FINAL REPORT: Development of Sustainable Exports to the European Union (EU) under the Economic Partnership Agreement
28 August 2015 - Ideas to Business Limited, Trinidad and Tobago
TABLE OF CONTENTS Background.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Executive Summary.............................................................................................................................................................. 5 Activities undertaken to complete the Assignment ................................................................................................ 8 Summary of the Market Research Visit..................................................................................................................... 14 Reflections on the sectors in Trinidad and Toago ................................................................................................ 23 The Markets of the French Caribbean Outermost regions................................................................................ 27 General Economic and Political Context ...................................................................................................................... 27 Guadeloupe................................................................................................................................................................................. 29 Guyane .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Martinique .................................................................................................................................................................................. 32 Overview of the Sectors under Review in the FCORs.......................................................................................... 35 Architecture ............................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Engineering ................................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Management consulting ...................................................................................................................................................... 54 Challenges to Trading these Services with the FCORs ........................................................................................ 57 Opportunities for Trade with the FCORs and suggested approaches .......................................................... 60 Additional Recommendations ...................................................................................................................................... 69 Appendix 1: Tools developed to undertake the Preliminary Research in the FCORs............................ 72 Appendix 2: Assessment Tool for Firms in Trinidad and tobago ................................................................... 76 Appendix 3: List of Management Consultants supplied by the Trinidad and Tobago Chapter of the CICMC ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Appendix 4: List of Consultants Members of the Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce ............................................................................................................................................................................. 89
exporTT Limited contracted Ideas to Business for this project entitled “Development of Sustainable Exports to the European Union under the EPA on April 14, 2015. The project commenced on April 14, 2015 and the assignment is to be completed within approximately ten (10) weeks of commencement. Accordingly, in line with the Section 4 B of this contract, an Inception Report was due on April 27, 2015 and a Final Report is due on June 30, 2015. The consultants with the responsibility for completing the assignment to the satisfaction of the client are Lawrence Placide (Lead Consultant) and Myriam Francisque (Consultant). Maritza Bengochea (Counterpart) is the officer at exporTT assigned to oversee the implementation of this project. The Terms of Reference and Scope of Services for this assignment can be found as Annex A of the contract. The stated objective is “to improve the market strategy of selected businesses through market research and analysis of the markets for professional services and the cultural and creative industries in the French Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs). “ Tasks involved in the assignment include:
Conducting research on the markets of the FCORs; Assessing the export capacity and competitiveness of professional services providers and identify 10 firms to be considered for future missions to the FCOR; and Conducting or managing the conduct of a market research mission to the markets of French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique.
The Terms of Reference stipulate that this Final Report must include but is not limited to the following: 1. An analysis of Market Opportunities, demand side constraints and strengths and Supply side constraints and strengths; including export capacity and competitiveness of service firms, and the enabling environment (legislative and regulatory framework) and any physical and support infrastructure. 2. Recommendations and proposed market entry strategies for service providers in each of the target sectors. 3. An assessment tool to evaluate the state of readiness of the selected companies with regard to their state of readiness to enter into the FCOR markets. 4. Information on the outcome of the Market Research Visit The broader context for this assignment is the Economic Partnership Agreement signed between CARIFORUM and the European Union signed on 15 October 2008 and entered into force on 29 December 2008. This Agreement promotes development of economic relations through the exchange of concesssions in goods, services and investment (commercial presence). It provides inter alia for access in services above that provided for France’s commitments in the World Trade Organization (WTO) as part of the then European Community. In turn, Trinidad and Tobago and the rest of CARIFORUM
provided additional access to their markets as well. This exchange of concessions makes it imperative that Trinidad and Tobago seek, through its implementation actions, to create the conditions for its economic operators to seize opportunities for increased export to the European Union market. This is one of several projects undertaken by exporTT, the national trade promotion organisation of Trinidad and Tobago, toward that end.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The reciprocity of the Economic Partnership Agreement strengthens the requirement that the Government of Trinidad and Tobago and its agencies seek to ensure that its economic operators are in a position to take advantage of the preferential market access offered by the European Union. This is particularly relevant for trade in services where new access has been provided to EU service providers and, for the first time, new access is provided for professionals from Trinidad and Tobago in a number of fields including management consulting, architecture and engineering in particular for Mode 4 delivery by independent professionals and contractual service suppliers. In seeking to activate the market access elements, the French islands in the Caribbean seem to be markets of opportunity due to their proximity to Trinidad and Tobago. The economies of Guadeloupe, Guyane and Martinique have been affected similarly by the economic challenges being felt in Europe. Their combined populations of about 1.2 million make them roughly equitable in market size to that of Trinidad and Tobago though their GDP per capita varies widely, from €22.077 in Martinique to €15,821 for Guyane with Guadeloupe in the middle at €19,691. Trade with Trinidad and Tobago is minimal but with a balance in favour of Trinidad and Tobago and of the territories Guadeloupe has been most active in seeking to build relations with the Caribbean. Guyane, partly due to its location, has the lowest levels of interaction with Trinidad and Tobago. Recession in France has resulted in stagnating or declining real transfers and impacted negatively the economic outlook, including in the construction sectors which are heavily dependent on public funding. All economies struggled in 2014 with low levels of business confidence restraining private activities and increasing competition in all the sectors under review. As an indicator of activity in construction, cement sales dipped by approximately one-third between 2009 and 2013. Among the sectors under the purview of this process, focus has been placed on engineering and architecture. One finds extremely high numbers of architects in the FCORs as compared with Trinidad and Tobago, a factor variously explained during the market research visit. As an example, in Guadeloupe alone there are approximately 185 architects, double that of Trinidad and Tobago serving slightly less than one-third of the population. 84 architects were registered in Guyane in 2014 with its population of about one-fifth that of Trinidad and Tobago. By contrast, the number of engineering firms operating in these territories in in the region of 500 with a number in operation in all three territories. It is likely that the number of engineers operating in these territories roughly equates to the number operating in Trinidad and Tobago. In both Trinidad and Tobago and the FCORs the management consultancy field is congested. The sector also suffers with the lack of organization and standardization. Other similarities in relation to Trinidad relate to the provisions of architecture and engineering. In both regions, the title of architect is protected by law and registration is required before an individual can use the title. In contrast, the engineering profession is less regulated and more open. However the construction sector operates quite differently in France with liability insurance a key requirement and the presence of the “bureau de contrôle”. The heavy regulated environment, more than 80,000 for the construction sector, also impacts on market entry possibilities. Challenges identified for market entry include:
Language – Ability to operate in the language of the market The number and complexity of the Standards and norms used in the FCORs (EU vs US)(CE/NF vs CA) Management systems in place Lack of understanding of culture Currency/Fees/Taxes Difficulty identification of willing partners and concretisation of working relationships Narrowness of markets for some sectors
Strong and aggressive competition (management consulting/architecture) – Protectionism within the sectors Opacity of sectors and key players Lack of available information Transportation linkages are inadequate Business/economic risks Liability insurance requirements. Heavy bureaucracy and documentation requirements Complicated customs procedures High freight transportation costs for the machinery involved in aspects of engineering A network of long-established relationships that effectively excluded new market entrants.
Despite these challenges, research has identified the following opportunities: 1) Engineers from Trinidad and Tobago with expansive clay soil capacities may have opportunities in Guadeloupe 2) Partnership opportunities in wastewater and water management and coastal management and marine areas. 3) Partnership opportunities in in water and wastewater management, infrastructures, Energy and telecommunication, the latter with broadband fiber-optic technology. 4) Mode1 exporting through linkages with architectural firms in the French Caribbean. 5) Collaboration in the delivery of low-income housing was mentioned in each of the three markets. 6) Properly qualified engineers wishing to work in the private sector with established firms could find employment. 7) Collaborations between Architectural and Engineering Consulting firms involved in the conception and implementation of major infrastructure projects in the Health sector, Civil infrastructure, Renewable Energy and Major Electrical and Air condition projects. 8) Investors/Financers with constructions projects to be implemented in the Caribbean region in the Health sector, Civil infrastructure, Renewable Energy and major electrical and Air Condition projects. 9) Collaborations related to environmental engineering in areas such as field surveys example for harbours, environmental impact assessments, marine surveys, remediation work with respect to mangroves, research and development and integrated coastal management projects. 10) Collaboration on the development of a Caribbean Building Code, joint code development in Fireproofing and Earthquake remediation. 11) Caribbean professionals with LEED Certification might have certain advantages in the French Caribbean. There is recognition that more work must be done on energy efficiency in the FCORs and in the rest of the Caribbean. 12) There is room for collaboration in the tourism sector in the Caribbean where there is growing interest in environmental sustainability and the use of sustainable materials in construction particularly of tourist sites and centers and hotels. Another area of interest is building restoration in connection with the preservation of heritage or retrofitting for safety or accessibility reasons. 13) Even though this project concerned services exporting, clearly there is a possibility for increased sales of construction materials from Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad Cement Limited can testify to the difficulty in receiving certification for construction products, particularly as certain tests currently have to be conducted in France. However, it should be noted that this requirement would be removed through a project that has begun involving the Regional Council in Martinique to install a laboratory in Martinique. This would speed approval of products from Trinidad and Tobago which are generally also price-competitive in the markets under review. In
the same vein, it has ben suggested, with particular reference to Guyane, that the use of
prefabricated materials could be explored with the materials being initially produced in Guyane and the pre-fab units constructed in Trinidad and Tobago 14) One wood producer of interest in Guyane, BSG, presently sends about 50% of its output to Martinique and is interested in finding partner in the Caribbean. It also is seeking market development support. 15) A gap was identified with respect to acoustics. Assessment of local capacity in this area of the engineering will need to occur. 16) EDI, data hosting and archiving services are definitely required in the market in Guyane. One company expressed an interest in partnering with firms from Trinidad and Tobago with such capacities. 17) Partnership with Cayribe Consulting for interested management consultants. 18) In the areas of energy services, SARAâ€™s existing engineering maintenance contract expires at the end of 2016. This contract is of five (5) years duration and includes studies, supervision of the worksites etc. The tender for this opportunity should be released within the next year. Any interested firm would be required to establish a presence there and must be fully fluent in French in order to interact as closely as is necessary with senior management. One possible factor that could favour a bid from Trinidad and Tobago is the fact that Totalâ€™s 50% share has recently been sold to the Rubis Group and Sol, both of whom are strongly involved in the Caribbean. In seeking to address these and other opportunities we advocate a consortium-approach. This involves identifying interested professionals from the FCORs and Trinidad and Tobago and providing opportunities for them to learn from and familiarize themselves with each other. Specific training opportunities would be provided to Trinidad and Tobago professionals, including language and technical areas relating to construction. Interaction with professional bodies will be conducted to ensure that these trainings fall under Continuing Professional Development (CPD) requirement and contact will be made with educational institutions in Trinidad and Tobago to support sustainability. Projects would be jointly sourced but official trade support organizations would also have to be involved to provide support and the possibility of joint financial support from French programme investigated.
ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN TO COMPLETE THE ASSIGNMENT The first meeting with the Client occurred on April 14, 2015. The Lead Consultant and the Counterpart met to review the project, clarify any issues and agree on the implementation aspects of the project. On the issue of scope, the Consultant was advised that it had been decided to exclude the creative sector from the scope of the assignment due to the need to avoid overlap with other exporTT activities and to substitute it with another professional service, management consulting. The Lead Consultant raised no objection to this decision but did note the need may arise for refinement of the scope after commencement of the project. Management consulting was the services sector most likely to require stricter definition and it might also be necessary to bring sharper focus to the engineering sector because of the various disciplines in the profession. Subsequently, the Counterpart confirmed that “we will be using the UN CPC version 2 classification of professional services to define the scope of management consulting, architectural and engineering services (specifically codes 831, 832 and 833). As discussed, subject to adequate justification, we will consider recommendations made to condense the scope of services”. It was understood that the ITrelated sectors under 831 would be outside the scope of this enquiry.
Section: 8 - Business and production services
Division: 83 - Other professional, technical and business services
Group: 831 - Management consulting and management services; information technology services
Breakdown: This Group is divided into the following Classes:
8311 - Management consulting and management services
8312 - Business consulting services
8313 - Information technology (IT) consulting and support services
8314 - Information technology (IT) design and development services
8315 - Hosting and information technology (IT) infrastructure provisioning services
8316 - IT infrastructure and network management services
8319 - Other management services, except construction project management services
BOX 1: MANAGEMENT CONSULTING
Section: 8 - Business and production services Division: 83 - Other professional, technical and business services Group: 832 - Architectural services, urban and land planning and landscape architectural services
Breakdown: This Group is divided into the following Classes:
8321 - Architectural services and advisory services 8322 - Urban and land planning services 8323 - Landscape architectural services and advisory services
BOX 2: ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES
Section: 8 - Business and production services Division: 83 - Other professional, technical and business services Group: 833 - Engineering services
Breakdown: This Group is divided into the following Classes:
8331 - Engineering advisory services 8332 - Engineering services for specific projects 8333 - Project management services for construction projects
Explanatory note This group includes: - application of physical laws and principles in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. Services of this type involve the provision of designs, plans, and studies related to engineering projects.
BOX 3: ENGINEERING SERVICES
At the initial meeting, the Parties also discussed the firms to be considered in the various services and the means of identification of the most export-ready firms for the next phase of the project. The Counterpart indicated that there was adequate information on the firms in the construction sector but that there was a need to upgrade the information available on management consulting. Subsequently, on April 22, 2015 the Consultants were provided with the database on the Construction Sector and background reports deemed to be relevant to this assignment. As advised, contact was made with a Director of the TTCSI to commence development of the management consultants’ database. After the review of the Work Plan the Client stressed that the project should be completed by June 30, 2015. The Client agreed that the market research visit should occur later than envisaged in the Work
Plan. Accordingly, it was tentatively agreed that the visit should occur from 24th May to 3 June. This allowed more time for the initial market research to be conducted and for more interaction with the prospective firms. Initial research began before the receipt of the background documentation from exporTT. This involved both Desk Research as well as primary research by the members of consulting team. They also thoroughly reviewed the documents provided by exporTT. This research led to the initial findings provided in the Inception Report, which was submitted on 27 April 2015. Among the documents reviewed in this regard were: -
Comprehensive Study on the Technical Barriers to Trade and other Technical Requirements that affect CARIFORUM Exports to the French Caribbean, Transnational Engineering Consultants, Caribbean Export Development Agency Legal Opinion on the Imposition of the Octroi de Mer by the French Caribbean Outermost Regions on Products Originating from CARIFORUM States. A-Z Information Jamaica Litd, FGeb. 2014 Aid-for-Trade Case Study Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and Tobago Services Trade Mission to Guadeloupe and Martinique, Ministry of Trade and Industry, February 2011 Trade Mission Report: The European Union Market Access Documentaries, A-Z Information Jamaica Limited, March 2013 Manual – Exporting to the FCORs: Taking Full Advantage of Market Opportunities, exporTT, 2014 Economic Overview of Guyane, Presentation by CCI Guyane, November 2014 Doing Business with Guadeloupe, Presentation by Guadeloupe Expansion, September 2014 Doing Business with Martinique, Presentation by CCI Martinique, 2014 Report of Architectural Services Breakfast Discussion Forum, exporTT, December 2013 Report of Construction Services Breakfast Discussion Forum, exporTT, February 2014 Report of Construction Services Breakfast Discussion Forum, exporTT, February 2014 Construction Sector Survey Report, exporTT, 2014
Information on the sectors in Trinidad and Tobago in the documents above was supplemented by interviews with professionals and various websites, including of the:
Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects The Board of Architecture of Trinidad and Tobago The Board of Engineering of Trinidad and Tobago The Trinidad and Tobago Coalition of Services Industries The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago The Trinidad and Tobago Chapter of the Caribbean Institute of Certified Management Consultants.
The Consultants produced a survey for use with the initial contact with firms in the markets under review and two drafts of the firm assessment instrument for local firms The second draft was prepared in survey format using Constant Contact. The survey was circulated through Constant Contact and both the Board of Architecture of Trinidad and Tobago and the Board of Engineering of Trinidad and Tobago agreed to promote the project and encourage their members to complete the assessment tool. In addition, similar representations were made to the local chapter of the CICMC on behalf of management consultancy. In addition, contact was made with noted architects and engineers for guidance and perspectives on the respective sectors in Trinidad and Tobago. Research continued and examination of the firm database began before the required market research visit. It soon became clear that both the construction database and that of the management consultants required upgrading. The starting points for the Consultant were the professional associations (including Boards) for the services. Where such did not exist, as in the case of the management consultants, contact was made with the Project Management Institute as well as several service providers known to be working to upgrade the organisational structure of the sector in Trinidad and Tobago. Very little information was to be obtained from this approach to the management consulting sector, this fact itself revealing a substantial gap in the sector in the country. Various sources provided information on the sectors in Europe: “The Architectural Profession in Europe: A Sector Study”, Mirza and Nacey Research, January 2015 Comparative study about consulting engineers’ liability and insurance requirements across Europe: 2014 Update, European Federation of Engineering Consultancy Associations, May 2014 Taking Hold of our Future: A Roadmap for Change, European Federation of Engineering Consultancy Associations, 2014 Doing Business 2015- Going Beyond Efficiency: Economy Profile 2015 France, World Bank, 2014 European Engineering Report, VDI Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln, (2010) https://www.vdi.de/uploads/media/201004_IW_European_Engineering_Report_02.pdf European Federation of National Engineering Associations (FEANI)- Position and Policy Papers http://www.feani.org/site/index.php?id=114 Among the sources reviewed concerning the Economic Partnership Agreement and the sectors concerned were the Economic Partnership Agreement and its related Annexes and Studies on Mutual Recognition Agreements for Architects and Engineers of CARIFORUM (2010) prepared for the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery by David Luff and Lawrence Placide and by Andrea Ewart respectively. Documents, reports and economic dashboards used in the research for data and information on the FCORs were: - CEROM - Les Comptes Rapides pour l’Outre-Mer is working with statistical agencies such as the French Development Agency (AFD), the delegated central bank for the French overseas departments and territories IEDOM, and the NationaI Institute for Statistical and Economic Information (INSEE). o
Economic dashboards -Tableaux de bord économiques, Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana (2014-2015)
- IEDOM (Institut d’Emission des Départements d’Outre-Mer) is a French Institute providing data and statistics for the French Caribbean and Pacific Outermost Regions. They usually issue several types of reports every year: o
Rapports 2013 Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana,
Notes Expresses 2014, Economie Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana.
- French Senate, upper house of French Parliament: o
Senate Report on ‘Les DOM, défi pour la République, chance pour la France, 100 propositions pour fonder l'avenir’ (volume 1), Eric DOLIGE, 2009.
Information on European and French Procurement procedures was sourced from: o
France Procurement explanatory paper by the European Tender Information System (ETIS ) and EIC Grenoble (2006)
Basic Principles of the Public Procurement Procedure in France and the Influence of the EU Law, Didier Truchet (2012)
Public procurement in Europe Study for the European Commission by PWC, London Economics, Ecorys (2011)
Other relevant Internet sources included: Guadeloupe Regional Council Actions and Priorities – Opening to the Caribbean Market (2014) http://www.regionguadeloupe.fr/des-actions-des-priorites/pour-notre-economie/marche-caribeen/
Comparison between the main forms of limited liability in France Doing business in France 2011/ Invest in France Agency http://www.investinrhonealpes.com/data/Files/main_forms_of_limited_liability_companies_in_Franc e.pdf
The market research visit was undertaken between May 25 and June 4, 2015. A summary of that visit can be found in Section following. After the market research visit, the Consulting team carried out follow up research and consultations in the FCOR territories and in Trinidad and Tobago and worked to complete the Draft Final Report. Documents from interactions on the research visit have been compiled, scanned and placed in Google Drive. They are viewable at the following link https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B9W0Xguz74wdfm1KSWN1MkhhZGhtOGNDZlVmbUJHMHIy bzFaVUxESHlmeDBhT0NjWWx3UTQ&usp=sharing. In the Inception Report, the Consultants identified the following areas for ongoing work:
Fuller information on Procurement Regulations Additional information on Architects and Engineers in each market. Activity figures Statistical information on the Engineering and Management Consultancy sectors in France, as
opposed to the FCORs Information on French support to exporting these services, eg. the role of AFEX in supporting exports of French architects Information on the education of Engineers in France – In particular, the role of the Chambre de “ingénierie et du Conseil (CICF) Tender opportunities – online database? Specific requirements for participation? Additional information on LEED certification capabilities and expectations and possibility for cooperation Information on the capabilities of the firms from Trinidad and Tobago and their service offer in all three areas of professional activity Standards and Norms of Relevance Indication of the engagement between French Guiana and Trinidad and Tobago in the energy sector and possible opportunities therefrom A fuller assessment of the Cultural Differences using the Cultural Mapping Tool
The market research visit and subsequent research filled a number of these gaps, including those related to:
Procurement and Tenders Norms and Standards Environmental certifications Sector interests.
It should be noted that in this report, references to “the Caribbean” should be taken as meaning the Anglophone Caribbean, including Trinidad and Tobago, and the Hispanic Caribbean. The markets under review are French, though located in the region, and as such are distinguishable from “the Caribbean”. This distinction was often underlined in face-to-face interactions during the market research visit.
SUMMARY OF THE MARKET RESEARCH VISIT As indicated in the Inception Report, the market research visit required by the assignment be undertaken in Week 6 of the project. Due to the presence of national holidays in the markets, it was originally envisaged that the programme would be as follows:
Travel to Guadeloupe on May 25, 2015 Guadeloupe – May 26 and May 27, 2015 Martinique – May 28 to May 30, 2015 French Guiana – May 31 to June 2, 2015 Departure – June 3, 2015.
After additional consultation, it was agreed that due to the holiday in Guadeloupe on May 27, three (3) days would be devoted to Martinique. As such, the team left Guadeloupe early on May 27 and had a full day of meetings in Martinique. The full schedule of meetings is below.
TABLE 1: ENGAGEMENTS DURING MARKET RESEARCH VISIT Organization
URBA PROJECT BET
Architecture - Construction- Property Development Soil Movements and Natural Hazards Engineering
Emmanuel LANCREROT François LARGESSE
SAFEGE (Suez Environment French group subsidiary) MANAGEMENT CONSULTING ROUND TABLE
Natural Resources Engineering
Thomas VOLKMAR Carole ZAMI (accounting), Nathalie FANHAN (coaching), OC2 (consulting), BGE (support services to the economic sector)
AFI (Accompagnement Formation Ingénierie) CCIM
HYGIENE & quality in the food industry
Construction and Procurement
Architect - earthquake and hurricane resistant construction
Architecture and Urban planning with offices in Martinique-GuadeloupeDominica
Caroline VENTURA L. GENEVIEVE
IMSRN (Imagerie des Mouvements de Sol et des Risques Naturels)
Chamber of Commerce
Sophie LEBEAU Marie-Noelle CATAYEE Laurent THIEULLE C Gérald LECAT
CETE INGENIERIE (Cabinet d'Etudes Techniques et Energétiques)
Engineering - Construction - Energy
Natural Environments Engineering and Management Oil and Gas - on procurement aspects. Offices in the three FCORs
Christophe YVON Claude GRANEL
Engineering - Construction Management consulting. Offices in the three FCORs
Gladys CHRISTOPHE / Didier DERIS
Chamber of Commerce, support services to the economic sector
Guez Caraibes + GTI Didier.Chertemps
Engineering - contractor- energy levelling Architecture -bioclimatic construction
Patricia CALUT, Franck VIEILLOT, Isabelle BONJOUR Daniel KROL
accounting service and management consulting
Guyane Inventaire Conseils
Warehouse , stock and procurement management
Architecture, construction, urban planning
Societé Immobiliere de la Guyane
Construction - Housing
SARA Group (Société Anonyme de la Raffinerie des Antilles)
Didier CHERTEMPS Joel FRANCILLONE (Contractor), Alex VIRAGE (Public Amenities and Landscaping), Architect Mirelle PERES, Architect Audrey ANDRE, JeanLuc HARBOUR (Leveliing and Publc Works), Jean-Francois DOTAL M. Yvonick ROUAT M. Joachim .HYASINE
David PRIMEROSE Frederic PUJOL Hendry SHIVBARAN
The team for the Market Research Mission was:
Lawrence Placide Maritza Bengochea (Counterpart) Lynda Francisque, Team member, Guadeloupe and Guyane Laurent Genevieve, Team member, Guadeloupe and Guyane.
In Guadeloupe, the team was unable to meet with the Ordres des Architectes, a timing clash leading to a late arrival at their offices. However, we did meet with representatives of three (3) engineering firms, three (3) management consulting firms, and one integrated construction firm encompassing planners and architects.
Emmanuel Lancrerot is an Urban Planner and a Partner in the firm Urba Projects BET. In this meeting we discussed the market in Guadeloupe, possibilities of cooperation, and opportunities and challenges in Haiti. This integrated firm is very open and interested in partnering with professionals from Trinidad and Tobago. He noted that partnership would allow for a stronger presence in the market in Guadeloupe and Martinique but was not sanguine about prospects on mainland France. IMSRN and SAFEGE are engineering firms of good size and repute with an interest in finding projects in the Caribbean and in finding suitable partners to do so. IMSRN (www.imsrn.com) deals essentially with remediation of the risks linked with soil movement. Much of its work is in private housing as well as in the public service. Since soil surveys are required by French regulations it has not been heavily impacted by economic difficulties of the market. The firm has a strong capability in landslide management, which could be of interest in the market in the Caribbean. Even though, it is based in Guadeloupe it has had minimal external experience elsewhere in the Caribbean other than a project in Dominica relating to geothermal sector there. It would be interested in doing similar work in other Caribbean countries the same geological characteristics. There is, it was suggested, opportunity in incorporate in a team approach the different capabilities of his firm with firms in Trinidad and Tobago to prospect in markets of the Caribbean. SAFEGE (www.safege.fr) is a part of the huge firm NG (formally SUEZ Group) with 30 engineers in Guadeloupe alone and operating in all three FCOR markets. It is important to note that this company benefits from the strong linkages with metropolitan France that was to be for us a recurring theme during our discussions on the mission. That being said, this representative has responsibility for developing Caribbean market and recognizes that this will be best done in partnership with local interests. This company has worked in Trinidad and Tobago including on an institutional strengthening project with WASA. Its specific capabilities are water and wastewater management, infrastructures, Energy and telecommunication, the latter with broadband fiber-optic technology, which seems a particularly interesting opportunity in the Caribbean. Indeed, the timing of our visit was propitious as this representative had plans to visit Trinidad and Tobago within the coming weeks. ExporTT was able to work to see to connect him with suitable partners during his visit and this will be an area immediate follow-up. He also clearly has some freedom in developing the market in the Caribbean for the larger international Group. CALORDYN is the Caribbean arm of a group from Belgium. Its engineering interests are primarily in the renewable energy space and including electricity generation from renewable sources. Also interested in collaboration, CALORDYNâ€™s representative raised the possibility of developing a study of the renewable sector and generation activities in the Caribbean and developing appropriate technologies for use in low-cost public housing projects. SCE (CREOCEAN) (www.sce.fr) is part of the Keran Group. This engineering firm has a small office in Guadeloupe (1 engineer), 14 engineers in the Martinique office and is considering establishing an office in Guyane. SCE overall has more than 30 years expertise, 15 offices worldwide and more than 380 collaborators. Its three main areas of operation are urban planning, engineering as related to infrastructure and reducing or remediating the impact of projects on the environment. They have bid unsuccessfully for projects in St. Lucia and in Haiti and importantly have identified the need to find suitable local partners for collaboration in the Caribbean. Like SAFEGE, it has an international department which is not much interested in the Caribbean and which gives it some margin of manoeuvrability in finding projects and partners. Importantly SCE notes that that a full partnership agreement would involve necessarily their international department. However they were open to considering means of working together with local partners depending on the level of interest, the level of need and the skills available.
SARL OPSIS, and its Director, Gerard Lecat provide consulting services in the Construction field. M. Lecat provides support for large public projects ensuring the best use of public money and that decisions are in line with the public good. He is involved in the selection of companies for public procurement projects. His role appears to be close to that of the Procurement Regulator to be put into place in Trinidad and Tobago. M. Lecat has provided training to public officers in roads, bridges, techniques of construction, use of materials and implementation and governance for Directors of public sector organizations. This meeting provided critical insight in the way public procurement is conducted in Martinique. M. Lecat immediately recognised the potential of the collaborative approach as explained by the team. Didier Jeantet is an architect who identifies his specialty as paraseismic architecture particularly with regard to in public buildings, offices and schools. This meeting clarified the nature of the construction process, including the role of bureaux de contrôle, and solidified the partnership approach. On the other hand, he was very open to the possibility of operating with architects from the Caribbean. In addition, he provided a list of architects who he considered would be interested in partnering with Caribbean architects. Caribbean projects
Immeuble Panorama n°38, Boulevard de la Marne, 97200 Fort-de-France
61 36 74
Fax (+596 596) 61 36 83
16 Immeuble Marsan, Kerlys, 97200 Fort-deFrance
73 57 74
39 82 46
Bat H11 n°4 les Harmonies, Avenue G. Damas, Dillon, 97200 Fort-de-France
64 28 04
64 27 22
Res du Vieux Moulin, n°332 Route de Didier, 97200 Fort-de-France
64 84 85
64 69 56
Village Créole, 97229 Les Trois-Ilets
66 10 75
66 08 37
72 Lotissement Soleil Levant, 97240 Le François
54 26 96
54 26 58
ZI Petite Cocotte, 97224 Ducos
56 00 07
56 24 00
11, rue de la Jeuness, Enclos, 97233 Schoelcher
61 10 72
61 52 36
Chemin Bois Cotelette, Quartier Desmarinieres-sud, 97220 Trinité
51 65 97
51 78 47
60 Rue du Prof Roy Camille, Cité Dillon, 97200 Fort-de-France
71 19 69
71 11 88
Allée des Filaos, Quartier Maye, Cap-Est, 97240 Le François
42 21 80- 0696 25 20 53
42 21 81
Immeuble Z'Episs 3, Zone Artisanale de l'Espérance, Laugier, 97215 Rivière Salée
68 02 54
68 15 06
77 rue François Arago, 97200 Fort-de-France
71 73 79
70 38 22
Bat H11 n°4 les Harmonies, Avenue G. Damas, Dillon, 97200 Fort-de-France
Telephone (+596 596)
Avenue Saint John de Perse, 10 Rés La Forêt, Route de Balata, 97200 Fort-de-France
79 59 73 - 0696 96 55 09
79 67 33
TABLE 2: POSSIBLE ARCHITECTURAL CONNECTIONS IN MARTINIQUE
This positive trend continued with a meeting with Architect Mark Frampton (www.anonymart.net). He is a national of Dominica who studied in France and has lived in Martinique for his entire professional life. This background makes it unsurprising that he has worked extensively in the Caribbean (Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago). His company vision is to share and exchange ideas and as such he is a committed collaborator. In the French Caribbean, public housing is managed by private companies that use public funds for the projects. The team subsequently met with one such company in Guyane. In the final meeting of the mission Mr. Hendry Shivbaran of Societé Immobilière de la Guyane informed us how this semi-public company operates to provide social housing in the country and provided important information on the social housing sector in French Guyana. Serge Capgras runs an engineering firm in Martinique, Cete Ingenierie (www,ceteingenierie.com) established since 1987 that operates in all Guadeloupe, Martinique and Guyane. He has worked in Dominica and Grenada in the past and has sought work in St. Lucia. The firm comprises ten (10) engineers who work in the Structural, Mechanical, Electrical, and Hydraulic fields. His company is especially interested in partnering in construction of public structures, including schools and hospitals. Impact-Mer’s interest (www.impact-mer.fr) is in exporting their skills throughout the Caribbean but have been largely unsuccessful primarily due to a lack of partnerships and contacts within their markets of interest. Past efforts have included work in Trinidad and Tobago several years ago with the University of the West Indies, two bids in Trinidad and Tobago and one each in St. Lucia and Barbados. The company has grown significantly in the last three years and now includes 10 engineers. It would be most interested in finding a suitable partner for future collaborations in the Caribbean. SARA Group (Société Anonyme de la Raffinerie des Antilles) (www.sara-blog.fr) imports and refines petroleum. It manufactures (refines) in Martinique and ships to Guadeloupe and Guyane where it owns 100% of the subsidiaries. This meeting allowed for the exploration of prospects for the energy services sector of Trinidad and Tobago. SARA has strong technical knowledge in process, automation, instrumentation, safety, a laboratory (certified for quality control), a certified inspection department (including with respect to corrosion and techniques to monitor it). We also met briefly with the Head of Operations who asked about the ability of engineers from Trinidad and Tobago to work with their standards. I indicated that our Energy sector works throughout the world and could therefore meet the required specifications. ANCO (www.anco.pro) “is active in Martinique, Guadeloupe and mainland France and works in various fields including the technical inspection of buildings (public access buildings, dwellings, offices, machine rooms, etc.) to ensure compliance with earthquake and hurricane-resistant building standards and current building regulations (soundness, sound-proofing, energy-efficiency, safety of persons, accessibility for the handicapped, etc.).1” It also provides training courses in earthquake and hurricaneresistant building regulations and specific training in areas such as accessibility of buildings to the handicapped, energy efficiency, sound-proofing, steel frame building codes and other specific building techniques. The company has been, and is, involved in discussions within the Caribbean on construction
Anco corporate presentation
areas and was involved in the development of the Caribbean Small-Building Code and has worked in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Dominica, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados. This meeting cemented the relevance of the cooperative approach. M. Didier Deris was enthusiastic and willing to be involved moving forward. Didier Chertemps specialises in bioclimatic architecture in Guyane. Much of his work has involved reduction of energy use and sustainable use of the attributes of the property. As an example, a current project involves use of a well, solar energy and rainwater. Most of his work is gained through word-ofmouth, in particular in the private housing sector. He also does collective dwellings in the same framework. In addition he has been contracted by the important aerospace industry in the country. One of his hallmarks is the use only of local materials. Architect Chertemps works in a team along with an engineer (for soil surveys and foundation work) and a Contractor. In terms of exporting he has done projects in France, Australia and the United States. He has a definite interest in collaboration and would be a great prospect for linkage with an Architect like David Fojo who is likely to share the same design philosophy. The first day of the visit to Guyane ended with a meeting with several members of the Construction sector there. Present were two architects (Mirelle Peres and Audrey Andre), three contractors (Joel Francillonne and Jean-Luc Habour and Landscaper Alex Viragie. Even though much of this meeting was spent explaining the motives behind our visit a couple of opportunities could be found. Most of the participants seemed sceptical about the idea of trading with Guyane. In addition, there was scepticism as to whether construction sector specialists from the Caribbean could meet the heavy French regulatory structure as well as the language challenge and it was therefore suggested that it would be easier for architects from this country to move outside into the Caribbean than vice versa. The meeting with GTI provided the team with an excellent background to the sector in Guyane and to some extent elsewhere in the French Caribbean. GTI began its operations here in 2006 but also operates in Martinique and in Guadeloupe. It essentially operates in the construction and engineering of hotels, Commercial complexes and other large buildings including private housing and public housing. It also has been involved in the construction of bridges, and the reconstruction of the cargo quays at the port as well as cinemas. The office in the Guyane has 12 engineers but the entire operation in the French Caribbean encompasses 60 engineers. Most of its business is done with the private sector, about 80% of its turnover. Interestingly the company has never worked in the Caribbean obviously being exceptionally busy within the French Caribbean. In addition it must be said that there’s little interest in working elsewhere in the Caribbean either. While it is therefore would not be a candidate for this project it was interesting that he did confirm that partnership with a local firm would be the best approach to market entry. This ,he suggested, would allow for understanding of the spoken and unspoken requirements for market entry and for coping with the different standards that are in place. Acapa Architecture (www.acapa-architecture.com) is led by Architect Frédéric Pujol, who has practiced in Guyane for more than 20 years. The firm (4 architects) specializes in architecture that respects both the physical or national environment and human environment. This emphasis on sustainable development is analogous to that of Architect Chertemps. This firm has a wide experience, having produced among others schools, cultural sites, sporting complexes, private buildings, and commercial establishments. Acapa has worked in Martinique and Guadeloupe in partnership with local professionals but has not been active elsewhere in the Caribbean. In addition, and highly relevant to this project, he has provided training in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, in his specialty – sustainable architecture. In addition, he works with an engineer with a similar sustainability bent and with a particular expertise in solar engineering.
Architect Pujol was strongly supportive of the idea of collaboration. He is interested in collaborations in the Caribbean or elsewhere and would be open to providing training in this area as well.
FIGURE 1: AN ACAPA PROJECT IN GUYANE
With respect to management consulting, the team engaged in a roundtable with several representatives of the management consulting sector in Guadeloupe on May 26. Indicative of the wide nature of the sector, one of our interlocutors works primarily in the area of food safety and small and medium-sized enterprises, one specialized in counseling and coaching with particular reference to the public sector and the other was the head of the arm of the Accounting Firm, KPMG. Qualipro (www.qualipro-conseil.com) This company provides certification services, ISO systems, specific product certification in the CE and NF standards, also provides OSHA support training for companies. It therefore fits into the broad management consulting category. It guides and supports exporters interested in the French market on the regulations regarding the specific product, the actions required to gain product certification, and the interaction with French authorities in connection with certification. It has provided services for Trinidad Cement Limited and Arawak Cement in Barbados in connection with the French market and also Trinidad Match Company. This company too recognizes the importance of local partners in the market and it would seem that there is ample opportunity for this company in the Caribbean in partnership with local skills and partners. Caroline Ventura of CAYRIBE Partners (www.cayribe.com) provided useful additional context on the society and economy in Martinique and the evolution of the management consulting sector. Her company (with offices in Guadeloupe as well) is seeking to forge a consortium around Caribbean consultants both within and outside of the FCORs to compete both in the public and private spaces. Cayribe is actively looking for partners and during the course of this project visited Trinidad and Tobago, for that purpose as well as to complete an exporting venture involving exporTT. Apart from market research it is active in financial advice, sales, packaging and communication aspects of marketing and hope to offer â€œaccompaniementâ€? services to firms throughout the Caribbean. David Primerose is the founder of GICS, a firm in Guyane, which specializes in stock and inventory management for public and private sector enterprises. It also provides bar coding for products, which is required for their sale in France. Prior to establishment of this company, the space was dominated foreigners. Since stock and inventory management is a statutory requirement for firms there is a solid and consistent demand for his services. This company only has 2.5 permanent employees but employs
up to 400 part-time workers to conduct the inventories. He works for both the public and private sector and his work is linked with the reporting periods of his clients. His clients vary in size, and function in the distribution sector as well as various other sectors. He would be interested in partnering with firms from Trinidad and Tobago with these capabilities. Avenir Enterprises in Cayenne offers, accounting, tax and finance advisory services. It has a diverse clientele from various sectors. It is one (1) of five (5) firms in French Guiana that registered with the French Association for Accountants. The firm outsources very little to ensure quality control. One of its stated specializations is knowledge of foreign markets however, it has never attempted to work in the Caribbean. As far as business support agencies are concerned, the team met with representatives of the Chambers of Commerce in Martinique and Guyane. The discussion with Mme. Marie-Noelle Catayée, Head of the International Department of the Chamber of Commerce of Martinique (www.martinique.cci.fr) centered around economic developments in the market, past interactions with Trinidad and Tobago and the market in Martinique for the services of concentration. It was suggested that the economy was making a slight recovery after several years of challenge led primarily by heavy public investment in infrastructure development but that the recovery had not yet been sufficient to lead to significant reductions in youth unemployment or to cater for the growing social needs of an aging population. Mme. Catayée also provided insights on the management consulting and construction sectors in Martinique, including providing clarification of the financing from Trinidad and Tobago entities for the construction of the Fort-de-France Business Centre for the Monplaisir Group of Martinique. Importantly, the representative of the Chamber gave her wholehearted support to the cooperative approach to the developing of trading linkages as explained by the consulting team. She indicated that the Chamber would, in principle, be interested in collaborating in future aspects of the project such as:
Organization of specific B2B opportunities Seminars Field visits on both sides Trade missions
In Guyane, the meeting with the Chamber team led Mme. Patricia Calut was similarly beneficial. They noted the difficulty for foreign firms accessing the management consulting sector. She indicated that three (3) companies from Guyane have attended the trade investment convention looking to partners and inquired about agencies in Trinidad and Tobago which could help foreign companies access the market. There was discussion of possible training with the representatives of the ICF at the meeting expressed an interest in providing training on an exchange basis to businesspersons. The training, which could be offered over two (2) days, would provide general information on the market and then language related training for business purposes. One representative of the Chamber did express scepticism about the project but Mme. Calut did see opportunities in the environment and renewable energy areas, earlier mentioned by Architect Chertemps. She noted the capacity in the wood industry and that led to discussion on the wood sector in Guyane. She also suggested that there could be opportunities in development of the third city of the territory. Overall, such was her interest that she requested the team provide an outline of our meetings and outlook for a future phase of the project that could be used during a June 9, 2015 meeting in Paris between the Chambers of Commerce of the French Caribbean and French authorities. She indicated her willingness to participate particularly in the interface activities we are contemplating including training.
The team was also able to meet with a senior official of the Immigration Department in Guyane. This was felt to be important because the situation in Guyane, though similar to the other FCOR territories, is not always identical. As an example, nationals of Trinidad and Tobago still require a visa to enter Guyane. M. Jean-Franรงois Dotal advised on the regulations professionals in Trinidad and Tobago would face were they to seek to work on construction-related projects in the territory. He noted that for longer work-related stays, the first point of contact would be the Embassy of France in Trinidad and Tobago. The application would need to identify the project, the role therein of the personnel, the financial arrangements (project and personnel) and other related information. The application would then be sent to Cayenne for processing. Before approval, the authorities would assess the project and the availability of such skills in the country. It would engage in whatever consultation it deemed necessary. If the project were deemed an investment there would be additional considerations including consultation with the Chamber of Commerce as necessary. As described, this particular process seemed identical to that of the other FCORs. We were informed that only a locally registered company can make the request to bring in foreign workers. The Labour Department is responsible for validating the request (only specialized workers will be approved). Firms from Trinidad and Tobago looking to bring in their workers would either need to establish their own company in French Guiana or seek a local partner to make the request on their behalf. Overall, the Mission provided useful information used to finalise this project as well as to support a future phase. Certain gaps in information were filled and new avenues for investigation opened. It clarified critical elements of the market for the services under review in the French Caribbean. At the same time, it solidified to the team the inherent challenges in Anglophone professionals from Trinidad and Tobago selling services in the FCORs using traditional approaches. Furthermore, it allowed us to find willing collaborators for the consortium-type approach we advocate for this project.
REFLECTIONS ON THE SECTORS IN TRINIDAD AND TOAGO The Management Consulting sector in Trinidad and Tobago is very diffuse. The consulting arms of the world’s major accounting firms, local firms of varying sizes and numerous individual consultants populate the sector. The sector, though, is unorganized, with no overarching business support organization bringing consultants together for advocacy or sector and skills development purposes. Some sub-sectors of the consulting sector such as project management are organized into professional associations. All of the various services under 83112, with the exception of head office services are provided such as: i.
Strategic management consulting services
Financial management consulting services
Human resources management consulting services
Marketing management consulting services
Operations management consulting services
Supply chain and other management consulting services
Business process management services
Head office services
The Trinidad and Tobago business consumer is relatively well-served in areas i.-iv by local or service providers. There is higher foreign input in i., v. and vi. A group of professionals associated with the Caribbean Institute of Certified Management Consultants is seeking to bring much-needed organisation to the sector but the group needs institutional support in order to advance. The Trinidad and Tobago Chapter of the Caribbean Institute of Certified Management Consultants began operations in October 2014. The CMC is “the sole international certification benchmark in the field of Management Consulting and this designation is recognized in almost fifty countries across the globe”. The Trinidad and Tobago Chapter, through its internet presence, touts the following benefits of membership: “- A reference as a credible body of competent professionals; - Professional certification that meets global standards and is recognized worldwide; - A link to regional and global markets for qualified consultants inclined to export their services; Information regarding changing markets for qualified consultants inclined to export their services; - A source of training, assessment and continuous professional development; - Coaching, mentoring and collegial support; - Networking opportunities for greater competitiveness;
- An opportunity to become a globally recognized centre of management consulting excellence; and - A potential broker of services on behalf of members”3 Currently, relatively few professionals in the sector have successfully pursued the CMC qualification. There is a high prevalence of business administration qualifications and the various levels and specific qualifications commensurate with a sub-sector of activity e.g. Human Resource Development. In Trinidad and Tobago, statistical information is not available on the sectors. Higher-level statistics included by the Central Bank in its national Balance of Payments reporting does not assist in determining trading activities in these sectors. Accordingly, it is neither possible to state with any certainty the number of firms operating in this sector nor to quantify their trading or exporting activity. This is a recognised gap in the trade policy formulation process in Trinidad and Tobago and though there are reports of incipient activity to address the gap, the situation is such that it bears repeating that, as a general recommendation, exporTT should seek to work with relevant agencies in Trinidad and Tobago to raise the levels of reporting required and enhance the trade-related statistics available for policy and business development purposes. It is not possible to quantify exporting activities of members of the sector. As to numbers, the TT Chapter provided a list of thirty-two (32) firms. Of these 32 firms, only one (1) appears on a separate listing of management consultant members (29) of the Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce and two (2) are also members of the Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers’ Association which includes eight (8) other firms that fall under the umbrella of CPC 2.0 Group 831. In Trinidad and Tobago the Title of Architect is legally protected by virtue of the Architecture Profession Act of 1992. Architects must register with the Board of Architecture in order to practise the profession. According to Section 16 of the Act: “A person who is not a registered architect shall not(a) use any title or description that leads to the belief that he is a registered architect; (b) advertise himself as a registered architect; (c) act in a manner so as to create or induce the belief that he is a registered architect; or (d) sign or stamp any plans, drawings. designs,or specifications, purporting to be acting in the capacity of such registered architect.” As of May 2015, there were seventy-five (75) architects registered with the Board. The profession is seeing a trend toward smaller operations or single-man operations. Most of the firms have fewer than five (5) architects and there are very few with more than ten (10). Many architects also choose membership of the Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects (TTIA), “a non-profit organization that promotes the ethical practice, art and science of architecture in Trinidad and Tobago.” TTIA has fifty(50) firm members and since, 2014, has made Continuing Professional Development (CPD) mandatory for its members. Most of the exporting activity has been within the Caribbean Single Market. A relatively few architects have been successful in exporting outside the Single Market, usually in partnership with architects in the respective market. Recognising the need to improve access to other markets in the wider Caribbean and beyond, architects from Trinidad and Tobago have been active participants in efforts to develop and promote acceptance of mutual recognition agreements for CARICOM, CARIFORUM and with the
European Community. Planners are organized in Trinidad and Tobago by their professional society, the Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners which is “committed to promoting spatial, sustainable and inclusive planning principles as an essential means of efficiently allocating public and private resources and sustaining vital communities” 4. Though registration is not required by law the TTSP currently has a membership of seventy-nine (79), thirty-nine of which are Professional members, fourteen (14) Graduates, nine (9) affiliates, fifteen (15) student and two (2) are honorary. Professional members “must have graduated from a recognised Planning programme. If the qualification is a BSc, the applicant must have a minimum of three years relevant spatial planning experience, or if the qualification is an MSc, the applicant must have a minimum of two years relevant spatial planning experience. These members shall be entitled to use the designation M.TTSP. “5 Currently, the TTSP is seeking to make registration of members of the planning profession a legal requirement. It has sought parliamentary passage of the Urban and Regional Planning of Professional Bill. The Bill was introduced in the Senate but, lapsed due to the closing of Parliament. It has also been instrumental in the Planning and Facilitation of Development Act, now awaiting proclamation. In contrast to Architecture, members of the Engineering Profession in Trinidad and Tobago are not required to register with the Board of Engineering in order to practise. Nonetheless, or reg approximately 1,000 professionals are registered with the Board. It is estimated though that there are as many as 3,000 working engineers in Trinidad and Tobago. The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago has approximately 1500 members but also its membership also includes a small number of non-engineers. Like architecture, though, there is a trend toward single man operations. Few firms operate with more than fifteen (15) engineers. There is a high participation of foreign firms with some local firms also being acquired by foreign firms. Chinese engineers are also active in the market. Design-build services are prominent in the construction sector. Must of the activity is led by Contractors with the role of the engineer being minimised. Members of the sector recognise the need to cooperate in seeking to access external markets. A generational distinction applies with respect to training. Older engineers tend to be foreign-trained, and thus more likely to meet at least the educational requirements for practice within Europe, whereas younger members of the profession have overwhelmingly been trained at the University of the West Indies. This could impact service delivery in jurisdictions outside the Caribbean and as such the profession would seem to have much to gain from mutual recognition activities. Though members are generally highly trained, exporting activity has been relatively low. One experienced member of the profession suggests that this is because his colleagues are generally “not bold enough”. In accessing external markets some members are also hindered by low foreign language capability. Strengths identified include electrical and petroleum engineering. Members of the sector are described as having a high knowledge of applications in expansive clay soils. However, this capability has reportedly been not adequately exploited. Most of the research conducted in the profession is concentrated in the energy sector but research activity is relatively weak in others. A view has been expressed that the prevalence of design-build projects has resulted in a minimising of the role of the engineer in research and innovation. In addition, there is little academic-led research
Information Document submitted by Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners.
Constitution of the Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners, Pg. 2.
outside the petroleum sector. The petroleum sector, dominant in the economy of Trinidad and Tobago, has traditionally led export activity of this profession as well. Professionals in this sector have traditionally provided services in firms and to energy producing sectors In the North America, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. More recently, propelled by the Energy Chamber, with support from exporTT, energy services have been successfully exported to Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda and in the region, in Suriname, Guyana, Jamaica and St. Kitts and Nevis.
THE MARKETS OF THE FRENCH CARIBBEAN OUTERMOST REGIONS
GENERAL ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONTEXT The French West Indies or the French Caribbean Outermost Regions (the FCORs) comprise the three (3) Caribbean Departments of France. Martinique and Guadeloupe are the only French Departments of America located in the Caribbean including Saint-Martin (as a self-governing regional community). Their respective populations are approximately 395,027 inhabitants 6 for Martinique and 410,335 for Guadeloupe 7 with a balanced demography in terms of age. A population decrease of 1,4% and stagnation has been observed in recent years respectively for Martinique and Guadeloupe. French Guiana (Guyane) stands out on its own literally by its geographic location but also by its economic situation. Indeed, unlike the other overseas departments, Guyane is located in the northeast of the South American subcontinent. It is the largest French overseas department (16% of the territory of mainland France), and about ten per cent greater than the island of Hispaniola. Officially, French Guiana population is at 241,922 inhabitants in 2015. Its porous river borders with Suriname and Brazil are facilitating immigration from South America and the Caribbean (close neighbour Guyana and faraway Haiti). Indeed immigrants have become increasingly drawn to the social and economic conditions of this French territory. The presence of this large immigrant population (30% of the population) gives French Guiana a wide cultural diversity.
TABLE 3: KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS 2013 8 Martinique 2012
GDP (billion of euros)
GDP per Capita
Progression rate (%)
Progression rate (%)
Progressi on rate (%) 0,8
Household Consumption (million of euros)
Public Operational Expenditure (million of euros)
Investment (million of euros) Imports (million of euros) Exports (million of euros)
The decentralized French system places great emphasis on Regional Councilsâ€™ role and mission. French Overseas Regional Councils have full authority to decide and support fields of economy, public works,
Insee, estimated population in 2014
Insee, estimated population in 2014
Source : http://www.cerom-outremer.fr/cerom/publications-14/ (Comptes Economiques Rapides de lâ€™Outre-Mer)
transportation, education, and agriculture. They can also contribute to the Departments’ external relations with their Caribbean neighbours. Serge Letchimy heads the Regional Council of Martinique. President since 2007, he is the leader of the Parti Progressiste Martiniquais (PPM). The party of the great Aimé Césaire, the PPM favours no change in the current constitutional arrangement between France and Martinique. If the PPM can be viewed as conservative in its outlook, the same cannot be said for the leadership of the Regional Council in Guadeloupe. The Parti Socialiste has led this Regional Council since 2014. The Regional Council of Guadeloupe touts its conviction that ‘Guadeloupe belongs to the Greater Caribbean’. The Regional Council of Guadeloupe is deeply embedded in its geographic and cultural environment and encourages all local business support organizations to foster exchanges with their Caribbean counterparts. It is convinced that doing business and exchanging competencies with other Caribbean countries will be mutually beneficial and fruitful in the long run. Therefore in order to anticipate and tackle the challenges associated with exporting and collaborating with businesses working with different standards and in light of a fierce regional competition, Guadeloupe has designed and implemented necessary tools and policies. To this effect, multilateral agreements were signed with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in 2012 and the ACS in 2014, granting Guadeloupe and Martinique the right to be associate member. The Guadeloupe Regional Council has also introduced a new scheme where assistance for companies seeking to export or establish business ties with the international, would be offered at a low to no cost. This initiative coexists with the presence of 6 regional cooperation officers located in Panama, Venezuela, Saint-Lucia, Dominican Republic, Québec and Miami.9 In Guyane, the Regional Council has been led the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP), the party of former French Presidents, Jacques Chirac and Nicola Sarkozy since 2010, in the person of Rodolphe Alexandre. In May 2015, the UMP became Les Républicains. Elections are due for all three Regional Councils in 2015. In the last few years, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has pushed the Departments to strengthen linkages with CARICOM and its institutions. On 4 February 2015, Martinique became an Associate Member of the OECS. In addition, Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Guiana have all applied to CARICOM for Associate Membership. This favourable political environment in Martinique, as well as Guadeloupe, an Associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), which has always shown great interest to its Caribbean counterparts, will help support economic trade or relations with Anglophone Caribbean islands. However, the Consulting Team found that there is little knowledge in Martinique about the implications of OECS membership. The Chamber of Commerce in Martinique has noted that it had received enquiries from its membership on the matter but had, in turn, received little information from the authorities to elucidate the matter. The Director General of the OECS has expressed the perspective of his organization: “The involvement of Martinique in the OECS, while there are limitations because of their status in relation to France, opens up great potential and certainly widens the demographics from an economic perspective. We have seen the relationship grow between Martinique and Saint Lucia and between Guadeloupe and Dominica for example. What that does now is widen this to the whole OECS. The use of Martinique as
a tertiary health facility centre for the OECS is something under discussion so there are a lot of opportunities. We are very concerned about not just ensuring growth in the economies of the OECS but growth with equity. Itâ€™s not enough to just grow the economy if you are growing it and only the existing players benefit, it has to be the type of growth that leads to a widening of opportunity for smaller persons. There is a trickle-down effect and a spread of the benefits through community tourism which we think will do particularly well with the engagement of Martinique and Guadeloupe. So we are expecting that this will yield great benefits in terms of weekend travel, bed and breakfast arrangements, community sporting activities, and so on.â€? 10 The French Guiana Regional Council is by nature (geography and culture) directed towards South America with programmes and projects bridging them to Brazil, Suriname and Guyana. It is however neutral when it comes to deepening economic ties with its northern neighbouring islands. France has provided significant market opening in these sectors in the Economic Partnership Agreement. It provides access for Contractual Service Suppliers11 and Independent Professionals12 in these sectors. It does have a limitation on cross-border trade for Financial, Information, Data Processing, and other advisory services (Mode 2 also) and a limitation on access to land by foreigners may also impact the construction-related services. Overall, though, these are among the more highly committed services sectors in the Economic Partnership Agreement.
GUADELOUPE Guadeloupeâ€™s market structure has changed since the early 1990s, with the rapid development of a very dynamic private sector, mainly in the service sector, replacing the traditional agriculture, small business and building sectors. In 2009, the service sector accounted for 85.2% of wealth creation (including 12.7% for trade), ahead of building and public works (5.7%), and agriculture and fishing (2.8%). Following on from the 2013 trend, the economic outlook was gloomy in 2014. The combined burden of several factors as the chikungunya epidemic, the eruption of several social movements as well as municipal elections affected an already weakened economy. Amidst a bleak economic background, private investment remains limited. Perking up at the end of the fourth quarter 2014, investment growth emanating from the private sector came as a result of strong domestic demand during the first two quarters. As for household consumption, it still struggled to improve due to labour uncertainty triggered by a deteriorating labour market. As a direct consequence of this weak domestic demand, commercial exchanges stalled. On a sectorial level, the construction sector went through a rough phase in 2013, still heavily impacted by the scarcity of infrastructure works, and anaemic demand from the private market. The progression
An individual employed for at least one year with a non-established Firm with a Contract (less than 12 months) and with a minimum 3 years experience. Payment must be made to the firm and the individual cannot be in Europe for more than 6 months in any calendar year. 11
Self-employed individual with no presence in the other party who has a contract to supply services. The individual cannot be in Europe for more than 6 months in any calendar year. 12
remains favourable for the primary sector garnering growth rates thanks to the sugarcane and banana channels. By the end of the year (2013) commercial activity began to level off. As with the other overseas territories, Guadeloupeâ€™s external trade is characterized by high reliance on French and European imports: the trade coverage rate with France and Europe stood at 10.9% in 2013 (against 7.8% in 2012). France is the islandâ€™s main client and supplier. Guadeloupe has a low level of trade with the rest of the region. Exports to the Caribbean (excluding the French Overseas Departments) are very low (2.7 million euros, 1.0% of total exports). Imports from Caribbean states (excluding the French Overseas Departments, are worth 154 million euros, account for 5.6% of total imports, and imports from the FOD 2.4% (2013). Trade with North America mainly concerns oil products from Puerto Rico and stood at 256 million euros in 2013, i.e. 9.6% of imports in Guadeloupe. Projections were for a lackclustre start to 2015. Major challenges remain to be tackled, especially water supply and obsolete equipment. In the public works sector, projections are more encouraging with major developments set for implementation. Implementation of the new European Operational Programme for 2014-2020 drives and motivates business development, investors as well as business support organisations projects. A future niche sector is the natural resources sector in an insular context where all imports have a major financial impact and transportation issues make it difficult and expensive to ship equipment and raw material for construction. An efficient and highly effective use of renewable energies can be considered (hydroelectricity, solar energy, ecofriendly construction using bamboo and wood) in light of the abundance of such free elements in the region. Consequent upon growing political, economic and social concerns, building engineering firms will aim towards better identifying and implementing optimized solutions for activities with a high negative impact on the environment (waste, energy consumption, transportation, etc..). In Guadeloupe, 50% of the construction work is accomplished by very large companies. There are about 180 architects and approximately 7-8 urban planners. It is important to note the high numbers of architects for a population of just over 400,000. The training of architects and engineers is done differently then elsewhere in the region with a focus on natural disaster recovery and remediation. Most architects and engineers that have great experience in this area unfortunately because of the number of natural disasters which have hit the island over the years. The planning profession in Guadeloupe has, like the rest of France, been significantly affected by the economic crisis, which led to a lack of public investment. This, in turn, led to the deconstruction of large firms into many smaller firms. The result is more competition and reduced prices.13 The management consulting sector in Guadeloupe is comprised of a high number of independent consultants who do partner on specific projects but are also competitors. As is the situation in Trinidad and Tobago there is no specific organization bringing together the management consulting sector. This sector also comprises large firms such as KPMG with linkages to the Metropolitan in these rooms are particularly prevalent in public sector work. Newer services being offered in the market are team coaching and life coaching. Health and safety certifications services (process and training) for the agrofood industry is a relatively competition-free market. It was suggested that primarily the larger private sector firms and the public sector engage management consultants in Guadeloupe. The smaller firms generally cannot afford such services without public assistance of some type. 14 This was to foreshadow our learnings in Martinique in discussions with a representative of the sector there.
Interview with Emmanuel Lancrerot.
Interview with Management Consultants in Guadeloupe
Nonetheless, the view was expressed that Guadeloupe might be easier to gain private clients than Martinique. However, the market is tight. Possible space for operation is with medium and small enterprises and with younger executives who are more open to the advantages of paying for external competencies. 15
GUYANE French Guiana’s (Guyane) economy is dominated by the service sector, but industry is continuing to develop. The weight of the space industry in the economy has fallen in recent years. The sector used to contribute heavily in the last decade, reflecting some diversification in local activity. Despite a downturn in 2013, the construction industry is one of the drivers of Guyane’s growth and economic dynamism boosting exports and investment, whereas most of the traditional industries have been in difficulty for several years. However, the wood sector, which benefits from strong demand, is developing, as well as tourism, which has strong potential in French Guiana. Economic growth picked up at the end of 2013, but this did not continue through the first quarter of 2014. This situation led to a deterioration of the Business Climate Indicator, during the all of 2014. Most sectors in Guyane cope with a challenging and uncertain context. If the building, trade, services, and tourism sectors have to face the impacts of recession, the primary and industry sectors are however in a more favourable position. The growing wood sector is interesting and among the needs identified were preparing products from this territory to meet European standards, categorizing the many types of woods and registering them within Europe, enhancing the infrastructure which impacts development of the sector and building a downstream industry in the face of heavy competition from China and the rest of the Caribbean. Most of the firms in the sector are small but growing, use relatively new technologies but require information on how to position themselves in external markets.16 Exports are not very diversified: re-exports of space-related goods and gold production account for the bulk of exports in value, and exports remain insufficient to offset the sharp rise in imports. Because of its space industry, Europe (excluding France) is playing an increasingly important role in trade with Guyane, but like Guadeloupe and Martinique mainland France is still by far its largest partner. The share of imports (excluding services) in GDP has fallen, but remains structurally high due to the space industry, which requires the import of capital goods with high added value, and to the low level of productive industries. The trade balance, which has declined for the last three years, shows a high deficit, which stood at 1.3billion euros in 2013. Official trade with its South American neighbours remains lower than might be expected. However the second Operational Programme Amazonia has set objectives and criteria for a number of cooperative projects that should improve this situation. By December 2014 foreign trade and particularly exports had fallen in absolute value (-39,8 % at €176,2M in 2014 as compared to an increase of 31% in 2013). This situation is due to re-export of drilling and boring equipment to Trinidad and Tobago in 2013, which generated a rise in external trade. Imports shrunk by 9,1 % in 2014, compared with +7,0 % in 2013, at 1 455,2 M€.
Interview with Caroline Ventura
Interview with the Chamber of Commerce of Guyane.
A launching programme on a similar scale to the one in 2014 (between 11 and 12 planned launches), space industry should continue to contribute heavily to the French Guianese growth. As a matter of fact, Ariane 6 project’s implementation should attract between 500 and 600M€ investments in years to come. Space activity allocated funds for 2015 should amount to 2.1 billions of euros. Despite an increased budget of 36M€ of payment appropriations, construction industry players do not expect any improvements. According to them, the number of developments to be implemented will be insufficient in light of current social housing needs. Still, several infrastructure projects should start in 2015 and will bring new energy to the sector.
MARTINIQUE Martinique features a modern and diversified economy. Like that of Guadeloupe, we can see an evolution in the structure of the economy. The importance of the tertiary sector in the economy increased by 2.5 points between 1999 and 2009, whereas there has been decline in other sectors. However, in absolute terms, the added value of all sectors is increasing, with the exception of the hotel and catering industry (-2.7% a year on average). Traditional primary sectors (banana, sugarcane-rum) still play an important role in the social and territorial equilibrium of the island. Overall, external trade has progressed in terms of imports (+2.0 %, at 2 703 millions euros) and exports (+47.0 %, at €567M). The Business Climate Indicator reflects the mood of the European short-term economic surveys. The higher it is, the more positive the view industrialists have of the economic outlook. After a modest improvement in 2013, the Business Climate Indicator closed up to its long-term average in 2014-second quarter, before recording a slight downturn at the end of year. In one year, the BCI shrank by 6.4 points before settling on 89.4 points at the end of 2014. This situation is justified to a large extent by unfavourable perspectives from business leaders and entrepreneurs based on business cycle indicators. Feedback from business people indicates that the difficulties are essentially tied with the lack of new orders. Overall, the Martiniquan economy expanded in 2014, in spite of a tough year-end. Nonetheless, the gloomy perspectives on 2015 did not motivate professionals at the start of the year. It was noted during our consultations that in the construction sector very few competitions were held during 2014.17 However, observers expected that the ‘Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique’ (CTM) will beget substantial authority with regard to the identification and creation of new growth leverages that will drive a sustainable economic growth. However with 2015 electoral deadlines, the launch of new major projects might be postponed to 2016, after the implementation of the collectivité unique. In the construction area, the Chamber of Commerce did note the extensive public works particularly related to transportation infrastructure coordinated by the Regional Council and that the Fort de France Business Centre was being constructed in downtown Fort-de-France through funding by Guardian Holdings and the RBC for the Monplaisir Group, although most of the skills employed in construction of the tower were European. 18
Interview with Architect Mark Frampton.
Interview with representative of the Chamber of Commerce of Martinique.
FIGURE 2: FORT-DE-FRANCE BUSINESS CENTRE
Nevertheless, to pursue its development, Martinique will still benefit from the State and the European Union support through the ‘Pacte de responsabilité et de solidarité Outre-mer’, 2014-2020 operational programmes and extension of the ‘octroi de mer” derogatory scheme. The latter scheme is a source of significant income to all the FCORs and its extension was recently voted to December 31, 2020 in the French national Assembly (Act No 2015-762 of 29 June 2015 amending the former Act No 2004-639 of 2 July 2004 relating to the ‘Octroi de mer’) Construction costs are high in relation to Trinidad and Tobago with one participant in the sector pointing out that the cost of small building constructions in Trinidad and Tobago is half that of the French Caribbean. It was noted that Caribbean professionals tend to find French codes too stringent and that as a result the building construction process is much lengthier than in the Caribbean.19 The Chamber of Commerce suggested that various members of the sector have been active in parts of the Caribbean such as St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and particularly in Dominica. This activity though seems uncommon and that it was suggested that it was relatively rare for architects of Martinique to work elsewhere in the Caribbean.20 Specific capacity or high-level capability existed in the seismic area due to the extensive regulations and place in Martinique. As far as management consultancy was concerned, this was a large sector with varying skills available, levels of quality and pricing offered to consumers in Martinique. The Chamber also noted the unregulated nature of the sector and thus the difficulty in imposing more structure for harmonization to the various services offered in this area.21
Interview with Didier Deris.
Interview with Architect Didier Jeantet.
Interview with the Chamber of Commerce of Martinique.
Another interlocutor during the market research visit noted that the sector was very competitive in Martinique with heavy presence from Paris-based and other international consulting firms who win the lionâ€™s share of the contracts. The local firms operating in the sector tend to be small and mostly sole providers.22
Interview with Caroline Ventura.
OVERVIEW OF THE SECTORS UNDER REVIEW IN THE FCORS This section presents a statistical and regulatory overview of the sectors in the Guyane, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Some of the statistical information presented below relates to France as a whole and some only to the specific markets in the Caribbean. In the latter case, this is clearly specified.
The French constitutional arrangement does not, in the contrast to that of the Netherlands in relation to the Dutch Caribbean, include significant political autonomy. These territories are fully part of France and their regulatory structure for these professional services is identical to the rest of France.
ARCHITECTURE France had the largest construction market in Europe in 2013. Its size of â‚Ź271,13.9 billion represented a slight decline over 2012. This performance is pretty respectable against that of the rest of Europe where construction declined by more than 10% in Italy, Portugal, Serbia, and Cyprus.
Euros Billion 300 250 200 150 100
FIGURE 3: SIZE OF THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR IN FRANCE 2004-2013 Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
In France about 47% construction is new build and 53% is refurbished. These figures are reversed for the rest of Europe in general at 43% and 57% respectively.
Individual housing Private housing Offices Retail Leisure Industrial Health Education Public housing Other private Other public
9 8 5
FIGURE 4: BUILDS IN FRANCE Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
The total estimated size of the architectural market in Europe is â‚Ź14.9 billion. Compared with previous estimates for example in 2012 and 2014, the market has declined by about 5%. Large declines have occurred in France.
FIGURE 5: CHANGE IN ESTIMATED VALUE OFTHE ARCHITECTURAL MARKET IN EUROPE, 2008-2014 Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
Billion Euros 1400 1200 1000 800 Billion Euros
600 400 200 0 2008
FIGURE 6: THE ARCHITECTURE SECTOR IN FRANCE 2008-2014
Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
In France there are about 29,800 architects, or about one architect for every 0.5 architects for 1000 persons. 62% of the French architects are male. Most architects in France work full-time about 91%. In France a high number of architects work as principal architects in the firm and an almost equal number are architects are either partners or directors. Interestingly, 61% of the registered architects have been in practice for more than 15 years and 77% for more than 10. This may suggest that it is a relatively difficult profession to enter or, the other hand, there could be opportunities at the lower end of the scale. France has a slightly higher percentage than the rest of Europe of architects in the profession for more than 25 years. 62% of the architects in France are over the age of 45 and 77% are older than 40 years of age.
Limited company Public limited company Central government
Local government Other public
FIGURE 7: CLIENTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE MARKET IN FRANCE Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
It is noteworthy (Figure 7) that Franceâ€™s proportion of individual contracts for clients is significantly lower than the European average of 50%. At the same time its percentage of local government clients is about 50% higher than the European average. This was verified during the market research visit to the French Caribbean and can have negative implications for the ability of foreign service providers to participate in the market through the public procurement system. It is also interesting to look at the type of service provided in France. France is one of several European countries with a percentage of more than 70% being building design. Other areas such as landscape design, Interior design, feasibility studies, project management, planning, certification, property valuation, and other services all account for less than 10% of the total work performed. This mirrors the statement of one of our interlocutors in the sector, who noted the high interest of members of the profession in participation in the design phase of any particular project.23 French architects generally expect no significant change in their prospects in 2015. About 30% expect no change and 39% suggest a declining market. On the other hand, 22% see the market rising, a slightly lower level of optimism than in the rest of Europe where the percentage forseeing positive market prospects is 25%.
Interview with Architect Mark Frampton.
In France the vast majority of the 8302 architectural practices are single or sole practitioners, 5894. There are only 20 firms in France with between 11 and 30 architects and only one between a 31 and 50. So extrapolating this, approximately 98% probably practices in France comprise less than 10 staff members who are architects. The small firm size is similar to the situation in Trinidad and Tobago and may suggest that there may be opportunities for cooperation among firms of similar size. In addition, as French consumers are largely comfortable dealing with small firms they are unlikely to be swayed negatively by small firm size. The figure below illustrates the legal form of practices and firms in France.
Independent architect Partnership
Public limited company or corporation Economic interest group
FIGURE 8: LEGAL FORM OF ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN FRANCE Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
Revenue against Size of Firm is illustrated in the following Figure.
70,000,000 60,000,000 50,000,000 40,000,000 30,000,000
10,000,000 0 1
2 3 to 6 to 11 31 51+ 5 10 to to 30 50
FIGURE 9: REVENUE (EUROS) AGAINST SIZE OF FIRM IN FRANCE Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
How firms charge for their services is valuable knowledge to potential competitors in a market. In France 75% of the firms charge as a percent of the contract value and this remains the most common means of charging throughout Europe. Interestingly though in Europe or in the United Kingdom this figure is only 31%. In the UK, the most often used method of charging is a lump sum, about 45% compared with the figure in France for this method of only 13%. The French figure of 75% is the highest among European countries surveyed. Overall fees in France are among the highest in Europe. They are slightly above that of the United Kingdom and for principals and architects about â‚Ź12 per hour higher than in Germany
Europe 2012 UK France Europe 2014
FIGURE 10: COMPARISON OF FEES (PER HOUR) Source: The Architectural Profession in Europe 2014
It is not surprising that most firms in Europe gain most of their revenue from work within their particular country. Generally European firms derive relatively low revenues from exporting even within Europe. In 2014 the European average was 6.4% of total revenue from exporting with more than half of that coming from exporting within Europe. Even within that scenario the figures for France are low, arriving only about 2.1% of the total revenue from exporting. This high domestic concentration is emphasized by the 0.6% of the revenue of French architectural firms comes from exporting.24 Given the size of the market in Europe and in France expressed above this suggests that the market may be highly protective. Certainly, it suggests that French firms do not see the need to engage in exporting at a significant level. It is notable that UK firms are above the European average in this regard. By the same token getting 9% of French firms have no formal association with another practice. A negligible percentage of them have an association with an architect in another country. These figures though above the European average are not significantly different from that of the United Kingdom. Only 2% of French practices have French architects working at a branch office, contrast that with 50% in
The Architectural Profession in Europe
the case of United Kingdom. This concentration on the local market and relatively minimal exporting activity was found to be the case in the French Caribbean as well. In terms of seeking contracts 61% of French firms report having submitted more than one tender in the last reporting year whereas 54% have submitted more than one tender to the public sector and 27% have submitted more than one tender to the private sector. There is a higher percentage of private sector tendering in France than in most European countries with the exception of Switzerland and Finland. Not surprisingly therefore in France there is a relatively high percentage of tenders submitted per practice, over 20 compared with 9 in the United Kingdom and 5.4 in Europe on average. Our interactions with architects in the French Caribbean confirmed the high prevalence of tenders or competitions in the distribution of contracts.
FIGURE 11: SUMMARY OF THE SECTOR IN FRANCE
FIGURE 12: SUMMARY OF THE SECTOR IN FRANCE (2)
In France, technical inspection companies called “Bureaux de Contrôle” are private-sector, independent bodies recognized by the Ministry responsible for building works. They undertake technical inspections and make technical assessments of building designs and of building and civil engineering works. Their role is to prevent technical hazards likely to result in a disaster and to check that building work is undertaken in accordance with the regulations. There is no such private sector equivalent in Trinidad and Tobago. Created by “Spinetta’s Law” of 1980, these checking consultants operate independently and report only to the owner of the property. They are certified by the French Government and each bureau de contrôle may have a different set of certifications for either the type of building or elements of a construction e.g. fireproofing. Their actions involve:
Checking the risk reduction plan Checking the geotechnical advise Checking the architect’s drawings Checking the terms of reference Checking the design’s drawing Checking the technical drawings Checking the construction Participating in the Code Work out for the building
Since all buildings must be insured, the report of the bureau is connected with the premiums paid and they interact with the insurer at all phases of the construction. Their fees are paid by the owner of the building and generally amount to less than 1% of the total cost of construction.25
Powerpoint presentation by Didiér Déris, “Checking Consultant”.
The Table below outlines the process for the construction of a building in Paris. Compiled in the World Bankâ€™s Annual Ease of Doing Business project, it illustrates the process of construction and the administrative procedures involved and can be extrapolated to construction within the FCORs.
Obtain an 1 urbanism certificate
There are two types of urbanism certificates: 1. Form A informative: the informative form is a request to only establish the existing planning state of a building. 2. Form B operational: In addition to information provided by the informative planning certificate, this operational planning certificate indicates if the land can be used for a project and the existing or planned state of public utilities (underground channels and networks) to serve or served on the land.
Prepare documentati 2 on to obtain the building permit
City Hall or Ministry of the Equipment, Transport and Housing
The building permit request forms are available at the City Hall, through the Internet or at the Booth for Forms of the Equipment, Transport and Housing Ministry
Obtain 3 building permit
Land Registry and City Hall
The building contractor must submit the following documents: 1. Location plan (orientation, access roads) and overall plan of the construction or renovation (dimensions, elevations, connections, access) drawn up on grounds of the Land Registry-based map representing the plot, 2. Front elevations, 3. Views, cross sections, layout, 4. Document with a detailed description of the project impact on the existing landscape proving that it is environmentally friendly, 5. Survey photographs (both near and long range) allowing for an easy identification of the site relating to the surrounding areas.
Apply for 4 water connection
Eaux de Paris Agency
The water utility connection is typically a lengthy process. Therefore, it is advised to request it prior to beginning construction work.
Site visit by 5 Eaux de Paris
Eaux de Paris Agency
The water agency conducts a site visit in order to deliver a cost estimate for the water connection
Declaring the opening of construction site is a key step. This declaration can be done by completing a form (Cerfa 46.0394) available at the City Hall, through the internet of at the Booth for forms.
File a declaration 6 of the worksite opening
Within 30 days of work completion, the contractor must send a letter signed by the building company in which the architect declares completion of the construction. This document must also be included in the building permit application.
Visit by building inspectors to 8 obtain compliance certificate
City Hall or Equipment Department al Directorate
Upon completion of the construction, an officer from City Hall or the Equipment Departmental Directorate goes to the site to verify that the structure conforms to building permit specifications. The compliance certificate attests that completed project meets the building permit requirements. It is issued within 3 months of the application.
Obtain 9 water connection
Eaux de Paris Agency
Water and sanitation networks connected to the construction.
Declare completion 7 of the construction
Table 4: Process for Constuction of a building In the FCORs, more specifically, one of the key indicators of the state of the construction sector and hence related services like architecture and engineering is the volume of cement sales. Cement sales show a negative evolution from 2009 to 2013, declining by more than one-third during this period26. One of the main challenges on the French West Indian construction market comes from the fact that it is 60% dependant on public procurement and programmes. Meanwhile, the construction sector was the largest employer exhibiting a strong growth performance, providing more than 9.2% of employed jobs in the trading sector. After the decline between 2009 and 2011, a marked phase of improvement occurred in 2011 thanks to large-scale real estate developments. This improvement nonetheless did not reach the levels of the period before 2009.
Regional Council of Martinique
9. Toutefois, 2012 a à nouveau amorcée une baisse prononcée (-7,4%) Dans le détail, en 2012 les ventes en sacs (en général destinée à la construction privée), diminuent de 2.3 %, alors que les ventes en vrac chutent de 9.4 %. Tendance année 2013 :
Ciment en vrac et en sac
Source : Producteurs
mensuelle que 2012)
FIGURE 13: CEMENT SALES (BULK AND BAG), 2008-2013 Source: Manufacturers (*2013 estimation calculated on the same monthly trend as in 2012)
In 2013, bulk sales representing approximately 75% of the market shares, were 6,6% below the level of the year before. Destined mainly for private construction developments, bags cement sales declined by 2,4%. The private construction development market is declining since the change in the tax exemption system, and consequently is less viable. Public works activity is deeply dependent on public developments. Recognizing this, public institutions have been keen to support the recovery of the construction sector through large-scale projects, which will reorganise the Antillean landscape. However, the overall economic performance of France has impacted disbursements to the FCORs. Early in 2012, on-going and future major multi-year projects were identified and approved by the regional institutions. These programmes involve improvement to existing and new infrastructure, facilities and amenities. As an example, the TCSP structuring project has been initiated by the Martinique Regional Council contributing further to the construction sector growth. Source : Producteurs
The list hereunder is illustrative of this activity. née 2012 a été globalement en net recul par rapport à 2011 (environ 7,3%). Dans le détail, on que (dernier trimestre) se poursuit sur Inconstate Martinique: -
Reconstruction of Schoelcher and Sainte-Marie high schools (110M€), Reduction of high schools’ seismic vulnerability (160M€), Schools‘ seismic reinforcement (+200M€), Port expansion (65M€), Construction of a Caribbean Sea Center (+50M€), Refurbishment and improvement of the CCIM Training Department premises (8-10M€), Construction and installation of right of-way public transportation (350M€), Expansion of Fort-de-France cruise terminal, Expansion of Ducos prison complex, Renovation of Zobda Quitman University Hospital,
Construction of Decathlon GBH (2-3M€), Road infrastructure projects (around 1M€ per equipment), Expansion of a military training center (+20M€), Development of the facilities of the Chamber of Trades,
Nonetheless, these developments do not appear to have contributed significantly to increased activity in the architecture sector that remains stable for now. It has more positively impacted engineering firms that have assisted institutions throughout their projects. Generally procurement programs are organized and awarded to French/European firms, and sometimes to partnerships of French and local firms. Concerning private housing construction, it is notable that a decreasing number of building permits have been awarded: -
3.2% decline between 2013 and 2014
61% of awarded permits during the first quarter were directed toward collective dwellings Permits issued for private constructions dropped by 10,5% in 2014.
The Architecture market in Guadeloupe is composed primarily of two components: private housing accounting for 60% of total of constructions and collective dwellings at 36%. The market has been shrinking since the national and local crises of 2008 and 2009 with a 40% drop in issuances of building permits from 2003 to 2009. Economic recovery started in 2010 but was pushed downwards in 2011 with the lowest level of activity reached in 2013. According to the Guadeloupe Habitat Observatory and DEAL 2013 study “Diagnostic et principaux enjeux en matière d’habitat en Guadeloupe”, households building new individual houses do not seek professional assistance 31.0% of the time. They opt for a delegated contractor on 40% of the occasions, for an independent contractor or artisan at 15.0%. 9% opt for an architect who will assist them throughout the project.27 Resorting to architecture services is relatively scarce but linked to the market size as well as the economic environment. The construction market is very competitive where cost is the primary criteria determining choice. Major public utilities through public procurement for public works, followed by collective dwellings construction are the main customers for architects. A sectorial Business to Consumers matchmaking forum ‘les 3 jours de l’immobilier’ is held every year in April at the Guadeloupe World Trade Center. It occurred in 2015 from April 23rd to 25th. When considering future market entry initiatives from Trinidad and Tobago, participation in this forum should be considered. Despite a downturn witnessed in 2011, private housing remains the most important item in the construction total. Between 2004 and 2013, more than 6 out of 10 units are single or multi-family housing, i.e. 25.000 units. Neighbouring cities located outside the conurbations of Pointe-à-Pitre and Basse-Terre attract proportionally more private housing construction, notably in northern Grande-Terre and Côte-sous-leVent, geographic areas offering more land availability.
Diagnostic et principaux enjeux en matière d’habitat en Guadeloupe
Overall, collective housing has remained steady since 2010, with significant growth in some cities outside the conurbations, especially Capesterre Belle-Eau et Lamentin, where social housing developments have increased in the last years. It is also observed that between 2004-2013, collective housing occupies a significant portion of the cities of Gosier and Petit-Bourg (respectively 44% and 38%). On the other hand, the island’s eastern edge (Saint-François, Sainte-Anne and le Moule) presents a much lower proportion of social housing amounting to approximately 20% in the 2004-2013 period. From 2004 to 2013, 40,300 private housing units have been granted construction authorisations, yielding an annual rate of 4,000 housing units. There has been a decreasing trend in permits issuance appears from 2008 onwards. The year 2013 confirms this trend with 3,500 authorizations and just over 2,000 built private housing units, the lowest level observed in the last decade. Their portion however remains the most important sector share (60% of the total) and keeps leading the market activity in Guadeloupe. Neighbouring cities of the major economic activity areas comprise much of new permits issuance during the whole period. Consequently, between 2004 and 2013, the cities of Abymes, Gosier, Baie-Mahault and PetitBourg have attracted more than 40% of construction authorizations. TABLE 5: APPROVED HOUSING UNITS IN GUADELOUPE
Average by year
Social Housing Total
Approved Housing Units For Construction
Cities showing a rise in primary residences between 2006 and 2011 Rate
Reason for attractiveness
Proximity to employment areas
Industrial Area - Jarry
Low property Taxation Rate
Neighbouring city to cheaper properties
Tourist and industrial activities
Tourist Activity + Neighbouring city to cheaper properties
Proximity to employment areas
TABLE 6: APPROVED HOUSING UNITS IN GUADELOUPE, 2006-2011
Source: Architects Federation, FFB (French Federation of Building Trade), MAF (Architects of France Union), INSEE (Economic Observatory), Observatoire l’Habitat.
In Guyane, the construction industry sustained a strong growth between 2006 and 2008, in particular due to public procurement and structural projects (Soyouz). Activity in the sector picked up after a slowdown in 2009 and early 2010, bolstered by the continuation of projects for new housing construction and land use planning. 2013 was a critical year for the construction industry with, firstly, the delivery and completion of a number of projects launched in previous years and, secondly, the reduction in the number of launches of new sites and building permits granted, following the end of certain tax relief measures. In 2013 and 2014, cement sales declined by respectively 9.9% and 6% year-on-year, which is indicative of the slowdown in the sector after several years of strong activity. Further, the knock-on effect from private procurement was neutral, with 1,057 private housing units authorized en of 2013, i.e. a decrease of 43%. Professionals in the sector do not anticipate a swift revival of the sector activity in 2015 despite a high demand. Financial problems prevent Guyane from addressing the critical social housing need. 4000 units are required per year however in the past several years only between 800 and 1200 been provided. One of the problems in this country is the viability of the land, In addition to the financing issue of course. The poor quality of the soil requires levelling or building on sticks and a major proportion of the social housing should be benefiting from this kind of structure but it is more expensive than other types of construction. Also, the communities are very low-density simply because of the lack of availability of suitable land for construction near areas where the small population is congregated. Accordingly projects require wholesale infrastructure including water and electricity. Construction costs are between €1100 and €1500 per meter but it is extremely difficult to amortize that cost in Guyane due to the extremely high cost of linking areas of population. Another element to consider in the housing sector is that the population tends not to favour drywall options which can be viable favouring instead concrete walls. The Architects Journal reports sixty 60) registered architects in 2013 and eighty-four (84) in 2014, a much higher proportion than that obtaining in Trinidad and Tobago. These figures show an increase of 40%, and are related to French Guiana industrial expansion projects and certain private housing
developments. REGULATIONS RELATING TO ARCHITECTURE
Sector technical regulations
RTAA – DOM (thermic, acoustic and aeration regulation – DOM):
Decree n° 2009-424 du 17 april 2009 on the specific provisions relating to thermic, energetic, acoustic, and aeration characteristics of residential buildings in the departments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion. Decree of 17 avril 2009 outlining minimum thermic characteristics of new in the departments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion. Decree of 17 avril 2009 defining acoustic characteristics of new in the departments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion. Decree of 17 avril 2009 defining aeration characteristics of new in the departments of Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique and Réunion.
Anti-seismic Regulations : o o
o o o o
Martinique is placed in the region’s highest level of seismicity i.e. 5 . Aside from the AFPS CP-MI white book (French Antilles private housing earthquakeresistant construction) applicable to residential housing only, NF-EN 1998 Eurocode standard is mandatory to all types of constructions. There is no anti-hurricane standard as such, however there are specifications related to resistance to wind pressure, speed and airborne debris. Construction and Housing Code. Urban Planning Code. Ten-year Warranty: Civil Code defines the constructor liability in case of damages. Act n° 96-603 of 5 July 1996 relating to trade and craft development and promotion: requires from construction professionals to get a professional insurance.
Architect is a regulated profession in France (Act n°77-2 of 3 January 1977 on architecture along with enforcement Decree (organization of the profession, professionnal Code for architects’ duties and obligations, architect title). In simple terms, access to the profession is feasible under the following rules: Holders of a national diploma of Architect or another French diploma of architect recognized by the State and of an accreditation to practise project management under his/her own name. Holders of a foreign certificate or diploma enabling exercise of the profession of architect recognized by the State. Holders of a State recognized diploma issued by a third country,
Holders of third countries diplomas, recognized by the Ministry of Culture must make contact with the Ministry for the confirmation of the credentials and the use of the title of Architect. Of course, France is bound by the mutual recognition regulations in place in the European Community and as such access is facilitated for professionals falling under the Mutual Recognition directive. In France use and architect for constructions over 170 ft.Â˛ is obligatory. Contracting bodies are mainly public authorities such as the Regional/General Councils and State institutions.
ENGINEERING Engineering has always been a prestigious and highly respected profession in Europe and in France in particular. In France, engineers are perceived to possess a real value and assets based on both their high level technical, practical and theoretical education. With selective public and private schools, as Grande Ecole dâ€™IngĂŠnieurs boosting their recognition and market worth, France ranks second in the top 3 of European countries with of the highest number of professional engineers. On average, France graduates 30,000 engineers every year compared to 50 in Cyprus for instance. On a gender basis, only 17% of European engineers are female. There is a long-standing debate on how to increase the number of female engineers in Europe and globally. In France, the engineering profession is not regulated and engineers do not necessarily hold an engineering degree, nor all of them work in their field of expertise. There are around 600,000 engineering workers including 400,000 with diplomas. Within the sector, continuous professional development is not required.
TABLE 7:0 EMPLOYED ENGINEERING WORKERS IN FRANCE,800,000 2007 200,000 400,000 600,000
DE FR UK ES IT RO PL NL CH GR SE FI BE HU PT CZ DK IE BG AT NO LT HR SK SI LV EE CY LU IS MT
1,213,800 753,500 640,300 322,100 266,400 252,600 229,000 220,700 109,800 83,500 80,700 79,400 71,400 70,100 63,400 55,300 51,700 50,400 41,300 40,100 31,700 29,700 23,900 22,200 22,100 19,600 11,800 6,600 5,700 3,200 1,700
Source: FEANI – Eurostats 2009 Two main education streams supply engineers in France, universities and the Grandes Ecoles d’Ingenieurs. Grandes Ecoles of Engineering are selective higher academic schools with a carefully selected student body providing higher technical and scientific degrees, notably the French Master’s degree in engineering. In 2014, 210 schools were habilitated to deliver an engineering degree: 155 public, 3 consular, 52 private. None of which was located in the FCORs. Students from these territories who would be keen on following engineering studies would have to head to Mainland France. The Diplome d’Ingénieur, granting the right to hold the title of Engineer Diplomé, is submitted to strict governmental supervision. Diplomas from these schools are more valued by potential employers and international companies than science university degrees. Although more expensive during the study years, they promise better career perspectives in terms of opportunities and wages. The Grandes Ecoles of Engineering produce most of France’s engineers. A very few come from universities.
FIGURE 14: THE ROUTE TO ENGINEERING QUALIFICATION IN FRANCE
The title of engineer is not legally protected. As a result, any graduate holding a masters degree can be called engineer even when the area of study was not scientific or technical. However, the title ‘Ingenieur Diplomé’ is highly regulated and protected by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur (CTI), an independent French engineering accreditation authority working hand in hand with the Ministry of Higher Education. Created by the French law of 10 July 1934, this independent body monitors and assesses the quality of engineering curricula delivered by the French Grandes Ecoles. All engineering curricula leading to the highly-prized Engineering Diploma are set by each school and accredited by the CTI.Anyone illegally bearing the title of “Ingénieur Diplomé” is subject to one year imprisonment and up to €15,000 fine. The French Association of Engineers and Scientists (IEST) handles applications to grant the title of European Engineer (EUR ING) attributed by the European Federation of National Associations of Engineers (FEANI). This title enables the holder to gain European recognition of his degree and work as an engineer across Europe. There also exists the title of engineer with the engineering certificate of professional competency (CDCIP) delivered by the French National Society of Professional Engineers (SNIPF). The SNIPF is accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (COFRAC), which gives right to the certified professional to work as en engineer in a specific scientific field. The CNISF (French National Council for Engineers and Scientists) maintains the French Directory of Engineers, giving an online access to all engineers in France whether holding a Diploma of engineering, a scientific or technical Masters, or other qualification. A massive shortage of engineers had been feared the last 7 years in Europe. This crisis was to be addressed by diverse shared practices among the national education and professional bodies. Over the last two years, schools and
Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetics Mecanical 8% Construction 6%
Source:15: Enquete Emploi UTBM FIGURE SPREAD OF2012 ENGINEERING EMPLOYMENT IT IN Services FRANCE
Other Industries 5%
Metal Industry 4% Hardware, Electrical, Electronic Equipments 7%
Automobile, Transport 25%
Luxury Industry 13%
Aeronautics, Aerospace and Defence Systems 16%
Energy, Environment 6% Other Services 4%
governments seem to have resolved this issue, opening doors wider than before and launching communication campaigns towards high school students. As pointed out in the market research, 96% of the engineering firms are SMEs with less than 20 employees. On a much smaller scale, particularly in small territories such as the FCORs, consulting firms are even smaller with less than 5 employees. After a rather perceptible slowdown in demand and supply, the sectors in greater demand of engineers are aerospace, aeronautics and energy. A new market in the energy industry is generated by large public investments, such as the 10 billion euro project to manufacture new turbines, with 600 expected to be built over the next years. In addition, nuclear, petrol and gas companies are expected to hire massively over the next several years. In aeronautics, â€˜Airbus had a record-breaking number of orders last year with and thus expects to create 9,000 new jobs across Europe, including 2,000 new positions in Franceâ€™28.
In general terms, Engineering services (and other technical studies related firms) are attached to services supply of the construction market. It is a market characterised by oversupply, and is in competition –with other artisans, architects and consultants - which is mainly based on prices. Civil engineering is in a monopoly position in the three territories under review with regard to infrastructure expertise. Their primary customers are composed of public authorities for the implementation of a regional development plan and complying with policies of suitable infrastructure and national and European standards. Industrial engineering is supporting projects of the heavy industry (nuclear, refinery, petrochemistry, foundry, distillery) throughout its life cycle sector from its inception through to maintenance, choice of specific tools or components, etc. The agri-food sector, as a highly regulated industry, is another consumer of engineering services. According to the National Association of Consulting Professional Chambers in Martinique, 322 firms were incorporated under 7112B in 2012 and 325 in 2013, an increase of just over one-half of one per cent. 36 new firms were created in 2013 and 33 dissolved. The Association indicates that average lifetime of businesses in this sector is approximately 9.8 years. Their core specializations are in buildings (96), environment (30), infrastructures (25) and industry (3). It is to be noted that engineering firms specialising in environment, especially those involved in water and aquatic environments as well as natural disasters are already active in international markets (e.g. Impact Mer). Environmental engineering addresses environmental issues by minimizing human activities’ impact on the environment and natural resources. The scope of activities ranges from waste management to asbestos removal, as well as the production of clean or renewable energy management (53 recorded firms). Building and engineering firms (124 recorded firms), are specialized in construction works, hydraulic and miscellaneous networks. It also extends to water and sanitation, roads and utilities and civil engineering. Civil engineering or infrastructure study firms (19 recorded firms) provide services in infrastructure development (bridges, dams, buildings, roads, tunnels, etc) and optimization of water and energy facilities. Industrial engineering is oriented toward energy control, health and safety standards (2 recorded firms). It must be noted that many firms (7022Z or 7112B) from Martinique and Guadeloupe are operating in French Guiana, whether on their own or in co-operation with other local agencies. There are 128 Engineering firms in Guyane, some of which are from Martinique and Guadeloupe. Their activities are identified as follows:
Buildings: 60 Environment: 42 Infrastructures: 12 Industry: 8 Designers
Figures show that the engineering sector remains steadier than the consulting. This can be explained by the high level of technical expertise and competencies of this sector.
SPECIFIC REGULATIONS RELATING TO ENGINEERING
In France, the liability period for consulting engineers is of two years for specific defects and ten years under seal for building works for instance. The consulting engineer has an obligation of result and must carry out the work with all due diligence. In case of a defect or damage on the building work, he is presumably liable and has to prove that the defect was caused by force majeure or the negligence of someone else not under his supervision or control. As a direct consequence, it is illegal for an engineer to limit his liability towards a client for serious hidden defects. For this reason, they have an obligation to subscribe to a professional liability insurance. If the contractor is part of a chain of agreements, the injured client has the right to bring a claim for breach of the contract against the main contractor as well as the subcontractor. A client can claim in tort against a sub-contractor. Usually, a claim is first made against the main contractor. A Consulting Engineer is not permitted to limit liability towards a client for serious hidden defects in constructions. Contract terms are generally negotiated freely between the contractor and the client. There is no uniform practice or Standard Forms of Contracts. National and European law protects an engineer’s intellectual property rights. Consulting engineers are usually required to provide insurance. In France, engineers have a legal obligation to take out professional liability insurance. Liability law is normally found in the Civil Code and rules on limitation and duration of contractual liability can be found in the Civil Code and is tied to the type of damage caused by negligence of the engineer. The duration is 10 years for serious defects to the works after completion (article 1792-1 and 1792- 2 of the Civil Code). There is a 2-year liability for defects to the “non-dissociable” elements of equipment of works (1792-3 of the Civil Code). And, also part of the law is a warranty of perfect completion to which the contractor is held for one year after the approval requiring repair of all shortcomings indicated by the owner. While there is no statutory limitation on liability courts have the right to moderate the damages claimed. In addition, the designer must apply the so-called rules of the art (règles de l’art). The principle that the consulting engineer has to perform his services with professional skill and efficiency also applies here. While there are no specific regulations for consulting engineers, rules applicable to architects are enforceable in certain circumstance. This is where consulting engineers also act as architects or where they are also registered as architects. It is important to note that soils surveys are required in France. Engineers have also become more involved in construction in more recent times because insurance companies have become more demanding and requiring their involvement.
MANAGEMENT CONSULTING The APE (Main Business Activity) is a business identifier code composed of four digit numbers and a letter. This code is provided by the INSEE (French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies) to newly incorporated companies, determined in relation to its object and core expertise. For example under M. Specialized, scientific and technical activities can be found: -69: Legal and accounting activities -70: Headquarters activities; management consulting
70.1 Headquarters activities 70.10 Headquarters activities 70.10Z Headquarters activities 70.2 Management consulting 70.21 Public Relations and communication consulting 70.21Z Public Relations and communication consulting 70.22 Business and other management consulting 70.22Z Business and other management consulting A wide range of professions are gathered in this activity as would be implied by the CPC 2.0 definition listed above. According to the National Association of Consulting Professional Chambers, 906 businesses were incorporated in Martinique under 7022Z (business support activities such as consulting, accounting, training) in 2012 and 911 in 2013 thus an increase of 0.55%. 149 new firms were created and 144 dissolved. The Association indicates that average lifetime of businesses in this sector is approximately 6.3 years. In terms of core activities of management consulting firms: -
Organizational and Management Consulting Services Providers: 175, Training, Resources Management Counselling: 28.
969 management and organizational consulting firms populate the sector in Guadeloupe. These firms operate mainly in the Cap Excellence area (Abymes, Point-à-Pitre, Gosier, Baie-Mahault). The vast majority of firms in the sector perform accounting services (158), thus are outside the scope of this study. This category is also composed of a significant portion of business consultants and coaches, 10% in human resources management, and 5% being public or para-public business support organisations. REGION
Firms in 2013
Public Relation and communications consulting
Business and other management consulting
Engineering and Technical Studies
Public Relation and communications consulting
Business and other management consulting
Engineering and Technical Studies
Public Relation and communications consulting
Business and other management consulting
Engineering and Technical Studies
TABLE 8: CONSULTING FIRMS
Source: FCNP Study – National Association of Consulting Professional Chambers/Insee 2014
According to the National Association of Consulting Professional Chambers, 213 businesses incorporated under 7022Z in 2012 against 228 in 2013. This represents an increase of 7%. There were 15 more new companies created than were dissolved in 2013, 73 and 58 respectively. The association indicates that average lifetime of this sector businesses is approximately 3.9 years.
Management consulting is rarely the only assistance offered by these service providers. Commonly these are combined with financial management or auditing services, for instance. In addition, a wide range of services fall under the framework of management consulting, including projects of this type. Consumers of these services are business leaders and entrepreneurs as well as project proposers in the public sector. More often than not, businesses’ managers seek referrals among their own network or get assistance from their accounting firm in the selection of management consulting providers. Initiators of projects are generally guided through to boutiques de gestion offices (also called ‘BGE’ are public funded one-stop shops offering information and assistance on how to start and run a business in France can be found) or accredited agencies by the public assistance structures managed by the Regional Council. The consulting market that provides counselling and support for business creation or development is, though not embryonic, certainly building, pushed by the Regional Council and its efforts toward implementation of its policy for assisting business creation. The boutiques de gestion, a certain number of accounting and consulting firms, are accredited firms providing assistance services subsidized by the Regional Councils. The needs for consulting services for development, expansion, strategy or organizational purposes are clearly identified and sought by business leaders. But, the market is so opaque that they can only rely on their own business and private networks which will guide them through to firms they know or are already customers to. This has implications for firms seeking to enter the market from the Anglophone Caribbean. This does not guarantee quality of services and sometimes has the opposite effect. Often, accounting firms will provide these services but differing levels of knowledge of the subject. Where they do not have the specialized staffing required, these firms generally will recommend another firm that could address their clients’ specific needs. An exception is with medium-sized accounting firms that commonly work with Big Four companies and their competitors. A vast majority of these management consulting entities, 90%, are sole-proprietor businesses or very small enterprises. They operate within their own professional circle or region. A few of them venture out on the international market and if they do are very difficult to track. Accordingly, the sector in the FCORs operates much like that of Trinidad and Tobago.
REGULATIONS RELATING TO MANAGEMENT CONSULTING There are no specific regulations for these liberal professions that are not regulated professions.
CHALLENGES TO TRADING THESE SERVICES WITH THE FCORS The Inception Report identified some of the challenges for professionals from Trinidad and Tobago to operate in the FCORs. Challenges identified were:
Language – Ability to operate in the market of the language is critical. Though English is more frequently spoken among professionals in the FCORs, prospective partners and clients will welcome facility with the language.
Standards and norms used (EU vs US)-(CE/NF vs CA) – More than 80,000 operate in the construction sector alone and it is taxing to seek to corroborate between these.
Management systems in place
Lack of understanding of culture – Cultural misunderstandings or missteps can lead to unfavourable impressions and lost business prospects and can impact negatively market entry.
Currency/Fees/Taxes – A full understanding of the prevailing fee structure is necessary and withholding taxes can reduce receipts to the exporter. A point of mitigation though is that Trinidad and Tobago and France do have in place a Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation.
Difficulty Identification of willing partners and concretisation of working relationships – Partnering is clearly the preferred market entry strategy but it will take time to build suitable trust in relationships.
Narrowness of markets for some sectors
Strong and aggressive competition (management consulting/architecture) – Protectionism within the sectors.
Opacity of sectors and key players
Lack of available information – A continuous process of review and research should be put in place and relationships on the ground are needed for timely information flow.
Transportation – While Mode 1 delivery of some services is possible, it will often be necessary to travel to these markets and air linkages are not as developed as they might be, even between these markets and French Guiana for example.
Business/economic risks – A full understanding of the business climate and attendant risks is required.
Liability insurance – This requirement is an added cost for Trinidad and Tobago professionals and even though Europeans are accessing lower costs in Eastern European countries, such benefits may not be accessible to Trinidad and Tobago professionals with
non-European qualifications in particular. In the engineering sector, our research identified additional challenges. 29 He noted prospective exporters would also have to be able to cope with:
Heavy bureaucracy and documentation requirements
Complicated customs procedures
High freight transportation costs for the machinery involved in aspects of this service
A network of long-established relationships that effectively excluded new market entrants.
These were to become recurring themes during the market research visit. Interlocutors spoke of the difficulty Caribbean professionals would have in establishing suitable contacts in the sector if they sought entry on their own and navigating the 88,000 regulations in France relating to the construction sector. It was noted also that there is often little time to respond to competitions, sometimes only several weeks are provided. Not having representation in a market effectively means that Caribbean professionals will be unable to have foreknowledge of opportunities to allow for high-quality submissions to be made, in other words, to find and act on project opportunities. One interesting factor identified is that submissions must be in high-quality French or risk being rejected on that basis alone. Caribbean professionals who would be using translation services should seek to verify the quality of the services employed as well as their familiarity with technical language relating to the various professions. Perhaps the most challenging factor will prove to be cultural. Several professionals in all of the sectors spoke of the challenges involved in dealing with the attitude of Martiniquais, who look “obsessively” to France but have little interest or knowledge about the Caribbean. 30 Even local professionals find difficulty in breaking into the “oligopoly” of the béké class whose interest is in maintenance of the status quo and they are very much focused toward France with little interest in the Caribbean. Clearly, an attitudinal change would be required and this can only be overcome with time and successful interventions in the market. Geographical proximity has clearly not broken down the cultural differences between the Anglophone and francophone Caribbean. In these circumstances, where official barriers to services trade are low but real challenges to trading remain, there is little recourse to international trading rules. Customs procedures may be complicated but not discriminatory. High transportation costs are unsurprising given the low demand and availability of linkages between Trinidad and Tobago and the French Caribbean. Addressing the formal requirements for admission to a profession can be done through assessment of educational qualifications of service providers and negotiation of mutual recognition agreements. However, the latter process can be lengthy and in the current CARICOM experience is compromised by the lack of a CARICOM mutual recognition agreement among other challenges. In theory, language learning can be proposed but there is a risk of lack of take-up by busy professionals. Different standards can be taught. Most difficult to address are perception and familiarity issues. Successful market entry strategies must seek to negate these challenges through measures to increase confidence, familiarity and “professional
Interviews with Francois Largesse and Thomas Volkmarr.
Interviews with Gerard Lecat, Claude Granel and Caroline Ventura.
convenienceâ€?, in the words of one interlocutor.31 Finally, these should not be one-off approaches but also address sustainability through deepening relationships and securing official support.
Interview with Architect Erich Halley.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRADE WITH THE FCORS AND SUGGESTED APPROACHES It will be recalled that the objective of this project “to improve the market strategy of selected businesses through market research and analysis of the markets for professional services and the cultural and creative industries in the French Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs).“ On the basis of our interactions and research there is likely a less than optimum level of firm interest in the markets. These markets are perceived to be difficult to enter as a result of cultural and linguistic differences and different norms and standards operating. These perceptions have not been dispelled during our research for this project. It is reasonable to assume that most firms operating in Trinidad and Tobago in these sectors have no existing strategy to expand into these markets. Traditional approaches to services exporting from Trinidad and Tobago have largely not borne fruit with reference to the French Caribbean. These traditional approaches call for the market research to be conducted and the identification of trading opportunities. The prospective service exporter is informed of the constraints to exporting. These could, for example, include requirements for registration, a need for the verification of academic credentials, membership in a professional society or the requirement for the trading enterprise to take a particular business form. In these circumstances, the prospective exporter is expected to take the steps necessary to meet any qualification or registration requirements to access the market and may receive support in the form of a trade mission or support for engaging in a market visit themselves. Upon seeking market entry, they are likely to receive less than welcoming responses from local competitors in the market. It was readily apparent to the consulting team that this approach risked being unsuccessful in this case due to the challenges elsewhere outlined. Legally, in terms of France’s international obligations under the WTO and the Economic Partnership Agreement, these services should be able to be delivered relatively free of limitations to market access or national treatment. However, a number of in-market challenges effectively mean that it would be difficult for significant exporting to occur from Trinidad and Tobago into these markets in these sectors. Furthermore, most professionals in the architectural sector in Trinidad and Tobago would have difficulty fulfilling the conditions for access to the market in the French Caribbean. In engineering, though registration is not required a great challenge would be to become fully conversant with standards and regulations in place in France. Confronted with this reality the Consulting Team took the decision to adopt an approach that emphasised partnerships. This approach to the market research visit yielded significant results as our interlocutors, especially professionals, generally were willing to share information and ideas with us due to our non-threatening posture. This led naturally to discussion of common issues and challenges and how professionals from Trinidad and Tobago and the French Caribbean could cooperate to address challenges in trading in their respective territories and in the Caribbean. During these consultations, the consortium-approach was developed and tested. At the moment this idea is best developed in the two professions dealing with the construction sector. There seems a greater possibility of matching skillsets. Furthermore, members of these professions are more accustomed using a team approach to product delivery. The management consulting sector, on the other hand, is too diverse, individualistic and is too unstructured in both regions. Essentially, we propose the establishment of bi-national project teams in the construction sector. These teams could comprise:
Architects Engineers Planners Contractors CAD Designers
We propose starting the consortium with Architects (including Planners) and Engineers from both markets. We propose seeking out professionals or firms in Trinidad and Tobago with:
Some exporting experience Capacity to participate Willingness to engage in the required training activities.
These teams would engage in activities where they would:
increase their familiarity with each other learn about the sector and procedures in each other’s market discuss new business prospects and innovations within a market exchange ideas develop project proposals
Local partners could interact with local authorities, conduct negotiations, provide information on regulations, and follow through on other aspects of the contract during implementation. Among the activities proposed for the next phase are:
Workshops Seminars (Standards, Construction Techniques, Comparison of Codes) Exchange Visits to the other markets Prospecting Visits to other Caribbean markets Participation in Professional Events
It is important that the events be seen as practical and useful to practitioners. According we recommend that one of the activities be as follows:
In order to address the need for professionals to learn about the each other’s systems, it would be beneficial to take a particular project and bring professionals together from both sides to work through that project from beginning to end from each sides’ perspective. Through this specific type of interaction they would see the different approaches taken, the regulatory requirements, design choices and overall construction process by the other. This would lead to understanding of where strengths and weaknesses lie and to agreement on the optimum approach to future specific collaborative projects.
Another recommendation that we feel worthy of serious consideration is that the consortium start with a relatively small, privately funded project, build the team along cross-cultural lines and demonstrate the capability. This would be more powerful than a simple statement of capability. The resulting climate of trust and confidence will then facilitate projects in other markets.
FIGURE 16: DEVELOPMENT AT CHAGUARAMAS
Opportunities identified during and after the Market Research visit include the following: A specific opportunity exists for engineers from Trinidad and Tobago with capacity in expensive clay soils. Collaborations with firms in Guadeloupe could lead to their participation in the market in Grand Terre (Guadeloupe) where this soil type is prevalent. SCE is interested in partnering with firms in Trinidad and Tobago in two specific areas with respect to projects in the Caribbean. These are wastewater and water management and coastal management and marine areas.
Similarly, another firm is actively seeking partnerships in water and wastewater management, infrastructures, Energy and telecommunication, the latter with broadband fiber-optic technology, which seems a particularly interesting opportunity in the Caribbean.
If architects from Trinidad and Tobago are open to outsourcing they could perform Mode1 exporting through linkages with firms in the French Caribbean. They could perform initial drafting services. Collaboration in the delivery of low-income housing was mentioned in each of the three markets. Approaches new to these markets could be proposed and implemented and could involve different materials as well. Modular construction techniques were mentioned as a possibility.
Properly qualified engineers wishing to work in the private sector with established firms could find employment. This might be of particular interest to younger engineers. It was mentioned that most French engineers seek employment in the public sector and there are usually opportunities since few engineers from mainland France are willing to migrate to the islands.
Collaborations between Architectural and Engineering Consulting firms involved in the conception and implementation of major infrastructure projects in the Health sector, Civil infrastructure, Renewable Energy and Major Electrical and Air condition projects.
Investors/Financers with constructions projects to be implemented in the Caribbean region in the Health sector, Civil infrastructure, Renewable Energy and major electrical and Air Condition projects.
Collaboration with Trinidad and Tobago firms in field related to environmental engineering in areas such as field surveys example for harbours, environmental impact assessments, marine surveys, remediation work with respect to mangroves, research and development and integrated coastal management projects.
Collaboration on the development of a Caribbean Building Code that would be promoted in the region. This could take the format used to develop the existing Caribbean Small Building Code. Other possible areas of joint code development could be Fireproofing and Earthquake remediation.
Caribbean professionals with LEED Certification might have certain advantages in the French Caribbean. There is recognition that more work must be done on energy efficiency in the FCORs and in the rest of the Caribbean.
There is room for collaboration in the tourism sector in the Caribbean where there is growing interest in environmental sustainability and the use of sustainable materials in construction particularly of tourist sites and centers and hotels. Another area of his economic activity with which he could possibly find partners is the area of building restoration in connection with the preservation of heritage.
Even though this project concerned services exporting, clearly there is a possibility for increased sales of construction materials from Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad Cement Limited can testify to the difficulty in receiving certification for construction products, particularly as certain tests currently have to be conducted in France. However, it should be noted that this requirement would be removed through a project has begun involving the Regional Council in Martinique to install a laboratory in Martinique. This would speed approval of products from Trinidad and Tobago which are generally also price-competitive in the markets under review. In the same vein, it was suggested, with particular reference to Guyane, that the use of prefabricated materials could be explored with the materials being initially produced here and the pre-fab units constructed in Trinidad and Tobago
One firm of interest, BSG, presently sends about 50% of its output to Martinique and is interested in finding partner in the Caribbean.
A gap was identified with respect to acoustics. Assessment of local capacity in this area of the engineering will need to occur.
EDI, data hosting and archiving services were definitely required in the market in Guyane. One company indicated an interest in partnering with firms from Trinidad and Tobago with such capacities.
Another opportunity for collaboration exists for interested management consultants with Cayribe Consulting. The firm has recently visited Trinidad and Tobago and has already held discussions with professionals in the field in this country.
In the areas of energy services, SARA’s existing engineering maintenance contract expires at the end of 2016. This contract is of five (5) years duration and includes studies, supervision of the worksites etc. The tender for this opportunity should be released within the next year. Any interested firm would be required to establish a presence there and must be fully fluent in French in order to interact as closely as is necessary with senior management. One possible factor that could favour a bid from Trinidad and Tobago is the fact that Total’s 50% share has recently been sold to the Rubis Group and Sol, both of whom are strongly involved in the Caribbean.
In terms of these markets it is possible to make a general statement regarding business prospects and receptivity to collaborative approach. Discussions during the market visit suggested that Guadeloupe was the most interesting market. It was thought to have the most business prospects in the construction sector. There were more competitions held annually as competitions are held in the private sector there as well as in the public sector. This is not the case in Martinique. Business there tends to be more aggressive than in Martinique. Finally culturally Guadeloupe was “closer” to the Caribbean than either Martinique or Guyane there being generally less focus or dependence on mainland France. Guyane is likely to be the least attractive market for activity although resources from there should be involved in the collaborative approach. Service providers from Trinidad and Tobago would also be exposed to language training. One of the realities is that professionals from the French Caribbean are more likely to be able to communicate at an acceptable level in English than those from Trinidad and Tobago are likely to be able to communicate at an acceptable level in French. They will need to interact with colleagues One of our interlocutors eloquently expressed the benefits of the approach being put forward. He suggested the architecture profession, at its best, is open to new influences from different cultures, societies and historical backgrounds. His suggestion is that there is a need to start with a small private sector project, build the team along cross-cultural lines and demonstrate the capability. This he
suggested would be more powerful than a simple statement of capability. The resulting climate of trust and confidence will then facilitate projects in other markets32. The potential benefits of this approach mirror the challenges in working in the French Caribbean, knowledge of the language, law and regulations of the market and also the spirit of the law. Sector or areas of initial activity would be those opportunities identified during the Research Mission such as:
Sustainable Construction Acoustics Public Projects such as Housing, Health facilities, Sports Facilities Environmental Engineering Renewable energy Its specific capabilities are water and wastewater management, infrastructures, Energy and telecommunication, the latter with broadband fiber-optic technology, which seems a particularly interesting opportunity in the Caribbean.
Individual capacities can be pooled to work on projects anywhere in the Caribbean. Difficulties operating in the Dominican Republic, for example, can be eliminated if there is a willingness to partner. Though, Haiti is a difficult market activity there could be possibilities there too especially if the Caribbean consortium can bring funding. Competition for projects benefiting from international funding is fierce. It was also suggested that a lot of activity is being undertaken in Colombia and this should be considered. Coincidentally, one notes that a delegation from Pro Colombia visited Trinidad and Tobago in June to meet representatives of the business sector to relay information on opportunities in that country. One element worth considering is whether during the second phase of the project expoTT would seek to engage with possible suppliers of financial resources. It is known that linkages with financial institutions can be a useful means of new market entry for professionals in this sector. Furthermore, financial institutions from Trinidad and Tobago have funded projects in the French Caribbean. And, it is worth recalling that one of our interlocutors suggested starting with a small project and another noted that a means of market entry to Haiti would be to present an integrated project proposal that includes financing. Presumably, they too would find value in collaborating with a team of professionals, already formed and willing to work jointly. Possible entities in Trinidad and Tobago who could be approached are:
RGM Guardian Holdings RBL
Markets to be targeted would be the larger Caribbean. In this way, opportunities within either the French Caribbean or Trinidad and Tobago could be seized where available. But, the consortium would not be limited to these two markets but could use the skills, contacts and references in CARICOM markets as well as in the Dominican Republic, Haiti and even Colombia, which is very active in construction. It is interesting to note that noted local economist, Terrence Farrell, apparently shares this view of opportunity. In a recent address to the Employer’s Consultative Association on
Interview with Gerard Lecat.
diversification of the economy of Trinidad and Tobago, discussing the role of Government in promoting diversification, he noted: “Government can assist by leveraging our regional relationships with under-exploited markets such as Haiti, Cuba, Guyana, and Suriname. The opportunities presented by these four regional markets are huge. But opening these markets require diplomatic support and special arrangements including perhaps government to government projects using local professionals and contractors.”33 Haiti presents particular opportunities and challenges. There are many needs post-earthquake and available funding from international financial institutions and certain developed countries. However, knowledge of the market and identifying the right partners were identified as being critical to market entry. The chances of successfully working there would be enhanced if the consortium were to present an integrated project, including financing. The project would also have to be of a particular size to maximize the benefits of working in that admittedly difficult environment. The establishment of a company to be based there and import skills to create a professional cadre of available knowledge to address construction projects was highly recommended. The consortium members will be expected to prospect for projects. As an example, one of our interlocutors suggested that he could do same in Haiti based on his involvement in the construction of the new Embassy of France in Port-au-Prince. However, official support agencies like exporTT and sister agencies in the French Caribbean should render strong support in this regard. Previous work by exporTT in the construction sector in Trinidad and Tobago revealed that information on tenders would be the support most welcomed to promote exporting. This will require efforts by exporTT to build the same level of working relationships with its sister agencies as will be required within the consortium. A formal collaboration agreement would be desirable. This agreement would formalize the relationship, identify the respective roles, identify markets of interest and quantify the support to be provided. This would require some confidence-building as some agencies in the FCORs expressed some frustration with the results of their past interactions with exporTT. The concerns included insufficient follow-up and sharing of information. Advancing the project further and increasing the possibility of sustainability would be the integration of academic institutions. Academic exchanges between students in architecture and engineering could be developed. Within Trinidad and Tobago, it would be useful to seek engagement from the University of Trinidad and Tobago. Coincidentally, the UTT has developed a Solar House which could support collaborations in energy efficiency and training activities for both students and professionals. From the Trinidad and Tobago side, it is suggested that initial priority be given to engagement with the individuals and firms included in the Table below. The architectural firms identified are known of be of hiqh-quality. Some have participated in previous export development activities with respect to Europe or have demonstrated export competence. Of the many engineering possibilities we have identified firms of specific size and history of exporting. Also included among the engineers are persons working in the areas of energy efficiency, renewables or electrical and project management. TABLE 9: PROPOSED TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO COLLABORATORS Architectural Firms/Individuals 10 Degrees North acla:works ltd. Acuitas Caribbean Ltd. Barry Francheschi
Engineering Firms/Engineers Alpha Engineering and Design (2012) Ltd. CEP Ltd. Coosal’s Construction Company Ltd.
Financiers RGM Guardian Holdings RBL
Terrence W. Farrell, “Diversify or Die”: Address to Employers’ Consultative Association, June 25, 2015, pg. 6.
Basso Leonard Architects Collaborative Ltd. Camps-Campins Architects Carisoul Architecture CDA Architecture Limited Colin Laird Associates Deva Sharma Architects and Associates Fojo Design & Develop Ltd. France & Franco Architects Gillespie and Partners Kenneth Dublin & Associates Jaspal Bhogal Associates Jenifer Smith Architects Ltd. Mark Raymond Architect Muizneks Architects Ltd. Sharon Bidaisee Architect
Lee Young & Partners Exeqtech Limited Trintoplan Consultants Limited Ecoengineering Consultants Limited Lauriston Lewis Associates Ltd. Hollis Charles Dr. Rae Furlonge Acuitas Caribbean EMSAB Consultants Prudecon Limited Sylvester Engineering Limited Kyle Jackman Planning Associates Limited Jason Gordon Roger Bissessar Frances Lum Young Barry Mohammed Worley-Parsons Caribbean Transportation Consultancy Services (CARITRANS) Company
Eventually, it will be necessary to consider an appropriate legal form for the consortium. One may even be necessary in each region. Presented below are options for such establishment in France. 34
Very controlled in French law, little used by international groups.
None with the US Inc. Used by international group joint venture.
None with the US Inc. Very used for subsidiaries a 100% of international groups
Single private Ltd
Very controlled by French law, minimum share capital of €37,500
Very controlled by French law and not very widespread.
TABLE 10: COMPARISON OF LEGAL FORMS Source: Incorporating a business in France/Jean-Claude Armand & Partners legal firm
Société Anonyme à Responsabilité Limitée (SARL)
Société Anonyme (SA) usual form
Société par Actions Simplifiée (SAS)
Easy to set up and operate.
Structured for “monitored delegation”.
At least one partner. Freedom of constitutional arrangements for relations with shareholders, management, structure and transfer of capital.
One or more directors, who must not be corporate entities, but do not need to be partners
One individual to be the Chairman of the Board and CEO or two individuals to be Chairman and CEO respectively.Chairman and CEO respectively. Deputy CEOs (up to 5). Board of directors with 3 to 18 members and a statutory auditor.
At least 1 Chairman (individual or corporate entity) and possibly a board with other members. The company can berepresented by a person so empowered by the articles (CEO or deputies).
The Chairman can also have an employment contract if certain conditions are met (work separate from company officer role, management hierarchy).
Same as an SA as regards simultaneously holding both company officer position and employment contract.
Decided by the Board of Directors.
Defined by choice in the articles.
€ 37,000. Public offerings permitted. Half the capital must be paid up at the time and must remain so for 5 years.
None: sufficient capital to finance long-term needs. The amount is defined in the articles. No public offerings permitted but an offer may be made to accredited investors. Half the capital must be paid up at the time and must remain so for a period of 5 years.
No sweat equity permitted.
Sweat equity permitted.
Partners / Shareholder s
2 to 100 individuals or corporate entities. Or single shareholder (EURL). At least 1 meeting per year: annual approval of the accounts, review of contracts by simple majority at Ordinary General Meeting.
At least 7 (with at least one individual). At least 1 meeting per year: annual approval of the accounts and ordinary decisions by simple majority at Ordinary General Meeting, changes to the articles require 2/3 majority at Extraordinary General Meeting.
At least 1 (SAS unipersonnelle) individual or corporate entity. Only certain decisions made by Ordinary General Meeting: approval of the accounts, mergers, changes in capital, liquidation.
Quorums for meetings
25% of voting rights on first notice and 20% on second notice of Extraordinary General Meeting (since August 2, 2005).
For an Extraordinary General Meeting, 25% of voting rights on first notice and 20% on second notice. For an Ordinary General Meeting, 20% on first notice and no quorum on second notice.
According to the articles; no obligation to hold an annual meeting of shareholders.
Extraordinary General Meetings: 33% + 1 vote for amendments to the articles (from Aug. 2, 2005). Ordinary General Meetings: 50% of voting rights + 1 (or majority of votes on second notice).
1/3 of votes at Extraordinary General Meeting. 50% of votes in Ordinary General Meeting.
According to the articles.
A director/minority shareholder can also have an employment Director’s contract if certain conditions are status met (work separate from company officer role, management hierarchy). Appointmen Decision of partners representing t and more than half the company dismissal of shares. Compensation payable for Directors dismissals without due cause. None: sufficient capital to finance long-term needs. The amount is defined in Minimum the articles. Restrictions apply to capital issuing bonds. At least one- fifth of contributions must be paid up capital and must remain so for a period of 5 years. Sweat equity permitted: a partner offers the company his time, work and professional knowledge. Does Contributio not contribute to forming the ns capital but has right to shares in company (share of profits and participation in collective decisions).
Liability of partners/sh areholders
Limited to contributions, except in civil or criminal lawsuits
Flat rate of 3%. € 5,000 ceiling for transfers of shares. For share capital: an equal deduction for each share, to the ratio between € 23,000 and the total number of shares in the company.
Corporate tax or option of paying income tax (if company is less than 5 years old).
TABLE 11: COMPARISON OF THE MAIN FORMS OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES, FRANCE Source: Doing Business in France 2011 / Invest in France Agency (IFA)
Assumptions behind this approach have been identified as:
Buy in from professionals and agencies is gained Professionals are willing to take the time to make this arrangement work An official support agency continues to be involved Financing is provided to implement future activities
Risks associated with this approach are:
No take up of the idea by professionals No acceptance of this approach by the client or funding agencies Inablility or unwillingness to build official cooperation with trade or economic development agencies Professionals do not coalesce as expected Issues arise regarding legal form of the consortium
In moving forward activities to be undertaken should include the following:
Confirmation of interest of professionals/firms from Trinidad and Tobago Assessment of interested professionals/firms using the assessment instrument Matching available and interested professional capabilities Identification of training needs and development of training proposals Interaction with Chambers of Commerce and trade promotion agencies of the FCORs Concretizing interest from professionals identified in the FCORs through this project Identification of opportunities for interaction and familiarization between the professionals of the two regions Scoping for project possibilities in the wider Caribbean Consultation with financiers in Trinidad and Tobago to gauge their interest in searching out commercial opportunities Gaining the involvement of the University of Trinidad and Tobago and counterparts in the FCORs.
Due to the issues in organization and structure of the management consulting sector in Trinidad and Tobago, priority should be given to sector development efforts in collaboration with the local Chapter of the CICMC.
Detailed sector profiles of the sectors in Trinidad and Tobago should be produced in collaboration with the relevant sector associations. Such profiles have been produced for
investment in certain sectors by agencies in Trinidad and Tobago but they should be created for trade development purposes for these professional services.
As a general recommendation, exporTT should seek to work with relevant agencies in Trinidad and Tobago to raise the levels of reporting required and enhance the trade-related statistics available for policy and business development purposes.
Consideration should be given to the possibility of developing a study of the renewable sector and generation activities in the Caribbean and developing appropriate technologies for use in low-cost public housing projects. This could lead to new business opportunities.
The consortium-approach advocated above should start with a small private sector project, utilising cross-cultural teams to demonstrate the capability and utility of cooperation in this manner. Successful completion of a project would enhance the climate of trust and confidence which would then facilitate projects in other markets.
There should be identification of construction materials from Trinidad and Tobago that could qualify for access to the French Caribbean markets. Interaction should then begin with the manufacturers to prepare for the product approval process.
A sectorial Business to Consumers matchmaking forum ‘les 3 jours de l’immobilier’ is held every year in April at the Guadeloupe World Trade Center. It has occurred in 2015 from April 23rd to 25th. When considering future market entry initiatives from Trinidad and Tobago, participation in this forum should be considered.
Technical think-tanks could be organized on a yearly basis in order for the sector professionals to keep up-to-date with the industry state of the art techniques, innovation, equipment, policies and regulations. One interlocutor35 mentioned the possibility of strengthening and increasing competencies in the Caribbean region for engineers but also architects to collaborate on common projects. Identified tailor-made trainings for complementary competencies, tools and methods acquisition could be provided during or after these meetings.
The water and environment sectors also call for mutual cooperation and collaboration on innovative and alternative building projects more in line with the constraints of tropical environments, climate hazards and constructions in seismic zone.
Interview with CETE Ingénierie
Ultimately, to the effect of collating technical and operational data, a roster of construction engineers, architects and certified experts could be created and be funded by Interreg Funds from Martinique or Guadeloupe Regional Councils. An invitations to tender section could be added and integrated into a database managed by a technical unit.
Cultural and language familiarization or/and trainings will prove to be critical in a collaborative approach between English and French speaking firms and thus should begin as a matter of priority. This is best done in the foreign environment to allow for technical discussion and increasing familiarity with culture and building environments.
APPENDIX 1: TOOLS DEVELOPED TO UNDERTAKE THE PRELIMINARY RESEARCH IN THE FCORS
This instrument was used in the preliminary research phase to help identify opportunities and entities to meet face-to-face during the market research visit.
1. Dans quel secteur votre entreprise opère-t-elle? a.
☐ Conseil en management
Architecture b. Plus précisément quel(s) est (sont) votre (vos) domaine(s) de compétences : c. (exemple : Conseil en management - Gestion d’entreprise, création, etc. ; Ingénierie – Bâtiment, environnement, infrastructures, industrie) 2. Depuis combien d’années votre entreprise est-elle présente sur le marché? 3. Quelles ont pu être les évolutions majeures de votre activité ? 4. Vos clients sont-ils : a.
☐ Majoritairement du secteur privé (>80%)
☐ Majoritairement du secteur public (>80%)
☐ Publics et privés.
5. Quels sont principaux concurrents ? Au moins 3. 6. Quelle est, selon vous, votre valeur ajoutée sur le marché: a.
☐ Rareté de vos services
☐ Expertise spécifique
☐ Localisation de votre cabinet
☐ Vos Prix
7. CA moyen des 3 dernières années? a.
☐ Moins de 50 000€
☐ Entre 50 000 – 150 000€
☐ Entre 50 000 – 150 000€
☐ Plus de 300 000€
8. Votre entreprise a-t-elle déjà eu à refuser des offres ou à faire face à des obstacles ? 9. Répondez-vous à des appels d’offres ? 10. Votre entreprise travaille-t-elle en réseau ?
a. Si oui, pouvez-vous nous indiquer de quelle zone géographique sont vos partenaires ? 11. Comment qualifieriez-vous votre secteur d’activité : En croissance, stable, ou en déclin ? Pouvez-vous donner 2 éléments permettant d’expliquer ce constat. 12. Avez-vous selon vous tous les atouts nécessaires au développement de votre entreprise? Si non, que vous manque-t-il? Seriez vous prêt à accepter ces compétences/technologies/apports d’une entreprise complémentaire ? 13. Dans le cadre de vos activités, percevez-vous l’opportunité de collaborations avec des partenaires Caribéens? 14. Si oui, quels pourraient être les facteurs clés permettant de concrétiser ces partenariats ? 15. Votre entreprise envisage-t-elle de nouvelles opportunités ou l’accès à des marchés internationaux, notamment dans la zone Caraïbe? 16. Votre entreprise importe-t-elle ou exporte-t-elle? a. Si oui, quel a été le moteur de sa décision? b. Quels types de produits ou services ? c. Si non, quel serait l’élément déclencheur ? 17. Quelles stratégies pensez-vous mettre en place pour votre développement? 18. Considéreriez-vous la langue anglaise plutôt comme un atout dans votre secteur d’activité? Seriez-vous prêt à collaborer avec des partenaires anglophones ?
CONTACT AGENCE DE DEVELOPPEMENT ECONOMIQUE
1. Quelle est la situation du secteur des services aux professionnels et particuliers pour a.
☐ Conseil en management
2. Quelle gamme de services fournissent-elles à leurs clients? 3. Combien d’années ces entreprises exercent-elles généralement sur le marché sans diversification particulière de leurs services ? 4. Quel est le taux moyen de réussite ? 5. Ces entreprises sont-elles ouvertes à des offres de partenariat ? 6.
Quels arguments les convaincraient-elles ?
7. Considéreriez-vous ces secteurs en croissance, stagnant ou en repli? 8. Pouvez-vous nous donner 3 raisons essentielles à cela?
9. Les entreprises actives dans ces secteurs, seraient-elles ouvertes à des opportunités provenant de l’étranger ? S’associeraient-elles à des entreprises anglophones, ou Caribéennes ? De quelle façon ? 10. L’importation de services est-elle ancrée dans la culture des entreprises d’une façon générale ? Pourrait-elle représenter un moyen de développement fort pour les entreprises de ces secteurs ? 11. Quels types d’entreprises étrangères pourraient s’implanter sur le marché ? 12. Quelles seraient les conditions de leur accès au marché Antillo-Guyanais ? a.
☐ Logistique (implantation directe, partenariat,etc)
☐ Techniques / Technologies
13. Quels autres secteurs pourraient représenter une opportunité de collaboration pour des entreprises étrangères ? 14. Quels outils ou stratégies avez-vous ou penseriez-vous mettre en place pour aider les entreprises à s’ouvrir davantage à des collaborations étrangères ?
APPENDIX 2: ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR FIRMS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
This survey is intended to guide exporTT in its assessment of firms to be included in Phase II of this project. After seeking general information, the tool seeks to ascertain: Preparedness for exporting and state of export planning Exporting experience Interest in participation in the project Particulars of service delivery.
This should be followed by detailed interviews with the principals of the firms
When was your company established and what is your VAT registration number? .
How many persons does your firm employ?
50 characters left.
How has the number of employees changed over the last 3 years? Indicate percentage increase or decline.
50 characters left.
What was your turnover in the last reporting year?
50 characters left.
How has your turnover changed in the last three years? Indicate percentage increase or decline.
50 characters left.
Does your firm have an Export Plan? Yes
. Would you be willing to develop one in the context of this project? Yes
ď‚ˇ 500 characters left.
If yes, would you be willing to share same for the purposes of this project? Yes
What services do you provide?
50 characters left.
Identify what differentiates you from your competitors?
50 characters left.
How do you bring value to your customers?
350 characters left.
What makes you competitive in your home market? Choose all that are relevant. Price
Quality of Service
Better use of technology
More qualified personnel
500 characters left.
What makes your firm a competitive exporter? Choose all that is applicable. Price
Quality of Service
Better use of technology
More qualified personnel
ď‚ˇ 500 characters left.
What actions have you taken in the past year to improve your competitiveness?
350 characters left.
What certifications above your professional qualifications do you have that can improve your competitiveness?
350 characters left. How would your characterize your pricing? Choose all that are applicable. In line with international levels
Competitive in an English-Caribbean context
Higher than local competitors
Lower than local competitors
ď‚ˇ 500 characters left.
Do you have any export-specific marketing material? Yes
Have you set any specific export targets? Yes
Does your firm export services? If yes, please answer the following questions. Yes
To which markets do you export? CARICOM
What is your major export market?
50 characters left.
What is your newest export market?
50 characters left.
How do you export? Mode 1 - From Trinidad and Tobago without leaving this country
Mode 2 - To foreign clients who come to Trinidad and Tobago
Mode 3 - Through an office you have established abroad
Mode 4 - By personnel traveling to receiving market to perform activities
Rank the following Modes of export in order of importance to your firm.
(1 = Most Used)
What percentage of your earnings comes from exporting? Less than 10%
More than 50%
How do you market your services abroad?
350 characters left.
Have you ever visited an FCOR market? Yes
Which markets? French Guiana
Do you have customers or contacts in any of these markets? Identify the market and the relationship. Yes
ď‚ˇ 500 characters left.
Which of these markets seems the most promising for you?
50 characters left.
Why is it most promising?
350 characters left.
Are you aware of the regulations you will be required to meet in order to export to a FCOR market? Yes
500 characters left.
Will your service be competitively priced in the market? Yes
500 characters left.
How important is pricing to your competitiveness? Very important
Not important at all
. What would make you more competitive in the market? Information on market entry requirements
Support for visiting the market
Contacts in your sector in the markets
From which sector would your customers most likely come? Public Sector
500 characters left.
. Do you know who would be your primary competitors in the market? Yes
500 characters left.
APPENDIX 3: LIST OF MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS SUPPLIED BY THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO CHAPTER OF THE CICMC
B Management 14 Hilltop Dr, Champ Fleurs, Trinidad - 662-9787 Aegis Management Solutions Ltd 16 Scott-Bushe St, POS, Trinidad - 624-8303 CDW Management Services Ltd 10 Cipriani Blvd, POS, Trinidad - 625-0280 Caribbean Development Network Ltd 8-10 Cipriani Blvd, POS, Trinidad - 625-9355 Complete Managerial Services (CMS) 10 Victoria Av, Claxton Bay, Trinidad - 623-4851 DYKON Developments Ltd 79 Elizabeth Gdns, St Joseph, Trinidad - 628-4478 Delta Dynamics Ltd 40 O'Connor St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 659-1713 Eastern Industrial Relations Consultants 79 Elizabeth Gdns, St Joseph, Trinidad - 6622570 Emerson & Associates Ltd 10 Cipriani Bl, POS, Trinidad - 676-0153 Evolve Partners 5 Hutton Rd, St Anns, Trinidad - 625-8203 Financial Systems & Services Ltd 123 Eastern Main Rd, S/Augustine, Trinidad - 6230017 First Regional Consulting Corp Ltd Eastern Main Rd & Mt Lambert, Mt Lambert, Trinidad 662-1802 Funds International ltd 84 Roberts St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 638-8664 Grace Talma Associates & Co Ltd 32 Luis St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 628-3863 HRS Associates Ltd 50 Richmond St, POS, Trinidad - 623-4094 Human Resource Management Associates 58 Pembroke St, POS, Trinidad - 625-5447 Human Systems Ltd 5 Fitt St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 625-6949 IBB Ltd 1A Dere St, POS, Trinidad - 623-6576 Information Institute 30-32 Picton St, Newtown, Trinidad - 623-6576 K R Services Ltd 16 Victoria Av, POS, Trinidad - 623-1081 KPMG Advisory 56-58 Richmond St, POS, Trinidad - 622-3604 MCT & Associated Ltd 245 Belmont Cir Rd, Belmont, Trinidad - 623-9945 Mass-Communication Ltd John & Smith Sts, Montrose, Trinidad - 624-4569 Media Planners & Consultants 8 Henry Pierre St, S/Augustine, Trinidad - 672-6459 Nexus Consulting 26 Manning Crt, D/Martin, Trinidad - 663-6044 ODYSSEY CONSULTinc Ltd 9 Borde St, POS, Trinidad - 632-2026 PMSL 13 Gray St, St Clair, Trinidad - 622-7506 Price Waterhouse Coopers Management Consultants 11 Victoria Av, POS, Trinidad - 6230281 Prudential Management Services Ltd 10 Victoria Sq E, , Trinidad - 625-4636 Purchasing & Stores Consulting Services 3A Gypsum Dr, Champ Fleurs, Trinidad - 66388
3255 Resources Management Consultants Ltd 42 Independence Sq, POS, Trinidad - 625-4549 Ruthven Jack & Associates 35 Methuen St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 624-7306 Smexchange.com 151 Charlotte St., Port of Spain, Trinidad - (868) 623-5507 Total Management Consultants 64 Roberts St, Woodbrook, Trinidad - 628-7059 Travel Management Consultants 360 Southern Main Rd, , Trinidad - 672-9260 Tyler Consulting Ltd 7 Leona Av, Cascade, Trinidad - 627-1910 Valiant Consulting Group Ltd Esperanza St, St Joseph, Trinidad - 645-6517 Venture Strategies Ltd 50 Paradise Gdns, Tacarigua, Trinidad - 640-1921 Vishnu D K Musai Eastern Main Rd & Dandrade St, Tacarigua, Trinidad - 640-8912
APPENDIX 4: LIST OF CONSULTANTS MEMBERS OF THE TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO CHAMBER OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE
55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85
Foreign Commonwealth Office Benjamin De La Rosa* IBB Limited Kenneth Dalip* Bliss Seepersad Risk Management Services Ltd (RMS) MCM & Company Ltd QM Caribbean Ltd HRC Associates
350-0491 683-4874 623-6576/627-6072 672-5973 632-4525/632-9430 625-1091/627-5719
ASB Consulting Limited Victoria Hobday Melanie Richards PC Consultants Sandra Warner Syntegra Change Architects Limited Green Planet Energy Services Air Technology Ltd Corporate Dynamics Ltd Biana Edwards Keith Thomas Charisse RamkissoonSeepaersad Aubrey Garcia Connection Management Ltd Richard de Lima
671-7113/672-3644 740-0635/ 624/1091 680-5560/623-4277 625-2265 785-6660 221-5305
Brian Frontin Calibra Solutions Ltd Digital Business Limited Entrepreneur Central Ltd Sandra Welch-Farrell- Poerter Novelli
222-0403 (868) 622-4483 645-0101 685-9830 622-0046/0049
625-8027 622-5247 285-4HRC
682-2267/646-3979 (868) 221-9898 671-8811 639-3636 680-3982 624-9348 678-1223/622-6492 290-6244 632-9126
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Published on Oct 8, 2015