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FOLLOW THE TIDE THE TANGIBLE POTENTIAL OF MUDFL ATS AREA

E W E L I N A W E R O N I K A PAW L I K


DIPLOMARBEIT Follow the tide. The tangible potential of mudflats area. ausgeführt zum Zweke der Erlangung des akademischen Grades einer Diplom-Ingenieurin unter der Leitung von Univ. Prof. Arch. Dipl. Ing. Christian Kern Institut für Kunst Und Gestaltung E264/2 eingereicht an der Technischen Universität Wien Fakultät für Architektur und Raumplanung von

Ewelina Weronika Pawlik 1328462

Wien, am ..................

..................................


00

ABSTRACT The Master Thesis draws attention to mudflats areas which due to the increasing population are transformed for expanding cities. The problem of reclamation of these areas is not negative itself, but the scale of habitat’s destruction it brings is large enough to stop this process immediately. It touches directly Asia, expecting currently to have around 2 billions people more. The reclamation of mudflats is one of the operations in preparing the countries for next, bigger generations. That’s why, the chosen area is located in Chinese province, which as a conglomeration of hundreds of fishing villages has a huge impact on world aquaculture. The place became well known because of its environmental beauty and old traditional Chinese lifestyle, thus flourishing as a hot spot for world wide photographers. First studies of chosen location made me aware of many problems fishing villages are facing, which turned out to be also a part of #global issues. Suddenly the beauty of this place, juxtaposed to harshness of daily life, overwhelms and reveals how idealized landscape is being sold rather than the reality of this place. Struggling with the subjects as #wetlands #reclamation #climate change #fishing village and #migration the thesis began to focus on the potential of mudflat area, which used to be the daily workspace for all locals. Those areas, most photographed places throughout Xiapu County, being documented can contribute to spreading ideas and making people more aware of certain issues. All existing photographic spots, considered as channels, could be turned into communication platform, and by using geotags via social media, Xiapu landscape might interlock with design proposal manifesting the value of wetlands. 1. Terrain of Xiapu County, Fujian Province, East Coast China


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The project’s main mission is to emphasize the importance of the fishing villages not only because of the threaten of its ecological security but also because of the authenticity and history of the area. Using the potential of tidal area as well as a potential of fishing farm, the research phase works out the way of implementing new functions and developing the relationship between inhabitants and visitors, which might cause the quality improvement of locals’ life. The activation strategy of this mudflats might be possible desirable through transformation of the #sea walk experience. Besides, the Master Thesis investigates also ways of perceiving differently places like Xiapu County, not only as a beautiful landscape worth to see but also as a workplace and environment open for innovative spaces rousing interesting emotional and esthetic experience.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I 01 GLOBAL ISSUES #wetlands #reclamation #marine habitat #climate change #migration

RESEARCH

16 18 20 22 24 26

02 XIAPU COUNTY #Xiapu County #paradise #typhoons #quality of life #mudscapes #landscapes #aquaculture

32 34 36 48 50 52 54 56

03 WORLD OF DATA #most geotagged places #user footprints #photo cloud

58 60 64 66

04 SITE SELECTION #everyday life #aerial view #site identitites #Sha Jiang Village

68 70 80 82 88

PART II

CONCEPT

14

05 CONCLUSION & VISION #problems #mission #intervention strategy #concept #time map #scenarios

92 94 96 98 100 102 106 108


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PART III

DESIGN STRATEGY

06 TIDAL RHYTHMS #tidal range

114 116

07 WEAVING PROCESS #growing distances #living tracks #track strategy

124 126 136 146

PART IV 08 TEXTILE NEGOTIATOR

MATERIAL RESEARCH

152

#flexible molding #frozen flexibility

154 156 160

09 RE - TEXTILE #pneumatic thread #digital research

164 166 168

PART V CONTEXTUAL APPLICATION

112

#thread distribution #tidal activation

182 184 188

VISUAL PROJECTION

194

PHYSICAL MODEL

202

APPENDIX

216

#initial research #bibliography #photos #graphics #special thanks

218 226 228 230 232


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part I RESEARCH


XIAPU COUNTY FUJIAN PROVINCE


01

GLOBAL ISSUES In the world we live in today, all the people contribute to a big, global network, divided into billions of local communities. Events occuring within the local scale, often extrapolate to much larger niveaus, both creating the impact, as well as recieving it in a form of global reaction. As we moved from the strategy of thinking global and acting local - to slightly modernized thinking global and acting global - we might be facing brand new trend: thinking local while acting global. It addresses not only the possibilities of modern - and super fast - connectivity, but also underlines urgent need of taking a closer look to the most primal element of our society - local communities. This being said, the best way to understand #global issues is to realize, what is occurring to the smaller cities and communities. This allows us to address the issues at the core and solve them at the local level, which will eventually tackle the global problems. With one fourth of the global population, China has much less farmland - only 7% of the total world area. It is impossible to significantly expand it, due to natural conditions. Chinese inland waters [6.75mln ha], shallow sea waters and mudflats [2.6mln ha] - suitable for aquaculture, sum up to around 10% of the total agriculture cultivated land. With increasing population - exploitation of these waters, through radical reclamation, became a prome objective for the national strategy. Analysing each #global issue separately, as well as all of them together, gives an insightful new perspective, on how small coastal communities has transformed into a victim of advancement. This thesis highlights the problems of one particular area along the eastern Chinese coast - Xiapu. 2. Azimuthal map projection of Asia, centered on Taipei


.

# wetlands Enormous in size and character, the most spectacular places on Earth. Unnoticed. Undervalued. Wetlands ecosystems,

bogs, fens, swamps, marsches and open water cover at least 6% of the Earth and hosts about 40% of all the world’s species including 12% of all animals. They are an extremly important places not only because of the variety of wildlife, but also for the communities living outside of the wetland area. As the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world, they provide a wealth of services to humans, such as food (rice, fish), fresh water, medicinal plants or even reeds (used for making mats and baskets). But besides these functions, the most significant social and economic benefits that they provide is the protection of coastal area against disastrous consequences of flooding. That issue concerns around 400 milions of people - and this number will increase in next decades because of growing population.

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Shorelines serve as zones of sand, mud, pebbles and vegetation, that help to slow and break the action of waves. Beaches tame ocean waves and provide safe places for adjacent villages, towns, cities and harbours. In turn, healthy strand vegetation, sea grass beds, algal beds and mangroves provide significant shelter in the face of typhoons, storms, and against the tsunamis, that are frequent in a zone prone to devastating earthquakes.

1. Mudflats during the low tide

#Wetlands grant also a livelihood to a large number of fishermen - both in chinese coast, as well as in the other parts of the world. Mudlfats’ agriculture shapes the life of locals and their main daily activities: these habitats provide nurseries for countless aquatic species, on which coastal fisheries depend [1]. As the result, fishing and farming industry developes and gives a huge economic potential, due to icreased consciousness about health benefits from eating seafood, rising from the beginning of XXI century.

Depending on the location in the world, clean, beautiful shorelines may have also historical, cultural, religious or recreational significance. By offering wonderful and inspiring recreational opportunities they contribute to the development of important local economies. For example, in China, wetlands are used to conduct initiation rites or just be the place where the residents can watch traditional methods of shrimp cultivation [Hong Kong -the Mai Poi marshes]. Another lands, for instance Germany and the Netherlands, are famous for organizing wandering through mudflats area in order to experience wetland community during the low tides. These tidal flat trips, as well as boat tours with wildlife watching, are popular among adults and kids. Among others they provide also some leisure facilities as canoeing and fishing, snorkelling, shell collecting or just birds watching. [2] Due to The World Wildlife Fund, economic value of wetlands is estimated to reach $70 bilion per year. But the present rate of mudflats’ destruction is high and still increasing. Especially in China, where coastal regions are suffering from a shortage of land and the reclaimation of wetlands became a solution to satisfy necessities for population growth and economic delevopment. The solution, that appeared to bring benefits in the short term, can cause ecological disaster in the long term.


Promise of open space, public facilities and .. assurance of misery in ecosystem

# reclamation China has a vast trritory with a large population but less farmland. The chinse population makes up one fourth of the world total, but the farmland is only 7% of the world total area. its impossible to expand farmland area by a big margin due to the limitations of natural conditions. The problem of wetlands reclamation has already started with the population growth and the consequences it provides. China, as the largest world’s economy power, is increasing due to its rapid economic and population growth, especially in the coastal regions, which are centres of economic activities and motors for national prosperity. These tidal lands compose of only 13% of China total area, but contributes to 60% of the gross domestic product. Insufficient understanding of the values of wetland profits conducted to a largescale land reclamation. That is why expanding urban shoreline has become an ever more popular solution to the problem, especially in countries facing land scarcity. The process of transforming mudflats into urban areas create an extra space for industries and future generations, but in the same time destroy the biological diveristy. It’s not well known, but those 13% are livehood for fishing communities and provide around 30 milion tons of fishery products, what is about 20% of #global production. The Chinese government planned to build a new Great Wall, a seawall wich will cover around 60% of the total length of Chinese coastline. Developing glittering metropolis as Shanghai or Hong Kong will

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not cause a dramatic impoverishment in internationally shared biodiversity, as much as reclamation activities in Yellow Sea or Taiwan Strait areas. The problem of mentioned areas touches directly the fishing villages and their inhabitants, what became the backbone of this thesis. The negative results of reclamation are already huge and are still increasing. Firstly, this process worsen drought. The first symptomes were already noticed, especially in North China that suffer from very dry weather in recent years. It is related to many water areas that have already dried or have been build up. Dimnishing water areas, including wetlands as well, mean less evaporation and as a result reduction in rainfall. Secondly, reclaiming land areas lead to the loss of biodiversity and fisheries. Coastal shallows, swamps, mangrove forests and intertidal zones are the point, where the land meets the sea. Creating some artifical separator between natural land and sea will block nutrients flow into coastal waters. That, in turn, will threaten crabs, shrimps, clams and other organisms, which rely on this source of food. This has an impact on the ocean food chain and the fishing industry as well as some land-dwelling animals. Third, land reclamation along the shoreline increases the tidal range and the risk of flooding in these areas. Since always, wetlands have been a buffer zone between the ocean and the land - absorbing much of the ocean’s forces. The decay of this natural buffer can have potentially harmful consequences, including loss of human life and livestock. Fourth, reduction of the tides intensify also the so-called phenomenon of harmful “red tides�. The 3. Hong Kong in 1984 and in 2015

artificial barrier, that is built up during this process, pertract between land and sea and accelerate the flow of the nutrients from river deltas into the sea. In turn, on the coastal areas, where the wetlands were used for aquaculture before reclamation, the tides carry too large quantities of organic matter. And as a result trigger enormous algal blooms, producing toxic or harmful effects on people, birds and marine habitat. And fifth - the process of reclamation destroys natural landscapes. In the course of time, land is shaped and reshaped, and eventually reclaimed by movement of ocean waters. In that case, this is a slow process, so nature has time to adapt to the changes in environment. But if the changes take place too quickly, the process can cause huge damages and threaten not only the marine habitat but especially people living in coastal areas [3].


Situated from the coasts, over the continental shelf to the open ocean and deep sea. Interdependend and increadibly diverse

# marine habitats As an important part of marine ecosystem, they determine home for hundreds of marine species, like seaweeds, sea grasses, coral, jellies, sea anemones, plankton, fishes and birds. Depending partially on the saltwater, the marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats, that support marine life. Marine habitats can be modified by their inhabitants. Some marine organisms like kelp, mangroves or corals, are ecosystem engineers and can reshape the marine environment, creating habitats for many other organisms.

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2. Bleaching coral reef

But despite the considerable importance of marine ecosystems, the conditions necessary to survive for plants and animals are all the time significantly encroaching, with destruction slowly occuring within the habitats. Unfortuantelly it happens in many regions of the ocean, but it is the coastal area that is suffering disproportionately the most from human stresses. Polluting the air, overfishing and developing coastal spaces are the first factors, that contribute to habitat loss, and this in turn has much stronger impact on the entire ocean’s biodiversity. Dredging and filling the wetlands areas in order to accomodate urban, industrial and agricultural developments, as well as creating waste, pollution and chemical effluent and runoff by factories and farms, are wreaking damage on reefs, sea grasses, birds and fish. Increased number of hurricanes, typhoons and tsunamis can cause massive, though usually temporary, disruptions in the life cycles of ocean communities. However, human excessive exploitation of natural resources turned out to be uncomperably more impactful and persistent.

Also increasing fishing efforts, as well as unsustainable fishing practices - including bottom trawling, bycatch and ghost fishing - are pushing many fish stocks to the point of collapse and devastate the entire marine environment [5]. Catching as many fish as possible at first sight look innocent and seem to be a profitable practice, but the scale of this activity leads to serious consequences. Perilous low levels of fish stocks caused actually by #overfishing process, affect not only ocean’s life, but also the social and economic well-being of the coastal communities, that depend on fish for their way of life. Manmade activities contributed also to some modifications in climate. Perhaps, it is actually the #climate change, that devastates marine habitats the most - from all mentioned factors - and oceans take the brunt of these changes. Absorbing the extra heat and atmospheric carbon dioxide have extensive consequences on the life cycles of marine animals, from corals to whales. Rising public consciousness on global warming converted into numerous ongoing efforts to protect ocean habitats, including laws banning the dumping of sewage and chemicals into the ocean, with policies that foster better safety of wetlands. However, the process of revertibility of the ocean crisis might take hundreds of years.


# climate change as the biggest humanity challenge ever Extreme weather, historic droughts, temperature records, rising seas, melting glaciers, coastal erosion, storm surges, forest fires, ruined crops, food riots, dried river beds, forced migration and refugees. These are the consequences of global warming, well know already for years. The human consciousness and actions are growing stronger year by year. But.. do conventionally fearfull, shocking representations of #climatechange affect intensifying individual engagement with that challenge? They might be memorable and initially attract public atttention, however in many cases, they can be counter-productive and disempower human engagement with the issue. Any negative representations must be partnered with those, that enable to create a sense of personal connection with the causes and consequences of climate change - in a positive manner. This way they can see the relevance of climate change for their locality and life, and see that there are ways, in which they (and others) can positively respond. [e1]

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Shifting the global change conversation from despair to optimism - from apathy to action - can eneble to celebrate many opportunities (economic, environmental and health), to be gained from transitioning this challenge to a 100% renewable energy solutions. But at the base of any positive transformational work - has to be an understanding of the relationship between one’s awareness and actions. Through that, an impact on our world is possible. A change in our environment, systems, cultures - is a long lasting change. Therefore, we have to implement these methods, that shift our awareness and feelings to a deeper level.[6] All humans inhabit the same planet and are bound together by the same challenges and interests. And all human societies and ecosystems around the world will response to all potential adverse impacts of climate change. [7] This proces will affect numerous habitats, still flourishing with various fish types. On the one side warmer temperatures will influence the abundance, migratory patterns and mortality rates of marine communities, and will determine what species can be farmed in certain regions. 4.Typhoon Nepartak heading for Taiwan and China Mainland in July 2016

On the other hand, high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, caused mainly by burning of fossil fuels, are absorbed by the oceans. This elevated acidicity inhibits the ability of marine organisms, including plankton, to create shells - disrupt life within the very foundation of the ocean’s food chain. [5] These climatic effect on fish, will have social and economic consequences for people dependent on fisheries and aquaculture - and what is well known - from workers, through coastal communities, to consumers of fish. Fishery industry is a very developed enterpirse and absorbs a varied range of livelihood activities, from production and processing to marketing and additional functions. This contains enterprises, varying from small to those with a relatively big scale. The majority of people engaged in these activities are relatively poor and vulnerable fishermen, living in coastal fishing villages, that depend on fishing for their living. #climatchange contributes also to more frequent typhoons, causing great damages, often resulting in the loss of billions of dollars, infrastructure and human life.


seeking a better life as a primary reason for

# migration About 1.3 billion people around the world are economicaly active in the broad agriculture sector. The 4,4% of that amount, namely 58,3 milion people, are engaged in the primary sector of fishing and aquaculture [4]. China hosts approximately 84% of all the people employed in the fisheries and aquaculture all around the world - with over total output over 12mln tones (data 2003). For that number of people - the sustainable fishing is a necessity, not luxury. The alternative is unemployment, poverty, hunger or... migration[5]. The last option is executed too often. There is less and less fishers, which combined with growing global population, could be an enormous #challenge to feed our planet. As Fujian is a coastal province, fishing industry is an important aspect of its economy and employment. Statistics show, that Fujian Province along with Xiapu County, is the area with the highest amount of #emigration from generations. Today’s migrants leave for the same reason as their forbears - to find a better life. But the risks they are prepared to take and the price they are willing to pay are getting higher and higher.[6] To understand the problem it is necessary to know, that Fujian is inhabited by 37mln of people and the number of Fujian natives residing abroad has reached already 8,8mln. They live in more than 90 countries and regions across the world, mainly in South-East Asia. According to statistics, 80% of Taiwan population - more than 20mln consists of people from Fujian. [7]

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3. Fisherman starting work in the early morning

The sea is a way of life for many Fujianese, simply because of its location on the southeastern coast of China, as well as the the history and folklore being deeply rooted within the fishing activities. By being familiar with life at sea, they are not afraid of its difficult conditions. Mr. Chen, a fisherman in Fujian, said: “There is a risk of not being able to return for every fishing trip. But how can you catch fish without going to the sea? For me, going to America is just like another fishing trip.” [8] This unique way of life and culture helps the Fujianese overcome the fear of several-month voyage, as well as enduring the conditions that would perhaps be unbearable for most non-Fujianese. United Stated of America published a special report about Fujianese Chinatown in New York City, where the business is conducted in the

Fuzhou dialect, the most commonly understood dialect of Fujian Province, but one that other Chinese do not speak. Their significant impact on the Manhattan’s Chinatown is noticeable. Fujianese-owned businesses, such as driving schools, dating services, service centers for naturalization, and employment agencies have sprouted on East Broadway in Chinatown. With a large influx of Fujianese into New York each year, the Fujianese, as majority in Chinatown, are playing a greater role in the Chinese community. Another tousands of Fujianese, lacking even rudimentary English, went straight into the least visible, low-wage jobs in restaurants and garment factories. [9] Although there has been little research on undocumented immigration from China, Einhorn (US State Statistical Bureau, 1994) estimated, that as many as 100,000 Fujianese were living in New York in 1994 and an additional 10,000 enter each year. The exact number of Fujianese in New York is, however, difficult to estimate because many of them are undocumented and therefore are not countable in formal surveys or censuses conducted in the United States. To most of illegal immigrants from China seek for a better life - which is the primary reason for coming to the US. But due to the study of Liang and Ye, escaping from poverty is not the one, absolute reason for Fujianese illegal immigrants. The causes of this issue might concern also growing standards of living in Fujian, so that people at the bottom of the income hierarchy feel poorer than they actually are, when they see others getting rich so quickly. Significant income and wages are too low in proportion to hard work, especialy for fishermen and their work, which is exposed to effects of more intense and more frequent typhoons. These reasons might motivate the Fujianese to migrate to the United States.


A special report; Within Chinatown Slice of Another China (...) Since immigrants from Fujian Province began flooding into the United States in the fetid holds of smuggling ships like the notorious Golden Venture, they have built a vibrant refuge for themselves in a grimy corner of Lower Manhattan. There is no fixed border between their neighborhood and the more gentrified Chinatown to the west, where the city’s Cantonese-speaking population established a base more than a century ago. Yet the Fujianese Chinatown is as self-contained, and confining, as a rural village. (...) Fujianese leaders in New York estimate that at least 300,000 Fujianese are now scattered across just about every state. Precise figures do not exist because most of the immigrants entered illegally. Lacking even rudimentary English, they went straight into the least visible, lowwage jobs in restaurants and garment factories. The smuggling business still casts a shadow. Passage can cost $40,000, a crushing sum in light of the poverty of Fujian Province, a mineralrich area of farms and fisheries where only 9.8 percent of the 33 million people complete high school and the average yearly income for city dwellers is $785. It can take five years of unremitting work here to break clear of the debt, leaving parents too little time to raise their children or learn English. (...)Fujianese Chinatown has created its own coded vocabulary to fit their circumstances. In the neighborhood’s storefront job agencies, employers make clear their preference for the hard-working Fujianese. Most job postings include a notation in Chinese that translates as ‘’no north,’’ meaning people from northern provinces need not apply. Here, business is conducted in the Fuzhou dialect, the most commonly understood dialect of Fujian Province but one that other Chinese do not speak. By SUSAN SACHS July 22, 2001

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Fujian tightens borders

China’s Fujian province has tightened border controls following the deaths of 58 Chinese being smuggled into Britain last month. Officials in Fujian,where the trade in human trafficking is based, have steppedupcontrolon application stoleave the eastern province, the official Xinhua news agency said. Stricter supervision of shipping and fishing vessels off the Fujian coast has also been enforced, it added. Provincial officials have meanwhile called for rapid development of the economy to provide more jobs and improve living standards, Xinhua said. The crackdown on people smugglers comes as police continue to investigate the deaths of 58 Chinese found in the back of a sealed truck in the British port of Dover last month. (...) More than 500,000 people try to sneak out of China each year by boat, ship containers or plane, according to a human rights group which obtained internal government estimates on human trafficking. 6 July, 2000

Fujian migrants’ centuries-old dream Most of the illegal migrants leaving China for the west come from the one place; Fujian province on China’s southeastcoast. People have been leaving Fujian to find a better life elsewhere for centuries. They helped build therail roads across America, and their descendants can be found in Chinatowns across the world. Today’s migrants leave for the same reason as their forbears; to find a better life. But the risks they are prepared to take, and the price they are prepared to pay, are getting higher and higher. 20June, 2000 By Rupert Wingfield-Hayes


However, many Fujianese cannot make the journey on their own, and that is why they get “help” in this process: • snakeheads (or smugglers), who organize the entire smuggling process, • corrupt Chinese officials, who make sure that the Chinese Coast Guard conveniently disappears when ships carrying illegal immigrants leave for international waters (Kwong, 1997), and other contacts in many transit countries, which arrange for charter flights to the United States or subcontract to help the immigrants across the U.S. border • enforcers in New York, whose task is to threaten and torture illegal immigrants until they pay their debts - it costs around 36 000€ [260 800 yuans], what makes it a crushing sum in the light of the poverty of Fujian Province - the passengers pay the loan for a number of years. Despite the fact, that smuggling business is illegal, it is getting more and more income through the poor province, and is the door for better life for some fishermen and their family. Emigration from Fujian is in fact not a new phenomenon. Moreover, it is deeply rooted in Fujian’s cultural heritage. One important fact, that has often been overlooked, is that since they live on the east coast of China, many Fujianese are used to life at sea, taking those risks as a way of life. Undocumented migration from Fujian is a continuation of its long-term tradition of international migration. It begun during the Ming dynasty in the middle of the fifteenth century and gained significant momentum during the Qing dynasty in the seventeenth century (Zhu, 1991). Some Chinese emigrated volountarily, but millions (particularly those from Fujian and Guangdong) were imported by European colonials to work at their tropical plantations and tin mines (Alexander, 1973; Kwong, 1996). The Opium War, which China lost to Great Britain, was a crucial moment. As part of the war settlement, China signed the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 (Spence, 1991), that permitted the opening of five Chinese port cities for residence of British subjects and their families. Two of the port cities are located in Fujian. The signing of this treaty greatly facilitated the exodus of Chinese labourers (Pan, 1990). This was also a time, in which the Industrial Revolution was in high gear. Having abolished the international slave trade, Britain was looking for alternative cheap labor for its colonies. The discovery of gold in California provided a stimulus for the Chinese to emigrate to the United States (Sung, 1967; Zhou, 1992). With regard to push factors within China, one was the country’s unprecedented population growth during the late Ming and mid-Qing periods. The best estimates suggest, that in 1685 China had a population of 100 million. About a hundred years later, in 1790, its population was 301 million - an increase of 200 percent (Ho, 1959; Spence, 1991). The rapid growth of Chinese population created enormous pressure on the forces of production, and plunged many people into poverty. From 1984 onwards, the system changed and migration became legal. People no longer needed a permit to leave. Yet, leaving one’s village is still expensive, since migrants arriving into big cities have no access to health care, education or accommodation. So living conditions for migrants and their families are extremely difficult.[10].


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5. Migratory flows between Provinces, from the Countryside towards the Cities, 1985-1990


RURAL URBAN


XIAPU COUNTY

LATITUDE 26°53'N LONGITUDE 120°0

MONSOONAL HUMID SUBTROPICAL CLIMA

02

SEA AREA 29 592 km

LAND COUNTY AREA 1 XIAPU MUDFLATS AREA

590 km

696 km²

WITH A COASTAL LINE OF

LOCATED IN THE SOUTH OF

12

NINGDE CIT

TOWNS 292 VILLAGES

WITH

404 k

194

ISLAN

532 562

Named as probably one of thePEOPLE most breathtaking places on earth thereby visited AMONG WHICH 47,4% FEMALE each year by almost 1/4 million photographers from all around the world. A small, rural fishing area, located in a littorial zone, with rocky landscape and 72,9 mountains. The area, 10, 16,3 where life wakes up with the sun and work AGED <29 AGED 30 -60 AGED >6 depends on the water flow. Inhabited by at least half a milion people, engaged mainly in marine culture.LIVING With the vast livingARE INmajority RURAL in rural areas along the coast, leading their life 33,2% LIVING IN URBAN AR in specific, traditional way for generations.

52,6% MAL

62,8%

The environmental conditions, great seawater PEOP temperature and plenty of sunshine - OF makes thisLIVING place rich in croakers, kelp, oyster and THERE ARE laver. The movement of the tide uncovers marvelous patterns in mudflats, and generate constantly changing landscape, altering the THE AVERAGE FOR scene throughout the day. The bamboo poles, stone columns and fish nets, that are usually URBAN WORKER is RMB put into theRURAL mudflatWORKER to dry laver, kelp and other is RMB 8 19 marine product, make the area remarkable. In turn, fishermen sailing through this bamboo jungle on the water, are co-creating scenes IN T RANKED typical for locals, but spectacular for the rest 10 PARADISES FOR PHOTOGRAPHER TOP of the world. This help Xiapu to be selected on the top of ten best photographic mekka, by aSCENIC famous SP UNIQUE Chinese professional photography magazine, and nothing seems to alter this opinion. TOURIST VISITED BY

FIFTY PERCENT

FISHERME

INCOME 18 89

1st PLACE 18

250 000

6. Proportion of urban & rural population within Xiapu County

AND PHOTOGRAPHERS

EACH YEA


# xiapu county

the oldest county within the Fujian Province

Located at the very center of chinese coastline, right inside Fujian province Xiapu stands as a conglomerate of fishing villages, overlooking distant shores of Taiwan. Although being a small area, it has the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest mudflat, filled with various life forms, and occupying a strategic maritime position between East and South China Sea. Moreover, the coastal line spreads over 404 kilometers and thereby determines the longest shoreline among other counties in Fujian. Local mudflats, along with daily choreography of fishing activities, attract thousands of tourists from all around the world, willing to see, feel, experience and record - this unique offshore theater. Also not without a reason - sunrises and sunsets are the times with highest activity, as many photographers tend

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7. Borders of Xiapu County

to use dramatic light as a background for those amazing, robust - and yet so tangible - daily fishermen routines. Xiapu County has a land area of 1,590 km2, featuring mainly mountains. Eroded low hills with bare rocks occupy most of the coast, with small, flat bays hosting numerous fishing vilages. In comparison - total sea water area is almost 20 times bigger - reaching 29,592.6km2, with 696km2 belonging to the flat intertidal zone. Apart from clearly geographic features of this area - antropological domain gives a strong foundation for Xiapu identity. The county administrates 12 towns and 292 villages, with population exceeding 500 000 inhabitats. They tend to concentrate along the shoreline, where approximately 50% of them become active fishermen. This implies vast infrastructure, where more than 18 000 boats set the sail each day, cultivating and harvesting rich marine ecosystem Due to a subtropical climate and great seawater temperature, Xiapu waters host more than 700 kinds of fish,

seaweed and shellfish [11]. That is why the majority of industry spreads upon fishing and sea farming, including mostly kelp, oyster, laver and large yellow croaker. Only in 2011, the total marine product reached 300,000 tons, with annual contribution to agricultural GDP at the level of 25%! Daily routines for almost 70% of inhabitants, living in coastal villages, island or simply on the sea - consist of traditional rustic activities. They work with the environment, adjust their life to the tides, and make their living by farming and fishing for generations. Depending on the season, the villagers sail the boats to conduct fishing or harvesting seaweed. With the latter - they collect the kelp or laver from bamboo structures, drying them on offshore rafts and preparing for export. Tidal movements changes constantly the scenery of Xiapu mudflats, and together with bamboo poles and fishing nets create a truly unique views. Numerous of fishing farms, hundreads of traditional floating houses and thousands of small fishing vessels left on the mudflat after the work each day - determine specific excellence of this territory. The traditional chinese way of life complements that place and let tourists and photographers witness the authenticity and beauty of fishing villages. All its components, together with drying kelp on the bamboo poles, water crafting the shoreline, fishermen working on the mudflats, and breathtaking morning sceneries - create a dreamlike world and define Xiapu as a true


# paradise

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follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


4. Sunset at Yu Gong Ting,


Catching fishes at Bei Qi 7.

38 39 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

Drying s


5.Golden beach

seaweed at Sha Jiang 8.

6. Sunning fabrics


Low tide at Nan Wan 11.

40 41

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

Low tide at Sha Jiang 12.


9. Drying seaweed at Sha Jiang

10. Seaweed farm


Seaweed farm during the sunset 15.

42 43

Harvesting the seaweed 16.

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


13. High tide at Zhu Jiang

14. Early morning at Bei Qi


Shrimp farm at Ba Chi Men 17.

44 45 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


18. Hanging harvested seaweed on bamboo sticks

19. Fishing ponds


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follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


20. Farmer, Yang Jiaxi

these stunning beautiful pictures, at the first sight, show a dream place to be for all of us. But ...


location in the subtropical climate can threaten the development of society and economy, especially when consequences of climate change are aggravating year by year

# typhoons Due to specific geographic environment and sub-tropical monsoon climate, Fujianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social and economic growth is seriously affected by frequent natural disasters, including typhoons, rainstorms, floods and inundations. Typhoons, incipented and developed on the ocean, are highly destructive cyclones, accompanied with gales, rainstorm and storm tides. In the project area, typhoons or short intense rains are often associated with mountain torrents, geologic disasters, or serious local inundations. In turn - floods are often combined with typhoons, posing a great risk for local residents and safety of their property. Typhoon season begins usually in July, ends in September, but may sometimes occur as early as April and as late as October, with the wind speed up to 40m/s . According to data from Fujian Provincial Meteorological Center - during 1980 and 2005, Xiapu was hit by 26 typhoons, one per year on average. In recent years though, this number increased. During years 2006 - 2011, the villages was strucked by 19 typhoons, resulting with an average of 4 per year. The frequency seems increasing along with global #climate change, which is belived to be the main reason for increasing frequency of extreme climate events.

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As mentioned before [page 31], there are more than 18 450 fishing boats generally small in tonnage and weak in the capacity to resist wind and waves. That is why during typhoons they need to enter ports for protection, which is a great challenge for the sheltering capacity of Xiapu’s harbours. Moreover, since many fishing boats cannot take shelter effectively, each strong typhoon results in damages and losses, blocking social and economic development. Typhoons affect boats in two ways: • partial damage or sinking in the worst scenarios, • sailing to the shelters that are miles away, might simply consume too much time, fuel and living costs. Small boats, in particular are unable to sail long distances and have to stay at local ports. During the period of 2009-2012, typhoons damaged almost 320 boats, resulting in loss of approximately 200.77 million yuan (ca. €27,7mln), and the aquaculture loss of 61,46 million yuan [11]. 2009

2010

2011

2012

Total

Affected population

136000

36763

23499

48197

244459

Direct financial losses (0,000¥)

20262

20464.7

2126.8

26352.7

69206.2

Direct financial losses of agriculture, forestry, stockbreeding and fishery

12819

18094

1796.8

16261

11700.9

Boat losses [sunk/damaged]

20/102

12/85

8/41

15/58

55/264

[12] Statistics of the Flood Control Office of the Xiapu County Water Resources Bureau

In 2009, Typhoon Morakot - the eighth of the season - was one of the most powerful storms.It arrivied to the coastal areas of Beibi Town, Xiapu County, on 9th of August at 4:20 p.m., bringing destruction in many fields: • winds reached up to 118.8 km/h in its eye • at least 136,000 people suffered property losses from flooding and landslides • economic losses reached ¥2.2 billion yuan (322 million U.S. dollars), as 143,000 hectares of farmland were damaged and nearly 9,000 enterprises suspended production • more than 300 houses had collapsed, and 16,200 hectares of farmland were inundated. The city’s airport was closed and 56 roads were cut off by rainstorms • hit the Chinese coastline, affecting over 11 milion people throughout eastern China. [13][14] As the number of typhoons in recent years increased, and capacity of previous shelters failed to answer growing demands, the World Bank Board of Executive Directors approved $60 milion loan to reduce the vulnerability of fishing communities. The strategy of Fujian Fishing Ports Project includes building or upgrading about 200 harbours with sheltered areas within Fujian Province (until 2018). Meantime, the plan assumes to establish six fishing ports in Xiapu County, which would provide almost full coverage of all the fishing boats in local communities.


a complex index of personal adjustments, attitudes towards life, and perceptions of problems

# quality of life The measure of life satisfaction is a comprehensive and meaningfull indicator of what is happening to peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives and their well-being. The factors shaping Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality of life appear to be essentially the same as in European transition countries[15].Clearly, they vary according to personal preferences, but they often include income security, job statisfaction, family life, health and social safety net. [16] The research measuring life satisfaction demonstrates, in contrast, that among ordinary people - especially in less-educated and lower income segments of the population - life satisfaction has declined noticeably as material aspirations have soared. Also concerns have arisen about finding and holding a job, reliable and affordable health care, and provision for children and the elderly. This beeing said, Fujian belongs to the poorest provinces within China. Thereby, looking for a better life, higher income is the main reason for migration since ages. The average income of rural areas inhabitants reaches RMB 8,195. While the income for urban population is decidedly higher and reach at least RMB 18,893. The possibility of bigger salary forces many fishermen to leave their families, move to an urban area and send their profits back to the family left in the village. Despite the fact, that locals feel strong conection to the place of living migration happens on a large scale. The graph on the right shows the results of investigation among locals from Sha Jiang Village in Xiapu County. The income, as supposed, lower their satisfaction of life, while other elements seems to suit their needs. Results of a survey among locals from Sha Jiang 8.

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follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


the place of continuous negotiations for the wide stripes of shoreline

# mudscapes The landscape of fishing villages changes twice a day, as the water rise and fall in tidal fluctuations, defining almost 40km2 of seaweed farms as a space of continuous transition. Daily change of the sea level consists of two low tides and two high tides, appearing in a slight different times each day. The diagram on the right shows how the fluctuation shifts on the course of one month - creating continuous dissonance between daylight and tidal activity. This refers to the fact, that for any particular spot on Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, the height of the tide and its timing depend on both the Sun and the Moon correlation to Earth. The Rule of Twelfths allows to determine approximate height of the tide at any time of the day. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s based on the understanding, that the change in depth of water is not constant, but rather increases its pace until it reaches maximum ebb or flow, then decreases until slack water. It uses a simple six-hour cycle. It means that during this period the fall and rise of tide is the fastest in its 3rd and 4th hour. The movement of the water itself stands as an important factor for the fishermen, as they sail away from the shore, using the low tide to decrease consumption of petrol. Daily shift of tidal amplitude within a month 9.

52 53 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


24:00

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18:00

5 May 2016

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4 June 2016 sunrise

sunset

24:00


natural and artificial, urban and geologic, aquatic, terrestrial, and astmosphericthats only a few types of wide meaning of

# landscapes Although we distinguish various kinds of landscapes - in general understanding it is a fragment of nature free from any human presence, interference or control. Therefore, while defining the opposition of natural landscape, it is necessary to notice, which features are artificial or natural - in relation to the environment. The first case concern the man himself and all his products, while the second one relate to inanimate matter, plants, animals, or other representatives of the nature, like birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nests, animal burrows or just beaver dams. Humans are included in the landscape just like artifacts. They form its part - doing their jobs or relaxing. We can easily say, that for them, the landscape does not exist, they do not notice it, since they are busy with their activities. A landscape exists for the eyes of the viewer, for the observer who is beyond the landscape, being neither its participant nor its part[17]. Locals settled in Chinese coastal areas took the adventage of environmental opportunities, and begun practicing sea farming. The development of local marine fisheries proceeded with manmade changes in the landscape, thereby transforming it into the artificial scapes. Therefore, the base for understanding Xiapuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s landscape is constituted by the opposition between natural and artificial elements of its environment - keeping in mind, that every change in the landscape transforms it into an artificial one.

54 55 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


Natural landscapes | 21. Sand bubbler crab patterns | 22. Meandering streams of water | 23. Water channels in mudflats | 24. Sea food: harvested oysters

Artificial landscapes | 25. Fish trap during the low tide | 26. Fishing boats | 27. Bamboo poles for hanging seaweed | 28. Aerial image of fishing ponds


a way to feed the ever growing masses without using the overpopulated land

# aquaculture Small or large scale, based on the land and in fresh, brackish, but also saline environments. It can use extensive, semiintensive and intensive methods for a great variety of species - with different economic values. The biggest and the most important role in Xiapu industry is played by seaweed farms. Warm waters of the East China Sea allows nori, kelp and laver to grow through the winter, to be harvested during spring, by hanging on the bamboo to dry. Depending on the site conditions, as water depth, currents and nutrient content, the algae can be cultivated in three ways: in floating raft, semifloating raft, or being strung between stakes punded into the substrate. The quantity of aquaculture system vary in every place of the asian coast. The only element, that appears in every aquacultivation area, is artificial reef structure, that due to the worsening marine habitat, contributes to instability of fishery natural resources. Moreover, majority of fishermen spend all days working, exept for closed 3-month period. This period prevents fishing at certain times of the year to protect species at vulnerable moments in their life cycle, such as spawning seasons. This takes Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fishermen to the brink, and as a result it forces some of them to break the rules. The #overfishing problem influences the quality of cought fishes, as well as reef destruction. Fishermen income becomes lower, what brings them to even more overfishing - marking the beginning of unsustainable spiral...

56 57

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


29. Fish ponds for fish, shrimps, crab and abalone cultivation | 30. Floating raft- for sea cucamber cultivation 31. Pen culture for fish and shrimps | 32. Nori cultibation on bamboo stakes| 33. Oyster farm on bamboo stakes| 34. laver cultivation | 35. Fish traps | 36. Artificial reef before instalation


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2009","width":500},{"height":375,"latitude":26.7900848389,"longitude":120.018699646,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_name":"\u903 user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/27646396.jpg","photo_id":27646396,"photo_title":"\u4e1c\u543e\u6d0b\u6d77\u o/27646396","upload_date":"09 October 2009","width":500},{"height":375,"latitude":26.571268081700001,"longitude":119.93566131599999,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_ oramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/35334688.jpg","photo_id":35334688,"photo_title":"\u77f3\u4eba\u m/photo/35334688","upload_date":"10 May 2010","width":500},{"height":375,"latitude":27.013074874899999,"longitude":119.77338409399999,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_ oramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/44759080.jpg","photo_id":44759080,"photo_title":"\u81ea\u7136\u5 o.com/photo/44759080","upload_date":"08 December 2010","width":500},{"height":375,"latitude":26.971955999999999,"longitude":120.196524,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_ oramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/24743519.jpg","photo_id":24743519,"photo_title":"\u864e\u5c7f\u5c tp://www.panoramio.com/photo/24743519","upload_date":"21 July 2009","width":500},{"height":375,"latitude":26.622140000000002,"longitude":120.03464700000001," wner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/27855144.jpg","photo_id":27855144," c0f\u8239\uff08\u5ef6\u4ead\uff09","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/photo/27855144","upload_date":"15October2009","width":500},{"height":37 95049285899999,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/m _id":35334493,"photo_title":"\u5916\u6d52\u6e14\u6e2f \u4e00\u666f","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/photo/35334493","upload_date":"10Ma 958262000000001,"longitude":120.31874700000003,"owner_id":4178971,"owner_name":"chai_shanghai","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/user/4178971"," oramio/photos/medium/33080256.jpg","photo_id":33080256,"photo_title":"\u8865\u6e14\u7f51","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/photo dth":500},{"height":375,"latitude":27.016183853099999,"longitude":119.77434539799999,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http://www.p //mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/42985597.jpg","photo_id":42985597,"photo_title":"\u537f\u4e91\u53d1\u5f69","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio.co 0","width":500},{"height":296,"latitude":26.848579000000001,"longitude":120.07782,"owner_id":879332,"owner_name":"zhoukesheng","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio


:375,"latitude":26.782342910800001,"lonw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/ e":"09 October2009","width":500},{"height _file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-pan"photo_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/ me":"great_hai","owner_url":"http://www. 4\u6e2f\u6e7e","photo_url":"http://www. ame":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http:// f3\u5e8a","photo_url":"http://www.pan064,"owner_name":"\u9038\u4e91","own_title":"\u5927\u4eac\u53e4\u57ce\u6c11\ de":119.800501,"owner_id":6255580,"own.jpg","photo_id":59427622,"photo_title":"\ mber2011","width":500},{"height":281,"latiurl":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoraarch2010","width":500},{"height":375,"lati":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/ _date":"15October2009","width":500},{"heig _file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-pand_date":"09October2009","width":500},{"hei 4","photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/ to/28411033","upload_date":"01November20 com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http:// 3\u670d","photo_url":"http://www.panora":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http://www. 2f\u6d77\u9762","photo_url":"http://www. ":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http://www. 8eab","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio. hulin","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio. w.panoramio.com/photo/906460","upload_ wner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/usto_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/pho","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/ oto_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/phoowner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/usto_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/pho4e91","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio. ed\u3001\u9a6c\u5934\u5c71\u53d1\u7535\ 951134,"owner_id":1386519,"owner_name":"\ g","photo_id":7829763,"photo_title":"\u5916\ :119.935684204,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_ _id":35334707,"photo_title":"\u6469\u65c5\ 79794700000002,"owner_id":6255580,"ownoto_id":59375409,"photo_title":"\u6597\u6b180899999999,"owner_id":1581064,"owner_ _id":21806205,"photo_title":"\u82b1\u56ed\ ht":332,"latitude":26.601146698000001,"lonoramio/photos/medium/32982622.jpg","phoh2010","width":500},{"height":375,"lati":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/ to/27886479","upload_date":"16October com/user/4178971","photo_file_url":"http:// oto_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/phoowner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/us6\u4ead\u4e2b\u8def","photo_url":"http:// 64,"owner_name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_ "\u660e\u6b63\u5fb7\u7687\u5e1d\u94a6\ 75,"latitude":27.017457962000002,"longiramio/photos/medium/42985575.jpg","phor2010","width":500},{"height":375,"lati ":"http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/ o/27857013","upload_date":"15October com/user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http:// oto/44759084","upload_date":"08December user/1581064","photo_file_url":"http://mw2. oto/27886656","upload_date":"16October anoramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_ hoto_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/phoowner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/usu5b54","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio. ","owner_url":"http://www.panoramio.com/ 42\u5c71","photo_url":"http://www.panora38\u4e91","owner_url":"http://www.panorau5929","photo_url":"http://www.panoramio. _name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http:// u4e0b\u6751","photo_url":"http://www.pan_name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http:// 5bfa\u5947\u77f3","photo_url":"http://www. _name":"\u9038\u4e91","owner_url":"http:// c9b\u770b\u7259\u57ce\u6e7e\u53e3","pho"owner_id":1581064,"owner_name":"\u9038\ "photo_title":"\u6536\u83b7\u6d77\u5e26\ 75,"latitude":26.601415634199999,"longimw-panoramio/photos/medium/35334493.jpy2010","width":500},{"height":281,"lati"photo_file_url":"http://mw2.google.com/ o/33080256","upload_date":"10March panoramio.com/user/1581064","photo_file_ om/photo/42985597","upload_date":"31 Oco.com/user/879332","photo_file_url":"http://

03

THE WORLD OF

Each and every day we generate data using search engines like google and yahoo, leaving likes on facebook, or just by uploading photos and videos to Instagram. In each case the digital traces - in the form of simple words or emoticons - represent a vast source of data. This flood of information is dramatically changing the way we interact with each other and with the world. Data became an opportunity and a powerful #tool, being able to raise questions, solve problems or determine user needs. Nowadays technology and world form a unity. We perceive the world by experiencing a form of representation provided by a #tool, such as data visualisation. This kind of data appearance mediates between the observer and the world - shaping user interpretation and understanding of the world they operate in, accustoming their actions and reactions. Presented data emerges in a conclusion map, showing parts of the coastal line in Xiapu photographed the most - including time the photos were taken, by whom and with what description. These areas determine hot spots, containing great influence on the common perception of Xiapu. 10. Selected path is an information cloud of one photo uploaded to www.panoramio.com website


11. the most geotagged places along the Xiapu coastline

60 61

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


# most geotagged locations


62 63 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


12. diagrams presenting which village was most geotagged each year, on panoramio and flickr


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64 65 follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

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#china#fujian#xiapu#travel#intertidalzone #sea#camera#sunset#light#summer#sky #cloud#sun#sunlight#mountain#plant #reflection#tree#beach#lens#water#nature #beautiful#landscape#beauty#stone#forest #sunrise#bright#outdoors#fishing#scenery #fisherman#fisherfolk#mudflat#sand#fisher #tourism#photographer#villageofxiaohou #scenics#relaxation#fishingboat#hooker #vacations#freshness#fishing#village#fisher #fishingnet#tranquilscene#xiaohao#people #urbanscene#colorimage#vibrantcolor#sun #sunset#fuzhou#ningde#nikon#ocean#travel #cybershot#boat#milkyway#night#bird #china2013#woman#roof#lightandshadows #town#canon#relaxing#peoplesrepofchina #takingphotos#helloworld#environment 1646 GEOTAGGED photos on PANORAMIO 2073 GEOTAGGED photos on FLICKR 878 GEOTAGGED photos on INSTAGRAM

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13. Exact location of uploaded photos with usernames u7fbd u7fbd

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# user footprints

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14.1 Projection of all photos from Xiapu County uploaded to Panoramio and Flickr. X-axis presents the median brightness Y-axis presents the median saturation of all photos That organizes the photos according to time of day

66 67

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


14.2 Projection of all photos from neighbouring counties (Fuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;an and Jiaocheng) uploaded to Panoramio and Flickr. X-axis presents the median brightness Y-axis presents the median saturation of all photos That organizes the photos according to time of day

# photo cloud


04

SITE SELECTION Fishing villages became significant more than 2500years ago. Since then, they are a fundamental form of aquaculture and mariculture, charming with unique and historical value. In China, fish practice has always been a family business - based on experience accumulated over generations. That is why marine products are a source of food and work, but also a backbone for preserving traditional culture. And that factor mostly attracts tourists. Unique features of the landscape work as a vocabulary to memorize those villages, much more than their municipal names. But beyond the landscape there is an ordinary life, characteristic streets and extraordinary spirit of those very places. Each part of the coastal line varies from another - it is the environmental condition, that determine, which cultivation method can be used, and which type of growth is developed in that specific place. Each village has its own features and determine thereby a separate entity of Xiapu. However, analysis of the most geottagged places within the county - allow to distinguish, which areas represent Xiapu the most. For further research the Sha Jiang Village has been selected, recognised more as so called S-shape landscape. Being one of the mustsee places, with architectural heritage and the biggest mudflat area, with short distances from the other villages and hot spots - Sha Jiang defines the base for this thesis. 15. intertidal zone along the coast of Xiapu County |video|


# everyday life

39. Street in Sha Jiang Village

70 71

Street in Han Jiang Village 40.

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


37. Main street in Sha Jiang Village

38. Street in Han Jiang Village


41. Bamboo poles with drying seaweeds

72 73

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

Laying out harvested seaweeds to dry on bamboo raft 42.


43. Hanging seaweeds on bamboo poles

44. Packages of dried seaweed


47. Floating fishing villages close to Dongâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;an Island

74 75

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

House at a floating Village 48.


45. Bamboo raft with sea cucamber cultivation

Bamboo rafts as a streets 46.


51. Shrimp cultivation in Ba Chi Men

76 77

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area

Coastline at Han Jiang Village 52.


49. Floating bamboo raft at Hu Yu Bay

Floating village and seaweed farm 50.


55. Women packing dried seaweed

78 79

Working fisher at seaweed farm 56.

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


53. Local welder in Shaa Jiang Village

Lying out seaweeds on a grass 54.

57. Fixing a fishing net


# aerial view

80 81

follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


16. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research


# site identities +fish farming in ponds +tea cultivation -no boats

MANTOU SHAN HOT SPOT +boats +tea cultivation +seaweed cultivation +bamboo piles

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SHA JIANG HOT SPOT +S-SHAPE HOT SPOT +boats +tea cultivation +seafood cultivation +archotectural heritage +museum +bamboo furniture +bamboo poles in mudflats +Christian Church

+boats +seaweed cu +fruits cultiv +tea cultivati +bamboo pile +Christian Ch


ultivation vation ion es in mudflats hurch

+boats +tea cultivation +seaweed cultivation

BEI DOU HOT SPOT +boats +seaweed cultivation

17. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: characteristic features of each village

N


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N

18. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: location of bamboo poles


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19. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: location of fishing ponds-no direct connection land-mudflats


# Sha Jiang Village

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20. Sha Jiang Village in Xiapu County during the low tide


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21. Sha Jiang Village in Xiapu County during the high tide


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part II CONCEPT


05

CONCLUSION & VISION In the modern era, local events can make an impact on the rest of the world, because we have the means of broadcasting news anywhere and in real time. To be interconnected, although, is bounded with certain responsibilities: every decision we make in our tiny place in the world can - and will - be scrutinized by the people across the oceans and continents. On the other hand - often responsibilities are paired with possibilities, which became the driving force for the search of local community with certain conditions: a problem, that could be highlighted and explained to a global audience, using this particular, modern state of interconnectivity. With Xiapu in scope, the morphology of photography sites came both as multimedial device, as well as a potential area for further development, accentuating village lives of fishing communities - tiding with them, slowly rearraging the way we percieve, approach and interact with their subtle local features. Tourism development - which currently is on a low level - has to be built upon interaction with those locals, exploring the streets and inner courtyards of the villages all along the coast. To achieve this immerse level of interaction, features of Xiapu characteristic environment had been analyzed and evaluated towards potential usage. Key element of coastal activity in Xiapu, embedded into the core of this Thesis, became the interplay between wet and dry areas of the tidal zone. The tempo, in which the mud shifts to a walkable surface, indicates not only the physical change of the landscape, but also the social potential arising daily, as the land reclaims itself in a constant fluctuation. 22. Embracing mud sensitivity


# problems “You’ll see, I won’t stay here. I’ll get out of here, whatever it takes. But I’ll leave.” * Presented research analyses complications faced by fishing communities, as well as consequences of those problems, and how locals cope with them. All that issues are linked together, having a vast influence on the life satisfaction and the standard of living. Starting from the low income from the cultivation of sea food - that contributes to the growing migration level - it also strengthens the problem of overfishing. In that case the consequences touch directly the quality of catches and, indeed, lower the prices for the catches. But from the fisherman perspective, the behaviour of breaking the fishing ban is fully understood. After all he is a man responsible for his family livelihood. On the other hand - worse and worse weather conditions, caused by climate change and overfishing - might lead marine habitat to even more significant pressure. Especially coral bleaching causes habitat degradation, which alter biodiversity of the reef fish, and in turn contribute to overfishing.[19] At that point, as mentioned, the quality of catches has a big impact on the low income. But the greatest threat for the local fishing communities is being determined by the global warming - resulting in frequent natural disasters, including typhoons, rainstormsfloods and inundations. *the quote comes from the movie “XIAPU” directed by Mikhail Khursevich and Valery Kazankov

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23. Cause and Effect Analysis- issues affecting local communities

The aftermath can be severe to local poeple, because it touches directly their place of living, damage costs they have to incur, economic losses and - in worst cases - death. All issues together are connected with each other in direct or indirect way. All of them seems to interconnect at the very final point - while making the decision about migration. And despite of very close relation with their families, friends, and the whole community they live in, it is mostly men, that feel obligated to find a job in some remoted city, providing support for their families left in the village. Some of them, already when the children are small, begin to save some money. The moment children grow older - they are being â&#x20AC;&#x153;sentâ&#x20AC;? to a better place.


# mission The main mission of the project is to accentuate the values of wetlands, and emphasize the importance of fishing villages - not only because of its ecological security threat - but also because of the unique and substantial identity. Taking adventage of all the features in Xiapu County, and finding a new potential of tidal area - as well as fishing farms - the project seeks to implement new cultural functions, that would improve the quality of localsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; life. Unquestionable potential lies behind the photographic tours. Organised, they offer 3- to 5-days trips around the Xiapu County, with the tight programm of visiting picturesque landscapes within fishing villages. The tours bring people to the hot spots for 1-3 hours, letting them to catch the right moment of sunset or sunrise, leaving no time for having a look around the village. Villages do not contain any other point of interests for potential tourists, serve only as a hot spot. They are not able to give any accommodation to potential tourists, or any lunch for a bigger group of people. Although Xiapu is visited by almost 1/4 milion passionate photographers and tourists from all around the world, the tourism infrastructure is on absolutely low level. Sharing photos and videos through social media on the other hand - as it was done all the time - has a real potential of broadcasting something more, than a beatiful landscape. Photos could become a medium. Yet selforganizing such a photographic trip is a difficult process, and not many people

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afford to do this, especially without having the knowledge of chinese language. The scale of certain problems, selected during the research phase, can be reduced through a sustainable investments in tourism. Considering all the features and possibilities laying behind every village, proposed improvements might be a golden mean for improving life quality of fishing communities. Important factor in this case might be to understand the local attitude towards such developments and possible enhancements of their well-being, which would influence their further support for that process. Community involvement, as well as personal benefits from tourism, might result in positive social impacts. The findings indicate, that from both - positive and negative impacts - of the tourism infrastructure growth, the effects from positive social influences are much stronger than from the negative ones. If the villagers will trust to have more benefits from tourism and will participate more and more in the process of planning, they will feel life quality improvement, and will - in result - support further developments. [20] POSITIVE SOCIAL IMPACT NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACT

QUALITY OF LIFE

SUPPORT FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT en em ag g n er e bigg

t

COMMUNITY ENVOLVEMENT

BENEFITS FROM TOURISM Tourism develoment have an real potential on life quality improvement [21]

In order to go with the research further, there was an online investigation proceeded within the local people of Sha Jiang village. The main purpose of the questionaire was to check their attitude towards potential development of tourism infrastructure. All the asked people were glad of the fact, that Xiapu is visited by thousands of people. Moreover, they feel strong connection to their place of living, as well as to the culture they grow up and families they have. The tourism - in their opinion - does not change their culture, neither the place of living, thus asked villagers had nothing against the expansion of tourism in their area. About 90% of them indicated that potential developments would have a positive impact on the local life. The rest 10% had a neutral approach to that point. Moreover, almost all of them would like to contribute to the rising level of tourism in the future. It is worth to mark, that nobody from that survey had a negative attitude. Developing the relationship between inhabitants and visitors might be the first factor, that would drive local economic revolution. This process, although, should not change the way of living, but enable their daily routines to take adventage of this touristic potential. It would enhance the income of families, giving opportunity for example to the women in the village, which could offer dining possibilities, as well as introducing tourists to all the daily activities, in which they could participate.


# intervention strategy Every village within Xiapu County is a characteristic place and has its own unique features. Depending on natural canditions, local communities developed different types of cultivation. Some of them farm in fishing ponds, that extend the shoreline, and limit a direct connection between village and mudflats. Those people rely on ponds and have no need to use the boats. On the contrary - other villages located along the coast or on the sea practice seaweed farming or other types of aquaculture i.e. floating bamboo rafts. For those villagers boats are used not only for transport, but also for earning money on fishing and marine harvesting. Besides the characteristic landcape and work on the sea or fishing ponds, locals are also engaged in rice cultivation, some fruits or white tea farming. This concerns unemployed woman in particular. If they are not on the farm or at home - preparing dinner with children - then they probably fix the fishing net or create a bamboo furniture with children, spending the time on the court yard or on the street with other locals. A few of them lead a small local enterprises, among which you can find even a small cozy museum, that unfortunatelly seems to be unnoticed by tourists. Between other easy to spot features is a big amount of abandoned houses, that seems to be correlated with growing migration level. Developing some of these features together with existing hot spot areas might bring a potential new benefits for local community, and be a growth driver for local enterprises.

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site identities

activation areas

photographic spots

potential benefits by developing local enterprises

fishermen

by selling harvested seaweed by selling harvested tea fruits

aquaculture seaweed farms fish farms

agriculture rice cultivation

MUDFLATS floating platforms and boats

tea cultivation

local enterprieses

abandoned houses unemployed women handskills bamboo furnitures repairing fishing nets

by giving a transport to other photographic spots

by being a local guide

fruits cultivation

museum of fishery

by selling handmade suvenirs

relocation of museum

LAND

accommodation spaces shared common spaces

by reorganising or sharing own flats

by cooking meals for family and Tourists

sharing skills with tourists

24. Transforming site features into a benefits program

In that instance, considering the abandoned houses as a possible accomodation spaces - might determine first venture. In a result, hosting tourists in a village, even for a few hours, covers the need for a proper dining place. Locals might benefit from sharing meals in natural relaxed situations, not beeing distracted from daily activities. Potential tourists have - on the other hand - an opportunity to meet the culture and traditional lifestile, not only by observing photographed people, but also by attending their everyday life. The process of remodeling site features and using their potential allows local people to derive profit from daily activities by a little involvement. Another profits might be achieved by activating the mudflat canvas. Using their potential of being, in a sense, sensory garden - would allow to discover not only different perspectives of fisherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life - but also the matter of wetlands. Activation of certain mud-scapes would arrouse touristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest and bring people into the mudflats. Potential visitor would not only observe the landscape, but also be a part of it. Proposed floating platforms for developing enterprises could support local trade, with equal contribution from tourists, as well as from locals. The connection to these points would be determined by a daily tidal range, that would disactivate particular areas covered by water. Daily changes in tides - on the other hand - would introduce various iterations of such paths - evoking continuous momentum of rediscovery.


# concept Cycle of the moon, retreating waters and the boats sailing off upon them - it all determines daily schedule of Xiapu coast. In the middle of all that, mudflat canvas appears as a scene for this unique choreography - where all local characteristic features overlay in various order, creating dissonances invisible to the eye of the visitor, but noticable within the span of days, months and years. This canvas remembers each step, only to overwrite it a while later, deforming previous signs of local interaction. In the age of common reclamation, areas like Xiapu would often be developed in a relatively radical way - introducing habitable land at the cost of mudflat extinction. The aim of this project is to tackle this problem by introducing innovative way of widely understood reclamation.

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The great opportunity lays in the very nature of mudflat, that begin to appear and dry according to tidal activity. This particular periodicity enables us to extend coastal area along with retreating sea, introducing activities adjusted to the heartbeat of this ecosystem. This way mud becomes a shared domain, still percieved as landscape during high tides, and inviting people to interact with its environment, when the water slowly goes away. Leaving the landscape unchanged as much as possible was one of the most crucial aims, resulting from multiple reasons. Firstly - Xiapu region is highly picturesque and renown within photographers from all around the world. With this in mind, there is a certain possibility of using those thousands of photographs - done each year - as a medium highlighting problems of the area. It was also important - considering the landscape itself as a form of contemplative experience done from a distance - to introduce unique duality of mudflat performance. This could include mentioned features of the landscape, along with newly developed environmental conditions: simply entering the mud and taking a walk, immersing ourselves within this rare, vivid environment. With such a strategy, it would be possible to achieve the second reason of preserving this landscape: being the main lifestock for millions of Xiapu citizens. 25. The village of Sha Jiang - mudflats area covered by hundreads of bamboo sticks and visiting photographers - composed together in unique type of ecosystem. Navigating through multiple formal and social languages, building the dialog between them.


Inviting people to have a simple walk on the mudflats, might be in fact a big step for the whole neighbourhood development. The moment of getting from the photo Hot Spot to the shore, and navigating through the network of small village streets, lay ground for the dialog between citizens and visitors. With this in mind, the whole concept of walking on a mud gave a simple - yet subtle and powerful - space to operate. Precisely between the foot and the sand is where the project is crystalized. Thin layer of textile - a membrane mediating between visitors and this precious environment - allow to explore wetlands, covering them to preserve their upper layer in the same time. Membrane shifts from being a solid surface to much more flexible state, enabling people to explore this very unique feature of Xiapu environment softness of a mud. Solid states are achieved by the pressure pumped inside of pneumatic threads simulating concrete floor in the middle of the sea, while flexible moments give a wide range of sensations, gradually immersing visitors in this sensory garden.

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THESIS AIMS +to develop design system that actively seek to engage people to participate in their environment +to focus on the human design experience +to develop new ways of understanding the relationship between people and environment +to highlight the expression of mudlfats transition as a response to reclamation process PROJECT AIMS +to enabe touristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interaction with locals +paths as a connection to other villages +encouraging tourists to stay a bit longer in villagesincreases the demand on the accommodation and eating places +walkable surface as an unexpectable and unknown territoriy with new specific views

26. thin-soft-flexible : sketching the space between environment and the visitor


# time map

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27. Basic map of time needed to cover a given distance - size of parcels is related to average speed on a given type of soil. Walking on stable ground: 100 m/ 1 min. Walking on unstable ground: 40 m/ 1 min,


# scenarios

28.1 Scenarios of one day trip through a few fishing villages. The programm enables the tourist to start a day in a village with the sun rise view and end the day in the village with the sun set view on another coast

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28.2 Scenarios of one day trip through a few fishing villages. The programm enables the tourist to start a day in a village with the sun rise view and end the day in the village with the sun set view on another coast


28.3 Scenarios of one day trip through a few fishing villages. The programm enables the tourist to start a day in a village with the sun rise view and end the day in the village with the sun set view on another coast

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28.4 Scenarios of one day trip through a few fishing villages. The programm enables the tourist to start a day in a village with the sun rise view and end the day in the village with the sun set view on another coast


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part III DESIGN STRATEGY


06

TIDAL RHYTHMS

Mudflats reclaim themselves each and every day, as ongoing process of tidal movement preserves their nature and uncovers their beauty. The height of the water changes in different speeds - increasing the fastest sowewhere between 3rd and 4th hour. With an average amplitude of 5m - the channels are the record of water movement, but even during the low tide, they can be still used to water the fishing ponds or to serve as a communication channels between villages and seaweed farms. Tidal activity within Xiapu environment compose itself based on the rhythm. Water however - aggregates each day with a slight different speed, creating intricate dissonance. This tidal accelerations, monthly shifts and daily differences - water the life of Xiapu population, helping to flourish multiple types of cultivation, composing daily routines and forecasting the work ahead. This particular feature of Xiapu environment is nothing less and nothing more, than simply a momentum of dissonance, emerging in a network of channels, creases and furrows of sand. Yet - it drives the life of the whole community, and stands as the backbone of their culture, making it a very promissing feature to work with. 29. Tidal Rhytms at Xiapu coast |video|


# tidal range

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30. Top view and perspective view during the high tide


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31. Top view and perspective view - 2nd hour after the high tide


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32. Top view and perspective view - 4rd hour after the high tide


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33. Top view and perspective view during the low tide


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07

WAEVING PROCESS

Standing in silence for the past decades bamboo sticks create unusual atmosphere of Xiapu coast, balancing on the edge of decay and utility. Reminding of themselves in the time of seaweed cultivation - they can be also a possible backbone for intricate connectivity. With that in mind, tidal activity has been measured in order to trace mud areas with the fastest drying tempo. The domain of walkable space begun to grow, creating a sort of extension of the village. Choosing bamboo sticks on the driest ground established a bond between those two areas, helping to navigate and memorize arising spacial opportunities. In the same time it enables visitors to gradualy experience various softness of the ground - from dried sand in the middle to wet and reflective mud on the edge of the water. By connecting the closest bamboo together, the process of weaving begun to appear, unifying certain areas of mudflats. With this particular network - marking the optimal path scenarios was not only possible, but - in fact - rooted deeply in the subtle interplay between the village and its occasional extension. 34. Bamboo connectivity : color gradient of the network diagram represents distances between driest areas of mudflats and areas still under water


Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement |video| 35.1

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# growing distances


Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement |video| 35.2

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Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement |video| 35.3

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Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement |video| 35.4

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Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement |video| 35.5

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Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea |video| 36.1

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# living tracks


Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea |video| 36.2

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Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea |video| 36.3

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Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea |video| 36.4

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Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea |video| 36.5

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Changes of possible paths determined by the phase of the tide 37.

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# track strategy


Frequency of the driest tracks

38.

Bamboo sticks located along selected tracks

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39.

Connections between the 40. closest bamboo sticks


41.

Oriented topologies of bamboo groups

42.

Bamboo sticks located on the most active areas

43.

Gradient of potential visitor footprint


membrane fabric emerging from particular set of local characterictics 44.

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part IV MATERIAL RESEARCH


08

TEXTILE NEGOTIATOR

Borders, membranes, thin film covering the leaves or simply our skin - we often perceive those elements as 2 dimensional objects, while - in fact - it is the thickness, density, structure and performance, that defines them the most. The moment we become aware of those subtle factors, we can start to describe membranes as buffers. Buffer zones appear between various forms, materials and situations, but there is one certain type of buffer we are experiencing each and every day: clothes. They define our privacy and intimacy, sticking to the body or hanging loose in undefined manner. It is - in fact - this particular feature of the textile, that makes it so unique: when an object approaches our body, it has to pass this buffer zone of cloth reciprocality, in order to feel our form. In a way - textile negotiates between two separate entities. For the purpose of preserving mudflats, as well as giving some kind of processed reciprocality, an idea of a membrane had been placed upon those mud fields - appearing precisely between the sand and the foot of the visitor. Working both ways, it pertracts the features of Xiapu environment, along with the needs and actions performed by men. Following those ideas, formal research had been divided into two main branches: the first exploring mud resistancy against pressed fabric - while the second refering to flexibility and memory of textiles. 58. Textile imprint


# flexibile molding

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59. Viscosity molded by the pressure applied to a textile


Textile molding with various pressures 60.

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61. Grid deformations under point-, line- and area-pressure


# frozen flexibility

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62. Hot glue applied to a stretched textile, released after cooling down


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63. inscribing memory into stretched fabric- various gluing patterns


09

RE-TEXTILE

Memory of materials, resulting in different kinds of deformations, could be inscribed into textiles and evoked with flexible, controlled patterns. Using this logic - aggregating tidal power and processing it by soft materials and pneumatics - creates PNEUMATIC THREADS. This particular relationship is rooted in various natural forms, yet opening itself towards one of the biggest production branches worldwide - textiles. It gives an opportunity to rethink stretching, flexibility and material memory, looking for important factors directly inside of Xiapu County. With this being said, Pneumatic Threads take advantage not only from exisiting tidal range, but combine know-how of knitting and net production - embeded deep into the local culture. Using this knitting potential of the area, as well as daily harvesting routines, enables to introduce membrane system produced with local wisdom, and distributed along the mudflat with local activities. Introducing modern materials into local cultural heritage, extends features of this vast environment, helping to activate various potential within it. In order to develop digital prototypes, multiple scripts had been designed - giving opportunity to test and recompose various formal and topological possibilities. Mixed with physical prototyping - the whole process gained multidimensional complexity, remaining relatively intuitive to operate in the same time. 45. Digital description of complex textile behaviours


# pneumatic thread Concentrating on the functionality of pneumatic thread, one question appeared as the most important: which material to choose? The first choice was a simple, medical silicone tube, which had almost none width extension capacity, but occured to have relatively high potential towards elongation. Single silicone wire - in this particular example - changed his length by 25%. Moreover, using high pressure (either from liquid- or air condensation) makes the wire harder - being an interesting factor when thinking about redefining textiles. With this in mind, the very function of pneumatic thread - made either from medical tubes, or later from Ecoflex family of silicones - was now able to be described with set of preassures, along with patterns applied to textiles. Another important feature of silicone was its scalability, or - in other words ability to merge several fibers together with another layer of silicone, unifying the pattern and tightening connection with textile. It helped not only to stabilize patterns, but also established close, strong bond with membrane, making the loss of force between those two materials as low as possible. Future applications of pneumatic threads are countless, and require certain research to be developed within various fields. Creating complex clothes from human to urban scale, with interwoven pneumatic threads - might be possible sooner than we expect.

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64. Changing the lenght of a silicone tube by applying certain amount of pressure


# digital research

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46. Distinct beauty of textiles, determined by a subtle change of conditions


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47.1-4 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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47.5-8 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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47.9-12 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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47.13-16 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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47.17-20 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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47.21-24 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile


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part V CONTEXTUAL APPLICATION


# thread distribution 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. Typology of bamboo groups from Sha Jiang mudflats 48.

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49. Possible development of the threads within different typologies


1.

2.

3.

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4.

5.

6. 50. Textile deformations by extending pneumatic thread pattern


# tidal activation

51.1 Slowly flowing water.

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51.2 Bamboo device begins to collect water, as the sea level rises. Meanwhile vertical turbine unfold itself and starts to absorb energy from tidal movement


51.3 High tide - bamboo device is already filled with water. Fully open rotor is genereting energy for bamboo device

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51.4 Reatreating water - meanwhile vertical turbine fold itself and stops generating energy


51.5 Low tide- bamboo device pumps collected water into pneumatic threads within a membrane

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51.6 Low tide- visible and tangible deformation of a path following the tide


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VISUAL PROJECTION


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52. Visualisation .


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53. Visualisation .


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54. Visualisation .


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PHYSICAL MODEL


#1

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64.1 Characteristic landscape of Xiapu - Sha Jiang village surrounded by mudflats, 1:1000


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64.2 Characteristic landscape of Xiapu - Sha Jiang village surrounded by mudflats, 1:1000


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65. Physical model as a canvas for Augmented Reality - explaining complex choreography of design strategy


#2

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66.1 Part of Xiapu landscape after applying the design strategy - membranes with pneumatic threads, 1:100


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66.2-66.3 Part of Xiapu landscape after applying the design strategy - membranes with pneumatic threads, 1:100


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66.4 Part of Xiapu landscape after applying the design strategy - membranes with pneumatic threads, 1:100


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APPENDIX


# initial research

67. Self developing surfaces : unfolding of a green tea leaf in a water

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68. Result of a melted foil


69. Grid deformation: bending wood by applying humidity to wooden fibers

70. Testing silicone by applying pressure into post-wax channel

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71. Testing flexinol muscle wire mounted onto a piece of textile


72. Testing ecoflex silicon: creating a â&#x20AC;&#x153;textile pneumatic tubeâ&#x20AC;?

73. Testing Ecoflex silicon : multilayered composite with integrated channel

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74. Testing pneumatic tube combined with an elastic textile

75. Testing pneumatic tube placed between elastic and non-elastic surfaces


76.1 Testing an expandable hose integrated with a textile by applying a pressure

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76.2. TTesting an expandable hose integrated with a textile by applying a pressure


# bibliography [1] Diversity of Malaysian aquatic ecosystem and resources. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Sustainabil. Manage., 119-135 | Available at: https://www.researchgate. net/publication/239314992_Diversity_of_Malaysian_aquatic_ecosystems_and_resources | Yusoff, F.M., M. Shariff and N. Gopinath, 2006. [2] The Economic Values of the Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Wetlands Available at: http://assets.panda.org/downloads/wetlandsbrochurefinal.pdf Kirsten Schuyt, Luke Brander [3] Land reclamation: tread carefully [article] | Available at: https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/1792-Land-recla Jiang Gaoming [4]Marine Habitats [article] | Available at: https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/microbial-ecology-16/aquatic-microbiology-194/marine-habitats-971-6438/ [5]Marine Habitat Destruction | Available at: http://ocean.nationalgeographic. com/ocean/critical-issues-marine-habitat-destruction/ [6] Climate Change or Consciousness? [article] | Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sister-jenna/a-climate-of-consciousnes_b_8802646.html text by Sister Jenna [7] Adapting to Climate Change: A Challenge and Opportunity [article] | Available at: https://www.wri.org/node/36851 By Saleemul Huq [8] Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives Page: 218 By David Kyle,Rey Koslowski [9] FUJIAN, U.S.A.: A special report; Within Chinatown, a Slice of Another China [article] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/22/nyregion/fujian-usaa-special-report-within-chinatown-a-slice-of-another-china.html by Susan Sachs [10] From Fujian to New York: Understanding the New Chinese Immigration [article] Available at: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1112056/ posts?page=3 By Zai Liang and Wenzhen Ye [11] Social Assessment Report of the Fujian Coastal Fishing Harbor Construction Demonstration Project [Document of the World Bank] | Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/docsearch/projects/P129791 [12] Social Assessment Report of the Fujian Coastal Fishing Harbor Construction Demonstration Project [Document of the World Bank] Page 22 [13] Typhoon Morakot leaves 6 dead, 3 missing on Chinese mainland [article] Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/10/content_11861479. htm

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[14] Typhoon Morakot lands in east China, causing casualties [article] Available at: http://news. xinhuanet.com/english/2009-08/09/content_11852514.htm [15]Quality Of Life [Definition] | Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/q/quality-of-life. asp#ixzz4cG2eIQcd [16] China’s Life Satisfaction, 1990–2010 | Available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ a72f/8ecc8c5e63d494dd1dbb88c23116759c5f86.pdf By Richard A. Easterlin, Robson Morgan, Malgorzata Switek, Fei Wang [17] Landscape and the Environment | Available at: http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/re/k-rsc/lcs/ kiyou/pdf_24-3/RitsIILCS_24.3pp.89-95WILKOSZEWSKA.pdf By Krystyna WILKOSZEWSKA [18] Mediation theory and the design with urban systems data |Available at: http://www. informationinaction.com/mediation-theory-and-the-design-with-urban-systems-data/ By KRISTIAN KLOECKL [19] Climate change interacts with pollution and overfishing to make bigger problem for reefs Available at: https://www.carbonbrief.org/climate-change-interacts-with-pollution-andoverfishing-to-make-bigger-problem-for-reefs By [20] THE SOCIAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON LOCAL COMMUNITY’S QUALITY OF LIFE Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2637355 By Ivana Pavlić, Ana Portolan, Barbara Puh [21] “Urban quality of life- critical issues and options” ISBN 9971-69-227-9 by Lim Lam Yuan | Belinda Yuen | Christine Low


# photos

Cover photo Photo by John Purvis | Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/16271433@N02 1. Mudflats during the low tide | Photo by Terry Chen | Available at: http://flickr.com/ photos/corker888/ 2. Bleaching coral reef | Photo by Prilfish | Available at:https://www.flickr.com/photos/ silkebaron/ 3. Fisherman starting work in the early morning | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 4. Sunset at Yu Gong Ting Cun Village, Xiapu County | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 5.Golden beach | Photo by Ge Zheng | Available at: http://www.pipa.sg/index.php/winner-2016/projected-image-travel-colour/ 6. Sunning fabrics | Photo by Claudia Lee Xiaoli | Available at: https://www.singaporecolour. org/salon/previous-salon/winners-photos/34-photos-past-salon 7. Catching fishes at Bei Qi | Photo by Nana Cat | Available at: http://nanacatxiapu.blogspot. co.at/ 8.Seaweed farm at Sha Jiang | Photo by unknown author | Available at: http://picssr.com/ photos/ 9. Drying seaweed at Sha Jiang | Photograph available at: http://www.xphxs.cn/list. asp?id=267 10. Seaweed farm | Photo by Xiang Huang | Availabe at : http://shangbangsalon.com/index. php/xiapu-colour-landscape/ 11. Low tide at Nan Wan | Photo by Nana Cat | Available at: http://nanacatxiapu.blogspot. co.at/ 12. Low tide at Sha Jiang | Photo by unknown author | Available at : http://www.xphxs.cn/list. asp?id=267&PageNo=2 13. High tide at Zhu Jiang | Photo by unknown author | Available at: http://picssr.com/photos/ 14. Early morning at Bei Qi | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 15. Seaweed farm during the sunset | Photo by unknown author | Available at: http://www. panoramio.com/photo/93832505 Photograph by Ye Xinyu 叶心雨 16. Harvesting the seaweed | Photo Lu Chenxing 呂陳興 | Available at: https://www.instagram.com/follow.me_photo/ 17.Shrimp farm at Ba Chi Men | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 18. Hanging harvested seaweed on bamboo sticks | Photo by Jianrong Song | Available at http://shangbangsalon.com/index.php/xiapu-colour-landscape/ 19. Fishing ponds | Photo by unknown author |Available at: http://www.xpsy.net/xinxi/ zonghe/887.html 20. Farmer, Yang Jiaxi | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 21. Sand bubbler crab patterns | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 22. Meandering streams of water | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 23. Water channels in mudflats | Photo by Nick Saltmarsh | Available at https://www.flickr. com/photos/nsalt/3056057474/ 24. Sea food: harvested oysters | Photo by fegafomatos | Available on https://www.flickr. com/photos/18274848@N08/20262479095/in/album-72157656670203626/ 25. Fish trap during the low tide | Photo by Toonman_blchin | Available on https://www. flickr.com/photos/toonmanimage/17622381365/in/album-72157652312647209/ 26. Fishing boats | Photo by unknown author 27. Bamboo poles for hanging seaweed | Photo by Geza Radics | Available at: https://www. flickr.com/photos/radicsge/12385722805/ 28. Aerial image of fishing ponds| Aerial Image from Apple Maps Location: Mei Yang Village, Xiapu County 29. Fish ponds for fish, shrimps, crab and abalone cultivation | Pho by Jiang Kehong | Available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/peoplesdaily/article-3986842/Incredibleimages-life-Xiapu-China-s-charming-fishing-village.html 30. Floating raft- for sea cucamber cultivation | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 31. Pen culture for fish and shrimps | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 32. Nori cultibation on bamboo stakes | Photo by hiyayaz | Available at: https://www. instagram.com/hiyayaz/ 33. Oyster farm on bamboo stakes | Photo by iamsupei | Availabe at https://www.flickr. com/photos/79739826@N07/ 34. laver cultivation | Photo by highmore_threx | Available at: https://www.instagram. com/highmore_threx 35. Fish traps | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 36. Artificial reef before instalation | Photo by Unknown | From Fujian fishing Ports Project | Document of The World Bank 37. Main street in Sha Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik

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38. Street in Han Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 39. Street in Sha Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 40. Street in Han Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 41. Bamboo poles with drying seaweeds | Photo by Melinda Chan | Available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/ chanmelmel 42. Laying out harvested seaweeds to dry on bamboo raft | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 43. Hanging seaweeds on bamboo poles | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 44. Packages of dried seaweed | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 45. Bamboo raft with sea cucamber cultivation | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 46. Bamboo rafts as a streets |Photo by Jarvankng | Available at https://www.instagram.com/jarvankng/ 47. Floating fishing villages close to Dong’an Island | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 48. House at a floating Village | Photo by Jarvankng | Available at https://www.instagram.com/jarvankng/ 49. Floating bamboo raft at Hu Yu Bay | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 50. Floating village and seaweed farm | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 51. Shrimp cultivation in Ba Chi Men | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 52. Coastline at Han Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 53. Local welder in Shaa Jiang Village | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 54.Lying out seaweeds on a grass | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 55. Women packing dried seaweed | Photo by E.W.Pawlik 56. Working fisherman at seaweed farm | Photo by Melinda Chan | Available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/ chanmelmel/8902460372/in/album-72157633750583717/ 57. Fixing a fishing net |Photo by Avner Tabib | Available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/125470630@ N05/14688817505/in/album-72157645722416706 57. Textile imprint | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 58. Viscosity molded by the pressure applied to a textile | Photo by M. Spólnik, model by E.W.Pawlik 59. Textile molding with various pressures | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 60. Grid deformations under point-, line- and area-pressure | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 61. Hot glue applied to a stretched textile, released after cooling down | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 62. Inscribing memory into stretched fabric - various gluing patterns | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 63. Changing the lenght of a silicone tube by applying certain amount of pressure | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 64.1- 2 Characteristic landscape of Xiapu - Sha Jiang village surrounded by mudflats, 1:1000| Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 65. Physical model as a canvas for Augmented Reality - explaining complex choreography of design strategy | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 66.1-3 Part of Xiapu landscape after applying the design strategy - membranes with pneumatic threads, 1:100 | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 67. Self developing surfaces : unfolding of a green tea leaf in a water | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 68. Result of a melted foil | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 69. Grid deformation: bending wood by applying humidity to wooden fibers | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 70. Testing silicone by applying pressure into post-wax channel | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 71. Testing flexinol muscle wire mounted onto a piece of textile | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 72. Testing ecoflex silicon: creating a “textile pneumatic tube” | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 73. Testing Ecoflex silicon : multilayered composite with integrated channel | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 74. Testing pneumatic tube combined with an elastic textile | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 75. Testing pneumatic tube placed between elastic and non-elastic surfaces | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik 76.1-2 Testing an expandable hose integrated with a textile by applying a pressure | Photo and model by E.W.Pawlik


# graphics 1. Terrain of Xiapu County, Fujian Province, East Coast China Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 2. Azimuthal map projection of Asia, centered on Taipei | based on the map from The Library of Congress. Available at: http://www.loc.gov/item/75692496 Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 3. Hong Kong in 1984 and in 2015 | based on historical Imagery from Google Earth Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 4.Typhoon Nepartak heading for Taiwan and China Mainland in July 2016 | Graphic from https://earth.nullschool.net | Accessed 7 July 2016 5. Migratory flows between Provinces, from the Countryside towards the Cities, 1985-1990 | based on http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/547 Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 6. Proportion of urban & rural population within Xiapu County | based on data from National Economic and Social Development Statical Bulletins 2011 (China, Fujian, Fuzhou and Ningde); Xiapu Statistical Yearbook 2012 Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 7. Borders of Xiapu County | based on openstreetmaps.com Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 8. Results of a survey among locals from Sha Jiang Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 9. Daily shift of tidal amplitude within a month | based on: https://www.tide-forecast.com/ locations/Shajiang/tides/latest | Accessed 5 May 2016 and 20 May 2016 Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 10. Selected path is an information cloud of one photo uploaded to www.panoramio.com website | using Panoramio API Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 11. the most geotagged places along the Xiapu coastline Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 12. diagrams presenting which village was most geotagged each year, on panoramio and flickr | data from Panoramio API and Flickr API Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 13. Exact location of uploaded photos with usernames | data from Panoramio API and Flickr API Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 14.1 Projection of all photos from Xiapu County uploaded to Panoramio and Flickr. X-axis presents the median brightness Y-axis presents the median saturation of all photos. That organizes the photos according to time of day Graphic made in ImageJ 14.2 Projection of all photos from neighbouring counties (Fuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;an and Jiaocheng) uploaded to Panoramio and Flickr. X-axis presents the median brightness Y-axis presents the median saturation of all photos. That organizes the photos according to time of day Graphic using Image Plot Program 15. Intertidal zone along the coast of Xiapu County | based on historical imagery from Google Earth Graphics by E.W.Pawlik 16. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research Graphic from Apple Maps 17. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: characteristic features of each village Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 18. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: location of bamboo poles Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 19. Part of Xiapu County chosen for further research: location of fishing ponds-no direct connection land-mudflats Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 20. Sha Jiang Village in Xiapu County during the low tide Graphic from Google Maps 21. Sha Jiang Village in Xiapu County during the high tide | based on historical imagery from Google Earth Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 22. Embracing mud sensitivity Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 23. Cause and Effect Analysis- issues affecting local communities Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 24. Transforming site features into a benefits program

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Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 25. The village of Sha Jiang, mudflats area covered by hundreads of bamboo sticks and visiting photographers - composed together in unique type of ecosystem. Navigating through multiple formal and social languages, building the dialog between them. By E.W.Pawlik 26. thin-soft-flexible : sketching the space between environment and the visitor 27. Basic map of time needed to cover a given distance - size of parcels is related to average speed on a given type of soil. Walking on stable ground: 100 m/ 1 min. Walking on unstable ground: 40 m/ 1 min Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 28.1-4 Scenarios of one day trip through a few fishing villages. Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 29. Tidal Rhytms at Xiapu coast Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 30. Top view and perspective view during the high tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 31. Top view and perspective view - 2nd hour after the high tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 32. Top view and perspective view - 4rd hour after the high tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 33. Top view and perspective view during the low tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 34. Bamboo connectivity : color gradient of the network diagram represents distances between driest areas of mudflats and areas still under water Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 35.1-5 Aproximating ground dryness, measuring distances to the water during tidal movement Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 36.1-5 Possible tracks appearing during retreating tide. Each path leads from the coastline to the floating platform on the open sea | Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 37. Changes of possible paths determined by the phase of the tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 38. Frequency of the driest tracks Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 39. Bamboo sticks located along selected tracks Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 40. Connections between the closest bamboo sticks Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 41. Oriented topologies of bamboo groups Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 42. Bamboo sticks located on the most active areas Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 43. Gradient of potential visitor footprint Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 44. membrane fabric emerging from particular set of local characterictics Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 45. Digital description of complex textile behaviours Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 46. Distinct beauty of textiles, determined by a subtle change of conditions Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 47.1-24 Several combination have been tested in order to mark unique performance of certain patterns applied to the textile Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 48. Typology of bammboo groups Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 49. Possible development of the threads within different typologies Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 50. Textile deformations by extending pneumatic thread pattern Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.1 Slowly flowing water Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.2 Bamboo device begins to collect water, as the sea level rises. Meanwhile vertical turbine unfold itself and starts to absorb energy from tidal movement | Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.3 High tide - bamboo device is already filled with water. Fully open rotor is genereting energy for bamboo device | Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.4 Reatreating water - meanwhile vertical turbine fold itself and stops generating energy Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.5 Low tide- bamboo device pumps collected water into pneumatic threads within a membrane Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 51.6 Low tide- visible and tangible deformation of a path following the tide Graphic by E.W.Pawlik 52.- 54. Visualisation Graphic by E.W.Pawlik


# special thanks I express my deep sense of appreciation to my supervisor : prof. Christian Kern for his support, advice and insightful discussions and to Florian Rist, for his technical guidance, invaluable discussions and extra hours he put for me during the thesis My deepest thanks goes to my partner, MichaĹ&#x201A; SpĂłlnik, who contributed to this project with his comments and opinions, valuable ideas and motivation, helping to achieve my project goals I am also really grateful to my amazing friends for motivating and helping me throughout the whole thesis. Many thanks especially to: Marianna, Marta, Kasia, Patryk and Park Finally, the special thanks goes to my mother, father and sister, whose support throughout my education can never adequately be expressed in words. Thank you for ecouraging me throughout my life to meet challenges with detemination and to strive for a success

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234 235follow the tide the tangible potential of mudflats area


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Die Masterarbeit beschäftigt sich mit Wattgebieten, die aufgrund wachsender Städte urbanisiert werden. Die Nutzbarmachung dieser Gebiete ist nicht per se negativ, aber das Ausmaß der Zerstörung natürlicher Lebensräume ist so groß, dass dieser Prozess umgehend gestoppt werden sollte. Dies betrifft besonders Asien, da hier aktuell ein weiteres Bevölkerungswachstum von zwei Milliarden Menschen erwartet wird. Die Nutzbarmachung von Wattgebieten ist eine der Maßnahmen der betroffenen Länder um damit umzugehen. Deshalb liegt das in dieser Arbeit betrachtete Gebiet in einer chinesischen Provinz, die als Ansammlung von Hunderten von Fischerdörfern einen großen Einfluss auf die weltweite Gewässerkultur hat. Die Region ist berühmt für die Schönheit der Natur und den traditionellen chinesischen Lebensstil. Dadurch ist sie zu einem Hotspot für Fotografen aus aller Welt geworden. Erste Studien der Region machten mich aber auf viele Probleme der Fischerdörfer aufmerksam, vgl. auch #global issues. Mir wurde klar, dass in der öffentlichen Wahrnehmung die Schönheit des Ortes zu sehr im Vordergrund steht im Vergleich zur tatsächlichen Rauheit des täglichen Lebens. Hier wurde idealisierte Landschaft vermarktet und nicht die Realität abgebildet. Während der Beschäftigung mit dem Thema, siehe auch #wetlands #reclamation #climate change #fishing village and #migration, begann ich daher, die Masterarbeit auf das Potential derjenigen Wattgebiete zu fokussieren, welche der tägliche Arbeitsraum für alle Einheimischen ist. Die meistfotografierten Landschaftsgebiete in der Xiapu Provinz können dazu beitragen, auf bestimmte Probleme aufmerksam zu machen und Ideen zur Verbesserung der Lebensräume der Einheimischen zu verbreiten. Alle bereits existierenden Foto-Spots könnten unter Verwendung von Geo-Tags in den Social Media Channels als Kommunikationsplattformen genutzt werden, um für die Xiapu Landschaft einen Design Vorschlag zu entwickeln, der dem wahren Wert der Wattgebiete gerecht wird.

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Follow the tide. The tangible potential of mudflats area.  

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