to solve cases, under the watchful guidance of their patriarch, Zimbalist’s Inspector Lewis Erskine. The show, down to its casting decisions, was completely controlled by the Bureau, and each episode opened and closed with the image of the Bureau’s official seal. Once a month, the show ran a mug shot of one of America’s most wanted, and appealed to the public for help in catching the fugitive. By the time of Hoover’s death in 1972, The FBI was one of the most popular shows on television, attracting 40 million viewers every week. The image of the FBI Agent it presented – collegial, avuncular, upbeat – had reached a kind of peak among the American public. It was relentlessly positive and uncomplicated – and, given the political turmoil facing the nation, it was doomed to end.
From Watergate to a “Postmodern” FBI
Increasingly, throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s, Hoover found his old-school, law-and-order values in conflict with a younger generation of Americans who were outraged about the conduct of the Vietnam War and the
continuing struggles of some groups for their civil rights. The reputation of the U.S. government – and by association, the FBI – suffered a prompt and total collapse that began with the 1971 revelation of the Bureau’s domestic counterintelligence programs (COINTELPRO) and ended with the Watergate scandal. The American public, and especially members of the media, were more likely than ever, in the aftermath of Vietnam, to assume the worst of their government, and the FBI became a common target for scorn. “All of the sudden,” said Fox, “the FBI’s image in popular culture plummets, along with that of the government and the press and pretty much every major institution, everything from churches to the military to the presidency. America really has a sense of crisis. President Jimmy Carter called it a ‘malaise,’ and certainly it was, at least as a descriptive term, very appropriate.” Not since the Palmer Raids had the Bureau been viewed so negatively. In films such as Dog Day Afternoon (1975), and in novels such as Irving Wallace’s The R Document (1976), and Robert Ludlum’s The Chancellor Manuscript (1977), the FBI was portrayed not as the embodiment of American values, but as the sinister antithesis of truth and goodness. The 1977 film The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover is a campy farce that openly mocks the entire history of the FBI, ridiculing Hoover and some of the Bureau’s most legendary cases. The FBI’s image had been taken out of its hands, perhaps permanently. What arose from the ashes of the 1970s was a more complex, more nebulous picture of the FBI than had ever existed. Throughout much of the 1980s, the Bureau’s depictions in popular culture were overwhelmingly negative. The 1988 film Mississippi Burning, which shows a group of Agents working to solve the church bombing cases of the 1960s, offered a mixed portrait of the Agents involved – they solved their cases, but only by acting in ways that were sometimes brutal and illegal – but the film
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Gillian Anderson in her role as Dana Scully of The X-Files. The popular television show and movies have presented two sides of the FBI’s pop culture image. was attacked nevertheless by some FBI critics for presenting too positive an image of the Bureau. By the 1990s, the FBI’s image began to seem as if it were being randomly assembled from the bits and pieces of its former public selves. Both Powers and Fox described it as a “postmodern” FBI, combining equal parts of paranoia and hero worship. The year 1991, for example, saw the release of two feature films that focused on the work of the FBI, but could not have been more different in their treatment: Oliver Stone’s JFK, which was an extreme portrayal of the FBI as a conspiratorial tool of power-mad fascists, and The Silence of the Lambs, which starred Jodie Foster as the idealistic and sincere young Special Agent, Clarice Starling, whose use of the Bureau’s psychological profiling techniques guided her pursuit of a killer. Powers, in his essay for The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide, noted that the film caused a spike in the Bureau’s applications for appointments as Special Agents, especially from young women. At about the same time as these films were released, the television series Twin Peaks premiered on the ABC Network. Twin Peaks was a groundbreaking series for many reasons, not least of which was the surreal approach taken by its creator, David Lynch. The series’ star, Kyle MacLachlan, portrayed Agent Dale Cooper as someone who avoided the use of science and technology altogether, instead relying on his own intuition – and often, mystical trance-like states – to find the truth. “James Cagney and Jimmy Stewart once wielded their microscopes like witch doctors,” wrote Powers. “In contrast, Agent Cooper seems oblivious to any difference between scientific criminology and his own way of sorting
out suspects by tossing rocks at a bottle while calling out their names.” Twin Peaks – even today, a series with a dedicated cult following – proved too strange for a mass media audience, lasting only two seasons. It was canceled in 1991. Another series featuring the FBI – The X-Files, starring David Duchovny and Gillian Anderson – enjoyed more mainstream success, running on the FOX Network from 1993 to 2002. The show’s widespread popularity seemed to occur almost in spite of the fact that it shared much of Twin Peaks’s fascination with the occult: Agent Fox Mulder (Duchovny) relies almost entirely on intuition while investigating rumors of alien abduction, demon fetal harvests, and widespread government conspiracy, with Agent Dana Scully (Anderson) serving both as his foil and partner. Mulder both rejects Scully’s reliance on empirical science and regards her as the only person in the world worthy of his trust. The two of them are perhaps a perfect illustration of the yin and yang of the FBI’s pop culture image. “It’s almost an ironic image,” said Fox, “because you’ve got these contradictory aspects of it. Although Mulder and Scully come out positively, the Bureau perhaps as a whole is a little more shadowy. Yeah, you’ve got these dedicated truth-seekers, but their superiors are working behind closed doors and not necessarily to be trusted. You can’t even trust Special Agent in Charge Skinner [Mulder and Scully’s supervisor].” It may be that this image of the FBI Agent – the humble truth-seeker who battles conspiracies both within and without the Bureau and the government, using whatever works (whether textbook science or New Age clairvoyance) – is the one that will prove more lasting than any of the others the Bureau has experienced in the last century. Then again, it may not. “Paradoxically,” Powers wrote in 2000, “the country is more deeply ambiguous about science and power than ever, just as it has always been uneasy about authority, law, and government. This paradox makes the FBI’s image in American popular culture an unmatched gauge for taking the measure of America’s attitude toward government – and toward itself.” In spite of, or perhaps because of, all that has happened since Powers wrote these words – September 11, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq – they seem even more true today, as the FBI celebrates its first century. Source: The FBI in American Popular Culture, by Richard G. Powers, in The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide, edited by Athan G. Theoharis. 2000, Checkmark Books, New York.
Courtesy of 20th Century Fox
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national security branch
Intelligence Gathering Propels the FBI The National Security Branch builds upon a powerful law enforcement heritage By Clarence A. Robinson, JR.
ramatic shifts within the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) serve to strengthen its ability to combat terrorism. The use of intelligence information woven throughout every program and operation is behind the Bureau’s ability to identify, disrupt, and dismantle terrorist networks. The FBI employs an enterprise-wide approach in understanding threats, and in strategically targeting its resources to dismantle these dangers. The Bureau maximizes intelligence gathered from its investigations to develop a greater awareness of risks facing the nation. By exploiting all intelligence collected, the Bureau can stay ahead of terrorists, deliberately and strategically deciding where and when to take action. Both law enforcement and intelligence tools play major roles in enhancing FBI capabilities. A significant transformation, implemented in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, integrates intelligence and operational elements to counter the most critical hazards. Among major Bureau modifications is the formation of the National Security Branch (NSB). This Branch encompasses the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division, Counterintelligence Division, Directorate of Intelligence, Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, and Terrorist Screening Center.
additional actions were necessary to meet evolving challenges to U.S. national security. Based on recommendations from the Commission on Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), the president directed the Attorney General to implement a National Security Service within the FBI. Before September 11, the Bureau often investigated crimes after the fact. Today, intelligence drives all operations to stop criminals and terrorists before they can strike. For FBI purposes, “intelligence” refers to vital information about those who would cause harm. “Some 2,100 intelligence analysts have been hired, and Field Intelligence Groups [FIGs] have been formed in each of the Bureau’s 56 field offices,” said Philip Mudd, Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB. “FIG Agents, analysts, surveillance experts, and language specialists collect and analyze intelligence data. They use intelligence capabilities to connect cases and individuals, and to identify gaps in the Bureau’s knowledge,” Mudd said. “This information also helps anticipate problems that may be on the horizon.” The FIGs are structured to better coordinate with each other, with street Agents, with analysts, and Agents in FBI Headquarters. A scalable
A significant transformation, implemented in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, integrates intelligence and operational elements to counter the most critical hazards. The FBI has always used intelligence in criminal and national security investigations, according to senior Bureau officials. That is how Nazi spies were thwarted during World War II, Soviet espionage during the Cold War, and La Cosa Nostra in the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless, in June 2005, President George W. Bush determined that
model enables each FIG to increase collaboration between intelligence and operations, and provide accountability for intelligence gathering, analyses, use, and production. Over the past five years, the Bureau developed new techniques, new sources, and new partnerships to better understand the scope and nature of terrorism. The number
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national security branch
DoD photo by Sgt. Carmen L. Burgess
Two days after the September 11 attacks, former Secretary of the Army Thomas E. White (in white shirt) and Maj. Gen. James T. Jackson, USA, former Commanding General, U.S. Army Military District of Washington, are briefed by FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) officials at the crash site of the terrorist attack on the Pentagon. Since 2001, the number of JTTFs has gone from 33 to more than 100.
of Joint Terrorism Task Forces ( JTTFs), as an example, has increased from 33 to more than 100. These JTTFs combine the resources of the FBI, CIA, Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), Army Criminal Investigation Division (CID), and state and local police. The FBI’s JTTFs are on the nation’s front lines – small units of highly trained, locally based, passionately committed investigators, analysts, linguists, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) experts from dozens of law enforcement and intelligence agencies, Mudd said. “These JTTFs may also include foreign partners as well as CIA and other
intelligence community representatives. The units do not concentrate only on national security problems but also may assist with something like organized crime, which could have its roots reaching into areas such as Eastern Europe.” The JTTFs chase down leads, gather evidence, make arrests, provide security for special events, conduct training, collect and share intelligence, and respond to threats and incidents at a moment’s notice. Based in locations nationwide, there is at least one JTTF in each of the FBI’s 56 field offices. These task forces have played active and decisive roles in breaking up and arresting widespread terror cells from Oregon to New York to northern Virginia, Mudd said.
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U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Adrian Cadiz
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An interagency National JTTF, or NJTTF, working out of FBI Headquarters, generally coordinates efforts, making certain that information and intelligence flow freely among local JTTFs, Mudd explained. “Comprised of some 35 government agencies, NJTTF representatives are from intelligence, law enforcement, diplomatic, defense, public safety, and homeland security communities.” With 3,723 members throughout the country – more than four times the number prior to September 11 – JTTFs include a total of 2,196 FBI Special Agents, 838 state and local law enforcement officers, and 689 professionals from other government agencies (the Department of Homeland Security, the CIA, and the Transportation Security Administration, to name a few). “Information sharing around the world looks a lot different than it did seven years ago, but there is always room for improvement,” Mudd observed. FBI Agents also are embedded within U.S. intelligence organizations and various major military commands, including combat forces in Afghanistan and Iraq, Mudd pointed out. The Bureau shares its counterterrorism, intelligence and law enforcement activities with those commands. In turn, the Department of Defense (DoD) and subordinate theater-wide organizations share counterterrorism strategies and initiatives with the FBI. Hundreds of FBI employees have been embedded on a rotating basis with combat units in theater over the last four years. FBI Agents in combat zones join forces with the military to interrogate detainees, collect biometric data, analyze pocket litter and explosive devices, and investigate terrorist financing. For example, Agents and linguists work in tandem with the military to interview detainees and collect fingerprints and DNA samples. The days of rolled ink prints on index cards are long gone. Today, 10 prints can be electronically captured in less than 15 seconds. Prints are run via satellite against more than 50 million prints in the Bureau’s database and a response is received in less than 2 minutes. Agents and analysts exploit evidence from detainees to connect cases, individuals, and organizations. FBI Agents may travel with the military to conduct nighttime raids, collect intelligence, and secure terrorist safe houses. A handwritten note, as an example, could lead to a training camp, or a phone number might provide a link to identify a terrorist operative. One bit of evidence could be the key in preventing an attack and protecting soldiers on the front lines, Mudd emphasized. “The Bureau believes that having Agents where the action is helps identify, evaluate, and resolve terrorist threats
An Agent from the Federal Bureau of Investigation screens a pile of dirt and sand from a possible burial site in Qwesat, Iraq, Nov. 25, 2007, during a search of the area for possible remains of Spc. Alex Jimenez and Pvt. Byron Fouty of the 10th Mountain Division, who were both abducted May 12, 2007.
faster and more efficiently than ever before,” Mudd said. “Having investigative expertise on the ground with combat forces also provides forensics, developing evidence that could lead to terrorist identification and capture. “It is fundamental to our mission and vision that we not only ensure enforcement of federal law violations in the United States, but also provide overall security for the nation. This includes preemption of terrorism,” he said. “With this as a mindset, there are a lot of national security organizational changes that compliment our traditional law enforcement mission. With a greater focus on intelligence, we can be preemptive and thus provide greater security.
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That’s why some 2,000 plus FBI intelligence analysts examine what is taking place and help us understand the undercurrents – not just as discrete data points but translating the data into information and actionable intelligence.” The national security mission also brings essential changes to FBI Agent basic training, Mudd said. “Not only are new prospective Agents, including analysts, entering the FBI Academy at Quantico, Va., exposed to traditional criminal law enforcement training, they also receive a heavy emphasis on counterintelligence and counterterrorism. This exposure helps provide a more thorough understanding of a vastly different kind of adversary. The concept is to blend law enforcement and domestic intelligence to help defeat terrorism.” Part of the FBI’s national security mission also involves substantive organizational changes. These adjustments encompass the ways in which resources, including human resources, are allocated, Mudd continued. “We are transitioning a lot of our resources over to work against national security targets in areas of counterterrorism and counterintelligence, siphoning some Agents from criminal investigations. There is, however, rough Agent parity, with slightly more than half of our Agents involved in criminal activities and the remainder in national security investigations.” Appointed in January 2008, Arthur M. Cummings II heads the NSB as the FBI’s Executive Assistant Director. A Mandarin Chinese speaker and former U.S. Navy SEAL, he is the official responsible for coordination and liaison with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and the rest of the intelligence community. A graduate of the University of California, San Diego, Cummings became an FBI Agent in 1987 and has been assigned to five field offices, and to the counterterrorism division at Bureau Headquarters on three occasions. He managed counterterrorism, counterintelligence, violent crimes, and drug programs at several field offices and has deployed overseas to support several counterterrorism investigations. Cummings played a critical role in the reorganization of the counterterrorism division at FBI Headquarters. He also developed and managed Bureau strategy and operations directed at al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations and networks. His Bureau accomplishments brought him the Attorney General’s Award for Exceptional Service and the 2006 Presidential Rank Award for Meritorious Executive. As one of Cummings’ two deputies, Mudd served as an intelligence community professional before joining the
FBI in 2005. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from Villanova University and a Master of Arts from the University of Virginia. Previously serving as deputy director to the director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorism Center, Mudd earned a dozen intelligence community honors, including the William L. Langer Award for Outstanding Leadership; the George H.W. Bush Award for Excellence in Counterterrorism; and the CIA’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal. He also served at the National Security Council as director for Gulf Affairs, Near East, and North Africa Affairs. Since joining the CIA in 1985, his work emphasized terrorism in the Middle East. Mudd’s counterpart as the NSB’s other Associate Executive Assistant Director is Thomas J. Harrington. He began his FBI career as a Special Agent in 1984, and received the Presidential Rank Award for Distinguished Executive in 2006. A graduate of Mount St. Mary’s College, Emmitsburg, Md., with a master’s degree in banking from the University of Delaware, his role includes leading the Bureau’s Strategic Execution Team (SET). This team builds and accelerates efforts to enhance the FBI’s performance in the national security area. Harrington’s FBI background includes managing organized crime, violent crimes, and major offenders’ programs in the Philadelphia Division. SET helps drive implementation of changes across the Bureau. This team involves approximately 90 Agents, analysts, and other professional staff from FBI Headquarters and 27 field offices. SET efforts are being focused in three critical areas: intelligence operations, human capital, and program management. The NSB’s goals are to develop a comprehensive understanding of threats and to penetrate national and transnational networks seeking to harm the United States. These networks include terrorist organizations, foreign intelligence services, those that seek to proliferate weapons of mass destruction, and criminal enterprises. “There is also an imperative on intelligence reporting at all Bureau levels and that is the job of the field divisions, not only to execute well but to ensure that we know all of what we know in areas that are increasingly national, international, and networked,” Mudd stated. “How would we know what our adversaries look like if Topeka doesn’t talk to Albuquerque with valuable intelligence reporting? There is a much greater reporting emphasis on everything from terror financing to organizational structures, so that, again, all hands know what we know, constantly adding updated information. At least to me, as
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about what information may be worth disseminating throughout the intelligence community. These questions include whether to ask the source base for additional case information, and, increasingly, what the FBI calls the domain management initiative, Mudd said. Domain questions are often asked even before an organization may learn that it is being targeted From left to right: Arthur M. Cummings II, FBI’s Executive Assistant Director, head of NSB; by a foreign intelligence service. Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB Philip Mudd; Thomas J. Harrington, Associate Executive Assistant Director for the NSB. These groups often include universities conducting research and industries involved in cutting-edge technology developan intelligence professional, this is very fundamental – enment. Targeted technologies may, indeed, be sensitive but terprise-wide reporting for both terror and criminal acunclassified and in the early stages of development. tivities. People outside the FBI could look at the formation “The focus of the domain management initiative is preof the NSB and the internal changes and believe that they emptive in nature and simply good security practices,” are a consolidation of national security elements within Mudd explained. Companies could be developing advancthe Bureau, but that would be misleading,” Mudd said. es in technologies that would later become very sensitive “This is an enterprise-wide proposition to simultaneously when applied to military programs. “The Bureau doesn’t address all of the issues, criminal and national security. wait until those technologies are classified before talking “With the increasingly global nature of terrorism, the to their security directors and asking pertinent questions FBI now has agents operating at 60 overseas posts, more – have you seen any suspicious activity? Tell me how you than U.S. main offices,” he said. “There are numerous train your personnel to make certain they are cognizant that teams working in the field, including combat areas, with they could become targets at conferences or trade shows? the U.S. military and intelligence agencies. Country teams What aberrations are being observed in your computer sysoperating out of U.S. embassies from London to Rome tems that might indicate you are subjected to phishing?” to Saudi Arabia include FBI Agents, operating under the
aegis of legal attachés. This team approach also emphasizes a greater responsibility to share information. “Several dozen Agents are detailed from the Bureau to U.S. intelligence organizations, such as the CIA. There, they not only share information, but also examine intelligence input from an FBI perspective, or optic, the way the Bureau views certain problems. This intelligence approach is, in turn, pushed out domestically to the field,” Mudd noted. The Bureau continues to fine-tune its FIGs, which also must repeatedly ask questions, not only about what may be happening in regard to specific cases, but also questions
The FIGs also have a responsibility to pull from cases information that offers intelligence value and to push this information across the field division, to look across its domain and understand the situation well enough to be preemptive. “But because terrorism is an asymmetric threat, we cannot focus only on what an adversary might be doing or what industrial widgets are being hunted and how they might be targeted. In this counterintelligence area, the threat may not only be against facilities, but also students or professors at academic conferences. In an open society, it is difficult to determine which areas to be most concerned about,” Mudd continued.
Courtesy of FBI
The NSB’s goals are to develop a comprehensive understanding of threats and to penetrate national and transnational networks seeking to harm the United States.
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“Our adversaries are not stupid. They realize that instead of targeting hard research at the classified level, they can gather information on technologies at the unclassified level, which, within a few years, could become highly classified – information in areas such as new kinds of metals, or metallurgy, is an example,” Mudd stated. “Information accessed through the Internet also could provide trends in metals research and where the technology might be headed. The government could be paying for this research in five years. The concept is for the FBI to become involved now, before the damage is done.” Domain management is a methodological approach by the FBI that defines the national security mission, and by extension, criminal and cyber missions. As intelligence expands within the FBI beyond case-driven investigations, the focus is to remain ahead of the threat, Mudd disclosed. “The goal of the domain management effort is to develop a comprehensive understanding of an organization’s threats and vulnerabilities, so that managers can effectively deploy resources for the greatest impact. Our focus is on building relationships in business and academia through alliances, and the Bureau has secured the cooperation of a number of major aerospace and defense contractors,” Mudd said. Combining the national security workforce and mission under one leadership umbrella enhances FBI performance. NSB provides an opportunity to leverage resources from the U.S. intelligence community, as well as federal state, local, and tribal law enforcement partners, with the top priority the prevention of another terrorist attack.
The FBI’s Strategic Information Operations Center A vital asset in protecting America By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
national, multi agency command post, a beehive of activity, instantly gears up to meet crises at a moment’s notice. This Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Strategic Information Operations Center buzzes around the clock as the nerve center for U.S. intelligence – designed to help prevent acts of terrorism. Deep in the FBI’s Headquarters, the Strategic Information Operations Center, or SIOC, is busy, with some 57 people from 38 U.S. agencies – law enforcement, diplomatic, defense, public safety, and homeland security – always on duty. Functioning with the National Joint Terrorism Task Force (NJTTF), the SIOC brings people together from throughout the FBI and every U.S. intelligence agency to help collect and process terrorist information. Each U.S. intelligence agency SIOC representative is assembled in one location, hooked into his own and FBI intelligence databases. The NJTTF and SIOC have a universe of terrorist information available at the fingertips of intelligence officials – to share, to query, to coordinate, to answer questions, and to give direction to Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) spread around the country. Using the concept of fusion, terrorism intelligence is instantly shared vertically from FBI Headquarters to the JTTFs, and horizontally to all NJTTF agencies. A typical day’s activities in SIOC are long, intense, and often rewarding. Each morning at 5:00 a.m., the hot issues from multiple sources are assembled and circulated for everyone in the center to digest, process, and query. By 8:00 a.m., there is a small coordination meeting with the Counterterrorism (CT) Watch and the center’s supervisors for the day’s briefings. At 9:30 a.m., all communications devices are turned off – computers and telephones – to hold an intense formatted briefing. Input is solicited from everyone in the room on all of the “hot” issues and the breaking news from each person’s organization. A detailed briefing is conducted by the CT Watch on the current threat stream; questions are fielded; and strategies and logistics discussed. Afterward, work continues in the SIOC with items of interest transmitted to various home agencies. Answers to questions these agencies have asked, in turn, are relayed back. Agency databases are queried to answer thousands of questions from
far-flung JTTFs. Those assembled in the SIOC also coordinate special JTTF projects, unleashing all of the task forces to address an issue, fill an intelligence gap, solve a problem, or activate a single JTTF to address a local threat. The task forces, in turn, look for patterns from collected data to identify potential terrorists and ask questions of specific industries about suspicious behavior, as examples. Within minutes after the September 11 attacks, the SIOC was operational. Efforts began with the search and rescue mission, as SIOC provided multi agency analytical, logistical, and administrative support for teams on the ground in New York, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon. As the days passed, the focus shifted from rescue to one of crime scenes at the sites, as the tedious process of evidence collection began. Soon, the focus in the SIOC again shifted to a large-scale global terrorism investigation. Continually focusing on terrorism, the SIOC is not just standing at the ready in case of attacks. Like the rest of the FBI and the intelligence community, the center works to prevent them through its 24/7 availability. The solution involves information-sharing efforts to process and provide leads and tips, often submitted through the FBI’s Web site. The SIOC facility is approximately 40,000 square feet (30,000 for the center itself and 10,000 for an Information Systems Support, or ISS, area); seats 380 in the center and 50 in the ISS; and 20 rooms support operations, including briefing theaters, watch floor, and control room. Equipment includes 1,110 telephones lines (35 miles worth); 60 miles of fiber optic cable; 225 computer terminals, with access to three local area networks – the FBINET, the Internet and the FBI Intelligence Information System – and eight large video display screens. The FBI is keenly aware that every agency represented in the SIOC plays a critical role in combating terrorism. The facility is both a crisis management center, supporting the exercise of operational oversight, and an information-processing center. SIOC can gear up at a moment’s notice to centrally manage a major emergency of any kind, and simultaneously several small crises. With the daily specter of possible terrorist strikes, cyber attacks, and other global crimes, the SIOC is a valuable asset in protecting America.
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The Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate Combating the terrorist WMD threat
By Clarence A. Robinson, JR.
hwarting the acquisition and use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist adversaries is the top priority for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The National Counterterrorism Center’s threat assessment confirms that terrorists will seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against Americans at home and abroad for the foreseeable future, and the Bureau is bringing all of its prodigious intelligence and counterintelligence resources and those of the intelligence community to bear in efforts to foil such attempts. The FBI’s National Security Branch (NSB) integrated various components into a Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (WMDD) in 2006. Once spread throughout the Bureau by capabilities, the directorate is now formed into key functional sections. This WMDD integrates and links the FBI’s necessary counterterrorism, intelligence, counterintelligence, and scientific and technological components to accomplish the Bureau’s overall anti-WMD mission. This new WMDD structure provides flexibility for growth and development, and its design also allows for optimal coordination with interagency partners. “The theft of sensitive technologies doesn’t make news like a terrorist bomb, but it’s a grave threat that we take very seriously,” said Dr. Vahid Majidi, who heads the WMDD. “It’s all about prevention – making sure our technologies don’t come back to hurt us or another country one day. The directorate assigns specific program responsibilities and provides a mechanism to perform essential capabilities: intelligence; countermeasures; preparedness; assessment and response; investigative; science and technology support; and policy and planning.” The WMDD’s vision is to eliminate the illicit use of nuclear, radiological, biological, or chemical materials and devices. The directorate’s mission is to prevent such attacks,
identify and respond to these threats, and fully coordinate the investigative response. This approach involves integrating intelligence and leading law enforcement operations to identify, detect, and disrupt WMD possibilities. “For sheer devastation, damage, and loss, few threats fall into the same class as nuclear terrorism. Few threats strike such fear in the hearts of the public. And few threats are so appealing to terrorists around the world, for the same reason,” FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, told Global Initiative Nuclear Terrorism Conference attendees in Miami, Fla. “It has been said that the September 11 attacks were a ‘failure of imagination.’ We cannot fail to imagine the consequences of a nuclear terrorist attack. Nor can we fail to imagine that there are those for whom such an event is an end game. Prevention must be our end game.” By some estimates, there is enough highly enriched uranium in global stockpiles to construct thousands of nuclear weapons, Mueller pointed out. And it is safe to assume that there are many individuals who would not think twice about using such weapons. “The economics of supply and demand dictate that someone, somewhere, will provide nuclear material to the highest bidder, and that material will end up in the hands of terrorists,” Mueller added. “And al Qaeda has demonstrated a clear intent to acquire WMDs. In 1993, Osama bin Laden attempted to buy uranium from a source in the Sudan. He has stated that it is al Qaeda’s duty to acquire WMDs. And he has made repeated recruiting pitches for experts in chemistry, physics, and explosives to join his terrorist movement,” Mueller said. “Unfortunately, al Qaeda is not the only U.S. concern,” he continued. “We face threats from other terrorist cells around the world, and from homegrown terrorists who are not affiliated with al Qaeda, but who are inspired by its message of hatred and violence.”
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FEMA News photo by Jocelyn Augustion
Photos courtesy of FBI
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Clockwise from left: FBI Agents brief a FEMA Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) team from nearby Montgomery County, Md., before entering the Pentagon crash site in Arlington, Va., Sept. 12, 2001; an FBI SWAT team member is checked for possible radiological contamination as part of a staged drill at the Orange Bowl in Miami to show the basics of response to a threat involving a weapon of mass destruction; a member of the FBI Hazardous Materials Response Team uses a long pole to safely collect evidence related to a “dirty bomb” scenario in Miami during the FBI’s Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Law Enforcement Conference.
Within the U.S. government, the FBI has been assigned responsibility for critical Render Safe Program (RSP) operations against WMDs. This responsibility encompasses the national capital region, and extends RSP operations against WMDs throughout the remainder of the United States. The program’s mission includes both tactical and technical response to incidents involving WMDs within the United States and its territories. Developments of robust RSP crisis-response contingencies require essential command and control capabilities. Command and control provide the means for RSP deployments by the Bureau’s WMDD experts, and provides the FBI and U.S. leaders with information required to make time-critical decisions. The WMDD was created to better integrate and leverage FBI counter-proliferation and WMD intelligence analysis and prevention programs. Counter-proliferation activities are key in preventing an adversary’s access to WMD materials and technologies. Indeed, counter-proliferation is a complicated business that requires an understanding of intricate export laws, international diplomatic sensitivities, and a variety of complex technologies. Moreover, counter-proliferation also
encompasses several different yet unrelated threats – terrorism, international espionage, and the theft of intellectual property and its tracking on black market trade networks. Increases in funding for WMDD activities are being sought for fiscal year 2009, which would allow the Bureau to continue enhancing its national asset response staffing beyond current levels. The Bureau’s new budget request to Congress includes $65.8 million to enhance capabilities to prevent, prepare for, and respond to the threat of WMD incidents. This funding would provide an additional 132 WMDD positions – 43 Special Agents and 89 professional support staff. Additional WMDD funding also would allow the FBI to enhance strategic partnerships with foreign intelligence, law enforcement, security, public health, agricultural, chemical, and other public and private sector agencies and organizations. The Bureau considers these foreign partnerships vital for the early detection of a potential WMD incident. This funding boost also would facilitate adequate training, equipment, supplies, and services for WMDD personnel. Likewise, increases in funding would allow the FBI to
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upgrade Render Safe Program tools so that operators will have the latest and most effective technology at hand to meet and dispose of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological devices. Bureau officials claim that the capacity to carry out extended covert surveillance of subjects and targets involved in possible WMD activities is absolutely critical to counterterrorism and counterintelligence programs. The WMD threat is real, and an extremely grave issue. The anthrax attacks of 2001 killed five Americans and terrorized the nation. Meanwhile, al Qaeda openly pursues WMDs and would likely use any weapon they could build or buy against America, FBI officials emphasized. The FBI’s top priority, as with all forms of terrorism, is prevention – making sure that WMD attacks never get off the ground. But protecting a country as large as the United States with approximately 13,000 Agents, who have many other investigative and intelligence responsibilities, is a tall order. Outreach and education programs, however, can buttress protection. With such outreach efforts and partnerships developed over the years, protection from WMDs can become less daunting. The FBI boosts WMD preparedness by regularly training with first responders, law enforcement, and health agencies in cities and communities across the nation. Various mock exercises are staged to test the
Bureau’s ability to investigate and respond to the use of WMDs. Outreach is largely at the local level. Each of the FBI’s 56 field offices has a WMD coordinator who has built relationships across government and private industry. FBI Agents attend national conferences, association meetings, and trade shows of different manufacturing groups to explain the Bureau’s role in preventing terrorist attacks. Agents also visit universities to ensure that students and faculty are aware that universities are possible targets as well as potential recruiting and training sites for terrorists. One example of possible prevention involves a vulnerability assessment for at-risk businesses and organizations, such as chemical plants, to point out potential weak spots and suspicious warning signs. Under the Atomic Energy Act, the
The WMD threat is real, and an extremely grave issue. FBI is responsible for investigating illegal activities involving the use of nuclear materials within the United States, including terrorist threats to use special nuclear materials. A Nuclear Emergency Support Team (NEST) from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) assists the FBI and the Department of Defense (DoD). NEST
Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office
A National Nuclear Security Administration WMD/Counterterrorism training exercise at the Department of Energy’s Nevada test site. Nuclear Emergency Support Teams (NESTs) support the FBI in search and recovery operations.
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Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories/ Randy Wong
prepares and equips specialized response teams to deal with the technical aspects of radiological terrorism. The FBI is the lead federal agency and NNSA and NEST help coordinate search and recovery operations for nuclear materials, weapons, or devices. NNSA’s assistance extends to identifying and deactivating improvised nuclear devices or radiological dispersal devices. NEST experts include engineers, scientists, and technicians from nuclear weapons laboratories and facilities that include Los Alamos, Sandia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Remote Sensing Laboratory, and the Pantex Plant. NNSA’s Joint Technical Operations Team provides specialized capabilities to the FBI and DoD to render safe a nuclear or radiological weapon before it does damage. In addition, the team determines if the weapon or device is safe to move for further analysis, and safe to ship to a site for disposition. The WMDD tasks the Bureau’s field offices to conduct investigations of sources of possible WMD proliferation in the United States. Intelligence provided to field offices led to more than 100 counterproliferation investigations last year. One nuclear engineer suspected of mailing multiple WMD hoax letters was indicted, as was another person responsible for an Internet-based threat to attack football stadiums with an improvised radiological device. The FBI also assisted the U.K. in a high-profile murder investigation involving the use of polonium-210.
Nick Mascarenhas, physicist and principal investigator at Sandia National Laboratories in California, prepares a neutron scatter camera detector for a test. The neutron scatter camera detects radiation at significant standoff distances and through shielding, and pinpoints radiation sources.
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Multiagency Center Spurns Threats The FBI, Homeland Security, State, Justice, and Treasury Departments merge database By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
dynamic global network called the Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) supports the detection of terrorists by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other law enforcement agencies. This center consolidates, coordinates, and facilitates the government’s terrorist information for the nation and the international community. The TSC maintains a consolidated terrorist watch list, a database of the names and other identifying information on all known or suspected terrorists. This Terrorist-Screening Database (TSDB) contains information on known or suspected terrorists – individuals known or believed to have been engaged in, related to, or to have aided terrorism. The TSC also supports federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies and some foreign governments. The TSC was placed under FBI administration because of the Bureau’s technical experience in watch list integration; however, the center is clearly an interagency effort. Indeed, the Justice, State, and Homeland Security Departments, the intelligence community, and other federal agencies assign representatives to the TSC. Each of these agencies is responsible for specific aspects of the center’s operations. Information in the TSDB involves only known or suspected terrorists, not those persons without any known connections to terrorism. TSC’s 24-hour call center also supports agencies’ screening processes by determining whether the person being screened is an identity match to the database. The TSC supports agencies such as the State Department’s passport and visa applications and the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection for border crossing and international airline flights. The TSDB also extends to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Transportation Security Administration for domestic flights, as examples. Information on terrorist identities is also accessible from the TSC by the National Crime Information Center system. This information database for law enforcement officers includes 870,000 state and local officers nationwide, adding resources to the fight against terrorism. The information also helps protect
against future terrorist attacks aimed at the United States and its allies. Queries can come ino the TSC anytime day or night from checkpoints across the country and the world via telephone or via computer with only one question: Do I have a known or suspected terrorist on my hands? That is precisely what the TSC can answer. The center exists to provide information to the people who can stop dangerous persons from entering the United States, and who can identify dodgy types already on U.S. streets and arrest them. Creation of the TSC is one of several initiatives that increase information sharing at all levels of government. The Justice Department’s information analysis and infrastructure protection program takes specific actions to enhance information sharing. This program makes sure that all members of the federal government’s intelligence community have access to the same information. The TSC’s job is to get that information out to agents on U.S. borders and those on the front lines, and to get it there fast. The TSC is an important step in an ongoing effort to integrate America’s best intelligence and analyses in one place, enabling investigators from multiple departments to work as a team to put together pieces of the puzzle. Before the TSC was formed in 2003, numerous watch lists existed. Consolidation of these lists under one center staffed by multiple agencies greatly simplified and expedited the process in screening those terrorists seeking to enter this country. The TSC ensures that government investigators, screeners, and agents working off the same unified, comprehensive set of antiterrorist information have access that enables them to act quickly. The intelligence community also has ready access to this same information. The TSC watch list provides one-stop shopping so that every federal antiterrorist screener is working off the same page – whether it’s an airport screener, an embassy official issuing visas overseas, or FBI Agents on the street. The center means that all government agents can run name checks against the same comprehensive list with the most accurate, up-to-date information about potential terrorists. This is an important method to stop terrorists before they can launch an attack.
Additionally, numerous international training conferences and seminars have been organized by WMDD, which also supported the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. This is a joint U.S.-Russian initiative that seeks to enlist the support of willing partner nations to combat nuclear terrorism. The FBI employs physical, electronic, and human source surveillance and operational technology to meet national security requirements. Surveillance capabilities – physical and electronic – provide an insight and awareness of U.S. adversaries. This insight and awareness, in turn, creates opportunities to identify sleeper cells and disrupt support networks, communications, and asset recruiting. Robust surveillance is the key to staying on top of known and emerging targets, according to senior Bureau officials. Additionally, the FBI develops and deploys new operational technologies and techniques to counter a more technically sophisticated adversary, and to exploit and share the information being gathered. The Bureau’s 2009 budget request also seeks an additional $88.5 million to strengthen its surveillance capabilities, including those directed against possible terrorist acquisition of WMDs. This request calls for an enhancement of 145 positions: 10 Special Agents and 135 professional support staff. These added resources would enable the FBI to increase the number of physical surveillance teams, replace aging surveillance aircraft, develop new techniques and tools to address emerging technologies, meet the demands for new audio and data collection, upgrade or replace obsolete digital collection systems, and develop new techniques for tactical operations. Surveillance is the lifeblood of all FBI counterterrorism activities. The
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Photo courtesy of U.S. Department of State
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ability to carry out extended covert States. The FTTTF also has access court-ordered surveillance of subjects to more than 70 sources of data conand targets is critical to the Bureau’s taining lists of known or suspected counterterrorism and counterintelliforeign terrorists or their supporters. gence programs, according to top-level This organization shares its data with Bureau officials. the U.S. intelligence community and Nevertheless, there is no clearly deother government agencies to crefined enemy and al Qaeda is shadowy ate a centralized data mart for use by and nebulous, with no headquarters trained FTTTF analysts. or obvious hierarchy. They seek out The Terrorist Screening Center new staging grounds for recruiting (TSC) – now under the umbrella of and training, and they promote from the NSB – manages the one, consoliThe co-chairs of the Global Initiative to within. They use seasoned operatives dated watch list. This list provides key Combat Nuclear Terrorism organized by to plan attacks around the world. Evresources for screeners and law enWMDD. U.S. Under Secretary of State for ery day, al Qaeda seeks to rebuild what forcement personnel. A single coorArms Control and International Security U.S. forces have torn down. There is dination point for terrorist screening Robert Joseph (right) and Russian also a new threat – homegrown terdata, the TSC is a 24/7 call center for Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Kislyak (left) appeared with Moroccan Secretary rorism. Al Qaeda is no longer merely encounter identification assistance, General Omar Hilale (center) at a press one cell; it is a movement. This nation access to a coordinated law enforceconference announcing the endorsement faces two distinct threats: al Qaeda itment response center, feedback to of the Statement of Principles at the self and extremists the world over who appropriate authorities, and a process Initiative’s inaugural meeting in Rabat, may not be connected. to address misidentification issues. Morocco, Oct. 30, 2006. Just as there is clearly no defined enDeveloping an enterprise-wide apemy, there is no clearly defined battleproach to understanding the nature of field. No country is immune. The war zone stretches from threats, the NSB’s Counterterrorism Division realigned its Baghdad to Britain and from Battery Park to Bali. While International Terrorism Operations Sections (ITOS). This globalization has made the world smaller, technology has realignment, in January 2008, aids in creating a compregiven terrorists a multitude of weapons, from dirty bombs hensive understanding of the threat environment, rather to improvised explosive devices to mobile phones and the than just one aspect of a larger threat. Instead of being Internet. structured by program, such as al Qaeda, Hezbollah, or One of the important tools the FBI uses is the Foreign Hamas, ITOS sections are now aligned geographically to Terrorist Tracking Task Force (FTTTF). This organization target comprehensive intelligence collection on terrorists uses innovative analytical processes and unique proprietary and their activities. technologies to find, track, and remove known or susTwo ITOS strategic operations units – staffed with desk pected terrorists. The FTTTF accomplishes this function officers – exploit subject matter expertise on the presence, by tracking their electronic footprints. The group collects nature, and scope of terrorist enterprises and their activities and analyzes a wide range of FBI, U.S. government, and to drive operations against their networks. These counterpublic source data, from biometric data to travel records, terrorism desk officers work closely with desk officers from to keep foreign terrorists and their supporters out of the the FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence, as well as with the inUnited States, and if necessary, to locate, detain, remove, telligence community, to build a global understanding of or prosecute such persons. terrorists and to target and dismantle their enterprises. Participants in the FTTTF include the FBI, DoD, U.S. Combating terrorism, including nuclear terrorism, is a Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Customs and collective function. While the FBI investigates all acts of Border Protection, and other representatives of the intelterrorism in the United States, the prevention of nuclear ligence community. The FTTTF also works with foreign attack is a responsibility shared by many. Investigations partners including Canada, Australia, and the United are multiagency in every sense. Kingdom in this effort. To meet its mission, the FTTTF In the past six years, the FBI has dramatically strengthened has put in place information-sharing agreements among its ability to combat terrorism with great success by focusing participating agencies and other public and proprietary on prevention, not simply prosecution. The Bureau’s shift companies. These agreements help in locating terrorists is away from detecting, deterring, and disrupting terrorists and their supporters who are or have been in the United to detecting, penetrating, and dismantling their endeavors.
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Language Skills Blunt Terrorism The FBI’s Directorate of Intelligence translations correspond with foreign collection priorities
By Clarence A. Robinson, Jr.
inguists who not only speak a language, but also understand the culture and country involved, play a vital role within the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Directorate of Intelligence. The demand for linguists, who also can pick up language subtleties, is especially significant for operations in farflung areas of the world. There, vague figures operate from the shadows against Americans. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) continues to seek language proficiency experts for positions in the Directorate of Intelligence (DI) or on a contract basis. A Language Services Translation Center in the Bureau’s Washington, D.C., headquarters provides centralized management of its foreign language program. This center also provides a command and control structure at headquarters to ensure that the Bureau’s resource base of more than 1,400 translators, distributed across 56 field offices, is strategically aligned with priorities. This alignment is set by operational divisions and with U.S. intelligence community priorities. Integrating language services into the DI’s management structure also delivers a crosscutting platform for future improvements throughout all program areas, including translation quality control. The DI operates within the National Security Branch of the FBI, which continues integrating linguists into Field Intelligence Groups (FIGs) in each field office, where their roles expand to include more intelligence reporting and analysis. The Bureau believes that integration of linguists into the FIGs helps establish a clear chain of command for the management and development of language personnel. As their roles evolve, FBI linguists receive greater training opportunities and language analysts have greater promotion potential within the organization. The DI works across all FBI offices, ensuring that intelligence is embedded in all investigative programs
– counterterrorism, counterintelligence, weapons of mass destruction, cyber, and criminal – and in all field offices. Bureau-instituted prioritization processes help ensure that foreign language collection is translated in accordance with a clear list of requirements. The foreign language program receives regular weekly updates to Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) prioritization. The Bureau is careful to ensure that its priorities are consistent with those set by the FISA prioritization board, established by the Director of National Intelligence. FBI participation on the FISA board serves to ensure compliance. Increases in language capability, new technologies, and the prioritization processes allow the FBI to address all of the highest precedence counterterrorism intelligence, often within 24 hours. The Bureau’s National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC) matches excess translation capacity needs within the intelligence community. In certain highpriority languages, such as those of the Middle East and North Africa, the numbers of linguists have increased by 250 percent or more. One example is Arabic, where the number of linguists has grown from 70 in 2001 to 269 today, an increase of 284 percent. As part of language training, the FBI also provides self-study and cultural materials, and partners with the Foreign Service Institute for translation training and foreign-duty instruction. More than 3,000 FBI employees and contractors have certified language proficiency scores at or above a basic working proficiency (level II), including 406 language analysts and 959 contract linguists. More than 95 percent of FBI linguists are native speakers of their foreign language and hold Top Secret security clearances. Their native-level fluencies and long-term immersions within a foreign culture not only ensure a firm grasp of colloquial and idiomatic speech, but also a heavily nuanced language containing religious, cultural, and historical references.
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AP Photo/Matt York
Everette Jordan, Director of the National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC), addresses the American Translators Association’s annual conference on Thursday, Nov. 6, 2003, in Phoenix, Ariz. Jordan stressed the government’s need for trained linguists who can decipher both classified and sensitive material. Beyond these qualities, more than 80 percent of Bureau linguists hold at least a bachelor’s degree, and 37 percent hold graduate-level degrees. The FBI’s foreign language proficiency pay program also offers financial incentives for specific skills. Grant awards for achieving certain reading and speaking levels in a foreign language help boost proficiency. Flexibility, in terms of promotions, includes an opportunity for linguists to train in intelligence work and earn intelligence officer certification. The DI’s goal calls for two-thirds of the translation services to be provided by full-time employees, with contractors supplying the remaining services.
The intelligence community’s executive authority for the NVTC rests with the FBI, with the goal of augmenting existing government translation capabilities by acting as a clearinghouse to facilitate the use of interagency translators. The NVTC permits partnering with elements of the government, academia, and private industry for translator resources and to engage their services. The concept is to build a nationwide team of highly qualified, motivated linguists and translators connected virtually to the program office in Washington, D.C. Applying stateof-the-art technology maximizes translator efficiency, according to Everette E. Jordan, Director of the NVTC.
100 Years of Protecting America
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“The NVTC is an interagency element,” Jordan explained, “with a small but diverse office staff that comes from different government agencies, academia, and industry. The center provides expertise and experience in a variety of fields and organizations. The center connects virtually to active-duty military personnel, reservists, active and retired government employees, academia, and private industry. NVTC strives to be innovative, creative, and relevant as it meets the challenges of today’s national security environment.” With new policies and procedures to manage translation requirements, the NVTC created a virtual informationsharing architecture that connects translation tasks, language resources, and linguists anywhere in the United States. For instance, as a method of ensuring that vital linguists applying to government agencies can be used while awaiting their clearances and background investigation completion, the center offers to bring these people aboard to work on unclassified overflow material from one of its 42 intelligence community customers. When the parent agency is ready to bring them on, the NVTC releases them, Jordan said. The FBI partners with international law enforcement and intelligence agencies to identify transnational criminals and terrorists and put them out of business. But often,
contains up-to-date information on available translators to conduct work, offering an ever-increasing pool of translation resources. The application of technology connects all FBI linguists via secure networks that allow those in one office to work on projects for another office. A secure network also allows efficient routing of FISA audio collection materials to any Bureau field office and, therefore, a more effective use of the national translator base. Workflow management software tracks translation response times. The FBI currently provides translation capabilities in approximately 100 languages. Of the several hundred thousand hours of audio materials and several million pages of text collected in connection with counterterrorism investigations over the last few years, the backlog is only a small percentage. Approximately 1.8 percent of all audio – some 8,354 hours of 418,855 hours collected – and 0.8 percent of all electronic data files – 36,667 out of 4.1 million files collected – remain as backlog. Some of the languages in the backlog are so rare that no proficiency exists within the intelligence community, and in other cases the technical quality is extremely poor from using recording techniques not expected to yield intelligence of tactically high value. The Bureau addresses
The FBI partners with international law enforcement and intelligence agencies to identify transnational criminals and terrorists and put them out of business. But often, when the evidence is in Pashto, Urdu, or Chinese, it makes it more difficult to use. when the evidence is in Pashto, Urdu, or Chinese, it makes it more difficult to use. That is where the Bureau’s linguists come in and the NVTC can connect over secure computer networks to program offices. In some cases, linguists may not have to leave the comfort of their own home to be part of this virtual network. “Federal agencies decide when to use the translation center. It’s almost like a federal contractor. As with most members of the intelligence community, the FBI relies on its own highly trained linguists first. The NVTC linguists are used when the FBI faces a critical overload of intelligence, a tight deadline, or translation needs in a specific language for which it does not have resources,” Jordan said. The center provides a shared database that
the rare language issue through intense recruiting efforts and, as an example, has hired nine linguists in one vary rare language. A triage system also expedites priority translations by sifting through collected materials. Once a document is received, a linguist quickly provides a cursory review and sets aside documents with pertinent information for future translation and summary. On audio lines that are mixed with several languages, a linguist reviews all the calls and forwards the foreign language sessions to the appropriate linguist for review and a summary of pertinent sections. Specific intelligence collection is also routed through the DI’s English Monitoring Center (EMC). There, English monitor analysts review the collection, summarize and report pertinent
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English materials, and forward the remaining foreign language items to the appropriate linguists who concentrate on that country. This EMC process allows Bureau linguists to concentrate on the review, analysis, translation, and reporting of foreign language materials. On some audio FISA materials, where the FBI is seeking a particular piece of information, a linguist will quickly review and triage the audio for future translation. Bureau officials believe that sufficient translation capabilities exist to promptly address the highest priority counterterrorism intelligence. The prioritization and triage processes have greatly helped the FBI in reducing the backlog. Linguists are also recruited by the Bureau on a contract basis. However, they must be U.S. citizens with proficiency in English and at least one other language, especially Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese (all dialects), Pashto, Farsi, Hindi, and Urdu, as well as numerous others. Contract linguists also undergo language testing, a polygraph examination, and a comprehensive background investigation. All FBI linguists are subject to at least an annual quality control review through a program in the Bureau’s language services section. In addition, all translations presented in court or otherwise designated for public release, as well as the first 40 hours of translation work performed by new linguists (after an initial training period), are subjected to full quality control reviews, Jordan pointed out. Indeed, there are also more than 200 quality control reviewers. They conduct workshops on a monthly basis to retain linguists certified to conduct quality control reviews.
The FBI meets the needs of Special Agent linguists by hiring those who already have language skills, and also by offering Agents training in critical foreign languages. Special Agents are proficient in 45 foreign languages. There also are 1,340 Special Agents who have level II foreign language proficiency, including 35 Agents who speak Arabic. The DI’s training and oversight unit provides high-quality, cost-effective foreign language and language-related training to Special Agents whose job requires them to use foreign languages, work from non-Roman alphabets, or have an understanding of foreign cultures. The DI manages the Special Agent linguist program, assessing deployments of agents who are proficient in a foreign language, and recommends permanent or temporary placement of new and experienced agents with language capabilities in response to investigative priorities. Special agents proficient in foreign languages are assigned to field offices, legal attaches, headquarters, and the FBI Academy. The FBI’s foreign language program is considered a key to success in both intelligence and law enforcement missions. The DI has established a specialized and integrated national intelligence workforce – intelligence analysts, language analysts, physical surveillance specialists, and Special Agents. In coordinating national security activities, the DI also is developing an intelligence career service that addresses the full range of human resource issues – from hiring to training to professional development and retention. Integral language services are part of this effort.
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criminal, cyber, response and services branch
Meeting Multiple Challenges, Defeating Multiple Threats The Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch
By J.R. Wilson
he post-September 11 restructuring of the FBI included the creation of the Law Enforcement Services Branch (LESB), a massive new entity combining much of the Bureau’s traditional criminal investigative operations with expanded new efforts targeting the rapidly growing field of cyber crimes. But both the LESB and its immediate successor were short-lived, as subsequent reorganizations further realigned and refocused the nation’s premier investigative agency. “At the time, there were just two branches; now there are five, all headed by Executive Assistant Directors [EADs], who basically are No. 4 in the hierarchy,” explained EAD Steve Tidwell. “We began as the Law Enforcement Services
“Everything I had learned about being an FBI executive went out the window on 9/11.” Steve Tidwell, FBI Executive Assistant Director, Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch Branch, including the lab and training. As more branches were added, the lab moved to Science and Technology and training to Human Resources and what was left behind was called the Criminal Investigations Branch.
“But the Senate did not believe that name accurately reflected what we did, which included the Criminal Investigative Division [CID] and the Cyber Division, so we became the Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch [CCRSB]. ‘Response’ is for the Critical Issues Response Group [CIRG] and ‘Services’ is the OIO [Office of International Operations], which includes all the legal attachés [LEGATS], and the OLEC [Office of Law Enforcement Cooperation].” Under the initial change, any FBI operation that had a near, immediate, and large intersection with local, state, or tribal law enforcement was resident in the Law Enforcement Services Branch. With the institution of five branches, investigative operational systems within the FBI were split between CCRSB and the National Security Branch. “The latest iteration has three parts: criminal and cyber are operational investigative entities; CIRG is a shared services entity; and all of the investigative operational divisions and other FBI entities are involved in supporting the counterterrorism mission,” noted Tidwell, who now heads the CCRSB. “OIO in some ways has all the responsibilities of an operational investigative division, but because the LEGATs operate from the offices of the ambassador or chief of mission in the embassies where they are based, they have broad responsibilities, from investigative to operating under State [Department] policies, procedures, and protocols, and the directions of the ambassador, who has
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FEMA News photo by Jocelyn Augustion
FBI Director Robert Mueller talks about the reorganization of the FBI during a news conference at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C., May 29, 2002. One reorganization change required the Bureau to hire new Agents nationwide, mostly specialists in computers, foreign languages, and sciences. CCRSB was one eventual result of the reorganization.
a say in who is there. OIO also is responsible to all needs of their people [overseas].” OIO was created right after September 11 to ensure the FBI had all the bridges built and working relationships in place with other law enforcement agencies around the world. Tidwell said FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III, also wanted an office dedicated solely to the Bureau’s federal, state, and tribal partners, leading to the creation of OLEC.
While reflecting a change in priorities, the reorganization did not abandon the FBI’s traditional role in fighting “ordinary” crime. “To meet our national security mission, the FBI had to shift personnel and resources, but we remain committed to our major criminal responsibilities. While Americans justifiably worry about terrorism, it is crime that most directly touches their lives,” Mueller told the Senate Judiciary Committee in March 2008.
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“Currently, we have roughly a 50/50 balance between national security and criminal programs. To make the best use of these resources, we will continue to focus on those areas where we bring something unique to the table and to target those criminal threats against which we have the most substantial and lasting impact,” he said. How the FBI views the post-9/11 world and its role in it was set forth in the Bureau’s five-year Strategic Plan for 2004-2009: “The current and foreseeable threat environment requires the FBI to evolve constantly. The FBI has a proud history of adapting to changing threat environments. After the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, the FBI once again faced the need to adapt. Since then, new leadership, organizational structure, priorities, technologies, resources, and enabling legislation have better positioned the FBI to fulfill its vital mission in a changing world.
“Those who wish to sow terror, however, are determined and adaptable and should never be underestimated. Hence, the FBI must continue to evolve to address tomorrow’s threats. Implementing an enterprise-wide intelligence capability second to none and modernizing our information technology systems are critical to the FBI’s transformation. To achieve dramatic improvements, the FBI adopted the ‘reengineering’ method, which has been a successful business practice in the private sector for decades.” These changes have reflected both the new threat landscape – international and homegrown terrorists, transnational gangs, new breeds of organized crime that have supplanted the traditional Mafia in the lives of many victims and police agencies – and the technologies that have made it possible to globalize virtually any criminal enterprise.
AP Photo/Adam Rountree
Mohammed Lakhdar, center, is escorted out of the FBI’s New York field office by Special Agents Timothy O’Brien, left, and Scott McGarnn Wednesday, June 28, 2006. Lakhdar was one of 13 people arrested for allegedly making and marketing pirated copies of movies. While the FBI’s reorganization reflected a change in priorities, CCRSB continues to fight criminal enterprises.
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“Criminals no longer need to be in the same room – or even the same country – to commit large-scale crimes, from computer intrusions and child pornography to financial fraud,” Mueller told the National Press Club in May 2008. “Terrorists no longer need training camps; they need only have a laptop and Internet access to learn how to make a bomb or how to mix industrial chemicals into weapons of mass destruction.
traditional criminal investigations. And I’m proud of how the organization has made those adjustments.” He said a large part of the realignment resulted from a determination that the basic approach the FBI had always taken to investigate organized crime, gangs, and white-collar crime also worked well in the new environment. “In the CID, the foundation of how we do business is to operate from the criminal enterprise theory of
“With all this technology, we face an overwhelming amount of information, but sometimes real knowledge is scarce. The old calculus was not a question of if, but when. The contemporary calculus is not a question of when, but how and of how much damage.” Robert S. Mueller, III, FBI Director “With all this technology, we face an overwhelming amount of information, but sometimes real knowledge is scarce. The old calculus was not a question of if, but when. The contemporary calculus is not a question of when, but how and of how much damage.” To address this new reality, Mueller determined the best approach was to give one official – the CCRSB EAD – the responsibility for criminal and cyber investigations, coordination with law enforcement, international operations, and crisis response. That, he concluded, would ensure the criminal programs received strategic guidance and support, and that the FBI maintained an unparalleled level of excellence in criminal investigations. However, the reorganization did not come with a massive increase in manpower, so agents were moved from traditional FBI investigations, such as bank robberies, to the new focus on terrorism, cyber crimes, and interagency and international cooperation. “I’ve watched the criminal folks become much more lean, mean, effective, and efficient, making do with what they’ve got,” Tidwell said. “That has raised questions about should we or should we not handle bank robberies. We adopted a measured response, so instead of sending an entire squad, we now send three or four Agents to work with locals. “We’ve learned that ensuring there is sufficient manpower to fight the Global War on Terror [GWOT] required support from the criminal side. For example, a homegrown group in California was doing gas station and convenience store robberies to support attacks on synagogues and military recruiting stations. So we might find a criminal thread that leads to a terrorist group. But we’ve also had to focus down and adjust how we target
investigation – we want to attack the enterprise,” Tidwell explained. “It is not too far a stretch to imagine a terrorist cell as that same type of enterprise, with people having the capacity to do transportation, recruitment, weapons acquisition, finances, etc. So after 9/11, large numbers of supervisors were tapped to start the Counterterrorism Division and large numbers of criminal folks in the field were stood up in new joint terrorism and counterterrorism squads to translate that enterprise experience in complex investigations.” The reorganization also has given the FBI a more corporate structure, he added: “We’ve gotten more businesslike and have a corporate resource planning board and are, in many ways, behaving more like corporate America. Part of that requirement is an executive council that functions much like a board of directors. “A branch is like a business line in a big corporation with a lot of different product lines. In my branch, my business line is criminal investigations and response. The National Security Branch is counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence. The divisions are subunits of the branch. In essence, we are program managers here and the 56 field offices would equate to the corporate elements that build things, in our case, assembling investigations. The five EADs [who head the five branches] are part of the executive council; if compared to the military, we’re the joint chiefs.” When it was first founded as the Bureau of Investigation, the FBI’s primary targets were white-collar criminals, and most Agents had degrees in accounting and business administration. That evolved as the scope of FBI investigations broadened through the decades that followed, but the
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post-9/11 FBI is a significantly different agency from what it had been in the 20th century, leading to another major change in both recruiting and training. “We have some core requirements that align with our priorities,” Tidwell said of the CCRSB. “Right now we need Agents with certain language skills. Because cyber crime is [the Bureau’s] No. 3 priority, we need folks with computer and programming skills and electrical engineers. We’ve always been an intel-driven organization, but we’ve had to adjust that to our new reality, so we’re looking to
both former military and private sector intelligence experience. So while we still hire lawyers, accountants, and cops, the recruiting pipelines have been adjusted to first reflect those skill sets that match our top-most priorities. “Training also has changed. When I first went through 25 years ago, it was 16 weeks – now we’re up to 21 weeks. Again, we’ve been able to adjust training to our new priorities. We also now have career paths similar to the military MOSes [Military Occupational Specialties]. So how we get folks on board has changed, the priorities have changed, and how we train has radically changed.” The same applies to the technological advances being utilized by the FBI today. “Like everybody else in public safety and the military, we’re taking big leaps in utilizing and keeping up with the technologies available. That is most prominent in the CIRG, particularly the tactical missions – HRT [Hostage Rescue Team] and SWAT. We also have the surveillance and aviation elements of the Bureau there,” Tidwell said. “Some of the leaps we have taken, such as our capacity with surveillance and aviation, match what is happening in the military. “It’s just amazing what we can do now. With the support CIRG has to give to counterterrorism and the GWOT in
AP Photo/Suzanne Plunkett
An FBI Agent escorts Gariat Iousoupbekov from the Federal Building in New York. Iousoupbekov was one of seven suspects arrested by authorities in connection with an alleged Russian mob group, which authorities say terrorized Russian communities in New York. The men were charged with hostage-taking and extortion. Today, the ability of such organizations to cross geographic and political boundaries, and the fact that their profits sometimes fund terrorist groups, mean that the FBI must continually evolve to combat them.
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the combat theaters, we’ve had to make adjustments on equipment and technology solutions. CIRG, CID, and Cyber work very closely with the Science and Technology Branch and Cyber also very closely with the Chief Information Officer’s office, which deals with software and hardware solutions. The one thing that stands out is how the new generation of Agents we have, who will be leading the FBI in the out-years, is so tech savvy. It’s such a part of who they are, it will be interesting to see what the Bureau becomes.” However, the criminal and terrorist organizations the FBI now targets have made those same adjustments, recruiting their own tech-savvy members and utilizing the latest in cutting-edge technology. With billions of dollars from drug trafficking and other criminal activities – as well as financial support from some whose wealth is tied to oil production – the combined funds available to such groups may equal or exceed what the FBI allocates for equipment and training from its $6.4 billion FY 08 budget (which itself is twice what the Bureau received 10 years ago). Mueller said the ubiquitous access to modern technology has flattened the landscape on which the FBI and its adversaries now do battle. “Yes, the world is flat now, as are the criminal and terrorist worlds,” Tidwell agreed. “So we have had to take steps to flatten our world. [Criminals] are evolving and using the Internet and faster travel capacities, which is why we are hiring the folks we are on the cyber side and adapting how we investigate. We now have squads in field offices that are cyber/counterterrorism. They are looking for what might be being done in terms of counterterrorism just in the Ethernet world.
The FBI Strategic Plan concludes this new world is one in which sub-national and nongovernmental entities will play an increasingly powerful role, in some cases even supplanting the control of traditional nation states over the flow of information, resources, technology, services, and even people. The forecast level of globalization and networking of economies the reorganization of the Bureau and its priorities were intended to confront has, in some ways, exceeded expectations. The result is a constant and ever-changing blurring of distinctions between what is corporate, financial, or national in nature. Considered the most significant global transformation since the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, these advances, especially in information technology, have provided criminal and terrorist groups with a global network capability that directly threatens the security of the United States and every other nation on Earth. While the end of the Cold War was expected to transform what had become a bipolar world, dominated by two great superpowers, into a multipolar landscape across which the only remaining superpower would be thinly spread, reality has seen the rise of powerful non-state criminal and terrorist entities – sometimes allied when the money involved is sufficient to overcome any concern about intent. Hiding behind a web of online anonymity, it has become easier and cheaper to acquire and move everything from weapons and illegal drugs to counterfeit pharmaceuticals and machine parts. Crossing geographic and political boundaries with impunity, such organizations make it possible for a drug buy on an American street or a bank robbery in Europe or a ship hijacking in the Straits of Malacca to further the interests of drug cartels, organized crime, gangs, and
Crossing geographic and political boundaries with impunity, such organizations make it possible for a drug buy on an American street or a bank robbery in Europe or a ship hijacking in the Straits of Malacca to further the interests of drug cartels, organized crime, gangs, and terrorists halfway around the world. “The same thing is happening on the criminal side. A big issue right now is mortgage fraud. With all the computerization in the business of mortgages, things can happen real quick involving a lot of victims.” Despite the Bureau’s best efforts, however, Tidwell remains concerned about its ability to keep up with future leaps in phone and cellular communications and how those will affect the FBI’s ability to intercept criminal communications.
terrorists halfway around the world. And it is this new blend of threats and criminal activities CCRSB and its sister branches must continuously evolve to combat. “We are not the same organization we were before 9/11,” Tidwell concluded. “We’ve worked hard to make that change. What the director calls us now is a national security agency. All that defines how we deploy our resources, plan budgets, and operate to deliver security for the homeland and security for the community.”
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Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch
Distinguished Past, Dynamic Future The Criminal Investigative Division
By J.R. Wilson
ost-September 11 reorganizations have created a new FBI dramatically different from what existed for most of the Bureau’s first century. But the Criminal Investigative Division (CID), direct descendant of one of the first components established under J. Edgar Hoover, in many ways represents the heart of the old FBI. Now part of the Criminal, Cyber, Response and Services Branch (CCRSB), the CID continues to pursue the Bureau’s traditional targets – organized crime (from the old Mafia to new gangs coming out of Russia and Eurasia), public corruption, kidnapping, welfare fraud, crimes against children, white-collar crime, violent gangs, and criminal efforts to infiltrate professional and college sports. At the same time, the new structure has changed how the CID does its work, from the recruiting, training, and equipping of Agents to at what point a criminal activity now rises to the level of FBI involvement. More than half of the estimated 9,500 FBI Agents performing day-to-day investigations in the United States work for CID, although that is about 30 percent fewer than were assigned to those cases prior to September 11. “That does not include all cleared task force officers – local law enforcement officers cleared up to top secret with
said Ken Kaiser, FBI Assistant Director in Charge of CID. “That caused us to make up for that loss by using more sophisticated investigative techniques, increasing the task forces – which are a force multiplier – and prioritizing what we want to work – more into public corruption than before, more gang investigations using the criminal enterprise theory and a focus on corporate and health care fraud and gang and organized crime. We’ve also had an influx of intelligence analysts since 9/11, hiring more of those who can focus our investigations and lead us to the targets we should be working. “Pre-9/11, the CID had responsibility for 249 joint FBI/ state/local task forces. Today, we have expanded that to 441 task forces throughout the country. So in addition to 4,900 FBI Agents, we have more than 2,000 non-FBI officers devoted to violent crime, Indian reservation, gang, white-collar, and organized crime task forces. They have access to FBI databases and computer systems, are assigned cases just like FBI Agents, and are subject to the same rules as an FBI Agent. All 441 task forces have an FBI Supervisor and are attached to various FBI squads.” The diversity of the task forces and Agent assignments can be seen in CID’s violent crimes unit, which is responsible for kidnappings, bank robberies, interstate fugitives,
… the new structure has changed how CID does its work, from the recruiting, training, and equipping of Agents to at what point a criminal activity now rises to the level of FBI involvement. the FBI and permanently assigned to work with us on a daily basis on gang and organized crime task forces,” CID Deputy Assistant Director Daniel Roberts said. “We had to refocus about 1,800 agents from traditional criminal programs to the Global War on Terror [GWOT] since 9/11, including sending some to counterintelligence,”
forgery, piracy and counterfeiting, and theft of interstate shipments, among other crimes. “A stand-alone counterfeiting case would be a low priority because we don’t have the resources to work those we had prior to 9/11, but if it is related to a Russian or Asian organized crime group, that is when we would focus on
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AP Photo/Adam Rountree
The covers of counterfeit DVDs and equipment used to make them were displayed at a news conference where the FBI announced a largescale raid on an international movie piracy ring in New York, June 28, 2006. Piracy and counterfeiting are growing problems that are being fought by the FBI.
it,” Roberts said. “We see a lot of that at major sporting events, such as the Olympics and the Super Bowl. “Most people think about bank robberies, fugitives, and the Top Ten Most Wanted when they think about the FBI and that’s all us. However, a lot of smaller dollar fraud schemes we might have put Agents on prior to 9/11 – say $10,000 – if it’s under $200,000 or $300,000, we probably don’t touch it any more. It’s the same with drugs; we used to devote a lot of assets to cartel cases and, while we still keep our fingers in that because they are involved in other things, our other partners, such as DEA [Drug Enforcement Administration], have picked up the slack.” The FBI’s “Most Wanted” list, created on March 14, 1950, to get leads and tips from the public, continues to be a high-return effort for the Bureau, with an overall 93
percent success rate, about a third of those arrests stemming from tips from the public. The Bureau also is expanding its battle against pirates and counterfeiters – not of the Bluebeard or phony $100 bill variety, but those who illegally reproduce and sell copyrighted intellectual property. The most familiar element of that campaign is the FBI warning that appears at the start of commercial videotapes and DVDs. That text warning, which can be used by anyone protected by copyright law without requiring FBI permission, has now been enhanced by an official FBI Anti-Piracy Seal, which does require Bureau approval to use. As of August 2006, the FBI has authorized the seal’s use by the Motion Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, the Software & Information
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Industry Association, the Business Software Alliance, and the Entertainment Software Association – all major victims of one of the largest and fastest-growing international crimes. As the FBI constantly monitors and reassesses how it is allocating resources to combat various criminal activities, operations that have been assigned to one unit may be transferred to another if it directly relates to a larger program already in place. “The FBI’s Criminal Division has assumed administrative and operational responsibility from the Office of International Operations for the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative [SECI], which is headquartered in Bucharest, Romania,” FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III told the
“When you have multiple counties and district attorneys, it is difficult for the states to prosecute but is tailor-made for the federal system. In the state system, you have to coordinate multiple DAs, but in the federal system, that doesn’t matter.” Ken Kaiser, FBI Assistant Director in Charge of CID
House Judiciary Committee in April 2008 about one such change. “SECI serves as a clearinghouse for information and intelligence for member and observer countries, as well as supporting specialized task forces addressing such transborder crimes, including human trafficking, financial crimes, smuggling of goods, terrorism, and other crimes.” Allocating fewer Agents across an expanded list of criminal activities may have increased the limits on which cases CID can do, but Kaiser says it has not significantly reduced the overall number of prosecutions resulting from CID investigations. In FY 2007, CID handled more than 53,000 cases, resulting in 17,728 arrests, 21,893 indictments, and 12,406 convictions. According to Mueller, that was accomplished by maximizing resources through the use of intelligence to identify emerging trends and target the greatest threats.
“We’ve lost a significant number of Agents, so we have used a combination of increased task forces, more technology, and a greater focus on the intelligence aspect. The limits on what we investigate have been increased, so we may not work certain cases anymore,” he stated. “And with fewer Agents and manpower, the number of individual cases and prosecutions has gone down somewhat. We still get a significant number of prosecutions, however, and the sentences we get are significant, as well, despite an obvious decline in resources and the number of cases prosecuted in criminal programs.” The nature of such prosecutions also has changed. “The prosecution strategy has gone toward more enterprise-type investigations, really complex schemes involving organized crime or gangs rather than one simple bank robbery,” Roberts added. “So where in the past you saw cases with one or two subjects indicted, now they are multiple. It’s not unusual in a gang case to see 35 or 40 defendants.” CID does retain the flexibility to go after the same kind of notorious individuals they would have in the past, largely depending on the number and seriousness of the crimes committed and if they cover multiple jurisdictions. “When you have multiple counties and district attorneys, it is difficult for the states to prosecute but is tailor-made for the federal system,” Kaiser said. “In the state system, you have to coordinate multiple DAs, but in the federal system, that doesn’t matter.” Kidnapping and missing persons cases involving children remain an FBI priority, to which CID Agents respond fully and quickly, as well as investigations involving child prostitution and other crimes against children. “We’ve had several successful prosecutions of adults who have taken runaways. We had child pornography for awhile, but that has now been moved to our Cyber Division because most of that is over the Internet,” Kaiser said. “It’s often said we have to wait 24 hours to become involved, but that is not true,” Roberts added. “In a true kidnapping of a child, we become involved immediately. Our response often depends on the location and local resources, so it would be different in Chicago, which has great local resources, from rural Montana, which may not have a local entity for many miles around. “We also have responsibility for tourists kidnapped overseas or persons on missions who are kidnapped or killed. That also depends on working with whatever law enforcement agency is available.”
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Shell Oil Company congratulates and salutes the Men and Women of the FBI for 100 years of Fidelity, Bravery and Integrity in protecting the freedoms of the United States and the free world. Best Wishes and success in the future. www.shell.com/us
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AP Photo/Ric Francis
FBI Special Agents Scott Cruse, left, and Ron Mosback, center, get information pertaining to local road maps from Sharon Sweeney, public affairs officer with Lolo National Forest, July 6, 2005, at a remote campsite where suspect Joseph Edward Duncan III is believed to have spent time with two kidnapped children in St. Regis, Mont. Kidnapping and missing persons cases concerning children remain a top priority.
Another priority area that appears to be on a rapid growth curve harkens back to one of the primary reasons trust-busting President Theodore Roosevelt wanted a federal investigative unit: illegal activity within the offices of American businesses. “As they say, ‘The more things change, the more they stay the same.’ The robber barons of today have brought a laundry list of corporations to ruin. Billions of dollars lost, thousands of shareholders victimized, and pension funds destroyed,” Mueller told the American Bar Association’s (ABA) Litigation Section Annual Conference in April 2008. “The number of corporate fraud cases we investigate has increased by more than 80 percent since 2003, despite the change in our priorities.
“Hearing anyone say they are surprised by such behavior is like the police chief in the movie Casablanca announcing that he is ‘shocked … shocked’ to find gambling going on under his nose in Rick’s Café – just moments before he collects his roulette winnings from the night before. ... Unfortunately, the private sector has by no means cornered the market on greed. Public corruption is our top criminal priority, for the simple reason that it is different from other crimes. Corruption does not merely strike at the heart of good government, it may strike at the security of our communities.” Public corruption ranks fourth among the FBI’s top 10 priorities, behind only terrorism, espionage, and cyber crimes, and is the No. 1 priority for CID.
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“We focus on any elected official, whether state, local, or federal, as well as law enforcement and judicial corruption,” Kaiser said. A public corruption investigation may involve embezzlement, voter fraud, illegal kickbacks, bribery, extortion, and a host of other specific crimes. The significance of any given case is not the amount of money that may be involved, however, but the impact it could have on everything from neighborhood safety to border security, the quality of roads and public buildings, the reliability of public health and fire safety inspections, and the public’s faith in the court system and democracy itself.
“Today, there are roughly 680 Special Agents dedicated to more than 2,500 pending investigations. The number of pending cases has increased by 51 percent since 2003; the number of Agents working such cases has increased by 62 percent. The number of convictions is high: In the past two years alone, we have convicted more than 1,800 federal, state, and local officials,” Mueller said. “The Public Corruption program also targets governmental fraud and corrupt practices. The number of Foreign Corrupt Practices Act investigations has increased dramatically in recent years, from 13 cases prior to 2004 to more than 75 today, with 33 new matters in 2007 alone.
AP Photo/Mel Evans
FBI Special Agent in Charge Weysan Dun, center at microphones, speaks to the media as he stands with other officials outside the Clarkson S. Fisher Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Trenton, N.J., Sept. 6, 2007, about the investigation that led to the arrests of 11 public officials in towns across New Jersey on charges of taking bribes in exchange for influencing the awarding of public contracts. Two of those arrested were state lawmakers, two were mayors, three were city councilmen, and several served on the school board in Pleasantville, where the scandal began. The FBI established a fake insurance brokerage purporting to employ the government’s two informants along with undercover Agents.
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