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MISSIONARY OUTREACH AND THE LOCAL CHURCH STUDY I. BIBLIOGRAPHY Mission today - G.Cheeseman The Bible basis for missions Understanding Christian Missions Operation World -

R.Glover Herbert Kane Herbert Kane


MISSIONARY OUTREACH IS THE WORK OF GOD We must begin our studies in missions with God and ask what kind of God is he? The Bible teaches us that he is an outstanding God, a missionary God, all missionary work can be described as God reaching the lost through Christ through Christ (Jn 3:16), It was God the Father who sent his Son into the world, it was God thee Son who came and died and rose again for the lost, and it is God the Holy Spirit who sends and equips missionaries today. If there is a gospel it is God’s Gospel, if a door is opened God opened the door, if someone’s heart responded God opened the heart and if someone goes on missionary work God sent him. J. Bovinck


“The missionary enterprise is not a human undertaking, but the work of Jesus Christ who will gather to himself a congregation out of every nation.”


“Through he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature and escape the corruption in the world caused by evil desires.”

Jn 10:16

“I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd.”


The churches main priority is missions, the church should be a missionary minded church. At Pentecost when the spirit came he sent them out. The situation today in many churches is that missions is non-existent.


MISSIONARY OUTREACH IS THEREFORE THE WORK OF EVERY LOCAL CHURCH All our services all our meetings ought to focus to some degree on missions. Herbert Kane:


“The church which has no missionary vision is no New Testament church�.

THE MISSIONARY CALL COMES TO THE LOCAL CHURCH (Acts 13:2, 16:10) In the New Testament the call to individual Christians comes also to the church as is seen at the church in Antioch (Paul and Barnabas) and so the call to the church confirmed and validated the call to the missionary, they laid hands on Paul and Barnabus and then sent them out


THE SENDING BODY IS THE LOCAL CHURCH The local or home church becomes a sending body, not a missionary society. 5.1.

Its principles must be biblical, base everything from scripture.


Its principles should be approached thoughtfully. a) Solid doctrine base b) They must be disciplined c) Their development


Its principles can only be applied sacrificially. Primarily as financial giving goes.


Its principles must be carried out prayerfully.




Its principles should be handles compassionately. The church doesn’t only support missionaries with money, prayer and practically (the whole person), needs letters of encouragement, needs help in the realms of education for their children, to a house, books, tapes, C.D. and when on furlough.




The Lordship of the Spirit in the home church. If ever the spiritual life of the home church deteriorates the missionaries will suffer, no more money. We must pray the church will remain alive and vibrant.


The Lordship of the Spirit on the mission field. The missionary will be encouraged.






*NB* THE BIBLICAL BASIS OF MISSIONS STUDY 2 INTRODUCTION. The Christian mission is a route in the Bible; from the Bible we get our message our mandate, our motivation and our methodology. Apart from the Word of God the missionary movement has neither a meaning or sanction. It is not enough to say we are interested in missions, it is not enough to say you pity the lost, it’s got to go deeper and the Bible gives us a basis for missions or evangelism it is under an obligation to search the scriptures in order to come to a understanding of the biblical basis of Christian missions. A.

THE MISSIONARY NOTED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT The Old Testament is a missionary book because God is a missionary God; from the very beginning God has been desperately concerned about the spiritual welfare of the world. 1.

Adam and Eve (Gen 1:28) So God has a world - wide vision


Noah (Gen 9:1) Again God gave the world a fresh start, with the same command fill the earth and spread across the earth.


Babel. Against self love and self seeking, which opposed his missionary purpose God scattered the people over the face of the earth.

*NB* 4.

Abraham (Gen 12:1) From Abraham a long procession of missionaries started (Gen 12:1-3) Covering 4,000 years. The missionary call was clear to Abraham.


Joseph (Gen 50 -ff) Joseph also was a great missionary sent by God to heathen Egypt.


Moses A great missionary leader, trained, discipled by God for a great undertaking



Elijah and Elisha (1Kings 17)


Woman Rahab, Ruth and Esther


Psalms (Psl. 2:8,47,72).


Prophets (Is 45:21-22) (Jer 3:17) (Hab 2:14) Hag 2:7) Jonah and Daniel

SUMMARY The missionary idea runs throughout every page of the Old Testament, Law, Prophets, and Writings. The Old Testament lives in a missionary atmosphere.


THE MISSIONARY HEART OF THE NEW TESTAMENT The New Testament draws its very breathe in mission, it incarnates missions and where ever it goes it creates missions and so the missionary idea which was in bud form in the Old Testament bursts into full bloom in the New Testament. 1.

GOSPELS The Gospels portray Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world, greatest missionary ever. He leaves heaven comes down to earth preaches, his personal ministry was missionary, his thoughts and aims were missionary, Woman in Samaria, Roman Centurion (Matt 28:18-20) Great Commission, gospels saturated with missions in every chapter.


ACTS. The Acts of the Apostles is the inspired record of the missionary work of the early church. The Acts of the Apostles is the authorized missionary manual of the church. KEY VERSE Acts 1:8 “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and to the end of the earth”. This will include Philip’s ministry, Peter’s ministry and Paul’s missionary journeys.



Epistles The Epistles are letters written by missionaries to local missionary churches which they had founded on their journeys.


Revelation Revelation was written by a missionary in exile.

CONCLUSION The Bible truly is a missionary book whether you view it as a whole or in its parts, For God missions is the priority C.


Be available to go.


If you stay, have a burden for missions.


a) Pray b) Give Educate yourself


Be missions minded as a church a) b) c) d) e)

Youth Elderly Men’s work Ladies work etc



THE CHARACTER OF GOD The missionary mandate is normally restricted to the closing verses of Matthew’s Gospel, those verses are even called the Great Commission, but there is so much more than just that verse and there are three dimensions to the missionary mandate. The Christian Mission, the Gospel that originated in the heart of God. If God were any other kind of God there would be no Christian mission and so the supreme argument for missions is found in the being and the Character of God. 1.1

GOD IS LOVE This is the central fact of the Gospel; God’s love is everlasting love (Jer 31:3), it was this all inclusive love of God that prompted God to send Jesus Christ (1 Jn 4:9)


GOD IS LIGHT In the Bible light has three connotations a) b) c)


Splendour (physical) (2 Cor 4:6) Intellectual (Psl 43:3) Moral or Holy (Rom 13:11-14) God’s love is a holy love (Rom 1:18) from his holiness comes his wrath. If someone rejects God he will experience his wrath (Jn 3:36). So the two go together, his holiness glows, but his love burns with holiness or God’s love makes it possible for a sinner to be saved, but God’s holiness makes it inevitable we will perish if we reject him, and so the missionary mandate is routed in the character of God.

THE COMMAND OF CHRIST A closer look at the teaching of Jesus will show us that he used three words to describe the relationship of the disciples and himself.



“Come unto me” (Matt 11:28) To those who come they will receive love, joy, peace. All are based on the forgiveness of their sin.


Follow (Matt 11:29-30) - the great renunciation We are to follow; this following is all or nothing commitment, not the watered down Christianity we see today. To be a disciple of Jesus is to follow him no matter what the cost.


Go (Matt 28:18-20) (Mark 16:15) The disciple is to go a) b) c) d)


The one who sends - Christ (Matt 28:18) The one who is sent - disciples To whom is the missionary sent - all over the world The message - our message is a serious business, it calls for a response

THE CONDITION OF MANKIND The needs of our world are enormous. 3.1.

Mankind’s spiritual needs (Mk 8:36-37) (Acts 16:30) (Rom 5:10) (Jn 3:36). The missionary’s first concern is to preach so that people can be saved.


Mankind’s intellectual needs (soul and mind) Translate the Bible into the language of the people, in addition to that build missionary schools, publish literature and open colleges


Mankind’s physical needs. No other religion places more honour on the body than Christianity and so Jesus fed the hungry, healed the sick


THE DIRECTOR - THE HOLY SPIRIT STUDY 4 INTRODUCTION After our Lord gave the command to go to his disciples, he then said wait (Lk 24:49) They must not move out until they had received the Holy Spirit. The work of the Holy Spirit is essential to missions. 1.

HIS WORKER - THE MISSIONARY Disciples to pray for the Lord to thrust out workers (Matt.9:38) “Pray that the Lord will thrust out workers”. 1.1 But they must be called by the Spirit (Acts 13:2) (Read Jer 23:21) 1.2 The worker must be gifted by the Spirit. e.g. If they are to be Evangelists they must have the gift of evangelism (Eph 4: 11-12) Those whom the Spirit calls he equips. 1.3. They must be motivated by the Spirit There is no harder task than missionary work and so all the missionaries’ dedication or zeal will fizzle out unless he is motivated by the Spirit.


HIS WORK - THE STRATEGY Remember the work is Gods (Rom 15:7-19) 2.1 The general plan was given by Christ (Acts 1:8) Beginning with Jerusalem then on to Judea, then on to Samaria and then on to the world. 2.2. Special guidance e.g. (Acts 16:6-10) Paul was told to go to Macedonia (Acts 18:9-11) - Stay in Corinth (Acts 22:18) - Leave Jerusalem a) Openness - we need to be open b) Closeness - stay close to the Lord c) Experience


HIS POWER - SPIRITUAL LIFE 3.1. Moving a man’s heart to Christ (1 Cor 2:10-14) (Jn 16:8, 6:44) No one comes to Christ without the work of the Spirit. The power we need is the Spirit. 3.2. Church growth Wherever there is growth it is because the Holy Spirit is working

CONCLUSION 1. The missionary must be a person full of the Holy Spirit (Acts 11:1-4) 2. Missionary work is done by praying for His power. That ends section A of our studies which deals with the fundamentals Lecture 1 The local church and missions Lecture 2 Biblical basis for missions Lecture 3 The missionary mandate Lecture 4 The director of missions is the Holy Spirit.



THE GREAT ACHIEVEMENT Jesus died on the cross around the year 30. At his ascension he left 11 disciples, they met with 120 followers of Christ, who gathered in the upper room. At his resurrection there were roughly 500 disciples. Over the next 300 years the empire was won over for Christ. Initially the missionaries reached out to the gentiles, they took the gospel wherever they went. In 303 in spite of all the persecution the church was strong, it was an incredible achievement.




Asia Minor Paul laboured here for 12 years; he established a strong church in every major city.


Rome By the year 150, there were 30,000 professing Christians.


France and Spain While not as wide spread as Rome there was a church and they reached into Britain.


North Africa The key cities in North Africa were Alexandria, Carthage and Hippo. With Alexandria being the main centre. Remember in Alexandria there was a famous Theological School under Clement and then Origen. North Africa produced some Church fathers.


Beyond the Empire. The Gospel then carried down into Ethiopia and went as far as India. By the year 313 there could have been as many as 50,000 000 Christians from all different walks of life.

WHY DID IT GROW? The main reason was because God caused it to grow, but practically speaking there were three main reasons:




The world was prepared a)

It was prepared by the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire provided a time of peace and swift travel.


The Greeks provided the language; it was the best medium for theological ideas.


Also God prepared the world through the Jews, they looked to the coming of the Messiah and good moral standards. There was a serious spiritual vacuum created by the philosophers.

The early Christians had a living faith. The early Christians possessed demanding convictions this led them to dedication and self sacrifice. E.g. Polycarp and earlier Steven. At a time when society was morally degenerate, uncaring and unloving. The Christians lived in love for one another and in absolute purity and they were a powerful advertisement for the gospel.


The power of the Holy Spirit. It was a day of great things and from the day of Pentecost the missionaries went out under the power of the Spirit. This is the greatest reason for the growth, sadly from 313 and once Christianity had become the popular religion of the Empire and Emperor, nominal Christians flooded into the church and spiritual decline appeared in every area.



INTRODUCTION By the year 400, most of Europe was composed of a number of pagan tribes, each tribe had a chief and they were at war with each other. As the Roman Empire fell apart in 410, the centre of civilization moved towards Europe and with this there was the spread of missionaries, two things emerged: • •

The forceful conversion of whole tribes, this resulted in nominal Christianity Faithful work of genuine missionaries who went to non-Christian tribes.

1. PATRICK AND IRELAND He was born in 389 when he was 16 years old some Irish pagan tribesmen captured him and took him to Ireland for 6 years. He managed to escape and went to France and here he became a monk. While he was there he claimed to have a vision to go and reach the people who captured him. He then returned to Ireland in 432 and he stayed there until his death in 461. When he arrived Ireland was totally pagan, when he died the church had spread throughout the country. His method was to plant monasteries in strategic areas from which his monks could reach out in evangelism. 2.

BONIFACE AND GERMANY Christianity entered into Britain from the Romans, when Rome fell Christianity fell; it came back into Britain through Gregory the great. Boniface lived from 680-754, he went to Belgium and from there he was consecrated as Bishop in Germany. He immediately cut down the Sacred Oak Tree of Thor to build a work chapel. He was a brilliant administrator, he built monasteries. When he was 80 years old he returned to become a missionary in Holland



CHARLEMAGNE AND THE SAXONS The Franks (France) were the most powerful European tribe in this period, their King was Charlemagne, he claimed to have become a Christian. In the year 800 On the 15th December he was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and he immediately set to make Europe Christian by force of arms. Any Saxons who refused to be baptized were put to death, many atrocities were committed.


CONSTANTINE, METHODIUS AND THE SLAVS The Eastern Church was based in Constantinople; where as the Western Church was based in Rome. From the Eastern Church two famous missionaries were sent out Constantine and Methodius.



The demonstration of the power of Christ over idolatry


The different churches sent out their best people as missionaries, they were the most mature in the church.


They also showed us the importance of learning the language and translating the Bible into the language of the people



“Missionaries will convert the world by preaching but also through the shedding of tears and blood and with great labour and through a bitter death”

As Europe gradually became Christianized in the middle ages true evangelical Christianity declined, the gospel of free grace by faith alone was obscured by a church which had become political and which had stressed salvation through the sacraments. During this period most missionary work was done by the Franciscan monks, Dominican Monks, and the Jesuit monks, their vows to celibacy and obedience to their superiors made them very successful in addition there were two powerful naval countries Spain and Portugal, they were exploring and they were predominantly Catholic. 1.

TO THE MUSLIMS Mohammed moved from Mecca to Medina in 622 and so the Islamic religion started. They taught there is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet. He united the Arab world and in a short period of time he conquered north Africa, Palestine, Asia Minor and half of Spain. He then attacked France and took Constantinople in 1453. 1.1.

Francis of Assisi (1181) This Godly man made several attempts to reach the Muslims for Christ. He even went on the fifth crusade, reaching Egypt and before the Sultan he made a challenge they declined, but sadly the Sultan still wasn’t converted.


Raymond Lull (1235) He was the first man to develop a theory for missions to the Muslim world. At the age of 30 he was called to Christ to work among the Muslims which he did until at the age of 80. He said there are three things you need to reach the Muslims: a) b) c)

You have to know the language The Word of God where the truth of Christianity are taught and explained. A willingness to preach even if you are killed.




Francis Xavier (1506) He was the founder of the Jesuits, he went to India in 1542 in 1548 he went across to Japan where he preached for the next 25 years


Matthew Ricci (1552) He went to China in 16oo and started initially as a clock maker and then he preached the gospel. At his death there were about 2000 people who claimed to follow Christ.


Robert de Nobilo (1577) He was the most famous Catholic missionary to India, he adopted a total Indian way of life and cut himself off from all western style living.


TO THE AMERICAS Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain in 1492, hoping to reach India, but by mistake he discovered America. He went back a second time carrying missionaries. What followed was a sad story, because Spanish and Portuguese soldiers forced the people to become Christians by arms.


TO AFRICA The Portuguese through their trade opened doors in the old Congo, Angola and Mozambique. Congo was the most successful. The first missionaries arrived in 1491 to the Congo.



The need for a clear gospel to be preached


There was the use of trade to enter a closed land


Cultural barriers, like de Nobilo


What is needed? Learn the language, teach the Word of god with a book with a clear explanation, no matter what the cost


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 8 PROTESTANT MISSIONS WORK TO 1790 INTRODUCTION For 200 years (1500 to 1700) after the Reformation very little missionary work happened. The reasons were threefold: i) The Protestant churches were fighting for their existence. ii). Sadly they were divided amongst themselves. E.g. Lutherans and Zinglians. iii) They were not in touch with the new world, it was the Catholic nations like Spain and Portugal who discovered these new countries and so spread Roman Catholicism. 1.

THE PROTESTANT CHURCH OF DENMARK At the end of the 17th century Denmark had a little colony in South East India, but there were no missionaries to send and so they turned to the Pietists in Germany and they sent two missionaries Ziegenbalg and Plutochau and they did Missionary work on a large scale. They had five principles for missions: 1.1. A church and a school go together 1.2. Translate the Bible into the language of the people 1.3. You must know the mind of the people to whom you are going. 1.4. Your aim is to be definite, personal, conversion. 1.5. Make the Church autonomous as soon as possible In thirteen years 350 people were soundly converted by these two missionaries


COUNT ZINZINDORF AND THE MORAVIANS *NB. Zinzindorf was a true man of God a Pietist and he ruled over a number of people in a village called Hernnhut - the Lord’s watch. He encouraged amongst his followers a deep devotion to Christ and prayer and soon they got a missionary vision and they sent out missionaries all over the world. Within 20 years of starting his work Zinzindorf had sent out more missionaries than all the Protestant churches in the world had sent out in the previous 200 years. They had a great zeal; they went to Greenland, Africa, America. They were ordinary down to earth people with a passion for Christ and for souls.


LESSIONS TO BE LEARNT 3.1 A church can sadly be orthodox, but have no missionary vision 3.2 The proportion of missionaries to members in a church is a sign of the life or death of that church


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 9 THE MODERN MISSIONARY MOVEMENT INTRODUCTION The modern missionary movement runs from 1789 – 1940. 1.

ORIGINS Colonialism - the secular factor Up until the 19th Century Europe was weak and thinly populated, but that all changed with the industrial revolution. The steam ship and train revolutionized communication and with that came the desire to colonize or expand. Holland, France and Germany all set their flags in the third world, but it was the British Empire which became the greatest Empire in history, occupying India, Africa, North America, Australia and New Zealand and even China. 1.2

Revival - the spiritual reason. In Germany for example there was the Pietist movement headed by Count Zinzindorf, they in turn greatly influenced England with John Wesley and George Whitfield which led to the great evangelical awakening and out of these revivals came a desire for missions.


CHARACTERISTICS At this time a number of great missionary societies were founded for eg. London Missionary Society - London Missionary Society, Church Missionary Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society were all founded between 1799 and 1804 and they were all marked with three characteristics, 2.1

Bible Translation As the missionaries went across the world their great mission was to translate the Bible into the language of the people. Later a society was formed that was just for this, Wycliffe Bible Translation.


Schools and Hospitals They established schools and hospitals as well, so when missionaries went they planted a church, built a school and a hospital.



Female Missionaries. There were several outstanding female missionaries


BEGINNINGS The father of the modern missionary movement was William Carey 2.1.

William Carey. He was originally a Baptist Minister in a small village in England, but God laid on his heart a vision of taking the Gospel to the world. He was inspired by reading of the Moravians, the life of David Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards and so he wrote a tract in 1792 and that had the same effect which Martin Luther’s 95 Theses had on the church. Then he preached where ever he could on missions, his text always Isaiah 54:2-3. His great motto all his life was “Attempt great things from God” In September 1793 he went to India. He lay down five missionary principles which cannot be improved upon: a) b) c) d) e)


Preach the gospel Distribution of the Bible in the language of the people. In thirty years he translated 6 Bibles, 23 New Testaments and some of the Scriptures into ten languages. Establish a church He did this in a place called Serampore Deep study of the religious background and thoughts of the people. You must train the local population to take over as soon as possible. By 1851 there were 399 missionaries with him and 91,000 converts. He has been called the father of modern missions.

ENDING In the year 1853 Hudson Taylor went to China and did an unbelievable work for God. James Hepburn went to Japan in 1859. Then across in the South Pacific there was John Williams and John Payton and then there was Judson who went to Burma and then there was David Livingstone, Robert Moffat and van der Kemp who came to Africa. CONCLUSION Towards the latter part of the 19th Century certain events affected missions, the one event was the Russian Revolution in 1917 which led to the rise of communism and secondly nationalism in the third world took place especially in South America and Africa and thirdly liberal theology.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 10 MISSIONARY WORK IN THE 20TH CENTURY INTRODUCTION The 20th Century has seen a number of important tools for evangelism made available for the church, also there has been proliferation of specialist ministries. NB – However nothing will replace or do such a great job as the missionary who goes and lives with the people, shares their life and leads them to Christ, but these new tools have certainly helped. 1. NEW TOOLS 1.1. Radio and Television. This is a major means of evangelism in the world today. It is the only direct means of preaching the gospel into countries that are blocked by Communist or Muslim governments. At the moment they broadcast in 103 of the 271 main languages in the world they say that up to 960 million people listen to their programmes. (Trans-World Radio, FEBI Radio Station) 1.2. Literature Work Another great tool, there is a great hunger for literature in the world, especially in the 3rd world. The advent if cheap printing and easy transport makes this a great tool for evangelism. 1.3. Correspondence Courses Modern postal systems have now created wonderful doors for this ministry. 1.4. Aircraft and Ships, Mission Aviation Fellowship works in two countries, Doulos and Logos Operation Mobilization, Anastasia 2.

NEW MINISTRIES 2.1. Tentmakers Acts 18:3 - (Paul made tents) Today the only way you can get into a hostile country is through a trade. 2.2. Short term Ministries There is a great emphasis on this today 2.3. Student Ministries E.g. Campus Crusade for Christ 2.4. Bible Translation Wycliffe, they send out trained missionaries to translate the Bible into the language of the people. 97% have been done, 723 still need translating 2.5. Children’s Work Half of the population in Africa is under the age of 15. 2.6. Urban Evangelists There are 310 cities in the world with over a million inhabitants 2.7. Relief workers. World Vision International, Tear Fund Samaritan work


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 11 INDIGENOUS MISSIONARY SOCIETIES INTRODUCTION There is one factor in the missionary scene which we haven’t yet emphasized and that is the growth and maturity of 3rd world missions. This pattern developed in the church of Antioch (Acts 13:1-2), where a church founded by missionary work begins itself to reach out. 1.

FACTS There have always been 3rd world missionaries but they have not been all that well known, but in the last 50 years missionaries from out of Africa have grown wonderfully, they are sent out either from a denominational society e.g.. Baptist Missionary Society or an Independent Society e.g. Africa Inland Mission. or Overseas Missionary Fellowship. In 1990 there were 370 sending agencies in the 3rd world sending out about 15,000 missionaries


THE ADVANTAGES Such missionaries are more effective than their western colleagues for four reasons: 2.1




Less cultural distance When an indigenous missionary goes to a new people in his own land he has far less of a cultural and language barrier to cross than his western colleague. Much cheaper It is far cheaper to use local missionaries than to waste the Lord’s money on western missionaries e.g. On airfare, then having to learn the language. Better access. Even in some Muslin countries they are more open to local missionaries than western missionaries. So it is for us today a great joy that many missionaries are going from the 3rd world into the field. Situation in Nigeria Illustration in Nigeria where in l982 they formed the Nigerian Evangelical Mission Agency, all the societies came together to form this, it was the first of its kind in Africa and it worked so well that they did it in Brazil and Korea as well.

3. PARTNERSHIP However indigenous missions need support for e.g. Often western countries can support financially a lot more, also by way of experience. But at the end of the day, it is better for the indigenous missionary to reach his own continent.



DOES THE BIBLE TEACH MISSIONARY PRINCIPLES? The Bible leaves us in no doubt concerning the Christians duty to go into all the world and preach the gospel. But we ask the question does the Bible give us guidance as to how the missionary task is to be fulfilled? On that issue it is not clear; we gain our information by way of implications especially from the example of Paul.


PAUL AS A MISSIONARY Without a doubt Paul was the greatest of all missionaries, in 10 years he established churches in four provinces, Galatia, Macedonia, Achaia and Asia. How did Paul achieve this tremendous work he did?


PRINCIPLES TOUCHING THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CONGREGATION 3.1 Finance Paul never looked for financial assistance, he exercised a tent making ministry, but made sure that each church administered its own funds and the implication is that every local church should be self-supporting, selfpropagating and self-governing. 3.2. Training of converts Paul trained his converts and so he established these churches and on his second missionary journey he checked on them, so Paul preached to, and taught his converts. There were problems in his churches morally and doctrinally, but from the beginning they were well grounded. 3.3. Ordination of ministers 3.4.

Authority and Discipline Again Paul did not legislate for his churches, he laid down principles.


AN ASSESSMENT OF THESE PRINCIPLES When one surveys these four main principles we not only agree with them, but we urge them to be carried out. Sadly too many missionaries have become too dependant on the local church.


PRINCIPLES OF MISSIONARY STRATEGY FOR TODAY 1. He aimed for strategic centres Paul went for the key cities 2. He aimed for key individuals for Christ 3. There were also mass movements



RECRUITMENT The need for missionaries There is no doubt that needs have never been as great as now. The harvest is truly plentiful, but the labourers are so few. Today there are two billion people who have not heard the gospel, today there are 1500 tribes (peoples, groups) who have there own language and culture but they are un-reached, this means the need for recruitment is urgent. 1.2.

The kind of missionaries The church has a great responsibility to make known to its people the kind of missionaries that are needed today. a)

Spiritual needs The spiritual demand must be made known; we are not just looking for professionals, but godly people.


Professional qualifications These should be clearly known in our churches today. E.g. Medical work, printing and literature, radio, video and T.V. work.


Church There is a need for a local church to support and to sustain a missionary on the field. There are a number of options available: i) Long term missionaries This will involve going to live among people, learn their language, build a local church; this will include church planters, evangelists, pastors, Bible translators, health care, student workers, urban leaders


ii) iii)


. Tent makers. For e.g. Water researcher, tool maker . Short term (6months to 2 years) E.g. O.M. (Operation Mobilization,) Y.W.A.M (Youth With A Mission)


Personal knowledge of Jesus Christ Their relationship which Christ


Bible You need a wonderful groundwork in the bible, for the rest of your life you will teach the Bible.


Experience in witnessing. You need to have experience in sharing your faith with others.


We need a knowledge of the people’s background i)

You must learn the language


You need to know a little about Anthropology getting accustomed to the customs of the people.


Comparative religion. You need to know the religion of the people you are going to work among.


Knowledge of missionary methods


Know some of the difficulties you will experience on the field


You need to learn adaptability.



EVANGELISM The nature of missionary work is clearly defined in the closing verses of Matthew’s gospel (Matt28:19-20). This is a clear commission from our Lord Jesus Christ, not only to evangelize the lost, but also to teach and to train, and the passion of the missionary then is always to stay focused, reach the lost and teach the converts. 1.1.

The new geographical areas Over these last 2000 years the gospel has spread across the world. But sadly there are still millions who have never heard the name of Jesus. Our primary thrust must be to reach them first.


The new sections of the community We need to focus attention on areas that need the gospel. e.g. A missionary to the Aids sufferers, or to International students who come into South Africa., missionary in the student world at varsities.


Through the media We are needed in the media. E.g. Y.W.A.M., Media Village


PASTORAL CARE Jesus’ commission is to ‘teach them to observe all things I have commanded you.’ Perhaps the greatest single challenge is right here. That large numbers of people have received Christ, but they have had no teaching. So the urgent need is for Christians to teach and care for the new converts. So many pastors are illequipped and under-trained.


TR AINING The missionary is to work himself out of a job – in the sense that you are going there to train the people to do the work.


SPECIALIZED MINISTRIES E.g. Schools, Medical, Agriculture, flying (MAF) So missionary work is real spiritual warfare, releasing men and women from the power of Satan unto God - and then teaching them the things of God. May our local churches always be a nursery for missions as we send our very best.




ORIGIN Animism or spirit worship is the most primitive of the world’s religions, If you look at Hinduism or Buddhism or Islam we will notice that there are some common things in Animism. It still exists in many parts of the world today.


MAIN BELIEFS It is not a unified religious system, but the name given to a particular type of religious belief. a)

Belief in Creator God The creator God is recognized but not worshipped because that is unnecessary, because his intention to us is always good, but animistic worship is of a negative nature, pleasing the spirits that might otherwise harm us.


Fear of Spirits. Their life is ruled by fear, whether the fear of death or beyond the dead or spirits.


Need for propitiation. There is no hope of permanent release from the fear of spirits, but only a temporary release through propitiation.


No moral understanding Many of their laws are not based on a distinction between good and evil.


Fatalism. This attitude sees everything including the nature of life beyond death as pre-determined, and it is unaffected by the character and actions of the individual.


Importance of ritual. It does not matter what you believe as long as the ritual is correct.




Necrolatry This recognizes death as a permanent separation of the body and soul; it therefore aims to remove the harmful influence of the departed spirits on the living. Ancestor worship With this there are ceremonies, offerings and sacrifices which attempt to remove the souls of the dead away from the living. Totemism How a group are united because of their relationship to a particular plant/animal and that becomes their totem.


Spirit worship This form recognizes the existence of spirits not only of departed souls but of natural phenomena. Magic If it is contagious magic, then some part of that person which has been separated from him is believed to still have a special relationship to him and harm him. Taboo Protection from this magic is now in taboos Fetishism This is the use of charms or sometimes bracelets which is aimed at keeping away evil.


THE ANIMAL WORLD Today they number over 200 million people, large areas of central Africa, New Guinea, the Pacific and on the South American continent are the most animist places. They are also found in a lot of countries.


CHRISTIAN MISSIONS Over the years it has been among the animists where there has been the greatest success for missions. But the greatest problem of evangelizing among the animists is the multiplicity of language. E, g, New Guinea there are 700 languages.





THE PROPHET MOHAMMED (570- 632) Islam means submission to the will of God. It is the religion of the followers of the prophet Mohammed, they are therefore called Muslims. Islam appeared 500 years after the time of Christ. Mohammed was born in AD 570 and from the age of 40 he received a series of visions through a heavenly messenger and so the movement started, it grew amazingly quickly, and by the time of his death is 632, most of the Arabian peninsula was under Muslim rule. The religious state founded on Islamic law has always been a Muslim concept.


EARLY EXPANSION Within 10 years of his death Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Egypt were all Islamic. Within the next 70 years the whole of the Middle East became Muslim and that spread right across North America. It even touched on areas in France and Spain.


KORAN There are two aspects of Muslim doctrine: a) Theological aspect which gives doctrine b) The legal aspect which defines their practice. All this is contained in the Koran, which is the sacred book of of Islam, containing sacred revelations given to Mohammed. There are references to the Old Testament and Jesus


UNITY OF GOD This is the central doctrine of Muslim belief, God is one and they hate idolatry and polytheism, God is one.


GOD IS CREATOR AND JUDGE The Rewarder and Punisher of his people, but very little is known of His love.


ATTITUDE TO CHRIST Jesus Christ is regarded as a Prophet of God. They accept his virgin birth, but deny his deity and resurrection. The Muslim accuses the Christian of departing from Monotheism and abandoning the oneness of God.




THE FIVE PILLARS Based on the five pillars of Islam. There are no sacraments, one priesthood in Islam. The faithful are told to carry out five essentials. Prayer It is made towards Mecca five times a day, but on Friday they go together for congregational prayer at the mosque. Alms giving Ÿ of their income is to be given to the poor. Fasting That is observed very strictly especially in the month of Ramadan, no food is to be eaten between sunrise and sunset. Pilgrimage Every Muslim hopes to visit Mecca once in their life (every year), to commemorate Mohammed’s birth. Profession of faith In Allah and Mohammed his prophet


SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND BELIEFS a) The Islamic brotherhood is a fellowship free from racial barriers. b) The greatest sin is unbelief c) Blood revenge is permitted d) Woman have no status, and they allow polygamy. Men can be divorced but not woman. e) They are forbidden to eat pork, drink alcohol or gamble.


THE SUNNIES These are the traditional group and by far the majority


THE SHIRE They are found mainly in Iran and Iraq, they are fundamentalists.


THE MUSLIM WORLD They number over 500 million in the world today and they are training missionaries at a great rate.


CHRISTIAN MISSION Over many years, work in Muslim areas has been met with great opposition. Afghanistan and Morocco are totally closed, but in most there are strong restrictions. The challenge of the 10:40 window is enormous, but it is very difficult.



ORIGINS Buddhism had its roots in Hinduism. It originated in India about 600 years before Christ. A Man by the name of Siddhartha Gautama was born in 563 BC and was the son of a Himalayan chief on the border of Nepal, he raised up the Hindu religion. His early life was one of luxury and ease. But the problem of suffering touched him deeply, so at the age of 29 he left home and became a hermit searching for the answers to life, which lasted 6 years. He first studied under two Hindu holy men, but they did not help him. He then tried extreme asceticism, but that too never answered his problems. He then went to mental activity and claimed that one day he was given enlightenment and on that basis Buddhism is based. Budda means the enlightened one. For the next 45 years he walked form town to town in India, imparting this vision he had seen and he started with a number of monks. Within 200 years there were 18 different varieties of Buddhism and in 250 BC it was made the state religion of India. It spread to China and from China to Korea, eventually reaching Tibet where they established a theocracy except their leader Dali Lamer was a god.



NEGATIVE DOCTRINE Its appeal is mainly to the intellect and it is more a moral philosophy than a religion



Existence is suffering


Suffering springs from desire


The cure for suffering is to eliminate desire


To eliminate desire there is an eight fold path to follow.



THE EIGHT-FOLD TRUTH. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)


Right views (no unworthy acts or attitudes allowed) Right desires(free from lust, ill will and cruelty) Right speech (be truthful and gentle) Right conduct (this includes charity and refraining from killing anything.) Right livelihood (useful lives, no luxury) Right effort (this will overcome evil and promote what is worthy) Right awareness (contemplation) Right meditation (ability to concentrate all thought on a single object.)

KAMA This is a system whereby you receive a reward for doing good but punishment for evil and both of them determine your next reincarnation. This means that there is no beginning or ending.


NIRVANA This is a state of mind where peace is attained

SUMMARY Buddhism in therefore a system of self deliverance but it does not acknowledge sin, redemption, forgiveness or a personal God. 3.



The Ravada They are the conservatives.


Mahayady They are the more liberal like in Guinea and Japan

THE BUDDHIST WORLD Today there are 200 million Buddhists, found mainly in Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Japan, Tibet and Korea.


CHRISTIAN MISSIONS Over the years Christian missionaries have made very little impact on the Buddhists, there are very few converts.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 18 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND MISSIONS. INTRODUCTION Church members who deny the fact of their responsibility for the needy in any part of the world are just as guilty as those who deny this or that article of faith. Our social responsibility is huge, more so today than ever before. E.g. 800 million people (one fifth of the world) lack the basic necessities of life. Forty thousand children died because of a lack of food and basic health care. Our responsibilities to our world are big! 1.


THE OLDER EVANGELICAL VIEW This taught that mission is purely evangelism, missionaries are Evangelists, many saw medical or educational work as not central. But this is not an adequate response to the command of Christ (Jn 20:21) – Jesus healed the sick, the broken hearted as well as preached.


WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES VIEW For them missions was predominantly social, bringing harmony, peace and justice to the world, but this left little room for evangelism.



SOCIAL ACTION IS A MEANS OF EVANGELISM E.g. A missionary hospital exists so that you can preach to the patients, food is given out like bait on a hook so that they will come and hear the gospel, this is an unhealthy attitude, which may even border on hypocrisy.

2.2. .

SOCIAL ACTION IS PART OF EVANGELISM With this view medicine and education go together with preaching the gospel, so you dress a tropical ulcer because of the love of Christ.




SOCIAL ACTION AND EVANGELISM ARE DISTINCT BUT EQUAL This is the view of Ronald Cider he teaches that social action and Evangelism are both part of our mission but neither depends on the other; they each stand on their own right. The problem with this is they are not equal, evangelism must be primary, saving grace is mans greatest need.


CAREFUL MODELS The missionary primary brings the gospel of salvation. The missionary is concerned with the soul, but is also concerned to love the body as well. So the missionaries work then will bring the kingdom of God. E.g. William Carey and Helen Roseavere.


RELATIONSHIP Evangelism and social action are distinct and they stand in their own right, but evangelism is the priority.



Social action may open doors for the gospel


Social action will go along with evangelism


Social action should automatically follow evangelism (Titus 2:14). EXTENT OF THE CHURCH’S SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.

Although it is not the primary task, social action is a vital part of missionary work. We are to love people as Jesus loves people and this will mean preaching the gospel of God’s grace and the urgency for people to get right with God, but also showing compassion to the needy in a biblical and effective way.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 19 THE UNFINISHED TASK INTRODUCTION. In this particular lecture we are going to see the enormous task that is still unfinished. J.Ewen: “As long as there are millions destitute of the Word of God and knowledge of Jesus Christ it will be impossible for me to devote my time and energy to those who have both”. 1.

THE WORLD TODAY The task that our Lord gave the church is getting bigger everyday, due to the growth in the world population. E.g. When the commission was given AD. 1 About 170 million people were in the world. When William Carey sailed for India in 1793 there were about 900 million people, By the end of the century (2000) there will be about 6 000 200 million people in the world. In other words there are 30 times more people to reach today than in the times of the apostles. In addition there is also a diversity of language and people. E.g. 5500 languages and 12 000 different people groups.


WORLD SURVEY 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6.


Africa South and Central America Asia (India, China, Japan, Pacific Islands) Eastern Europe Middle East Western Nations


PREACH THE GOSPEL TO EVERY CREATURE (Mk.16:15) Today there are still about 2000 million people who have never heard the gospel.



GO AND MAKE DISCIPLES OF ALL NATIONS (Matt.28:18-20) Rev. 7:9-10) Today of the 12000 different people groups about 3000 have no church. The question is where do we find these unreached people?. The majority are within the great religions of the world, especially Islam and Hinduism. IN SUMMARY: There are about 774 million Muslims There are about 561 million Hindus There are about 418 million Chinese There are about 264 million Buddhists There are about 135 million tribal people groups


DEPLOYMENT OF THE MISSIONARY FORCE In general terms there are 81 000 Protestant missionaries, 70 000 of those missionaries are from the Western countries and 11 000 are from the 3rd world. The vast majority of Western missionaries are working with existing churches (95%), whereas 3rd world missionaries are involved in church planting.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 20 THE MISSIONARY CALL INTRODUCTION We must begin with the certainty that missionary work is God’s Work and He selects the personnel



THE BURDEN If the Lord wants you to go He will lay a great burden on your heart for the work, you will find that the Lord will lay some particular area on your heart while the need is not the call it is still an important factor.


THE GIFTS Another thing that the Lord will do for the person he wants on the mission field is to prepare him for the work by giving the necessary gifts and character. On the mission field you will need a fit body, emotional stability and then there will be specific gifts.


THE LOCAL CHURCH In the New Testament missionaries were sent out by the local church. So Barnabas was sent out from Antioch by his church, later Paul and Barnabas were sent out from Antioch, sent by their church. The local church is crucial for missions, it will see those members who are gifted and take the initiative to send them out and then the local church works with the Missionary Society


THE CONFIRMATION God now will arrange circumstances to make it possible for you to go, all the obstacles will be removed and the door will be opened.



IF YOU ARE ALREADY IN FULL TIME SERVICE. It is often the Lord’s way to call someone to do home mission first and later to go into a foreign country. The advantage of that is that you will gain experience in a local church which will make you all the wiser for the future. But we ask this question, what should I do, if I am called?. 2.1.

Prayer E.g. Operation World - help you pray for missions. Also link up with a society that is working where you would like to work (AEF, SIM).


Make yourself available Continue to pray that the Lord will make it clear where he wants you to go.


Read missionary biographies They give you inspiration. Especially read books from people where you want to go.


Start where you are. If the Lord is burdening your heart get involved now!


Talk to others. Explore all possibilities, write to all missionary agencies.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 21 THE MISSIONARY - WHAT SORT OF PERSON? INTRODUCTION Not all Christians have the necessary qualifications for missionary work, nor indeed need they, because God calls us into different work, according to our ability, nevertheless there are five important aspects that we need to examine if we are praying about missionary work. 1.

PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS. Good, consistent all-round health is important because life on the field is generally much harder than at home. Sometimes small problems with our health can become serious once we get into the field and furthermore medical facilities are not always available on the mission field.


ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS In the past great missionaries have also been outstanding academics. E.g. William Carey, Jonathan Edwards, Alexander Duff. a) They need a good general intelligence b) A minimum of three years at a Bible College c) A good understanding of Missiology If the missionary goes into a specialized ministry like Bible translation he needs to be trained.


PHYCHOLOGICAL QUALIFICATIONS Certain characteristics should be present in a missionary candidate. 2.1.

EMOTIONAL STABILITY The missionary faces many pressures and frustrations, often without Christian fellowship and therefore they need to be sure and stable.


ADAPTABILITY A missionary will go into a strange area with strange people with strange ways. If you can’t adapt stay at home!


ABILITY TO ENDURE HARDSHIP The hours are long, and the work is difficult on the mission field


PATIENCE The person who expects results in a short time will leave soon




DRIVE, ENTHUSIASM, INITIATIVE They throw themselves into their work, they plan, execute, follow-up and keep at it with all energy.


CO-OPERATION They need the ability to get on well with others; the best missionary is usually a peaceful person who can work in a team.

SPIRITUAL QUALIFICATIONS 4.1. A GENUINE CONVERSION The greatest and most essential qualification for fruitful missionary work is spiritual, you must be saved. 4.2.

CONVICTION OF A CALL You are conscious that God has called you; a missionary must be able to say “I am here by the will of God, doing what He wants me to do”. Once the missionary can no longer say that he must go home.


STRONG DISCIPLINED DEVOTIONAL LIFE This will mean that daily private prayer, Bible study and worship must all be part of his life. At home the missionaries will have a local church and lots of friends, but not on the field, he has no one to check up on him.


LOVE (1 Thes 2:9) The people you go to will forgive you if they know you love them.



EXPERIENCE AND SUCCESS IN CHRISTIAN SERVICE A candidate must first prove at home that the Lord can and does use him.


PREPARATION Missionary training and preparation need to be carefully thought through. 5.1. WORD The missionary should be trained well in the Scriptures, it is a highly uneducated world today and he needs to know his Bible. 5.2.

CULTURE The missionary needs to be trained in the culture of the people that he is going to. He needs to have a basic understanding of cultural factors and social structures, but most important is he needs to learn the language.


LIFE Training in discipleship is important, becoming the most effective for Christ,



E.g. You may go in as a tent maker.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 22 INCARNATION INTRODUCTION The best model ever for a missionary is our Lord Jesus Christ himself (Jn 20:21). The Biblical pattern for each missionary is to leave his home and incarnate himself into the life and community of the people he comes to serve. 1.


THE THEOLOGICAL BASE In coming to earth from heaven, Jesus crossed the cultural and social barriers and His incarnation gives us the pattern for today. 1.1.

EMPTYING Jesus emptied himself of everything and came to this world.


TAKING He took the form of a servant, he became one of us and the purpose was for our salvation

THE PRACTICAL OUTWORKING. 2.1. GENERAL ATTITUDES The missionary must determine in his mind that he will leave behind his old way of life and adapt the way of life of the people to whom he is sent. He will show respect for the people, he will appreciate their way of life and it will show itself in how he eats their food, he will greet them in the way that shows respect. 2.2.

LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL LEARNING Language learning is the hardest thing for a new missionary to do, but you must do it. Also there is cultural learning; you learn the customs of the people.


FINANCE. Like our Lord Jesus Christ the missionary must live among the people, he must not portray an affluent way of life.


HOUSING The missionary ought to live among the people, your house must be very close to your people and they must feel at home when they come to your house.


TAKING TIME. Jesus could have come for 6 months, but he came for 33 years. In all missionary work you should be there for at least 3 years.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 23 THE MISSIONARY AS THE SERVANT OF THE CHURCH INTRODUCTION The pattern for the missionary is by God’s grace to establish a church and as soon as possible to hand over the authority to the local people, but other forms of missionary work also is a great work. E.g. Medical, or a missionary who goes to an already established church. 1.

HIS PLACE AND JUSTIFICATION. Timothy, Titus, Crescens and Titicus were all sent by Paul to established churches. In order to build them up and put things in order (2 Cor. 8:23) (2 Tim 4:10-12) (Titus 1:5). The missionary came in order to teach and to serve.




PIONEER MISSIONARIES. He goes among a people, learns the language, lives among them, leads them to Christ. and plants a church.


PATERNAL MISSIONARIES. They set up institutions and run them (Helen Roseveare)


PARTNERSHIP MISSIIONARIES. They are invited by the local church to come and help them (Rod Thomas)

TEACHING IN CONTEXT. And so the missionary arrives in a brand new culture, so in a sense he comes with an Old Testament culture, a New Testament culture, the culture of the people to whom he is going and then his own culture, and he seeks to teach in that context. But all the time the missionary is a servant emptying himself, taking the form of a servant in order to reach them for Christ.


MISSIOLOGY STUDY 24 THE SENDING CHURCH INTRODUCTION. Mission is most importantly the sending out of people by God from a church to found another church in a different people. The sending church has three responsibilities: 1.


KNOWLEDGE The Local church must know the facts, they need to understand missions and also have the relevant facts about the different missionary fields, the missionaries and the needs.


ATTITUDES. There is a need on the part of the church to have an attitude of missions, we all must be missionary minded.


ENTHUSIASM. Enthusiasm is catchy and you and I need to generate an enthusiasm for missions.


HOW? a)

b) c) d) 2.

Concentrate on the leaders E.g. The Church Council, the youth leaders, the women’s fellowship leaders, Men for the Master leaders, get them fired for missions. Use the pulpit - preach missions. Organize. Organize missionary conferences at least once a year, find missionary books and sell them. Pray every time there is worship and prayer meetings.

MISSIONARY PRAYER True missionary prayer will give a:



A correct perspective on the work. We believe it is not by plans, but my God’s Spirit


Historically. Always missionary advances are made in answer to prayer.


Those who pray share in the work.


How? a) b) c) d)


When? a) b) c) d)


For workers to be sent onto the field. (Matt.9:37) For guidance where to go. (Acts.13:1-2) For success (Eph 6:19-20) For protection and help for the missionaries (Rom.15:31)

Individually - quiet time Family prayers Church pray meetings Meetings themselves



(2 Cor. 8:1-16)

They ought to give to the point of self-sacrifice; our missionaries must be financially cared for. 3.2.

LIFE – STYLE. This may mean that we will need more simple life-styles, E.g. If we have to build, keep it simple and save money


PRACTICAL ARRANGEMENTS. Always look after your missionaries, write to them regularly, find out what they need, when they come home on furlough look after them, make sure they are refreshed in every way.


Missionary Outreach and the Local Church  

Studies in Missiology

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