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UNIT - I

BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS FUNCTIONAL UNITS

A computer consists of five functionally independent main parts. They are,  Input  Memory  Arithmetic and logic  Output  Control unit Basic functional units of a computer

CU ALU

O/P UNIT

I/P UNIT MAIN MEMORY UNIT SECONDARY

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The operation of a computer can be summarized as follows The computer accepts programs and the data through an input and stores them in the memory.The stored data are processed by the arithmetic and logic unit under program control.The processed data is delivered through the output unit.All above activities are directed by control unit.The information is stored either in the computer’s memory for later use or immediately used by ALU to perform the desired operations.Instructions are explicit commands that 

Manage the transfer of information within a computer as well as between the computer and its I/O devices.



Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed.

To execute a program, the processor fetches the instructions one after another, and performs the desired operations. The processor accepts only the machine language program. To get the machine language program, Complier is used. Note: Compiler is software (Translator) which converts the High Level Language program (source program) into Machine language program (object program) 1.Input unit: The computer accepts coded information through input unit. The input can be from human operators, electromechanical devices such as keyboards or from other computer over communication lines.

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Examples of input devices are Keyboard, joysticks, trackballs and mouse are used as graphic input devices in conjunction with display. Microphones can be used to capture audio input which is then sampled and converted into digital code for storage and processing. Keyboard •

It is a common input device.

•

Whenever a key is pressed, the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding binary code and transmitted over cable to the memory of the computer.

2.Memory unit: Memory unit is used to store programs as well as data. Memory is classified into primary and secondary storage. Primary storage: It also called main memory. It operates at high speed and it is expensive. It is made up of large number of semiconductor storage cells, each capable of storing one bit of information. These cells are grouped together in a fixed size called word. This facilitates reading and writing the content of one word (n bits) in single basic operation instead of reading and writing one bit for each operation Each word is associated with a distinct address that identifies word location. A 3


given word is accessed by specifying its address. Word length: The number of bits in each word is called word length of the computer. Typical word lengths range from 16 to 64bits. Programs must reside in the primary memory during execution. RAM: It stands for Random Access Memory. Memory in which any location can be reached in a short and fixed amount of time by specifying its address is called random-access memory. Memory access time •

Time required to access one word is called Memory access time.

This time is fixed and independent of the word being accessed.

It typically ranges from few nano seconds (ns) to about 100ns.

Caches They are small and fast RAM units. They are tightly coupled with the processor. They are often contained on the same integrated circuits(IC) chip to achieve high performance. ]Secondary storage: It is slow in speed. It is cheaper than primary memory. Its capacity is high. 4


It is used to store information that is not accessed frequently. Various secondary devices are magnetic tapes and disks, optical disks (CD-ROMs), floppy etc. 3.Arithmetic and logic unit: Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and control unit together form a processor. Actual execution of most computer operations takes place in arithmetic and logic unit of the processor. Example: Suppose two numbers located in the memory are to be added. They are brought into the processor, and the actual addition is carried out by the ALU. Registers: Registers are high speed storage elements available in the processor. Each register can store one word of data. When operands are brought into the processor for any operation, they are stored in the registers. Accessing data from register is faster than that of the memory. 4.Output unit The function of output unit is to produce processed result to the outside world in human understandable form. Examples of output devices are Graphical display, Printers such as inkjet, laser, dot matrix and so on. The laser printer works faster. 5


5.Control unit: Control unit coordinates the operation of memory, arithmetic and logic unit, input unit, and output unit in some proper way. Control unit sends control signals to other units and senses their states. Example: Data transfers between the processor and the memory are controlled by the control unit through timing signals. Timing signals are the signals that determine when a given action is to take place. Control units are well defined, physically separate unit that interact with other parts of the machine. A set of control lines carries the signals used for timing and synchronization of events in all units Differences between Primary Memory Also called as Main memory. Accessing the data is faster. CPU can access directly Semiconductor memory. Data storage capacity is less.

Secondary Memory Also called as Auxillary memory. Accessing the data is slow. CPU cannot access directly Magnetic memory. Data storage capacity is more or

Expensive. It is Internal memory. Examples : RAM, ROM

huge. Not expensive. It is External memory. Examples: hard disk, floppy disk, 6


magnetic tape etc.

RAM Random Access Memory. Volatile memory.

ROM Read Only Memory. Non-volatile memory.

The contents of the RAM are lost

The contents of the ROM are not lost

when power is turned off. Temporary storage medium. The data can be read and written.

when power is turned off. Permanent storage medium. The data can only be read, but the

The programs are brought into RAM

data cannot be written. BIOS and monitor programs are

just before execution.

stored.

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Categories of Software: System software Collection of programs written by

Application software Collection of programs written by

expert programmers/manufacturers. System software can be used to

users (programmers). Application software is written to

control the computer system. System software helps in executing

perform particular task. Application software are not used for

other programs. Examples include compilers,

executing other programs. Examples include Banking s/w,

loaders .Operating System etc.

library s/w, payroll s/w etc

BASIC OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS To perform a given task on computer, an appropriate program is to be stored in the memory. Individual instructions are brought from the memory into the processor, which executes the specified operations. Data to be used as operands are also stored in the memory.

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Consider an instruction Add LOCA, R0 This instruction adds operand at memory location LOCA to the operand in a register R0 in the processor and the result get stored in the register R0. The original content of LOCA is preserved, whereas the content of R0 is overwritten. This instruction requires the following steps 1) The instruction is fetched from memory into the processor. 2) The operand at LOCA is fetched and added to the content of R0. 3) Resulting sum is stored in register R0. The above add instruction combines a memory access operation with an ALU operation. Same can be performed using two instruction sequences Load LOCA, R1 ADD R1, R0 1.Here the first instruction, transfer the contents of memory location LOCA into register R1. 2.The second instruction adds the contents of R1 and R0 and places the sum into R0. 3.The first instruction destroys the content of R1 and preserve the value of LOCA, the second instruction destroys the content of R0. Connection between memory and the processor

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Transfer between the memory and the processor are started by sending the address of the memory to be accessed to the memory unit and issuing the appropriate control signals. The data are then transferred to or from the memory.

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The below figure shows how the memory and the processor can be connected

Memory

MAR PC IR

MDR

Control

Ro R1

. .

ALU

Rn-1

N general purpose registers 1

P r o c e s s o r


Processor contains number of registers in addition to the ALU and the Control unit for different purposes. Various registers are Instruction register(IR) Program counter(PC) Memory address register(MAR) Memory data register(MDR) General purpose registers (R0 to Rn-1 ) Instruction register (IR): IR holds the instruction that is currently being executed by the processor. Its output is available to the control circuits, which generates the timing signals that controls various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. Program counter (PC): It is a special purpose register that contains the address of the next instruction to be fetched and executed.During the execution of one instruction PC is updated to point the address of the next instruction to be fetched and executed. It keeps track of the execution of a program Memory address register (MAR): The MAR holds the address of the memory location to be accessed. Memory data register(MDR):

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The MDR contains the data to be written into or read from the memory location, that is being pointed by MAR.These two registers MAR and MDR facilitates communication between memory and the processor. Operating steps 1.Initially program resides in the memory (usually get through the input Unit.) and PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program. 2.The contents of PC are transferred to MAR and Read control signal is sent to the memory. The addressed word (in this case the first instruction of the program) is read out of the memory and located into the MDR .register. 3. Next, the contents of MDR are transferred to the IR. At this point the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed. 4. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU, it is necessary to obtain the required operands. If the operands resides in the memory ( it could also be in a general purpose register in the processor), Then the operands required are fetched from the memory to the MDR by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a read cycle. The fetched operands are then transferred to the ALU. After one or more operands are fetched dint his way the ALU can perform the desired operation.. 5. If the result of this operation is to be stored in the memory, then the result is sent to MDR and address of the memory location where the result is to be stored is sent to MAR and write cycle is initiated. 1


6. During the execution of current instruction the contents of the PC are incremented to point to next instruction to be executed. Thus as soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed, a new instruction fetch may be started. Note: in addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor, the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to the output devices. Thus some machine instructions with ability to handle IO transfers are provided.

Interruption Normal execution of the program may be interrupted if some other device requires urgent service of the processor. For example, a monitoring device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. In order to deal with that situation immediately, the normal execution of the current program must be interrupted. To do this the device raises an interrupt signal. An interrupt is the request from an I/O device for the service by the processor. The processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt service routine. When the interrupt service routine is completed, the execution of the interrupted program is continued by the processor. Because of such changes, it may alter the internal state of the processor. So its state must be saved in memory location before servicing the interrupt. Normally PC will be used.

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3. BUS STRUCTURES Bus is a group of lines that serves as a connection path for several individual parts of a computer to transfer the data between them. To achieve a reasonable speed of the operation, a computer must be organized so that, All its units can handle one full word of data at a given time. When a word of data is transferred in a bus, all its bits are transferred in parallel, that is, the bits are transferred simultaneously over many wires, or lines, one bit per line.

Input

Output

Memory

Processor

Figure: Single Bus Structure

A group of lines serves as a connecting path of several devices is called a BUS. The bus must have a separate line for carrying data, address and control signals. Single bus is used to interconnect all the units as shown above and hence the bus can be used for only one transfer at a time, only two units can actively use the bus at any given time. Advantage of using single bus structure is its low cost and its flexibility for attaching peripheral devices. Multiple Bus structure 1


System using multiple buses results in concurrency as it allows two or more transfer at the same time. This leads to high performance but at increased cost. The use of Buffer registers Speed of operation of various devices connected to a common bus varies. Input and output devices such as keyboard and printers are relatively slow compared to processor and storage devices such as optical disks. Consider an example the transfer of encoded character from a processor to a character printer. The efficiency of using processor will be reduced because of variance in their speed. To overcome this problem a buffer register is used. Buffer registers Buffer register is an electronic register that is included with the devices to hold the information during transfer. When the processor sends a set of characters to a printer, those contents is transferred to the printer buffer (buffer register for a printer). Once printer buffer is loaded processor and the bus is no longer needed and the processor can be released for other activity. Purpose of Buffer Register: Buffer register prevent a high speed processor from being locked to a slow I/O devices.

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Buffer register is used which smooth out timing differences among slow and the fast devices. It allows the processor to switch rapidly from one device to another.

PERFORMANCE AND METRICS Performance of a computer can be measured by speed with which it can execute the program. Speed of the computer is affected by ďƒ˜ Hardware design ďƒ˜ Machine language instruction of the computer. Because the programs are usually written in high level language. ďƒ˜ Compiler, which translates high-level language into machine language. For best performance, it is necessary to design a complier, machine instruction set, and the hardware in a coordinated way. Consider a Time line diagram to describe how the operating system overlaps processing, disk transfers, and printing for several programs to make the best possible use of the resources available. The total time required to execute the program is t5 - t0. This is called elapsed time and it is the measure of the performance of the entire computer system. 1


It is affected by the speed of the processor, the disk and the printer. To discuss the performance of the processor we should only the periods during which the processor is active.

User program and OS routine sharing of the processor

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Pointer Disk

OS routines

Program

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

t4

Time Elapsed time for the execution of the program depends on hardware involved in the execution of the program. This hardware includes processor and the memory which are usually connected by a BUS (As shown in the bus structure diagram.).

Main memory

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Cache memory

Processor


Bus

The Processor Cache When the execution of the program starts, all program instructions and the required data are stored in the main memory. As execution proceeds, instructions are fetched from the main memory one by one by the processor, and a copy is placed in the cache. When execution of the instruction calls for the data located in the main memory, the data are fetched and a copy is placed in the cache. If the same instruction or data is needed later, it is read directly from the cache. The processor and a small cache memory are fabricated into a single IC chip. The speed of such chip is relatively faster than the speed at which instruction and data can be fetched from the main memory. A program can be executed faster if the movement of the instructions and data between the main memory and the processor is minimized, which is achieved by using the cache. To evaluate the performance, we can discuss about,  Processor clock  Basic performance equation  Pipelining and Superscalar operation  Clock Rate  Instruction Set: CISC and RISC 2


 Compiler  Performance Measurement Processor clock Processor circuits are controlled by timing signal called a clock. The clock defines regular time intervals, called clock cycle. To execute a machine instruction, the processor divides the action to be performed into sequence of basic steps, such that each step can be completed in one clock cycle. Length of one clock cycle is P and this parameter P affects processor performance. It is inversely proportional to clock rate R=1/P This is measured in cycles per second. Processors used in today’s personal computers and workstations have clock rates from a few hundred millions to over a billion cycles per second is called hertz (Hz). The term “million” is denoted by the prefix Mega (M) and “billion” is denoted by prefix Giga ( G). Hence, 500 million cycles per second is usually abbreviated to 500Mega Hertz (MHz). And 1250 million cycles per second is abbreviated to 1.25 Giga Hertz (GHz). The corresponding clock periods are 2 and 0.8 nano seconds (ns) respectively.

Basic performance equation 2


Let T be the time required for the processor to execute a program in high level language. The compiler generates machine language object program corresponding to the source program. Assume that complete execution of the program requires the execution of N machine language instructions. Assume that average number of basic steps needed to execute one machine instruction is S, where each basic step is completed in one clock cycle. If the clock rate is R cycles per second, the program execution time is given by T = (N x S) / R This is often called Basic performance equation. To achieve high performance, the performance parameter T should be reduced. T value can be reduced by reducing N and S, and increasing R.  Value of N is reduced if the source program is compiled into fewer number of machine instructions.  Value of S is reduced if instruction has a smaller no of basic steps to perform or if the execution of the instructions is overlapped.  Value of R can be increased by using high frequency clock, ie. Time required to complete a basic execution step is reduced.  N, S and R are dependent factors. Changing one may affect another.

Pipelining and Superscalar operation 2


Pipelining It is a technique of overlapping the execution of successive instructions. This technique improves performance. Consider the instruction Add

R1, R2, R3

The above instruction adds the contents of registers R1 and R2, and places the sum to R3. The contents of R1 and R2 are first transferred to the inputs of the ALU. After addition is performed the result is transferred to register R3 from the processor. Here processor can read the next instruction to be executed while performing addition operation of the current instruction and while transferring the result of addition to ALU, the operands required for the next instruction can be transferred to the processor. This process of overlapping the instruction execution is called Pipelining. ďƒź If all the instructions are overlapped to the maximum degree, the effective value of S is 1. It is impossible always. ďƒź Individual instructions require several clock cycles to complete but for the pupose of computing T, effective value of S is 1. Superscalar operation A higher degree of concurrency can be achieved if multiple instruction pipelines are implemented in the processor. This means that multiple functional units are used, creating parallel paths through which different instruction can be executed in parallel. With such an arrangement, it becomes possible to start the execution of several instructions in every clock cycle. This mode of operation is called superscalar execution. 2


So there is possibility of reducing the S value even less than 1. Parallel execution should preserve the logical correctness of programs. That is the result produced must be same as those produced by serial execution of program executions. Clock Rate There are two possibilities for increasing the clock rate, R. ďƒ˜ First, improving the integrated-circuit (IC) technology makes logic circuits faster, which reduces the time needed to complete a basic step. This allows the clock period, P, to be reduced and the clock rate, R, to be increased. ďƒ˜ Second, reducing the amount of processing done in one basic step also makes it possible to reduce the clock period, P. However, if the actions that have to be performed by an instruction remain the same, the number of basic steps needed may increase. Increases in the value of R by improvements in IC technology affect all aspects of the processor's operation equally with the exception of the time it takes to access the main memory. In the presence of a cache, the percentage of accesses to the main memory is small. Hence, much of the performance can be improved. The value of T will be reduced by the same factor as R is increased because S and N are not affected.

Instruction Set: CISC and RISC 2


CISC: Complex Instructional Set Computers RISC: Reduced Instructional Set Computers 

Simple instructions require a small number of basic steps to execute.

Complex instructions involve a large number of steps.

For a processor that has only simple instructions,a large number of instructions may be needed to perform a given programming task.This could lead to a large value for N and a small value for S.

On the other hand, if individual instructions perform more complex operations, fewer instructions will be needed, leading to a lower value of N and a larger value of S. It is not obvious if one choice is better than the other.

Processors with simple instructions are called Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) and processors with more complex instructions are referred to as Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC)

The decision for choosing the instruction set is done with the use of pipelining. Because the effective value of S is close 1.

Compiler A compiler translates a high-level language program into a sequence of machine instructions. To reduce N, we need to have a suitable machine instruction set and a compiler that makes good use of it. An optimizing compiler takes advantage of various features of the target processor to reduce the product N x S, which is the total number of clock cycles needed to execute a program. The number of cycles is dependent not only on the choice of instructions, but 2


also on the order in which they appear in the program. The compiler may rearrange program instructions to achieve better performance without changing the logic of the program. Complier and processor must be closely linked in their architecture. They should be designed at the same time. Performance Measurement The computer community adopted the idea of measuring computer performance using benchmark programs. To make comparisons possible, standardized programs must be used. The performance measure is the time it takes a computer to execute a given benchmark program. A nonprofit organization called System Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC). Running time on the reference computer SPEC rating = -----------------------------------------------Running time on the computer under test The test is repeated for all the programs in the SPEC suite, and the geometric means of the results are computed. Let SPECi be the rating for program i in the suite. The overall SPEC rating for the computer is given by 1/ n

 n  SPEC rating =  ∏ SPECi   i =1  where n is the number of programs in the suite. INSTRUCTION AND INSTRUCTION SEQUENCING

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A computer must have instruction capable of performing four types of basic operations such as  Data transfer between the memory and the processor registers.  Arithmetic and logic operation on data  Program sequencing and control  I/O transfers To understand the first two types of instruction, we need to know some notations.. Register Transfer Notation (RTN) Data transfer can be represented by standard notations given below..Processor registers are represented by notations R0, R1, R2…Address of the memory locations are represented by names such as LOC, PLACE, MEM etc..I/O registers are represented by names such as DATAIN, DATAOUT. The content of memory locations are denoted by placing square bracket around the name of the register. Example 1 :

R1  [ LOC ]

This expression states that the contents of memory location LOC are transferred into the processor register R1. Example 2: R3  [ R1 ] + [ R2 ] This expression states that the contents of processor registers R1 and R2 are added and the result is stored into the processor register R3. This type of notation is known as Register Transfer Notation (RTN).

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Note: that the right-hand of an RTN expression always denotes a value, and left-hand side is name of a location where the value is to be placed, overwriting the old contents of that location. Assembly Language Notation To represent machine instructions, assembly language uses statements as shown below  To transfer the data from memory location LOC to processor register R1 Move LOC,R1  To add two numbers in register R1 and R2 and to place their sum in register R3 ADD R1,R2,R3 _____________________________________________________________ BASIC INSTRUCTION TYPES The operation of addition of two numbers is a fundamental capability in any computer. The statement C= A + B in a high-level language program is a command to the computer to add the current values of the two variables called A and B, and to assign the sum to a third variable, C. When the program containing this statement is compiled, the three variables, A,B,C are assigned to distinct location in the memory. Hence the above high-level language statement requires the action C  [A] + [B] 2


to take place in the computer. Here [A] and [B] represents contents of A and B respectively. To carry out this action, the contents of memory locations A and B are fetched from the memory and transferred into the processor where their sum is computed. This result is then sent back to the memory and stored in location C. Performing a basic instruction is represented in many ways: They are •

3-address instruction

2 -address instruction

1-address instruction

0-address instruction Let us first assume that this action is to be accomplished by a single machine

instruction. Furthermore, assume that this instruction contains the memory addresses of the three operands - A, B, and C. This three-address instruction can be represented symbolically as Add A,B,C Operands A and B are called the source operands, C is called the destination operand, and Add is the operation to be performed on the operands. A general instruction of this type has the format 2


Operation Source1,Source2,Destination  If k bits are needed to specify the memory address of each operand, the encoded form of the above instruction must contain 3k bits for addressing purposes in addition to the bits needed to denote the Add operation.  For a modern processor with a 32-bit address space, a 3-address instruction is too large to fit in one word for a reasonable word length. Thus, a format that allows multiple words to be used for a single instruction would be needed to represent an instruction of this type.  An alternative approach is to use a sequence of simpler instructions to perform the same task, with each instruction having only one or two operands. Suppose that two-address instructions of the form are available. Operation Source,Destination An Add instruction of this type is Add A,B which performs the operation B  [A] + [B].  When the sum is calculated, the result is sent to the memory and stored in location B, replacing the original contents of this location. This means that operand B is both a source and a destination.  A single two-address instruction cannot be used to solve our original problem, which is to add the contents of locations A and B, without destroying either of them, and to place the sum in location C. The problem can be solved by using another two address instruction that copies 3


the contents of one memory location into another. Such an instruction is Move B,C which performs the operation C  [B], leaving the contents of location B unchanged. The word "Move" is a misnomer here; it should be "Copy." However, this instruction name is deeply entrenched in computer nomenclature. The operation C  [A] + [B] can now be performed by the two-instruction sequence Move B,C Add A,C  In all the instructions given above, the source operands are specified first, followed by the destination. This order is used in the assembly language expressions for machine instructions in many computers.  But there are also many computers in which the order of the source and destination operands is reversed. It is unfortunate that no single convention has been adopted by all manufacturers.  In fact, even for a particular computer, its assembly language may use a different order for different instructions. We have defined three- and two-address instructions. But, even two-address instructions will not normally fit into one word for usual word lengths and address sizes.  Another possibility is to have machine instructions that specify only one memory operand.  When a second operand is needed, as in the case of an Add instruction, it is 3


understood implicitly to be in a unique location. A processor register, usually called the accumulator, may be used for this purpose. Thus, the one-address instruction Add A means the following: Add the contents of memory location A to the contents of the accumulator register and place the sum back into the accumulator. Let us also introduce the one-address instructions Load A and Store A  The Load instruction copies the contents of memory location A into the accumulator, and the Store instruction copies the contents of the accumulator into memory location A. Using only one-address instructions, the operation C ( [A] + [B] can be performed by executing the sequence of instructions Load A Add B Store C  Note that the operand specified in the instruction may be a source or a destination, depending on the instruction.  In the Load instruction, address A specifies the source operand, and the destination location, the accumulator, is implied.  On the other hand, C denotes the destination location in the Store instruction, 3


whereas the source, the accumulator, is implied.  Some early computers were designed around a single accumulator structure. Most modern computers have a number of general-purpose processor registers typically 8 to 32, and even considerably more in some cases.  Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor. Because the number of registers is relatively small, only a few bits are needed to specify which register takes part in an operation. For example, for 32 registers, only 5 bits are needed.  This is much less than the number of bits needed to give the address of a location in the memory. Because the use of registers allows faster processing and results in shorter instructions, registers are used to store data temporarily in the processor during processing. Let Ri represent a general-purpose register. The instructions Load A,Ri Store Ri,A and Add A,Ri are generalizations of the Load, Store, and Add instructions for the single-accumulator case, in which register Ri performs the function of the accumulator.  Even in these cases, when only one memory address is directly specified in an instruction, the instruction may not fit into one word.  When a processor has several general-purpose registers, many instructions 3


involve only operands that are in the registers. In fact, in many modem processors, computations can be performed directly only on data held in processor registers. Instructions such as Add Ri,Rj or Add Ri,Rj,Rk are of this type. ďƒ˜ In both of these instructions, the source operands are the contents of registers Ri and Rj. In the first instruction, Rj also serves as the destination register, whereas in the second instruction, a third register, Rk, is used as the destination. Such instructions, where only register names are contained in the instruction, will normally fit into one word. ďƒ˜ It is often necessary to transfer data between different locations. This is achieved with the instruction Move Source,Destination which places a copy of the contents of Source into Destination. ďƒ˜ When data are moved to or from a processor register, the Move instruction can be used rather than the Load or Store instructions because the order of the source and destination operands determines which operation is intended. Thus, Move A,Ri is the same as Load A,Ri 3


and Move Ri,A is the same as Store Ri ,A ďƒ˜ In processors where arithmetic operations are allowed only on operands that are in processor registers, the C = A + B task can be performed by the instruction sequence Move A,Ri Move B,Rj Add Ri ,Rj Move Rj ,C In processors where one operand may be in the memory but the other must be in a register, an instruction sequence for the required task would be Move A,Ri Add B,Ri Move Ri,C ďƒ˜ The speed with which a given task is carried out depends on the time it takes to transfer instructions from memory into the processor and to access the operands referenced by these instructions. ďƒ˜ Transfers that involve the memory are much slower than transfers within the processor. Hence, a substantial increase in speed is achieved when several 3


operations are performed in succession on data in processor registers without the need to copy data to or from the memory. ďƒ˜ When machine language programs are generated by compilers from high-level languages, it is important to minimize the frequency with which data is moved back and forth between the memory and processor registers. We used the task C ďƒ&#x; [A] + [B] as an example instruction format. The diagram shows a possible program segment for this task as it appears in the memory of a computer. We have assumed that the computer allows one memory operand per instruction and has a number of processor registers. We assume that the word length is 32 bits and the memory is byte addressable. The three instructions of the program are in successive word locations, starting at location i. Since each instruction is 4 bytes long, the second and third instructions start at addresses i + 4 and i + 8. For simplicity, we also assume that a full memory address can be directly specified in a single-word instruction, although this is not usually possible for address space sizes and word lengths of current processors.

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Fig: A program for C  [A] + [B] Execution steps of an above program:  The processor contains a register called the program counter (PC), which holds the address of the instruction to be executed next.  To begin executing a program, the address of its first instruction (i in our example) must be placed into the PC. 3


 Then, the processor control circuits use the information in the PC to fetch and execute instructions, one at a time, in the order of increasing addresses. This is called straight-line sequencing.  During the execution of each instruction, the PC is incremented by 4 to point to the next instruction.  Thus, after the Move instruction at location i + 8 is executed, the PC contains the value i + 12, which is the address of the first instruction of the next program segment.  Executing a given instruction is a two-phase procedure.  In the first phase, called instruction fetch, the instruction is fetched from the memory location whose address is in the PC. This instruction is placed in the instruction register (IR) in the processor.  At the start of the second phase, called instruction execute, the instruction in IR is examined to determine which operation is to be performed.  The specified operation is then performed by the processor. This often involves fetching operands from the memory or from processor registers, performing an arithmetic or logic operation, and storing the result in the destination location. 

At some point during this two-phase procedure, the contents of the PC are advanced to point to the next instruction. When the execute phase of an instruction is completed, the PC contains the address of the next instruction, and a new instruction fetch phase can begin.

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ďƒ˜ In most processors, the execute phase itself is divided into a small number of distinct phases corresponding to fetching operands, performing the operation, and storing the result. BRANCHING Consider the task of adding a list of n numbers. The addresses of the memory locations containing the n numbers are symbolically given as NUM1, NUM2, . . . , NUMn, and a separate Add instruction is used to add each number to the contents of register R0. After all the numbers have been added, the result is placed in memory location SUM. Instead of using a long list of Add instructions, it is possible to place a single Add instruction in a program loop. The loop is a straight-line sequence of instructions executed as many times as needed. It starts at location LOOP and ends at the instruction Branch>0. During each pass through this loop, the address of the next list entry is determined, and that entry is fetched and added to R0. Now, we concentrate on how to create and control a program loop. Assume that the number of entries in the list, n, is stored in memory location N. Register R1 is used as a counter to determine the number of times the loop is executed. Hence, the contents of location N are loaded into register R1 at the beginning of the program. Then, within the body of the loop, the instruction Decrement R1 reduces the contents of R1 by 1 each time through the loop. (A similar type of operation is performed by an Increment instruction, which adds 1 to its operand.) Execution of the oop is repeated as long as the result of the decrement operation is greater than zero

3


Fig: Using a loop to add n numbers

4


Fig: A straight-line program for adding n numbers.

4


We now introduce branch instructions. This type of instruction loads a new value into the program counter. As a result, the processor fetches and executes the instruction at this new address, called the branch target, instead of the instruction at the location that follows the branch instruction in sequential address order. A conditional branch instruction causes a branch only if a specified condition is satisfied. If the condition is not satisfied, the PC is incremented in the normal way, and the next instruction in sequential address order is fetched and executed. In the above program , the instruction, Branch>0 LOOP (branch if greater than 0) is a conditional branch instruction that causes a branch to location LOOP if the result of the immediately preceding instruction, which is the decremented value in register R1, is greater than zero. This means that the loop is repeated as long as there are entries in the list that are yet to be added to R0. At the end of the nth pass through the loop, the Decrement instruction produces a value of zero, and, hence, branching does not occur. Instead, the Move instruction is fetched and executed. It moves the final result from R0 into memory location SUM. The capability to test conditions and subsequently choose one of a set of alternative ways to continue computation has many more applications than just loop control. Such a capability is found in the instruction sets of all computers and is fundamental to the programming of most nontrivial tasks.

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CONDITION CODES The processor keeps track of information about the results of various operations for use by subsequent conditional branch instructions. This is accomplished by recording the required information in individual bits, often called condition code flags. These flags are usually grouped together in a special processor register called the condition code register or status register. Individual condition code flags are set to 1 or cleared to 0, depending on the outcome of the operation performed. Four commonly used flags are N (negative) Z (zero) V (overflow)

Set to 1 if the result is negative; otherwise, cleared to 0 Set to 1 if the result is 0; otherwise, cleared to 0 Set to 1 if arithmetic overflow occurs; otherwise, cleared to

0 C (carry)

Set to 1 if a carry-out results from the operation;

otherwise, cleared to 0 •

The N and Z flags indicate whether the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is negative or zero.

The N and Z flags may also be affected by instructions that transfer data, such as Move, Load, or Store.

This makes it possible for a later conditional branch instruction to cause a branch based on the sign and value of the operand that was moved.

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Some computers also provide a special Test instruction that examines a value in a register or in the memory and sets or clears the N and Z flags accordingly.

The V flag indicates whether overflow has taken place. Overflow occurs when the result of an arithmetic operation is outside the range of values that can be represented by the number of bits available for the operands.

The processor sets the V flag to allow the programmer to test whether overflow has occurred and branch to an appropriate routine that corrects the problem.

Instructions such as BranchIfOverflow are provided for this purpose. A program interrupt may occur automatically as a result of the V bit being set, and the operating system will resolve what to do.

The C flag is set to 1 if a carry occurs from the most significant bit position during an arithmetic operation. This flag makes it possible to perform arithmetic operations on operands that are longer than the word length of the processor. Such operations are used in multiple-precision arithmetic.

The instruction Branch>0, an example of a branch instruction that tests one or more of the condition flags.

It causes a branch if the value tested is neither negative nor equal to zero. That is, the branch is taken if neither N nor Z is 1.

Many other conditional branch instructions are provided to enable a variety of conditions to be tested. The conditions are given as logic expressions involving the condition code flags.

4


In some computers, the condition code flags are affected automatically by instructions that perform arithmetic or logic operations. However, this is not always the case.

A number of computers have two versions of an Add instruction, for example. One version, Add, does not affect the flags, but a second version, AddSetCC, does.

This provides the programmer—and the compiler—with more flexibility when preparing programs for pipelined execution.

GENERATING MEMORY ADDRESSES The purpose of the instruction block at LOOP is to add a different number from the list during each pass through the loop. Hence, the Add instruction in that block must refer to a different address during each pass. How are the addresses to be specified? The memory operand address cannot be given directly in a single Add instruction in the loop. Otherwise, it would need to be modified on each pass through the loop. As one possibility, suppose that a processor register, Ri, is used to hold the memory address of an operand. If it is initially loaded with the address NUM1 before the loop is entered and is then incremented by 4 on each pass through the loop, it can provide the needed capability. This situation, and many others like it, gives rise to the need for flexible ways to specify the address of an operand. The instruction set of a computer typically provides a number of such methods, called addressing modes. While the details differ from one computer to another, the underlying concepts are the same.

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HARDWARE The traffic-light controller is a very simple special-purpose computer system requiring only a few of the physical hardware components that constitute a generalpurpose computer system. The four major hardware blocks of a general purpose computer system are its memory unit (MU), arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), input=output unit (IOU), and control unit (CU). Input=output (I / O) devices input and output data into and out of the memory unit. In some systems, I / O devices send and receive data into and from the ALU rather than the MU. Programs reside in the memory unit. The ALU processes the data taken from the memory unit (or the ALU) and stores the processed data back in the memory unit (or the ALU). The control unit coordinates the activities of the other three units. It retrieves instructions from programs resident in the MU, decodes these instructions, and directs the ALU to perform corresponding processing steps. It also oversees I / O operations. A

4


keyboard and a mouse are the most common input devices nowadays. A video display

Figure : Typical computer system. and are the most common output devices. Scanners are used to input data from hardcopy sources. Magnetic tapes and disks are used as I / O devices. These devices are 4


also used as memory devices to increase the capacity of the MU. The console is a special-purpose I/O device that permits the system operator to interact with the computer system. In modern-day computer systems, the console is typically a dedicated terminal.

SOFTWARE The hardware components of a computer system are electronic devices in which the basic unit of information is either a 0 or a 1, corresponding to two states of an electronic signal. For instance, in one of the popular hardware technologies a 0 is represented by 0V while a 1 is represented by 5 V. Programs and data must therefore be expressed using this binary alphabet consisting of 0 and 1. Programs written using only these binary digits are machine language programs. At this level of programming, operations such as ADD and SUBTRACT are each represented by a unique pattern of 0s and 1s, and the computer hardware is designed to interpret these sequences. Programming at this level is tedious since the programmer has to work with sequences of 0s and 1s and needs to have very detailed knowledge of the computer structure. The tedium of machine language programming is partially alleviated by using symbols such as ADD and SUB rather than patterns of 0s and 1s for these operations. Programming at the symbolic level is called assembly language programming. An assembly language programmer also is required to have a detailed knowledge of the machine structure, because the operations permitted in the assembly language are primitive and the 4


instruction format and capabilities depend on the hardware organization of the machine. An assembler program is used to translate assembly language programs into machine language. Use of high-level programming languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL, C, and JAVA further reduces the requirement of an intimate knowledge of the machine organization. A compiler program is needed to translate a high-level language program into the machine language. A separate compiler is needed for each high-level language used in programming the computer system. Note that the assembler and the compiler are also programs written in one of those languages and can translate an assembly or high-level language program, respectively, into the machine language. The below figure shows the sequence of operations that occurs once a program is developed. A program written in either the assembly language or a high-level language is called a source program. An assembly language source program is translated by the assembler into the machine language program. This machine language program is the object code. A compiler converts a high-level language source into object code. The object code ordinarily resides on an intermediate device such as a magnetic disk or tape. A loader program loads the object code from the intermediate device into the memory unit. The data required by the program will be either available in the memory or supplied by an input device during the execution of the program. The effect of program execution is the production of processed data or results.

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System Operations such as selecting the appropriate compiler for translating the source into object code; loading the object code into the memory unit; and starting, stopping, and accounting for the computer system usage are automatically done by the system. A set of supervisory programs that permit such automatic operation is usually provided by the computer system manufacturer. This set, called the operating system, receives the information it needs through a set of command language statements from the user and manages the overall operation of the computer system. Operating system and other utility programs used in the system may reside in a memory block that is typically readonly. Special devices are needed to write these programs into read-only memory. Such programs and commonly used data are termed firmware. The below Figure is a simple rendering of the complete hardware– software environment of a general-purpose computer system. 5


Figure: Hardware and software components.

Definition Software is a collection of program written to solve the problem using computer. Software is two types. •

System software

•

Applications software

The differences between System software and Applications software

5


System software It’s a collection of programs that

Application software It’s a collection of programs

are responsible for the

that are focus on the

coordination of all activities in a

particular

computing system

application( problem) to be

Purely machine dependent Examples: Complier, assemble,

solved machine independent MS office, accounting system,

linker, debugger, text editor,

ticket reservation etc..

loader, OS and so on.. System software perform the following functions  Receiving and interpreting user commands.  Entering and editing application programs and storing them as files in secondary storage devices. Eg., Text editors  Managing the storage and retrieval of files in secondary storage devices.  Running standard application program such as word processor or spreadsheet, with data supplied by the user.  Controlling I/O units to receive input and produce output.  Translating source program into object program. Eg., Compiler.  Linking and running user written programs.

Compiler 5


Compiler is a system software that translating high-level language program (source program) such as C, C++ into machine language program (object program). Text editor It is used for entering and editing application programs. The user can use the commands that allow statements of a source program and saved as a file in secondary storage memory. A file can be referred to by a name chosen by the user. Operating System Operating system is a large program with a collection of routines. It is used to control the sharing of and interaction among various computers units as they execute application programs. Other tasks of OS are, ďƒź To assign memory and magnetic disk space to program and data files. ďƒź To move data between memory and disk units ďƒź To handle I/O operations Steps involved in running an application program 1) Transfer the program to be executed from secondary storage into main memory. 2) Start executing the program. 3) Read the required data for program from memory and perform the specified computation on the data. 4) Print the result. Role of operating system in running the program: 5


1. When the executing program requires some data from the memory then it sends request to operating system. The operating system fetches the requested data and passes the control back to program which then proceed to perform the required computation. 2. When the computation is completed and the results are ready to be printed, the program again sends a request to the operating system. An OS routine makes the printer to print the result. The below time line diagram illustrates the sharing of the processor execution time. In this diagram during time period t0 to t1, OS initiates loading the application program from disk to main memory wait unit loading and then passes execution control to the application program. Same activity occurs during period t 2 to t3 and period t4 to t5.During t1 to t2 and t3 to t4 processor performs actual execution of program.

5


Pointer Disk

OS routines

Program

t0

t1

t2

t3

t4

t4

Time Figure : User program and OS routine sharing of the processor From t4 to t5 OS transfers the file from main memory to printer to print the result. During this period processor is free which can execute next program till printing is completed. Thus operating system manages the concurrent execution of several programs to make the best possible use of computer resources and it is called multiprogramming or multitasking. 5


MEMORY LOCATIONS AND ADDRESS Computer memory consists of millions of storage cells. Each cell can store a bit (0 or 1) of information. Usually n bits are grouped, so that such group of bits can be stored and retrieved in a single basic operation. Each group of n bits is called a word of information, and n is called word length. Thus memory of a computer can be schematically represented as a collection of words.

Figure : Memory words

5


Characteristics of word length: •

World length of modern computers ranges from 16 to 64 bits.

If word length of a computer is 32 bits, then a single word can store 32 bit 2’s complement number or four ASCII characters, each occupying 8 bits (a unit of 8 bits called a byte).

Machine instructions may require one or more words for their representation. The format for encoding the machine instructions into memory word

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Address and name representations to store an information: Accessing the memory to store or retrieve a single item of information, either a word or a byte, requires distinct names or addresses for each item location. Normally numbers will be represented from 0 through 2 k - 1, for some suitable value of k, as the addresses of successive locations in the memory. The 2 k addresses constitutes the address space of the computer, and the memory can have up to 2 k addressable locations. For example: ďƒƒ A 24-bit address generates an address space of 224(16,777,216) locations. This number is usually written as 16M (16 mega), where 1M is the number 220(1,048,576). ďƒƒ A 32-bit address creates an address space of 2 32 or 4G (4 giga) locations, where 1G is 230. ďƒƒ Other notational convention that are commonly used are K (kilo) for the number 210 (1,024), and T (tera) for the number 240. Byte Addressability A byte is always 8 bits, but the word length typically ranges from 16 to 64 bits. It is impractical to assign distinct addresses tio individual bit locations in the memory. The practical assignment is to have successive addresses refer to successive byte locations in the memory.

5


Byte addressable memory is one in which successive addresses refer to successive byte location in the memory. Thus each byte in a memory is addresses as 0,1,2… and if the word length of the machine is 32 bits, successive words are located at addresses 0, 4, 8…., with each word consisting of four bytes. Big-Endian And Little Endian Assignments There are two ways of assigning byte addresses. They are  Big-endian assignment  Little-endian assignment Big-endian Big-endian is used when lower byte addresses are used for the more significant bytes (the left most bytes) of the word. Little-endian Little-endian is used when lower byte addresses are used for the less significant bytes (the rightmost bytes) of the word.

5


In both Big-endian and Little-endian assignments byte addresses 0,4,8,…, are taken as the address of successive words (ie, word length is 4 bytes) in the memory and are the addresses are used when specifying memory read and write operations for words. Word alignment There are two kind of address  Aligned address  Unaligned address

Aligned address 6


Words are said to be aligned in memory if they begin at a byte address that is a multiple of number of bytes in a word. For example, •

In a 32 bit (4 bytes) word length machine, number of bytes in a word is 4. In this case words are said to have aligned address, if words begin at address 0, 4, 8, 16… i.e., multiple of number of byte in a word.

Similarly if word length is 16 (2 bytes), aligned words begin at byte addresses 0,2,4…

Unaligned address Words are said to be unaligned in memory if they do not begin at a byte address that is a multiple of number of bytes in a word. Accessing numbers, characters, and character strings  A number occupies one word. It can be accessed in the memory by specifying its word address.  A Character occupies one Byte. It can be accessed in the memory by specifying its Byte address.  Accessing Strings  The beginning of the string is indicated by giving the byte address of its first character. Successive byte locations contain successive characters of a string.  There are two ways to indicate the length of the string

6


A special control character with the meaning “end of string” can be used as the last character in the string.

A separate memory word location or processor register can contain a number indicating the length of the string in bytes.

MEMORY OPERATIONS To execute an instruction, the processor control circuits must cause the word containing the instruction to be transferred from the memory to the processor. Operands and results must also be moved between the memory and the processor. Thus, two basic memory operations are needed, they are  Load  Store Load o The load operation transfers a copy of the content of a specific memory location to the processor. o To start a load operation, the processor sends the address of the desired location to the memory. o The memory reads the data stored at that address and sends them to the processor.

6


Address Read Processor

Memory Data

Store •

The store operation transfers an item of information from the processor register to a specific memory location.

•

The processor sends the address of the desired memory location to the memory, together with the data to be written into that location.

Address Write Processor

Memory Data

6


An information item of either one word or one byte can be transferred between the processor and the memory in a single operation. Processor register can hold one word of information at a time. INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE Interface between the high level language and the machine language It has the following parts: • Instruction set •

Addressing modes

Instruction formats

Instruction representation

Instructions Logical instructions AND, OR, XOR, Shift Arithmetic instructions Data types Integers: Unsigned, Signed, Byte, Short, Long Real numbers: Singleprecision (float), Doubleprecision (double) Operations Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division Data transfer instructions Register transfer: Move Memory transfer: Load, Store 6


I/O transfer: In, Out Control transfer instructions • Unconditional branch • Conditional branch • Procedure call • Return Addressing modes Specification of operands in instructions Different addressing modes: • Register direct: Value of operand in a register • Register indirect: Address of operand in a register • Immediate: Value of operand • Memory direct: Address of operand • Indexed: Base register, Index register • Relative: Base register, Displacement • Indexed relative: Base register, Index register, Instruction formats 3operand instructions ADD op1, op2, op3; op1 op2 + op3 2operand instructions ADD op1, op2; op1 op1 + op2 1operand instructions INC op1; op1 op1 + 1 Types of operands: Register operands 6


Memory operands specified using addressing modes Effect of instruction format: Instruction length Number of instructions for a program – Complexity of instruction decoding (Control unit) Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) processors: 2operand instructions and 1operand instructions Any instruction can use memory operands, Many addressing modes, Complex instruction formats: Varying length instructions , Micro programmed control unit Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processors: 3operand instructions, 2operand instructions, and 1operand instructions Architecture (LSA) processors: • Only memory transfer instructions (Load and Store) can use memory operands. • All other instructions can use register operands only. – A few addressing modes – Simple instruction formats: Fixed length instructions – Hardwired control unit

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ADDRESSING MODES In general, a program operates on data that reside in the computer’s memory. These data can be organized in a variety of ways. If we want to keep track of students’ names, we can write them in a list. If we want to associate information with each name, for example to record telephone numbers or marks in various courses, we may organize this information in the form of a table. Programmers use organizations called data structures to represent the data used in computations. These include lists, linked lists, arrays, queues, and so on. Programs are normally written in a high-level language, which enables the programmer to use constants, local and global variables, pointers, and arrays. When translating a high-level language program into assembly language, the compiler must be able to implement these constructs using the facilities provided in the instruction set of the computer in which the program will be run. The different ways in which the location of an operand is specified in an instruction are referred to as addressing modes.

6


1. IMPLEMENTATION OF VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS Variables and constants are the simplest data types and are found in almost every Computer program. In assembly language, a variable is represented by allocating a register or a memory location to hold its value. Thus, the value can be changed as needed using appropriate instructions.

6


We accessed an operand by specifying the name of the register or the address of the memory location where the operand is located. Register mode The operand is the contents of a processor register; the name (address) of the register is given in the instruction. It is used to access the variables in the program. Absolute mode The operand is in a memory location; the address of this location is given explicitly in the instruction. It is also called as Direct mode. It also used to access the variables in the program. Example instruction for register and absolute mode Move LOC, R2 uses the register and absolute modes. The processor registers are used as temporary storage locations where the data in a register are accessed using the Register mode. The Absolute mode can represent global variables in a program. A declaration such as Integer A, B; In a high-level language program will cause the compiler to allocate a memory location to each of the variables A and B. Absolute mode can be used to access the variables in the program. Immediate mode Address and data constants can be represented in assembly language using the Immediate mode. The operand is given explicitly in the instruction.

6


For example, the instruction Move 200immediate, R0 places the value 200 in register R0. Clearly, the Immediate mode is only used to specify the value of a source operand. Using a subscript to denote the Immediate mode is not appropriate in assembly languages. A common convention is to use the sharp sign (#) in front of the value to indicate that this value is to be used as an immediate operand. Hence, we write the instruction above in the form Move #200, R0 Constant values are used frequently in high-level language programs. For example, the statement A=B+6 contains the constant 6. Assuming that A and B have been declared earlier as variables and may be accessed using the Absolute mode, this statement may be compiled as follows: Move B, R1 Add #6, R1 Move R1, A Constants are also used in assembly language to increment a counter, test for some bit pattern, and so on. INDIRECTION AND POINTERS In the addressing modes that follow, the instruction does not give the operand or its address explicitly. Instead, it provides information from which the memory address of 7


the operand can be determined. We refer to this address as the effective address (EA) of the operand. Indirect mode The effective address of the operand is the contents of a register or memory location whose address appears in the instruction. We denote indirection by placing the name of the register or the memory address given in the instruction in parentheses. To execute the Add instruction the processor uses the value B, which is in register R1, as the effective address of the operand. It requests a read operation from the memory to read the contents of location B. The value read is the desired operand, which the processor adds to the contents of register R0. Indirect addressing through a memory location is also possible. In this case, the processor first reads the contents of memory

7


location

A,

then

Fig: Indirect addressing.

7

requests

a


Fig: Use of indirect addressing in the program second read operation using the value B as an address to obtain the operand. The register or memory location that contains the address of an operand is called a pointer. Consider the analogy of a treasure hunt: In the instructions for the hunt you may be told to go to a house at a given address. Instead of finding the treasure there, you find a note that gives you another address where you will find the treasure. By changing the note, the location of the treasure can be changed, but the instructions for the hunt remain the same. Changing the note is equivalent to changing the contents of a pointer in a computer program. For example, by changing the contents of register R1 or location A, the same Add instruction fetches different operands to add to register R0. Let us now return to the program for adding a list of numbers. Indirect addressing can be used to access successive numbers in the list, resulting in the program. Register R2 is used as a pointer to the numbers in the list, and the operands are accessed indirectly through R2. The initialization section of the program loads the counter value n from memory location 7


N into R1 and uses the immediate addressing mode to place the address value NUM1, which is the address of the first number in the list, into R2. Then it clears R0 to 0. The first two instructions in the loop implement the unspecified instruction block starting at LOOP. The first time through the loop, the instruction Add (R2), R0 fetches the operand at location NUM1 and adds it to R0. The second Add instruction adds 4 to the contents of the pointer R2, so that it will contain the address value NUM2 when the above instruction is executed in the second pass through the loop. Consider the C-language statement A= *B; where B is a pointer variable. This statement may be compiled into Move B, R1 Move (R1), A Using indirect addressing through memory, the same action can be achieved with Move (B), A Despite its apparent simplicity, indirect addressing through memory has proven to be of limited usefulness as an addressing mode, and it is seldom found in modern computers. An instruction that involves accessing the memory twice to get an operand is not well suited to pipelined execution. Indirect addressing through registers is used extensively. The program shows the flexibility it provides. Also, when absolute addressing is not available, indirect addressing through registers makes it possible to access global variables by first loading the operand’s address in a register. 7


INDEXING AND ARRAYS It is useful in dealing with lists and arrays. Index mode The effective address of the operand is generated by adding a constant value to the contents of a register. The register used may be either a special register provided for this purpose, or, more commonly; it may be any one of a set of general-purpose registers in the processor. In either case, it is referred to as an index register. We indicate the Index mode symbolically as X (Ri) where X denotes the constant value contained in the instruction and Ri is the name of the register involved. The effective address of the operand is given by EA = X + [Ri ].The contents of the index register are not changed in the process of generating the effective address. In an assembly language program, the constant X may be given either as an explicit number or as a symbolic name representing a numerical value. When the instruction is translated into machine code, the constant X is given as a part of the instruction and is usually represented by fewer bits than the word length of the computer. Since X is a signed integer, it must be signextended to the register length before being added to the contents of the register. The index register, R1, contains the address of a memory location, and the value X defines an offset (also called a displacement) from this address to the location where the operand is found.An alternative use:

Constant X corresponds to a memory address, and the

contents of the index register define the offset to the operand. In either case, the effective address is the sum of two values; one is given explicitly in the instruction, and the other is stored in a register. 7


Indexed addressing 7


To see the usefulness of indexed addressing, consider a simple example involving a list of test scores for students taking a given course. Assume that the list of scores, beginning at location LIST. A four-word memory block comprises a record that stores the relevant information for each student. Each record consists of the student’s identification number (ID), followed by the scores the student earned on three tests. There are n students in the class, and the value n is stored in location N immediately in front of the list. The addresses given in the figure for the student IDs and test scores assume that the memory is byte addressable and that the word length is 32 bits. We should note that the list in n represents a two-dimensional array having n rows and four columns. Each row contains the entries for one student, and the columns give the IDs and test scores.

7


Fig: A list of students’ marks Suppose that we wish to compute the sum of all scores obtained on each of the tests and store these three sums in memory locations SUM1, SUM2, and SUM3. In the body of the loop, the program uses the Index addressing mode. To access each of the three scores in a student’s record, Register R0 is used as the index register. Before the loop is entered, R0 is set to point to the ID location of the first student record; thus, it contains the address LIST. On the first pass through the loop, test scores of the first student are added to the running sums held in registers R1, R2, and R3, which are initially cleared to 0. These scores are accessed using the Index addressing modes 4(R0), 7


8(R0), and 12(R0). The index register R0 is then incremented by 16 to point to the ID location of the second student. Register R4, initialized to contain the value n, is decremented by 1 at the end of each pass through the loop. When the contents of R4 reach 0, all student records have been accessed, and the loop terminates. Until then, the conditional branch instruction transfers control back to the start of the loop to process the next record. The last three instructions transfer the accumulated sums from registers R1, R2, and R3, into memory locations SUM1, SUM2, and SUM3, respectively. It should be emphasized that the contents of the index register, R0, are not changed when it is used in the Index addressing mode to access the scores. The contents of R0 are changed only by the last Add instruction in the loop, to move from one student record to the next. In general, the Index mode facilitates access to an operand whose location is defined relative to a reference point within the data structure in which the operand appears. In the example just given, the ID locations of successive student records are the reference points, and the test scores are the operands accessed by the Index addressing mode.

7


Fig: Indexed addressing used in accessing test scores in the list We have introduced the most basic form of indexed addressing. Several variations of this basic form provide for very efficient access to memory operands in practical programming situations. For example, a second register may be used to contain the offset X, in which case we can write the Index mode as (Ri,R j ) The effective address is the sum of the contents of registers Ri and Rj . The second register is usually called the base register. This form of indexed addressing provides more flexibility in accessing operands, because both components of the effective address 8


can be changed. As an example of where this flexibility may be useful, consider again the student record data structure shown in Figure. In the above program, we used different index values in the three Add instructions at the beginning of the loop to access different test scores. Suppose each record contains a large number of items, many more than the three test scores of that example. In this case, we would need the ability to replace the three Add instructions with one instruction inside a second (nested) loop. Just as the successive starting locations of the records (the reference points) are maintained in the pointer register R0, offsets to the individual items relative to the contents of R0 could be maintained in another register. The contents of that register would be incremented in successive passes through the inner loop. Yet another version of the Index mode uses two registers plus a constant, which can be denoted as X(Ri,R j ) In this case, the effective address is the sum of the constant X and the contents of registers Ri and Rj . This added flexibility is useful in accessing multiple components inside each item in a record, where the beginning of an item is specified by the (Ri,R j ) part of the addressing mode. In other words, this mode implements a three-dimensional array. RELATIVE ADDRESSING We have defined the Index mode using general-purpose processor registers. A useful version of this mode is obtained if the program counter, PC, is used instead of a general purpose register. Then, X(PC) can be used to address a memory location that is 8


X bytes away from the location presently pointed to by the program counter. Since the addressed location is identified “relative� to the program counter, which always identifies the current execution point in a program, the name Relative mode is associated with this type of addressing. Relative mode The effective address is determined by the Index mode using the program counter in place of the general-purpose register Ri. This mode can be used to access data operands. But, its most common use is to specify the target address in branch instructions. An instruction such as Branch>0 LOOP causes program execution to go to the branch target location identified by the name LOOP if the branch condition is satisfied. This location can be computed by specifying it as an offset from the current value of the program counter. Since the branch target may be either before or after the branch instruction, the offset is given as a signed number. Recall that during the execution of an instruction, the processor increments the PC to point to the next instruction. Most computers use this updated value in computing the effective address in the Relative mode. For example, suppose that the Relative mode is used to generate the branch target address LOOP in the Branch instruction of the program in Figure 2.12. Assume that the four instructions of the loop body, starting at LOOP, are located at memory locations 1000, 1004, 1008, and 1012. Hence, the updated contents of the PC at the time the branch target address is generated will be 1016. To branch to location LOOP (1000), the offset value needed is X = -16. Assembly 8


languages allow branch instructions to be written using labels to denote the branch target. When the assembler program processes such an instruction, it computes the required offset value, -16 in this case, and generates the corresponding machine instruction using the addressing mode -16(PC). ADDITIONAL MODES We have given a number of common versions of the Index mode, not all of which may be found in any one computer. Although these modes suffice for general computation, many computers provide additional modes intended to aid certain programming tasks. The two modes described next are useful for accessing data items in successive locations in the memory. Auto increment mode The effective address of the operand is the contents of a register specified in the instruction. After accessing the operand, the contents of this register are automatically incremented to point to the next item in a list. We denote the Autoincrement mode by putting the specified register in parentheses, to show that the contents of the register are used as the effective address, followed by a plus sign to indicate that these contents are to be incremented after the operand is accessed. Thus, the Autoincrement mode is written as (Ri )+ Implicitly, the increment amount is 1 when the mode is given in this form. But in a byte addressable memory, this mode would only be useful in accessing successive bytes of some list. To access successive words in a byte-addressable memory with a 32-bit word 8


length, the increment must be 4. Computers that have the Autoincrement mode automatically increment the contents of the register by a value that corresponds to the size of the accessed operand. Thus, the increment is 1 for byte-sized operands, 2 for 16bit operands, and 4 for 32-bit operands. Since the size of the operand is usually specified as part of the operation code of an instruction, it is sufficient to indicate the Autoincrement mode as (Ri)+. If the Autoincrement mode is available, it can be used in the first Add instruction and the second Add instruction can be eliminated. The modified program is shown in below Fig. As a companion for the Autoincrement mode, another useful mode accesses the items of a list in the reverse order. Autodecrement mode The contents of a register specified in the instruction are first automatically decremented and are then used as the effective address of the operand. We denote the Autodecrement mode by putting the specified register in parentheses, preceded by a minus sign to indicate that the contents of the register are to be decremented before being used as the effective address. Thus, we write -( Ri )

8


Fig: The Autoincrement addressing mode used in the program In this mode, operands are accessed in descending address order. The reader may wonder why the address is decremented before it is used in the Autodecrement mode and incremented after it is used in the Autoincrement mode. The actions performed by the Autoincrement and Autodecrement addressing modes can obviously be achieved by using two instructions, one to access the operand and the other to increment or decrement the register that contains the operand address. Combining the two operations in one instruction reduces the number of instructions needed to perform the desired task. RISC RISC stands for “ Reduced Instruction Set Computer” . This research was further developed by the universities of Berkeley and Stanford to give basic architectural models.The IBM was the first company to define the RISC architecture in the 1970s RISC can be described as a philosophy with three basic levels : (i)All instruction will be executed in a single cycle (ii)Memory will only be accessed via load and store instruction. (iii)All executions units will be hardwired with no micro coding. The instruction set is the hardware “language” in which the software tells the processor what to do. The vacated area of chip can be used in ways that accelerate the performance of more commonly used instructions . It becomes easier to optimize the design . Basically the philosophy is, that instructions are handled in parts: 8


• • • •

Fetch the instruction Get the arguments Perform the action Write back the result

which means : r0 = r1 + r2 ro=r1+r2

RISC CHARACTERISTICS  Simple instruction set  Same length instructions.  1 machine-cycle instructions

8


CPU Register Overview

8


It’s a 32 general purpose register. A program counter(PC) register. 2 registers that hold the results of integer multiply and divide operations( HI & LO). The R4000 has no Program Status Word(PSW) register, as such this is covered by the status and cause registers incorporated within the system control coprocessor(CP0).

8


CPU Instruction Set Overview Each CPU instruction is 32-bits long.

There are three instruction formats :  immediate ( I - type)  jump (J - type)

14

8




register (r - type)

9


Memory Management Unit (MMU) The MIPS R4000 processor provides a full-featured MMU which uses an on-chip translation look aside buffer(TLB) to translate virtual addresses into physical addresses.

9


System Control Coprocessor(CP0) CP0 translates virtual addresses into physical addresses and manages exceptions and transitions between kernel, supervisor, and user states.CP0 also controls the cache subsystem, as well as providing diagnostic control and error recovery facilities. 9


9


Floating Point Unit(FPU), CP1  R4000 has on-chip floating point unit designated as CP1. The  FPU extends the CPU instruction set to perform arithmetic operations on floating-point values. The FPU features include :   

Full 64-bit Operation. Load and store instruction set. Tightly coupled coprocessor Interface.

94


CISC CISC, which stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer, is a philosophy for designing chips that are easy to program and which make efficient use of memory. Each instruction in a CISC instruction set might perform a series of operations inside the processor. This reduces the number of instructions required to implement a given program, and allows the programmer to learn a small but flexible set of instructions. Since the earliest machines were programmed in assembly language and memory was slow and expensive, the CISC philosophy made sense, and was commonly implemented in such large computers as the PDP-11 and the DEC system 10 and 20 machines. Most common microprocessor designs including the Intel(R) 80x86 and Motorola 68K series also follow the CISC philosophy. As we shall see, recent changes in software and hardware technology have forced a reexamination of CISC. But first, let's take a closer look at the decisions which led to CISC. CISC philosophy 1: Use Microcode The earliest processor designs used dedicated (hardwire) logic to decode and execute each instruction in the processor's instruction set. This worked well for simple designs with few registers, but made more complex architectures hard to build, as control path logic can be hard to implement. So, designers switched tactics they built some simple logic to control the data paths between the various elements of the processor, and used a simplified microcode instruction set to control the data path logic. This type of implementation is known as a microprogrammed implementation. In a microprogrammed system, the main processor has some built-in memory (typically ROM) which contains groups of microcode instructions which correspond with each machine-language instruction. When a machine language instruction arrives at the central processor, the processor executes the corresponding series of microcode instructions. Because instructions could be retrieved up to 10 times faster from a local ROM than from main memory, designers began to put as many instructions as possible into microcode. In fact, some processors could be ordered with custom microcode which would replace frequently used but slow routines in certain application.

95


There are some real advantages to a microcoded implementation: Since the microcode memory can be much faster than main memory, an instruction set can be implemented in microcode without losing much speed over a purely hard-wired implementation. New chips are easier to implement and require fewer transistors than implementing the same instruction set with dedicated logic, and a micro programmed design can be modified to handle entirely new instruction sets quickly. Using micro coded instruction sets, the IBM 360 series was able to offer the same programming model across a range of different hardware configurations. Some machines were optimized for scientific computing, while others were optimized for business computing. However, since they all shared the same instruction set, programs could be moved from machine to machine without re-compilation (but with a possible increase or decrease in performance depending on the underlying hardware.) This kind of flexibility and power made microcoding the preferred way to build new computers for quite some time. CISC philosophy 2: Build "rich" instruction sets One of the consequences of using a microprogrammed design is that designers could build more functionality into each instruction. This not only cut down on the total number of instructions required to implement a program, and therefore made more efficient use of a slow main memory, but it also made the assembly-language programmer's life simpler. Soon, designers were enhancing their instruction sets with instructions aimed specifically at the assembly language programmer. Such enhancements included string manipulation operations, special looping constructs, and special addressing modes for indexing through tables in memory. For example: ABCD Add Decimal with Extend ADDA Add Address ADDX Add with Extend ASL Arithmetic Shift Left CAS Compare and Swap Operands NBCD Negate Decimal with Extend EORI Logical Exclusive OR Immediate TAS Test Operand and Set

96


CISC philosophy 3: Build high-level instruction sets Once designers started building programmer-friendly instruction sets, the logical next step was to build instruction sets which map directly from high-level languages. Not only does this simplify the compiler writer's task, but it also allows compilers to emit fewer instructions per line of source code. Modern CISC microprocessors, such as the 68000, implement several such instructions, including routines for creating and removing stack frames with a single call. For example: DBcc Test Condition, Decrement and Branch ROXL Rotate with Extend Left RTR Return and Restore Codes SBCD Subtract Decimal with Extend SWAP Swap register Words CMP2 Compare Register against Upper and Lower Bounds The rise of CISC : CISC Design Decisions: use microcode, build rich instruction sets, build high-level instruction sets taken together, these three decisions led to the CISC philosophy which drove all computer designs until the late 1980s, and is still in major use today. (Note that "CISC" didn't enter the computer designer's vocabulary until the advent of RISC it was simply the way that everybody designed computers). The next lesson discusses the common characteristics that all CISC designs share, and how those characteristics affect the operation of a CISC machine. Characteristics of a CISC design Introduction While the chips that emerged from the 1970s and 1980s followed their own unique design paths, most were bound by what we are calling the "CISC Design Decisions". These chips all have similar instruction sets, and similar hardware architectures. In general terms, the instruction sets are designed for the convenience of the assembly-language programmer and the hardware designs are fairly complex. Instruction sets The design constraints that led to the development of CISC (small amounts of slow memory, and the fact that most early machines were programmed in assembly language) give CISC instruction sets some common characteristics. A 2-operand format, where instructions have a

97


source and a destination. For example, the add instruction "add #5, D0" would add the number 5 to the contents of register D0 and place the result in register D0.Register to register, register to memory, and memory to register commands. Multiple addressing modes for Memory, including specialized modes for indexing through arrays Variable length instructions where the length often varies according to the addressing. Hardware architectures Most CISC hardware architectures have several characteristics in common. Complex instruction-decoding logic, driven by the need for a single instruction to support multiple addressing modes. A small number of general purpose registers. This is the direct result of having instructions which can operate directly on memory and the limited amount of chip space not dedicated to instruction decoding, execution, and microcode storage. Several special purpose registers. Many CISC designs set aside special registers for the stack pointer, interrupt handling, and so on. This can simplify the hardware design somewhat, at the expense of making the instruction set more complex. A "Condition code" register which is set as a side-effect of most instructions. This register reflects whether the result of the last operation is less than, equal to, or greater than zero, and records if certain error conditions occur. The ideal CISC machine CISC processors were designed to execute each instruction completely before beginning the next instruction. Even so, most processors break the execution of an instruction into several definite stages; as soon as one stage is finished, the processor passes the result to the next stage. An instruction is fetched from main memory. The instruction is decoded, the controlling code from the microprogram identifies the type of operation to be performed, where to find the data on which to perform the operation, and where to put the result. If necessary, the processor reads in additional information from memory. The instruction is executed. the controlling code from the microprogram determines the circuitry/hardware that will perform the operation. The results are written to memory. In an ideal CISC machine, each complete instruction would require only one clock cycle (which means that each stage would complete in a fraction of a cycle.) In fact, this is the maximum possible speed for a machine that executes 1 instruction at a time. A realistic CISC machine In reality, some instructions may require more than one clock per stage, as the animation shows. However, a CISC design can tolerate this slowdown since the idea behind CISC is to keep the total number of cycles small by having complicated things happen within each cycle.

98


Advantages of CISC At the time of their initial development, CISC machines used available technologies to optimize computer performance. Microprogramming is as easy as assembly language to implement, and much less expensive than hardwiring a control unit. The ease of microcoding new instructions allowed designers to make CISC machines upwardly compatible: a new computer could run the same programs as earlier computers because the new computer would contain a superset of the instructions of the earlier computers. As each instruction became more capable, fewer instructions could be used to implement a given task. This made more efficient use of the relatively slow main memory. Because microprogram instruction sets can be written to match the constructs of high-level languages, the compiler does not have to be as complicated. Disadvantages of CISC Earlier generations of a processor family generally were contained as a subset in every new version so instruction set & chip hardware become more complex with each generation of computers. So that as many instructions as possible could be stored in memory with the least possible wasted space, individual instructions could be of almost any length this means that different instructions will take different amounts of clock time to execute, slowing down the overall performance of the machine. Many specialized instructions aren't used frequently enough to justify their existence approximately 20% of the available instructions are used in a typical program. CISC instructions typically set the condition codes as a side effect of the instruction. Not only does setting the condition codes take time, but programmers have to remember to examine the condition code bits before a subsequent instruction changes them.

99


ALU DESIGN An Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) is a combinational circuit that performs logic and arithmetic micro-operations on a pair of n-bit operands (ex. A[3:0] and B[3:0]). The operations performed by an ALU are controlled by a set of function-select inputs. In this lab you will design a 4-bit ALU with 3 function-select inputs: Mode M, Select S1 and S0 inputs. The mode input M selects between a Logic (M=0) and Arithmetic (M=1) operation. The functions performed by the ALU are specified in Table I. Table 1: Functions of ALU M = 0 Logic S1 S0 C0 0 0 X 0 1 X 1 0 X 1 1 X M = 1 Arithmetic S1 S0 C0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

FUNCTION AiBi A i + Bi Ai⊕ Bi (Ai⊕ Bi)’

OPERATION (bit wise) AND OR XOR XNOR

FUNCTION A A+1 A+B

OPERATION Transfer A Increment A by 1 Add A and B Increment the sum of A and B by 1 A plus one's complement of B Subtract B from A (i.e. B' + A + 1) B plus one's complement of A B minus A (or A' + B + 1)

0

1

1

A+B+1

1

0

0

A + B'

1

0

1

A–B

1 1

1 1

0 1

A' + B B–A

A block diagram is given in Figure 1.

10


Figure 1: Block diagram of the 4-bit ALU. When doing arithmetic, you need to decide how to represent negative numbers. As is commonly done in digital systems, negative numbers are represented in two’s complement. This has a number of advantages over the sign and magnitude representation such as easy addition or subtraction of mixed positive and negative numbers. Also, the number zero has a unique representation in two’s complement. The two’s complement of a n-bit number N is defined as, 2n - N = (2n - 1 - N) + 1 The last representation gives us an easy way to find two’s complement: take the bit wise complement of the number and add 1 to it. As an example, to represent the number -5, we take two’s complement of 5 (=0101) as follows, 5 0 1 0 1 -->

1 0 1 0 (bit wise complement) +1 1 0 1 1 (two’s complement) Numbers represented in two’s complement lie within the range -(2n-1) to +(2n-1 - 1). For a 4-bit number this means that the number is in the range -8 to +7. There is a potential problem we still need to be aware of when working with two's complement, i.e. over- and underflow as is illustrated in the example below, 0 1 0 0 (=carry Ci) +5 0101 +4 + 0 1 0 0 +9 0 1 0 0 1 = -7!

also, -7 -2 -9

1 0 0 0 (=carry Ci) 1001 + 1110 1 0 1 1 1 = +7!

Both calculations give the wrong results (-7 instead of +9 or +7 instead of -9) which is caused by the fact that the result +9 or -9 is out of the allowable range for a 4-bit two’s complement number. Whenever the result is larger than +7 or smaller than -8 there is an overflow or underflow

10


and the result of the addition or subtraction is wrong. Overflow and underflow can be easily detected when the carry out of the most significant stage (i.e. C4 ) is different from the carry out of the previous stage (i.e. C 3). You can assume that the inputs A and B are in two’s complement when they are presented to the input of the ALU. b. Design strategies When designing the ALU we will follow the principle "Divide and Conquer" in order to use a modular design that consists of smaller, more manageable blocks, some of which can be re-used. Instead of designing the 4-bit ALU as one circuit we will first design a one-bit ALU, also called a bitslice. These bit-slices can then be put together to make a 4-bit ALU. There are different ways to design a bit-slice of the ALU. One method consists of writing the truth table for the one-bit ALU. This table has 6 inputs (M, S1, S0, C0, Ai and Bi) and two outputs F i and Ci+1. This can be done but may be tedious when it has to be done by hand. An alternative way is to split the ALU into two modules, one Logic and one Arithmetic module. Designing each module separately will be easier than designing a bit-slice as one unit. A possible block diagram of the ALU is shown in Figure 2. It consists of three modules: 2:1 MUX, a Logic unit and an Arithmetic unit.

Figure 2: Block diagram of a bit-slice ALU c.Displaying the results

10


In order the easily see the output of the ALU you will display the results on the seven-segment displays and the LEDs (LD). 1. The result of the logic operation can be displayed on the LEDs (LD). Use also one of these LEDs to display the overflow flag V. 2. Since you are working with a 4-bit representation for 2's complement numbers, the maximum positive number is +7 and the most negative number is –8. Thus a single seven-segment display can be used to show the magnitude of the number. Use another seven-segment display for the “-“ sign (e.g. use segment “g”). 3. There is one complication when using more than one of the sevensegment displays on the Digilab board, as can be seens from the connections of the LED segments of the displays. You will notice that the four seven-segment displays share the same cathodes A, B, ..., G). This implies that one cannot directly connect the signals for the segments of the magnitude and sign to these terminals, since that would short the outputs of the gates which would damage the FPGA!. How could you solve this problem? Sketch a possible solution in your lab notebook. (Hint: You can alternate the signals applied to the cathodes between those of the Magnitude and Sign displays. If you do this faster than 30 times per second the eye will not notice the flickering. You will also need to alternate the anode signals). What type of circuit will be needed to accomplish this? You can make use of an on-chip clock, called OSC4 that provides clock signals of 8MHz, 500KHz, 590Hz and 15Hz. 4. Figure 3 shows a schematic of the overall system, consisting of the ALU, Decoder and Switching circuit, and Displays on the Digital lab board.

Figure 3: Overall system, including the 4-bit ALU and display units. 10


d. Tasks: Do the following tasks prior to coming to the lab. Write the answers to all questions in your lab notebook prior to coming to the lab. There is no on-line submission for the pre-lab. Ask the TA to sign pre-lab section in your lab notebook at the start of the lab session. You will also need to include answer to the pre-lab questions in your lab report. 1. Design the MUX. You can choose to design the MUX with gates or by writing HDL (VHDL) code. Choose one of the two methods and write the design down in your lab notebook. 2. Design of the Logic unit. Here you also have several choices to design this unit: a. Write truth table, derive the K-map and give the minimum gate implementation b. Use a 4:1 MUX and gates c. Write an HDL file As part of the pre-lab, you can choose any of the three methods. Briefly justify why you chose a particular design method. Explain the design procedure and give the logic diagram or the HDL file. In case you use a MUX, you need also to give the schematic or the HDL file for the MUX. 3. Design the arithmetic unit. Again, here you have different choices to design and implement the arithmetic unit. A particularly attractive method is one that makes use of previously designed modules, such as your Full Adder. The arithmetic unit performs basically additions on a set of inputs. By choosing the proper inputs, one can perform a range of operations. This approach is shown in Figure 4. The only blocks that need to be designed are the A Logic and B Logic circuits. You can make use of your previously designed full adder (MYFA).

Figure 4: Schematic block diagram of the arithmetic unit. a. Give the truth tables for the Xi and Yi functions with as inputs S1, S0 and Ai, and S1, S0 and Bi, respectively. Fill out the following tables. Notice

10


that in definition table I of the ALU, the variable C 0 acts as the Carry input. Depending on the value of C0, one performs the function on the odd or even entries of the definition table I. As an example the first entry is "transfer A" (for C0=0) while the second one is "A+1" (for C 0=1); Similarly for A + B and A + B + 1, etc. Xi Yi (A S1 S0 Bi (B Logic) Logic) 0 . 0 0 0 . 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 . 0 1 0 . 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 . 1 0 1 . 0 . 1 1 0 . 1 . 1 1 1 . tables for the A and B logic circuits.

S1 S0 Ai 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Table II: Truth

b. Give the K-map for Xi and Yi functions. Find the minimum realization for Xi and Yi. c. Draw the logic diagram for Xi and Yi. d. Design the circuit that detects over- or underflow. 4.Design the decoder for the seven-segment displays. Remember that the segments of the display are active-low. The decoders should be designed in such a way that when the Logic Mode (M=0) is selected, only the LEDs are active and when the Arithmetic Mode (M=1) is selected only the sevensegment displays are active. FIXED AND FLOATING-POINT OPERATION Definition: An arithmetic operation performed on floating-point numbers; "this computer can perform a million flops per second". Floating point hardware was standard throughout the 7090/94 family. The 7090 had single precision (36-bit) floating point operations while the 7094/7094 II machines also provided double precision (72-bit) floating point instructions. The fraction was considered normalized if Bit-9 (or Bit-18 in Double Precision) contained the first 1-bit of the fraction so that the floating point word was positioned to have no leading zero bits.

10


The characteristic for single precision numbers consisted of eight bits (Bits 1-8) and defined the exponent of the number. Since the exponent could either be positive or negative, but the hardware sign bit was already allocated for the fraction, then the exponent was algebraically signed in socalled excess form where the characteristic was formed by subtracting +128 from the exponent (e.g., an exponent of +12 would be coded as 140 and -30 would be coded as 98). The allowable range for the single precision exponent was -128 (decimal) to +127 (decimal) which yielded a floating point range between approximately 10E-39 to 10E+39 (decimal). As example, single precision floating point 10.00 (decimal) was represented as 204500000000 (octal) which yielded a sign bit of 0; a characteristic of 204 (octal); and a mantissa of 500000000 (octal). The zero sign bit indicated an algebraically positive number; the 204 (octal) or 132 (decimal) characteristic indicated, after subtracting 128 (decimal), an exponent of 4; and the mantissa of 500000000 (octal) indicated a fraction of (2 ** -2) + (2 ** -3) or 0.63 (decimal). Therefore, the floating point number was (2 ** 4) * (0.63) or 10.00. Other floating point examples: 0.00390625 (decimal) was represented by

171400000000

206510000000

(octal);

(octal);

and

44.00 -20.00

(decimal) (decimal)

was

represented

by

was

represented

by

605500000000 (octal). IEEE STANDARD 754 FLOATING POINT NUMBERS IEEE Standard 754 floating point is the most common representation today for real numbers on computers, including Intel-based PC's, Macintoshes, and most Unix platforms. This article gives a brief overview of IEEE floating point and its representation. Discussion of arithmetic implementation may be found in the book mentioned at the bottom of this article. Floating Point Numbers There are several ways to represent real numbers on computers. Fixed point places a radix point somewhere in the middle of the digits, and is equivalent to using integers that represent portions of some unit. For example, one might represent 1/100ths of a unit; if you have four decimal

10


digits, you could represent 10.82, or 00.01. Another approach is to use rationals, and represent every number as the ratio of two integers. Floating-point representation - the most common solution - basically represents reals in scientific notation. Scientific notation represents numbers as a base number and an exponent. For example, 123.456 could be represented as 1.23456 Ă— 10 2. In hexadecimal, the number 123.abc might be represented as 1.23abc Ă— 162. Floating-point solves a number of representation problems. Fixed-point has a fixed window of representation, which limits it from representing very large or very small numbers. Also, fixed-point is prone to a loss of precision when two large numbers are divided. Floating-point, on the other hand, employs a sort of "sliding window" of precision appropriate to the scale of the number. This allows it to represent numbers from 1,000,000,000,000 to 0.0000000000000001 with ease. Storage Layout IEEE floating point numbers have three basic components: the sign, the exponent, and the mantissa. The mantissa is composed of the fraction and an implicit leading digit (explained below). The exponent base (2) is implicit and need not be stored. The following figure shows the layout for single (32-bit) and double (64bit) precision floating-point values. The number of bits for each field are shown (bit ranges are in square brackets):

Single Precision

Sign

Exponent

Fraction

Bias

1 [31]

8 [30-23]

23 [22-00]

127

Double Precision 1 [63] 11 [62-52] 52 [51-00] 1023 The Sign Bit The sign bit is as simple as it gets. 0 denotes a positive number; 1 denotes a negative number. Flipping the value of this bit flips the sign of the number. The Exponent The exponent field needs to represent both positive and negative exponents. To do this, a bias is added to the actual exponent in order to get the stored exponent. For IEEE single-precision floats, this value is 127. Thus, an exponent of zero means that 127 is stored in the exponent field. A stored value of 200 indicates an exponent of (200-127), or 73. For reasons discussed later, exponents of -127 (all 0s) and +128 (all 1s) are reserved for 10


special numbers. For double precision, the exponent field is 11 bits, and has a bias of 1023. The Mantissa The mantissa, also known as the significand, represents the precision bits of the number. It is composed of an implicit leading bit and the fraction bits. To find out the value of the implicit leading bit, consider that any number can be expressed in scientific notation in many different ways. For example, the number five can be represented as any of these: 5.00 × 100 0.05 × 102 5000 × 10-3 In order to maximize the quantity of representable numbers, floatingpoint numbers are typically stored in normalized form. This basically puts the radix point after the first non-zero digit. In normalized form, five is represented as 5.0 × 100. A nice little optimization is available to us in base two, since the only possible non-zero digit is 1. Thus, we can just assume a leading digit of 1, and don't need to represent it explicitly. As a result, the mantissa has effectively 24 bits of resolution, by way of 23 fraction bits. Putting it All Together 1. The sign bit is 0 for positive, 1 for negative. 2. The exponent's base is two. 3. The exponent field contains 127 plus the true exponent for singleprecision, or 1023 plus the true exponent for double precision. 4. The first bit of the mantissa is typically assumed to be 1.f, where f is the field of fraction bits. Ranges of Floating-Point Numbers Let's consider single-precision floats for a second. Note that we're taking essentially a 32-bit number and re-jiggering the fields to cover a much broader range. Something has to give, and it's precision. For example, regular 32-bit integers, with all precision centered around zero, can precisely store integers with 32-bits of resolution. Single-precision floatingpoint, on the other hand, is unable to match this resolution with its 24 bits. 10


It does, however, approximate this value by effectively truncating from the lower end. For example: 11110000 11001100 10101010 00001111 // 32-bit integer = +1.1110000 11001100 10101010 x 231 // Single-Precision Float = 11110000 11001100 10101010 00000000 // Corresponding Value This approximates the 32-bit value, but doesn't yield an exact representation. On the other hand, besides the ability to represent fractional components (which integers lack completely), the floating-point value can represent numbers around 2127, compared to 32-bit integers maximum value around 232. The range of positive floating point numbers can be split into normalized numbers (which preserve the full precision of the mantissa), and denormalized numbers (discussed later) which use only a portion of the fractions's precision.

Denormalized Single Precision

± 2-149 to (1-2-23)×2-

Double Precision

± 2-1074 to (1-2-52)×2-

126

1022

Approximate Decimal

Normalized ± 2-126 to (2-223 )×2127

± ~10-44.85 to ~1038.53

± 2-1022 to (2-252 )×21023

± ~10-323.3 to ~10308.3

Since the sign of floating point numbers is given by a special leading bit, the range for negative numbers is given by the negation of the above values. There are five distinct numerical ranges that single-precision floating-point numbers are not able to represent: 1. Negative numbers less than -(2-2-23) × 2127 (negative overflow) 2. Negative numbers greater than -2-149 (negative underflow) 3. Zero 4. Positive numbers less than 2-149 (positive underflow) 5. Positive numbers greater than (2-2-23) × 2127 (positive overflow)

10


Overflow means that values have grown too large for the representation, much in the same way that you can overflow integers. Underflow is a less serious problem because is just denotes a loss of precision, which is guaranteed to be closely approximated by zero. Here's a table of the effective range (excluding infinite values) of IEEE floating-point numbers: Binary Single

± (2-2-23) × 2127

Double ± (2-2-52) × 21023

Decimal ~ ± 1038.53 ~ ± 10308.25

Note that the extreme values occur (regardless of sign) when the exponent is at the maximum value for finite numbers (2127 for single-precision, 21023 for double), and the mantissa is filled with 1s (including the normalizing 1 bit). Special Values IEEE reserves exponent field values of all 0s and all 1s to denote special values in the floating-point scheme.

Zero As mentioned above, zero is not directly representable in the straight format, due to the assumption of a leading 1 (we'd need to specify a true zero mantissa to yield a value of zero). Zero is a special value denoted with an exponent field of zero and a fraction field of zero. Note that -0 and +0 are distinct values, though they both compare as equal. Denormalized If the exponent is all 0s, but the fraction is non-zero (else it would be interpreted as zero), then the value is a denormalized number, which does not have an assumed leading 1 before the binary point. Thus, this represents a number (-1)s × 0.f × 2-126, where s is the sign bit and f is the fraction. For double precision, denormalized numbers are of the form (-1) s × 0.f × 2-1022. From this you can interpret zero as a special type of denormalized number. Infinity The values +infinity and -infinity are denoted with an exponent of all 1s and a fraction of all 0s. The sign bit distinguishes between negative infinity and positive infinity. Being able to denote infinity as a specific value is useful because it allows operations to continue past overflow situations. Operations with infinite values are well defined in IEEE floating point. 11


Not A Number The value NaN (Not a Number) is used to represent a value that does not represent a real number. NaN's are represented by a bit pattern with an exponent of all 1s and a non-zero fraction. There are two categories of NaN: QNaN (Quiet NaN) and SNaN (Signalling NaN). A QNaN is a NaN with the most significant fraction bit set. QNaN's propagate freely through most arithmetic operations. These values pop out of an operation when the result is not mathematically defined. An SNaN is a NaN with the most significant fraction bit clear. It is used to signal an exception when used in operations. SNaN's can be handy to assign to uninitialized variables to trap premature usage. Semantically, QNaN's denote indeterminate operations, while SNaN's denote invalid operations.

Special Operations Operations on special numbers are well-defined by IEEE. In the simplest case, any operation with a NaN yields a NaN result. Other operations are as follows: Operation

Result

n ÷ ±Infinity

0

±Infinity × ±Infinity ±Infinity ±nonzero ÷ 0

±Infinity

Infinity + Infinity

Infinity

±0 ÷ ±0

NaN

Infinity - Infinity

NaN

±Infinity ÷ ±Infinity

NaN

±Infinity × 0

NaN

To sum up, the following are the corresponding values for a given representation:

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Float Values (b = bias) Sign Exponent (e) Fraction (f)

Value

0

00..00

00..00

+0

0

00..00

00..01 : 11..11

Positive Denormalized Real 0.f × 2(-b+1)

0

00..01 : 11..10

XX..XX

Positive Normalized Real 1.f × 2(e-b)

0

11..11

00..00

+Infinity

0

11..11

00..01 : 01..11

SNaN

0

11..11

10..00 : 11..11

QNaN

1

00..00

00..00

-0

1

00..00

00..01 : 11..11

Negative Denormalized Real -0.f × 2(-b+1)

1

00..01 : 11..10

XX..XX

Negative Normalized Real -1.f × 2(e-b)

1

11..11

00..00

-Infinity

1

11..11

00..01 : 01..11

SNaN

1

11..11

10..00 : 11.11

QNaN

In general, the floating point instructions used both the AC and MQ registers to develop

11


UNIT II BASIC PROCESSING UNIT FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

Processor fetches one instruction at a time and perform the operation specified. Instructions are fetched from successive memory locations until a branch or a jump instruction is encountered. Processor keeps track of the address of the memory location containing the next instruction to be fetched using Program Counter (PC). Instruction Register (IR) To execute a program, processor fetches one instruction at a time and performs the specified operation.

• Instructions are fetched from successive memory locations until a branch instruction occur. A processor identifies this successive memory locations is through a special register called Program Counter (PC). Program Counter (PC): The processor keeps track of the address of the memory location containing the next instruction to be fetched using a special register called Program Counter. • Another register of a processor is Instruction Register (IR). Each instruction comprises of 4 bytes and it is stored in one memory word.

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Executing an Instruction Fetch the contents of the memory location pointed to by the PC. The contents of this location are loaded into the IR (fetch phase). IR � [[PC]] Assuming that the memory is byte addressable, increment the contents of the PC by 4 (fetch phase). PC � [PC] + 4 Carry out the actions specified by the instruction in the IR (execution phase).

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Register Transfers Internal processor bus Riin

Ri

Riout Yin

Y Constant 4 Select

MU X A

B AL U

Z in Z Z out

           Input and output gating for the registers  All operations and data transfers are controlled by the processor clock.

The ALU is a combinational circuit that has no internal storage. ALU gets the two operands from MUX and bus. The result is temporarily stored in register Z. What is the sequence of operations to add the contents of register R1 to those of R2 and store the result in R3? 1. R1out, Yin 2. R2out, SelectY, Add, Zin 3. Zout, R3in

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Fetching a Word from Memory Address into MAR; issue Read operation; data into MDR. Fetching a Word from Memory The response time of each memory access varies (cache miss, memorymapped I/O,…). To accommodate this, the processor waits until it receives an indication that the requested operation has been completed (Memory-Function-Completed, MFC). Move (R1), R2  MAR ← [R1]  Start a Read operation on the memory bus  Wait for the MFC response from the memory  Load MDR from the memory bus  R2 ← [MDR] Timing Assume MAR is always available on the address lines of the memory bus. Move (R1), R2 1. R1out, MARin, Read 2. MDRinE, WMFC 3. MDRout, R2in EXECUTION OF A COMPLETE INSTRUCTION Add (R3), R1. Fetch the instruction. Fetch the first operand (the contents of the memory location pointed to by R3). Perform the addition. Load the result into R1

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Internal processor bus Riin

Ri

Riout Yin

Y Constant 4 Select

MU X A

B AL U

Z in Z Z out

.                  Input and output gating for the registers 

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Execution of Branch Instructions A branch instruction replaces the contents of PC with the branch target address, which is usually obtained by adding an offset X given in the branch instruction. The offset X is usually the difference between the branch target address and the address immediately following the branch instruction. Conditional branch

StepAction 1

PCout , MAR

2

Zout , PC in , Y in , WMF C

3

MDR out , IR in

4

Offset-field-of-IR out , Add, Z in

5

Z out , PCin , End

in

, Read, Select4, Add, Z in

MULTIPLE-BUS ORGANIZATION Allow the contents of two different registers to be accessed simultaneously and have their contents placed on buses A and B. Allow the data on bus C to be loaded into a third register during the same clock cycle. Incrementer unit. ALU simply passes one of ts two input operands unmodified to bus C ďƒ  control signal: R=A or R=B

ď Ź Add R4, R5, R6 11


StepAction 1

PCout , R=B, MAR in , Read, IncPC

2

WMFC

3

MDR outB , R=B, IR in

4

R4outA , R5outB , SelectA, Add, R6 in , End

Overview To execute instructions, the processor must have some means of generating the control signals needed in the proper sequence.Two categories: hardwired control and microprogrammed control. Hardwired system can operate at high speed; but with little flexibility. HARDWIRED CONTROL UNIT ORGANIZATION In the hardwired control, the control unit use fixed logic circuits to interpret instructions and generate control signals from them. The following diagram shows the fixed logic circuit block includes combinational circuit that generate the required control outputs for decoding and encoding functions. The instruction decoder decodes the instruction loaded in the IR.if IR is an 8-bit register then instruction decoder generates 28 i.e 256 lines. The step decoder provides a separate signal for each step,or time slot ,in a control sequence.The encoder gets in the input from instruction decoder, step decoder,external inputs and condition codes. It uses all these inputs to generate the individual control signals. After execution of each instruction end signal is generated which resets the control step counter and make it ready for generation of control step for next instructions.

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Clock

CLK

Control step counter

External inputs Decoder/

IR

encoder Condition codes

Control signals

 Control unit organization

Generating Zin Zin = T1 + T6 • ADD + T4 • BR + … The encoder generates signal for single bus processor organization shown in figure. The Zin signal is asserted during time interval T1 for all instructions,during T6 for an ADD instruction,during T4 for an unconditional branch instruction and so on.

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Branch T

T

Add T

4

6

1

Generating End End = T7 • ADD + T5 • BR + (T5 • N + T4 • N) • BRN A Complete Processor This block diagram consist of instruction unit,integer unit ,floating point unit ,instruction cache,data cache, bus interface unit, main memory module and input/output module. The instruction unit fetches instruction from an instruction cache or from the main memory when desired instructions are not available in the cache. The complete processor provides two processing unit. Integer unit. Floating point unit. Integer unit to process integer data and floating point process floating point data. these two units get data from data cache.The processor provides bus interface unit to control the interface of processor to system bus,main memory module and input/output module.

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MICROPROGRAMMED CONTROL Control signals are generated by a program similar to machine language programs. Control Word (CW); microroutine; microinstruction. Microprogramming is a method of control unit design in which the control signal selection and sequencing information is stored in ROM or RAM called control memory(CM). The control signal to be activated at any time or specified by a micro instruction,which is fetched from CM in much similar way an instruction fetched from main memory. A sequence of one or more micro operations designed to control specific operation ,such as addition,multiplication is called a microprogram.The address where the micro instruction are stored in CM is generated by micro program sequencer or micro program controller. The components of control unit work together as follows: The control address register (MPC) holds the address of the next microinstruction to be read.Every time a new micro instruction is loaded in to the IR,the output of the block labeled starting address generator is loaded in to the micro program controller. When address is available to control register, the sequencer issues READ command to the control memory. After issue of READ command the word from the addressed memory location is read in to the micro instruction register. The micro program controller is then automatically incremented by the clock,causing successive microinstructions to be read from the control memory. The content of the micro instruction register generates control signals which are delivered to various parts of micro processor in the control sequence. Conditional branch The previous organization cannot handle the situation when the control unit is required to check the status of the condition codes or external inputs to choose between alternative courses of action. Use conditional branch microinstruction.

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Address Microinstruction 0

PCout , MAR in , Read, Select4, Add, Z in

1

Zout , PCin , Y in , WMF C

2

MDR out , IR in

3 Branch to starting addressof appropriatemicroroutine . ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. 25

If N=0, then branch to microinstruction 0

26

Offset-field-of-IR out , SelectY, Add, Z in

27

Zout , PCin , End Microroutine for the instruction Branch<0.

12


External inputs IR

Clock

Starting and branch address generator

Condition codes

µ PC

Control store

CW

Advantage of microprogrammed control unit • • • • •

It simplifies the design of control unit ,thus it both,cheaper less error prone to implement. Control functions are implemented in software rather than hardware. The design process orderly and systematic. More flexible ,can be changed to accommadate new system specification or to correct the design errors quickly and cheaply. Complex functions such as floating point arithmetic can be realized efficiently.

Disadvantage of microprogrammed control unit • •

A microprogrammed control unit is somewhat slower than the hardwired contol unit ,because time is required to access the micro instructions from control memory. The flexibility is achieved at some extra hardware cost due to the control memory and its access circuitry.

12


Microinstructions A straightforward way to structure microinstructions is to assign one bit position to each control signal. However, this is very inefficient. The length can be reduced: most signals are not needed simultaneously, and many signals are mutually exclusive. All mutually exclusive signals are placed in the same group in binary coding. Grouping of control signals Grouping technique is used to reduce the number bits in the microinstruction. • Gating signals:(IN and OUT signals) • Control signals :Read ,Write,clear A etc • ALU signals: Add, Sub etc There are in all 39 control signals and hence each micro instruction will have 39 bits.it is not at all neccassary to use all 39 bits for every micro instruction because by using grouping of control signals we minimize number of bits for microinstruction. Way to reduce number of bits in micro instruction Most signals are not needed simultaneously. Many signals are mutually exclusive (eg) only one function of ALU can be activated at a time.A source for data transfers must be unique which means that it should not be possible to get the content of two different registers on to the bus at the same time.Read and write signals to the memory cant be activated simultaneously.39 control signals can be grouped in to 8 different categories. Techniques of grouping of control signals. The grouping of control signals can be done either by using technique called vertical organization or horizontal organization. Highly encoded scheme that use compact codes to specify only a small number of control functions in each micro instruction are reffered to asa vertical organization. The minimally encoded scheme,in which resources can be controlled with a single instruction,is called a horizontal organistation. Comparison between horizontal and vertical organization. Sr.no 1 2 3

Horizantal Long formats Ability to express high degree of parallesism. Little encoding of control information.

4

12

Vertical Short formats Limited ability to express parallel micro operations Considerable encoding of the control


Useful when higher operating speed is desired.

information. Slower operating speeds.

Advantage and disadvantage of horizontal and vertical organizations. • The horizontal organization approach is suitable when operating speed of computer is a critical factor and where the machine structure allows parallel usage of anumber of resource. • Vertical apporoach result in slower operations speed but less bits are required in the micro instruction. • In vertical approach the significant factor is reduced. Microprogram Sequencing If all microprograms require only straightforward sequential execution of microinstructions except for branches, letting a μPC governs the sequencing would be efficient. Two disadvantages:  Having a separate microroutine for each machine instruction results in a large total number of microinstructions and a large control store.  Longer execution time because it takes more time to carry out the required branches.  Example: Add src, Rdst Four addressing modes: register, autoincrement, autodecrement, and indexed (with indirect forms).

12


12


Contents of IR

OP code

0 1 0 11 10

Rsrc 87

Rdst 4 3

Address (octal)

Microinstruction

000

PCout , MAR in , Read, Select4 , Add, Z in

001

Z out , PCin, Yin, WMFC

002

MDR out, IRin

003

µBranch {µ PC ←  101 (from Instruction decoder); µPC5,4 ← [IR 10,9]; µPC3 ← [IR 10 ] ⋅ [IR9] ⋅ [IR8]}

121

Rsrcout , MARin , Read, Select4, Add, Z in

122

Z out , Rsrcin

123

µ Branch {µ PC ←  170; µ PC0 ← [IR 8]}, WMFC

170

MDR out, MAR in , Read, WMFC

171

MDR out, Yin

172

Rdstout , SelectY, Add, Z in

173

Z out , Rdstin , End

0

 

Microinstructions with Next-Address Field The microprogram we discussed requires several branch microinstructions, which perform no useful operation in the datapath. A powerful alternative approach is to include an address field as a part of every microinstruction to indicate the location of the next microinstruction to be fetched. Pros: separate branch microinstructions are virtually eliminated; few limitations in assigning addresses to microinstructions. Cons: additional bits for the address field (around 1/6)

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Micro instruction execution. A microprogrammed computer has two distinct level of control. (i) instruction level (ii)micro instruction level At the instruction level,the CPU continuously executes instruction cycles that involve the following steps. 1. The CPU fetches an instruction from main memory ,whose address is stored in the program counter PC. 2. The opcode part of I is placed in an instruction register IR,the operation specified by IR is then decode and executed. 3. PC is altered to point to the next instruction to be fetched from memory. Micro instruction level A similar sequence of operation takes place at the micro instruction level,where the control unit continuously executes micro cyclea as follows. 1.The addressing portion(micro program sequencer)of the control unit fetches a micro instruction MI from the control memory CM,whose address is stored in the micro program counter. 2.MI is loaded in to micro instruction register MIR and is decoded to produce the required control signals. 3.Micro program controller is altered to point to the next micro instruction to be fetched from CM. NANO PROGRAMMING The Nano computer language primarily came from the nano technology. Nano technology refers from the fields of applied science that control matter on its molecular and atomic scale. The technology can be used in materials science, applied physics, and of course, computer programming. The nano program is basically very easy to learn and to apply. Texts can be typed immediately into the interface. It is also quite simple to insert text into the program with the use of some editing configuration. There is also the nano editor software that you can use with the main program base

12


so

that

saving,

cutting,

pasting,

and

searching

becomes

fairly

straightforward. Currently, there are a lot of instructions software and basic instructional kits for use of those who want to learn computer programming in nano. Since nano is being one of the more popular languages today, this software is being applied in almost all newer applications. comparison between Hardwired and Microprogrammed Control Hardwired control

Ability to handle large or complex instruction set. Ability to support OS and diagnostic features. Design process Applications

Somewhat difficult

Micro programmed control Slow Implemented in software More flexible,to accomadate new system specifications or new instructions redesign is required. Easier

Very difficult

Easy

Somewhat complicated Mostly RISC microprocessors.

Orderly and systematic. Mainframes ,some microprocessors.

Instruction size ROM size

Usually under 100 instructions. -

Chip area efficiency

Uses least area.

Usually over 100 instructions. 2 k to 10 k by 20-400 micro instructions. Uses most area.

Attribute Speed Control functions Flexibility

Fast Implemented in hardware Not flexible,to accomadate new system specifications or new instructions.

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UNIT-III PIPELINING We discuss the concept of pipelining, which is used in modern computers to achieve high performance. We begin by explaining the basics of pipelining and how it can lead to improved performance. Then we examine machine instruction features that facilitate pipelined execution, and we show that the choice of instructions and instruction sequencing can have a significant effect on performance. Pipelined organization requires sophisticated compilation techniques, and optimizing compilers have been developed for this purpose. Among other things, such compilers rearrange the sequence of operations to maximize the benefits of pipelined execution. BASIC CONCEPTS The speed of execution of programs is influenced by many factors. One way to improve performance is to use faster circuit technology to build the processor and the main memory. Another possibility is to arrange the hardware so that more than one operation can be performed at the same time. In this way, the number of operations performed per second is increased even though the elapsed time needed to perform any one operation is not changed. The concept of multiprogramming and explained how it is possible for I/O transfers and computational activities to proceed simultaneously. DMA devices make this possible because they can perform I/O transfers independently once these transfers are initiated by the processor. Pipelining is a particularly effective way of organizing concurrent activity in a computer system. The basic idea is very simple. It is frequently encountered in manufacturing plants, where pipelining is commonly known as an assembly-line operation. Readers are undoubtedly familiar with the assembly line used in car manufacturing. The first station in an assembly line may prepare the chassis of a car, the next station adds the body, and the next one installs the engine, and so on. While one group of workers is installing the engine on one car, another group is fitting a car body on the

13


chassis of another car, and yet another group is preparing a new chassis for a third car. It may take days to complete work on a given car, but it is possible to have a new car rolling off the end of the assembly line every few minutes. Consider how the idea of pipelining can be used in a computer. The processor executes a program by fetching and executing instructions, one after the other. Let Fi and Ei refer to the fetch and execute steps for instruction Ii. Executions of a program consist of a sequence of fetch and execute steps. Now consider a computer that has two separate hardware units, 1. Fetching instructions and 2. Executing instructions. The instruction is fetched by the fetch unit is deposited in an intermediate storage buffer, B1. This buffer is needed to enable the execution unit to execute the instruction while the fetch unit is fetching the next instruction. The results of execution are deposited in the destination location specified by the instruction. For the purposes of this discussion, we assume that both the source and the destination of the data operated on by the instructions are inside the block labeled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Execution unit.â&#x20AC;?

13


Fig: Basic idea of instruction pipelining The computer is controlled by a clock whose period is such that the fetch and execute steps of any instruction can each be completed in one clock cycle. Operation of the computer proceeds as shown in the Figure Š.

13


In the first clock cycle, the fetch unit fetches an instruction I1 (step F1) and stores it in buffer B1 at the end of the clock cycle. In the second clock cycle, the instruction fetch unit proceeds with the fetch operation for instruction I2 (step F2). Meanwhile, the execution unit performs the operation specified by instruction I1, which is available to it in buffer B1 (step E1). By the end of the second clock cycle, the execution of instruction I1 is completed and instruction I2 is available. Instruction I2 is stored in B1, replacing I1, which is no longer needed. Step E2 is performed by the execution unit during the third clock cycle, while instruction I3 is being fetched by the fetch unit. In this manner, both the fetch and execute units are kept busy all the time. If the pattern in Figure Š can be sustained for a long time, the completion rate of instruction execution will be twice that achievable by the sequential operation depicted in Figure (a). In summary, the fetch and execute units in Figure (b) constitute a two-stage pipeline in which each stage performs one step in processing an instruction. An interstate storage buffer, B1, is needed to hold the information being passed from one stage to the next. New information is loaded into this buffer at the end of each clock cycle. The processing of an instruction need not be divided into only two steps. For example, a pipelined processor may process each instruction in four steps, as follows: F Fetch: read the instruction from the memory. D Decode: decode the instruction and fetch the source operand(s). E Execute: perform the operation specified by the instruction. W Write: store the result in the destination location. Four instructions are in progress at any given time. This means that four distinct hardware units are needed. These units must be capable of performing their tasks simultaneously and without interfering with one another. Information is passed from one unit to the next through a storage buffer. As an instruction progresses through the pipeline, all the information needed by the stages downstream must be passed along. For example, during clock cycle 4, the information in the buffers is as follows:

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1. Buffer B1 holds instruction I3, which was fetched in cycle 3 and is being decoded by the instruction-decoding unit. 2. Buffer B2 holds both the source operands for instruction I2 and the specification of the operation to be performed. This is the information produced by the decoding hardware in cycle 3. The buffer also holds the information needed for the write step of instruction I2 (stepW2). Even though it is not needed by stage E, this information must be passed on to stage W in the following clock cycle to enable that stage to perform the required Write operation. 3. Buffer B3 holds the results produced by the execution unit and the destination information for instruction I1. ROLE OF CACHE MEMORY Each stage in a pipeline is expected to complete its operation in one clock cycle. Hence, the clock period should be sufficiently long to complete the task being performed in any stage. If different units require different amounts of time, the clock period must allow the longest task to be completed. A unit that completes its task early is idle for the remainder of the clock period. Hence, pipelining is most effective in improving

13


fig: A 4-stage pipeline performance if the tasks being performed in different stages require about the same amount of time. This consideration is particularly important for the instruction fetch step, which is assigned one clock period in Figure 8.2a. The clock cycle has to be equal to or greater than the time needed to complete a fetch operation. However, the access time of the main memory may be as much as ten times greater than the time needed to perform basic pipeline stage operations inside the processor, such as adding two numbers. Thus, if each instruction fetch required access to the main memory, pipelining would be of little value. The use of cache memories solves the memory access problem. In particular, when a cache is included on the same chip as 13


the processor, access time to the cache is usually the same as the time needed to perform other basic operations inside the processor. This makes it possible to divide instruction fetching and processing into steps that are more or less equal in duration. Each of these steps is performed by a different pipeline stage, and the clock period is chosen to correspond to the longest one. PIPELINE PERFORMANCE The pipelined processor completes the processing of one instruction in each clock cycle, which means that the rate of instruction processing is four times that of sequential operation.

The

potential increase in

performance resulting from pipelining is proportional to the number of pipeline stages. However, this increase would be achieved only if pipelined operation as depicted in Figure .a could be sustained without interruption throughout program execution. Unfortunately, this is not the case. For a variety of reasons, one of the pipeline stages may not be able to complete its processing task for a given instruction in the time allotted. For example, stage E in the four-stage pipeline of Figure 8.2b is responsible for arithmetic and logic operations, and one clock cycle is assigned for this task. Although this may be sufficient for most operations, some operations, such as divide, may require more time to complete. The below figure shows an example in which the operation specified in instruction I2 requires three cycles to complete, from cycle 4 through cycle 6. Thus, in cycles 5 and 6, the Write stage must be told to do nothing, because it has no data to work with. Meanwhile, the information in buffer B2 must remain intact until the Execute stage has completed its operation. This means that stage 2 and, in turn, stage 1 are blocked from accepting new instructions because the information in B1 cannot be overwritten. Thus, steps D4 and F5 must be postponed as shown.

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fig: Effect of an execution operation taking more than one clock cycle Pipelined operation is said to have been stalled for two clock cycles. Normal pipelined operation resumes in cycle 7. Any condition that causes the pipeline to stall is called a hazard. We have just seen an example of a data hazard. A data hazard is any condition in which either the source or the destination operands of an instruction are not available at the time expected in the pipeline. As a result some operation has to be delayed, and the pipeline stalls. The pipeline may also be stalled because of a delay in the availability of an instruction. For example, this may be a result of a miss in the cache, requiring the instruction to be fetched from the main memory. Such hazards are often called control hazards or instruction hazards. Instruction I1 is fetched from the cache in cycle 1, and its execution proceeds normally. However, the fetch operation for instruction I2, which is started in cycle 2, results in a cache miss. The instruction fetch unit must now suspend any further fetch requests and wait for I2 to arrive. We assume that instruction I2 is received and loaded into buffer B1 at the end of cycle 5. The pipeline resumes its normal operation at that point.

13


Fig: Pipeline stall caused by a cache miss in F2 An alternative representation of the operation of a pipeline in the case of a cache miss is shown in Figure b. This figure gives the function performed by each pipeline stage in each clock cycle. Note that the Decode unit is idle in cycles 3 through 5, the Execute unit is idle in cycles 4 through 6, and the Write unit is idle in cycles 5 through 7. Such idle periods are called stalls. They are also often referred to as bubbles in the pipeline. Once created as a result of a delay in one of the pipeline stages, a bubble moves downstream until it reaches the last unit. A third type of hazard that may be encountered in pipelined operation is known

13


as a structural hazard. This is the situation when two instructions require the use of a given hardware resource at the same time. The most common case in which this hazard may arise is in access to memory. One instruction may need to access memory as part of the Execute or Write stage while another instruction is being fetched. If instructions and data reside in the same cache unit, only one instruction can proceed and the other instruction is delayed. Many processors use separate instruction and data caches to avoid this delay. An example of a structural hazard is shown in Figure 8.5. This figure shows how the load instruction Load X(R1),R2 can be accommodated in our example 4-stage pipeline. The memory address, X+ [R1], is computed in stepE2 in cycle 4, then memory access takes place in cycle 5. The operand read from memory is written into register R2 in cycle 6. This means that the execution step of this instruction takes two clock cycles (cycles 4 and 5). It causes the pipeline to stall for one cycle, because both instructions I2 and I3 require access to the register file in cycle 6. Even

14


though the instructions and their data are all available, the pipeline is

fig: Effect of a Load instruction on pipeline timing stalled because one hardware resource, the register file, cannot handle two operationsat once. If the register file had two input ports, that is, if it allowed two simultaneous write operations, the pipeline would not be stalled. In general, structural hazards are avoided by providing sufficient hardware resources on the processor chip. It is important to understand that pipelining does not result in individual instructions being executed faster; rather, it is the throughput that increases, where throughput is measured by the rate at which instruction execution is completed. Any time one of the stages in the pipeline cannot complete its operation in one clock cycle, the pipeline stalls, and some degradation in performance occurs.

14


Thus, the performance level of one instruction completion in each clock cycle is actually the upper limit for the throughput achievable in a pipelined processor organized as in Figure b. An important goal in designing processors is to identify all hazards that may cause the pipeline to stall and to find ways to minimize their impact. In the following sections we discuss various hazards, starting with data hazards, followed by control hazards. In each case we present some of the techniques used to mitigate their negative effect on performance. DATA HAZARDS A data hazard is a situation in which the pipeline is stalled because the data to be operated on are delayed for some reason. We will now examine the issue of availability of data in some detail. Consider a program that contains two instructions, I1 followed by I2. When this program is executed in a pipeline, the execution of I2 can begin before the execution of I1 is completed. This means that the results generated by I1 may not be available for use by I2. We must ensure that the results obtained when instructions are executed in a pipelined processor are identical to those obtained when the same instructions are executed sequentially. The potential for obtaining incorrect results when operations are performed concurrently can be demonstrated by a simple example. Assume that A=5, and consider the following two operations: Aď&#x192;&#x; 3+A B ď&#x192;&#x;4*A When these operations are performed in the order given, the result is B = 32. But if they are performed concurrently, the value of A used in computing B would be the original value, 5, leading to an incorrect result. If these two operations

are

performed by

instructions

in

a

program,

then the

instructions must be executed one after the other, because the data used in the second instruction depend on the result of the first instruction. On the other hand, the two operations Aď&#x192;&#x; 5*C

14


B ď&#x192;&#x; 20 + C can be performed concurrently, because these operations are independent.

fig: Pipeline stalled by data dependency between D2 and W1 This example illustrates a basic constraint that must be enforced to guarantee correct results. When two operations depend on each other, they must be performed sequentially in the correct order. This rather obvious condition has far-reaching consequences. Understanding its implications is the key to understanding the variety of design alternatives and trade-offs encountered in pipelined computers. Consider the pipeline Figure. The data dependency just described arises when the destination of one instruction is used as a source in the next instruction. For example, the two instructions Mul R2,R3,R4 Add R5,R4,R6 give rise to a data dependency. The result of the multiply instruction is placed into register R4, which in turn is one of the two source operands of the Add instruction. Assuming that the multiply operation takes one clock cycle to complete, execution would proceed as shown in Figure 8.6. As the Decode unit decodes the Add instruction in cycle 3, it realizes that R4 is used as a source operand. Hence, the D step of that instruction cannot be completed until the W step of the multiply instruction has been completed. Completion of step D2 must be delayed to clock cycle 5, and is shown as

14


step D2A in the figure. Instruction I3 is fetched in cycle 3, but its decoding must be delayed because step D3 cannot precede D2. Hence, pipelined execution is stalled for two cycles. 1. OPERAND FORWARDING The data hazard just described arises because one instruction, instruction I2 is waiting for data to be written in the register file. However, these data are available at the output of the ALU once the Execute stage completes step E1. Hence, the delay can be reduced, or possibly eliminated, if we arrange for the result of instruction I1 to be forwarded directly for use in step E2. The below figure a shows a part of the processor data path involving the ALU and the register file. This arrangement is similar to the three-bus structure, except that registers SRC1, SRC2, and RSLT have been added. These registers constitute the interstage buffers needed for pipelined operation in Figure b. With reference to Figure b, registers SRC1 and SRC2 are part of buffer B2 and RSLT is part of B3. The data forwarding mechanism is provided by the blue connection lines. The two multiplexers connected at the inputs to the ALU allow the data on the destination bus to be selected instead of the contents of either the SRC1 or SRC2 register. After decoding instruction I2 and detecting the data dependency, a decision is made to use data forwarding. The operand not involved in the dependency, register R2, is read and loaded in register SRC1 in clock cycle 3. In the next clock cycle, the product produced by instruction I1 is available in register RSLT, and because of the forwarding connection, it can be used in step E2. Hence, execution of I2 proceeds without interruption.

14


fig: Operand forwarding in a pipelined processor

2. HANDLING DATA HAZARDS IN SOFTWARE

14


We assumed the data dependency is discovered by the hardware while the instruction is being decoded. The control hardware delays reading register R4 until cycle 5, thus introducing a 2-cycle stall unless operand forwarding is used. An alternative approach is to leave the task of detecting data dependencies and dealing with them to the software. In this case, the compiler can introduce the two-cycle delay needed between instructions I1 and I2 by inserting NOP (No-operation) instructions, as follows: I1: Mul R2,R3,R4 NOP NOP I2: Add R5,R4,R6 If the responsibility for detecting such dependencies is left entirely to the software, the compiler must insert the NOP instructions to obtain a correct result. This possibility illustrates the close link between the compiler and the hardware. A particular feature can be either implemented in hardware or left to the compiler. Leaving tasks such as inserting NOP instructions to the compiler leads to simpler hardware. Being aware of the need for a delay, the compiler can attempt to reorder instructions to perform useful tasks in the NOP slots, and thus achieve better performance. On the other hand, the insertion of NOP instructions leads to larger code size. Also, it is often the case

that

a

given

processor

architecture

has

several

hardware

implementations, offering different features. NOP instructions inserted to satisfy the requirements of one implementation may not be needed and, hence, would lead to reduced performance on a different implementation. 3. SIDE EFFECTS The data dependencies encountered in the preceding examples are explicit and easily detected because the register involved is named as the destination in instruction I1 and as a source in I2. Sometimes an instruction changes the contents of a register other than the one named as

14


the

destination.

An

instruction

that

uses

an

autoincrement

or

autodecrement addressing mode is an example. In addition to storing new data in its destination location, the instruction changes the contents of a source register used to access one of its operands. All the precautions needed to handle data dependencies involving the destination location must also be applied to the registers affected by an autoincrement or autodecrement operation. When a location other than one explicitly named in an instruction as a destination operand is affected, the instruction is said to have a side effect. For example, stack instructions, such as push and pop,

produce

similar

side

effects

because

they

implicitly

use

the

autoincrement and autodecrement addressing modes. Another possible side effect involves the condition code flags, which are used by instructions such as conditional branches and add-with-carry. Suppose that registers R1 and R2 hold a double-precision integer number that we wish to add to another doubleprecision number in registers R3 and R4. This may be accomplished as follows: Add R1,R3 AddWithCarry R2,R4 An implicit dependency exists between these two instructions through the carry flag. This flag is set by the first instruction and used in the second instruction, which performs the operation R4 . [R2] + [R4] + carry Instructions that have side effects give rise to multiple data dependencies, which lead to a substantial increase in the complexity of the hardware or software needed to resolve them. For this reason, instructions designed for execution on pipelined hardware should have fewside effects. Ideally, only the contents of the destination location, either a register or a memory location, should be affected by any given instruction. Side effects, such as setting the condition code flags or updating the contents of an address pointer, should be kept to a minimum. However, Chapter 2 showed that the autoincrement and autodecrement addressing modes are potentially useful.

14


Condition code flags are also needed for recording such information as the generation of a carry or the occurrence of overflow in an arithmetic operation. In Section 8.4 we show how such functions can be provided by other means that are consistent with a pipelined organization and with the requirements of optimizing compilers. INSTRUCTION HAZARDS The purpose of the instruction fetch unit is to supply the execution units with a steady stream of instructions. Whenever this stream is interrupted, the pipeline stalls for the case of a cache miss. A branch instruction may also cause the pipeline to stall. We will now examine the effect of branch instructions and the techniques that can be used for mitigating their impact. We start with unconditional branches. 1. Unconditional branches A sequence of instructions being executed in a two-stage pipeline. Instructions I1 to I3 are stored at successive memory addresses, and I2 is a branch instruction. Let the branch target be instruction Ik . In clock cycle 3, the fetch operation for instruction I3 is in progress at the same time that the branch instruction is being decoded and the target address computed. In clock cycle 4, the processor must discard I3, which has been incorrectly fetched, and fetch instruction Ik . In the meantime, the hardware unit responsible for the Execute (E) step must be told to do nothing during that clock period. Thus, the pipeline is stalled for one clock cycle. The time lost as a result of a branch instruction is often referred to as the branch penalty. The branch penalty is one clock cycle. For a longer pipeline, the branch penalty may be higher. For example, Figure 8.9a shows the effect of a branch instruction on a four-stage pipeline. We have assumed that the branch address is computed in step E2. Instructions I3 and I4 must be discarded, and the target instruction, Ik , is fetched in clock cycle 5. Thus, the branch penalty is two clock cycles. Reducing the branch penalty requires the branch address to be computed earlier in the pipeline. Typically, the instruction fetch unit has dedicated hardware to identify a

14


branch instruction and compute the branch target address as quickly as possible after an instruction is fetched. With this additional hardware, both of these tasks can be performed in step D2, leading to the sequence of events. In this case, the branch penalty is only one clock cycle.

fig: An idle cycle caused by a branch instruction

14


fig: Branch timing 2. Instruction Queue and Perfecting Either a cache miss or a branch instruction stalls the pipeline for one or more clock cycles. To reduce the effect of these interruptions, many processors employ sophisticated fetch units that can fetch instructions before they are needed and put them 15


in a queue. Typically, the instruction queue can store several instructions. A separate unit, which we call the dispatch unit, takes instructions from the front of the queue and

Figure Use of an instruction queue in the hardware organization sends them to the execution unit. The dispatch unit also performs the decoding function. To be effective, the fetch unit must have sufficient decoding and processing capability to recognize and execute branch instructions. It attempts to keep the instruction queue filled at all times to reduce the impact of occasional delays when fetching instructions. When the pipeline stalls because of a data hazard, for example, the dispatch unit is not able to issue instructions from the instruction queue. However, the fetch unit continues to fetch instructions and add them to the queue. Conversely, if there is a delay in fetching instructions because of a branch or a cache miss, the dispatch unit continues to issue instructions from the instruction queue. how the queue length changes and how it affects the relationship between different pipeline stages. We have assumed that initially the queue contains one instruction. Every fetch operation adds one instruction to the queue and every dispatch operation reduces the queue length by one. Hence, the queue length remains the same for the first four clock cycles. (There is both an F and a D step in each of these cycles.) Suppose that instruction I1 introduces a 2-cycle stall. Since space is available in the

15


queue, the fetch unit continues to fetch instructions and the queue length rises to 3 in clock cycle 6. Instruction I5 is a branch instruction. Its target instruction, Ik , is fetched in cycle 7, and instruction I6 is discarded. The branch instruction would normally cause a stall in cycle 7 as a result of discarding instruction I6. Instead, instruction I4 is dispatched from the queue to the decoding stage. After discarding I6, the queue length drops to 1 in cycle 8. The queue length will be at this value until another stall is encountered. Nowobserve the sequence of instruction completions in Figure 8.11. Instructions I1, I2, I3, I4, and Ik complete execution in successive clock cycles. Hence, the branch instruction does not increase the overall execution time. This is because the instruction fetch unit has executed the branch instruction (by computing the branch address) concurrently with the execution of other instructions. This technique is referred to as branch folding.

Figure Branch timing in the presence of an instruction queue. Branch target address is computed in the D stage.

15


Note that branch folding occurs only if at the time a branch instruction is encountered, at least one instruction is available in the queue other than the branch instruction. If only the branch instruction is in the queue, execution would proceed as in Figure b. Therefore, it is desirable to arrange for the queue to be full most of the time, to ensure an adequate supply of instructions for processing. This can be achieved by increasing the rate at which the fetch unit reads instructions from the cache. In many processors, the width of the connection between the fetch unit and the instruction cache allows reading more than one instruction in each clock cycle. If the fetch unit replenishes the instruction queue quickly after a branch has occurred, the probability that branch folding will occur increases. Having an instruction queue is also beneficial in dealing with cache misses. When a cache miss occurs, the dispatch unit continues to send instructions for execution as long as the instruction queue is not empty. Meanwhile, the desired cache block is read from the main memory or from a secondary cache. When fetch operations are resumed, the instruction queue is refilled. If the queue does not become empty, a cache miss will have no effect on the rate of instruction execution. In summary, the instruction queue mitigates the impact of branch instructions on performance through the process of branch folding. It has a similar effect on stalls caused by cache misses. The effectiveness of this technique is enhanced when the instruction fetch unit is able to read more than one instruction at a time from the instruction cache. 3. conditional branches and branch prediction A conditional branch instruction introduces the added hazard caused by the dependency of the branch condition on the result of a preceding instruction. The decision to branch cannot be made until the execution of that instruction has been completed. Branch instructions occur frequently. In fact, they represent about 20 percent of the dynamic instruction count of most programs. (The dynamic count is the number of instruction executions, taking into account the fact that some program instructions are executed many times because of loops.) Because of the branch penalty, this

15


large percentage would reduce the gain in performance expected from pipelining. Fortunately, branch instructions can be handled in several ways to reduce their negative impact on the rate of execution of instructions. 4. Delayed Branch The processor fetches instruction I3 before it determines whether the current instruction, I2, is a branch instruction. When execution of I2 is completed and a branch is to be made, the processor must discard I3 and fetch the instruction at the branch target. The location following a branch instruction is called a branch delay slot. There may be more than one branch delay slot, depending on the time it takes to execute a branch instruction. For example, there are two branch delay slots and one delay slot. The instructions in the delay slots are always fetched and at least partially executed before the branch decision is made and the branch target address is computed. A technique called delayed branching can minimize the penalty incurred as a result of conditional branch instructions. The idea is simple. The instructions in the delay slots are always fetched. Therefore, we would like to arrange for them to be fully executed whether or not the branch is taken. The objective is to be able to place useful instructions in these slots. If no useful instructions can be placed in the delay slots, these slots must be filled with NOP instructions. Consider the instruction sequence given in Figure a. Register R2 is used as a counter to determine the number of times the contents of register R1 are shifted left. For a processor with one delay slot, the instructions can be reordered. The shift instruction is fetched while the branch instruction is being executed. After evaluating the branch condition, the processor fetches the instruction at LOOP or at NEXT, depending on whether the branch condition is true or false, respectively. In either case, it completes execution of the shift instruction. The sequence of events during the last two passes in the loop. Pipelined operation is not interrupted at any time, and there are no idle cycles. Logically, the program is executed as if the branch instruction were placed after the shift instruction. That is, branching takes place one instruction later than where the branch instruction

15


appears in the instruction sequence in the memory, hence the name â&#x20AC;&#x153;delayed branch.â&#x20AC;?

Figure Reordering of instructions for a delayed branch

15


Figure : Execution timing showing the delay slot being filled during the last two passes through the loop. The effectiveness of the delayed branch approach depends on how often it is possible to reorder instructions. Experimental data collected from many programs indicate that sophisticated compilation techniques can use one branch delay slot in as many as 85 percent of the cases. For a processor with two branch delay slots, the compiler attempts to find two instructions preceding the branch instruction that it can move into the delay slots without introducing a logical error. The chances of finding two such instructions are considerably less than the chances of finding one. Thus, if increasing the number of pipeline stages involves an increase in the number of branch delay slots, the potential gain in performance may not be fully realized.

15


5. Branch Prediction Another technique for reducing the branch penalty associated with conditional branches is to attempt to predict whether or not a particular branch will be taken. The simplest form of branch prediction is to assume that the branch will not take place and to continue to fetch instructions in sequential address order. Until the branch condition is evaluated, instruction execution along the predicted path must be done on a speculative basis.

Speculative execution means that

instructions are executed before the processor is certain that they are in the correct execution sequence. Hence, care must be taken that no processor registers or memory locations are updated until it is confirmed that these instructions should indeed be executed. If the branch decision indicates otherwise, the instructions and all their associated data in the execution units must be purged, and the correct instructions fetched and executed. An incorrectly predicted branch is illustrated in Figure for a four-stage pipeline. The figure shows a Compare instruction followed by a Branch>0 instruction. Branch prediction takes place in cycle 3, while instruction I3 is being fetched.

15


Figure Timing when a branch decision has been incorrectly predicted as not taken. The fetch unit predicts that the branch will not be taken, and it continues to fetch instruction I4 as I3 enters the Decode stage. The results of the compare operation are available at the end of cycle 3. Assuming that they are forwarded immediately to the instruction fetch unit, the branch condition is evaluated in cycle 4. At this point, the instruction fetch unit realizes that the prediction was incorrect, and the two instructions in the execution pipe are purged. A new instruction, Ik , is fetched from the branch target address in clock cycle 5. If branch outcomes were random, then half the branches would be taken. Then the simple approach of assuming that branches will not be taken would save the time lost to conditional branches 50 percent of the time. However, better performance can be achieved if we arrange for some branch instructions to be predicted as taken and others as not taken, depending on the expected program behavior. For example, a branch instruction at the end of a loop causes a branch to the start of the loop for every pass through the loop except the last one. Hence, it is advantageous to assume that this branch will be taken and to have the instruction fetch unit start to fetch instructions at the branch target address. On the other hand, for a branch instruction at the beginning of a program loop, it is advantageous to assume that the branch will not be taken. A decision on which way to predict the result of the branch may be made in hardware by observing whether the target address of the branch is lower than or higher than the address of the branch instruction. A more flexible approach is to have the compiler decide whether a given branch instruction should be predicted taken or not taken. The branch instructions of some processors, such as SPARC, include a branch prediction bit, which is set to 0 or 1 by the compiler to indicate the desired behavior. The instruction fetch unit checks this bit to predict whether the branch will be taken or not taken. With either of these schemes, the branch prediction decision is always the same every time a given instruction is executed. Any approach that has this characteristic is called static branch prediction.

15


Another approach in which the prediction decision may change depending on execution history is called dynamic branch prediction. 6. Dynamic Branch Prediction The objective of branch prediction algorithms is to reduce the probability of making a wrong decision, to avoid fetching instructions that eventually have to be discarded. In dynamic branch prediction schemes, the processor hardware assesses the likelihood of a given branch being taken by keeping track of branch decisions every time that instruction is executed. In its simplest form, the execution history used in predicting the outcome of a given branch instruction is the result of the most recent execution of that instruction. The processor assumes that the next time the instruction is executed, the result is likely to be the same. Hence, the algorithm may be described by the two-state machine in The two states are: â&#x20AC;˘

LT: Branch is likely to be taken

â&#x20AC;˘

LNT: Branch is likely not to be taken

15


Figure State-machine representation of branch-prediction algorithms. Suppose that the algorithm is started in state LNT. When the branch instruction is executed and if the branch is taken, the machine moves to state LT. Otherwise, it remains in state LNT. The next time the same instruction is encountered, the branch is predicted as taken if the corresponding state machine is in state LT. Otherwise it is predicted as not taken. This simple scheme, which requires one bit of history information for each branch instruction, works well inside program loops. Once a loop is entered, the branch instruction that controls looping will always yield the same result until the last pass through the loop is reached. In the last pass, the branch prediction will turn out to be incorrect, and the branch history state machine will be changed to the opposite state. Unfortunately, this

16


means that the next time this same loop is entered, and assuming that there will be more than one pass through the loop, the machine will lead to the wrong prediction. Better performance can be achieved by keeping more information about execution history. An algorithm that uses 4 states, thus requiring two bits of history information for each branch instruction. The four states are: •

ST: Strongly likely to be taken

LT: Likely to be taken

LNT: Likely not to be taken

SNT: Strongly likely not to be taken

Again assume that the state of the algorithm is initially set to LNT. After the branch instruction has been executed, and if the branch is actually taken, the state is changed to ST; otherwise, it is changed to SNT. As program execution progresses and the same instruction are encountered again, the state of the branch prediction algorithm continues to change as shown. When a branch instruction is encountered, the instruction fetch unit predicts that the branch will be taken if the state is either LT or ST, and it begins to fetch instructions at the branch target address. Otherwise, it continues to fetch instructions in sequential address order. It is instructive to examine the behavior of the branch prediction algorithm in some detail. When in state SNT, the instruction fetch unit predicts that the branch will not be taken. If the branch is actually taken, that is if the prediction is incorrect, the state changes to LNT. This means that the next time the same branch instruction is encountered; the instruction fetch unit will still predict that the branch will not be taken. Only if the prediction is incorrect twice in a row will the state change to ST. After that, the branch will be predicted as taken. Let us reconsider what happens when executing a program loop. Assume that the branch instruction is at the end of the loop and that the processor sets the initial state of the algorithm to LNT. During the first pass, the prediction will be wrong (not taken), and hence the state will be changed to ST. In all subsequent passes the prediction will be 16


correct, except for the last pass. At that time, the state will change to LT. When the loop is entered a second time, the prediction will be correct (branch taken). We now add one final modification to correct the mispredicted branch at the time the loop is first entered. The cause of the misprediction in this case is the initial state of the branch prediction algorithm. In the absence of additional information about the nature of the branch instruction, we assumed that the processor sets the initial state to LNT. The information needed to set the initial state correctly can be provided by any of the static prediction schemes discussed earlier. Either by comparing addresses or by checking a prediction bit in the instruction, the processor sets the initial state of the algorithm to LNT or LT. In the case of a branch at the end of a loop, the compiler would indicate that the branch should be predicted as taken, causing the initial state to be set to LT. With this modification, branch prediction will be correct all the time, except for the final pass through the loop. Misprediction in this latter case is unavoidable. The state information used in dynamic branch prediction algorithms may be kept by the processor in a variety of ways. It may be recorded in a look-up table, which is accessed using the low-order part of the branch instruction address. In this case, it is possible for two branch instructions to share the same table entry. This may lead to a branch being mispredicted, but it does not cause an error in execution. Misprediction only introduces a small delay in execution time. An alternative approach is to store the history bits as a tag associated with branch instructions in the instruction cache. INFLUENCE ON INSTRUCTION SETS We have seen that some instructions are much better suited to pipelined execution than others. For example, instruction side effects can lead to undesirable data dependencies. In this section, we examine the relationship between pipelined execution and machine instruction features. We discuss two key aspects of machine instructionsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;addressing modes and condition code flags.

16


1. ADDRESSING MODES Addressing modes should provide the means for accessing a variety of data structures simply and efficiently. Useful addressing modes include index, indirect, autoincrement, and autodecrement. Many processors provide various combinations of these modes to increase the flexibility of their instruction sets. Complex addressing modes, such as those involving double indexing, are often encountered. In choosing the addressing modes to be implemented in a pipelined processor, we must consider the effect of each addressing mode on instruction flow in the pipeline. Two important considerations in this regard are the side effects of modes such as autoincrement and autodecrement and the extent to which complex addressing modes cause the pipeline to stall. Another important factor is whether a given mode is likely to be used by compilers. To compare various approaches, we assume a simple model for accessing operands in the memory. The load instruction Load X(R1),R2 takes five cycles to complete execution. However, the instruction Load (R1),R2 can be organized to fit a four-stage pipeline because no address computation is required. Access to memory can take place in stage E. A more complex addressing mode may require several accesses to the memory to reach the named operand. For example, the instruction Load (X(R1)),R2 may be executed and assuming that the index offset, X, is given in the instruction word. After computing the address in cycle 3, the processor needs to access memory twice â&#x20AC;&#x201D; first to read location X+[R1] in clock cycle 4 and then to read location [X+[R1]] in cycle 5. If R2 is a source operand in the next instruction, that instruction would be stalled for three cycles, which can be reduced to two cycles with operand forwarding, as shown.

16


Figure : Equivalent operations using complex and simple addressing modes. To implement the same Load operation using only simple addressing modes requires several instructions. For example, on a computer that allows three operand addresses, we can use Add #X,R1,R2 Load (R2),R2 Load (R2),R2 The Add instruction performs the operation R2.X+[R1]. The two Load instructions fetch the address and then the operand from the memory. This sequence of instructions takes exactly the same number of clock cycles as the original, single Load instruction.

16


This example indicates that, in a pipelined processor, complex addressing modes that involve several accesses to the memory do not necessarily lead to faster execution. The main advantage of such modes is that they reduce the number of instructions needed to perform a given task and thereby reduce the program space needed in the main memory. Their main disadvantage is that their long execution times cause the pipeline to stall, thus reducing its effectiveness. They require more complex hardware to decode and execute them. Also, they are not convenient for compilers to work with. The instruction sets of modern processors are designed to take maximum advantage of pipelined hardware. Because complex addressing modes are not suitable for pipelined execution, they should be avoided. The addressing modes used in modern processors often have the following features: â&#x20AC;˘

Access to an operand does not require more than one access to the memory.

â&#x20AC;˘

Only load and store instructions access memory operands.

â&#x20AC;˘

The addressing modes used do not have side effects.

Three basic addressing modes that have these features are register, register indirect, and index. The first two require no address computation. In the index mode, the address can be computed in one cycle, whether the index value is given in the instruction or in a register. Memory is accessed in the following cycle. None of these modes has any side effects, with one possible exception. Some architecture, such as ARM, allows the address computed in the index mode to be written back into the index register. This is a side effect that would not be allowed under the guidelines above. Note also that relative addressing can be used; this is a special case of indexed addressing in which the program counter is used as the index register. The three features just listed were first emphasized as part of the concept of RISC processors.

16


2. CONDITION CODES In many processors, the condition code flags are stored in the processor status register. They are either set or cleared by many instructions, so that they can be tested by subsequent conditional branch instructions to change the flow of program execution. An optimizing compiler for a pipelined processor attempts to reorder instructions to avoid stalling the pipeline when branches or data dependencies between successive instructions occur. In doing so, the compiler must ensure that reordering does not cause a change in the outcome of a computation. The dependency introduced by the condition-code flags reduces the flexibility available for the compiler to reorder instructions. Consider the sequence of instructions, and assume that the execution of the Compare and Branch=0 instructions proceeds. The branch decision takes place in step E2 rather than D2 because it must await the result of the Compare instruction. The execution

time

of

the

Branch

16

instruction

can

be

reduced


Figure Instruction reordering by interchanging the Add and Compare instructions. This will delay the branch instruction by one cycle relative to the Compare instruction. As a result, at the time the Branch instruction is being decoded the result of the Compare instruction will be available and a correct branch decision will be made.

There

would

be

no

need

for

branch

prediction.

However,

interchanging the Add and Compare instructions can be done only if the Add instruction does not affect the condition codes. These observations lead to two important conclusions about the way condition codes should be handled. First, to provide flexibility in reordering instructions, the conditioncode flags should be affected by as few instructions as possible. Second, the compiler should be able to specify in which instructions of a program the condition codes are affected and in which they are not. An instruction set designed with pipelining in mind usually provides the desired flexibility. The instructions reordered assuming that the condition code flags are affected only when this is explicitly stated as part of the instruction OP code. The SPARC and ARM architectures provide this flexibility. DATAPATH AND CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS Organization of the internal data path of a processor and the threebus structures are presented here. To make it suitable for pipelined execution, it can be modified and it is shown in the Figure(to support a 4stage pipeline).The resources involved in stages F and E are shown in blue and those used in stages D and W in black. Operations in the data cache may happen during stage E or at a later stage, depending on the addressing

16


mode

and

the

implementation

16

details.


Figure Data path modified for pipelined execution with interstage buffers at the input and output of the ALU. Several changes to be noted: 1. There are separate instruction and data caches that use separate address and data connections to the processor. This requires two versions of the MAR register, IMAR for accessing the instruction cache and DMAR for accessing the data cache. 2. The PC is connected directly to the IMAR, so that the contents of the PC can be transferred to IMAR at the same time that an independent ALU operation is taking place. 3. The data address in DMAR can be obtained directly from the register file or from the ALU to support the register indirect and indexed addressing modes. 4. Separate MDR registers are provided for read and write operations. Data can be transferred directly between these registers and the register file during load and store operations without the need to pass through the ALU. 5. Buffer registers have been introduced at the inputs and output of the ALU. These are registers SRC1, SRC2, and RSLT in Figure 8.7. Forwarding connections are not included in Figure 8.18. They may be added if desired. 6. The instruction register has been replaced with an instruction queue, which is loaded from the instruction cache. 7. The output of the instruction decoder is connected to the control signal pipeline.

16


The need for buffering control signals and passing them from one stage to the next along with the instruction is discussed in Section 8.1. This pipeline holds the control signals in buffers B2 and B3 in Figure 8.2a. The following operations can be performed independently in the processor  Reading an instruction from the instruction cache  Incrementing the PC  Decoding an instruction  Reading from or writing into the data cache  Reading the contents of up to two registers from the register file  Writing into one register in the register file  Performing an ALU operation Because these operations do not use any shared resources, they can be performed simultaneously in any combination. The structure provides the flexibility required to implement the four-stage pipeline. For example, let I1, I2, I3, and I4 be a sequence of four instructions. The following actions all happen during clock cycle 4:  Write the result of instruction I1 into the register file  Read the operands of instruction I2 from the register file  Decode instruction I3  Fetch instruction I4 and increment the PC. PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS The execution time, T , of a program that has a dynamic instruction count N is given by T=

N *S R

17


where S is the average number of clock cycles it takes to fetch and execute one instruction, and R is the clock rate. This simple model assumes that instructions are executed one after the other, with no overlap. A useful performance indicator is the instruction throughput, which is the number of instructions executed per second. For sequential execution, the throughput, Ps is given by Ps =

R S

In this section, we examine the extent to which pipelining increases instruction throughput. The only real measure of performance is the total execution time of a program. Higher instruction throughput will not necessarily lead to higher performance if a larger number of instructions is needed to implement the desired task. For this reason, the SPEC ratings provide a much better indicator when comparing two processors. A fourstage pipeline structure may increase instruction throughput by a factor of four. In general, an n-stage pipeline has the potential to increase throughput n times. Thus, it would appear that the higher the value of n, the larger the performance gains. This leads to two questions: ď&#x192;&#x192; How much of this potential increase in instruction throughput can be realized in practice? ď&#x192;&#x192; What is a good value for n? Any time a pipeline is stalled, the instruction throughput is reduced. Hence, the performance of a pipeline is highly influenced by factors such as branch and cache miss penalties. First, we discuss the effect of these factors on performance, and then we return to the question of how many pipeline stages should be used. 1. Effect of instruction hazards The effects of various hazards have been examined qualitatively in the previous sections. We now assess the impact of cache misses and branch penalties in quantitative terms. Consider a processor that uses the four-

17


stage pipeline. The clock rate, hence the time allocated to each step in the pipeline, is determined by the longest step. Let the delay through the ALU be the critical parameter. This is the time needed to add two integers. Thus, if the ALU delay is 2 ns, a clock of 500 MHz can be used. The on-chip instruction and data caches for this processor should also be designed to have an access time of 2 ns. Under ideal conditions, this pipelined processor will have an instruction throughput, Pp, given by PP = R = 500 MIPS (million instructions per second) To evaluate the effect of cache misses. The cache miss penalty, Mp, in that system is computed to be 17 clock cycles. Let TI be the time between two successive instruction completions. For sequential execution, TI = S. However, in the absence of hazards, a pipelined processor completes the execution of one instruction each clock cycle, thus, TI = 1 cycle. A cache miss stalls the pipeline by an amount equal to the cache miss penalty. This means that the value of TI increases by an amount equal to the cache miss penalty for the instruction in which the miss occurs. A cache miss can occur for either instructions or data. Consider a computer that has a shared cache for both instructions and data, and let d be the percentage of instructions that refer to data operands in the memory. The average increase in the value of TI as a result of cache misses is given by δmiss = ((1 - hi ) + d(1 - hd )) x Mp where hi and hd are the hit ratios for instructions and data, respectively. Assume that 30 percent of the instructions access data in memory. With a 95-percent instruction hit rate and a 90-percent data hit rate, δmiss is given by δmiss = (0.05 + 0.3 x 0.1) x 17 = 1.36 cycles Taking this delay into account, the processor’s throughput would be PP =

R R = = 0.42 R TI 1 + δ miss

Note that with R expressed in MHz, the throughput is obtained directly in millions of instructions per second. For R = 500 MHz, Pp = 210 MIPS.

17


Let us compare this value to the throughput obtainable without pipelining. A processor that uses sequential execution requires four cycles per PS =

instruction. Its throughput would be

R = 0.19 R 4 + δ miss

For R = 500 MHz, Ps = 95 MIPS. Clearly, pipelining leads to significantly higher throughput. But the performance gain of 0.42/0.19 = 2.2 is only slightly better than one-half the ideal case. Reducing the cache miss penalty is particularly worthwhile in a pipelined processor. This can be achieved by introducing a secondary cache between the primary, on-chip cache and the memory. Assume that the time needed to transfer an 8-word block from the secondary cache is 10 ns. Hence, a miss in the primary cache for which the required block is found in the secondary cache introduces a penalty, Ms , of 5 cycles. In the case of a miss in the secondary cache, the full 17-cycle penalty (Mp) is still incurred. Hence, assuming a hit rate hs of 94 percent in the secondary cache, the average increase in TI is δmiss = ((1 - hi ) + d(1 - hd )) x (hs x Ms + (1 - hs) x Mp) = 0.46 cycle. The instruction throughput in this case is 0.68R, or 340 MIPS. An equivalent nonpipelined processor would have a throughput of 0.22R, or 110 MIPS. Thus, pipelining provides a performance gain of 0.68/0.22 = 3.1. The values of 1.36 and 0.46 are, in fact, somewhat pessimistic, because we have assumed that every time a data miss occurs, the entire miss penalty is incurred. This is the case only if the instruction immediately following the instruction that references memory is delayed while the processor waits for the memory access to be completed. However, an optimizing compiler attempts to increase the distance between two instructions that create a dependency by placing other instructions between them whenever possible. Also, in a processor that uses an instruction queue, the cache miss penalty during instruction fetches may have a much reduced effect as the processor is able to dispatch instructions from the queue. Number of pipeline stages

17


The fact that an n-stage pipeline may increase instruction throughput by a factor of n suggests that we should use a large number of stages. However, as the number of pipeline stages increases, so does the probability of the pipeline being stalled, because more instructions are being executed concurrently. Thus, dependencies between instructions that are far apart may still cause the pipeline to stall. Also, branch penalties may become more significant. For these reasons, the gain from increasing the value of n begins to diminish, and the associated cost is not justified. Another important factor is the inherent delay in the basic operations performed by the processor. The most important among these is the ALU delay. In many processors, the cycle time of the processor clock is chosen such that one ALU operation can be completed in one cycle. Other operations are divided into steps that take about the same time as an add operation. It is also possible to use a pipelined ALU. For example, the ALU of the Compaq Alpha 21064 processor consists of a two-stage pipeline, in which each stage completes its operation in 5 ns. Many pipelined processors use four to six stages. Others divide instruction execution into smaller steps and use more pipeline stages and a faster clock. For example, the UltraSPARC II uses a 9stage pipeline and Intelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pentium Pro uses a 12-stage pipeline. The latest Intel processor, Pentium 4, has a 20-stage pipeline and uses a clock speed in the range 1.3 to 1.5 GHz. For fast operations, there are two pipeline stages in one clock cycle. EXCEPTION HANDLING A method for processing address translation exceptions occurring in a virtual memory system employing demand paging and having a plurality of registers and a real storage area, includes the steps of: (a) temporarily storing for each storage operation; (i) the effective storage address for the operation; (ii) exception control word information relative to the ones of the registers involved in the operation and the length and type of the operation; and

17


(iii) any data to be stored during the operation; (b) retrieving the temporarily stored information to form an exception status block if an exception is generated indicating a failed operation; and (c) reinitiating the failed operation based on the information contained in the exception status block.

UNIT IV MEMORY SYSTEM Basic concepts- Semiconductor RAM- ROM- Speed – Size and costCache memories-Improving cache performance – Virtual memory – Memory management requirements-Associative memories- Secondary storage devices. MEMORY SYSTEM Programs and data are held in the main memory of the computer during execution. In this chapter, we discuss how this vital part of the computer operates. By now the reader appreciates that the execution speed of programs is dependent on the speed with instruction and data that can be transferred between the CPU and the main memory. It is also important to have a large memory to facilitate execution of programs that are large and deal with huge amounts of data. The memory would be fast, large, and inexpensive. Unfortunately, it is impossible to meet all three of these requirements simultaneously. Increases speed and size are archived at increases cost. To solve this problem, much more has gone into developing First we describe the most common components and organizations used to implement the main memory. Then we examine memory speed and discuss how the apparent speed of the main memory can be increased by means of caches. BASIC CONCEPTS

17


The maximum size of the memory that can be used in any computer is determined by the addressing scheme. For example, a 16 bit computer that generates 16 bit addresses is capable of addressing up to 2 16=64K memory locations. Similarly, a 32 bit computer that generates 32 bit addresses is capable of addressing up to 2 32 =4 G (giga) memory locations, whereas machines with 40 bit addresses can access up to 2 40=IT(tear) locations. Most modern computers are byte addressable. A possible address assignment for a byte addressable 32 bit computer is shown below,

Word address

Byte address

Byte address

 0

0

1

2

3

0

3

2

1

0

4

4

5

6

7

4

7

6

5

4

k 2 ­ 3

k 2 ­ 4

• • • k 2 ­4

k 2 ­ 4

k 2 ­ 3

• • • k 2 ­ 2

k 2 ­ 1

k 2 ­ 4

(a) Big­endian assignment

k 2 ­ 1

k 2 ­ 2

(b) Little­endian assignment

Byte addressable uses big-endian and little-endian arrangement. The main memory is usually designed to store and retrieve data in word length quantities. The number of bits actually stored or retrieved in one main memory access is the most common definition of the word length of a computer. For example,

17


A byte addressable computer with the addressing structure of above fig, whose instruction generates 32 bit addresses. When a 32 bit address is sent from the CPU to the memory unit, the high order 30 bits determine which word will be accessed. If a byte quantity is specified, the low order 2 bits of the address specify which byte location is involved. In a read operation, other bytes may be fetched from the memory, but they are ignored by the CPU. If the byte operation is a write, however, the control circuitry of the memory must ensure that the contents of other bytes of the same word are not changed. From the system standpoint, we can view the memory unit as a “black box”. Data transfer between the memory and the CPU takes place through the use of two CPU registers, is called MAR (memory address register) and MDR (memory data register). • If MAR is k bits long and MDR is n bit long, then the memory unit may contain up to 2 k addressable locations. During a memory cycle, n bits of data are transferred between the memory and the CPU. This transfer takes place processor bus which has k address lines and n data lines. The bus also includes the control lines read, write, and Memory Function Completed (MFC) for coordinating data transfers. In byte- addressable computers, another control line may be added to indicate when only a byte rather than a full word of n bits is to be transferred. The connection between the CPU and the main memory is shown below,

Processor

k­bit address bus

 Memory

MAR n­bit data bus MDR

Up to 2 k  addressable locations Word length = n bits

Control lines R /W (          , MFC, etc.)

 Connection of the memory to the processor.

17


A useful measure of the speed of memory units is the time that elapses between the initiation of an operation and the completion of that operation, for example, • The time between the read and the MFC signals is referred to as memory access time. • The minimum time delay required between the initiation of two successive memory operations is referred to as memory cycle time. A memory unit is called random access memory (RAM) if any location can be accessed for a read or writes operation in some fixed amount of time that is independent of the location’s address. The techniques used to increase the effective speed and size of the main memory. • One way to reduce the memory access time is to use a cache memory. This is a small, fast memory that is inserted between the large, slower main memory and the CPU. It holds the currently active segments of a program and their data. • Another technique called memory interleaving, divides the system into a number of memory modules and arranges addressing so that successive words in the address space are placed in different modules. SEMICONDUCTOR RAM MEMORIES Semiconductor memories are available in a wide range of speeds. Their cycle times range from 100 ns to less than 10 ns. INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF MEMORY CHIPS Memory cells are usually organized in the form of an array, in which each cell is capable of storing one bit of information. A possible organization is shown below,

17


b ′7

b7

b ′0

b0

• • •

W0

b ′1

b1

FF A0

A2

Address decoder

• • •

A1

W1

• • •

A3

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

• • •

Memory cells

• • •

W15

FF

Sense / Write circuit

Data input /output lines:

b7

Sense / Write circuit

Sense / Write circuit

b1

b0

R /W CS

 Organization of bit cells in a memory chip.

Each row of cells constitutes a memory word, and all cells of a row are connected to a common line referred to as the word line, which is driven by the address decoder on the chip. The cells in each column are connected to a Sense/Write circuit by two bit lines. The Sense/Write circuits are connected to the data input/output lines of the chip. • During a Read operation, these circuits sense, or read the information stored in the cells selected by a word line and transmit this information to the output data lines. • During a Write operation, the sense/ Write circuits receive input information and store it in the cells of the selected word. Above fig is an example of a very small memory chip consisting of 16 words of 8 bits each. This is referred to as a 16*8 organization. The data input and the data output of each sense/write circuit are connected to a single bidirectional data line that can be connected to the data bus of a computer. Two control lines, R/W and CS, are provided in addition to address and data lines. The R/W (Read/Write) input specifies the required operation, and the CS (Chip Select) input selects a given chip in a multi chip memory system. The memory circuit in above diagram stores 128 bits and requires 14 external connections for address, data and control lines. It also needs two

17


lines for power supply and ground connections. Consider now a slightly larger memory circuit, one that has 1K (1024) memory cells. This circuit can be organized as a 128*8 memory requiring a total of 19 external connections. Alternatively, the same number of cells can be organized into a 1K*1 format. In this case, a 10 bit address is needed but there is only one data line, resulting in 15 external connections is shown below,

5­bit row address

W0 W1 5­bit decoder

32 × 32 memory cell array

W31

10­bit address

Sense / Write circuitry

 32­to­1 output multiplexer and input demultiplexer

R/ W CS

5­bit column address Data input/output

  Organization of a 1K × 1 memory chip. The required 10 bit address is divided into two groups of 5 bits each to form the row and column addresses for the cell array. A row address selects a row of 32 cells, all of which are accessed in parallel. However, according to the column address, only one of these cells is connected to the external data line by the output multiplexer and input demultiplexer. STATIC MEMORIES Memories that consist of circuits capable of retaining their state as long as power is applied are known as static memories. Below diagram illustrates how a static RAM (SRAM) cell may be implemented. Two inverters are cross connected to form a latch. The latch is connected to two bit lines by transistors T1 and T2. These transistors act as switches that can be opened or closed under control of the word line. When the word line is at ground level, the transistors are turned off and the latch retains its state.

18


b′

b

T1

X

Y

T2

Word line Bit lines

For example, if the cell is in state 1 then the value at point X is 1. If the cell is in state 0 then the value at point Y is 0. This state is maintained as long as the signal on the word line is at ground level. Read Operation: In order to read the state of the SRAM cell, the word line is activated to close switches T1 and T2. • If the cell is in state 1, then the signal on bit line b is high and the signal on bit line b’ is low. • If the cell is in state 0, then the signal on bit line b is low and the signal on bit line b’ is high.

Write Operation: The state of the cell is set by placing the appropriate value on bit line b and its complement on b’, and then activating the word line. This forces the cell into the corresponding state. The required signal on the bit lines are generated by the Sense/Write circuit.

18


For example, in state 1, the voltage at point X is maintained high by having transistors T3 and T6 on, while T4 and T5 are off. If T1 and T2 are turned on (closed), bit lines b and bâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; will have high and low signals respectively. The power supply voltage, V supply, is 5V in older CMOS Seams or 3.3 V in new low voltage versions. Note that continuous power is needed for the cell to retain its state. If power is interrupted, the cellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contents will be lost. When power is restored the latch will settle into a stable state, but it will not necessarily be the same state the cell was in before the interruption. Hence, SRAM are said to be volatile memories because their contents are lost when power is interrupted. A major advantage of CMOS SRAMs is their very low power consumption because current flows in the cell only when the cell is being accessed. Otherwise, T1, T2 and one transistor in each inverter are turned off, ensuring that there is no active path between V supply and ground. Static RAMs can be accessed very quickly. Access times are of few nanoseconds SRAMs are used in applications which requires speed. ASYNCHRONOUS DRAMS Static RAM are fast, but they come at a high cost because their cells require several transistors. Less expensive RAMs can be implemented if simpler cells are used. Such cells do not retain their state indefinitely; hence, they are called dynamic RAMs (DRAMs). Information is stored in a dynamic memory cell in the form of a charge on a capacitor, and this charge can be maintained for only tens of milliseconds. Since the cell is required to store information for a much longer time, its contents must be periodically refreshed by restoring the capacitor charge to its full value. For example, dynamic memory cell that consists of a capacitor, C and a transistor, T is shown below,

18


Word line

T C

In order to store information in this cell, transistor T is turned on and an appropriate voltage is applied to the bit line. This causes a known amount of charge to be stored in the capacitor. After the transistor is turned off, the capacitor begins to discharge. This is caused by the capacitor’s own leakage resistance and by the fact that the transistor continues to conduct a tiny amount of current, measured in picoamperes, after it is turned off. The information stored in the cell can be retrieved correctly only if it is read before the charge on the capacitor drops below some threshold value. During a Read operation, the transistor in a selected cell is turned on. • A sense amplifier connected to the bit line detects whether the charge stored on the capacitor is above the threshold value. If so, it drives the bit line to a full voltage that represents logic value 1. • If the sense amplifier detects that the charge on the capacitor is below the threshold value, it pulls the bit line to ground level, which ensures that the capacitor will have no charge, representing logic value 0. All cells in a selected row are read at the same time, which refreshes the contents of the entire row. A 16-megabit DRAM chip, configured as 2M x 8, is shown below

18


RAS

Row Addr. Strobe Row address latch

A

2 ­ 9 0

⁄ A

Row decoder

4096 × ( 512 × 8 ) cell array

CS

Sense / Write circuits

8­ 0

Column address latch

R/W

Column decoder

CAS

D

7

D

0

Column Addr. Strobe

 Internal organization of a 2M × 8 dynamic memory chip.

The cells are organized in the form of a 4K x 4K array. The 4096 cells in each row are divided into 512 groups of 8, so that a row can store 512 bytes of data. Therefore, 12 address bits are needed to select a row. Another 9 bits are needed to specify a group of 8 bits in the selected row. Thus, a 21-bit address is needed to access a byte in this memory. The high-order 12 bits and the low-order 9 bits of the address constitute the row and column addresses of a byte, respectively. To reduce the number of pins needed for external connections, the row and column addresses are multiplexed on 12 pin. During a Read or a Write operation, the row address is applied first. It is loaded into the row address latch in response to a signal pulse on the Row Address Strobe (RAS) input of the chip. Then a Read operation is initiated, in which all cells on the selected row are read and refreshed. Shortly after the row address is loaded, the column address is applied to the address pins and loaded into the column address latch under control of the Column Address Strobe (CAS) signal. The information in this latch is decoded and the appropriate group of 8 Sense/Write circuits are selected. • For a Read operation, the output values of the selected circuits are transferred to the data lines, D7-0. • For a Write operation, the information on the D7- 0 lines is transferred to the selected circuits. This information is then used to overwrite the contents of the selected cells in the corresponding 8 columns.

18


To ensure that the contents of a DRAM are maintained, each row of cells must be accessed periodically. A refresh circuit usually performs this function automatically. Many dynamic memory chips incorporate a refresh facility within the chips themselves. In this case, the dynamic nature of these memory chips is almost invisible to the user. In DRAM, the timing of the memory device is controlled asynchronously. A specialized memory controller circuit provides the necessary control signals, RAS and CAS that govern the timing. The processor must take into account the delay in the response of the memory. Such memories are referred to as asynchronous DRAMs. SYNCHRONOUS DRAMS More recent developments in memory technology have resulted in DRAMs whose operation is directly synchronized with a clock signal. Such memories are known as synchronous DRAMs (SDRAMs). Refresh counter

Row address latch

Ro w decoder

Column address counter

Co lumn decoder

Cell array

Row/Column address Read/Write circuits & latches

Clock RAS CA S R/ W

Mode register and timing control

Data input register

Data output register

CS

                            Synchronous DRAM.

Data

The above figure indicates the structure of an SDRAM. The cell array is the same as in asynchronous DRAMs. The address and data connections are buffered by means of registers. We should particularly note that the output of each sense amplifier is connected to a latch.

18


A Read operation causes the contents of all cells in the selected row to be loaded into these latches. But, if an access is made for refreshing purposes only, it will not change the contents of these latches; it will merely refresh the contents of the cells. Data held in the latches that correspond to the selected column(s) are transferred into the data output register. SDRAMs have several different modes of operation, which can be selected by writing control information into a mode register. For example, burst- operations of different lengths can be specified. The burst operations use the block transfer capability with fast page mode feature. The necessary control signals are provided internally using a column counter and the clock signal. New data can be placed on the data lines in each clock cycle. All actions are triggered by the rising edge of the clock. Clock

R/ W

R AS

C AS

Address

Row

Col

Data

D0

D1

D2

D3

 Burst read of length 4 in an SDRAM. The above figure shows a timing diagram for a typical burst read of length 4. First, the row address is latched under control of the RAS signal. The memory typically takes 2 or 3 clock cycles (we use 2 in the figure) to activate the selected row. Then, the column address is latched under control of the CAS signal. After a delay of one clock cycle, the first set of data bits is placed on the data lines. The SDRAM automatically increments the column address to access the next three sets of bits in the selected row, which are placed on the data lines in the next 3 clock cycles. SDRAMs have built-in refresh circuitry. This circuitry behaves as a refresh counter, which provides the addresses of the rows that are selected for refreshing. Each row must be refreshed at least every 64 ms. 18


Commercial SDRAMs can be used with clock speeds above 100 MHz. These chips are designed to meet the requirements of commercially available processors that are used in large volume. Latency and Bandwidth: Transfers between the memory and the processor involve single words of data or small blocks of words. Large blocks, constituting a page of data, are transferred between the memory and the disks. The speed and efficiency of these transfers have a large impact on the performance of a computer system. A good performance is indicated by two parameters: latency and bandwidth. â&#x20AC;˘ Latency is used to refer to the amount of time it takes to transfer a word of data to or from the memory. â&#x20AC;˘ When -transferring blocks of data, it is of interest to know how much time is needed to transfer an entire block. Since blocks can be variable in size, it is useful to define a performance measure in terms of the number of bits or bytes that can be transferred in one second. This measure is often referred to as the memory bandwidth. Double Data Rate SDRAM: The SDRAMs transfer data on both edges of the clock, their bandwidth is essentially doubled for long burst transfers. Such devices are known as double-data-rate SDRAMs (DDR SDRAMs). To make it possible to access the data at a high enough rate, the cell array is organized in two banks. Each bank can be accessed separately. Consecutive words of a given block are stored in different banks. Such interleaving of words allows simultaneous access to two words that are transferred on successive edges of the clock. DDR SDRAMs and standard SDRAMs are most efficiently used in applications where block transfers are prevalent. This is the case in generalpurpose computers in which main memory transfers are primarily to and from processor caches. STRUCTURE OF LARGER MEMORIES The basic organization of memory circuits as they may be implemented on a single chip. Next, we should examine how memory chips may be connected to form a much larger memory. Static Memory System Consider a memory consisting of2M (2,097,152) words of 32 bits each. Figure 5.10 shows how we can implement this memory using 512K x 8 static memory chips. Each column in the figure consists of four chips, which implement one byte position. Four of these sets provide the required 2M x 32 memory. Each chip has a control input called Chip Select.

18


A0 A1

21­bit addresses

19­bit internal chip address

A19 A20

2­bit decoder

512 K × 8  memory chip

D31­24

D23­16

D 15­8

512 K × 8 memory chip

19­bit address

8­bit data input/output

Chip select

18

D7­0


When this input is set to 1, it enables the chip to accept data from or to place data on its data lines. The data output for each chip is of the threestate type. Only the selected chip places data on the data output line, while all other outputs are in the high-impedance state. 21 address bits are needed to select a 32-bit word in this memory. The high-order 2 bits of the address are decoded to determine which of the four Chip Select control signals should be activated and the remaining 19 address bits are used to access specific byte locations inside each chip of the selected row. Dynamic memory System The organization of large dynamic memory systems is essentially the same as the memory shown in Figure 5.10. Physical implementation is often done more conveniently in the form of memory modules. Modern computers use very large memories; even a small personal computer is likely to have at least 32M bytes of memory. Typical workstations have at least 128M bytes of memory. A large memory leads to better performance because more of the programs and data used in processing can be held in the memory, thus reducing the frequency of accessing the information in secondary storage. If a large memory is built by placing DRAM chips directly on the main system printed-circuit board that contains the processor, often referred to as a motherboard, it will occupy an unacceptably large amount of space on the board. Also, it is awkward to provide for future expansion of the memory, because space must be allocated and wiring provided for the maximum expected size. These packaging considerations have led to the development of larger memory units known as SIMMs (Single In-line Memory Modules) and DIMMs (Dual In-line Memory Modules). SIMMs and DIMMs of different sizes are designed to use the same size socket. MEMORY SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS The choice of a RAM chip for a given application depends on several factors. Foremost among these factors are the cost, speed, power dissipation, and size of the chip. • Static RAMs are generally used only when very fast operation is the primary requirement. Their cost and size are adversely affected by the complexity of the circuit that realizes the basic cell. They are used mostly in cache memories. • Dynamic RAMs are the predominant choice for implementing computer main memories. The high densities achievable in these chips make large memories economically feasible. Memory Controller To reduce the number of pins, the dynamic memory chips use multiplexed address inputs. The address is divided into two parts. • High-order address bits, which select a row in the cell array, are provided first and latched into the memory chip under control of the RAS signal. 18


Low-order address bits, which select a column, are provided on the same address pins and latched using the CAS signal.

A typical processor issues all bits of an address at the same time. The required multiplexing of address bits is usually performed by a memory controller circuit, which is interposed between the processor and the dynamic memory as shown in figure. Row/Column address

Address

RAS

R/ W

Processor

Request

Memory controller

CAS R/ W CS

Clock

Memory

Clock

Data

  Use of a memory controller.

The controller accepts a complete address and the R/W signal from the processor, under control of a Request signal which indicates that a memory access operation is needed. The controller then forwards the row and column portions of the address to the memory and generates the RAS and CAS signals. Thus, the controller provides the RAS-CAS timing, in addition to its address multiplexing function. It also sends the R/W and CS signal to the memory. The CS signal is usually active low. Data lines are connected directly between the processor and the memory. When used with DRAM chips, which do not have self-refreshing capability, the memory controller has to provide all the information needed to control the refreshing process. It contains a refresh counter that provides successive row addresses. Its function is to cause the refreshing of all rows to be done within the period specified for a particular device. Refresh Overhead All dynamic memories have to be refreshed. In older DRAMs, a typical period for refreshing all rows was 16 ms. In typical SDRAMs, a typical period is 64 ms. Consider an SDRAM whose cells are arranged in 8K (=8192) rows. Suppose that it takes four clock cycles to access (read) each row. Then, it takes 8192 x 4 = 32,768 cycles to refresh all rows. At a clock rate of 133 MHz, the time needed to refresh all rows is 32,768/ (133 x 106) = 246 X 106 seconds. Thus, the refreshing process occupies 0.246

19


ms in each 64-ms time interval. Therefore, the refresh overhead is 0.246/64 = 0.0038, which is less than 0.4 percent of the total time available for accessing the memory. READ ONLY MEMORY Both SRAM and DRAM chips are volatile, which means that they lose the stored information if power is turned off. There are many applications that need memory devices which retain the stored information if power is turned off. For example, in a typical computer a hardware drive is used to store a large amount of information, including the operating system software. When a computer is turned on, the operating system software has to be loaded from the disk into the memory. This requires execution of a program that boots the operating system. Since the boot program is quite large, most of it is stored on the disk. The processor must execute some instructions that load the boot program into the memory. Nonvolatile memory is used extensively in embedded systems. Such systems typically do not use disk storage devices. Their programs are stored in nonvolatile semiconductor memory devices. Different types of nonvolatile memory have been developed. Generally, the contents of such memory can be read as if they were SRAM or DRAM memories. But, a special writing process is needed to place the information into this memory. Since its normal operation involves only reading of stored data, a memory of this type is called read only memory (ROM). READ ONLY MEMORY: A logic value 0 is stored in the cell if the transistor is connected to ground at point P otherwise, 1 is stored. The bit line is connected through a resistor to the power supply. To read the state of the cell, the word line is activated. Thus, the transistor switch is closed and the voltage on the bit line drops to near zero if there is a connection between the transistor and ground. If there is no connection to ground, the bit line remains at the high voltage, indicating a 1.Data are written into a ROM when it is manufactured. The figure shows a configuration for a ROM cell.

19


Bit line Word line

T

Not connected to store a 1

P

Connected to store a 0

A ROM cell PROM Programmable ROM in which data can be loaded by user. Programmability is achieved by inserting a fuse at point P in figure 5.5. Before it is programmed, the memory contains all 0s. The user can insert 1s at the required locations by burning out the fuses at these locations using high current pulses. Of course, this process is irreversible. EPROM Another type of ROM chip allows the stored data to be erased and new data to be loaded. Such an erasable, reprogrammable ROM is usually called an EPROM. It provides considerable flexibility during the development phase of digital systems. Since EPROMs are capable of retaining stored information for a long time, they can be used in place of ROMs while software is being developed. In this way, memory changes and updates can be easily made. The important advantage of EPROM chips is that their contents can be erased and reprogrammed. Erasing done by UV (ultraviolet) light. EEPROM A significant disadvantage of EPROMs is that a chip must be physically removed from the circuit for reprogramming and that its entire contents are erased by the ultraviolet light. It is possible to implement another version of erasable PROMs that can be both programmed and erased electrically. Such chips called EEPROMs, do not have to be removed for erasure. Moreover, it is possible to erase the cell contents selectively. The only disadvantage of EEPROMs is that different voltages are needed for erasing writing, and reading the stored data. FLASH MEMORY A flash cell is based on a single transistor controlled by trapped charge, just like an EEPROM cell. • In EEPROM it is possible to read and write the contents of a single cell. • In a flash device it is possible to read the contents of a single cell, but it is only possible to write an entire block of cells.

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Flash Cards: One way of constructing a large module is to mount chips on a small card. Such flash cards have a standard interface that makes them usable in a variety of products. A card is simply plugged into a conveniently accessible slot. Typical sizes are 8, 32, and 64 Mbytes. Flash Drives: Large flash memory modules have been developed to replace hard disk drives. These flash drives are designed to fully emulate the hard disks, to the point that they can be fitted into standard disk drive bays. However, the storage capacity of flash drives is significantly lower. Currently, the capacity of flash drives is less than one gigabyte. The flash drives are solid state electronic device that have no movable parts which provides some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages: • Shorter seek and access times results in faster response. • Lower power consumption makes them attractive for battery driven application. • Also insensitive to vibration. Disadvantages: • Smaller capacity. • Higher cost per bit. • Flash memory will deteriorate later. SPEED, SIZE, AND COST An ideal memory would be fast, large, and inexpensive. A very fast memory can be implemented if SRAM chips are used. But these chips are expensive because their basic cells have six transistors, which precludes packing a very large number of cells onto a single chip. Thus, for cost reasons, it is impractical to build a large memory using SRAM chips. The alternative is to use Dynamic RAM chips, which have much simpler basic cells and thus are much less expensive. But such memories are significantly slower. Although dynamic memory units in the range of hundreds of megabytes can be implemented at a reasonable cost, the affordable size is still small compared to the demands of large programs. A solution is provided by using secondary storage, mainly magnetic disks, to implement large memory spaces. Very large disks are available at a reasonable price, and they are used extensively in computer systems. But they are much slower than the semiconductor memory units. So we conclude the following, • A huge amount of cost-effective storage can be provided by magnetic disks. • A large, yet affordable, main memory can be built with dynamic RAM technology. • A smaller unit is the SRAM, where speed is more such as in cache memories. All of these different types of memory units are employed effectively in a computer. The entire computer memory can be viewed as the hierarchy

19


shown in Figure. The access is faster in processor registers and they are at the top in memory hierarchy.

Pr ocessor Registers Increasing size

Increasing speed

Primary cache

L1

Secondary cache

L2

Increasing cost per bit

Main memory

Magnetic disk secondary memory

 Memory hierarchy

At the next level of the hierarchy is a relatively small amount of memory that can be implemented directly on the processor chip. This memory, called a processor cache, holds copies of instructions and data stored in a much larger memory that is provided externally. There are two levels of caches, • A primary cache is always located on the processor chip. This cache is small because it competes for space on the processor chip, which must implement many other functions. The primary cache is referred to as level 1 (LI) cache. • A larger, secondary cache is placed between the primary cache and the rest of the memory. It is referred to as level 2 (L2) cache. It is usually implemented using SRAM chips.

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The most common way of designing computers is to include a primary cache on the processor chip and a large secondary cache. The next level in the hierarchy is called the main memory. This rather large memory is implemented using dynamic memory components, typically in the form of SIMMs, DIMMs, or RIMMs. The main memory is much larger but significantly slower than the cache memory. Magnetic Disk devices provide a huge amount of inexpensive storage. They are very slow compared to the semiconductor devices used to implement the main memory. CACHE MEMORY Cache memory faster than main memory. The effectiveness of cache memory is based on locality of reference. Analysis of programs shows that most of their execution time is spent on routines in which many instructions are executed repeatedly. These instructions may constitute simple loops that repeatedly call each other. The actual detailed pattern of instruction sequencing is not important- the point is that many instructions in localized areas of the program are executed repeatedly during some time period, and the remainder of the program is accessed relatively infrequently. This is referred to as locality of reference. It is of two types, • Temporal locality • Spatial locality Temporal locality: Temporal locality means recently executed instructions are executed very soon. Spatial locality : Spatial locality means that instructions in close proximity to a recently executed instruction (with respect to the instructions addresses) are also likely to be executed soon. If the active segments of a program can be placed in a fast cache memory, then the total execution time can be reduced. The memory control circuitry is designed to take advantage of locality of reference. • The temporal aspect of the locality of reference suggests that whenever an information item (instruction or data) is first needed, this item should be brought into the cache will remain until needed again. • The spatial aspect suggests that instead of fetching single item from the main memory to the cache, it is useful to fetch several items that reside at adjacent addresses. We will use the term block to refer to a set of contiguous address locations of some size. Another term that is often used to refer to a cache block is cache line. Consider the simple arrangement in figure. When a read request is received from the processor, the contents of a block of memory words containing the location specified are transferred into the cache one word at a time. When the program references any of the locations in this block, the desired contents are read directly from the cache. Usually the cache memory can store a reasonable number of blocks at any given time, but this number is small compared to the total number of block in the main memory. The

19


correspondence between the main memory blocks and cache is specified by a mapping function.

Processor

Main memory

Cache

Use of a cache memory

When the cache is full and a memory word (instruction or data) that is not in the cache is referenced, the cache control hardware must decide which block should be removed to create space for the new block that contains the referenced word. This is done by using replacement algorithm. The processor needn’t known explicitly that a cache is present. It simply issues Read and Write requests using addresses that refer to locations in the memory. The cache control circuitry determines whether the requested word currently exists in the cache. • If it does, the Read or Write operation is performed on the appropriate cache location. This case, a read or write hit is said to have occurred. In a read operation, the main memory is not involved. • For a write operation, the system can proceed in two ways, • Write through protocol • Write back or copy back protocol. Write through protocol: In write through the cache and main memory location are updated simultaneously. This technique is known as the write through protocol. Write back or copy back protocol: In write back or copy back, cache is only updated and to mark it as updated with an associated flag bit, often called the dirty or modified bit. The main memory location is updated when the location is removed from cache. This technique is known as the write back or copy back protocol. When the addressed word in a read operation is not in the cache, a read miss occurs. The block of words that contains the requested word is copied from the main memory into the cache. After the entire block is loaded into the cache, the requested block is forwarded to the processor. Otherwise this word may be sent to the processor it is read from the main memory. This approach is called load through or early restart- to reduce the processor waiting time. During a write operation, if the addressed word is not in the cache, a write miss occurs.

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If the write through protocol is used, the information is written directly into the main memory. • If the write back protocol is used, the block containing the addressed word is first brought into the cache, and then the desired word in the cache is overwritten with the new information. MAPPING FUNCTIONS Direct mapping: The simplest way to determine cache locations in which to store memory blocks is the direct mapping technique. The mapping is usually done by, (Block address) MOD (Number of blocks in cache) Consider a cache of 128 blocks. The jth block in main memory is mapped onto block j modulo 128 of the cache. Thus, whenever one of the main memory blocks 0, 128, 256… is loaded in the cache, it is stored in cache block 0. Block1, 129, 257… are stored in cache block 1, and so on. Placement of a block in the cache is determined from the memory address. The memory address can be divided into three fields, as shown in figure. • The low order 4 bits select one of 16 words in a block. • When a new block enters the cache, the 7 bit cache block field determines the cache position in which this block must be stored. • The high order 5 bits of the memory address of the blocks are stored in 5 tag bits associated with its location in the cache. Main   memory Block 0 Block 1

tag tag

tag

Cache

Block 127

Block 0

Block 128

Block 1

Block 129

Block 127

Block 255 Block 256 Block 257

          Direct­mapped cache

Block 4095 Tag 5

Block 7

Word 4

Main memory address

19


The high order 5 bits of the address are compared with the tag bits associated with that cache location. • If they match, then the desired word is in that block of the cache. • If there is no match, then the block containing the required word must first be read from the main memory and loaded into the cache. Associative mapping The main memory block can be placed into any cache block position. In this case, 12 tag bits are required to identify a memory block when it is resident in the cache. The tag bits of an address received from the processor are compared to the tag bits of each block of the cache to see if the desired block is present. This is called the associative mapping technique. It gives complete freedom in choosing the cache location in which to place the memory block. Thus, the space in the cache can be used more efficiently. Figure shows a mapping method.

Main memory Block 0 Block 1 Cache

tag

Block 0

tag

Block 1 Block i

tag

Block 127

Block 4095 Tag 12

Word 4

Main memory address

          Associative­mapped cache Set Associative mapping A combination of the direct and associative mapping techniques can be used. Blocks of the cache are grouped into sets, and the mapping allows a block of the main memory to reside in any block of a specific set. Hence the contention problem of the direct method is eased by having a few

19


choices for block placement. At the same time, the hardware cost is reduced by decreasing the size of the associative search. This is called the set associative mapping technique is shown in figure.

Main memory Block 0 Block 1

Set 0 Set 1

Set 63

tag tag tag tag

tag tag

Cache Block 0

Block 63

Block 1

Block 64

Block 2

Block 65

Block 3

Block 127

Block 126

Block 128

Block 127

Block 129

Block 4095 Tag 6

Set 6

Word 4

Main memory address

 Set­associative­mapped cache with two blocks per set IMPROVING CACHE PERFORMANCE Two key factors in the computer are performance and cost, the best possible performance at the lowest cost is the objective. The challenge in design alternatives is to improve the performance without increasing the cost. Performance depends on how fast machine instructions can be brought into the processor for execution and how fast they can be executed. The main purpose of memory hierarchy is to create a memory that the processor sees as having a short access time and a large capacity. Each level of the hierarchy plays an important role. The speed and efficiency of data transfer between various levels of the hierarchy are also of great significance. It is beneficial if transfers to and from units can be done at a rate equal to that of the faster unit. This is not possible if both the slow and

19


the fast units are accessed in the same manner, but it can be achieved when parallelism is used in the organization of the slower unit. An effective way to introduce parallelism is to use an interleaved organization. INTERLEAVING If the main memory of a computer is structured as a collection of physically separate modules, each with its own address buffer register (ABR) and data buffer register (DBR), memory access operations may proceed in more than one module at the same time. Thus transmission rate is increased. Two methods of address layout are indicated. In the first case, the memory address generated by the processor is decoded is shown in figure 5.7 a. The high order k bits name one of n modules and the low order m bits name a particular word in that module. When consecutive locations are accessed as happens when a block of data is transferred to a cache, only one module is involved. k bits Module

ABR

DBR

Module 0

m bits Address in module

ABR

DBR

Module i

MM address

ABR

DBR

Module n­ 1

(a) Consecutive words in a module The second method for memory modules is called memory interleaving is shown in figure 5.7 b. The low order k bits of the memory address select a module, and the high order m bits name a location within that module. In this way, consecutive addresses are located in successive modules. Thus, any component of the system that generates requests for access to consecutive memory locations can keep several modules busy at any one time. This result in both faster access to a block of data and higher average utilization of the memory system as a whole.

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m  bits

k  bits

Address in module

ABR

DBR

Module 0

Module

ABR

DBR

Module

MM address

ABR

DBR

Module k 2 ­ 1

i

(b) Consecutive words in consecutive modules                   Addressing multiple­module memory systems

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HIT RATE AND MISS PENALTY A successful access to data in a cache is called a hit. The number of hits stated as a fraction of all attempted accesses is called the hit rate, and the miss rate is the number of misses stated as a fraction of attempted accesses. The extra time needed to bring the desired information into the cache is called the miss penalty. This penalty is ultimately reflected in the time that the processor is stalled because the required instructions or data are not available for execution. In general, the miss penalty is the time needed to bring a block of data from a slower unit in the memory hierarchy to a faster unit. VIRTUAL MEMORIES The physical main memory is not as large as the address space spanned by the processor. For example, A processor that issues 32 bit addresses has an addressable space of 4G bytes. When a program does not completely fit into the main memory, the parts of it not currently being executed are stored on secondary storage devices, such as magnetic disks. All parts of a program that are eventually executed are first brought into the main memory. When a new segment of a program is to be moved into a full memory, it must replace another segment already in the memory. In modern computer, the operating system moves programs and data automatically between the main memory and secondary storage.

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Processor Virtual address Data

MM U Physical address Cache

Data

Physical address Main memory DMA transfer Disk storage

Techniques that automatically move program and data blocks into the physical main memory when they are required for execution are called virtual memory technique. The above figure shows a typical organization that implements virtual memory. A special hardware unit, called the memory management unit (MMU), translates virtual addresses into physical addresses. • When the desired data are in the main memory, these data are fetched as described in our presentation of the cache mechanism. • If the data are not in the main memory, the MMU causes the operating system to bring the data into the main memory from the disk. Transfer of data between the disk and the main memory is performed using the DMA (Direct Memory Access). ADDRESS TRANSLATION 20


Assume that all programs and data are composed of fixed-length units called pages, each of which consists of a block of words that occupy contiguous locations in the main memory. Pages commonly range from 2K to 16K bytes in length. They constitute the basic unit of information that is moved between the main memory and the disk whenever the translation mechanism determines that a move is required. •

Pages should not be too small, because the access time of a magnetic disk is much longer (several milliseconds) than the access time of the main memory. The reason for this is that it takes a considerable amount of time to locate the data on the disk, but once located, the data can be transferred at a rate of several megabytes per second. If pages are too large it is possible that a substantial portion of a page may not be used, yet this unnecessary data will occupy valuable space in the main memory.

The cache bridges the speed gap between the processor and the main memory and is implemented in hardware. The virtual-memory mechanism bridges the size and speed gaps between the main memory and secondary storage and is usually implemented in part by software techniques. Virtual-memory address translation method based on the concept of fixed-length pages is shown in Figure Each virtual address generated by a virtual page number (high-order bits) followed by an offset (low-order bits) that specifies the location of a particular byte (or word) within a page. Information about the main memory location of each page is kept in a page table (address status). An area in the main memory that can hold one page is called a page frame. The starting address of the page table is kept in a page table base register. •

By adding the virtual page number to the contents of this register, the address of the corresponding entry in the page table is obtained. This location gives the starting address of the page, if that page currently resides in the main memory. If it is not present, it is brought to the suitable location in main memory. Memory Management Unit translates virtual address to physical address.

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Virtual address from processor

Page table base register Page table address

Virtual page number

Offset

Page frame

Offset

+ PAGE TABLE

Control bits

Page frame in memory

Physical address in main memory

          Virtual­memory address translation. Each entry in the page table also includes some control bits that describe the status of the page while it is in the main memory. • One bit indicates the validity of the page, that is, whether the page is actually loaded in the main memory. This bit allows the operating system to invalidate the page without actually removing it. • Another bit indicates whether the page has been modified during its residency in the memory.

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As in cache memories, â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

This information is needed to determine whether the page should be written back to the disk before it is removed from the main memory to make room for another page. Other control bits indicate various restrictions that may be imposed on accessing the page.

The page table information is used by the MMU for every read and write access, so the page table should be situated within the MMU. Therefore, the page table is kept in the main memory. However a copy of a small portion of the page table can be accommodated within the MMU. This portion consists of the page table entries that correspond to the most recently accessed pages. A small cache, usually called the Translation Look aside Buffer (TLB) is incorporated into the MMU for this purpose. The operation of the TLB with respect to the page table in the main memory is essentially the same as the operation we have discussed in conjunction with the cache memory. The TLB must also include the virtual address of the entry. Figure shows a possible organization of a TLB where the associative mapping technique is used. Set associative mapping TLB are also found in commercial products.

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Virtual address from  processor

Virtual page  number

Virtual  numbe page r

N o Mis s

Ye s

TL B

Contro l bit s

Offse t

Page  in  frame memory

= ?

Hi t Page  frame

Offse t

Physical address in main  memory            Use of an associative­mapped TLB The contents of the TLB be coherent with the contents of page tables in the memory. When the operating system changes the contents of page tables, it must invalidate in TLB, for this control bits are used. When an entry is invalidated, the TLB will acquire the new information as part of the MMU’s normal response to access misses. Address translation proceeds as follows, Given a virtual address, the MMU looks in the TLB for the referenced page. • If page is found in the TLB, the physical address is obtained.

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• •

If there is a miss in the TLB, then the required entry is obtained from the page table in the main memory and the TLB is updated. If requested page is not in main memory, page fault occurs and page should be brought to main memory is done by using interrupts.

If a new page is brought from the disk when the main memory is full, it must replace one of the resident pages using page replacement algorithm. A modified page has to be written back to the disk before it is removed from the main memory. MEMORY MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS In virtual memory concepts, we assumed that only one large program is being executed. If all of the program does not fit into the available physical memory, parts of it (pages) are moved from the disk into the main memory when they are to be executed. Management routines are part of the operating system of the computer. It is convenient to assemble the operating system routines into a virtual address space, called the system space, that is, separate from the virtual space in which user application programs reside. The latter space is called the user space. There may be a number of user spaces, one for each user. This is arranged by providing a separate page table for each user program. The MMU uses, a page table base register to determine the address of the table to be used in the translation process. Independent user programs coexist in the main memory must be addressed as protection. No program should be allowed to destroy the data or instructions of other programs in the memory. Such protection can be provided in several ways. The processor has two states, • supervisor state • user state Supervisor state The processor is usually placed in the supervisor state when operating system routines are being executed. User state User state only executes user programs. Here some machine instructions cannot be executed. These are called privileged instructions, which include such operations as modifying the page table base register, can only be executed while the processor is in the supervisor state. ASSOCIATIVE MEMORIES A memory unit accessed by the content is called an associative memory or content addressable memory. This type of memory is accessed simultaneously and in parallel on the basis of data content rather than specific address or location. When a word is written in an associative memory no address is given. The memory is capable of finding an empty

20


unused location to store the word. When the word is to be read from an associative memory the content of the word or part of the word is specified. H/W Organization The block diagram of associative memory is shown below. It consists of a memory array and logic for m words with n bits per word. The argument register A and key register K each have n bits, one for each bit of word. The match register M has m bits, one for each memory word. Each word in memory is compared in parallel with the content of argument register set a corresponding bit in the match register. After the matching process, those bits in the batch register that have been set indicate the fact their corresponding words have been matched. Reading is accomplished by a sequential access to memory for those words whose corresponding bits in the match register have been set. The key register provides a mask for choosing a particular field or key in the argument word. The entire argument is compared with each memory word. If the key register contains all 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Otherwise only those bits in the argument that have 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in their corresponding position of key register are compared. Argument Register (A)

Key Register (K)

Input Read

Associative Memory Array & Logic M words n bits per word

Match Register

M

Write O/P Fig: Associative Memory Consider the following example only three left most 5 of A are compared with memory words because K has 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in these position. A 101 111100 K 111 000000 Word1 100 111100 no match Word2 101 000001 match Word2 matches the unmasked argument field because the three left most bits of the argument and the word are equal. The relation between the memory array and external register an associative memory. The cells in the array are marked by the letter C with

20


two subscripts. The first subscripts give the word number and the second gives the bit position in the word. Thus cell C ij is the cell for the bit j in word i. A bit Aj in the argument register is compared with all the bits in the column j of array provided that Kj=1 this is done for all columns j=1, 2,3 â&#x20AC;Ś..n. If match occurs between all unmasked bits of the argument the bit in word I, the corresponding bit in Mi in the match register is set to 1. If one or more unmasked bits of the argument and the word do not match, Mi is cleared too. Ai

Aj

An

Ki

Kj

Kn

Word 1

C11

C1j

C1n

M1

Word i

Cij

Cij

Cin

Mj

Word m

Cm1

Cmj

Cmn

Mn

Fig: Associative memory of m words, n cells per word The internal organization of typical cell (Cij) is shown below. It consists of a FF storage element Fij, and the circuits for reading, writing, and matching the cell. The i/p bit is transferred into the storage cell during a write operation. The bit stored is readout during read operation. The match logic compares the content of the storage cell with the corresponding unmasked bit of the argument and provides an o/p for the decision logic that sets the bit I/P in M. Aj Kj

Write

R

S

Fij

Mi Match Logic T0

Read 21

O/P

Fig: One cell of associative Memory


Match Logic The match logic for each word can be derived from the comparison algorithm for two binary number first we neglect the key bits and compare the argument in A with the bits stored in the cell of the words. Word i is equal to the argument in A , if Aj=Fij for j=1,2,3…. n two bits are equal if they are both 1 or 0. The equality of two bits can be expressed logically by the Boolean function. xj = A j F ij + Aj1 Fij1 Where xj=1 if the pair of bits in the position j are equal, otherwise, xj=0 for a word I to be equal to the argument in A, we must have all xj variable equal to 1. This is the condition for setting the corresponding match bit Mi to be 1. Boolean function for this condition is Mi=x1x2x3…..xn And constitutes the AND operation of all pairs of matched bits in the word. We now include the key bit Kj in the comparison logic. The required is that if Kj=0, the corresponding only when Kj=1, they must be compared. This requirement is archieved by ORing each term with Kj thus xi if Kj=1 xj + Kj = 1 if Kj=0 when Kj =1 we have Kj1=0 and xj+0=xj when Kj=0 then Kji and xj+1=1 A term (xj+Kj1) will be in the 1 state if its pair of bits is not compared. This is necessary because each term is ANDed with all other terms so that an o/p of 1 will have no effect. The comparison of the bits has an effect only when Kj=1. The match logic for the word I in an associative memory can be expressed by the following Boolean function. Mi=(x1+K11)(x2+K21)(x3+K31)….(xn+Kn1) Each term in the expression will be equal to 1 if its corresponding Kj=0. If Kj=1 the term will be either 0 or 1 depending on the value of xj. A match will occur and Mj will be equal to 1 if all terms are equal to 1. If we substitute original definition of xj the above Boolean function can be expressed as Mj=∏ (AjFij + Aj1 Fij1+ Kj1) Where ∏ represent product symbol designating AND operation of all n terms. We need m such function for each word I=1,2,3,….m.

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SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES Semiconductor memories cannot be used to provide all of the storage capability needed in computers. Their main limitation is the cost per bit of stored information. Large storage requirements of most computer systems are economically fulfilled by, • Magnetic disks • Optical disks and • Magnetic tapes which are commonly referred to as secondary storage devices. MAGNETIC DISKS The storage medium in a magnetic-disk system consists of one or more disks mounted on a common spindle. A thin magnetic film is deposited on each disk on both sides. The disks are placed in a rotary drive so that the magnetized surfaces move in close proximity to read/write heads, as shown in Figure 5.10 a.

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The disks rotate at a uniform speed. Each head consists of a magnetic yoke and a magnetizing coil, as indicated in Figure 5.11 b. Digital information can be stored on the magnetic film by applying current pulses of suitable polarity to the magnetizing coil. This causes the magnetization of the film in the area immediately below the head. The same head is used for reading the stored information. In this case, when the surface of the disk passes under the head, it generates a current and induces in the coil of the same polarity as the one already recorded. The polarity of this voltage is monitored by the control circuitry to determine the state of magnetization of the film. Organization and Accessing of Data on a disk The organization of data on a disk is shown fig.each surface is divided into concentric tracks, and each track is divided into sectors. The set of corresponding tracks on all surface of a stack of disks forms a logical cylinder. It data on all tracks of a cylinder can be accessed without moving the read/write heads. The data are accessed by specifying the surface number, the track number, and the sector number. The Read and Write operations start at sector boundaries. Data bits are stored serially on each track. Each sector contains 512 bytes of data, but other sizes may be used. The data are preceded by a sector header that contains identification (addressing) information used to find the desired sector on the selected track.

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Sector 0, track 1

Sector 3, track n

Sector 0, track 0

 Organization of one surface of a disk

The above figure indicates that each track has the same number of sectors. So all tracks have the same storage capacity. Thus the stored information is packed more densely on inner tracks than on outer tracks. This arrangement is used in many disks because it simplifies the electronic circuits needed to access the data. But it is possible to increase the storage density by placing more sectors on outer tracks. Access Time The disk access time is the time delay between receiving an address and the beginning of the actual data transfer. The disk access time has two components, • Seek time • Rotational delay or latency time Seek time It is the time required to move the read/Write head to the proper track. This depends on the initial position of the head relative to the track specified in the address. Rotational delay or latency time It is the amount of time that elapses after the head is positioned over the correct track until the starting position of the addressed sector passes under the read/write head. Data Buffer/Cache

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A disk drive is connected to the computer using standard interconnection scheme called SCSI bus. A disk drive along with the required SCSI interface circuitry is known as SCSI drive. The transfer speed of SCSI bus is much higher than the rate at which data can be read from the disk tracks. To adjust the possible differences in transfer rates between the disk and the SCSI bus, data buffer is included in the disk unit. This data buffer is a semiconductor memory, capable of storing a few megabytes of data. The requested data from the disk is transferred to the buffer. Then the data from the buffer is transferred to other device connected to the SCSI bus. The data buffers also servers as a disk cache. When a read request arrives at the disk, the disk controller checks to see if the desired data are already available in the data buffer. If so, the data can be accessed and placed on the SCSI bus saving the disk access time. Disk controller Disk controller is the hardware interface provided to control the operation of a disk drive. The disk controller can be used to control more than one drive. Fig 4.12 shows a disk controller which controls two disk drives.

Processor

Main memory

System bus Disk controller

Disk drive

Disk drive

21


A disk controller that is connected directly to the processor system bus. It transfers data from and to the main memory on a DMA basis. Actually, these transfers are to or from the data buffer, which is implemented as a part of the disk controller module. The OS, entail loading the controller’s registers with the necessary addressing and control information, typically • Main memory address- The address of the first main memory location of the block of words involved in the transfer. • Disk address - The location of the sector containing the beginning of the desired block of words. • Word count - The number of words in the block to be transferred. The disk address issued by the OS is a logical address. The corresponding physical address on the disk may be different. For example, Bad sectors may be detected when the disk is formatted. The disk controller keeps track of such sectors and substitutes other sectors instead. Normally, a few spare sectors are kept on each track to be used as substitutes for the bad sectors. On the disk drive side, the controller’s major functions are, •

Seek - Causes the disk drive to move the read/ write head from its current position to the desired track. • Read - Initiates a read operation, starting at the address specified in the disk address register. • Write - Transfer data to the disk, using a control method. • Error checking - Computes the error correcting code (ECC) value for the data read from a given sector and compares it with the corresponding ECC value read from the disk. In case of a mismatch, it corrects the error if possible; otherwise, it raises an interrupt to inform the OS that an error has occurred. During a write operation, the controller computes the ECC value for the data to be written and stores this value on the disk. Software and Operating System Implications All data transfer activities involving disks are initiated by the operating system. The disk is a nonvolatile storage medium, so the OS itself is stored on a disk. During normal operation of a computer, OS are loaded into the main memory and executed as needed. When power is turned off, the contents of the main memory are lost. When the power is turned on a again, the OS has to be loaded into the main memory, which takes place as part of a process known as booting. The booting process is initiated by the monitor program stored in the nonvolatile ROM. This monitor program first loads the block called boot block. This block contains the loader program. Floppy Disks

21


Floppy disks are smaller, simpler, and cheaper disk units that consist of a flexible, removable, plastic diskette coated with magnetic material. The diskette is enclosed in a plastic jacket, which has an opening where the read/write head makes contact with the diskette. A hole in the center of the diskette allows a spindle mechanism in the disk drive to position and rotate the diskette. There are two ways to record the data in floppy disk, • Single density • Double density Single density Disks encoded with Manchester format are called single density. Double density Current floppy disks have the increased storage density by 2 and it also requires complex circuits. Advantages: • Low cost and shipping convenience • Current standards are 3.25 inches in diametric and store 1.44 Mbytes of data. • Larger super floppy disks are also available, known as zip disk which store 100 Mbytes. Disadvantages: • Smaller storage capacities • Longer access times • Higher failure rates than hard disks. RAID Disk Arrays The magnetic disk systems provide a single, serial bit stream during data transfer. Recent disk system developments have been directed at decreasing access time and increasing bandwidth during data flow through the use of multiple disks. Multiple disk drives provide a high-performance storage unit. In 1988, researchers at the University of California-Berkeley proposed a storage system based on multiple disks. They called it RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). Using multiple disks also makes it possible to improve the reliability of the overall system. Six different configurations were proposed. • RAID 0 is the basic configuration intended to enhance performance. A single large file is stored in several separate disk units by breaking the file up into a number of smaller pieces and storing these pieces on different disks. This is called data striping. When the file is accessed for a read, all disks can, deliver their data in parallel. The total transfer time of the file is equal to the transfer time that would be required in a single-disk system divided by the number of disks used in the array.

21


• •

RAID 1 is intended to provide better reliability by storing identical copies of data on two disks rather than just one. The two disks are said to be mirrors of each other. Then, if one disk drive fails, all read and write operations are directed to its mirror drive. This is a costly way to improve the reliability because all disks are duplicated. RAID 2, RAID 3, and RAID 4 levels achieve increased reliability through various parity checking schemes without requiring a full duplication of disks. All of the parity information is kept on one disk. RAID 5 also makes use of a parity-based error-recovery scheme. However, the parity information is distributed among all disks, rather than being stored on one disk.

OPTICAL DISKS The first generation of CD’s was developed in the mid 1980’s by Sony and Philips company. To provide high quality sound recording and representation, 16 bit samples of the analog signal are taken at a rate of 44,100 samples per second. This sampling rate is twice the highest frequency in the original sound signal. The CD’s were required to hold at least an hour of music. The first version was designed to hold up to 75 minutes with 3 gigabytes (3*109 bits) of storage. Since then, higher capacity devices have been developed. A video CD is capable of storing a full length movie. CD Technology The optical technology that is used for CD systems is based on a laser light source. A laser beam is directed. onto the surface of the spinning disk. Physical indentations in the surface are arranged along the tracks of the disk. They reflect the focused beam toward a photo detector, which detects the stored binary patterns. The laser emits a coherent light beam that is sharply focussed on the surface of the disk. Coherent light consists of synchronized waves that have the same wavelength. If a coherent light beam is combined with another beam of the same kind, and the two beams are in phase, then the result will be a brighter beam. But, if the waves of the two beams are 180 degrees out of phase, they will cancel each other.

21


Aluminum

Pit

Acrylic

Label

Polycarbonate plastic

Land

(a) Cross­section

Pit

Land

Reflection

Reflection

No reflection

Source

Detector

Source

Source

Detector

Detector

(b) Transition from pit to land

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

(c) Stored binary pattern A cross-section of a small portion of a CD is shown in Figure 5.32a. The bottom layer is polycarbonate plastic, which functions as a clear glass base. The surface of this plastic is programmed to store data by indenting it with pits. The unindented parts are called lands. A thin layer of reflecting aluminum material is placed on top of a programmed disk. The aluminum is then covered by a protective acrylic. Finally, the topmost layer is deposited and stamped with a label. The total thickness of the disk is 1.2 mm. The laser source and the photodetector are positioned below the polycarbonate plastic. The emitted beam travels through this plastic, reflects 21


off the aluminum layer, and travels back toward the photodetector. Note that from the laser side, the pits actually appear as bumps with respect to the lands. The figure shows what happens as the laser beam scans across the disk and encounters a transition from a pit to a land. Three different positions of the laser source and the detector are shown, as would occur when the disk is rotating. When the light reflects solely from the pit, or solely from the land, the detector will see the reflected beam as a bright spot. But, a different situation arises when the beam moves through the edge where the pit changes to the land, and vice versa. The reflected wave from the pit will be .180 degrees out of phase with the wave reflected from the, land, cancelling each other. Figure 5.32c depicts several transitions between lands and pits. If each transition, detected as a dark spot, is taken to denote the binary value 1 and the flat portions represent 0s, then the detected binary pattern will be as shown in the figure. This pattern is not a direct representation of the stored data. CDs use a complex encoding scheme to represent data. Each byte of data is represented by a 14-bit code, which provides considerable error detection capability. CD ROM Since information is stored in binary form in CDs, they are suitable for use as a storage medium in computer systems. The biggest problem is to ensure the integrity of stored data. Because the pits are very small, it is difficult to implement all of the pits perfectly. In audio and video applications, some errors in data can be tolerated because they are unlikely to affect the reproduced sound or image in a perceptible way. However, such errors are not acceptable in computer applications. Stored data are organized on CD-ROM tracks in the form of blocks that are called Sectors. There are several different formats for a sector. One format, known as Mode 1, uses 2352-byte sectors. There is a 16byte header that contains a synchronization field used to detect the beginning of the sector and addressing information used to identify the sector. This is followed by 2048 bytes of stored data. At the end of the sector, there are 288 bytes used to implement the error-correcting scheme. The number of sectors per track is variable; there are more sectors on the longer outer tracks. CD-ROM drives operate at a number of different rotational speeds. The basic speed, known as IX, is 75 sectors per second. This provides a data rate of 153,600 bytes/s (150 Kbytes/s), using the Mode 1 format. With this speed and format, a CDROM based on the standard CD designed for 75 minutes of music has a

22


data storage capacity of about 650 Mbytes. Note that the speed of the drive affects only the data transfer rate but not the storage capacity of the disk. Disadvantages: • •

The transfer rate is lower than the magnetic hard disks. Seek time in also more.

Advantages: • • •

Small physical size Low cost Ease of handling for removing and transporting of mass storage medium.

Application of CD-ROMs: CD-ROMs are widely used for the distribution of • Software • Data bases • Large books • Application programs • Video games, etc. CD-Recordable A new type of CD was developed in the late 1990s on which data can be easily recorded by a computer user. It is known as CD-Recordable (CDR). A spiral track is implemented on a disk during the manufacturing process. Procedure A laser in a CD-R drive is used to bum pits into an organic dye on the track. When a burned spot is heated beyond a critical temperature, it becomes opaque. Such burned spots reflect less light when subsequently read. The written data .are stored permanently. Unused portions of a disk can be used to store additional data at a later time. CD-ReWritable: The CDs that can be used to write multiple times by the user is known as CD-RWs (CD-ReWritables). The basic structure of CD-RWs is similar to the structure of CD-Rs. Instead of using an organic dye in the recording layer, an alloy of silver,

22


indium, antimony and tellurium is used. This alloy has interesting and useful behavior when it is heated and cooled. If it is heated above its melting point (500 degrees C) and then cooled down, it goes into an amorphous state in which it absorbs light. But, if it is heated only to about 200 degrees C and this temperature is maintained for an extended period, a process known as annealing takes place, which leaves the alloy in a crystalline state that allows light to pass through. If the crystalline state represents land area, pits can be created by heating selected spots past the melting point. The stored data can be erased using the annealing process, which returns the alloy to a uniform crystalline state. A reflective material is placed above the recording layer to reflect the light when the disk is read. The CD-RW drive uses three different laser powers such as, • Highest power is used to record the pits. • Middle power is used to put the alloy into its crystalline state; it is referred to as the "erase power." • Lowest power is used to read the stored information. Advantages: • Low cost storage medium • Suitable for archival storage like databases, images. • Used for low volume distribution of information. • Fast enough. • Used for daily hard disks backup purposes. DVD Technology The success of CD technology and the continuing quest for greater storage capability has led to the development of DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) technology. The first DVD standard was defined in 1996 by a consortium of companies. The objective is to be able to store a full-length movie on one side of a DVD disk. The physical size of a DVD disk is the same as for CDs. The disk is 1.2 mm thick, and it is 120 mm in diameter. Its storage capacity is made much larger than that of CDs by several design changes: • A red light laser with a wavelength of 635nm is used instead of the infrared light laser used in CDs, which has a wavelength of 780 nm. The shorter wavelength makes it possible to focus the light to a smaller spot. • Pits are smaller, having a minimum length of 0.4 micron. • Tracks are placed closer together; the distance between tracks is 0.74 micron. Improvement: Increases in capacity have been achieved by going to two-layered and two sided disks. The single-layered single-sided disk, defined in the

22


standard as DVD-5, has a structure that is almost the same as the CD in Figure 5.32a. A double-layered disk makes use of two layers on which tracks are implemented on top of each other. The first layer is the clear base, as in CD disks. But, instead of using reflecting-aluminum, the lands and pits of this layer are covered by a translucent material that acts as a semireflector. Two single-sided disks can be put together to form a sandwich-like structure where the top disk is turned upside down. This can be done with single-layered disks, as specified in DVD-l0, giving a composite disk with a capacity of 9.4 Gbytes. It can also be done with the double-layered disks, as specified in DVD-18, yielding a capacity of 17 Gbytes. Access times for DVD drives are similar to CD drives. "However, when the DVD disks rotate at the same speed, the data transfer rates are much higher because of the higher density of pits. DVD-RAM: A rewritable version of DVD devices, known as DVD-RAM, has also been developed. It provides a large storage capacity. Its only disadvantages are the higher price and the relatively slow writing speed. To ensure that the data have been recorded correctly on the disk, a process known as write verification is performed. This is done by the DVD-RAM drive, which reads the stored contents and checks them against the original data. Advantages: â&#x20AC;˘ Large storage capacity. Disadvantages: â&#x20AC;˘ Higher price. â&#x20AC;˘ Slow writing speed. MAGNETIC TAPE SYSTEMS: Magnetic tapes are suited for off-line storage of large amounts of data. They are typically used for hard disk backup purposes and for archival storage. Magnetic-tape recording uses the same principle as used in magnetic-disk recording. The main difference is that the magnetic film is deposited on a very thin 0.5- or 0.25-inch wide plastic tape. 7 or 9 bits (corresponding to one character) are recorded in parallel across the width of the tape, perpendicular to the direction of motion. A separate read/write head is provided for each bit position on the tape, so that all bits of a character can be read or written in parallel. One of the character bits is used as a parity bit.

22


File

File mark

File mark

• • • •

• • • •

File gap

Record

Record gap

Record

7 or 9 bits

Record gap

Data on the tape are organized in the form of records separated by gaps, as shown in above figure . Tape motion is stopped only when a record gap is underneath the read/write heads. The record gaps are long enough to allow the tape to attain its normal speed before the beginning of the next record is reached. To organize large amounts of data, a group of related records is called a file. The beginning of a file is identified by a file mark, as shown in Figure 5.33. The file mark is a special single- or multiple-character record, usually preceded by a gap longer than the interrecord gap. The first record following a file mark can be used as a header or identifier for this file. This allows the user to search a tape containing a large number of files for a particular file. The controller of a magnetic tape drive enables the execution of a number of control commands in addition to read and write commands. Control commands include the following operations: • Rewind tape • Rewind and unload tape • Erase tape • Write tape mark • Forward space one record • Backspace one record • Forward space one file • Backspace one file Two methods of formatting and using tapes are available such as, • Records are variable in length - This allows efficient use of the tape, but it does not permit updating or overwriting of records in place. • Fixed-length records - In this case, it is possible to update records in place. Although this may seem to be a significant advantage, in practice it has turned out to be of little importance. Cartridge Tape System Tape systems have been developed for backup of on-line disk storage. One such system uses an 8-mm video format tape housed in a cassette. These units are called cartridge tapes. They have capacities in the range of 2 to 5 gigabytes and handle data transfers at the rate of a few hundred kilobytes per second, Reading and writing is done by a helical scan system operating across the tape. Bit densities of tens of millions of bits per square inch are achievable. Multiple-cartridge 'systems are available that automate

22


the loading and unloading of cassettes so that tens of gigabytes of on-line storage can be backed up unattended.

UNIT V INPUT OUTPUT ORGANIZATION One of the basic features of a computer is its ability to exchange data with other de vices. This communication capability enables a human operator, for example, to use a keyboard and a display screen to process text and graphics. We make extensive use Of computers to communicate with other computers over the internet and access infor mation around the globe. In other applications, computers are less visible but equally important. They are an integral part of home appliances, manufacturing equipment, transportation systems, banking and point-of-sale terminals. In such applications, input to a computer may come from a sensor switch, a digital camera, a microphone, or a fire alarm. Output may be a sound signal to be sent to a speaker or a digitally coded command to change the speed of a motor, open a valve, or cause a robot to move in a specified manner. In short, a general-purpose computer should have the ability to exchange information with a wide range of devices in varying environments ACCESSING INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES A simple arrangement to connect I/O devices to a computer is to use a single bus arrangement, as shown in Figure 5.1. The bus enables all the devices connected to it to exchange information. Typically, it consists of three sets of lines used to carry address, data, and control signals. Each I/O device is assigned a unique set of addresses. When the processor places a particular address on the address lines, the device that recognizes this address responds to the commands issued on the control lines. The processor requests either a read or a write operation, and the requested data are transferred' over the data lines. when I/O devices and the memory share the same address space, the arrangement is called memory â&#x20AC;&#x201C;mapped I/O.With memory mapped I/O any machine instruction that can access memory can be used to transfer data to or from an I/O device

22


Memory

Processor

Bus

I/O Devices n

I/O Devices 1

A Single Bus Structure For example, if DATAIN is the address of the input buffer associated with the keyboard, the instruction Move DATAIN,RO reads the data from DATAIN and stores them into processor register RO. Similarly, the instruction Move RO,DATAOUT sends the contents of register RO to location DATAOUT, which may be the output databuffer of a display unit or a printer. Most computer systems use memory-mapped I/O. Some processors have special In and Out instructions to perform I/O transfers.. When building a computer system based on these processors, the designer has the option of connecting I/O devices to use the special I/O address space or simply incorporating them as part of the memory address space. The latter approach is the most common as it leads to simpler software. One advantage of a separate I/O address space is that I/O devices deal with fewer address lines. Note that a separate I/O address space does not necessarily mean that the I/O 22


address lines are physically separate from the memory address lines. A special signal on the bus indicates that the requested read or write transfer is an I/O operation. When this signal is asserted, the memory unit ignores the requested transfer. The I/O devices examine the loworder bits of the address bus to determine whether they should respond. Address Lines Data Lines

BUS

Control Lines

Address Decoder

Control Circuits

Data and Status registers

Input Devices

I/O interface for an input device

The address decoder enables the device to recognize its address when this address appears on the address lines.The data register hold the data being transferred to or from the processor .The status register contains the information relevant to the operation of the I/O devices.Both the data and status register are connected to the data bus and assigned unique address.The address decodes ,the data and status registers ,and the control circuitry required to coordinate I/O transfer constitute the device interface circuitWhen a human operator is entering characters at a keyboard, the processor is capable of executing millions of instructions between successive character entries. An instruction that reads a Character from the keyboard should be executed only when a character is available in the input buffer of the keyboard interface. Also, we must make 'sure that an input character is read only once For an input device such a keyboard, a status flag, SIN,is included in the interface circuit as part of the status register. This flag is set to 1 when a character is entered at the keyboard and cleared to 0 once this character is read by the processor. Hence, by checking the SIN flag, the software can

22


ensure that it is always reading valid data. It often accomplished in a program loop that repeatedly reads the status register and checks the state of SIN. When SIN becomes equal to 1, the program reads the input data register ,A similar procedure can be used to control output operation using an output status flag, SOUT. Let us consider the single example of I/O operations involving a a keyboard and a display device in a computer system. The four registers shown in Figure 5.3 are used in the data transfer operations. Register STATUS contains two control flags, SIN and SOUT, which provide status information for the keyboard and the display unit, respectively. The two flags KIRQ and DIRQ in this register are used in conjunction with interrupts. Data from the keyboard are made available in the DATAIN register and the data send to the display are stored in the DATAOUT register. DATAIN

DATAOUT

STATUS

CONTROL 7

6

5

4

3

2

Registers in Keyboard and display interfaces

22

1

0


WAITK WAITD

Move

#LINE,R0

Initialize memory pointer

TestBit Branch=0 Move TestBit Branch=0 Move Move Compare Branchâ&#x2030; 0 Move Call

#0,STATUS WAITK DATAIN,R1 #1,STATUS WAITD R1,DATAOUT R1,(R0)+ #$0D,R1 WAITK #$0 A,DATAOUT PROCESS

Test SIN Wait for Character to be entered Read Character Test SOUT Wait for display to become ready Send Character to display Store Character and advance pointer Check if carriage Return if not, get another character otherwise ,send line feed Call a subroutine to process the input line

A PROGRAM THAT READS ONE LINE FROM THE KEYBOARD STORES IT IN MWMORY BUFFER AND ECHOES IT BACK TO THE DISPLAY This program reads a line of characters from the keyboard and stores it in a memory buffer starting at location LINE. Then, it calls a subroutine PROCESS to process the input line.As each character is read, it is echoed back to the display. Register RO is used as a pointer to the memory buffer area. The contents of RO are updated using the Auto increment addressing mode so that successive characters are stored in successive memory locations. Each character is checked to see if it is the Carriage Return(CR) character, which has the ASCII code OD (hex). If it is, a Line Feed character (ASCII code OA) is sent to move the cursor one line down on the display and subroutine PROCESS is called. Otherwise, .the program loops back to wait for another character from the keyboard. This example illustrates program-controlled I/O, in which the processor repeatedly checks a status flag to achieve the required synchronization between the processor and an input or output device. We say that the processor polls the device. There are two other commonly used mechanisms for implementing I/O operations: Interrupt and direct memory access. In the case of interrupts, synchronization is achieved by having the I/O device send a special signal over the bus whenever it is ready for a data transfer operation. Direct memory access is a technique used for high-speed I/O devices. It involves having the device interface transfer data directly to or from the memory, without continuous involvement by the processor. INTERRUPT From the above program ,it enters a wait loop in which it repeatedly tests the device status. There are many situations where other tasks can be performed while waiting for an I/O device to become ready. To allow this to

22


happen, we can arrange for the I/O device to alert the processor when it becomes ready. It can do by sending a hardware signal called an interrupt to the processor. At least one of the bus control lines, called an interruptrequest line, is usually dedicated for this purpose. Since the processor is no longer required to continuously check the status of external devices, it can use the waiting period to perform other useful functions. By using interrupts, such waiting periods can ideally be eliminated.

Consider a task that requires some computations to be performed and the results to be printed on a line printer. Let the program consist of two routines, COMPUTE and PRINT. Assume that COMPUTE produces a set of n lines of output , to be printed by the PRINT routine The required task may be performed by repeatedly executing first the COMPUTE routine and then the PRINT routine. The printer accepts only one line of text at a time. Hence, the PRINT routine must send one line of text, wait for it to be printed, then send the next line, and so on, until all the results have been printed. The disadvantage of this simple approach is that the processor spends a considerable amount of time waiting for the printer to become ready. If it is possible to overlap printing and computation,to execute the COMPUTE routine while printing is in progress, a faster overall speed of execution will result

This may be achieved as follows. •

First, the COMPUTE routine is executed to produce the first n lines of output.

The PRINT routine is executed to send the first line of text to the printer. At this point, instead of waiting for the line to be printed, the PRINT routine may be temporarily suspended and execution of the COMPUTE routine continued.

Whenever the printer becomes ready, it alerts the processor by sending an interrupt-request signal.

In response, the processor interrupts execution of the COMPUTE routine and transfers control to the PRINT routine.

The' PRINT routine again suspended, resumes execution continues until all routine ends.

sends the second line to the printer and is Then the interrupted COMPUTE routine at the point of interruption. This process n lines have been printed and the PRINT

23


The PRINT routine will be restarted whenever the next set of n lines is available for printing.

If COMPUTE takes longer to generate n lines than the time required to print them, the processor will be performing useful computations all the time.

The routine executed in response to an interrupt request is called the interrupt-service routine, which is the PRINT routine The routine executed in response to an interrupt request is called the interrupt-service routine, which is the PRINT routine in our example, Assume that an interrupt request arrives during execution of instruction i in figure. Program 1

Program 2 PRINT routine

COMPUTE routine 1 2

Interrupt occurs here

i i+1

M

Transfer of Control through the use of interrupts

23


Theprocessor first completes execution of instruction i. Then, it leads the. program Counter with the address of the first instruction of the interruptservice routine.Let us assume that this address is hardwired in the processor. After execution of the interrupt-service routine, the processor has to come back to Instruction i+ 1. When an interrupt occurs, the current contents of the PC, which point to instruction i + 1, must be put in temporary storage in a known location. A Return from-interrupt instruction at the end of the interrupt-service routine reloads the PC from that temporary storage location, causing execution to resume at instruction i+ 1.In many processors, the return address is saved on the processor stack. Otherwise ,It may be saved in a special location, such as a register provided for this purpose. For handling interrupts, the processor must inform the device that its request has been recognized so that it may remove its interrupt-request signal. This may be accomplished by means of a special control signal on the bus. To transfer of data between the Processor and the I/O device interface accomplish the same purpose. The execution of an instruction in the interrupt-service routine that accesses a status or data register in the device interface implicitly informs the device that its interrupt request has been recognized. A subroutine performs a function required by the program from which it is called. Interrupt service routine may not have anything in common with the program being executed at the time the interrupt request is received, In fact, the two programs often belong to different users. Before starting execution of the interrupt-service routine, any information that may be altered during the execution of that routine must be saved. This information must be restored before execution of the interrupted program is resumed. The original program can continue execution without being affected in any way by the interruption, except for the time delay. The information that needs to be saved and restored typically includes the condition code flags and the contents of any registers used by both the interrupted program and the interrupt service routine. The task of saving and restoring information can be done automatically by the processor or by Program instruction .Modern Processors save only the minimum amount of information need to maintain the integrity of program execution .Because the process of saving and restoring registers involves memory transfers that increase the total execution time , and represent execution overhead. Saving registers also increases the delay between the time an interrupt request is received and the start of execution of the interrupt-service

23


routine. This delay is called Interrupt Latency. Some application, a long interrupt latency is unacceptable. The amount of information saved automatically by the processor when an interrupt request is accepted should be kept to a minimum. The Processor saves only the contents of the program counter and the processor status register. Any additional information that needs to be saved must be saved by Program instructions at the beginning of the interrupt service routine and restores at the end of the routine. In Earlier Processor ,a small number of registers, all registers are saved automatically by the processor hardware at the time an interrupt request is accepted. The data saved are restored to their respective registers as part of the execution of the Return-from interrupt instruction. Some Computer provides two types of interrupts. One Save all register contents, and the other does not A Particular I/O device may be use either type, depending upon its response time requirements .Another interesting approach is to provide duplicate sets of processor registers. A different set of registers can be used by the interrupt Service routine, thus eliminating the need to save and restore registers. Interrupts enable transfer of control from one program to another to be initiated by an event external to the computer. Execution of the interrupted program resumes after the execution of the interrupt service routine has been completed. INTERRUPT HARDWARE An I/O device requests an interrupt by activating a bus line called interrupt request. A Single interrupt request line may be used to serve n devices as shown in the following figure .All devices are connected to the line via switches to ground .To request an interrupt, a device closes its associated switch. If all interrupt request signals INTR 1 to INTRn are inactive, if all switches are open, the voltage on the interrupt request line will ne equal to Vdd . This is the inactive state of the line. When a device requests an interrupt by closing its switch, the voltage on the line drops to 0, causing the interruptrequest signal, INTR, received by the processor to go to 1. Since the closing of one or more switches will cause the line voltage to drop to 0.the value of INTR is the logical OR of the requests from individual devices, that is, INTR = INTR1 + ... + INTRn To use the complemented form, INTR, to name the interrupt-request signal on the common line, because this signal is active when in the low-voltage state. To design the Circuit in Figure 5.6 by the electronic implementation special gates known as open collector(for bipolar circuits) or open-drain (for MOS circuits) are used to drive the INTR line. The output of an open-collector or

23


an open-drain gate is equivalent to a switch to ground that is open when the gate's input is in the 0 state and closed when it is in the 1 state. The voltage level, hence the logic state, at the output of the gate is determined by the data applied to all the gates connected to the bus, according to the equation given above. Resistor R is called a pull-up resistor because it pulls the line voltage up to the high-voltage state when the switches are open. ENABLING AND DISABILING INTERRUPTS The programmer have complete control over the events that take place during program execution. The arrival of an interrupt request from an external device causes the processor to suspend the execution of one program and start the execution of another. Because interrupts can arrive at any time, they may alter the sequence of events from that envisaged by the programmer. The interruption of program execution must be carefully controlled. A fundamental facility found in all computers is the ability to enable and disable such interruptions as desired. There are many situations in which the processor should ignore interrupt requests. For example, in the case of the Compute-Print program of Figure 5.5, an .interrupt request from the printer should be accepted only if there are output lines to be printed. After printing the last line of a set of n lines, interrupts should be disabled until another set becomes available for printing. In another case, it may be necessary to guarantee that a particular sequence of instructions is executed to the end without interruption because the interrupt-service routine may change some of the data used by the instructions Enabling and disabling interrupts must be available to the programmer. A simple way is to provide machine instructions, such as Interrupt-enable and Interrupt-disable that perform these functions. For example, consider the case of a single interrupt request from one device. When a device activates the interrupt-request signal, it keeps this signal activated until if learns that the processor has accepted its request. The interrupt request signal will be active during execution of the interruptservice routine, until an instruction is reached that accesses the device. It is essential to ensure that this active request signal does not lead to successive interruptions, causing the system to enter an infinite loop from which it cannot recover. Several mechanisms are available to solve this problem. â&#x20AC;˘

The first possibility is to have the processor hardware ignore the interrupt-request line until the execution of the first instruction of the interrupt-service routine has been completed. By using an Interruptdisable instruction as the first instruction in the interrupt-service routine, the programmer can ensure that no further interruptions will occur until an Interrupt-enable instruction is executed. The Interrupt enable instruction will be the last instruction in the interrupt-service routine before the Return-from-interrupt instruction. The processor

23


must guarantee that execution of the Return-from-interrupt instruction is completed before further interruption can occur. â&#x20AC;˘

The second option, which is suitable for a simple processor with only one interrupt request line, is to have the processor automatically disable interrupts before starting the execution of the interruptservice routine. After saving the contents of the PC and the processor status register (PS) on the stack, the processor performs the equivalent of executing an Interrupt-disable instruction. It is often the case that one bit in the PS register, called Interrupt-enable, indicates whether interrupts are enabled. An interrupt request received while this bit is equal to 1 will be accepted. After saving the contents of the PS on the stack, with the Interrupt-enable bit equal to 1, the processor clears the Interrupt-enable bit in its PS register, thus disabling further interrupts. When a Return-from-interrupt instruction is executed, the contents of the PS are restored from the stack, setting the Interrupt-enable bit back to 1. Hence, interrupts. are again enabled.

â&#x20AC;˘

In the third option, the processor has a special interrupt-request line for which the interrupt-handling circuit responds only to the leading edge of the signal. Such a line is called as edge-triggered .In this case , the processor will receive only one request, and how long the line is activated. Hence, there is no danger of multiple interruptions and no need to explicitly disable interrupt requests from this line .

The sequence of events involved in handling an interrupt request from a single device. Assuming that interrupts are enabled, the following is a typical scenario: 1. The device raises an interrupt request. 2. The processor interrupts the program currently being executed. 3. Interrupts are disabled by changing the control bits in the PS (except in the case of edge-triggered interrupts). 4. The device is informed that its request has been recognized, and in response, it deactivates the interrupt-request signal. 5. The action requested by the interrupt is performed by the interruptservice routine. 6. Interrupts are enabled and execution of the interrupted program is resumed. HANDLING MULTIPLE DEVICES

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Consider the situation where a number of devices capable of initiating interrupts are connected to the processor. Because these devices are operationally independent, there is no definite order in which they will generate interrupts. For example,device X may request an interrupt while an interrupt caused by device Y is being serviced, or several devices may request interrupts at exactly the same time. When a request is received over the common interrupt-request line in Figure 5.6, additional information is needed to identify the particular device that activated the line.If two devices have activated the line at the same time, it must be possible to break the tie and select one of the two requests for service. When the interrupt service routine for the selected device has been completed, the second request can be serviced. To determine whether a device is requesting an interrupt is available in its status register. When a device raises an interrupt request, it sets to 1 one of the bits in its status register, which we will call the IRQ bit. For example, bits KIRQ and DIRQ in Figure 5.3 are the interrupt request bits for the keyboard and the display, The simplest way to identify the interrupting device is to have the interrupt-service routine poll all the I/O devices connected to the bus. The first device encountered with its IRQ bit set is the device that should be serviced. An appropriate subroutine is called to provide the requested service. The polling scheme is easy to implement. Its main disadvantage is the time spent interrogating the IRQ bits of all the devices that may not be requesting any service. VECTORED INTERRUPTS To reduce the time involved in the polling process, a device requesting an interrupt may identify itself directly to the processor. Then, the processor can immediately start executing the corresponding interrupt-service routine. The vectored interrupts refers to all interrupt-handling schemes based on this approach. A device requesting an interrupt can identify itself by sending a special code to the processor over the bus. This enables the processor to identify individual devices even if they share a single interrupt-request line. The code supplied by the device may represent the starting address of the interrupt-service routine for that device. The code length is typically in the range of 4 to 8 bits. The remainder of the address is supplied by the processor based on the area in its memory where the addresses for interrupt-service routines are located. This arrangement implies that the interrupt-service routine for a given device must always start at the same

23


location. The programmer can gain some flexibility by storing in this location an instruction that causes a branch to the appropriate routine. In many computers, this is done automatically by the interrupt-handling mechanism. The location pointed to by the interrupting device is used to store the starting address of the interrupt-service routine. The processor reads this address, called the interrupt vector, and loads it into the PC. The interrupt vector may also include a new value for the processor status register.The I/O devices send the interrupt-vector code over the data bus using the bus control signals to ensure that devices do not interfere with each other.When a device sends an interrupt request, the processor may not be ready to receive the interrupt-vector code immediately. For example, it must first complete the execution of the current instruction, which may require the use of the bus. There may be further delays if Interrupts happen to be disabled at the time the request is raised. The interrupting device must wait to put data on the bus only when the processor is ready to receive it. When the processor is ready to receive the interrupt-vector code, it activates the interrupt-acknowledge line, INTA. The I/O device responds by sending its interrupt vector code and turning off the INTR signa1. INTERRUPT NESTING The interrupt should be disabled during the execution of an interrupt service routine, to ensure that a request from one device will not cause more than one interruption. when several devices are involved in which execution of a given interrupt service routine, started always continues to completion before the processor accepts an interrupt request from a second device. For example, a computer that keeps track of the time of day using a realtime clock. This is a device that sends interrupt requests to the processor at regular intervals. For each of these requests, the processor executes a short interrupt-service routine to increment a set of counters in the memory that keep track of time in seconds, minutes, and so on. Proper operation requires that the delay in responding to an interrupt request from the real-time clock be small in comparison with the interval between two successive requests. To ensure that this requirement is satisfied in the presence of other interrupting devices, it may be necessary to accept an interrupt request from the clock during the execution of an interrupt-service routine for another device. An interrupt request from a high-priority device should be accepted while the processor is servicing another request from a lower-priority device. A multiple-level priority organization means that during execution of an interrupt service routine, interrupt requests will be accepted from some devices but not from others, depending upon the device's priority. To implement this operation, we can assign

23


a priority level to the processor that can be changed under program control. The priority level of the processor is the priority of the program that is currently being executed. The processor accepts interrupts only from devices that have priorities higher than its own. At the time the execution of an interrupt-service routine for some device is started, the priority of the processor is raised to that of the device. This action disables interrupts from devices at the same level of priority or lower. Interrupt requests from higherpriority devices will continue to be accepted. The processor's priority is usually encoded in a few bits of the processor status word. It can be changed by program instructions that write into the PS. These are privileged instructions, which can be executed only while the processor is running in the supervisor mode. The processor is in the supervisor mode only when executing operating system routines. It switches to the user mode before beginning to execute application programs. Thus, a user program cannot accidentally, or intentionally, change the priority of the processor and disrupt the system's operation. An attempt to execute a privileged instruction while in the user mode leads to a special type of interrupt called a privilege exception. A multiple-priority scheme can be implemented easily by using separate interrupt request and interrupt-acknowledge lines for each device, as shown in Figure 5.7. Each of the interrupt-request lines is assigned a different priority level. Interrupt requests received over these lines are sent to a priority arbitration circuit in the processor. A request is accepted only if it has a higher priority level than that currently assigned to the processor.

23


r o s s e c o r P

INTR 1 Device 1

INTR P Device 2

Device p

INTA1 P

INTA P

Priority arbitration circuit Implementation of Interrupt priority using individual interrupt request and acknowledge lines

SIMULTANEOUS REQUESTS Consider the problem of simultaneous arrivals of interrupt requests from two or more devices. The processor must have some means of deciding which request to service first. Using a priority scheme, the solution is straightforward. The processor simply accepts the request having the highest priority. If several devices share one Interrupt-request line,some other mechanism is needed. Polling the status registers of the I/O devices is the simplest mechanism. In this case, priority is determined by the order in which the devices are polled. When vectored interrupts are used, we must ensure that only one device is selected to send its interrupt vector code. A widely used scheme is to connect the devices to form a daisy chain, as shown in Figure 5.8a. The interrupt-request line INTR is common to all devices. The interruptacknowledge line, INTA, is connected in a daisy-chain fashion, such that the INTA signal propagates serially through the devices. When several devices raise an interrupt request and the INTR line is activated, the processor responds 'by setting the INTA line to 1.Signal IS received by device 1. Device 1 passes the signal on to device 2 only If It does not require any service. If device 1 has a pending request for interrupt, it blocks the INTA signal and proceeds to put its identifying code on the data lines. Therefore, in the

23


daisy-chain arrangement, the device that is electrically closest to the processor has the highest priority. The second device along the chain has second highest priority, and so on. The main advantage of the Interrupt Nesting is that it allows the processor to accept interrupt requests from some devices but not from others, depending upon their priorities. The two schemes may be combined to produce the general structure in Figure 5.8b. Devices are organized in groups, and each group is connected at a different priority level .Within a group, devices are connected in a daisy chain.

Pr oce sso r INTR

Device 2

Device 1 INTA

(a) Daisy Chain

24

Device n


Processor INTR1

Device

INTA1

Device

INTRp Device

Device

INTAp Priority Arbitration Schemes b)Arrangement of Priority groups

Fig 5.8:Interrupt Priority Schemes CONTROLLING DEVICE REQUESTS To ensure that interrupt requests are generated only by those I/O devices that are being used by a given program. Idle devices must not be allowed to generate interrupt requests, even though they may be ready to participate in I/O transfer operations. We need a mechanism in the interface circuits of individual devices to Control whether a device is allowed to generate an interrupt request. The control needed is usually provided in the form of an interrupt-enable bit in the deviceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 'interface circuit. The keyboard interrupt-enable, KEN, and display interrupt enable, DEN, flags in register CONTROL perform this function. If either of these flags is set, the interface circuit generates an interrupt request whenever the corresponding status flag in register STATUS is set. At the same time, the interface circuit sets bit KIRQ or DIRQ to indicate that the keyboard or display unit, respectively, is requesting an interrupt. If an interrupt-enable bit is equal to 0, the interface circuit will not generate an interrupt request, regardless of the state of the status flag

24


There are two independent mechanisms for controlling interrupt requests. At the device end, an interrupt-enable bit in a control register determines whether the device is allowed to generate an interrupt request. At the processor end, either an interrupt enable bit in the PS register or a priority structure determines whether a given interrupt request will be accepted. EXCEPTIONS An interrupt is an event that causes the execution of one program to be suspended and the execution of another program to begin. The Exception is used to refer to any event that causes an interruption.Hence, I/O interrupts are one example of an exception. RECOVERY FROM ERRORS Computers use a variety of techniques to ensure that all hardware components are operating properly. For example, many computers include an error-checking code in the main memory, which allows detection of errors in the stored data. If an error occurs, the control hardware detects it and informs the processor by raising an interrupt. The processor may also interrupt a program if it detects an error or an unusual condition while executing the instructions of this program. For example, the OP-code field of an instruction may not correspond to any legal instruction, or an arithmetic instruction may attempt a division by zero. When exception processing is initiated as a result of such errors, the processor proceeds in exactly the same manner as in the case of an I/O interrupt request. It suspends the program being executed and starts an exception-service routine.Routine takes appropriate action to recover from the error, if possible, or to inform the user about it. In the I/O interrupt, the processor completes execution of the instruction in progress before accepting the interrupt .When an interrupt is caused by an error, execution of the interrupted instruction cannot usually be completed, and the processor begins exception processing immediately. DEBUGGING System software usually includes a program called a debugger, which helps the programmer to find errors in a program. The debugger uses exceptions to provide two important facilities called trace and breakpoints. When a processor is operating in the trace mode, an exception occurs after execution of every instruction, using the debugging program as the exception-service routine.The debugging program enables the user to examine the contents of registers, memory locations and so on. On return

24


from the debugging program, the next instruction in the program being debugged is executed, then the debugging program is activated again The trace exception is disabled during the execution of the debugging program Breakpoints provide a similar facility, except that the program being debugged is interrupted only at specific points selected by the user. An instruction called Trap or Software-interrupt is usually provided for this purpose. Execution of this instruction results in exactly the same actions as when a hardware interrupt request is received. While debugging a program, the user may wish to interrupt program execution after instruction i. The debugging routine saves instruction i + 1 and replaces it with a software interrupt instruction. When the program is executed and reaches that point ,it is interrupted and the debugging routine is activated. When the user is ready to continue executing the program being debugged, the debugging routine restores the saved instructions that was at location i + 1 and executes a Return-from-interrupt instruction. PRIVILEGE EXCEPTION To protect the operating system of a computer from being corrupted by user programs, certain instructions can be executed only while the processor is in the supervisor mode. These are called privileged instructions. For example ,when the processor is running in the user mode, it will not execute an instruction that changes the priority level of the processor or that enables a user program to access areas in the computer memory that have been allocated to other users. To execute such an instruction will produce a privilege exception, causing the processor to switch to the supervisor mode and begin executing an appropriate routine in the operating system. USE OF INTERRUPTS IN OPEARTING SYSTEMS The operating system (OS) is responsible for coordinating all activities within a Computer. It makes extensive use of interrupts to perform I/O operations and communicate with and control the execution of user programs. The interrupt mechanism enables the operating system to assign priorities, switch from one user program to another, implement security and protection features, and coordinate I/O activities. The operating system incorporates the interrupt-service routines for all devices, connected to a computer. Application programs do not perform I/O operations them selves. When an application program needs an input or an output operation, it points to the data to be transferred and asks the OS to perform the operation. The OS suspends the execution of that program

24


temporarily and performs the requested I/O operation. When the operation is completed, the OS transfers control back to the application program. The OS and the application program pass control back and forth using software interrupts. In a computer that has both a supervisor and a user mode, the processor switches its operation to supervisor mode at the time it accepts an interrupt request.By setting a bit in the processor status register after saving the old contents of that register on the stack. Thus, when an application program calls the as by a software interrupt instruction, the processor automatically switches to supervisor mode, giving the as complete access to the computer's resources. When the as executes a Return-from-interrupt instruction, the processor status word belonging to the application program is restored from the stack. As a result, the processor switches back to the user mode. To illustrate the interaction between application programs and the operating system, let us consider art example that involves multitasking. Multitasking is a mode of operation in which a processor executes several user programs at the same time. A common as technique that makes this possible is called time slicing. With this technique, each program runs for a short period called a time slice,τ then another program runs for its time slice, and so on. The period τ is determined by a continuously running hardware clock, which generates an interrupt every τ seconds. OSINIT

Set interrupt vectors: Time-slice clock ← SCHEDULER Software interrupt ← OSSERVICES Keyboard interrupts ← IOData

OSSERVICES

Examine stack to determine operation. Call appropriate routine.

SCHEDULER

Save program state. Select a runnable process. Restore saved context of new process. Push new values for PS and PC on stack. Return from interrupt.

requested

(a) OS initialization, Services and Scheduler IOINIT

Set process status to Blocked. Initialize memory buffer address pointer and counter. Call device driver to initialize device

24


and enable interrupts interface. Return from subroutine. IODATA

in

the

device

Poll devices to determine source of interrupt. Call appropriate driver. If END == 1, then set process status to Runnable. Return from interrupt (b)I/O Routines

KBDINIT

Enable interrupts. Return from subroutine.

KBDDATA

Check device status. If ready, then transfer character. If character == CR, then {set END == 1; Disable interrupts} else set END == o. Return from subroutine.

(c ) Keyboard Driver A few Operating System routines in a Multitasking Environment At the time the operating system is started, an initialization routine, called OSINIT is executed. This routine loads the appropriate values in the interrupt vector locations in the memory. These values are the starting addresses of the interrupt service routines for the corresponding interrupts. For example, OSINIT loads the starting address of a routine called SCHEDULER in the interrupt vector corresponding to the timer interrupt. Hence, at the end of each time slice, the timer interrupt causes this routine to be executed. A program, together with any information that describes its current state of execution, is regarded by the as as an entity called a process. A process can be in one of three states: Running, Runnable, or Blocked. The Running state means that the program is currently being executed. The process is Runnable if the program is ready for execution but is waiting to be selected by the scheduler. The third state, Blocked, means that the program is not ready to resume execution for some reason

24


Assume that program A is in the Running state during a given time slice. At the end of that time slice, the timer interrupts the execution of this program and starts the execution of SCHEDULER. This is an operating system routine whose function is to determine which user program should run in the next time slice. It starts by saving all the information that will be needed later when execution of program A is resumed. The information saved, which is called the program state, includes register contents, the program counter, and the processor status word. Registers must be saved because they may contain intermediate results for any computation in progress at the time of interruption. The program counter points to the location where execution is to resume later. The processor status word is needed because it contains the condition code flags and other information such as priority level. Then, SCHEDULER selects for execution some other program, B, that was suspended earlier and is in the Runnable state. It restores all information saved at the time program B was suspended, including the contents of PS and PC, and executes a Return-from-interrupt instruction. As a result, program B resumes execution for Ď&#x201E; seconds, at the end of which the timer clock raises an interrupt again, and a context switch to another runnable process takes place. Suppose that program A needs to read an input line from the keyboard. It requests I/O service from the operating system. It uses the stack or the processor registers to pass information to the OS describing the required operation, the I/O device, and the address of a buffer in the program data area where the line should be placed. Then it executes a software interrupt instruction. The interrupt vector for this instruction points to the OSSERVICES routine ,examines the information on the stack and initiates the requested operation by calling an appropriate OS routine. In our example, it calls IOINIT which is a routine responsible for starting I/O operations .While an I/O operation is in progress, the program that requested it cannot continue execution. Hence, the IOINIT routine sets the process associated with program A into the Blocked state, indicating to the scheduler that the program cannot resume execution at this time. The IOINIT routine carries out any preparations needed for the I/O operation, such as initializing address pointers and byte count, then calls a routine that performs the I/O transfers. It is common practice in operating system design to encapsulate all software pertaining to a particular device into a self-contained module called the device driver. Such a module can be easily added to or deleted from the OS. We have assumed that the device driver for the keyboard consists of two routines, KBDINIT and KBDDATA. The IOINIT routine calls KBDINIT, which performs any initialization operations needed by the device or its interface circuit. KBDINIT also enables interrupts in the interface circuit by setting the appropriate bit in its control register, and then it returns to IOINIT,

24


which returns to OSSERVICES. The keyboard is now ready to participate in a data transfer operation. It will generate an interrupt request whenever a key is pressed.Return to OSSERVICES, the SCHEDULER routine selects another user program to run. Of course, the scheduler will not select program A, because that program is now in the Blocked state. The Returnfrom-interrupt instruction that causes the selected user program to begin execution will also enable interrupts in the processor by loading new contents into the processor status register. Thus, an interrupt request generated by the keyboard's interface will be accepted. The interrupt vector for this interrupt points to an OS routine called IODATA. Because there could be several devices connected to the same interrupt request line, IODATA begins by polling these devices to determine the one requesting service. Then, it calls the appropriate device driver to service the request. The driver called will be KBDDATA, which will transfer one character of data. If the character is a Carriage Return, it will also set to 1 a flag called END, to inform IODATA that the requested I/O operation has been completed. At this point, the IODATA routine changes the state of process A from Blocked to Runnable , so that the scheduler may select it for execution in some future time slice. DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS Data are transferred by executing instruction such as Move DATAIN, RO An instruction to transfer input or output data is executed only after the processor determines that the I/O device is ready. The processor either polls a status flag in the device interface or waits for the device to send an interrupt request. Several program instructions must be executed for each data word transferred. In addition to polling the status register of the device, instructions are needed for incrementing the memory address and keeping track of the word count. When interrupts are used, there is the additional overhead associated with saving and restoring the program counter and other state information. To transfer large blocks of data at high speed, an alternative approach is used. A special control unit may be provided to allow transfer of a block of data directly between an external device and the main memory, without continuous intervention by the processor. This approach is called direct memory access, or DMA. DMA transfers are performed by a control circuit that is part of the I/O device interface.This circuit as a DMA controller. The DMA controller performs the functions that would normally be carried out by the processor when accessing the main memory. For each word transferred, it provides the memory address and all the bus signals that control data transfer. Since it has to transfer blocks of data, the DMA controller must increment the memory address for successive words and keep track of the number of transfers. DMA controller can transfer data without intervention by the processor, its operation must be under the control of a program executed by the

24


processor. To initiate the transfer of a block of words, the processor sends the starting address, the number of words in the block, and the direction of the transfer. On receiving this information, the DMA controller proceeds to perform the requested operation. When the entire block has been transferred, the controller informs the processor by raising an interrupt signal. While a DMA transfer is taking place, the program that requested the transfer cannot continue, and the processor can be used to execute another program. After the DMA transfer is completed, the processor can return to the program that requested the transfer. I/O operations are always performed by the operating system of the computer in response to a request from an application program. The OS is also responsible for suspending the execution of one program and starting another. Thus, for an I/O operation involving DMA, the OS puts the program that requested the transfer in the Blocked state initiates the DMA operation, and starts the execution of another program. When the transfer is completed, the DMA controller informs the processor by sending-an interrupt request. In response, the OS puts the suspended program in the Runnable state so that it can be selected by the scheduler to continue execution. 31

30

1

0

Status and Control IRQ IE

Done R/ W

Starting address Word Count

Registers in a DMA interface Two registers are used for storing the starting address and the word count. The third register contains status and control flags. The R / W bit determines the direction of the transfer. When this bit is set to 1 by a program instruction, the controller performs a read operation, that is, it transfers data from the memory to the I/O device. Otherwise, it performs a write operation. When the controller has completed transferring a block of data and is ready to receive another command. It sets the Done flag to 1. Bit 30

24


is the Interrupt-enable flag, IE. When this flag is set to 1, It causes the controller to raise an interrupt after it has completed transferring a block of data. Finally, the controller sets the IRQ bit to 1 when it has requested an interrupt. Processor

Main Memory System bus

DMA controller

Disk/DMA Controller

Disk

Disk

Printer Keyboard

Network Interface

Use of DMA controller in a computer system

A DMA controller connects a high-speed network to the computer bus. The disk controller, which controls two disks, also has DMA capability and provides two DMA channels. It can perform two independent DMA operations, as if each disk had its own DMA controller. The registers needed to store the memory address the word count, and so on are duplicated, so that one set can be used with each device. To start a DMA transfer of a block of data from the main memory to one of the disks, a program writes the address and word count information into the registers-of the corresponding channel of the disk controller. It also provides the disk controller with information to identify the data for future retrieval. The DMA controller proceeds independently to implement the specified operation. When the DMA transfer is completed, this fact is recorded in the status and control register of the DMA channel by setting the Done bit. At the same time, If the IE bit is set, the controller sends an interrupt request to the processor and sets the IRQ bit. The status register can also be used to record other information, such as whether the transfer took place correctly or errors occurred.

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Memory accesses by the processor and the DMA controllers are blend together . Requests by DMA devices for using the bus are always given higher priority than processor requests. Among different DMA devices, top priority is given to high-speed peripherals such as a disk, a high-speed network interface, or a graphics display device. Since the processor originates most memory access cycles, the DMA controller can be said to "steal" memory cycles from the processor. Hence, this interweaving technique is usually called cycle stealing. Alternatively, the DMA controller may be given exclusive access to the main memory to transfer a block of data without interruption. This is known as block or burst mode. Most DMA controllers incorporate a data storage buffer. For example, the DMA controller reads a block of data from the main memory and stores it into its input buffer. This transfer takes place using burst mode at a speed appropriate to the memory and the computer bus. Then, the data in the buffer are transmitted over the network at the speed of the network. A conflict may arise if both the processor and a DMA controller or two DMA controllers try to use the bus at the same time to access the main memory. To resolve these conflicts, an arbitration procedure is implemented on the bus to coordinate the activities of all devices requesting memory transfers. BUS ARBITRATION The device that is allowed to initiate data transfers on the bus at any given time is called the bus master. When the current master relinquishes control of the bus, another device can acquire this status. Bus arbitration is the process by which the next device to become the-bus master is selected and bus mastership is transferred to it.The selection of the bus master must take into account the needs of various services by establishing a priority system for gaining access to the bus. There are two approaches to bus arbitration: â&#x20AC;˘ Centralized - a single bus arbiter performs the required arbitration . â&#x20AC;˘ Distributed-all devices participate in the selection of the next bus master CENTRALIZED ARBITRATION The bus arbiter may be the processor or a separate unit connected to the bus .In this-case, the processor is normally the bus master unless it grants bus mastership to one of the DMA controllers. A DMA controller indicates that it needs to become the bus master by activating the Bus-Request line, B R . The signal on the Bus-Request line is the logical OR of the bus requests from all the devices connected to it. When Bus-Request is activated, the processor activates the Bus-Grant signal, BG1, indicating to

25


the DMA controllers that they may use the bus when it becomes free. This signal is connected to all DMA controllers using a daisy-chain arrangement. Thus, if DMA controller 1 is requesting the bus, it blocks the propagation of the grant signal to other devices. Otherwise, it passes the grant downstream by asserting BG2. BBSY

BR

Processor

DMA Controller 1 BG1

DMA Controller 2 BG2

A Simple arrangement for bus arbitration using a daisy chain

Sequence of signals during transfer of bus mastership for the devices The current bus master indicates to all devices is using the bus by activating another open-collector line called Bus Busy, BBSY . Hence , after receiving the Bus-Grant signal, a DMA controller waits for Bus-Busy to become inactive, then assumes mastership of the bus. At this time, it activates Bus-Busy to prevent other devices from using the bus at the same

25


time. The bus master, it may perform one or more data transfer operations, depending on whether it is operating in the cycle stealing or block mode. After it releases the bus, the processor resumes bus mastership. Several such pairs may be provided, in an arrangement similar to that used for multiple interrupt requests. This arrangement leads to considerable flexibility in determining the order in which requests from different devices are serviced. The arbiter circuit ensures that only one request is' granted at any given time, according to a predefined priority scheme, For example, if there are-four bus request lines, BRI through BR4, a fixed priority scheme may be used in which BRI is given top priority and BR4 is given lowest priority. Alternatively, a rotating priority scheme may be used, to give all devices an equal chance of being serviced. Rotating priority means that after a request online BRI is granted, the priority order becomes 2, 3, 4, 1. DISTRIBUTED ARBRITRATION Distributed arbitration means that all devices waiting to use the bus have equal responsibility in carrying out the arbitration process, without using a central arbiter. Each device on the bus is assigned, a 4 bit identification number. When one, of more devices request the bus, they assert the StartArbritration signal ,and place their 4-bit ID numbers on four opencollector lines, ARB0 through ARB3 . A winner is selected as a result of the interaction among the signals transmitted over these lines by all contenders, The net outcome is that the code on the four lines represents the request that has the highest ID number. The drivers are of the open-collector type. Hence, if the input to one driver is equal to one and the input to another driver connected to the same bus line is equal to 0 the bus will be in the owvoltage state. In other words, the connection performs an OR function in which logic 1 wins. Assume that two devices, A and B, having ID numbers 5 and 6are requesting the use of the bus. Device A transmits the pattern 0101, and device B transmits the pattern 0110. The code seen by both devices is 0111. Each device compares the pattern on the arbitration lines to its own ID, starting from the most significant bit. If it detects a difference at any bit position, it, disables its drivers at that bit position and for all lower-order bits, It does so by placing a 0 at the input of these drivers. Device A detects a difference on line . Hence it disables ARB1 .It disables its drivers on lines ARB1 and ARB0 . This causes the pattern on the arbitration lines to change to 0110, which means that B has won the contention.

25


Vcc ARB3 ARB2 ARB1 ARB0 Start arbitration

o.c

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

Interface circuit for device A A distributed arbritration scheme

BUSES The processor, main memory, and I/O devices can be interconnected by means of a common bus whose primary function is to provide a communications path for the transfer of data. The bus includes the lines needed to support interrupts and arbitration. Main features of the bus protocols used for transferring data. A bus protocol is the set of rules that govern the behavior of various devices connected to the bus as to when to place information on the bus, assert control signals. The bus lines used for transferring data may be grouped into three types: â&#x20AC;˘ Data â&#x20AC;˘ Address, â&#x20AC;˘ Control lines. The control signals specify whether a read or a write operation is to be performed. Usually, a single a R / W line is used. It specifies Read when set

25


to 1 and Write when set to 0. When several operand sizes are possible, such as byte, word, or long word, the required size of data is indicated. The bus control signals also carry timing information. They specify the times at which the processor and the I/O devices may place data on the bus or receive data from the bus. A variety of schemes have been devised for the timing of data transfers over a bus. These can be broadly classified into two schemes • •

Synchronous Asynchronous

One device plays the role of a master. The device that initiates data transfers by issuing read or write commands on the bus it is called as initiator. The processor acts as the master, but other devices with DMA capability may also become bus masters. The device addressed by the master is referred to as a slave or target. SYNCHRONOUS BUS • In a synchronous bus, all devices derive timing information from a common clock line. Equally spaced pulses on this line define equal time intervals. • In the synchronous bus, each of these intervals constitutes a bus cycle during which one data transfer can take place. • The address and data lines are shown as high and low at the same time depending • on the particular address or data pattern being transmitted. The crossing points indicate the times at which these patterns change. • A signal line in an indeterminate or high impedance state is represented by an intermediate level half-way between the low and high signal levels. Consider the sequence of events during an input (read) operation. At time to, the master places the device address on the address lines and sends an appropriate command on the control lines, The command will indicate an input operation and specify the length of the operand to be read. Information travels over the bus at a speed determined by its physical and electrical characteristics. The clock pulse width, t1 - to, must be longer than the maximum propagation delay between two devices connected to the bus. It has to be long enough to allow all devices to decode the address and control signals so that the addressed device (the slave) can respond at time t1. It is important that slaves take no action or place any data on the bus before t1.The information on the bus is unreliable during the period to to t1 because signals are changing state. The addressed slave places the requested input data on the data lines at time t1.At the end of the clock cycle, at time t2, the master strobes the data on the data lines into its input

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buffer. Strobe means to capture the values of the data at a given instant and store them into a buffer. Data to be loaded correctly into any storage device, as a register built with flip-flops, the data must be available at the input of that device for a period greater than the setup time of the device. The period t2 - t1 must be greater than the maximum propagation time on the bus plus the setup time of the input buffer register of the master. A similar procedure is followed for an output operation. The master places the output data on the data lines when it transmits the address and command information. At time t2, the addressed device strobes the data lines and loads the data into its data buffer. Time Bus Clock

Address and command Data

t0

t1 Bus Cycle

Timing of an input transfer on a Synchronous bus

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t2


time Bus Clock tAM

Seen by master Address and command Data Seen by slave

t DM

tAS

Address and command Data t0

t1

t DS

t2

A detailed timing diagram for the input transfer of fig 5.16 The exact times at which signals actually change state are because of propagation delays on bus wires and in the circuits of the device. From the above fig it shows two views of each signal, except the clock. Because signals take time to travel from one device to another, a given signal transition is seen by different devices at different times. One view shows the signal as seen by the master and the other as seen by the slave. We assume that the clock changes are seen at the same time by all devices on the bus. The master sends the address and command signals on the rising edge at the beginning of clock period 1 (to).Signals do not actually appear on the bus until tAS, largely due to the delay in the bus driver circuit. At tAS, the signals reach the slave. The slave decodes the address and at t1 sends the requested data. The data signals do not appear on the bus until tDS .They travel toward the master and arrive at tDM. At t2, the master loads the data into its input buffer. The period t2 - tDM is the setup time for the master's input buffer. The data must continue to be valid after t2 for a period equal to the hold time of that buffer. MULTIPLE CYCLE TRANSFER A Data transfer has to be completed within one clock cycle, the clock period, t2 - to, must be chosen to accommodate the longest delays on the bus and the slowest device interface. This forces all devices to operate at the speed of the slowest device.

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At t2, the output data have been received by the I/O device or the input data are available on the data lines. Because of a malfunction, the device does not respond, the error will not be detected. To overcome these limitations, most buses incorporate control signals that represent a response from the device. These signals inform the master that the slave has recognized its address and that it is ready to participate in a data-transfer operation. It is possible to adjust the duration of the data-transfer period to suit the needs of the participating devices. To simplify this process, a high-frequency clock signal is used such that a complete data transfer cycle would span several clock cycles. Then, the number of clock cycles involved can vary from one device to another. Consider the example from the figure 5.18, • During clock cycle 1, the master sends address and command information on the bus, requesting a read operation. The slave receives this information and decodes it. On the following active edge of the clock. •

At the beginning of clock cycle 2, it makes a decision to respond and begins to access the requested data. Some delay is involved in getting the data, and hence the slave cannot respond immediately.

The data become ready and are placed on the bus in clock cycle 3. At the same time, the slave asserts a control signal called Slave-ready. The master, which has been waiting for this signal, strobes the data into its input buffer at the end of clock cycle 3.

The bus transfer operation is now complete, and the master may send a new address, to start a new transfer in clock cycle 4. The Slave-ready signal is an acknowledgment from the slave to the master, confirming that valid data have been sent.

The slave responds in cycle 3. The Slave-ready signal allows the duration of a bus transfer to change from one device to another. If the addressed device does not respond at all, the master waits for some predefined maximum number of clock cycles, then aborts the operation. This could be the result of an incorrect address or a device malfunction.

25 Fig:5.18 An input transfer using multiple clock cycles


Note that the clock signal used on a computer bus is not necessarily the same as the processor clock. Latter it works faster because it controls internal operation on the processor chip. The delays encountered by signals internal to a chip are much less than on a bus that interconnects chips on a printed circuit board, for example. Clock frequencies are highly technology dependent. In modem processor chips, clock frequencies above 500 MHz are typical. On memory and I/O buses, the clock frequency may be in the range 50 to 150 MHz. ASYNCHRONOUS BUS An alternative scheme for controlling data transfers on the bus is based on the use of a handshake between the master and the slave. The common clock is replaced by two timing control lines â&#x20AC;˘ Master-ready â&#x20AC;˘ Slave-ready. The first is asserted by the master to indicate that it is ready for a transaction, and the second is a response from the slave. In principle, a data transfer controlled by a handshake protocol proceeds as follows.The master places the address and command information on the bus. Then it indicates to all devices that it has done so by activating the Master-ready line. This causes all devices on the bus to decode the address. The selected slave performs the required operation and informs the processor it has done so by activating the Slave-ready line. The master waits for Slave-ready to become asserted before it removes its signals from the bus. In the case of a read operation, it also strobes the data into its input buffer,

Handshake Control of data transfer during an input operation 25


The timing of an input data transfer using the handshake scheme depicts the following sequence of events. •

to - The master places the address and command information on the bus, and all devices on the bus begin to decode this information.

tl - The master sets the Master-ready line to 1 to inform the I/O devices that the address and command information is ready. The delay tl - to is intended to allow for any skew that may occur on the bus. Skew occurs when two signals simultaneously transmitted from one source arrive at the destination at different times. Different lines of the bus may have different propagation speeds.

Master-ready signal does not arrive at any device ahead of the address and command information, the delay tl - to should be larger than the maximum possible bus skew. When the address information arrives at any device, it is decoded by the interface circuitry, Sufficient time should be allowed for the interface circuitry to decode the address. The delay needed can be included in the period tl - to.

t2 - The selected slave, having decoded the address and command information, performs the required input operation by placing the data from its data register on the data lines. At the same time, it sets the Slave-ready signal to 1. If extra delaysare introduced by the interface circuitry before it places the data on the bus, theslave must delay the Slave-ready signal accordingly. The period t2 - t1.dependson the distance between the master and the slave and on the delays introduced bythe slave's circuitry.

t3 - The Slave-ready signal arrives at the master, indicating that the input data are available on the bus. However, since it was assumed that the device interface transmits the Slave-ready signal at the same time that it places the data on the bus, the master should allow for bus skew. It must also allow for the setup time needed by its input buffer. After a delay equivalent to the maximum bus skew and the minimum setup time, the master strobes the data into its input buffer. At the same time,

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it drops the Master-ready signal, indicating that it has received the data. â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

t4 - The master removes the address and command information from the bus. The delay between t3 and t4 is again intended to allow for bus skew. Erroneous addressing may take place if the address, as seen by some device on the bus, starts to change while the Master-ready signal is still equal to 1. t5 - When the device interface receives the 1 to 0 transition of the Master-ready signal, it removes the data and the Slaveready signal from the bus. This completes the input transfer.

Handshake Control of data transfer during an output operation

The timing for an output operation, the master places the output data on the data lines at the same time that it transmits the address and command information. The selected slave strobes the data into its output buffer when it receives the Master-ready signal and indicates that it has done so by setting the Slave-ready signal to 1. The remainder of the cycle is identical to the input operation. From the timing diagrams it is assumed that the master compensates for bus skew and address decoding delay. It introduces the delays from to to t1 and from t3 to t4 for this purpose. If this delay provides sufficient time for the

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I/O device interface to decode the address, the interface circuit can use the Master-ready signal directly to gate other signals to or from the bus. A change of state in one signal is followed by a change in the other signal. Hence this scheme is known as a full handshake. It provides the highest degree of flexibility and reliability. INTERFACE CIRCUITS An I/O interface consists of the circuitry required to connect an I/O device to a computer bus. On one side of the interface the bus signals for address, data, and control. On the other side we have a data path with its associated controls to transfer data between the interface and the I/O device. It is called a port, and it can be classified as either a parallel or a serial port. A parallel port transfers data in the form of a number of bits, typically 8 or 16, simultaneously to or from the device. •

A serial port transmits and receives data one bit at a time. Communication with the bus is the same for both formats, the conversion from the parallel to the serial format, and vice versa, takes place inside the interface circuit.

A parallel port, the connection between the device and the computer uses a multiple-pin connector and a cable with as many wires, typically arranged in a flat configuration.

The circuits at either end are relatively simple, as there is no need to convert between parallel and serial formats. This arrangement is suitable for devices that are physically close to the computer.

The serial format is much more convenient and cost-effective where longer cables are needed.

Functions of I/O Devices 1. Provides a storage buffer for at least one word of data (or one byte, in the case of byte-oriented devices) 2. Contains status flags that can be accessed by the processor to determine whether the buffer is full (for input) or empty (for output) 3. Contains address-decoding circuitry to determine when it is being addressed by the processor 4. Generates the appropriate timing signals required by the bus control scheme

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5. Performs any format conversion that may be necessary to transfer data between the bus and the I/O device, such as parallel-serial conversion in the case of a serial port.

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CAO