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Eva$Charlotte$Salisbury$ $ 200764955$ $ ‘Discuss$and$debate$the$impact$of$social$and$political$ movements$on$fashion$during$the$years$1918D1928.’$ $ DESN$2658$20th$Century$Fashion$ $ BA$(Hons)$Fashion$Marketing$ $ School$of$Design,$University$of$Leeds$



2$Introduction! 3$Literature$Review$and$Analysis$ 4!Chapter!One:!The!emancipation!of!women.! 1.1!Knitwear! 1.2!Sportswear! 1.3!Clutch!Bag! 1.4!Silhouette!! ! 11!Chapter!Two:!The!Jazz!age!and!the!impact!of!women’s! sexual!liberalisation!on!Fashion.! 2.1!Bright!young!things! 2.2!!Dance!dress! ! 15!Chapter!Three:!Women!at!work!and!the!change!in!social! classes.! 3.1!Upper!class! 3.2!Middle!and!working!classes! $ 22$Conclusion$ 23$Bibliography$

! !


Figure!2:!Suffragettes! in!Britain!Ninally!won! the!right!to!vote!in! 1918.!


Introduction! The! years! 1918! to! 1928! brought! social! middle! class! women! were! still! restricted! and! political! change! for! women! of! all! by! conservative! attitudes! to! the! role! of! classes,!which!were!reNlected!in!the!styles! housewife! within! the! home! which! was! and! silhouettes! of! the! decade.! The! First! reNlected!in!the!invention!of!the!every!day! World! War! positioned! women! as! useful! dress! to! be! worn! for! multifunctional! use! Nigures! within! society,! taking! up! the! jobs! (Sessions,! 2016).! It! was! perhaps! the! the! men! at! war! had! left! behind.! By! the! development! of! mass! manufacture! that! early! 1920s! women! had! gained! political! had!a!greater!effect!on!the!introduction!of! and! social! suffrage! reNlected! through! the! androgynous! styles! and! knitwear! made! Sex! DisqualiNication! Act! of! 1919! and! accessible! to! the! masses! (Arnold! et! al,! women! being! permitted! the! right! of! 2006).!Although!these!styles!and!fashions! divorce!in!1923!(Mason,!1998).!!This!new! were!not!as!extreme!as!the!upper!classes,! step! towards! gender! equality! lead! to! the!! fashion! could! no! longer! identify! and! rise!of!loose!silhouettes,!the!androgynous! segregate! classes.! Working! women! who! l o o k! a n d! s o p h i s t i c a t e d! k n i t w e a r! gained! higher! incomes! through! leaving! pioneered!by!Chanel!as!many!upper!class! domestic! service! for! factory! work! were! women! took! on! traditionally! male! able! to! wear! the! latest! styles.! This! professions.! The! jazz! age! also! brought! indicates! that! social! and! political! sexual! emancipation! amongst! the! movements! impacted! classes! and! fashion! younger! upper! classes,! inNluencing! the! to! different! extents.! Women! embraced! revealing! Nlapper! dress! as! women! drank! modernity! and! liberalisation! through! and! danced! the! decade! away.! This! dress! using! it! as! a! tool! to! position! brought! sexual! liberalisation! to! women.!! themselves! as! equals! within! society! but! However! these! changes! can! be! seen! to! social!and!economic!constraints!remained! have! a! limited! impact! on! fashion! with! that!perhaps!limited!this!to!the!young!and! hemlines! not! reaching! the! knee! till! 1926! upper!social!classes.! (Peacock,! 2005).! Evidence! from! Nilm! and! media! of! the! time! suggest! the! working! and! lower! middle! classes! continued! to! wear! the! more! traditional! styles.! While!


Literature!Review!and!Analysis! Through! using! a! wide! range! of! source! books! enabled! accurate! sources! such! as! books,! journals,! counter!evidence!to!be!recorded!in! academic! websites,! film! archives! ,! order! to! gather! and! conclude! the! primary! accounts,! images! and!! extent! of! which! the! impact! of! source! books,! an! accurate! and!!! social!and!poli<cal!movements!had! reliable! account! of! the! decade! on!fashion!and!the!different!social! could! be! evidenced! and! cri<cally! classes! throughout! 1918! –! 1928! analysed.! While! using! a! range! of! and! whether! other! factors! played! academic! books! and! journals! to!! a! more! significant! role! in! the! gain! a! wide! range! of! historical!!! adop<on! of! fashions! throughout!!! evidence,! the! use! of! the! film! the!decade.!!! archives,! primary! accounts! and!


1!The!emancipation!of!women! The! years! between! the! end! of! the! First! opportunities!legislation!enabling!woman! World! War! in! 1918! and! 1920! were! a! to! join! the! professions! (BBC,! 2009).! This! period!of!release!following!the!tensions!of! was! shortly! followed! in! 1920! in! the! the! war.! Women! no! longer! regarded! United! States! with! the! 19th! amendment! themselves! conNined! to! subservient! roles! providing! fullavoting! rights! for! women! but!found!new!independence!as!many!left! (United! States! House! of! Representatives,! domestic! service,! as! a! result! of! the! war,! 2016).!!These!new!political!liberalisations! for! manufacturing! and! clerical! positions,! for!women!took!shape!in!fashion!as!styles! which!conNirmed!women!as!useful!Nigures! turned! towards! boyish! looks.! Post! war! within! society! (Dorner,! 1973).! The! styles! ignored! the! natural! curve! of! the! success! of! women! in! these! roles! and! the! women’s! body! but! instead! concentrated! suffragettes’! war! efforts! led! to! the! on! Nlattening! breasts,! byapassing! waists! Government! awarding! woman! above! the! and!hair!cuts!in!mannish!bobs!as!women! age! of! 30! the! right! to! vote! and! stand! in! looked! towards! androgynous! styles! to! parliament! (Mason,! 1998).! The! Sex! reNlect! their! new! position! within! society! DisqualiNication! Act! shortly! followed! in! (Bond,!1992).!! 1919,! which! was! the! Nirst! equal!

Figure!3:! Variations!of! 1920’s! fashion!


Figure!4:!Day!wear! 1920!â&#x20AC;&#x201C;!1923.!



for! underwear! became!


the! solution! to! the! new!

Coco! Chanel! was! a! active,! modern! woman! p i o n e e r i n g! N i g u r e ,! for! coats! and! suits! catalysing! the! drastic!! (Kindersley,! 2012).! change! in! women’s!! Figure! 5! presents! a! dress! through! using! striped! jersey! suit! knitted! textiles.! In! taken! from! American! 1919,! in! response! to! vogue!on!May!1st!1918.! women’s! empowered! The! image! indicates! role! in! society,! Chanel! that! Chanel’s! simple;! began! experimenting! straight! up! and! down! with! menswear! styles! dresses! were! the! style! and! new! technological! o f ! t h e ! t i m e , ! a! fabrics!such!as!jersey,!a! s o p h i s t i c a t e d! l o o k! soft! and! easy! to! drape! w h i c h ! c o u l d ! b e! f a b r i c! ( K i n d e r s l e y ,! achieved! without! the! 2012).! Knitted! textiles! need! of! a! bodice! or! an! previously! used! only! afNluent!income.!!

Figure!5:!Chanel’s!Jersey! Jacket!suit!!



the! war! opted! for! simpler! styles!


which! could! be! easily! ironed,!

Jean! Patou! was! also! an! inNluential! mended!and!put!on!with!little!help! designer! of! the! time,! pioneering! (Worsley,!2011).!Suzanne!Lenglen! the! invention! of! the! knitted! is! shown! in! Nigure! 6! modelling! a! sweater! and! active! wear.! Jean! belted!tunic!sweater,!zigzag!bands! Patou! designed! the! outNit! of! the! on! the! sleeves! and! pleated! skirts,! tennis! star! Suzanne! Lenglen,! a! which!indicates!that!womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s!new! major! female! sporting! icon! of! the! place! in! in! society! catalysed! the! 1920s.! Sporty! clothing! in! dark! rise! in! women! participating! in! colours!previously!associated!with! competitive!sport.!!! the! working! classes! were! now! being! worn! by! everyone.! Many! middle! class! women! faced! with! the!lack!of!domestic!servants!after!

Figure!6:!Suzanne! Lenglen! ! Figure!7:!Sports! inNluenced!styles!



women’s! increasing!


independence! and! no!

A s! w o m e n! b e c a m e! longer!having!to!rely!on! increasingly! socially! a!man!or!a!maid!to!hold! liberated! attending! t h e i r! b e l o n g i n g s! dances,! nightclubs! and! (Worsley,! 2011).! This! parties,!few!fashionable! n e w ! a d d i t i o n ! t o! w o m e n! w e r e! s e e n! w o m e n ’ s ! o u t N i t s! without! a! clutch! bag.! indicates! the! impact! of! The! bag! reNlected! the! women’s! suffrage! on! noafrills!aesthetic!of!the! fashion,! showing! that! Figure!8:!Beaded! clutch!bag!from! the!1920’s!

1920s! its! streamlined! a l t h o u g h ! w o m e n! shape! and! snap! jaw! predominately! used! f a s t e n i n g ! m e a n t! clothes! to! reNlect! their! women! could! carry! n e w! f o u n d! s e x u a l! a r o u n d! t h e i r! d a i l y! freedom,!the!clutch!bag! essentials! (Worsley,! s y m b o l i s e d ! t h e! 2011).!Figure!8!shows!a! i m p o r t a n c e! o f! t h e! beaded!clutch!bag!from! political! and! social! the! 1920s,! the! bag! m o v e m e n t s ! t h a t! s h o w s! t h e! u s e! o f! brought! equality! and! embellished! art! deco! Ninancial! independence! patterns! and! Egyptian! for!women.!! motifs! which! made! the! bag! an! important! part! of!a!woman’s!outNit.!The! clutch! bag! reNlected!




boyish! Nigure.! Many! women!


accessorised! with! belts! that!

Figure! 9! presents! the! ideal! pulled! in! garments! at! the! new! silhouette! of! the! early! 1920s,! lower!waistline,!long!gloves,!tote! indicating! that! between! 1920! bags!and!cloche!hats!(Kindersley,! and! 1922,! the! waistline! of! the!! 2 0 1 2 ) .! T h e s e! c h a n g e s! t o! silhouette! drastically! changed! to! womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s! dress! show! the! new! fall! straight! down! to! the! hips! as! found!conNidence!and!freedom!of! women! opted! for! simplistic! womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s! place! in! society! arising! sweaters! and! skirts! that! ignored! from! the! social! and! political! the! natural! curves! to! provide! a! changes.!

Figure!9:!! 1918!â&#x20AC;&#x201C;!1922! silhouettes!

10.! Figure!10:!1920â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s!Nlapper! dress,!the!stereotype!of! the!decade.!


2$The$jazz$age$and$the$impact$of$women’s$sexual$ liberalisation$on$fashion$! $2.1$Bright$young$things$$$$$$$$!

social! behaviours.! This! new! young! upper!



The! extent! to! which! the! freedom! and! the!‘bright!young!things’,!women!smoked,! emancipation! brought! by! the! change! in! drank! cocktails,! drove! motorcars! and! suffrage! for! women! and! its! impact! on! were!the!pioneers!of!the!Nlapper!dress!or! fashion! can! be! questioned.! Estelle! as!known!in!France,!the!la!Garconne!look! Freedmen!suggests!after!presenting!three! after! Victor! Marguerittes! scandalous! different! historical! views! that! women! in! novel!that!describes!the!transformation!of! America! were! more! concerned! with! y o u n g ! w o m e n ! i n t o ! t h e ! ‘ t o m! clothing!and!sexual!liberalisation!after!the! boy’!!(Kindersley,!2012).!!The!‘Nlapper’!girl! tensions! of! the! war! rather! than! political! became! the! stereotype! of! the! decade,! freedom! (Freeman,! 1974).! By! 1923,! characterised! by! the! boyish! look! of! the! changing!morals!in!society!were!reNlected! slicked!back!bob,!Nlattened!chest!and!slim! in! the! shifting! attitudes! towards! Nigure! (Arnold! et! al,! 2006).! Figure! 12! marriage! ,! following! women! demanding! portrays!this!look.!By!1926!hemlines!had! and!winning!equal!divorce!terms!(Mason,! risen! to! just! below! the! knee! and! 1998).! ! There! was! also! a! shift! of! attitude! waistlines! were! very! low! giving! the! towards! unmarried! young! women! who! tubular! silhouette! while! embroidered! became! known! as! bachelor! girls! (Dorner,! details!to!the!front!of!dresses!and!an!open! 1973).!A!popular!vogue!for!bachelor!girls! shirt! collar! projected! a! boyish! yet! to! hold! was! pyjama! parties! where! guests! feminine!style.! arrived! in! decorative! pyjamas! (Dorner,! 1973).! This! indicated! the! change! in! women’s! views! towards! marriage! and!



Figure!11:!Bachelor!girls! pajama!party.! ! Figure!12:!1926!Day! outNits.!!!


F i g u r e! 1 3 :! W o m e n! enjoyed! motor! car! rides! f o r! l e i s u r e ,! s t y l e s! adapted! to! be! more! c o m f o r t a b l e ! a n d! convenient.!



that! came! up! just! below! the! knee! were!


embellished! extravagantly! with! beads,!

The! introduction! of! jazz! music! also! brought! feathers! and! fringing,! which! would! move! to! sexual! liberalisation! to! the! young! upper! the! rhythms! of! the! Charleston! (Kindersley,! classes.! InNluenced! by! the! prohibition! of! 2012).! Although! styles! remained! boyish,! alcohol!under!the!Eighteenth!Amendment!in! with! a! low! waist! and! va! neck,! many! of! the! 1920,! jazz! music! originating! from! the! dancing! dresses! were! made! up! of! an! under! AfricanaAmerican!community!burst!onto!the! skirt! and! over! dress! with! embellished! underground! scene! (Martin,! 2015).! Fuelled!! patterns.!Figure!14!and!15!indicates!that!the! by! illegal! alcohol,! cultural! rebellion! and! the! embellishment!on!the!dresses!were!inspired! innovation!of!the!radio,!the!new!vibrant!jazz! by! art! deco! shapes! and! Egyptian! artefacts! music! brought! speakeasies,! jazz! clubs! and! and!imagery!that!gave!a!statuesque!air!to!the! liberating! dance! styles! to! the! freethinking! garment! (Kindersley,! 2012).! This! indicates! youth! across! United! States! and! Europe! that! women’s! fashion! was! ultimately! driven! (Martin,! 2015).! Jean! Patou! remarked! that! it! by! styles! that! emphasised! women’s! new! was! the! ‘taste! for! dancing’! that! determined! sexual! liberalisation,! through! the! extreme! the! lines! of! the! evening! gowns! (Kindersley,! and! revealing! styles! and! dances! of! the! 2012).! The! fun! and! carefree! movement! of! decade! although! limited! to! the! younger! jazz! was! expressed! in! embellishment.! By! generation.! 1925,! evening! dresses! made! out! of! chiffon!

Figure!14!&!15:! Flapper!dresses!


3$Women$at$work$and$the$change$in$social$classes! After!the!First!World!War,!women!of! communication! and! globalisation! all! classes! had! proved! themselves! as! which! lead! to! the! development! of! useful! working! Nigures,! having! mass! manufacture! in! Britain! and! the! asserted! themselves! in! positions!! opening! of! high! street! retailers! such! previously! reserved! for! men.!! as! British! Home! Stores! and! Etam! Although! sexual! liberalisation! for! which! enabled! fashion! to! become! women! made! a! signiNicant! impact! on! widely! attainable! (Arnold! et! al,! fashion,! women! writing! in! the! 1920s!! 2006).! This! meant! that! for! working! still! remained! concerned! with! women,! with! a! higher! disposable! political! and! economic! equality! as! income! the! latest! silhouettes! were! women! found! economic! freedom!! now! affordable.! This! change! in! through!acquiring!higher!income!jobs! society! meant! class! could! not! longer! (Freedman,! 1974).! However! a! more! be!associated!with!dress!so!therefore! signiNicant! change! to! impact! fashion! women! no! longer! needed! to! be! was! the! development! of! mass! wealthy!to!be!fashionable.!!

Figure!16:!Adoption! of!the!Nlapper!dress! style.!



not! standing! out! through! wearing! over!


feminine! styles.! However! the! extent! at!

Upper! class! women! catalysed! by! the! which! women! were! seen! as! important! change! in! women’s! suffrage! and! gender! Nigures!within!politics!can!be!questioned.! equality! were! now! becoming! inNluential!! Cheryl! Law! in! the! book! ‘suffrage( and( Nigures! within! the! world! of! politics.! An! p o w e r :( T h e( w o m e n ’ s( m o v e m e n t( inNluential! woman! was! Nancy! Astor! who! 191881928’! indicates! that! female! not! only! became! the! Nirst! female! MP! but! candidates! gained! press! and! public! also! used! fashion! to! position! herself! attention! for! how! they! were! dressed! within! a! male! dominated! Nield! (Museum! rather! than! their! policies! (Cowman,! of! London,! 2015).! ! Figure! 17! shows! the! 2002).!Although!this!indicates!that!social! formal! jacket! Nancy! Astor! wore! views! towards! women’s! equality! in! campaigning! in! 1919.! The! image! shows! politics!remained!relatively!unchanged,!it! Astor! wearing! a! simple! masculine! and! does! signify! the! role! fashion! played! as! Nitted!jacket!with!a!frilled!collar!shirt!and! every!day!women!would!have!noticed!the! wide! brimmed! hat.! The! loose! Nitted! styles!inNluential!Nigures!were!wearing!in! silhouette!and!dark!colours!portray!Astor! the! press! and! taken! inspiration! for! as! an! educated! and! prominent! Nigure! by! empowering!styles!to!wear.!

Figure!17:! Nancy!Astor! campaigning! in!1919!



that! women! of! the! 1920s! bought! fabric! for!


dressmaking! and! also! spent! on! alterations!

For! many! working! class! women,! the! First! and! repairs! (Bill,! 1993).! This! indicates! that! World! War! led! to! the! chance! to! escape! the! workingawomen! spent! their! income! on! long! working! hours! and! poor! pay! of! personal!items!and!although!money!was!not! domestic! service! and! acquire! higher! paid! spent! on! mass! manufactured! garments,! clerical! and! skilled! work! (Mason,! 1998).! By! working! women! still! took! pride! in! their! the! 1920s! women! had! adopted! stretch! appearance! by! adapting! clothes! or! using! corsets! which! became! correspondingly! patterns!to!replicate!fashionable!styles.! shorter!in!order!to!allow!mobility!and!began! !! to! wear! coats! and! skirts,! which! became! a! Moreover! the! extent! of! womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s! liberation! practical! and! professional! outNit! for! the! in! the! workplace! and! on! fashion! styles! ofNice! (Worsley,! 2011).! ! Figure! 18! portrays! seems!to!be!rather!short!lived.!By!1920!over! women! sorting! mail! at! the! post! ofNice! in! production! and! limited! buyers! lead! to! the! 1920.! The! women! are! wearing! a! range! of! slump! in! prices,! temporary! jobs! dried! up! smart! plain! blouses,! long! skirts,! woollen! and! many! women! lost! their! full! time! cardigans!and!their!hair!loosely!tied!up.!For! positions! (Mason,! 1998).! Amber! Butchart! a! the! working! class,! the! rise! in! ostentatious!! Fashion!Historian!suggests!that!simple,!neat! dress! became! the! symbol! of! their! rising! dresses,! or! separates! were! deemed! power! and! status! in! society.! Many! appropriate! in! the! ofNices! throughout! the! munitions! workers! also! wore! fur! coats! as! a! 1920s! (Corner,! 2015).! Clothes! for! work! symbol! of! their! new! wealth! (Ewing,! 2014).! reNlected! the! current! fashions! as! many! Although! the! rise! in! mass! manufacturing! women! tended! to! be! young! and! were! processes! meant! that! fashionable! styles! expected!to!leave!employment!upon!getting! were! becoming! widely! available,! clothes! married! (Corner,! 2015).! This! indicates! that! expenditure! taken! from! a! notebook! of! a! women!were!still!not!seen!as!equals!within! young! women! in! Middlesbrough,! suggests! the! work! place! and! in! turn! was! reNlected! that! many! women! throughout! the! early! somewhat! in! the! fashion! due! to! the! lack! of! 1920s!had!much!of!their!wardrobe!made!up! change!from!womanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s!ordinary!dress.! privately!(Bill,!1993).!The!notebook!reveals!

Figure!18:! Factory!girls!

The! 1920s! saw! a! rise! of! the! middle! class,! indicates!that! a!change! to! a!women’s!status! postawar!housing!boomed!in!the!suburbs!to! within! the! home! was! not! just! evident! in! make! more! room! within! the! cities! (Mason,! Britain!but!also!across!the!United!States.!As! 1998).! By! the! end! of! the! decade! nearly! 1.5! the! decade! progressed! and! technical! million! new! houses! had! been! built.! These! appliances! made! housework! easier,! house! n e w! s u b u r b a n! h o u s e h o l d s! w e r e! dresses! adapted! so! they! could! be! worn! as! distinguished! by! their! lack! of! domestic!! semi! formal! street! clothes,! and! afternoon! servants!meaning!households!did!there!own! dresses! (Sessions,! 2016).! Figure! 20! shows! housework!(Bell!et!al,!2011).!Despite!the!Sex! while! dresses! still! remained! long,! clothing! DisqualiNication!Act!of!1919!a!‘marriage!bar’! became! more! Nitted! and! reNined! by! narrow! still! restricted! many! women! to! nona belts,! small! collars! and! complex! prints! professional! roles! (Mason,! 1998).! This! new! (Sessions,! 2016).! This! indicates! that! styles! type! of! household! brought! changes! to! for!the!middle!classes!were!still!restricted!to! women’s!fashion.!Figure!19!shows!a!variety! their! conservative! position! within! the! of! practical! American! house! dresses! in! a! household.! variance! of! checked,! plaid! cotton! fabrics! with! adjustable! sashes! and! ties! for! comfort! and! practicality! from! late! 1923,! this!


Figure!19:!American! house!dresses.!


Figure!20:!American! every!day!dresses.!


However! the! impact! of! women’s! dress! of! the! every! day! people! (Arnold! et! emancipation!led!by!the!change!in!sexual! al,! 2006).! The! Nilm! reveals! real! footage! liberalisation! and! new! found! political! from! the! late! 1920s! providing! a! more! freedom! can! be! shown! to! have! a! limited! realistic! and! accurate! view! of! the! period! impact! on! fashion.! John! Peacock! through! that! not! everyone! adopted! the! styles! or! his! literature! ‘The! complete! fashion! the! new! silhouette! (Arnold! et! al,! 2006).! sourcebook’,! shows! that! the! changes! in! This! indicates! that! perhaps! the! extreme! fashion! were! rather! slow! to! take! off,!! emancipation! of! the! 1920s! largely! emphasising! through! illustrations! that! affected!the!wealthier!classes!rather!than! hemlines! Nluctuated! throughout! the! impacting! fashion! and! social! change! 1920s! and! it! wasn’t! until! 1926! that! the!! across! all! classes.! However! as! Nigure! 21! seductive! style! of! the! Nlapper! girls! really! suggests! although! the! silhouettes! are! not! take! effect! (Peacock,! 2005).! The! colours! as! extreme! as! the! middle! and! upper! throughout!the!1920s!period!were!rather! classes,! the! hemlines! are! relatively! short! dull,!indicating!that!the!impact!of!war!had!! and! waistlines! low! indicating! that! even! left! an! underlying! fear! of! sentiment! and! amongst! the! working! and! middle! classes! pretty! feminine! colours,! as! society! there!was!some!style!change!in!relation!to! struggled! with! the! loss! of! the! loved! the!recent!emancipation!of!women.!! (Dorner,! 1973).! For! the! middle! and! working! classes! their! clothing! seemed! to! fall! out! of! the! stereotypical! portrayal! of! the! Nlapper! age.! A! screen! archive,! Screen! Search! Fashion! provides! insight! into! the!

Figure!21:!Every!day! people!dressing! conservatively!for! the!decade!

!! !!



$! •  Women’s!emancipation!was!reNlected!in!the!boyish!silhouettes!emphasised!by!the!lowered! waistlines,!shortening!hemlines!and!boyish!hairstyles.!This!strengthened!and!empowered! women!within!male!dominated!society.! ! •  Chanel!pioneered!liberating!styles!for!women!throughout!the!decade!such!as!knitwear!and! the! jersey! suit! that! reNlected! the! empowerment! of! women! however! mass! manufacture! made!styles!accessible!for!all.! ! •  The! jazz! movement! primarily! affected! the! younger! upper! class! generations! and! were! concerned! more! with! their! new! found! sexual! freedom! brought! by! their! increasing! independence!rather!than!political!suffrage.!This!led!to!the!Nlapper!dress,!Eton!crops!and! extravagant!embellishment.! ! •  Social!classes!were!affected!to!different!extents!by!political!and!social!movements.! !Upper! class! women! gained! equality! and! social! liberalisation! through! becoming! inNluential! political! Nigures! within! society! and! the! introduction! of! suit! styles,! masculine! jackets! and! dark!colours!reNlected!their!growing!equality!to!men!within!the!workplace.!! !! •  The! middle! and! working! classes! however! only! gained! limited! emancipation.! While! working!classes!gained!Ninancial!and!social!liberalisation!through!leaving!domestic!service! and!going!into!factory!positions!this!was!catalysed!by!the!rise!in!mass!manufacture!within! Britain!rather!than!the!change!in!political!and!social!movements!as!many!women!lost!their! professional!positions!following!the!depression.!! ! •  The! middle! classes! with! the! loss! of! domestic! service,! conservative! attitudes! towards! marriage! and! the! rise! of! the! suburban! household! meant! women! still! had! limited! emancipation!due!to!taking!up!the!role!of!housewives.!This!was!reNlected!in!the!adoption!of! the!every!day!dress,!designed!to!be!worn!for!house!jobs!and!time!spent!outside!the!home.! !! •  Although!social!and!political!changes!brought!about!emancipation!and!gender!equality!for! women,! the! liberating! styles! associated! with! the! 1920’s! were! slow! to! take! effect! due! dresses!not!reaching!the!knee!till!1926.!Although!social!and!political!movements!catalysed! the!androgynous!and!Nlapper!styles!it!was!mass!manufacture!that!enabled!the!styles!to!be! adopted!by!the!masses!making!dress!no!longer!a!way!to!identify!and!segregate!society!but! rather! reNlect! the! empowerment! brought! to! women! through! simplistic,! masculine! and! sophisticated!styles!that!could!be!easily!bought!and!sewn!by!every!class.!!

! !!

$ $ 23.! $ $ Bibliography! !! Books! !! Bond,!D.!(1992).!Glamour(in(Fashion.!London:!Guinness!Publishing!Ltd.! !! Breward,!C.,!Ehrman,!E.,!&!Evans,!C.!(2004).!The!London!look:!fashion!from!street!to!catwalk.!New! Haven,!Yale!University!Press!in!association!the!Museum!of!London.! !! Dorner,!J.!(1973).!Fashion(in(the(Twenties(and(Thirties.!Middlesex:!Ian!Allen!Ltd.!! !! Kindersley,!D.!(2012).!Fashion:(The(ultimate(book(of(Costume(and(Style.!London:!Dorling!Kindersley! Limited.! !! Martin,!S.!(2015)!The(SAGE(Encyclopedia(of(Alcohol:(Social,(Cultural,(and(Historical(Perspectives.! California:!SAGE!publications,!Inc.! !! Mason,!A.!(1998)!Reader’s(Digest(yesterday’s(Britain.(London:!The!reader’s!digest!association!Ltd.! !! Parkins,!I.!(2012).!Poiret,(Dior(and(Schiaparelli.!Oxford:!Berg.! !! Peacock,!J.!(2005).!The(complete(fashion(sourcebook.!London:!Thames!and!Hudson.!! !! Worsley,!H.!(2011).!100(ideas(that(changed(Fashion.!London:!Laurence!King!Publishing!Ltd.!! !! Worsley,!H.!(2002).!Classics!of!Fashion:!A!History!of!Photographs.!London:!The!Brown!Reference! Group!PLC.! !! EDBooks! $! Bell,!R.!&!Gunn,!S.!(2011).!Middle(classes:(Their(rise(and(sprawl.(London:!The!Orion!Publishing!Group! Ltd.!Available!at:! id=s98O6mjm94UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&hl=en&output=reader&pg=GB S.PT210.![Accessed!16!Dec.!2015].! !! Ewing,!E.!(2014).!History(of(20th(Century(Fashion.!1st!ed.![ebook]!London:!Batsford.!Available!at:! printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TUa_CAAAQBAJ&pg=GBS.PT708.![Accessed!16!Dec.!2015].! $! Journals$! !! !! Bill,!K.!(1993).!Clothing!Expenditure!by!a!Woman!in!the!Early!1920s.!Costume,!27(1),!pp.57a60.! !! Cowman,!R.!(2002).!Review!of!Suffrage(and(Power:(The(Women’s(Movement(1918(–(1928.!(Review!no.! 270).!Available!at:!![Accessed!1!Jan!2016]! $!

De!La!Haye,!A.!(1993).!The!Dissemination!of!Design!from!Haute!Couture!to!Fashionable!Readyatoawear! during!the!1920s!with!SpeciNic!Reference!to!the!Hodson!Dress!Shop!in!Willenhall.!Textile(History,! 24(1),!pp.39a48.! !! Freedman,!E.!(1974).!The!New!Woman:!Changing!Views!of!Women!in!the!1920s.!The(Journal(of( American(History,!61(2),!p.372.! !! TerborgaPenn,!R.!and!Finnegan,!M.!(2000).!Selling!Suffrage:!Consumer!Culture!and!Votes!for!Women.! The(American(Historical(Review,!105(3),!p.944.!


Online! $! Arnold.!R.,!Eck,!C.,!Kaufmann,!H.,!Gray,!F.,!Sheppard,!E.!and!Doreen,!I.!(2006).!Screen(Search(Fashion(|( Screen(Archive(South(East(|(1920s(Fashion.![Online].!Available!at:!![Accessed!11!Dec.! 2015].! !! BBC,!(2009).!BBC(8(Radio(4(Woman's(Hour(8Sex(DisqualiXication((Removal)(Act,(1919.![Online].!Available! at:!![Accessed!12!Dec.!2015].! !! Corner,!F.!(2015).!The(History(of(Women's(Work(Wear.![Online].!Harpers!bazaar.!Available!at:!! [Accessed!18!Dec.!2015].! !! Cochrane,!L.!(2014).!How(the(Xirst(world(war(changed(women's(fashion.![online]!The!Guardian.!Available! at:! fashion.![Accessed!14!Dec.!2015].! !! Freeman,!L.!(2015).!Testament(of(youth:(Vera(Brittain's(clothes.![online]!Harpers!Bazaar.!Available!at:!! [Accessed!17!Dec.!2015].! !! Mackrell,!J.!(2013).!When(Xlappers(ruled(the(Earth:(how(dance(helped(women's(liberation.![online]!The! Guardian.!Available!at:!! [Accessed!18!Dec.!2015].! !! Marks!in!Time,!(2015).!19208(1940(in(depth.![online]!Available!at:!![Accessed!17!Dec.!2015].! !! Matthews,!T.!(2000).!Working(girls.![online]!The!Guardian.!Available!at:!![Accessed!20!Dec.!2015].! !! Murray,!J.!(2011).!British(History(in(depth:(20th(Century(Britain:(The(Woman's(Hour.![online]!BBC.! Available!at:!![Accessed!15!Dec.! 2015].! !! Museum!of!London,!(2015).!Women's(suit((ensemble)(|(Museum(of(London.![Online].!Available!at:!!![Accessed!14!Dec.!2015].!


!! Sessions,!D.!(2016).!1920’s(day(house(dresses(and(aprons.(Available!at:!![Accessed!11!December!2015].! !! Thomas,!P.!(2014).!1920s(Flapper(Fashion(History.(C20th(Costume(History(for(Women(in(the(1920's.! [online]!!Available!at:!! [Accessed!15!Dec.!2015].! !! United!States!House!of!Representatives,!(2016).!The(19th(Amendment(|(US(House(of(Representatives:( History,(Art(&(Archives.![Online].!Available!at:!![Accessed!13!Dec.! 2015].! !! V&A,!(2015).!Fashion(Drawing(and(Illustration(in(the(20th(Century(8(Victoria(and(Albert(Museum.! [online]!Available!at:!!![Accessed!11!Dec.! 2015].! !! Vogue!Italia,!(2015).!Fashion(and(Women’s(Liberation.![online]!Available!at:!![Accessed!14!Dec.!2015].!

Figure!List! ! :Figure!1:!Embellishment!pattern.!(Online).!Available!at:! 8/0/80quYBACIs_Unique_Vintage_1920s_Bronze_Pewter_Art_Deco_Pattern_Flapper_Dress.jpg.!! ! Figure!2:!Suffragettes!in!Britain!Ninally!won!the!right!to!vote!in!1918.! {Online).!Available!at:!!.!! ! Figure!3:!Variations!of!1920’s!fashion.!(Online).Available!at:!! ! Figure!4:!Day!wear!1920!–!1923.!(Online).!Available!at:! fashionabyajohn.!.! ! Figure!5:!Chanel’s!Jersey!Jacket!suit.!(Online).!Available!at:!! c38c3880e36fe7ff7b816a5688c39731.jpg.!! ! Figure!6:!Suzanne!Lenglen.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!7:!Sports!inNluenced!styles.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!8:!Beaded!clutch!bag!from!the!1920’s.!(Online)!Available!at:! hFp://!.! ! ! !

Figure!9:!1918!–!1922!silhouettes.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! !Figure!10:!1920’s!Nlapper!dress,!the!stereotype!of!the!decade.!(Online).!Available!at:! hFp://!.!! ! Figure!11:!Bachelor!girls!pajama!party.!(Online).!Available!at: hFp://!.!! !

Figure!12:!1926!Day!outNits.!(Online).!Available!at:!!!! ! Figure!13:!Women!enjoyed!motor!car!rides!for!leisure,!styles!adapted!to!be!more!comfortable!and! convenient.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!14!:!Flapper!dresses.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!15!:!Flapper!dresses.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!16:!Adoption!of!the!Nlapper!dress!style,!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!17:!Nancy!Astor!campaigning!in!1919.!(Online).!Available!at:! hFp://<on.! ! Figure!18:!Factory!girls.!(Online).!Available!at:!!! ! Figure!19:!American!house!dresses.!(Online).!Available!at:! hFp://!.! ! Figure!20:!American!every!day!dresses.!(Online).!Available!at:! hFp://!.!! ! Figure!21:!Every!day!people!dressing!conservatively!for!the!decade.!(Online).!Available!at:! hFp:// %2F3160%2Fimage_a_full.jpg&imagealt=A+s<ll+from++%5BThe+Heath+Cinema+in+Haywards+Heath%5D+ %28ca.1928%29!.!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Discuss and debate the impact of social and political movements on fashion during the years 1916-28  
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