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GUIDEBOOK GUIDEBOOK GUIDEBOOK "Michelangelo: "Michelangelo: "Michelangelo: Didactic and inclusive practice Didactic and inclusive practice Didactic and inclusive practice fight School Failure, early School Leaving fight School Failure, early School Leaving tototo fight School Failure, early School Leaving and dropping out through Fine Arts" and dropping through Fine Arts" and dropping outout through Fine Arts"


“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Greetings to: Authors (in alphabetical order): Anaplioti Eleni, Avgousti Eleni, Barresi Albino, Campagna Maurizio, Charmpi Chrysoula, Chatziantoniou Vasiliki, Dimitroulas Ioannis, Dulce Miranda, Fasouras Dimitrios, Flouda Dimitra, Golikidou Lemonia, Joaquín Martín de Saavedra Rojas, Lammendola Enrico, Liakeas Panagiotis, Makri Evangelia, Marta Maciel, Oliveira Nuno, Panagiotopoulou Sofia, Petrakou Panagiota, Plavoukou Maria, Poga Eleni, Russo Giuseppina, Saleiro Maria Armandina, Saltiel Ilias, Sotiropoulou Evangelia, Strati Massimiliano, Stefanidou Alexandra, Thymianidis Nikolaos, Tripodi Annunziato, Valavani Anthi, Zeppou Antonia, Zotou Sofia. A methodological note This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views of its authors only, and the Commission or the National Agencies cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. These Guide is not meant to be as rich as the National Reports, where national issues are covered in depth. It aims to represent the intersection, rather than the sum of different experiences, what they have in common (trends, causes, contexts, policies, practices, possible solutions), as well as at highlighting interesting and original solutions, which have proved successful and which might be easily be employed in other countries. This publication is disseminated free of charge.

This book was printed by GRAFIMA ΔΙΑΦΗΜΙΣΤΙΚΗ Α.Ε. on behalf of Municipality of Elefsina Avenue Eleftherias 29 (Amfitheas), Alimos – zip Code 17455, GREECE T: (0030) 210 7251600 – (0030) 210 9210202, F: (0030) 210 7251605 E: grafima@otenet.gr, www.grafimaprint.gr Book Cover: Liceo Artistico “M.Preti/A. Frangipane” Reggio Calabria

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Prologue - Mayor of Elefsina The Early School Leaving is a global educational problem with negative effects on both economic growth and social cohesion. For this reason, European countries have pledged to reduce the rate of Early School Leaving to less than 10% by 2020 and have begun a process of political co-operation aimed at peer learning and exchange of good practice. The Early School Leaving is a phenomenon that is very widespread in our country, and its treatment is of great concern to the educational community. The groups that are most affected include people with disabilities, immigrants and ethnic groups. The Arts can help to communicate, develop skills, shape children’s character and increase self-esteem but can also be an excellent means of reshaping education and tackling school leaks. This project was implemented in the context of the Erasmus+ 2017 project “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts”, the Municipality of Elefsina,(Coordinator of Project) and all partners from three different European countries: Greece (3rd Gymnasium of Elefsina, Athens Makerspace), Italy (Comune di Siderno, Liceo Artistico «M.Preti/A. Frangipane», Associazione Darsana Teranga) and Portugal (Município de Barcelos, Agrupamento de Escolas de Barcelos ,Associação Intercultural Amigos da Mobilidade) collaborated, in order to study and propose a model of good practices and strategies that will establish Art as a means of preventing and reducing the phenomenon of Early School Leaving. I would like to thank all the partners for their contribution to the writing of this Guide and for the successful implementation of the Project. Finally, I hope this Guide proves to be a useful tool against Early School Leaving.

The Mayor of Elefsina Georgios Tsoukalas

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CONTENTS Greetings ................................................................................................................................................3 Prologue - Mayor of Elefsina..................................................................................................................5 Project Information.................................................................................................................................8 PART I –ANALYSIS ON EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING AND DROPOUT IN NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM.....................................................................................................................12 1. THE GREEK EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM...................................................................................14 1.1Primary Education........................................................................................................................14 1.2 Secondary Education...................................................................................................................14 1.3 Higher education.........................................................................................................................15 1.4 Postgraduate Studies Programs...................................................................................................16 1.5 Doctoral Studies Programs..........................................................................................................17 2. Definitions.........................................................................................................................................19 3. Proposals to face Early School Leaving...........................................................................................22 4. Facing ESL through the fine arts.......................................................................................................25 5. The consequences of ESL.................................................................................................................26 6. The ESL in Greek Education............................................................................................................27 6.1- Student drop outs per Educational Step.....................................................................................28 6.2- Student drop outs based on gender Identify...............................................................................29 6.3- Student drop outs based on age..................................................................................................29 6.4- Student Dropout per Prefecture & Educational Level...............................................................31 6.5- Strategic Axes 2014-2020 to Fight School drop outs................................................................33 7. Art and Education.............................................................................................................................34 8. Schools in the Municipality of Elefsina............................................................................................38 9 .Social Policy in the Municipality of Elefsina...................................................................................39 10. Epilogue..........................................................................................................................................45 2. THE ITALIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM................................................................................46 General Information about Italy’s Education System...........................................................................47 Performance data Italy..........................................................................................................................48 Early school leaving in Italy: the strategies..........................................................................................50 Socio-economic disadvantage and educational disadvantage are closely linked.................................53 Key indicators.......................................................................................................................................57 Investing in education to address demographic and skill challenges...................................................58 Tackling inequalities and promoting inclusion.....................................................................................59 Modernising school education..............................................................................................................60 3. PORTUGUESE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM...............................................................................62 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................................................64 2. Summary description of the structure of the Portuguese educational system..................................64 3. The reality of Early School Leaving in Portugal..............................................................................66 3.1-Early School leaving what does it mean for us?.............................................................................66 3.2- The fight against early school leaving in Portugal: a positive path...........................................67 3.3- The Early School Leaving: Portugal and the UE.......................................................................70 3.4-Alarm signal? 2016: the year of inversion in the downward trend of school dropout................71 3.5- Other relevant education indicators:..........................................................................................72 3.5.1-Main indicators:.......................................................................................................................72 4. NATIONAL POLICIES TO FIGHT SCHOOL FAILURE...............................................................75 5. BARCELOS, AN EDUCATIONAL TERRITORY OF EXCELLENCE.........................................77 5.1- Introductory note: A qualitative Overview................................................................................77 5.2-Characterization of the educational system in Barcelos.............................................................78 5.3-School Indicators: Barcelos an educational territory of excellence............................................79 [6]


CONTENTS 5.4. Municipal policies resources to fight school dropout and failure..............................................79 5.5. From numbers to the explanation: Why Barcelos has such a low dropout rate .......................82 6. Conclusion........................................................................................................................................84 PART II– MODEL ABOUT THE NECESSARY EDUCATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO SOLVE EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING AND DROPOUT PROBLEMS AND IMPLEMENTATION IN SCHOOLS...............................................................................................85 1. GREECE..........................................................................................................................................86 1. 1 Literature dramatization.............................................................................................................86 1.2 Landscaping School – Garden.....................................................................................................88 1.3 Silk screen Printing Workshop....................................................................................................91 1.4 Radio- Days - Radio Broadcasting..............................................................................................94 1.5 Ceramic Workshop......................................................................................................................99 1.6 Dance...........................................................................................................................................99 1.7 Theater.......................................................................................................................................101 1.8 GAME: ASSEMBLY TIME......................................................................................................104 1.9 Long live the Greek song - Preparation and Presentation of a musical performance...............105 2. ITALY.............................................................................................................................................107 2.1- Early school leaving in Italy....................................................................................................107 2.2- Activities against esl................................................................................................................108 Hands in ART- Wooden furniture and interior design.....................................................................117 Visual arts- Painting course.............................................................................................................119 Ceramic design course....................................................................................................................122 Textile and Fashion design course...................................................................................................125 Students’ course for documentation................................................................................................126 Graphics Lab...................................................................................................................................127 “Preserving to Discover Our Artistic Heritage “.............................................................................134 Activities of job shadowing.............................................................................................................143 2.3- Reflections................................................................................................................................144 3. PORTUGAL..................................................................................................................................146 3.1-Introduction...............................................................................................................................146 3.2- Portuguese educational policies to promote school success and combat school dropout: a dynamic and paradigm-changing educational system.....................................................................147 3.3-Municipal Educational Policies: projects that prove to be good educational practice, with art as a privileged tool...............................................................................................................................148 3.3.1- The starting scenario.............................................................................................................148 3.3.2- Triciciclo – identidade...........................................................................................................150 3.3.3- Project: “Arts in Motion”......................................................................................................153 3.4- Cultural dynamics of the Municipality of Barcelos with impact on the educational community. Network of school libraries, the Municipal Library and the Pottery Museum................................168 3.5-The Mug Project: An Approach Through Art, Including Students with Special Educational Needs...............................................................................................................................................173 3.6- National Program of Aesthetic and Artistic Education (PNEEA):..........................................176 3.7- Discussion/Reflections.............................................................................................................181 3.8 -Conclusion...............................................................................................................................183 4. Epilogue – General Conclusion...................................................................................................185 References..........................................................................................................................................187 Photos.................................................................................................................................................189 [7]


“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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Project Information

Introduction

Indentifier 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 Start Date: Sep 25, 2017 End Date: Sep 24, 2019 Indentifier 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 Start Date: Sep 25, 2017 EC Contribution : 168.240,00 EUR

Project Information

End Date: Sep 24, 2019 EC Contribution : 168.240,00 EUR

Partners:

Partners:

 Municipality of Elefsina (Coordinator) (GR)

 3rd Gymnasium of Elefsina (GR)

3rd Gymnasium of Elefsina  Athens Makerspace (GR)

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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 Liceo Artistico "M.Preti/A. Frangipane" Reggio Calabria (IT)

 Associazione Darsana Teranga (IT)

 Comune di Siderno (IT)

 Município de Barcelos (PT)

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177  Comune di Siderno (IT)

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Agrupamento de Escolas(PT) de Barcelos (PT) de Barcelos  Município

Associaçãode Intercultural Amigos da Mobilidade (PT) Barcelos (PT)  Município

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Topics: Inclusion - equity; Quality Improvement Institutions and/or methods (incl.school development) Early School Leaving / combating failure in education ​

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Project Summary   The project is a school strategic partnership - exchange of good practices, underlining the pressing demand to develop more effective school-community approaches and common strategies to face to ESL in multicultural and multilingual learning communities. Overall the project aims to share and confront at transnational level innovative ideas, school community approaches, methods and tools among key actors in School Education in order to develop common strategies to prevent and tackle Early School Leaving in learning communities where cultural diversity is growing. The project aims to create a learning community based on training especially focusing on the fight against school failure and early school dropouts using Fine Art as a powerful tool. It also aims at providing the target group with the necessary tools to develop these aspects amongst early-school leavers through Fine Art to build teacher capacity for competence oriented education.  Building effective relationships between schools and the community at large can have an important effect on the quality of learning. These relationships may also change the community and structural factors that promote educational inequality.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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We develop a partnership to reinforce the bonds between schools, families and learners. This is particularly helpful for parents and families from disadvantaged backgrounds or for those parents who have had negative experiences of school in the past.  The findings of the project›s activities have contributed defining the contents of the Guide «Michelangelo: didactic and inclusive practice to fight school failure, early school leaving and dropping out through Fine Art” and the short documentary on ESL and Fine Arts. Non tangible results of the project: * Building individual strengths and talents * Pupils will feel respected and feel that their individual strengths, abilities and specific needs are recognized * Learning environments that are welcoming, open, safe, and friendly and where pupils feel noticed, valued and part of a community * Empowering young people with a sense of ownership, belonging and selffulfilment, skills and knowledge that enable them to be active citizens and play a positive role in society * Coordination of measures at school, local, regional and national level to help avoiding overlaps and gaps in provision * Better understanding of own history and environment * Young people at risk of ESL will have easy access to different learning opportunities and targeted support * A strengthen family-school relationship and parent engagement in schools * A better students’ success in school and motivation to complete their compulsory education * An active parental involvement to the education process * A better teachers parent cooperation * Decreasing of anti-social behavior, * A growth in extracurricular activities * A better information of parents and community on the importance of education.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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PART I ANALYSIS ON EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING AND DROPOUT IN NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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THE GREEK EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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1.THE GREEK EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Education in Greece is compulsory for all children of the ages 6-15, this includes elementary school (Dimotiko) and lower secondary school (Gymnasio). The school life for a child may begin at the age of 2,5 (kindergarten) at institutions (private or public) that are named Day nurseries. Many Day nurseries have infant sections that work parallel to the kindergarten. Primary Education Kindergarten - Duration of Study 2 years (pupils from 4 to 6 years old) The kindergarten is a preparatory stage that contributes to the integration of children in elementary school and aims to support and strengthen the educational process and the socialization process provided by the family. It seeks to strengthen the psychomotor, social, emotional, mental and moral development of infants, both individually and on a group basis. Primary School: Duration of Study 6 years (pupils from 6 to 12 years old) Primary school attendance is compulsory and has as its main objective the full, harmonious and balanced spiritual and physical development of students so that, regardless of gender and background, they have the opportunity to evolve into complete personalities and to live creatively. The aim is to shape and broaden the relationship between creative activity and the study of objects, situations and phenomena in order to develop the appropriate mechanisms of assimilation of knowledge. Secondary Education Secondary Education is provided in two cycles: • Compulsory Secondary Education offered by Gymnasium • Post-secondary Secondary Education provided by the Unified Lyceum and Technical Vocational Schools (TEE). Gymnasium: Duration of Study 3 years of compulsory education (pupils from 12 to 15 years old) The education provided at the Gymnasium aims to promote the development of pupils on the basis of the opportunities they have at that age and the demands they are having to face in life. In particular, Gymnasium helps students to expand their value system, their complement and combine the acquisition of knowledge with relevant social concerns, to cultivate their linguistic expression, to develop their bodies smoothly, to learn the different forms of art, to form aesthetic criteria, to realize the possibilities, inclinations, skills and their interests. Day and day gymnasiums are also available. At junior highs, students are admitted if they have reached the age of 14. Also in Greece there are Music Gymnasiums, Gymnasia of Intercultural Education and Gymnasia with Sports Facility Department.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Unified Lyceum Duration of Study 3 years of compulsory education (pupils aged 15- 18).The aim of the Unified Lyceum is to develop students' skills and competences all over the place and to prepare them to take a responsible role in modern society. Its main features are the emphasis on general education and the great potential it offers for horizontal and vertical movement to the other equal or higher levels of the education system. The Unified Lyceum consists of 3 classes and attendance lasts three years. The introduction of the Gymnasium graduates in the first grade is without examination. The holders of the Unified Lyceum Certificate have the following capabilities: To enter the labor market in the public or private sector. • To enter the Higher Education Institutions (Universities) or the Higher Technological Educational Institutions (TEI) of the country, taking part in the examinations that take place every year at the national level in five general education courses and four courses of study. • Being enrolled in public or private Vocational Training Institutes (IEKs) and obtaining a Vocational Training Diploma for Post Graduate Vocational Training. In addition to the daily, weekly Unified Lyceums with a four-year attendance are also available for young workers. Music Unified Lyceums, Ecclesiastical Uniform Lyceums, Uniform Lyceums with a Sports Facility Department, Minority High Schools and Unified Lyceums of Intercultural Education, as well as Single High Schools of Special Education and Integration Classes for pupils with special educational needs. • Technical Vocational Schools (ISCED) (isced level 3) TEEs belong to the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, while TEEs also operated under the supervision of other Ministries, as well as TEEs. Apprenticeship of the Labor Force Employment Organization (OAED). Their aim is to combine general education with specialized technical and professional knowledge, in order to integrate into the labor market. In addition to the daily, weekly TEEs also operate for workers up to 50 years of age who want to improve their position in the labor market. Candidates are admitted without examinations with a prerequisite to have a high school diploma or other equivalent foreign qualification. The attendance at TEE lasts for up to 3 years and is organized into two separate Cycles of Studies, which include sub-areas and specializations. The first cycle lasts two years and the second one, while for the evening, one year is added for the first cycle and one for the second one. Higher education In Greece, based on Law 2916/2001, Tertiary Education is divided into Higher University Education, which is provided at Universities, and Higher Technological Education, which is provided to Technological Educational Institutes (TEI). In addition, since the academic year 1997/98, the Greek Open

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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University (EAP) was established. Constitution vocational and special education is also provided to higher education institutions. More specifically, the structure of Greek Higher Education is as follows: Higher University Education: Higher University Education is tasked with the high theoretical and comprehensive training of the future scientific potential of the country. Higher University Education includes Universities, Polytechnics, the Higher School of Fine Arts and the Hellenic Open University. In Greece, 20 Universities operate in various cities in the country, which consist of Schools, which in turn are divided into Departments and those in respective Departments Higher Technological Education: Higher Technological Education has the role to contribute to the country's development process and the advancement of science and applied research. Education is geared to assimilation and transfer of science data into production. Studies at TEI compared to those in Universities, have a more applied character. There are 15 TEIs in Greece, which consist of at least two (2) Schools, comprising two or more Departments. The TEIs. operates in different cities in the country, while some also have independent branches, i.e. independent Departments in another city. Higher Education: Higher Ecclesiastical Schools, Merchant Navy Academies, Higher Schools of Dance and Dramatic Art, Higher Schools of Tourism Education, Higher School Officers of the Ministry of National Defense, and Higher School of Constables. Universities: University attendance lasts four (4) years, except for some schools where attendance can last for five (5) or six (6) years. The academic year in Greek Universities is divided into two semesters of thirteen (13) full weeks of teaching and three (3) weeks of examination. Students complete their studies over the course of four years and have successfully completed the attendance and examination of compulsory courses as well as elective courses. The degree in Greek Universities is the Bachelor or Diploma depending on the School of Education. TEI: The attendance at TEI lasts four (4) years. It is divided into eight (8) semesters that include the teaching programs and the semester preparation of the dissertation, during which it is possible to carry out the guided and evaluated exercise in the profession. The title of the TEI is the Diploma. The TEI’s provide a total of 81 specializations in various fields: EAP: The curriculum in the EAP is based on the method of distance learning. Students need to organize their time appropriately to meet the study requirements imposed by this teaching method. The EAP provides a degree equivalent to the degree of "traditional" Universities. It organizes undergraduate and postgraduate study programs, as well as vocational or postgraduate training courses leading to a certificate of education or training. Postgraduate Studies Programs In Greece, postgraduate study programs lead to the acquisition of a Postgraduate Diploma of Specialization (MSc).

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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The overall aim of Postgraduate Studies (PMS) is to extend the studies at postgraduate level to provide specialization in various cognitive areas. In Greece, two hundred and thirteen (213) MSc. in the Universities and twelve (12) postgraduate courses.in the Open University leading to the acquisition of the Postgraduate Specialization Diploma (MSc). Postgraduate programs can be enrolled by graduates of Universities and TEIs. Candidates are admitted through the selection procedure or examinations (oral and / or written). It is also a prerequisite for knowledge of at least one foreign language. Their duration may not be less than one calendar year. Doctoral Studies Programs Doctoral studies lead to a Ph.D. degree. The general aim of the PhD degree is to specialize in strategically important cognitive areas and to deepen and develop basic research in various scientific areas, resulting in a modern empowerment of the country's scientific fabric. To obtain a Ph.D. degree, a prerequisite is the possession of a Postgraduate Specialization Diploma (MAE) in Universities that operate organized Postgraduate Study Programs.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Table 1: Structure of Greek Educational System, retrieved from https://goo.gl/5J3B2C

Table 1: Structure of Greek Educational System, retrieved from https://goo.gl/5J3B2C

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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2.Definitions It is a common finding in the field of social sciences that it is almost impossible to formulate absolute and commonly accepted sociological definitions that are capable of describing and delimiting concepts or social situations in a universal way. This is due, on the one hand, to the different perspectives that can be adopted by the social scientist and, on the other hand, to the inextricable link between concepts and definitions with a certain social context to which they refer. Thus, the term "school drop outs" is first and foremost a sociological term and, as such, is in direct dependence on how a particular society perceives and regulates issues related to its educational system at a given point in time. It follows from the above that there is no commonly accepted and statistically defined definition of school drop outs, as there is no specific and commonly accepted method or model for accurate measurement. In educational terminology, "school drop outs" is generally defined as the interruption of attendance prior to the acquisition of an official certificate of knowledge. However, this general definition does not seem to adequately reflect all aspects of the phenomenon. School drop outscan be attributed to a number of different definitions that vary according to the intensity of the phenomenon (eg permanent or temporary interruption of attendance), the level of education at which the phenomenon is observed (eg inferior, compulsory, etc.) at the time of leaving the education system (eg at the beginning or during the school year), the causes of the drop outs(eg social exclusion, school failure) However, according to the most prevalent and widespread definition, the concept of school leakage refers to the definitive abandonment of the school before the completion of the educational level which is normally considered necessary for the pupil and society as a whole1. In a narrower sense, school drop-out is defined as abandoning the school before completing compulsory education. Given that in Greece the compulsory education is of 9 years duration, it starts in the 1st grade of the Primary School and ends with the graduation from the 3rd Gymnasium2. In the above definition are included those who left the school before acquiring the Gymnasium Certificate. In another definition, the term "student drop outs" refers to all young people who do not complete the training they have. This definition is used extensively and therefore, it is not limited to secondary (compulsory or non-compulsory) education but also includes higher education levels. At European Union level, most EU institutions, as well as the majority of national authorities responsible for education, adopt the definition of EUROSTAT, which in turn refers to the benchmark of the EU Council of Education Ministers. (3/2003), according to which school leakage is defined as the proportion of young people aged 18-24 who have completed at the lowest level of secondary education and do not attend any other education or training program. The main drawback of this definition is that it only detects drop outswhen the young person has already reached the age of 18 and therefore in the majority of cases many years after leaving school.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Despite the shortcomings in this technical and theoretical definition, the fact that it is the basis for the periodic measurements of the phenomenon by EUROSTAT offers the benefit of a common approach from all the Member States of the Union and therefore provides the the possibility of continuous and comparative monitoring of the phenomenon of school drop outs. It is obvious that the definition of the concept of school drop outs dictates different methodological approaches not only at the level of describing the phenomenon but also at the level of its recording and measurement and, to a certain extent, influences the task of determining the appropriate methods of prevention and treatment of. In any case and beyond conceptual and methodological variations, it is commonly accepted that school drop outs refers to the unwanted and premature interruption of the process of acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary for adult integration, and that usually the disengagement from the education system is a long and slow process that often begins in the early years of school life.begun, at whatever level they belong to. Causes The problem of abandonment is very complex, it concerns all aspects of the school community: the educational system, the teachers and the students, the families and the society around them 1. Reasons related to school The dysfunctions of the modern educational system combined with old-fashioned teaching methods and unskilled staff create the conditions for student drop outs • Graduate education systems that increase competition and competitiveness in school. Students can become irrational egoists and the feeling of loneliness prevails. • Educational programs and curricula that are not attractive, do not attract the attention of students, they do not allow them to be creative. • Extremely demanding programs with many different items lead to lack of leisure time for students' hobbies and personal interests • Large number of students per class • Difficulty in transition between levels of education • Scoring • Lack of places to socialize in schools. • The insufficient number of secondary schools obliges students in rural areas where the school age is low, stay in boarding schools away from home, or take a bus from remote schools in the center of the province.

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• Addressing management and teachers. • Teacher-centered learning, which, when prevalent, promotes parrot learning, and more theoretical rather than practical knowledge does not give students the opportunity to take an active part in the educational process and does not take into account peculiarities among students. • Unfair application of school rules. • Teacher training and in-service training. • Intercultural schools are not working properly. The imposition of sovereign ideology on minorities causes feelings of oppression to students who belong to them. 2. Personal reasons In the school environment these terms interact with students' personal reasons, who are teenagers at the difficult and sensitive age of 12 to 16 years. • Violence between peers and intimidation in schools • Fear of failure, failure and apathy towards the school. Poor pupils 'performance coupled with recurrent academic failure can reduce pupils' self-esteem. The frustration that children feel at school can make them indifferent to studies or make them aggressive with their peers. They may also have some discipline problems. • Truancy • Lack of motivation and interest towards school • Learning difficulties and adaptation problems in school • Lack of confidence in teachers, • Peer pressure (bad influences) • Physical changes and puberty cause disorientation • Harmful habits - frequent internet cafes and play games • Health problems • Marriage • Teenage pregnancy • Conflict with the law • Subcultures • Low level of linguistic competence in the official language of the host country (in our case Greek)

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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3. Family problems Parent-school collaboration could handle problems such as those mentioned above, but family problems aggravate the situation. • Dysfunctional families (domestic violence, alcoholism) and a difficult relationship between parents (divorce - broken family) • The child cannot take any responsibility related to the school • Family attitude towards education - lack of support from parents. Parents may be indifferent to the progress of their children and may also underestimate education as one of the most important priorities set for pupils, or may exert excessive pressure on their pupils. Both situations cause childish reaction • Low educational level of parents - it is difficult for them to encourage their children to learn. • Economic and other family problems • Ethics of the family • The structure of the family • Lack of positive patterns in the family • Being the oldest child in the house • Prejudice in the family • Illnesses 4. Social reasons The economic, political and social crisis nowadays, due to its impact on the labor market, has brought new problems into the relationships between the social groups and, ultimately, in the functioning of the school. • The impact of gender differences • Social environment • Problems with employment - students claim that they are not given prospects to be successful in their future professional life • Financial support to families with needs - some of the students need to work to give their families financial support • Difficulties in integrating the families of migrants or religious minorities

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[22]

[17]


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• Families living in mountainous, poor, remote or even isolated areas believe that education is not among their first priorities. • Negative impact of community leaders and the media • Child labour, parental unemployment - economic problems lead families to move or encourage children to find a job. • Seasonal migration . Political reasons • Distrust of educational policy • Security and terrorism • Distrust of the government's political views

3. Proposals to face Early School Leaving 1. School must be student-friendly (interesting activities, support from teachers, small classes, etc.) 2. Teachers should make lessons more interesting and use appropriate physical- technical infrastructure to attract pupils' attention to the classroom. 3. Make school more attractive by organizing school buildings (workshops, gym, garden, etc.). 4. Promote extra - curricular activities such as: - School Journal, magazine - Painting - Decoration - Sports or artistic events. - Music during breaks - Dance workshops - Musical workshops - Voluntary work / cleanliness 5. To seek the cooperation of special advisors 6. Use the experiences of students / adolescents who have dropped out of school to prevent the spread of early school leaving. It would be useful if those who left would be able to meet with the students and talk to them about their lives after they left school. [18] 7. Encourage teachers to actively participate in the fight against early school leaving. Teachers could be supported to develop incentives to increase pupil integration and communication with and with their [23] Programme co-funded by the European Union parents, involve pupils in extracurricular activities and advise them.

8. There must be close cooperation between the school and the family. Families should participate in


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6. Use Use the the experiences experiences of of students students // adolescents adolescents who who have have dropped dropped out out of of school school to to prevent prevent the the spread spread 6. of early early school school leaving. leaving. It It would would be be useful useful if if those those who who left left would would be be able able to to meet meet with with the the students students and and of talk to them about their lives after they left school. talk to them about their lives after they left school. 7. Encourage Encourage teachers teachers to to actively actively participate participate in in the the fight fight against against early early school school leaving. leaving. Teachers Teachers could could be be 7. supported to to develop develop incentives incentives to to increase increase pupil pupil integration integration and and communication communication with with and and with with their their supported parents, involve involve pupils pupils in in extracurricular extracurricular activities activities and and advise advise them. them. parents, 8. There must be close cooperation between the school and the family. Families should participate in educational meetings at the school to be informed about: • Pupil behavior in adolescence. • preventing truancy • Student progress in lessons 9. Teachers should assign responsibilities to pupils in the classroom and school so that each student feels he or she is part of the school. It is important to feel that they are individual personalities and that their school loves them and cares for them. 10.There should be additional courses for absent students and teachers should try to make pupils love school during these extra classes. 11.A special program should be done for students at risk of dropping out of school. 12.To motivate teachers and students through incentives and awards. 13.Encourage 13.Encourage local local authorities authorities and and specialized specialized NGOs NGOs to to involve involve students students from from groups groups at at high high risk risk of of early school leaving as volunteers in various support programs (such as for elderly care or for families early school leaving as volunteers in various support programs (such as for elderly care or for families in in need). need). 14.Keep 14.Keep records records of of the the status status of of students students coming coming from from immigrant immigrant families. families. 15.Promote 15.Promote intercultural intercultural activities activities for for the the integration integration of of these these students. students. 16.Provide 16.Provide additional additional courses courses on on improving improving communication communication in in the the language language of of the the host host Member Member State State for each country for each country 17.School 17.School should should provide provide financial financial support support to to students students (eg (eg .. free free textbooks) textbooks) and and psychological psychological support support from from class class teachers, teachers, teachers, teachers, teachers teachers and and school school institutions. institutions. 18. To increase flexibility of education, curriculum should give students more opportunities 18.To increase the the flexibility of education, the the curriculum should give students more opportunities to to develop their skills, hobbies. This may mean new teaching methods or new subjects and facilities at develop their skills, hobbies. This may mean new teaching methods or new subjects and facilities at school. school. 19.Family co-operation is essential. 19.Family co-operation is essential. 20.Students need to realize that getting a good education means a well-paid job in the future. 20.Students need to realize that getting a good education means a well-paid job in the future.

[19] [19] Programme co-funded by the European Union

[24]


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21.Cognitive curiosity and pupils' creativity should be induced to prepare for change and lifelong learning. 22.Develop "preventive education", ie to educate students on how to solve various problems. 23.Organize visits to institutions, organizations that support programs that can help students to be successful. 24.Develop plans to protect children from child labor. 25.Cooperate with various institutions to prevent prejudice against the education of pupils. 26.Modernize the content of educational programs / curricula. 27.Emphasis should be placed on evaluation rather than exams.

4. Facing ESL through the fine arts Some of the following pedagogical strategies may have a positive effect on ESL prevention: • Early identification of pupils at risk of school failure and probable interruption of their studies • Personalized educational and social encouragement and assistance • Equal access to quality education for all children and young people • Relative and attractive curriculum • Flexible educational paths • Better strategy for integrating newly arrived migrant children • Smooth transition between different levels of education • High quality, attractive and interesting vocational education and training • Participation of pupils and parents in the school decision making process • Initial and continuous in-service teacher education. • Holistic school approach. • Powerful and well-developed guidance system • Working with the labor market: - providing opportunities at an early stage, enabling young people to get to know the world of work, for example through business training, which could help them understand employers' job requirements

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[25]

[20]


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and expectations. It can also increase their motivation to continue their education and training and better and expectations. It can also increase their motivation to continue their education and training and better focus on future career choices. focus on future career choices. • Collaborative work with career counselors and psychologists to support students' decisions. • Collaborative work with career counselors and psychologists to support students' decisions. • Full integrated programs. • Full integrated programs. • Focus on vocational education / training at basic and secondary level of education • Focus on vocational education / training at basic and secondary level of education • Schools with autonomy and collaboration between administration and schools to give them more • Schools with autonomy and collaboration between administration and schools to give them more freedom to manage curricula and the duration of student programs. freedom to manage curricula and the duration of student programs.

5.The consequences of ESL 5.The consequences of ESL

School dropout has consequences in a number of areas. The impact is on the young person himself and School dropout has consequences in a number of areas. The impact is on the young person himself and his family, but also on his region and ultimately on the whole of society, and it is: his family, but also on his region and ultimately on the whole of society, and it is: a. Personal (psychological) a. Personal (psychological) The effects of school drop outsfirst appear first to the young person himself. Its integration into the labor The effects of school drop outsfirst appear first to the young person himself. Its integration into the labor market is significantly restricted to the benefit of graduates who have successfully completed their market is significantly restricted to the benefit of graduates who have successfully completed their training, rather than for the benefit of young people without a degree. The prospect of quality of life in training, rather than for the benefit of young people without a degree. The prospect of quality of life in the future is being destroyed and its position is taken by social exclusion and the threat of poverty. the future is being destroyed and its position is taken by social exclusion and the threat of poverty. b. Social b. Social Unemployment is a negative social component and, in particular, long-term unemployment. There is a Unemployment is a negative social component and, in particular, long-term unemployment. There is a high probability that young people without training will be the cause of an increase in the unemployment high probability that young people without training will be the cause of an increase in the unemployment rate. Another negative event is not exploiting the potential of these young people. Young people without rate. Another negative event is not exploiting the potential of these young people. Young people without a diploma have many positive features that need to be supported for the benefit of society. a diploma have many positive features that need to be supported for the benefit of society. Young people without training and then without professional and social integration face a risk of various Young people without training and then without professional and social integration face a risk of various anti-social activities even criminal. This leads to crime and other unacceptable phenomena. In a anti-social activities even criminal. This leads to crime and other unacceptable phenomena. In a community based on knowledge, improving international competitiveness, developing new technologies community based on knowledge, improving international competitiveness, developing new technologies and new approaches to managing human resources, those who are condemned to foreclosure from the and new approaches to managing human resources, those who are condemned to foreclosure from the labor market that is becoming increasingly demanding are those who do not possess or have basic labor market that is becoming increasingly demanding are those who do not possess or have basic knowledge. knowledge. c. Financial c. Financial Economic impacts occur both in the individual and in society. For the individual, leaving school is Economic impacts occur both in the individual and in society. For the individual, leaving school is followed by the reduced chance of earning income from work, and if some work is found the income will followed by the reduced chance of earning income from work, and if some work is found the income will be lower than that of the graduates. Low or inadequate income leads to a deterioration in the quality of be lower than that of the graduates. Low or inadequate income leads to a deterioration in the quality of life and limits the individual. As far as society is concerned, school leakage increases the need for life and limits the individual. As far as society is concerned, school leakage increases the need for additional costs (unemployment benefits, allowances for school reintegration / second chance or social benefits (eg for the underpriveledged)

6. The ESL in Greek Education

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Introduction

[26]

[21] [21]


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additional costs (unemployment benefits, allowances for2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 school reintegration / second chance or social benefits (eg for the underpriveledged)

6. The ESL in Greek Education Introduction Nowadays, in a changing economy following the rhythm of globalization, it is essential that all people have all the necessary knowledge and skills to adapt successfully to the complex contemporary reality that revolves around the central concepts of productivity and economic competition. In the European Union, a new impetus for employment, growth and investment is a political priority through a quality education for all. An element of destabilization of this education policy for high quality education and social inclusion is the Learning Leak, which is inextricably linked to educational inequalities and makes it difficult to integrate socially. In the language of instruction, the term "leakage" refers to those young people who do not complete the minimum prerequisite necessary education that is defined in the society in which they live or the failure to complete the education they have started. It is obvious, therefore, that Learning drop outs is responsible for not effectively addressing the multiple challenges of modern societies. Here, we will try to outline the student leak in Greek public education in the period 2013 - 2016 in the whole student population. Classification Criteria - Quantitative & Qualitative Data Analysis In this presentation, students' flow / drop outs at the individual educational levels (Primary, Secondary, Compulsory, Higher Secondary, Typical Professional) is reflected both in general and at three basic geographic levels: i) the Territory iii) the administrative region ii) , and also on the parameters of order, gender, urbanity and age. a) The administrative division of Greece into administrative districts is established according to the Kallikrates Program (Law 3852/2010, Government Gazette 87 / A / 2010, Cap. B Article 3) b) Although since 1/1/2011 the old prefectures correspond to the regional units, the administrative division into prefectures is maintained in the present because of the practicality c) As far as urbanity is concerned, according to information and exhibition of ELSTAT, rural areas are characterized as having up to 1,999 inhabitants, half-life from 2,000 to 9,999 inhabitants and urban areas of 10,000 inhabitants and over d) A total of 7,530 school units in public primary and secondary school education in the school year 2013 - 2014 provided data from 7,504 schools in which 399,329 pupils were enrolled. In the survey participated 398,414 students enrolled in this year's school year in the 1st and the 1st Primary School, in the First grade of Gymnasia, in the 1st grade of the General and Professional Lyceums (GEL / EPAL) e) Predicting it. Eurostat for Early School Abandonment in Greece for the year 2016 goes down to 6.5%

[22]

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[27]


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6.1 Student Step 6.1 Studentdrop dropouts outsper perEducational Educational Step The table rates forfor each typetype of school. The The percentage is derived from pupils The table shows showsstudent studentdrop dropouts outs rates each of school. percentage is derived from pupils who have not completed their studies towards the number of enrolled pupils. The largest student drop drop who have not completed their studies towards the number of enrolled pupils. The largest student outs is seen in vocational training (11%), while the largest number of pupils is in high school (4.23%) outs is seen in vocational training (11%), while the largest number of pupils is in high school (4.23%) compared to Primary or High School. compared to Primary or High School. CALCULATING

CALCULATING

GRADE

EDUCATION

GRADE

EDUCATION

PRIMARY

PRIMARY PRIMARY

PRIMARY COMPULSORY

LOWER COMPULSORY SECONDARY LOWER OPTIONAL SECONDARY UPPER OPTIONAL SECONDARY UPPER OPTIONAL SECONDARY VOCATIONAL OPTIONAL UPPER VOCATIONAL SECONDARY

PERIOD

PERIOD

STUDENTS STUDENTS INSCRIPTED

INSCRIPTED

DIMOTIKO SCHOOL Α΄, Β΄, Γ΄ DIMOTIKO SCHOOL DIMOTIKO Α΄, Β΄, Γ΄ SCHOOL Δ΄, Ε΄, ΣΤ΄ SCHOOL DIMOTIKO

99.984 95.805

95.805

Δ΄, Ε΄, ΣΤ΄

GYMNASIUM

102.447

(EPAGGELMATIKO VOCATIONAL LYKEIO/EPAL)

78.237

19.800

Table 2: DROPOUT PER EUCATIONAL STAGE

Table 2: Dropout per eucational stage

[23] Programme co-funded by the European Union

1.577

1.577 4.338 1.499 2.181

19.800

(EPAGGELMATIKO UPPER Table 2: DROPOUT PER EUCATIONAL STAGE LYKEIO/EPAL) SECONDARY

1.788

1.499

78.237

GENERAL (GENIKO LYKEIO/GEL) VOCATIONAL

OFF

4.338

102.447

GENERAL (GENIKO LYKEIO/GEL)

2016-2017

DROP DROP OFF DROP OFF OFFDROP %

1.788

99.984

GYMNASIUM

2016-2017

[28]

[23]

2.181

%

1,79%

1,79%

1,65%

1,65% 4,23%

4,23% 1,92%

1,92% 11,02%

11,02%


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6.2 Student drop outs based on gender Identify 6.2 outs based on gender The Student following drop table shows the student's leakageIdentify based on gender identity for each type of school. It

appears that boys show consistently higherleakage leakagebased rates (3.3%) thanidentity girls (2.5%) in alltype typesofofschool. schools. The following table shows the student's on gender for each It appears that boys show consistently higher leakage rates (3.3%) than girls (2.5%) in all types of schools. Greater divergence occurs in the Gymnasium, where boys (4.82%) are 35% more out of the girls (3.58%). In the elementary almost no differentiation, while in and out EPAL thegirls boys(3.58%). predict Greater divergenceschool occursthere in theisGymnasium, where boys (4.82%) arelyceum 35% more of the the girls about 15% leakage against In the elementary school there is almost no differentiation, while in lyceum and EPAL the boys predict against the girls about 15% leakage

GENDE R GENDE R BOYS GIRLS BOYS SUM GIRLS SUM

DROPOUT PERCENTA DROPOUT GE% PERCENTA 2,08 GE% 1,77 2,08

UPPER SECONDARY UPPER VOCATIONAL SECONDARY EDUCATION VOCATIONAL (EPAL) EDUCATION NUMBER OF (EPAL) STUDENTS NUMBER OF ENROLLED N STUDENTS 13.857 ENROLLED N 5.943 13.857

DROPOUT PERCENTA DROPOUT GE% PERCENTA 11,45 GE% 9,99 11,45

78.237 41.232

1,92 1,77

19.800 5.943

11,02 9,99

Table andDrop Dropout out 102.447 4,23 78.237 Table3:3:Gender Gender and

1,92

19.800

11,02

DROPOUT PERCENTA DROPOUT GE% PERCENTA 1,81 GE% 1,76 1,81

LOWER SECONDARY LOWER EDUCATION SECONDARY GYMNASIUM EDUCATION NUMBER OF GYMNASIUM STUDENTS NUMBER OF ENROLLED STUDENTS 53.949 ENROLLED 48.498 53.949

99.984 48.391

1,79 1,76

102.447 48.498

99.984

1,79

PRIMARY A,B,C PRIMARY A,B,C NUMBER OF STUDENTS NUMBER OF ENROLLED STUDENTS 51.593 ENROLLED 48.391 51.593

DROPOUT PERCENTA DROPOUT GE% PERCENTA 4,82 GE% 3,58 4,82

UPPER SECONDARY UPPER EDUCATION SECONDARY (LYCEUM) EDUCATION NUMBER OF (LYCEUM) STUDENTS NUMBER OF ENROLLED N STUDENTS 37.005 ENROLLED N 41.232 37.005

4,23 3,58

Table 3: Gender and Drop out SCHOOL DROP OUT RATE PER EDUCATIONAL STAGE GRADE & PER URBANITY 2013-2014

SCHOOL DROP OUT RATE PER EDUCATIONAL STAGE GRADE & PER URBANITY 2013-2014

PRIMARY

PRIMARY EDUCATION EDUCATION A', B', Γ' A', B', Γ'

URBANITY URBANITY

URBAN AREAS URBAN AREAS SEMI-URBAN SEMI-URBAN AREAS AREAS RURAL AREAS

RURAL AREAS

TOTAL

TOTAL

REGULAR REGULAR REGISTRATION REGISTRATION

LOWER

UPPER

VOCATIONAL LOWER UPPER SECONDARY SECONDARY VOCATIONAL SECONDARY SECONDARY SECONDARY EDUCATION EDUCATION SECONDARY EDUCATION EDUCATION (EPAL) (GYMNASIUM) (GEL) (EPAL) (GYMNASIUM) (GEL)

REGULAR REGULAR REGULARREGULAR REGULAR REGULAR REGISTRATION REGISTRATION REGISTRATION REGISTRATION REGISTRATION REGISTRATION

Number Number Number Number Number of dropout Number of dropoutof of of dropout dropout of dropout students students% % students %students students students % % enrolled enrolled enrolled enrolled enrolled enrolled 63.284

1,69

67.261

18.330

1,62

22.034

4,41

18.370

2,3

13.152

4,51

99.984

1,79

102.447

4,23

63.284 18.330 18.370

1,69 1,62

2,3

67.2614,12 22.034

13.152

1,54 4,12 54.709 54.709

4,41 4,51

16.951 6.577 78.237

2,35

16.951 3,95

6.577

1,92

99.984 1,79 102.447 4,23 78.237 Table 4. Student dropout per educational stage and per urbanity

Number of dropout students % enrolled 14.417 1,54 4.661 2,35 722 3,95 19.800 1,92

Number dropout of % students enrolled 11,6 14.417 9,23

dropout % 11,6

4.661

9,23

722

10.8

10.8

11.02

19.800

11.02

TableTable 4. Student dropout stage urbanity 4. Student dropoutper pereducational educational stage andand per per urbanity

School dropout occurs less in urban areas, followed by[24] semi-urban and rural across the country. In vocational education, leakage greater in urban than in by urban areas. School dropout occurs lessis in urban areas,areas followed semi-urban and rural across the count [24]

vocational education, leakage is greater in urban areas than in urban areas.

6.3 Student drop outs based on age Programme co-funded by the European Union

[29]

6.3 Student drop outs based onasage There is an increase in student drop outs pupils’ age. The increase in leakage per education level is shown by the deviation from the basic age group. It is noteworthy that 8 out of 10 students who are


SEMI-URBAN AREAS RURAL AREAS TOTAL

18.330

1,62

22.034

4,41

16.951

2,35

4.661

9,23 10.8

18.370

2,3

13.152

4,51

6.577

3,95

722

99.984

1,79

102.447

4,23

78.237

1,92

19.800

“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and Table 4. Student dropout per educational stage and per urbanity

11.02

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School dropout occurs less in urban2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 areas, followed by semi-urban and rural across the country. In 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 vocational education, leakage is greater in urban areas than in urban areas.

6.3 Student drop outs based on age There is an increase in student drop outs as pupils’ age. The increase in leakage per education level is shown by the deviation from the basic age group. It is noteworthy that 8 out of 10 students who are leaking from Gymnasium & EPAL do not belong to the main age group.

PRIMARY

LOWER S ECONDARY (GYMNAS IUM)

Dropout YEAR percentage Number % BIRTH of dropout YEAR BIRTH 2008 16,67 12 2002 2007 1,22 1162 2001 2006 9,32 346 2000 2005 24,38 128 1999 2004 36,46 66 1998 2003 46,15 36 1997 2002 46,81 22 1996 2001 53,33 16 1995

Dropout percenta Number of ge% dropout 18,18 6 0,94 853 12,59 803 38,1 1029 64,1 884 73,76 475 85,31 209 85,87 79

UPPER SECONDARY (LYCEUM) YEAR BIRTH 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992

Dropout percenta Number of ge% dropout 6,45 2 0,99 729 10,41 323 26,14 218 39,62 105 48,51 65 66,1 39 64,29 18

Table 4: Student Dropout based on Age

Table 4: Student Dropout based on Age

[25]

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[30]

UPPER SECONDARY VOCATIONAL (EPAL) Dropout YEAR percenta Number ge% of dropout BIRTH 1999 40 2 1998 3,6 457 1997 11,68 422 1996 25,77 454 1995 42,51 329 1994 59,68 186 1993 55,24 137 1992 54,95 61 1991 64,1 73,76 1990 64,71 73,66 1989 & earlier 53,94 73,76


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6.4 Student Dropout per Prefecture & Educational Level For each type of school - grade, the ten highest leak rates are highlighted. Notable are the high rates of Western Attica and Ilia at all levels.

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Student dropout in Attica In the Prefecture of Attica, one-third of the number of students in the country is concentrated. It is therefore expected that the largest drop outsrates in this county will occur. The following table refers to eight peripheral units based on the Calcium Separation that has been made. Here are the highest leak rates in all educational grades and school types. In Athens, there is the largest leakage, and in primary and secondary schools in particular, school leakage accounts for about 35% of the total number of students drop outs from the total number of students in the prefecture. Exception is the second best Athens performance compared to the other regions of Attica, with the exception of EPALs with a large leakage rate, but to a small number of students.

PRIM ARY A',B',Γ'

LOWER SECONDARY (GYM NASIUM )

UPPER SECONDARY (GEL)

VOCATIONAL UPPER SECONDARY (EPAL)

NUM BER NUM BER NUM BER Dropout Dropout OF OF Dropout OF percentage percentage DROPOUT DROPOUT percentage % DROPOUT % % STUDENTS STUDENTS STUDENTS

NUM BER OF DROPOUT STUDENTS

Dropout percentage %

A' ATHENS

214

3,14

417

5,71

123

2,22

118

B' ATHENS

53

1

96

2,13

41

1,02

49

15,08

Γ' ATHENS

48

1,04

137

2,93

45

1,22

131

13,86

EDUCATIONAL DIVISIONSIN ATTICA

12,59

Δ' ATHENS

55

1,33

128

3,02

90

2,38

86

9,91

WEST ATTIKA

105

4,94

187

9,81

28

2,29

72

16,51

EASTERN ATTIKA

80

1,49

242

4,62

56

1,46

64

8,86

PIRAΕUS

60

1,3

139

3,02

86

2,46

123

13,09

TOTAL

615

1,9

1.346

4,2

469

1,8

643

12,04

In conclusion Student drop outsis a phenomenon of Greek educational reality that has been on the rise over time. It is a negative phenomenon that concerns the educational community, which should make every effort to address it and improve specific indicators identified and contributing to this problem (eg gender, geographical dimension of phenomenon, etc.). The institutionalization, implementation and utilization of the Unified Student Number that will accompany him throughout his student career will help in the easier and more accurate recording - study of the problem of Student Leakage. It should be noted that all studies done so far do not take into account the school drop outs at the outset, ie children who are never enrolled in school. It is estimated that this percentage will be relatively small in Greece, but not insignificant.

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6.5 Strategic Axes 2014 - 2020 to Fight School drop outs Reducing Early School Abandonment (PES) is a key priority of the new OP "Human Resources Development - Education and Lifelong Learning 2014-2020".All the axes are in full alignment with the structure of the OP and international practices and policies to combat school leakage. In terms of tackling, the key principles of the European Commission will be followed, as reflected in the European Commission / EACEA / Eurydice / Cedefop, 2014. Tackling Early Leaving Education and Training in Europe: Strategies, Policies and Measures. Eurydice and Cedefop Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, p. European Commission / EACEA / Eurydice / Cedefop, 2014 51. Tackling Early Leaving from Education and summarized as follows: 1. Prevention seeks to prevent the creation of conditions in which the process of early school leaving may be started, by measures such as: increasing participation in good quality pre-school education, access to high-quality pre-school education and care services, systematic linguistic support for children from migrant families, increased mobility between educational pathways and increasing the quality and prestige of vocational education, etc. 2. Intervention faces difficulties at an early stage, in order to prevent it from leaving school. Intervention measures can be focused on the whole of the school or targeted at students at risk of interrupting education or training through measures such as improving the atmosphere at school and creating a supportive learning environment, early warning systems and better co-operation with parents, the creation of networks with extracurricular factors (youth organizations, social services, local development sectors, anti-drugs groups, etc.); access to local networks, etc. 3. Compensation creates new opportunities to reintegrate into the education and training system, those who dropped out early (e.g. second chance schools, Secondary Schools). 4. In parallel with the above axes, horizontal / systemic actions (within the framework of the "New School" and the integration of ICT in the educational process) will take place, which, although not directly related to the phenomenon of school leakage, will contribute to Strategic Policy Framework for Reducing Early School Abandonment (PES) in Greece in the framework of the OP "Human Resources Development - Education and Lifelong Learning 2014-2020" 64 in an indirect and not easily quantifiable way in the establishment of a more modern , a modern and attractive school, which children will abandon.

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Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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7. Art and Education 7. Art and Education Introduction Introduction An increasing number of modern pedagogues and sociologists of education argue that if the school wants to respond to the challenges of the times, it should come out of of education its narrowargue limits, open toschool societywants and, An increasing number of modern pedagogues and sociologists that if the above all, interact with culture and cultural actions of the wider society to which it belongs. Therefore, to respond to the challenges of the times, it should come out of its narrow limits, open to society and, art canall, be interact the link with between the and objective knowledge educational to Therefore, pass on to above culture cultural actions ofthat the the wider society tosystem which attempts it belongs. the child and his personal perception of the world. art can be the link between the objective knowledge that the educational system attempts to pass on to the child and his personal perception of the world.

In this context, we find that the main purpose of education is the whole development of the personality of the pupil, both cognitive moral, social and emotional the Greek In this context, weinfind that theand main purpose of education is thelevel. wholeHowever, development of the educational personality system, as a purely focal-point and exam-centric one, focuses on the development of cognitive functions, of the pupil, both in cognitive and moral, social and emotional level. However, the Greek educational ousting not only the other forms of skills but also any alternative way of cultivating them. It is a common system, as a purely focal-point and exam-centric one, focuses on the development of cognitive functions, phenomenon, as stated by Robinson (1999: 63), that the artistic activities proposed by the curriculum are ousting not only the other forms of skills but also any alternative way of cultivating them. It is a common treated as a choice lesson, which is(1999: the option - when there isactivities pressureproposed of time, by space or resources phenomenon, as stated by Robinson 63), that the artistic the curriculum areomittedas anda they arelesson, usuallywhich organized in the context of optional interdisciplinary programs or relytreated choice is theonly option - when there is pressure of time, space or resources on the preferences of usually each teacher. omitted and they are organized only in the context of optional interdisciplinary programs or rely on the preferences of each teacher. Definitions Definitions What do we mean when we talk about Art? What do we mean talk about Art? Art is the whole of when humanwe creation based on spiritual understanding, treatment and regeneration, common historical and geographical context common to which experiences of everyday life in relation to thespiritual social, cultural, Art is the whole of human creation based on understanding, treatment and regeneration, they are governed. In particular, it focuses on the expression of good and beautiful through the creations experiences of everyday life in relation to the social, cultural, historical and geographical context to which of man, which cause aesthetic it emotion at expression the same time spiritual and moral cultivation. It is they are governed. In particular, focusesand on the of good and beautiful through the creations considered a social phenomenon, born with social life and expressing its most important aspects. In of man, which cause aesthetic emotion and at the same time spiritual and moral cultivation. Itthe is Western world art isphenomenon, described as art, Latinlife arsand thatexpressing in part means settling, arranging. considered a social bornfrom withthe social its most important aspects. In the

Western world art,infrom the Latin ars that in which part means settling, arranging. By focusing on art Artisindescribed Educationasand particular on Fine Arts, are closer to the pupil, we find that their knowledge is necessary and their contribution decisive. More specifically, the have By focusing on Art in Education and in particular on Fine Arts, which are closer to thearts pupil, wetheir findown that "language", their own syntax and their particular vocabulary (color, tone, motif, line, etc.), the knowledge their knowledge is necessary and their contribution decisive. More specifically, the arts have their own of which makes special sense in theparticular pupils' communication through a set of specialized media and "language", their aown syntax and their vocabulary (color, tone, motif, line, etc.), the knowledge meanings codes. In this context, through the visual performance, visual communication of ideas, of which makes a special sense in the pupils' communication through a set of specialized media and and information is context, achievedthrough - in waysthe special perhaps no visual other lesson can yield. of ideas, meanings and codes. In this visualthat performance, communication

information is achieved thattheperhaps no other lesson From the above, it turns- in outways that special although categories covered bycan theyield. term Arts are numerous, the Greek the Curriculum Framework Studiesby include onlyArts Fineare Arts and Music, From above, it and turnstheoutCross-curricular that although the categoriesofcovered the term numerous, the mainlyCurriculum in Primary Education, while Secondary Greek and the Cross-curricular Framework of Studies include only Fine Arts and Music, mainly in Primary Education, while Secondary

[31] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

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Degrees devote one hour to a week at the Theater, festivals and a few lessons in Literature, but which is considered in a highly literary context. Linking Art and Education By examining the relationship of education with art, we can approach the latter in three different ways: The first sees Art as an autonomous branch, a distinct socio-cultural practice that acts as a subject of teaching and can provide knowledge. A knowledge that is multilevel and at the same time offers aesthetic cultivation through observation and dialectical communication with the work. The second perspective treats Art as an educational tool used to achieve pedagogical goals and cognitive skills. Here art is produced and used by the students themselves for the spontaneous expression of their feelings through sounds, colors, movements and images. Such an approach is the most widespread view of the function of art, which considers that artistic creation is identical to the personality of the person, thereby highlighting his moralistic character. Moreover, as Malaphant and Karela (2012) report, art promotes dialogue and pluralism of opinions as there are many interpretations in a musical score, many ways to describe a painting or sculpture, many interpretations of the meaning of a literary text. Already in the early 20th century, with Dewey's theory, the pupil is placed in the center of school life, and under the guidance of the teacher, he is encouraged for self- acting thinking and action within a climate of freedom and co-operation. Knowledge is thus conquered through the experience and the search for personal meaning, that is, from the principle of "manant through doing". In addition, Bruner argues that the teacher should give opportunities for the learner to deal with problematic situations in which he will experiment and discover his own knowledge through personal investigation (Kassotakis&Flouris, 2006: 129). According to this theory, the student "assembles knowledge into a lasting confrontation with the world, from question to discovery and discovery to the new question" (Frydakis, 2003: 104). At the same time, Vygotsky argues that students learn spontaneously through interaction with social reality, and especially with the use of the arts, opportunities for socialization are given. It becomes evident that the arts function as forms of thought and communication in education. The third view from which we can look at art is art as a therapeutic (Art-Therapy, Visual Art Psychotherapy). Visual art enables people to be active in how they are treated. "Visual thinking is our ability to group through our images our thoughts and feelings about how the world works" (Malchiodi, 2009: 28). In recent years in the field of child psychiatry, various forms of art, such as music, painting, drama, dancing, are increasingly used as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Visual therapy can have better results for children because, given their unfounded vocabulary, it enables them to express feelings and thoughts more easily through a picture.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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From the above, it is clear that the benefits of using the arts in the educational process are important and unquestionable. Summarizing us mention the following: • Exploiting the arts beyond their value as a means of cultural empowerment and cognitive development, create the conditions for effective and creative learning as they increase the active participation of the pupils and teachers involved, enhancing the stochastic mood. • Engaging with the arts leads to the holistic development of the personality and cultivates the metacognitive ability of the pupil • They are rich informative material that strengthens cultural consciousness. Observing a work of philosophical perceptions art reveals social values, historical and political data,

Image 1"Children of the Earth," from A΄ Primary School students

We conclude with a table in which we see the objectives and hence the desired offer of artistic education as recorded in 30 European countries - Member States of the European Union - 2007-2008, in a survey carried out by the Eurydice Network on Aesthetic Education in Education entitled "Arts and Cultural Education in Schools in Europe".

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Image Resource:Network Network Eyridiki Image 2: 2: Resource: Eyridiki

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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8.8.Schools Schoolsininthe theMunicipality MunicipalityofofElefsina Elefsina The TheMunicipality MunicipalityofofElefsina Elefsinaisis20 20km kmfrom fromAthens. Athens.ItIthas hasan anarea areaofof20 20km² km²and andaapopulation populationofof24,910 24,910 inhabitants. inhabitants.InInantiquity antiquitytimes times Elefsina Elefsina,Athens, ,Athens,Olympia, Olympia,Delphi Delphiand andDelos Deloswere were the the55holy holycities citiesofof Ancient AncientGreece. Greece.The The Sacred SacredRoad Roadended endedup upininElefsina. Elefsina.Elefsina Elefsina has hasbeen beenelected electedasasthe theEuropean European Capital CapitalofofCulture Culturefor forthe theyear year2021. 2021. There Thereare are44Day Daynurseries nurseries and and22Baby Babynurseries, nurseries,13 13Kindergartens, Kindergartens,14 14Elementary ElementarySchools, Schools,77Junior Junior High HighSchools Schoolsand and77Lyceums Lyceumsthat thatoperate operateininthe theElefsina ElefsinaMunicipality. Municipality.There Thereare are7,862 7,862students studentsthat that attend. attend. InInPrimary Primaryeducation educationaatotal totalofof3,337 3,337students studentsattend attendand and4,200 4,200secondary secondarystudents. students. Total Totalschool schoolunits units Nursery NurserySchool Schooland andBaby BabyNurceries Nurceries Kindergarden Kindergarden Dimotiko Dimotiko(Primary (PrimaryEducation) Education) Lower Lowersecondary secondaryeducation education(Gymnasium) (Gymnasium) Upper UpperSecondary SecondaryEducation Education(lyceum) (lyceum) Upper UpperSecondary SecondaryVocational Vocational Education Education (EPAL) (EPAL) Total Total

66 13 13 14 14 77 33

Number Numberofof students students 325 325 1464 1464 1873 1873 2764 2764 615 615

44

821 821 7862 7862

Total Totalschool schoolunits units

77

33

44

66 1313

1414

Nursery NurserySchool School

Kindergarden Kindergarden

Dimotiko Dimotiko(Primary (PrimaryEducation) Education)

Lower Lowersecondary secondaryeducation education(Gymnasium) (Gymnasium)

Upper UpperSecondary SecondaryEducation Education(lyceum) (lyceum)

Upper UpperSecondary SecondaryVocational VocationalEducation Education(EPAL) (EPAL)

Total Total

[35] [35] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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9. Social Policy in the Municipality of Elefsina The Municipality of Elefsina has created and incorporated into its annual program a series of actions and structures aimed at encouraging and supporting the students of our city in the context of the social policy exercise and being particularly sensitive to issues of education, sports and culture , to prevent inequalities in education and to prevent social exclusion. Below, these actions and structures are described in detail. •

Traffic Education Park The Traffic Education Park offers daily training for pupils and students of elementary schools in Attica in traffic education and road safety, using the fleet of cars and bicycles owned by the Public Enterprise of the Municipality of Elefsina (KEDE).

The beneficiaries of the activity are mainly pupils of kindergarten and elementary schools in the city, as well as the surrounding towns, who visit the park. The school community has embraced the operation of the park and is also carrying out some health education programs that are related to the road behavior of children and adults, aiming to acquire a completely different culture both as drivers and pedestrians. The park is open all year round fully structured and is used by 7,000 students. • "Alonia Adventure Park" The Public Enterprise of Elefsina (KEDE), aiming at upgrading and increasing social benefits, offers an alternative playground for recreation, relaxation and fun for the young and adult visitors of the Traffic Park, the "Alonia adventure park" "Alonia adventure park" aims to make use of the leisure time of its visitors, offering a pleasant and creative environment, full of activities such as ping pong, outdoor chess, outdoor gym, etc. • "Sports Summer Vacation" As a continuation of the activity of the Summer Camp, the Municipality's Public Benefit Company presents the "Sports summer vacation", which is a summer school program for the students of the last elementary classes. In particular, children will be able to spend an alternative and creative summer in their city by participating in a program rich in sports, thus cultivating their sporting and team spirit. Sports in various fields, outdoor visits to basketball and football stadiums, exploitation of the city's swimming pool, visits to the Traffic Education Park infrastructure for creative play, entertainment and creative expression make up the profile of "Sports summer vacation. [36]

Environmental Academy

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts”

Early School Leaving Fine pool, visits to the Traffic Education Park infrastructure for creative play, through entertainment andArts” creative 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 expression make up the profile of "Sports summer vacation. 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Environmental Academy The Environmental Academy programs complement the school's environmental lessons by offering practical work in specially designed spaces and involving students, volunteer teachers and skilled staff. The beneficiaries of the above activity are the pupils and the citizens of Magoula Municipal Unity, who will benefit from the 4 structures and the adult workshop that will be open this year. 150 children and their families will benefit from this.

Elefsis Animation Library In July 2016, a cooperation protocol was signed between the Institute for Lifelong Learning of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens and the Municipality of Elefsina, where, following mutual consultation, concerted positions were established in order to strengthen their co-operation and to coordinate the activities in culture, education and training in a variety of fields.

The activity of animation library was designed to be a source of inspiration and experience, learning and exploring, engaging, creatively and expressing children through animation. In particular, building on the art of animation, you can create, explore, and play. Learning students and pupils in new technologies is changing the way we create and understand animation, it is the method to help them express issues that concern their lives, the school community, society and the environment. [37] skills such as basic principles of writing, Learning involves a wide range of specialized and transferable character creation, scenario writing for animation, computer animation programs, communication language, free drawing, micro sculpting, stop motion animation, art history, photography, research, and documented visual presentation of the various projects. Programme co-funded by the European Union

[40]

Developing negotiation, management skills and team skills through external projects in cooperation with the Technological Educational Institute of Athens and we are looking forward to the possibility of visits


“Michelangelo: School Sucess and Reducin Ensuring Successand and In particular, building on the“Michelangelo: art of animation, you can School create,Ensuring explore, play. Learning students and pupils in new technologies is changing the way we create and understand animation, it is the method to Early School Leaving through Fine Arts” In particular, building onReducing the art of animation, you can create, explore, and play. LearningFine students and Early School Leaving through Arts” help them express issues that concern their lives, the school community, society and the environment. pupils in new technologies is changing the way we create and understand animation, it is the method to 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 help theminvolves express issues concern their lives, school community, andprinciples the environment. Learning a widethat range of specialized andthe transferable skills suchsociety as basic of writing, character creation, scenario writing for animation, computer animation programs, communication Learning involves a wide range of specialized and transferable skills such as basic principles of writing, language, free drawing, micro sculpting, stop motion animation, art history, photography, research, and character creation, scenario writing for animation, computer animation programs, communication documented visual presentation of the various projects. language, free drawing, micro sculpting, stop motion animation, art history, photography, research, and documented visual presentation of the various projects. Developing negotiation, management skills and team skills through external projects in cooperation with the Technological Educational Institute of Athens and we are looking forward to the possibility of visits Developing negotiation, management skills and team skills through external projects in cooperation with in similar areas. the Technological Educational Institute of Athens and we are looking forward to the possibility of visits in areas. Allsimilar this gives you the opportunity to test the limits of creation, and to see animation in many forms and in many ways. All this gives you the opportunity to test the limits of creation, and to see animation in many forms and in many ways. of the animation library term aims to create an educational record of the corresponding The composition action. The composition of the animation library term aims to create an educational record of the corresponding action. • Center for the Creative Employment of Children (KDAP)

The Children's Creative Employment Center covers children of different ages and operates in specially • Center for the Creative Employment of Children (KDAP) designed areas daily in the morning. Young students are creatively employed by specialist teachers with The Children's Creative Employment Center covers children of different ages and operates in specially group games of mobility, painting, handicraft, construction, gardening and more and their participation designed areas daily in the morning. Young students are creatively employed by specialist teachers with is based on socio-economic criteria. group games of mobility, painting, handicraft, construction, gardening and more and their participation is on socio-economic criteria. In based conclusion, the beneficiaries of the above activity are about 200 children of any age, who are both residents and locals of the Municipality of Elefsina, the same as their families. In conclusion, the beneficiaries of the above activity are about 200 children of any age, who are both residents and locals of the Municipality of Elefsina, the same as their families.

[38] [38]

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

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PROGRAM AGREEMENT "FIGHT AGAINST ARTIFICIAL RACISM" • PROGRAM AGREEMENT "FIGHT AGAINST ARTIFICIAL RACISM" •

PROGRAM AGREEMENT "FIGHT AGAINST ARTIFICIAL RACISM"

The aim of this project is to combat prejudice and The aim of this project is to combat prejudi discrimination in the areaisoftoElefsina, The aim of this project combat through prejudice the andartistic discrimination in the area of Elefsina, through the discrimination in the area of parents Elefsina, belonging through the to artistic expression of children and vulnerable expression ofand children parents belonging to vul expression of children parents and belonging to vulnerable social groups and, by extension, the support of social social groups and, by extension, support of social groups and, by extension, the support ofthe social development and cohesion in the region development and cohesion the region in the region development andincohesion The implemented as follows: Theactions actions areare as follows: The implemented actions implemented are as follows: 1. Operation of art workshops for children with the following objects: Painting, Sculpture, Theatrical play, Musical toys, Fairy [39] tales, Audiovisual games (cinema-video clips) [39] and computer use for visual expression. The workshops are aimed[39] at children aged 4 to 14 years and a total of 60 to 80 children can benefit. 2. Artistic workshop for parents: The workshops are aimed at parents belonging to vulnerable groups of the population to give them opportunities to express, co-operate and empower themselves through art and this can benefit a total of 30 to 40 parents.

Aeschylus Library

Programme co-funded by the European Union

[42]

The basic aim of the Library is to cover the inhabitants of Elefsis and


Painting, Sculpture, Theatrical play, Musical toys, Fairy tales, Audiovisual games (cinema-video clips) and computer use for visual expression. The workshops are aimed at children aged 4 to 14 years and a total of 60 to 80 children can benefit.

“Michelangelo: Ensuring School Sucess and Reducin

“Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and 2. Artistic workshop for parents:

Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts”

Schoolgroups Leaving Arts” The workshops are aimed at parents belongingEarly to vulnerable of the through populationFine to give them 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 opportunities to express, co-operate and empower themselves through art and this can benefit a total of 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 30 to 40 parents. •

Aeschylus Library The basic aim of the Library is to cover the inhabitants of Elefsis and Magoulas and the wider area of Thriassio Field. The Library allows all citizens access to information and all its services are free of charge to its members. Its goals are: - The continuous enrichment of the collection.

- The collection, conservation, management and exploitation of archival and museum and cultural thus cultural material in general. - Defending the right of access to information and the protection of the personal data of its users. - Continuous education and training. - Organize and manage its services to prevent users' needs in a timely and effective manner. - The provision of services to meet the needs of People with Disabilities (PWD). - The continuous monitoring and evaluation of its services. - The visibility of its services. - Working with other stakeholders to optimize the diffusion of information each time. - The support of the educational project that takes place in schools as well as the spiritual and cultural development of the region.

[40]

• Elefsina Cultural Center [43] The Cultural Center of the Municipality of Elefsina is the official entity of the cultural, athletic, presch Programme co-funded by the European Union


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• Elefsina Cultural Center The Cultural Center of the Municipality of Elefsina is the official entity of the cultural, athletic, preschool educational and social policy of the Municipality of Elefsina. It supervises the cultural and athletic venues and includes the departments of Music, Ballet and Modern Dance, Painting, Rhythmic Gymnastics, Folk Dance, Hagiography, and Theatrical Group for Adolescents, the Theatrical Scene of Elefsina and the Philharmonic Orchestra. All departments provide lessons seasonally, including a small fee, aiming at the familiarization of citizens, mainly young people, with art and culture • Social Tutorial The Social Tutorial forms part of the social solidarity structures of the Municipality of Elefsina and is based on the voluntary offer of teachers in order to provide additional teaching support for elementary and secondary school pupils belonging to needy or economically weak families. With this effort, equal opportunities in learning for all students in the Municipality of Elefsina are achieved as well as a reduction to school drop outs, with applications each year exceeding 100. • Roma education The schooling of Roma children is characterized by student drop outs . Although for Roma children that attend school there is a bus (financed by the Region) that transfers them from the camp to school. The phenomena of discrimination in schools, as well as the lack of suitable and permanent housing are real problems in the settlement and are mentioned as factors that repulse children from school and force them to give up. On the axis of Education, in cooperation with the Ministry, special actions are planned, such as: • eliminating school drop outs through welcoming classes, support for children and school units • social workers in school units for over 50 Roma students • reducing pupils by class in about 50 schools [41] • care for teenagers who have not completed primary school

• Support to all educational levels with animation, educational orientation Especially in the Municipality of Elefsina we propose the following actions: - Awareness and motivation of parents to enroll children in the School. - Registration of Roma children in all-day Kindergartens / Primary schools. - Extension of the Social Tutoring for Roma children and creation and operation of a structure near the camp. Programme co-funded by the European Union

[44]

- Watching a program of the Elefsis Care Center "Filiki Folias"


• reducing pupils by class in about 50 schools •• care for teenagers not completed reducing pupils bywho classhave in about 50 schoolsprimary school •• Support all educational levels animation, educational care for to teenagers who have not with completed primary school orientation

“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Especially inall theeducational Municipality of Elefsina we propose the following actions: • Support to levels with animation, educational orientation

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through

-Especially Awarenessinand of of parents to enroll children the School. the motivation Municipality Elefsina we propose theinfollowing actions: 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

-- Registration of Roma children in all-day Kindergartens schools. Awareness and motivation of parents to enroll children /inPrimary the School.

-- Extension of of theRoma Socialchildren Tutoring Roma children and/ creation operation of a structure near the Registration in for all-day Kindergartens Primary and schools. camp. - Extension of the Social Tutoring for Roma children and creation and operation of a structure near the camp. - Watching a program of the Elefsis Care Center "Filiki Folias" -- Encouraging adults toofattend a second EPAL, and programs specifically designed for Watching a program the Elefsis Carechance Center school, "Filiki Folias" Roma in the Lifelong Learning Center operating in the Municipality of Elefsina. - Encouraging adults to attend a second chance school, EPAL, and programs specifically designed for Roma in the Lifelong Learning Center operating in the Municipality of Elefsina. 10. Epilogue The Arts offer in Education is indisputable, as both Arts and Sciences are key components of each 10. Epilogue Culture, but also of Education itself. Although it is obvious that the content of art teaching cannot be The Arts with offer that in Education as both(orArts and Sciences are key components of each identified of studies is in indisputable, any of the sciences the so-called humanitarian or positive ones), it Culture, but of Education itself. Although is obvious contenttheir of art teaching cannot be functions as aalso peculiar unifying link between themit by touchingthat and the redefining foundations and their identified with that of studies in any of of art. the sciences (or the ones), sides, the ways, means and methods In this sense, theso-called teachinghumanitarian of Art has toorbepositive an integral andit functionscomponent as a peculiarofunifying between them by touchingtherefore, and redefining foundations their essential Generallink Education. It is necessary, to betheir included in the and General sides, the ways, methodsofof In and this all sense, the teaching of Art has to be an integral and Education coursesmeans of all and Education, allart. types levels. essential component of General Education. It is necessary, therefore, to be included in the General In addition,courses art, while working autonomously Education of all Education, of all typesand andunifying all levels.for a variety of subjects at the level of its general teaching, at the same time assists decisively, but also requires specialization and technical training In many addition, art, while working autonomously unifying must for a also variety subjectsasatanthe level of its in different subjects as well. Therefore, and its teaching be of included irreplaceable general teaching, at the samestudies time assists decisively, requires specialization component of all the special associated with but the also actual phenomenon of Art. and technical training in many different subjects as well. Therefore, its teaching must also be included as an irreplaceable Finally, we of have to point that research often shownphenomenon that the contribution component all the specialout studies associatedhas with the actual of Art. of the visual arts contributes to the positive attitude of the pupils towards school and thus to their school success and the Finally, we have toleakage. point out thatused research has often that the to contribution of of thehigh-quality visual arts reduction of school When in lessons, visualshown arts contribute the provision contributes to the positive attitude of the pupils towards school and thus to their school success the learning (Bamford, 2006) and even creative, as the knowledge that is achieved is omni- versal andand global reduction of school leakage. When used in lessons, visual arts contribute to the provision of high-quality (aesthetic, creative, cognitive, mental, emotional, social). Thus, students develop their personality and learning (Bamford, eventhem creative, as 2008). the knowledge that is achieved is omni- versal and global give meaning to the 2006) world and around (Vaos, (aesthetic, creative, cognitive, mental, emotional, social). Thus, students develop their personality and give meaning to the world around them (Vaos, 2008).

[42] [42]

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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THE ITALIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring School Sucess and Reducin

Ensuring School Success and General Information “Michelangelo: about Italy’s Education System

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through

Fine Arts”

The Italian school system is mainly public (over 90%) and therefore free of charge, while pri 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 may charge fees that in many instances are at least partially waived by local governments. 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

The education system in Italy is organised according to the subsidiary principle and autonom The State has exclusive competence on general issues on education, on minimum stan guaranteed throughout country, and System on the fundamental principles that Regions should c General Information aboutthe Italy’s Education within their competences. Regions share their competences with the State on education issue The Italian school system is mainly public (over 90%) and therefore free of charge, while private schools have exclusive on vocational and training. Schools are autonomous as may charge fees thatcompetence in many instances are at least education partially waived by local governments. organisational, and research and development activities. The education system in Italy is organised according to the subsidiary principle and autonomy of schools. The has exclusive on general issues on education, on minimum standards to be TheState education systemcompetence is organised as follows: guaranteed throughout the country, and on the fundamental principles that Regions should comply with • Pre-primary school Regions for children between 3 and with 6 years of age; within their competences. share their competences the State on education issues, while they have exclusive competence on vocational education and training. Schools are autonomous as for didactic, First cycle of 8 years, made up of: organisational, andeducation research andlasting development activities.

• primary (lasting as 5 years), The educationeducation system is organised follows: for children between 6 and 11 years of age; • •Pre-primary school forschool children(lasting between33years) and 6 years of age; between 11 and 14 years of age; lower secondary for children First cycle of education lasting 8 years, made up of:

Second cycle of education offering two different pathways:

• primary education (lasting 5 years), for children between 6 and 11 years of age;

• State upper secondary school (lasting 5 years) for students from 14 to 19 years of age. It i

• licei, lower secondary (lasting 3 years) for children betweenthree 11 and 14 four-year years of age; technicalschool institutes and vocational institutes; and vocational training c addressed to students who have completed the first cycle of education. It is organised by the Second cycle of education offering two different pathways:

• •State upper secondary school (lasting 5 years) for students from 14post-qualification to 19 years of age. Itand is offered by post-secondary non tertiary education offered through: post-diplom licei, technical institutes and vocational institutes; three and four-year vocational training courses (IFP) courses organised by the Regions; Higher technical education and training courses (IFTS). addressed to students who have completed the first cycle of education. It is organised by the Regions.

higher education offered by universities and post-qualification the High level and artspost-diploma and music vocational education sys • •post-secondary non tertiary education offered through: Higher education is Regions; organised in first, second and third levels according to the Bologna stru courses organised by the Higher technical education and training courses (IFTS).

• The higher education offered by universities and the High arts and music educationwith system (Afam). are Italian school system is fully inclusive for level all children, and children disabilities Higher education is organised in first, second and third levels according to the Bologna structure. a multidisciplinary team in order to obtain a support teacher. Learning of a foreign languag

in the primary cycle. is fully inclusive for all children, and children with disabilities are assessed by The Italian school system a multidisciplinary team in order to obtain a support teacher. Learning of a foreign language starts now in the primary cycle.

1: Structure of School the Italian School System Figure Figure 1: Structure of the Italian System Figure 1: Structure of the Italian School System

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

Sucess and Reducing

Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts” Early School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Kindergarten (Scuola dell’Infanzia) starts at 3 years and there are “primavera” (spring) classes from two years of age. The access to kindergarten is over 88% on average at national level. Kindergarten is also mainly public, however the private offer is in this sector quite significant.Compulsory education covers the eight-year first cycle (5 years of primary school and 3 years of lower secondary school) and the first two years of the second cycle (DM 139/2007). After completion of the first cycle of education, the last two years of compulsory education (from 14 to 16 years of age) can be accomplished either in State upper secondary schools (licei, technical institutes and vocational institutes), or through the three-year vocational education and training courses, (istruzione e formazione professionale) falling under the competence of the Regions (law 133/2008). Compulsory education refers to both enrolment and attendance. It can be accomplished either in a State and a paritaria school (accredited private school) and also, under certain conditions, though parental education and merely private schools; regional three-year vocational training courses are offered by the relevant training agencies. Parents or caregivers are responsible for the accomplishment of compulsory education, while supervision on the fulfilment of compulsory education falls under the responsibilities of local authorities where pupils reside and school heads of the schools pupils are enrolled in. Once compulsory schooling has been accomplished, pupils who don’t pursue their studies receive a certification attesting compulsory education fulfilment and competencies acquired; these constitute formative credits for the attainment of any professional qualification. Access to tertiary education is reserved for students who passed the State exam at the end of upper secondary school. Yet, specific conditions for admission are the responsibility of the Ministry of education, University and Research (MIUR), or of each single university.

Performance data Italy Italy participated in IEA’s PIRLS (4th graders reading comprehension) in 2001, 2006 and 2011, in OECD’s PISA (15 year-olds’ reading literacy) since 2000, and in OECD’s PIAAC (adults’ reading literacy) in 2012. This means it is possible to describe the changes over time in average reading proficiency, according to different characteristics of the readers, and to compare relative reading levels of proficiencies for different age groups. Italy performed above the EU average in PIRLS 2011 (541 vs 535 EU-average) and very close to the EU mean in PISA 2012 (490 vs 489 EU average). In PISA, the overall reading score is also very close to the average for European countries on average. In PIRLS, a limited proportion of pupils (15%) resulted as low-performing readers. This is slightly less than in EU countries on average (20%). These students can read simple texts, retrieve explicit information, or make straightforward inferences, but they are not able to deal with longer or more

[45] Programme co-funded by the European Union

[48]


“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

complex texts, and are unable to interpret beyond what is explicitly stated in the text. The proportion of low performers decreased between 2001 and 2011 in PIRLS. In PISA 2012, the proportion of lowcomplex texts, unable to average interpretand beyond is explicitly inboys, the text. The increase proportion of performers was and veryare close to EU ratherwhat stable over time:stated among a slight was low performers decreased between 2001 and 2011 in PIRLS. In PISA 2012, the proportion of lowperformers was very close to EU average and rather stable over time: among boys, a slight increase was observed (+1.3%), while among girls no change was observed. The proportion of top-performing readers was 10% in PIRLS (vs 9% in the EU). In PISA 2012, the percentage of both low and top performing observed (+1.3%), while among change observed. readers was also very close to thegirls EU no average ofwas around 7%. The proportion of top-performing readers was 10% in PIRLS (vs 9% in the EU). In PISA 2012, the percentage of both low and top performing The gap was according to the pupils’ socioeconomic readers also very close to the EU average ofbackground around 7%.was considerably lower than the EU average in PIRLS (59 vs 76 on average) and almost the same in PISA (84 vs 89). The difference may be due to Thefact gapthat according to theofpupils’ socioeconomic background lower the EU average the the indices socioeconomic background are notwas theconsiderably same in PIRLS andthan PISA. in PIRLS (59 vs 76 on average) and almost the same in PISA (84 vs 89). The difference may be due to In 2009, gap between native students and students with migrant background was much higher thePISA fact that thethe indices of socioeconomic background are not thea same in PIRLS and PISA. than in EU countries on average (72 vs 38 EU-average), the equivalent of about two years of schooling. In PISA 2009, the gapthebetween native students and students with a migrant background was much higher Similarly, in PIRLS, mean score difference between those who always spoke the language of the test than in EU countries on average (72 vs 38 EU-average), the equivalent of about two years of schooling. at home, and those who sometimes or never did so was higher than in EU countries (31 vs 26). In PISA, Similarly, in according PIRLS, thetomean score difference those who than always the language the test too, this gap the language spoken atbetween home was higher thespoke EU average (62 vsof54). at home, and those who sometimes or never did so was higher than in EU countries (31 vs 26). In PISA, Girls’ andgap boys’ performances were very close,atthe gender (in than favour girls) was then lower too, this according to the language spoken home was gap higher theofEU average (62 vs 54).than the corresponding EU average differences in PIRLS (3 vs 12), and slightly higher in PISA (46 vs 44). Girls’ and boys’ performances werehigher very close, gap (in then but lower than The gender difference in Italy was in the the twogender first cycles of favour PIRLSof(8girls) and 9was points) always the corresponding EU average differences in PIRLS (3 vs 12), and slightly higher in PISA (46 vs 44). below the EU average. In PISA, the reading performance observed between 2000 and 2012 was similar The gender difference in Italy was higher in the two first cycles of PIRLS (8 and 9 points) but always for girls (+ 3 score points) and boys (+ 2 score points). below the EU average. In PISA, the reading performance observed between 2000 and 2012 was similar Thegirls trend slightly countries for (+ 3was score points)different and boysin(+ EU 2 score points).on average: between 2000 and 2012 the girls’ performance increased by 5 score points while the boys’ decreased by the same value. The trend was slightly different in EU countries on average: between 2000 and 2012 the girls’ Unsurprisingly, studentsbyin5Italy the top quarter of the decreased Confidence Reading scale achieved a mean performance increased scoreinpoints while the boys’ byinthe same value. score (569) that was some 57 points higher than students in the bottom quarter (513). The average Unsurprisingly, in Italywas in the quarter of the Confidence in Reading achievedbetween a mean difference acrossstudents the EU-24 80 top points, indicating a relatively weaker scale relationship score (569) and thatperformance was some 57 points higher than students in the bottom quarter (513). The average Confidence in Italy. difference across the EU-24 was 80 points, indicating a relatively weaker relationship between As far as adults are concerned, Italy performed below the EU in PIAAC (250 vs 271). The spread of Confidence and performance in Italy. achievement – namely the gap between top and bottom performers - is somewhat lower in Italy than the As far as adults(114 are concerned, Italy performed below the EU inperforming PIAAC (250 vsbelow 271). level The spread of EU-17-Average vs 117 on average). The proportion of adults at or 1 in Italy achievement – namely the gap between top and bottom performers is somewhat lower in Italy than the is 28%, much higher than the EU-17 average (16.4%). Females and males performance are very similar EU-17-Average (114 vs below 117 onthe average). The proportion adults gap performing below level 1 in Italy (251 vs 250), both well EU average (271). Theofgender in favoratoforfemales was very low is 28%, higher the points EU-17inaverage Females and males with performance are very among similar (in EU onmuch average it isthan 2 score favor of(16.4%). males), which is in contrast what is observed (251 vs 250), both well and below the level: EU average (271). The genderingap in favor of females was very low 15 year-old both in Italy at EU a high gender difference reading equivalent to about one year (inschooling. EU on average is 2according score points favor oflevel males), which is inwas contrast with what is observed among of The itgap to in parents’ of education somewhat lower than in the EU 15 year-old in Italy at EU level: athe high gender difference in reading equivalent to about one year countries onboth average (39 and vs 41), reflecting same trend as in PIRLS and PISA. The same was observed of schooling. The gaptoaccording to parents’ level of education was somewhat lower than inspeakers the EU for the gap according the language spoken at home: the gap between native and not-native countries onthan average (39 vs 41), reflecting trend smaller as in PIRLS andadults PISA.than Theamong same was observed was smaller the EU-17-average (25 vsthe 28)same and much among children and for the gap according to the language spoken at home: the gap between native and not-native speakers was smaller than the EU-17-average (25 vs 28) and much smaller among adults than among children and [46] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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adolescents, showing that the gap is growing in Italy due to the increased migration decades. “Michelangelo: Ensuring Sucess and Reducing “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and In conclusion, Italy performed above the EU average in PIRLS and very close in PI Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts” Leaving through Finescores. Arts” The pa stable over time, since PIRLS inEarly 2001School and 2011 show the same 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 performance is very close to European countries on average in both PISA and in PIRLS 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 adolescents, showing that the gap is growing in Italy to the increased over than the last twoEU on av proportion of low-performers which has due decreased and ismigration now lower the decades.

adolescents, showing that the gap is growing Italy due to the and increased migration overResults the lastseem two In conclusion, Italy performed above the EU in average in PIRLS very close in PISA. adolescents, showing thatPIRLS the gapinis2001 growing Italyshow due tothethesame increased migration over the last two decades. stable over time, since and in2011 scores. The pattern by level of decades. performance is very close to European countries on average in both PISA and in PIRLS except as for the In conclusion, Italy performed above the EU average in PIRLS and very close in PISA. Results seem proportion of low - performers which has decreased and is now lower than the EU on average. The gap In conclusion, Italysince performed above the EU in PIRLS and very in than PISA. in Results seem stable over time, in 2001 and average 2011 show same scores. The pattern bythe level of on aver between low andPIRLS top-performing readers isthesmaller in close Italy EU stable over time, since PIRLS in 2001 and 2011 show the same scores. The pattern by level performance is very close to European countries on average in both PISA and in PIRLS except as for the according to socioeconomic status also tends to be smaller than in the EU onofaverage performance very close to European onand average in lower both PISA andEU in PIRLS exceptThe as for proportion of is low-performers which hascountries decreased is now than the on average. gapthe the gapofaccording to language home greater proportion low - performers which has spoken decreasedat and is nowislower than the EU on average. The gap between low and top-performing readers is smaller in Italy than in the EU on average, and the gap Early school leaving in Italy: the current situation according to socioeconomic status also tends to be smaller than in the EU on average. On the contrary, the gap according to language spoken at home is greater Looking at the most recent ELET rates in (Eurostat, seeonFigure should between low and top-performing readers is smaller Italy than 2013; in the EU average,1), andit the gap be not between low and top-performing smaller into Italy than ininthe EU onwith average, andcontrary, the gap of according torates socioeconomic status also to be smaller than in%the EU on average. On Early leaving in Italy: the current situation 28 school the vary from 3.9readers %tends inisSlovenia 23.6 Spain, an the EU average according to socioeconomic also smaller than in the EU on average. On the contrary, the gap according to languagestatus spoken at tends hometo is be greater Looking at the most ELET ratesat(Eurostat, 2013; see Figure 1), it should be noted that in the EUthe gap according to recent language spoken home is greater 12.0 %. leaving In from particular, Italy has a rate (17% in 2013) above 10% (the Europe 2020 he Early in current 28 the school rates vary 3.9Italy: % inthe Slovenia to situation 23.6 % in Spain, with an EU average of also above the in current EUcurrent average (12.0 %). Early school leaving Italy: the situation Looking at the most recent rates(17% (Eurostat, 2013; see Figure 1), Europe it should2020 be noted that target) in the EU12.0 %. In particular, Italy ELET has a rate in 2013) above 10% (the headline and Looking at the the most ELET rates see Figure should be 28 the rates vary fromrecent 3.9 in Slovenia to 23.6 %2013; in Spain, with an1), EUit average ofnoted that in the EUalso above current EU % average (12.0(Eurostat, %). 28 the rates vary from 3.9 % in Slovenia to 23.6 % in Spain, with an EU average of 12.0 %. In particular, Italy has a rate (17% in 2013) above 10% (the Europe 2020 headline target) and 12.0above %. In the particular, Italyaverage has a rate (17% also current EU (12.0 %). in 2013) above 10% (the Europe 2020 headline target) and also above the current EU average (12.0 %).

Figure 1 - Percentage of early leavers from education and training, 2009-2013, and national targets as compared with the EU headline target

Figure 1 - Percentage of early leavers from education and training, 2009-2013, and national targets a

Figure - Percentage of early leavers from education and training, 2009-2013, and national targets as compared with the EU1 headline target EU headline target Figure 1 - Percentage of early leavers from education and training, 2009-2013, and national targets as compared with the In the ranking of the twenty-eight EU countries, Italy occupies the fifth position from the bottom. The EU headline target

gap with the European average is higher for the male component (20,5% vs 14,5%), than for the female one (14,5% vs 11,0%). In the of the twenty-eight EU countries,EU Italycountries, occupies theItaly fifth position fromthe the fifth bottom. The In ranking the ranking of the twenty-eight occupies position from In ranking of the the twenty-eight countries, Italy occupies the fifth position from theforbottom. The gap with the European average is higher for the male component (20,5% vs 14,5%), the female At the the regional level situation isEU heterogeneous (Figure 2). Early school leaving isthan more accentuated gap with the European average is higher for the male component (20,5% vs 14,5%), th gapSouthern with thevs European average higherwhere for theGenoa male is, component (20,5% vs 14,5%), than for thetofemale one (14,5% 11,0%). in Italy. In Liguria, theisregion ELET rate has increased in comparison 2011 (14,5% vs 11,0%). oneone (14,5% vs 11,0%). (+2,1%). At the regional level the situation is heterogeneous (Figure 2). Early school leaving is more accentuated AtSouthern the level thelevel situation issituation heterogeneous (Figure 2). Early school leaving is more school accentuated in In Liguria, the region where Genoa is, ELET rate has increased in comparison to 2011 At regional the Italy. regional the is heterogeneous (Figure 2). Early leaving is in Southern Italy. In Liguria, the region where Genoa is, ELET rate has increased in comparison to 2011 (+2,1%). in Southern Italy. In Liguria, the region where Genoa is, ELET rate has increased in co (+2,1%). [47]

(+2,1%).

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Figure 2 - ELET rate at a regional level in Italy

Figure 2 - ELET rate at a regional level in Italy

Article 34 of the Italian Constitution states that “the education, impart compulsory and free”. Act of Parliament nr 296 of 2006 set ten years of co Figure 2 - ELET rate at a regional level in Italy scolastico”), so nowadays in Italy the compulsory schooling covers the Article 34 of the Italian Constitution states that “the education, imparted for at least eight years, is have tonr attend fiveset years at primary school, three years at junio compulsory and free”. Students Act of Parliament 296 of 2006 ten years of compulsory schooling (“obbligo high school, or, as an alternative, attending education courses and scolastico”), so nowadays in Italy the compulsory schooling covers the age group between 6 and 16.vocat accredited Regions or by a Professional Students have to attendeducational five years at institutions primary school, three yearsby at the junior high school and two years at Ins high school, or, as an alternative, attending education courses and vocational training implemented by nr 76orofby2005 defined Institute. compulsory education (“obbligo educational institutionsLegislative accredited bydecree the Regions a Professional

to education and training aimed at the completion of a qualification cours

Legislative decree nr 76 of 2005 defined compulsory education (“obbligo formativo”) as “right and duty ageaimed of eighteen”. Students to education and training at the completion of a can: qualification course of at least three years, by the age of eighteen”. Students can:

● finish high school and get their diploma;

● finish high school and get their diploma;

● attend, after the first two years of secondary school, a professiona

● attend, after the first two years of secondary school, a professional training course to obtain a qualification; qualification;

with a contract of apprenticeship or other similar type of contract. ● work with a contract●ofwork apprenticeship or other similar type of contract.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

[51]


“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

Sucess and Reducing

Reducing EarlyStudents School through Fine Arts” atLeaving riskSchool of early school leaving Early Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

junior high school

number of students number of students2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 % of students registered in September 3409 0.2 1716549

high school

31397 Students atatrisk Students riskof ofearly earlyschool schoolleaving leaving

1st class 2nd class 3rd class th juniorhigh highschool 4school class junior th 5 class junior high school highschool school high

st class 11st class high school 22ndndclass class st rd 133rd class class class 24nd 4ththclass class class rd th 355th class class class 4th class th 5 class

6732 Students at risk of early school leaving 4635 number % numberof ofstudents students %of ofstudents students 7050 number of students % of students 34098246 0.2 3409 0.2 4734 3409 0.2 31397 31397 6732 6732 31397 4635 4635 6732 7050 7050 4635 8246 8246 7050 4734 4734 8246 4734

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.4 0.9 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.8 1.0

1.2 1.2 number of ofstudents students 0.9 number registered registered in in number of students 1.4 September September registered in 1716549 1.8 1716549 September 1.0 1716549 2523719 2523719 578804 578804 2523719 510373 510373 578804 508533 508533 510373 466752 466752 508533 459357 459357 466752 459357

2523719 578804 510373 508533 466752 459357

Table 1 - Students at risk of early school leaving, 2013/14 Table 1 - Students at risk of early school leaving, 2013/14

1 - Students at risk of early school leaving, 2013/14 egislative decree nr 76Table of 2005 established also the Registry National System of Students Table 1 - Students at risk of early school leaving, 2013/14 Nazionale delle Anagrafi degli Studenti). This system requires of the school a better contr Legislative decree nr 76 76 of of 2005 2005 established also also the the Registry Registry National National System System of of Students Students (Sistema (Sistema nformation anddecree their nr constant update. Legislative established Nazionale delle delle Anagrafi degli degli Studenti). This This system system requires requires of of the the school school aa better better control control of of the the Nazionale Legislative decreeAnagrafi nr 76 of 2005Studenti). established also the Registry National System of Students (Sistema

information anddata theirconcerning constantupdate. update. able Nazionale 1information shows delle the students risk of earlyofschool leaving forcontrol the school and their constant Anagrafi degli Studenti). Thisatsystem requires the school a better of the year 20

information andthe their constant update. Table11shows shows the data concerning studentsatatrisk riskof ofearly earlyschool school leaving leaving for for the the school school year year 2011-2012. 2011-2012. Table data concerning students Table 1 shows the data concerning students at risk of early school leaving for the school year 2011-2012.

As the table above shows, ininhigh school students tend to drop out especially infourth the third and fou Asthe thetable tableabove aboveshows, shows,in highschool schoolstudents studentstend tendto todrop dropout out especially especially in in the the third third and and fourth years. As high years. he majority of students leaving school attend vocational school. The majority of students leaving school attend vocational school.

Thethe majority of students vocational school. As table above shows,leaving in high school school attend students tend to drop out especially in the third and fourth years. Figure 3 shows the age composition of Italian students at risk of of early school leaving (high school). school). (high The majority of students leaving school attend vocational school. igureFigure 3 shows thethe age Italian students atearly riskschool of early school leaving 3 shows agecomposition composition of of Italian students at risk leaving (high Figure 3 shows the age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school).

Figure 3 - Age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school), 2011/12 Figure 3 - Age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school), 2011/12

Figure 3 - Age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school), 2011/12

Figure 3 - Age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school), 2011/12

igure 3 - Age composition of Italian students at risk of early school leaving (high school), 2011/12

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Fine Arts”

2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Socio-economic d is ad van tage and edu cati on al disadvantage are cl os el y linked. In general, early leavers are much more likely to come from families with a low socio-economic status, i.e. unemployed parents, low household income, and low levels of parental education, or to belong to vulnerable social groups such as migrants. Young people born abroad are largely overrepresented among the early leavers from education and training in many European countries. The rates are particularly high in Greece, Spain and Italy (see Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Percentage of early leavers from education and training according to origin (foreign-born and native), 2013

International and national research confirms that male students are more likely to be early leavers than female students. Girls tend to outperform boys at school, and more girls than boys receive upper secondary education (OECD, 2012). International assessments of student achievement reveal that girls have a visible advantage over boys in reading. Boys on the other hand perform better in mathematics and science than girls. However, both boys and girls can equally be affected by socio-economic disadvantage, which in turn increases the risk of low attainment. Gender, therefore, constitutes only one of numerous factors accounting for the variations in educational achievement in different subject fields.

Figure 5 - Percentage of early leavers from education and training by sex, 2013

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Early school leaving in Italy: the strategies.

“Michelangelo: Ensuring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success School and

Sucess and Reducing

In April 2016 a decree of the Ministry of Education University and Research allocated Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts” Early School through Fine euros to reduce the problem of early school leaving inLeaving the peripheral areas of Arts” some large citi 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 the latest action against drop-out (the so called National plan to prevent early school leav 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 suburbs) and, although it is a significant measure, it can’t be considered as a ‘structural’ in because: Early school leaving in Italy: the strategies.

it concerns onlyofschools in the cities such as Roma, and Milano, Napoli, Palermo; In●April 2016 a decree the Ministry of Education University Research allocated 10 million Early school leaving in Italy: strategies. euros to reduce the problem of early school leaving in the peripheral areas of some large cities. This is In April a decree of the(the Ministry of Education and Research allocated 10 million the latest action2016 against drop-out so called National University plan to prevent early school leaving in the euros to reduce the problem of early school leaving in the peripheral areas of some large cities. This is suburbs) and, although it is a significant measure, it can’t be considered as a ‘structural’ intervention it funds the drop-out projects(the with una tantum of maximum the latest●action against so acalled National allocation plan to prevent early school15.000 leaving euros in the for each because: suburbs) and, although it is a significant measure, it can’t be considered as a ‘structural’ intervention to schools be funded cover restricted rangeNapoli, of thematic concerns only in cities suchaas Roma, Milano, Palermo;areas. because:●●it activities ●This it concerns only shows schools that in cities as problem Roma, Milano, Napoli, Palermo; example thesuch main related to the challenge of preventing early

in an overall perspective, to place the different measures within a global strateg ● it funds the projects with a una tantum allocation of maximum 15.000 euros forand eachconsistent school; ●The activities to projects be funded cover a restricted range thematic areas. it funds the with a una tantum allocation of maximum 15.000 euros forreport each school; situation in Italy is described in theoflatest Eurydice/Cedefop as follows:

This example that cover the main problemrange relatedoftothematic the challenge ● activities to shows be funded a restricted areas. of preventing early leaving is, “All European countries have policies and measures in place that can help to reduce earl in an overall perspective, to place the different measures within a global and consistent strategy. This example showsnot thatbe thepart mainofproblem related to the challenge early leaving is, even though they may a comprehensive strategyoforpreventing been introduced to address thi The situation in Italy is described in the latest Eurydice/Cedefop report as follows: in an overall perspective, to place the different measures within a global and consistent strategy. specifically. This is the case of Italy, as showed in the Figure 4. “All Europeanincountries have policies and measures in place that can help reduce early leaving, The situation Italy is described in the latest Eurydice/Cedefop report astofollows: even though they may not be part of a comprehensive strategy or been introduced to address this problem “All European have as policies andinmeasures in4.place that can help to reduce early leaving, specifically. This is thecountries case of Italy, showed the Figure even though they may not be part of a comprehensive strategy or been introduced to address this problem specifically. This is the case of Italy, as showed in the Figure 4.

Figure44--Strategies Strategies for for tackling tackling early early leaving leaving from Figure from education educationand andtraining, training,2013/14 2013/14

Figure 4 - Strategies for tackling early leaving from education and training, 2013/14

Figure 4 - Strategies for tackling early leaving from education and training, 2013/14

[51] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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“Michelangelo: Ensuring School “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and

Sucess and Reducin

Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

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However, in Italy some steps have recently been taken to reinforce cross-government cooperation. A Forum for Lifelong Guidance to tackle the problem of students dropping out has been established within the Italian Ministry of Education Universities and Research. Other members of this Forum are: However, in of Italy somethe steps have recently been to reinforce cross-government cooperation. the Ministry Health, Ministry of Labour, thetaken State/Region conference, the Institute for professional development of workers (ISFOL), the Italian Manufacturers' Association (Confindustria), Union of A Forum for Lifelong Guidance to tackle the problem of students dropping out has beenthe established Chambers Commerce and some experts from universities. This Forum recently within the of Italian Ministry(Unioncamere) of Education Universities and Research. Other members of thishas Forum are: been merged into a steering committee, set up within the State/Regions Conference, which has the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labour, the State/Region conference, the Institute for professional established coordination and cooperation mechanisms for lifelong guidance among the various development of workers (ISFOL), the Italian Manufacturers' Association (Confindustria), the Union of stakeholders.” Chambers of Commerce (Unioncamere) and some experts from universities. This Forum has recently been merged into a steering committee, set up within the State/Regions Conference, which has established coordination and cooperation mechanisms for lifelong guidance among the various stakeholders.”

An important consideration which rises from the report is that the intervention of the government aims to address the problem of early school leaving also with the collaboration of partners outside the education system, which play the role of stakeholders. An consideration which(2014), rises from thesummarizes report is that intervention the government aims Theimportant Eurydice and Cedefop report again, thethe main measuresof against early leaving in to address the problem of early school leaving also with the collaboration of partners outside the Italy: education system, which play the role of stakeholders. ● a series of intervention and economic measures aimed at fighting drop-out, such as integrative teaching Thecompulsory Eurydice and Cedefop (2014), the main measures against early leaving in in education in report the areas withagain, highersummarizes risk of drop-out and the extension of school timetable Italy: for groups of students; ● aimplementing series of intervention and economic measures aimed at fighting drop-out, such as artistic integrative ● extra-curricular activities in the afternoon (sportive, cultural, andteaching leisure in compulsory education in the areas with higher risk of drop-out and the extension of school timetable activities); for groups of students; ● increasing flexibility and permeability of the education system through the full integration and ● implementing extra-curricular activities in the afternoon (sportive, cultural, artistic and leisure recognition of non-formal and informal pathways within the education system; activities); ● Setting up local networks of guidance in each Regional School Office aiming at training teachers, ● increasing flexibility andguidance permeability of the education system through theoffull and promoting lifelong learning and identifying needs, with the participation the integration different actors recognition of non-formal and informal pathways within the education system; involved in guidance; ● Setting up local networks of guidance in each ● developing the students' register to identify earlyRegional leavers; School Office aiming at training teachers, promoting lifelong learning guidance and identifying needs, with the participation of the different actors ● reorganising the adult education system. Former centres and evening classes will merge into the new involved in guidance; Centres for Adult Education (CPIA) providing young people and adults with personalised learning paths ● the students' register to identify early qualifications. leavers; fordeveloping obtaining lower and upper secondary education Centres will also offer literacy courses and Italian language courses to foreign adults; ● reorganising the adult education system. Former centres and evening classes will merge into the new

Centres for Adult Education (CPIA) young people and and adults. adults with personalised learning paths ● integrating classes in institutes for providing the detention of minors for obtaining lower and upper secondary education qualifications. Centres will also offer literacy courses In samelanguage year (2014) a report of the 7th Commission of the Italian Chambers of the Deputies (Lower andthe Italian courses to foreign adults; House in Parliament) emphasized the need to open schools to the partnership and the cooperation with ● classes in institutes for the of to minors andthat adults. theintegrating surroundings, clearly stating that it isdetention impossible imagine early leaving could be tackled only by actions inside the education system. In the same year (2014) a report of the 7th Commission of the Italian Chambers of the Deputies (Lower House in Parliament) emphasized the need toamong open schools to the partnership and the cooperation with However, the same document recommended, the key-actions against drop-out, [52] ● didactic innovation through innovative training of the teachers ● creation of innovative learning environments. [55] Programme co-funded by the European Union [52] It means that, even if the partnership with other subjects is really important in the struggle against early leaving, every strategy would be vain without a previous reconsideration of the learning and teaching


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the surroundings, clearly stating that it is impossible to2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 imagine that early leaving could be tackled only by actions inside the education system. the surroundings, clearly stating that it is impossible to imagine that early leaving could be tackled only However, the same document recommended, among the key-actions against drop-out, by actions inside the education system. ● didactic innovation through innovative training of the teachers However, the same document recommended, among the key-actions against drop-out, ● creation of innovative learning environments. ● didactic innovation through innovative training of the teachers It means that, even if the partnership with other subjects is really important in the struggle against early ● creation of innovative learning environments. leaving, every strategy would be vain without a previous reconsideration of the learning and teaching It means and that,tools. even if the partnership with other subjects is really important in the struggle against early methods leaving, every strategy would be vain without a previous reconsideration of the learning and teaching An important attempt to merge the two aspects (partnership with the stakeholders and innovation inside methods and tools. the education system) is contained in the latest and most important education reform in Italy, that is Act AnParliament important attempt to merge the twoand aspects (partnership the stakeholders innovation inside of nr 107/2015. Prevention recovery of schoolwith leaving are included and among the objectives thethis education system) contained in the system. latest and most education reform educational in Italy, thattargets is Act of structural reformis of the education They areimportant also considered as priority of Parliament nr 107/2015. Prevention and recovery of school leaving are included among the objectives of this structural reform of the education system. They are also considered as priority educational targets to be achieved through the three-year educational offer plan (i.e. the strategical policy document of each educational institution). to be achieved through the three-year educational offer plan (i.e. the strategical policy document of each In the reform act of Italian education system, the paragraphs from 56 to 62 announce the National Plan educational institution). for Digital Schools (PNSD) which is not, of course, only a measure against early school leaving, but In the reform of Italian and education the paragraphs from contains manyact suggestions offers system, various useful tools about it. 56 to 62 announce the National Plan for Digital Schools (PNSD) which is not, of course, only a measure against early school leaving, but The Plan was published in October 2015, with the intention of contributing to the modernization and contains many suggestions and offers various useful tools about it. reorganization of the education system in Italy. The Plan was published in October 2015, with the intention of contributing to the modernization and More specifically, the document consists of 35 actions, including – for instance – wideband reorganization of the education system in Italy. implementation, BYOD, open resources etc. More specifically, the document consists of 35 actions, including – for instance – wideband Educational robotics appears in some contexts of the Plan: implementation, BYOD, open resources etc. • The project for creative ateliers in the first cycle of education (from 6 to 14 years of age). Educational robotics appears in some contexts of the Plan: • Introduction of elements of educational robotics in the second cycle of education. • The project for creative ateliers in the first cycle of education (from 6 to 14 years of age). • Use of educational robotics in interdisciplinary courses for skill development. The link between the • Introduction of elements of educational robotics in the second cycle of education. reform act of the education system (law nr 107/2015) and the National Plan for Digital Schools • Use of educational robotics in interdisciplinary courses for skill The link the demonstrates that an important role in the innovation of teaching anddevelopment. learning is played by between technology. reform act ofsuch theinnovation education has, system (law 107/2015) and the National forleaving. Digital ItSchools Furthermore among its nr priority objectives, to tackle earlyPlan school means demonstrates that an important role as in one the of innovation of teaching andagainst learning played by that technology could be considered the most powerful tools theisdrop-out: thistechnology. statement, Furthermore suchonly innovation has, among priority objectives, tackle early school leaving.ground. It means however, is true if the didactic use ofits technology devices is to carefully planned in advance that technology could be considered as one of the most powerful tools against the drop-out: this statement, Very suggestive is the idea of creating a sort of digital carpet capable of conjugating imagination and however, is true only if the didactic use of technology devices is carefully planned in advance ground. manual skills, where educational robotics (and electronics) could represent the inspiring subject for new Very suggestive is the idea context of creating sort of digital carpet of conjugating and learning scenarios. In this the areference to logics andcapable computational thinkingimagination could become manual electronics) could the inspiring subject for new crucial, skills, as longwhere as weeducational consider itsrobotics practical(and aspects rather than therepresent theory about it. [53]

Key indicators Programme co-funded by the European Union

[53]

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Italy 2012

ET 2020 benchmarks Early leavers from education a nd

EU average 2015

2012

2015


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learning scenarios. In this context the reference to2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 logics and computational thinking could become crucial, as long as we consider its practical aspects rather than the theory about it.

Key indicators Italy

EU average

2012

2015

2012

2015

14.7%

12.7%

11.0%

ET 2020 benchmarks Early leavers from education a nd training (age 18-24)

Total

17.3%

Tertiary educational attainmen t (age 30-34)

Total

21.9%

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) (from age 4 to starting age of compulsory education)

Proportion of 15 year-olds with underachievement in: Employment rate of recent gra duates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left educati on 1-3 years before reference year)

99.1%

96.5%

36.0% 14

93.2%

38.7% 11

94.3%

Reading

19.5%

:

17.8%

Maths

24.7%

:

22.1%

:

Science

18.7%

:

16.6%

:

ISCED 3-8 (total)

54.1%

48.5%

75.9%

76.9%

ISCED 0-8 (total)

6.6%

7.3%

9.2%

10.7%

Adult participation in lifelong learning (age 25-64)

25.3% 11

14

:

Other contextual indicators Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP Education investment

Expenditure on public and private institutions per student in € PPS*

4.1%

4.1%

14

5.0%

4.9%

ISCED 1-2

€6.326

€6.303

13

:

:

13

ISCED 3-4**

€6.608

€6.761

13

:

:

13

€7.662

€8.234

13

:

:

13

10.1%

ISCED 5-8

Early leavers from education and

Native-born

14.8%

12.7%

11.6%

training (age 18-24)

Foreign-born

38.9%

31.3%

24.9%

19.0%

Tertiary educational attainment (age 30-34)

Native-born

24.1%

28.1%

36.7%

39.4%

Foreign-born

11.4%

14.4%

33.8%

36.4%

46.0%

40.7%

69.7%

70.8%

Employment rate of recent graduates by educational attainment (age 20-34 having left education 1-3 years before reference year) Learningmobility

ISCED 3-4 ISCED 5-8

63.9%

57.5%

81.5%

14,p

81.9%

Inbound graduates mobility (bachelor)

2.9%

13

4.0%

14

5.5%

13

5.9%

14

Inbound graduates mobility (master)

5.1%

13,d

4.9%

14

13.6%

13

13.9%

14

Sources: Eurostat; OECD (PISA). Notes: data refer to weighted Sources: Eurostat; OECD (PISA).EU averages, covering different numbers of Member States depending on the source; b = b r e a k in time series, d = definition differs, p = provisional, u = low reliability, 11 = 2011, 13 Notes: data refer EU covering different numbers States depending on the = 2013, 14 to = weighted 2014, * = p u b laverages, i c institutions only except for ISCED 5-8; **of = Member ISCED 3 only.

source; b = break in time series, d = definition differs, p = provisional, u = low reliability, 11 = 2011, 13 = 2013, 14 = 2014, * = public institutions only except for ISCED 5-8; ** = ISCED 3 only.

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Figure 1. Position in relation 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 to strongest (outer ring) and weak performers (centre)

Source: DG Education and Culture calculations, based on data from Eurostat (LFS 2015) and OECD (P

Source: DG EducationNote: and Culture calculations, based onadata from Eurostat (LFS 2015) and OECDrepresented (PISA 2012).by the all scores are set between maximum (the strongest performers, Note: all scores are setouter between a maximum (the strongest representedrepresented by the outer by ring) a minimum ring) and a minimum (the performers, weakest performers, theand centre of the figure). (the weakest performers, represented by the centre of the figure). Figure 1. Position in relation to strongest (outer ring) and weakest performers (centre) Highlights

 The 2015 school reform and the national system for the evaluation of schoo Highlights

implemented and could improve school outcomes.

 The 2015 school reform and the national system for the evaluation of schools are being implemented and could improve school outcomes. Although still the the EUearly average, the early leaving rate is steadil  Although still above theabove EU average, school leaving rate is school steadily declining. Participation early childhood education for four- to six-year-olds. Participation in early in childhood education is high for four-is to high six-year-olds.  More attention is being paid to the quality of higher education and the framework for allocating funding to universities has significantly in recent  public More attention is being paid toimproved the quality ofyears. higher education and the fra  Italyallocating has the lowest tertiary educational attainment rate in the EU for 30- to 34-yearolds. The public funding to universities has significantly improved in recent year higher education system is underfunded and faces the problem of ageing and declining teaching staff. Italy from has education the lowest tertiary educational attainment rate This in isthe EU for 30 Transition to work is difficult, even for highly qualified people. causing olds. The higher education system is underfunded and faces the problem of a ‘brain drain’.

declining teaching staff.

Investing in educationfrom to address demographic skill challenges.  Transition education to work and is difficult, even for highly qualified peo

causingexpenditure a ‘brain drain’. General government on education, both as a proportion of GDP (4.1 %) and as a proportion of total general government expenditure (7.9 %), was among the lowest in the EU in 2014. On a positive note, the 2015 Stability Law created a specific fund to finance the school reform. In 2015 EUR 1 billion was invested in it and from 2016 EUR 3 billion a year will be invested. The employment rate of 25- to 64-year-olds in 2015 was somewhat below the EU average for low-qualified and medium-qualified General government education, both as a proportion ofit GDP workers: 50.2 % compared to expenditure 53.2 % and 70.1on % compared to 73.9 % respectively. At 78.5%, was (4.1 % proportion general government the lowest in the of EUtotal for highly qualified workers. expenditure (7.9 %), was among the lowest in

Investing in education to address demographic and skill challe

2014. On a positive note, the 2015 Stability Law created a specific fund to finance reform. In 2015 EUR 1 billion was invested in it and from 2016 EUR 3 billion be invested. The employment rate[58] of 25[55] to 64-year-olds in 2015 was somewha EU average for low-qualified and medium-qualified workers: 50.2 % compared

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The number of Italian citizens with a tertiary education degree leaving the country has been rapidly increasing since 2010. This has not been compensated by inflows of equally well qualified Italians returning to the country (ISTAT, various years). Official statistics also underestimate emigration flows. This is because not all citizens leaving Italy register with the Italian consular authorities in the destination country. The increasing emigration reflects better job opportunities and conditions abroad. Survey data show that compared with their peers working in Italy, young Italian graduates working abroad earn higher and more rapidly increasing salaries, work more frequently under open-ended contracts and consider their formal qualification more appropriate for their job (Consorzio Interuniversitario AlmaLaurea 2016). Italians with a doctoral degree working abroad report having both better job opportunities and significantly higher earnings (ISTAT 2015). This may explain why highly qualified Italian workers have very little inclination to return to their home country (Biondo et al. 2012). The emigration of highly qualified Italian workers therefore does not qualify as ‘brain circulation’ (i.e. when people temporarily go abroad to study or work, but then go back to their home country). The emigration of highly qualified young Italians cannot be considered a ‘brain exchange’ either. Many Italian workers leave the country, but few highly qualified individuals from other countries choose Italy as a destination. The proportion of foreign citizens living in Italy aged 25 to 64 with a tertiary education degree is much lower than that of Italian citizens (11.5 % compared to 17.5 % in 2014). In the EU as a whole the proportions of highly qualified EU citizens and non - EU citizens are similar (29.4 % and 28.1 % respectively). The resulting ‘brain drain’ can thus cause a permanent net loss of highly qualified human capital, which would harm Italy’s competitiveness (European Commission 2016a).

Tackling inequalities and promoting inclusion The early school leaving rate has been on a downward trend since 2008 and Italy has reached the Europe 2020 national target of 16 %. However, the rate remains above the EU average, at 14.7 % in 2015 compared to 11 %. The gap is particularly high among foreign-born students, with a rate of 31.3 % compared to the EU average of 19 %. There is also a significant gender gap, with the rate for boys at 17.5 %, compared to 11.8 % for girls, and a widening of the north-south divide over the last five years (Figure 2). The participation of four- to six-year-olds in early childhood education is above the EU average, at 96.5 % compared to 94.3 % in 2014. This can help prevent early school leaving in the long term. There are also marked regional differences in basic skills proficiency, as measured by the 2012 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the annual standardised student tests by the National Agency for School Evaluation (INVALSI 2016). Integrating students with an immigrant background is a relatively recent issue in Italy, but it is gaining importance. The proportion of foreign pupils3 in state schools reached 9.5 % in 2015/2016, ranging from 6.3 % in upper secondary education to 11.4 % in early childhood education (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca 2015).

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Figure 2. Early school leaving rate by NUTS 1 regions (2015) Figure 2. Early school25 leaving rate by NUTS 1 regions (2015) 25 20

20 15 2010

15

2010

2015

10

10

2015

5

5 0

Nord-Ovest

0 Nord-Ovest

Nord-Est

Nord-Est

Centro

Centro

Sud

Sud

Isole

Isole

Source: Eurostat. Online data code: edat_lfse16.

Source: Eurostat. Online data code: edat_lfse16. Source: Eurostat. Online data code: edat_lfse16.

Figure 2. Early school leaving rate by NUTS 1 regions (2015)

According to the 2015 school reform, one of the possible activities of the additional teachers hired in 2015/2016 to is improving migrantreform, students’ in Italian. The Ministry has also provided According the 2015 school oneproficiency of the possible activities of the additional teachersschools hired in with proposals and guidelines on how to deal with the 10 most common critical issues they face as regards 2015/2016 is improving migrant students’ proficiency in Italian. The Ministry has also provided schools the inclusion migrant students. Teachers teaching Italian to migrant areasbeing with proposalsofand guidelines on how to dealspecialised with the 10inmost common critical issuesstudents they face regards recruited for the first timestudents. in the 2016 open competition forteaching permanent posts.toThis is expected be the the inclusion of migrant Teachers specialised in Italian migrant studentstoare being practice in open well. The 2015for school reformposts. also This emphasises citizenship recruited forfuture the first timecompetitions in the 2016 as open competition permanent is expected to be the educationinand the role of education in helping students develop socialreform and civic competences practice future open competitions as well. The 2015 school also emphasises(European citizenship Commission 2016). All these measures show that awareness is growing of the need for a comprehensive education and the role of education in helping students develop social and civic competences (European approach to the inclusion of migrant students citizenshipiseducation. Commission 2016). All these measures showand thattoawareness growing of the need for a comprehensive

approach to the inclusion of migrant students and to citizenship education. Modernising school education

Modernising school education Italian teachers have limited career prospects. This is because the teacher career system offers only a

single career pathway with fixed salary increases based solely ontheseniority. statutory Italian teachers have limited career prospects. This is because teacher Teachers’ career system offerssalary only a levels are lower than the OECD average at every career stage. The senioritybased career system means single career pathway with fixed salary increases based solely on seniority. Teachers’ statutory salary that the salary can only be reached aftercareer 35 years of The service, while based the OECD 25 levels aremaximum lower than the OECD average at every stage. senioritycareeraverage systemismeans years. Teachers’ salaries are also lower than the earnings of other workers with tertiary education (OECD that the maximum salary can only be reached after 35 years of service, while the OECD average is 25 2016).Teachers’ Limited career prospects, with salaries compared to thoseeducation of other highly years. salaries are also coupled lower than therelatively earningslow of other workers with tertiary (OECD qualified professions, make it difficult to attract the best-qualified graduates (European Commission 2016). Limited career prospects, coupled with relatively low salaries compared to those of other highly qualified professions, make it difficult to attract the best-qualified graduates (European Commission [57] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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2012). Recent surveys show that both the general public (Dolton and Marcenaro-Gutierrez 2013) and teachers themselves (OECD 2014) have a low opinion of the status of the teaching profession. 2012). Recent surveys show that the public (Dolton Marcenaro-Gutierrez 2013) 2012). Recent surveys show school that both both the general general public(Parlamento (Dolton and and Marcenaro-Gutierrez 2013) and and Parliament approved a major reform in July 2015 Italiano 2015), the implementation teachers themselves (OECD 2014) have a low opinion of the status of the teaching profession. 2012). Recent surveys show that both the general public (Dolton and Marcenaro-Gutierrez teachers a low opinion the statusconcern: of the teaching profession.2013) and of whichthemselves is ongoing.(OECD Its main2014) pointshave about teachers andofprincipals teachers themselves (OECD 2014) have a low opinion of(Parlamento the status ofItaliano the teaching profession. Parliament approved major reform in 2015 the implementation Parliament approved aaschool major school school reform in July July 2015 (Parlamento Italiano 2015), 2015), implementation (i) School autonomy: heads now have greater autonomy in managing human,the technological and of which is ongoing. Its main points about teachers and principals concern: Parliament approved a major school reform in July 2015 (Parlamento Italiano 2015), the implementation of which is ongoing. Its main points about teachers and principals concern: financial resources and will be subject to external evaluation every year from 2016/2017 (Ministero of which is ongoing. Its main points about teachers andautonomy principalsinconcern: dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca 2016c). International evidence shows autonomy only (i) School school now have human, technological and (i) School autonomy: autonomy: school heads heads now have greater greater autonomy in managing managing human,that technological and works if coupled with accountability (Hanushek and Woessmann 2011) and that better school financial resources and will be subject to external evaluation every year from 2016/2017 (Ministero (i) School autonomy: school heads now have greater autonomy in managing human, technological and financial resources and will be subject to external evaluation every year from 2016/2017 (Ministero management is closely associated with better educational outcomes (Bloom et al. 2015). The success of dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca 2016c). International evidence shows that autonomy only financial resources and will be subject to external evaluation every year from 2016/2017 (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca 2016c). International evidence shows that autonomy only this measure will therefore depend on the proper implementation of the system of evaluation of works if coupled with accountability (Hanushek and Woessmann 2011) and that better school dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca 2016c).and International evidence only works if coupled with accountability (Hanushek Woessmann 2011)shows and that that autonomy better school heads. if coupled management is with educational (Bloom et 2015). success of works withassociated accountability (Hanushek and outcomes Woessmann 2011) and that The better school management is closely closely associated with better better educational outcomes (Bloom et al. al. 2015). The success of this measure will therefore depend on the proper implementation of the system of evaluation of school management closely associated better educational outcomesof(Bloom et al.of2015). The success of this measure is will therefore dependwith on the proper implementation the system evaluation of school heads. this measure will therefore depend on the proper implementation of the system of evaluation of school heads. (ii) Introduction of merit-based components for teachers’ salaries and compulsory continuous heads. professional development for all teachers: from 2016, each year the best-performing teachers in each school will receiveof bonus components (for a total offor EUR 200 million a year). as this continuous is, because (ii) Introduction merit-based teachers’ salaries and compulsory (ii) Introduction ofa one-off merit-based components for teachers’ salaries andPositive compulsory continuous based on the principle of assessing teachers’ work and rewarding good performance, it might have only professional development for all teachers: from 2016, each year the best-performing teachers in (ii) Introduction of merit-based components for teachers’ and compulsory continuous professional development for all teachers: from 2016, each yearsalaries the best-performing teachers in each each aschool limited impact on increasing teachers’ motivation and the financial attractiveness of the profession, school will receive a one-off bonus (for a total of EUR 200 million a year). Positive as this is, because professional development forbonus all teachers: fromof2016, year thea best-performing in each will receive a one-off (for a total EUR each 200 million year). Positive asteachers this is, because since the reform does not change theteachers’ career system. based the principle of work and good performance, only school will a one-off bonus (for a total of EUR 200 million a year). Positive it this is,have because based on on thereceive principle of assessing assessing teachers’ work and rewarding rewarding good performance, itasmight might have only aa limited impact on increasing teachers’ motivation and the financial attractiveness of the profession, based on the principle of assessing teachers’ work and rewarding good performance, it might have only limited impact on increasing teachers’ motivation and the financial attractiveness of the profession, the reform does not change the career system. asince limited impact on increasing teachers’ motivation and the financial attractiveness of the profession, since the reform does not change the career system. (iii) Recruitment of teachers: approximately 90 000 teachers, who had been employed on short- term since the reform does not change the career system. contracts, were recruited on a permanent basis in 2015/2016. While around 45 % of these filled existing (iii) (iii) Recruitment Recruitment of of teachers: teachers: approximately approximately 90 90 000 000 teachers, teachers, who who had had been been employed employed on on shortshort- term term contracts, were recruited on a permanent basis in 2015/2016. While around 45 % of these filled existing (iii) Recruitment of teachers: approximately 90 000 teachers, who had been employed on shortterm contracts, were recruited on a permanent basis in 2015/2016. While around 45 % of these filled existing positions, were the others entered posts. The role the latter isWhile to strengthen the%educational programme contracts, recruited on anew permanent basis inof 2015/2016. around 45 of these filled existing each school offers according to its three-year school development plan. The recruitment plan is intended to fix the the long-standing problem of ‘waiting lists’ (graduatorie esaurimento) of qualified teachers. positions, others new The of latter strengthen the programme positions, the others entered entered new posts. posts. The role role of the the latter is is to to ad strengthen the educational educational programme Overall it is a positive measure, provided the government honours its commitment to only allow access each school offers according to its three-year school development plan. The recruitment plan is positions, the others entered new posts. The role of the latter is to strengthen the educational programme each school offers according to its three-year school development plan. The recruitment plan is intended intended the profession through open competitions from 2016 onwards. During the initial implementation phase, to fix the long-standing problem of ‘waiting lists’ (graduatorie ad esaurimento) of qualified teachers. each offers according to its of three-year developmentad plan. The recruitment plan is teachers. intended to fixschool the long-standing problem ‘waitingschool lists’ (graduatorie esaurimento) of qualified the competences of these additional teachers have not always fitted individual schools’ needs. However Overall it is a positive measure, provided the government honours its commitment to only allow access to fix the long-standing problemprovided of ‘waiting lists’ (graduatorie aditsesaurimento) teachers. Overall it is a positive measure, the government honours commitmentoftoqualified only allow access they enhanced educational and organisational flexibility initsline with realimplementation school autonomy. For to the profession through open from 2016 During the initial phase, Overall it isfor a positive measure, provided the government honours commitment to only allow access to theallow profession through open competitions competitions from 2016 onwards. onwards. During the initial implementation phase, example, the increased number of teachers in schools could facilitate the organisation of further school the competences of these additional teachers have not always fitted individual schools’ needs. However to profession through competitions onwards. During the initial implementation phase, thethe competences of theseopen additional teachersfrom have2016 not always fitted individual schools’ needs. However activities toteachers students and families beyond the statutory timetable. For the future, they allow for enhanced educational and organisational flexibility in line with school autonomy. For the competences of theseaddressed additional have not always fitted individual schools’ However they allowand forinitiatives enhanced educational and organisational flexibility in line with real real schoolneeds. autonomy. For new recruitment and in-service development plans will be provided. A new open competition to recruit example, the increased number of teachers in schools could facilitate the organisation of further school they allowthe forincreased enhancednumber educational and organisational flexibility in line real school For example, of teachers in schools could facilitate thewith organisation of autonomy. further school around 64and 000increased teachers number on a permanent basis isschools taking place during 2016. Thisthe can help activities initiatives addressed students families beyond the statutory timetable. future, example, the of to teachers inand could facilitate the organisation of For further school activities and initiatives addressed to students and families beyond thespring-summer statutory timetable. For the future, to better match the of and demand forplans teachers. also an step in implementing the new recruitment and in-service development will be provided. A new competition to recruit activities and initiatives addressed to students and families beyond theimportant timetable. For the new recruitment andsupply in-service development plans will It beis provided. Astatutory new open open competition to future, recruit school reform, which provides for open competitions every three years. around 64 000 teachers on a permanent basis is taking place during spring-summer 2016. This can help new recruitment and in-service development plans will be provided. A new open competition to recruit around 64 000 teachers on a permanent basis is taking place during spring-summer 2016. This can help to the and for It an important implementing the around 000 teachers on of a permanent basis taking place during 2016. This can help to better better64match match the supply supply of and demand demand for isteachers. teachers. It is is also also an spring-summer important step step in in implementing the school reform, which provides for open competitions every three years. to better match the supply of and demand for teachers. It is also an important step in implementing the school reform, which provides for open competitions every three years. school reform, which provides for open competitions every three years.

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The school reform makes provision for further legislative decrees, empowering the government to legislate on a number of issues, including initial teacher education and the creation of a single integrated system of early childhood education and care for children aged 0-6. The legislative decrees should be issued by January 2017. The implementation of the national system for the evaluation of schools will support the reform by increasing school accountability. In spring 2015, each school received a wide set of data on its resources, processes and outcomes. It was then asked to produce a self-assessment report identifying strengths and weaknesses, based on a standardised template. Each school also had to identify areas for improvement and targets to meet over the following years. The reports were published in November 2015. Evaluation by external teams, coordinated by an inspector, started in spring 2016. In the 2015/2016 school year the external teams' aim was to visit up to 5% of all schools (INVALSI 2015). This percentage should increase to 10 % from the 2016/2017 school year. The key to the success of this system is ensuring that all relevant actors and stakeholders are involved. In October 2015, the Ministry of Education, University and Research launched an ambitious National Digital School plan, also part of the school reform (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca 2015). The plan is endowed with EUR 1.1 billion from existing sources, including the European Structural and Investment Funds. EUR 650 million are being spent on digital infrastructure, broadband and wi-fi connection. The rest will be spent on encouraging the acquisition of digital competences, teacher training for innovative practices and other accompanying measures. The plan also aims to give all students and professors a digital identity. This should simplify and dematerialise the relationship with the Ministry of Education. The implementation of 60 % of its 35 measures was underway within the first six months from the launch and the remaining ones should be in place by December 2016 (Ministero dell’Economia e delle Finanze 2016, p. 81).

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THE PORTUGUESE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

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PORTUGAL

PORTUGAL 1-Introdution 1-Introduction

The problem of Early School dropout in Portugal is one of the broadest, more complex and current issues in our educational system. It remains of our biggest challenges. The problem of Early School dropout one in Portugal is one of the broadest, more complex and current issues in our educational system. It remains one of our biggest challenges. First of all, early school dropout is closely related to school failure and low levels of qualifications of the Portuguese population, which has individual consequences viz. (employability, income, self- esteem, First of all, early school dropout is closely related to school failure and low levels of qualifications of the health, poverty, etc.), butwhich also athas other social, economic and innovative levels, that income, are directly to Portuguese population, individual consequences viz. (employability, self-related esteem, knowledge and the skilled training work. health, poverty, etc.), but also at other social, economic and innovative levels, that are directly related to knowledge and the skilled training work. So, early school dropout and according to today's market characteristics, is one of the main risk factors for early lack of employment, social cohesion and social mobility. It also plays rolerisk in factors crime, So, school dropout and according to today's market characteristics, is oneaofcrucial the main citizenship, tolerance and economic development. The mobility. level of education is intimately to the for lack of employment, social cohesion and social It also plays a crucialconnected role in crime, ability to learn, adapt to change and creativity - keyThe factors competitive advantage, economic citizenship, tolerance and economic development. leveltoofachieve education is intimately connected to the growth and development. ability to learn, adapt to change and creativity - key factors to achieve competitive advantage, economic growth and development. Portugal has been the target of recommendations from several international organizations that have repeatedlyhas focused areasofofrecommendations human capital investment, earlyinternational school leaving and lifelongthat learning, Portugal been on thethe target from several organizations have being widely documented their consequences. repeatedly focused on the areas of human capital investment, early school leaving and lifelong learning, being widely documented their consequences. In this context, and especially in the last decade, the fight against Early School Dropout became a priority of the national policies in forthe thelast educational system, and gradually schools were incorporating new In this context, public and especially decade, the fight against Early School Dropout became a priority strategies in their practices. practices have beenand implemented and showed a reduction innew the of the national public policiesAsforthese the educational system, gradually schools were incorporating Early Dropout rate.practices. Recent achievements are encouraging, there are still challenges ahead. As these practices have been but implemented andmany showed a reduction in the strategies in their Early Dropout rate. Recent achievements are encouraging, but there are still many challenges ahead. So, for a better understanding of the whole content of this report, it is important to understand, in a very how the Portuguese educational So, for aconcise better way, understanding of the whole contentsystem of thisis structured. report, it is important to understand, in a very concise way, how the Portuguese educational system is structured. 2- Summary description of the structure of the Portuguese educational system 2- Summary description of the structure of the Portuguese educational system The Basic Law of the Educational System establishes the general framework of the educational system. The Basic Law of the Educational System establishes the general framework of the educational system. School education is divided in three levels: basic, secondary and higher education. School education is divided in three levels: basic, secondary and higher education. Preschool education is optional and for children between the ages of three up to the beginning of the Preschool education is optional and for children between the ages of three up to the beginning of the primary education. primary education. Basic education is universal, compulsory, free and comprises three sequential cycles, the first of four Basic education compulsory, freeyears. and comprises three sequential cycles, the first of four years, the secondisofuniversal, two and the third of three years, the second of two and the third of three years. Secondary education is compulsory and comprises a three-year cycle (10th, 11th and 12th years).

Basic education

[61] [61]

Compulsory basic education; has a duration of nine years, from 6 to 15 years of age, and is organized in [64] three sequential cycles in order to provide the students with a basic training that allows to develop knowledge and skills, that will allow them to enter the active life or pursue education.

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Secondary education is compulsory 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 and comprises a three-year cycle (10th, 11th and 12th years).

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Secondary education is compulsory and comprises a three-year cycle (10th, 11th and 12th years). Basic education Basic education Compulsory basic education; has a duration of nine years, from 6 to 15 years of age, and is organized in three sequential in order provide of thenine students training that and allows to develop Compulsory basiccycles education; has to a duration years, with from a6 basic to 15 years of age, is organized in knowledge and skills, that will allow them to enter the active life or pursue education. three sequential cycles in order to provide the students with a basic training that allows to develop knowledge andofskills, will allow them to enter the common active lifenational or pursue education.to all students, that The 3rd cycle basicthat education is organized around curriculum can contextsaround of eachcommon community The be 3rdcomplemented cycle of basicaccording educationtoisthe organized national curriculum to all students, that can be complemented according to the of are each community Students who successfully complete thecontexts 3rd cycle awarded the diploma of basic education. Students who successfully complete the 3rd cycle are awarded the diploma of basic education. High school High schooleducation courses are meant to all those who have successfully complete basic Secondary education. Secondary education courses are meant to all those who have successfully complete basic education. education courses last for three years. Secondary Secondary education courses last for three years. is organized according to different forms, taking in consideration the existence of courses predominantly oriented to the active (Professional courses) or to pursue studies (General Secondary education is organized according tolife different forms, taking in consideration the existence of Courses), all with specific technical and technological components and the study of the Portuguese courses predominantly oriented to the active life (Professional courses) or to pursue studies (General language to the nature of theand different courses. components and the study of the Portuguese Courses), adequated all with specific technical technological language adequated to the nature of the different courses.

The permeability between courses, predominantly oriented to the active life and courses oriented further studies, is guaranteed. The permeability between courses, predominantly oriented to the active life and courses oriented further

studies,finishing is guaranteed. When the secondary education students are awarded with a diploma, which certifies the training acquired and, in the case of courses predominantly oriented to the active life, the qualification obtained When finishing the secondary education students are awarded with a diploma, which certifies the training for the purpose of carrying out certain professional activities. acquired and, in the case of courses predominantly oriented to the active life, the qualification obtained for the purpose of carrying out certain professional activities. Higher education Higher education Portuguese higher education comprises university education and polytechnic education. Higher education is taught in public, private or cooperative educational institutions. Portuguese higher education comprises university education and polytechnic education. Higher education is taughtand in public, privateeducational or cooperative educational institutions. Private cooperative establishments, obtain prior recognition from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education. Private and cooperative educational establishments, obtain prior recognition from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education. [62] [62]

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The access to higher education, is granted to all those who meet the requirements defined in the

The access to higher education, is granted to all those who meet the requirements defined in the admittance exams. admittance exams.

The access to higher education, is granted to all those who meet the requirements defined in the admittance exams.

Figure 1- Graphical representationFigure of the Portuguese educational system educational system 1- Graphical representation of the Portuguese Figure 1- Graphical representation of the Portuguese educational system

Figure 1- Graphical representation of the Portuguese educational system

3-The reality of Early School Leaving in Portugal 3.1-Early Schoolofof leaving what doesLeaving it mean for us? 3-The reality Early School Leaving in Portugal 3-The reality Early School in Portugal 3.1-Early what does it mean for us? 3.1-EarlySchool Schoolleaving leaving what does it mean for us?

In a recent past, dropping out of school was not an issue. But it gained a new dimension as times evolved and qualifications became, more than ever, important for the global competitiveness of the country, the In aa recent past, of school was was not an But it But gained ainternational new dimension as times social problem ofdropping schoolout dropout became a serious in the and evolved national In recent past,dropping out of school notissue. anproblem issue. it gained a new agenda dimension as times evolved and qualifications became, more thancentral ever, important for the global competitiveness of the country, the educational policies, are considered aspects of the goals to make the European Union (EU) the and qualifications became, more than ever, important for the global competitiveness of the country, the social problem of and school dropout became a serious problem inperspective the international agenda andespecially national most competitive knowledgeable economy in the world a that has emerged, social problem of school dropout became a serious problem in the international agenda and national educational policies, are considered centralapproaches aspects of–the goals tothat make the European Unionwith (EU)a the more recently, associated neoliberal defending is synonym fair(EU) the educational policies, arewith considered centralinaspects of -the goals education to make the European Union most competitive and knowledgeable economy the world a perspective that has emerged, especially society and a key promoter of equal opportunities, a more frequent argument of international instances most recently, competitive and knowledgeable economy in the world - a perspective that has emerged, especially more associated with neoliberal directly connected to educational matters.approaches – defending that education is synonym with a fair more recently, with neoliberal approaches defending that education is synonym society and a keyassociated promoter of equal opportunities, a more – frequent argument of international instanceswith a fair School dropout is seen as a complex phenomenon of multiple causes, combining factors an individualinstances society and a key of matters. equal opportunities, a more frequent argument ofofinternational directly connected topromoter educational nature, family and social origin and others related to the surrounding environment, the educational system directly connected to educational matters. School dropout is seen as a complex phenomenon of multiple causes, combining factors of an individual and the work market. However, the investigations done on this subject and its processes have highlighted nature, family andissocial origin and othersphenomenon related to the surrounding environment, the educational system School dropout seen complex of multiple combining factors of an the strong relationship of as thisa with the retention and failure, referringcauses, to a concept of school dropout as individual a and the work market. However, the investigations done on this subject and its processes have highlighted nature, and in social origin having and others related to the surrounding environment, the educational system process family that begins the school, played an active role in this problem. the strong relationship of this with the retention and failure, referring to a concept of school dropout as a and the work market. However, the investigations done on this subject and its processes have highlighted process thatthe begins in the school, having played an active thiscomplex problem.– its indicator, the national However, concept of dropout gradually became more role and in more the strong relationship of this with the retention and failure, referring to a concept of school dropout as a school dropout rate - also pointed to the situation of the non school frequency in the required age, referring However, the begins conceptin ofthe dropout gradually and more – its indicator, the national process that school, havingbecame playedmore an active rolecomplex in this problem. to a dichotomous perspective of this phenomenon, dividing those who are in school from those who are school dropout rate - also pointed to the situation of the non school frequency in the required age, referring not. However, the concept of dropout gradually became more and more complex – its those indicator, the national to a dichotomous perspective of this phenomenon, dividing those who are in school from who are school dropout rate also pointed to the situation of the non school frequency in the required age, not. Following our European integration process, several steps were taken to adapt the monitoring referring to a dichotomous of this phenomenon. phenomenon,The dividing those who are in school fromschool those who are instruments, to thisperspective multidimensional dropout indicator – known as early Following our European integration process, several steps were taken to adapt the monitoring not. instruments, to this multidimensional phenomenon. The dropout indicator – known as early school

Following our European integration process, several steps were taken to adapt the monitoring instruments, to this multidimensional phenomenon.[63] The dropout indicator – known as early school Programme co-funded by the European Union

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leaving – emerges, for the first time, in 1999 as the result of the European cooperation in the Employment Committee, and has been included in the horizontal objectives of the European Strategy for the leaving – emerges, for the first in 1999 the of result the European cooperation in the Employment employment. Considered as a time, priority key as area the ofLisbon Strategy, these orientations had been Committee, inand has been the horizontal of thetoEuropean Strategy for for full the materialized Portugal in theincluded NationalinEmployment Planobjectives of 2001, aiming "create conditions employment.inConsidered as asociety" priorityaskey area associated of the Lisbon orientations had been employment a knowledge a goal with Strategy, the pillar these "Improving employability" materialized in Portugal the National 2001, aiming toof "create conditions for full defining the intention, at in European level,Employment to achieve byPlan 2010of(less than 10%), youngsters between the employment in 24, a knowledge society" asthe a goal associated witheducation the pillarand "Improving ages of 18 and who only completed 3rd cycle of basic that don’temployability" participate in defining the European achieve by 2010 (less than 10%), of youngsters between the education or intention, formationatactions. Thelevel, fighttoagainst early school dropout as a European priority emerges ages its of relevant 18 and 24, only completed the 3rd and cycle of basic education that don’t participate in from rolewho promoting the employment competitiveness of theand European economy. education or formation actions. The fight against early school dropout as a European priority emerges from its relevant role promoting the employment and competitiveness of the European economy. However, despite the Member States efforts, in 2009 the early school leaving rate in the European Union was still 14.4%, and in Portugal it exceeded 30%. In 2009, close to six million young Europeans dropped However, despite theofMember 2009 the earlyhaving schoolcompleted leaving ratebasic in theeducation, Europeanrate Union out of school early, whom States aroundefforts, 17.4%indid it without in was still 14.4%, and in Portugal it exceeded 30%. In 2009, close to six million young Europeans dropped which Portugal reached 40% (European Commission, 2011). out of school early, of whom around 17.4% did it without having completed basic education, rate in Thus, declining by 3,3% and far from the 17,7% in 2000, the improvements achieved for whichalthough Portugal still reached 40% (European Commission, 2011). early school dropout until 2009, already predicted that it would be impossible to reach the target of 10% Thus, although still declining by 3,3% and far from of theits17,7% in 2000, the improvements for established for 2010. Recognizing the insufficiency previous initiatives, in the sphereachieved of “Europe early school dropout until 2009, already predicted that would be impossible to reach the targetthrough of 10% 2020” strategy, the European Commission reiterated itsitinvolvement in education and formation established forthe 2010. Recognizing insufficiency of 31, its previous initiatives, in an theAction spherePlan of “Europe the "Youth on Move", initiative the dated from January 2011, which approved for the 2020” strategy, the European Commission reiterated its involvement in education and formation through achievement of the (re)established goal of the “Europe 2020” strategy of reducing the current EU early the "Youth on the initiative dated from 31,of2011, which approved an Action Plan for the school dropout rateMove", from 14.4%, to below 10% January by the end the decade. achievement of the (re)established goal of the “Europe 2020” strategy of reducing the current EU early school dropout rate from 14.4%, to below 10% by the end of the decade. 3.2- The fight against early school leaving in Portugal: a positive path Firstly, talk about issueleaving of school dropout, itaispositive necessary to accurately operationalize the 3.2- Thewhen fightwe against earlythe school in Portugal: path concept and realize what we are talking about. Thus all references to the issues of dropout refer to students Firstly, when we talk about issue have of school dropout, is necessary to completing accurately operationalize the between the ages of 18 and the 24 who dropped out ofit school without upper secondary concept and realize what we are talking about. Thus all references to the issues of dropout refer to students education. between the ages of 18 and 24 who have dropped out of school without completing upper secondary Thus, from the definition of the concept of school dropout, we can firstly mention that Portugal has made education. a very positive way to reduce the number of school dropouts in recent decades, especially in the last Thus, from definitiontoofemphasize the conceptthe of school dropout, can firstly mention that Portugal hasinmade decade. It istheimportant extremely weakwe socioeconomic and cultural context the a very positive way to reduce the number of school dropouts in recent decades, especially in the into last country during the 40 years of the dictatorship, broken only in 1974, which plunged the country decade. It isand important to emphasize the extremely weak socioeconomic educational cultural index of great compared to other European countries.and cultural context in the country during the 40 years of the dictatorship, broken only in 1974, which plunged the country into Thus, the following graphic shows, sincecompared 1992, thetoevolution of the dropout rate in Portugal until the year educational and cultural index of great other European countries. 2016. It can be seen that in 1992, that is, about 25 years ago, Portugal had a dropout rate with very Thus, the following graphic shows, since 1992, theleft evolution of theschool dropout rate in having Portugalcompleted until the year significant values, where about 50% of students compulsory without the 2016. It can be seen that in 1992, that is, about 25 years ago, Portugal had a dropout rate with very significant values, where about 50% of students left compulsory school without having completed the [64] Programmeco-funded co-fundedby bythe theEuropean EuropeanUnion Union Programme

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corresponding education cycle. In this way, for the past 25 years, Portugal, as already mentioned, made corresponding education cycle. In this for dropout the past rate, 25 years, as already mentioned, made a very positive trajectory, setting theway, school in thePortugal, year 2016, in the total of 14%. This adownward very positive trajectory, setting the school dropout rate, in the year 2016, in the total of 14%. This trajectory regarding dropout rates is even more significant if we take into account the last corresponding education cycle. In thisthe way, for therate past 25 significant years, Portugal, as already mentioned, made downward trajectory regarding rates is even more if we take account last years. It should be noted that indropout 2010 dropout stood at more than 30%, andinto in less than the a decade years. It positive should betrajectory, noted thatsetting in 2010the theschool dropout rate stood than 30%, in less a decade athis very dropout rate,atinmore the year 2016, and in the totalthan of 14%. This rate was halved this rate was trajectory halved regarding dropout rates is even more significant if we take into account the last downward years. It should be noted that in 2010 the dropout rate stood at more than 30%, and in less than a decade this rate was halved Early School Leaving in Portugal Early School Leaving in Portugal Early School Leaving in Portugal

60 60 55 55 50 60 50 45 55 45 40 50 40 35 45 35 30 40 30 25 35 25 20 30 20 15 25 15 10 20 10 5 5 15 0 0 10

2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 5 1992 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 1992 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 0 2000 1992

2002 2001

2004 2003

2006 2005

2007

2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2009 2011 2013 2015

Figure 2Portugal - Early school leaving in Portugal (1992-2016), PORDATA Figure2 2- -Early Earlyschool schoolleaving leaving (1992-2016), PORDATA Figure ininPortugal (1992-2016), PORDATA Figure 2 - Early school leaving in Portugal (1992-2016), PORDATA Thispositive positivepath pathresults resultsfrom froma aset setofofeducational educationalpolicies policiesimplemented implementedand anda acommitment commitmenttotoEuropean European This goals.Among Amongthe themain mainmeasures measuresthat thathelp helptotoexplain explainthe thesuccess successofofpolicies policiestotoreduce reduceschool schooldropout dropout goals. canbebementioned: mentioned:the theincrease increaseinincompulsory compulsoryschooling schoolinguntil untilthe the12th 12th(or (oruntil untilthe theage ageofof18), 18),pointing pointing can pathawareness results from set of educational implemented commitment to European tothe thepositive important awareness having completedpolicies secondary educationand minimumqualification. qualification. toThis important ofofahaving completed secondary education asasaaaminimum goals. Among the main measures that help to explain the success of policies to reduce school dropout Showing Showinggood goodresults resultsininthe theprograms programstotofight fightfailure failureand andthe thebet betononprofessional professionalalternatives. alternatives.It Itshould should can be mentioned: the increase in compulsory schooling until the 12th (or until the age of 18), pointing be noted that this resulted from the Lisbon strategy (Europe 2020), the European Union target for a 10% to the important awareness of having completed secondary education as a minimum qualification. drop in 2020. Showing good results in the programs to fight failure and the bet on professional alternatives. It should In this analysis of the data referring to school dropout, the gender differences are highlighted, with the dropout rate in males, always, over the past few years, significantly higher than females rates. It should [65] [65] be noted that in the year 2016, female school dropout figures were 10.5%, thus approaching European targets, while males stood at around 17, 4%. [68] [65] Programme co-funded by the European Union


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be noted that this resulted from the Lisbon strategy (Europe 2020), the European Union target for a 10% drop in 2020. In this analysis of the data referring to school dropout, the gender differences are highlighted, with the dropout rate in males, always, over the past few years, significantly higher than females rates. It should be noted that in the year 2016, female school dropout figures were 10.5%, thus approaching European targets, while males stood at around 17, 4%.

Early school leaving by gender 60 55 50 45 Percentage

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1992

2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Year

------ Male

------ Female

Figure 3- Early school leaving in Portugal by gender (1992-2016), PORDATA Figure 3- Early school leaving in Portugal by gender (1992-2016), PORDATA

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3.3- The Early School Leaving: Portugal and the UE The analysis of school dropout in Portugal, along with the gains achieved in recent years, Show a scenario

is undoubtedly positive. The national policies 3.3The Earlyvery School Leaving: Portugal and developed the UE to approach Portugal of European

standards, in terms of goals and results, are quite similar to other countries best practices and educational The analysis of school dropout in Portugal, along with the gains achieved in recent years, Show a scenario dynamics. is undoubtedly very positive. The national policies developed to approach Portugal of European However, in theterms latestofdata of and Portugal on are thisquite matter, whentocompared with the member of the standards, goals results, similar other countries bestother practices and states educational European Union, it is possible to verify that there is still a long way to go, as can be seen in the following dynamics. graphic: However, the latest data of Portugal on this matter, when compared with the other member states of the European Union, it is possible to verify that there is still a long way to go, as can be seen in the following graphic:

Early leaving school leaving in different EU countries (Eduacation and Training 2017, Eurostat) FigureFigure 4- Early4-school in different EU countries (Eduacation and Training Monitor,Monitor, 2017, Eurostat)

According to the recently Eurostat data, Portugal recorded the fourth highest dropout rate in the European

Union4-inEarly 2016, withleaving 14% of young people between the ages 18 andMonitor, 24 prematurely leaving education Figure school in different EU countries (Eduacation andof Training 2017, Eurostat) and training. According to the recently Eurostat data, Portugal recorded the fourth highest dropout rate in the European According to the "Europe 2020 Indicators Education, in 2016", only24Malta (19.6%),leaving Spain (19%) and Union in 2016, with 14% of young people on between the ages of 18 and prematurely education Romania (18.5%) had higher school dropout rates than Portugal, with the Union average of 10.7%. and training.

It should betonoted, that in2020 the same reporton Portugal has shown for only the past 10(19.6%), years a great in According the "Europe Indicators Education, in 2016", Malta Spainreduction (19%) and the number of school (the percentage of the between the ages of 18 and 24 who did Romania (18.5%) had dropouts higher school dropout rates thanpopulation Portugal, with the Union average of 10.7%. not pass beyond the first cycle, of upper secondary education and did not continue neither studies nor Ittraining), should be noted, that in the same reportthePortugal shown for the past 10 years a great reduction in since in 2006 it was of 38.5%, highest has among all Member States. the number of school dropouts (the percentage of the population between the ages of 18 and 24 who did not pass beyond the first cycle, of upper secondary education and did not continue neither studies nor training), since in 2006 it was of 38.5%, the highest among all Member States. [67] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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In spite of all this, Portugal could still meet the target set in the framework of "Europe 2020 Objective" of having a school dropout rate lower than 10%, in line with the EU average (each Member State has its In spite of all this, Portugal could still meet the target set in the framework of "Europe 2020 Objective" of having a school dropout rate lower than 10%, in line with the EU average (each Member State has its own objective in view of its own reality and that between the 28 Member States it varies between 4% and 16%), nevertheless this does not seem to be a very realistic scenario. own objective in view of its own reality and that between the 28 Member States it varies between 4% 3.4-Alarm signal? 2016: the year of inversion in the downward trend of school and 16%), nevertheless this does not seem to be a very realistic scenario.

dropout 3.4-Alarm signal? 2016: the year of inversion in the downward trend of school The pessimism about reaching the target of dropping below 10% by the year 2010, was mainly due to the dropout fact that the data revealed by the European bodies for the year 2016, break a cycle of decades of

downward trendabout of this indicator. With data releasedbelow by Eurostat 2016, early school leaving The pessimism reaching the target of dropping 10% byinthe yearthe 2010, was mainly due torate the stood at 14%, increasing by 0.3 percentage points, as it was only 13.7% in 2015. fact that the data revealed by the European bodies for the year 2016, break a cycle of decades of downward trend of this indicator. With data released by Eurostat in 2016, the early school leaving rate Can this rise be considered significant? Statistically not. But it gains importance by stopping a continuous stood at 14%, increasing by 0.3 percentage points, as it was only 13.7% in 2015. decline and because few would be waiting for it to rise: the provisional data pointed to a decline to 13.6%. The increase in considered compulsorysignificant? schooling until the 12thnot. yearBut (or ituntil theimportance age of 18),by points to thea importance Can this rise be Statistically gains stopping continuous of having secondary as ita to minimum qualification, programs dropout, and decline andcompleted because few would beeducation waiting for rise: the provisional data pointed to afight decline to 13.6%. bets increase on vocational alternatives were some the12th governmental policies which in recent greatly The in compulsory schooling untilofthe year (or until the age of 18), pointsyears to thehave importance contributed to the consistent reduction in school dropout rates. of having completed secondary education as a minimum qualification, programs to fight dropout, and bets on vocational alternatives were some of the governmental policies which in recent years have greatly What will explain this? The evaluation is difficult to do, but the Ministry of Education (ME) has presented contributed to the consistent reduction in school dropout rates. what considers to be possible explanations, namely for the fact that in the post-crisis there are more job offers will attracting adults, leading themtotodo, thebut dropout recorded recent years. What explainsome this?young The evaluation is difficult the Ministry of in Education (ME) has presented what considers to be possible explanations, namely for the fact that in the post-crisis there are more job Yet, it is time to reflect on these data, which should merit a fast and consistent performance, on the part offers attracting some young adults, leading them to the dropout recorded in recent years. of the different actors, in the education scenario. In this sense, the government, aware of the need to revitalize the strategy to on fight early school dropout going on some robust government programs, Yet, it is time to reflect these data, which shouldhas merit a fast and consistent performance, on thesuch part as the different National actors, Programin for Promotion of School Success, Program of thethe education scenario. In this sense, the Qualifica government, aware ("resuming of the needthe to investmentthethat was discontinued, between 2011 and 2015, on in some the training and qualification of Young revitalize strategy to fight early school dropout has going robust government programs, such people / adults), Program or the reinforcement of the school socialSuccess, action. the Qualifica Program ("resuming the as the National for the Promotion of School investment that was discontinued, between 2011 and 2015, in the training and qualification of Young people / adults), or the reinforcement of the school social action.

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3.5- Other relevant education indicators: 3.5.1-Main indicators:

Figure 5- Main indicators in the area5-ofMain education area in the Portugal Figure indicators area of education area in Portugal

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Figure 6: Position in relation to the ring) and(outer Weakest performers (center) (EUROSTAT) Figure 6: Position in strongest relation to(outer the strongest ring) and Weakest performers (center) (EUROSTA

It is important to emphasize from the analysis of the data previously presented, the school results Portuguese students are improving, with fewer students showing poor achievement and more studen with high achievement in PISA, but there remain some concerns regarding equity and equal opportunitie 6: Position relation to the Student strongest (outer ring) and Program Weakest performers (EUROSTAT) According toFigure OECD's 2015 in International Assessment (PISA),(center) the percentage of studen with poor achievement declined in all subjects tested. country's a It is important to emphasizerates, frominthePortugal, analysis has of the data previously presented, theThe school results results of below thestudents EU average in reading (17%) science (17%),poor but above average mathematics Portuguese are improving, with fewerand students showing achievement andinmore students (24% Average levels of performance haveremain steadily increased then,equity putting for the first tim with high achievement in PISA, but there some concernssince regarding andPortugal, equal opportunities. above the OECD and averages.Student The percentage of Program highly proficient in PISA, ie. studen According to OECD's 2015EU International Assessment (PISA), thestudents percentage of students who have demonstrated complex - is also increasing and is now close to the EU average. with poor achievement rates,highly in Portugal, hasskills declined in all subjects tested. The country's results are below the EU average in reading (17%) and science (17%), but above average in mathematics (24%). Average levels of performance have steadily increased since then, putting Portugal, for the first time, above the OECD and EU averages. The percentage of highly proficient students in PISA, ie. students who have demonstrated highly complex skills - is also increasing and is now close to the EU average.

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Figure 7- Evolution of PISA results 2000-2015 Figure 7- Evolution of PISA results 2000-2015 Figure 7- Evolution of PISA results 2000-2015

Despite these positive trends, concerns remain about equity. The percentage of students with poor Despite theseamong positive remain about equity. The percentage with poor achievement the trends, studentsconcerns who belong to the lower socioeconomic mark isof25students points higher than achievement among the students who belong to the lower socioeconomic mark is 25 points higher than those belonging to the upper socioeconomic mark (OECD 2016). This is close to the EU average (25.6 those belonging to the upper socioeconomic mark (OECD 2016). This is close to the EU average (25.6 points). In addition, with more than 31% of students repeating the year, Portugal has the third highest points). In addition, withinmore 31% of students repeating the year, hasinthethis third highest rate of year repetitions the than EU (European Commission 2017). The Portugal social gap respect is rate of year repetitions in the EU (European Commission 2017). The social gap in this respect is significant, with rates higher than 52% among underprivileged students and less than 9% among significant, with rates higher than 52% among underprivileged students and less than 9% among privileged. The cleavages between non-migrants and first-generation and second- generation immigrants privileged. Theby cleavages between non-migrants andperformance, second- generation immigrants - as measured early school dropout rates andand yearfirst-generation repetition, PISA are comparatively -small. as measured by early school dropout rates and year repetition, PISA performance, are comparatively small.

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4-NATIONAL POLICIES TO FIGHT SCHOOL FAILURE 4-NATIONAL POLICIES TO FIGHT SCHOOL FAILURE When we talk about the national policies in the area of education, it is imperative to mention that Portugal has followed path of development, the past 40 years.itThe country and citizens the When we talkaabout thegreat national policies inover the area of education, is imperative to its mention thatduring Portugal dictatorial regime were “imprisoned”, of an assumed national strategy that didn't value education; as it has followed a path of great development, over the past 40 years. The country and its citizens during the was only at the reach of certain elites. A country plunged into deep poverty, where much of the population dictatorial regime were “imprisoned”, of an assumed national strategy that didn't value education; as it was illiterate. 1974, the year of the revolution of April 25 th,poverty, dictatedwhere the return to the democracy in was only at theIn reach of certain elites. A country plunged into deep much of population Portugal, at the time more than 40% of the Portuguese population was illiterate. When compared to most was illiterate. In 1974, the year of the revolution of April 25 th, dictated the return to democracy in European Portugal about 100Portuguese years behind in all educational indicators. Portugal, atcountries, the time more thanwas 40% of the population was illiterate. When compared to most

European countries, was about 100 years in all educational indicators. Step-by-step PortugalPortugal built a democratic society, inbehind 1984, became a member state of the European Union, that were two fundamental pillars, for the country to invest decisively in education as European a natural ground Step-by-step Portugal built a democratic society, in 1984, became a member state of the Union, for development. A difficult but successful path marked by what can be called a second revolution, the that were two fundamental pillars, for the country to invest decisively in education as a natural ground education revolution. Over the past 40 years, there has been a national commitment concerning education for development. A difficult but successful path marked by what can be called a second revolution, the to bring the country closer to the several commitment crises and theconcerning political instability, education revolution. Over the pastEuropean 40 years, average. there hasDespite been a national education there was clearly a transverse commitment of the different constitutional governments, puttinginstability, education to bring the country closer to the European average. Despite several crises and the political at the top of the priorities. there was clearly a transverse commitment of the different constitutional governments, putting education at thefollowing top of thepoints priorities. The are examples of government measures implemented in past years, which seem to have been relevant milestones to fight school failure and early dropout: The following points are examples of against government measures implemented in past years, which seem to have been relevant milestones to fight against school failure and early dropout: 1- National Plan for the Promotion of School Success (NPPSS) 1National Planrecent for theand Promotion of School Success This is the most far-reaching initiative of the(NPPSS) government to prevent school failure and reduce year all phases of education. In basic the new system school of national examinations This repetition, is the most in recent and far-reaching initiative of education, the government to prevent failure and reduce introduces formative in of theeducation. second, fifth and eighth yearsthe(students of 7,10 and 13 years old) for year repetition, in all tests phases In basic education, new system of national examinations Portuguese and mathematics fully fifth implemented. 2016/2017 school students introduces formative tests in is thenow second, and eighthSince yearsthe (students of 7,10 andyear, 13 years old)who for have repeated more than a year are entrusted to a trained tutor teacher to follow up on their learning and Portuguese and mathematics is now fully implemented. Since the 2016/2017 school year, students who improve achievement outcomes, as entrusted well as toto build their confidence into thefollow school. have repeated more than a year are a trained tutor teacher up on their learning and improve outcomes, as wellbetween as to build confidence the school. The plan achievement is based on close cooperation localtheir authorities and in school groups. Schools can propose new pedagogical initiatives adapted to their student population and receive additional to The plan is based on close cooperation between local authorities and school groups. Schoolsresources can propose develop them. new pedagogical initiatives adapted to their student population and receive additional resources to

develop Trainingthem. will be given to school principals and teachers and municipal educational body. This training will focus onbe strategic the definition of indicators and the educational use of resources. Eachtraining school Training will given toplanning, school principals and teachers and municipal body. This estimates its readiness to participate in the plan and then presents, on a voluntary basis, a set of measures will focus on strategic planning, the definition of indicators and the use of resources. Each school to improveitsthe activityto ofparticipate its studentsininthe anplan inclusive way. After evaluation and approval of the proposal estimates readiness and then presents, on a voluntary basis, a set of measures at central level, other additional resources are assigned to the school. During the first year of application, to improve the activity of its students in an inclusive way. After evaluation and approval of the proposal 663 schools integrated the plan,resources representing 80% oftoalltheschools. of schools at central level, other additional are assigned school. Together During thewith firstthe year18% of application, already enrolled in the initial program that focused on schools with a high percentage of students from 663 schools integrated the plan, representing 80% of all schools. Together with the 18% of schools already enrolled in the initial program that focused on schools with a high percentage of students from [72] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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lower socioeconomic backgrounds, this means that only a small number of educational centers are left out of the program. In total, schools proposed 2 915 in different domains, suchcenters as curriculum lower socioeconomic backgrounds, this means thatmeasures only a small number of educational are left flexibility, organizational flexibility, multidisciplinary teams, experimental sciences, parental out of the program. In total, schools proposed 2 915 measures in different domains, such asand curriculum education. flexibility, organizational flexibility, multidisciplinary teams, experimental sciences, and parental education. 2- Strong investment in preschool education, allowing a broad network that provides answers to children from the age of 3. This measure, in addition allowing to promoting thenetwork integral that development of children, allows 2- Strong investment in preschool education, a broad provides answers to children the early detection of some psychoeducational problems, adjusting the educational pathways and from the age of 3. This measure, in addition to promoting the integral development of children, allows promoting a rapid intervention. the early detection of some psychoeducational problems, adjusting the educational pathways and promoting a rapid intervention. 3- The successive extension of compulsory schooling, approved, in lattest law amendment, to the 18 years age, allowed many youngsters a longer schoolapproved, path, preventing some context and social 3Theofsuccessive extension of compulsory schooling, in lattest law risk amendment, to the 18 vulnerability, increasing their opportunities. years of age, thus allowed many youngsters a longer school path, preventing some risk context and social vulnerability, thus increasing their opportunities. 4- The establishment of different educational responses for students with unsuccessful school paths, focusing on the work of of different personal educational and professional skills,foratstudents the samewith timeunsuccessful allowing them to obtain 4The establishment responses school paths, academic on qualifications. talk about answers as Vocational Professional focusing the work ofWe personal andeducational professional skills,such at the same time and allowing them toCourses obtain and Integrated Training. We talk about educational answers such as Vocational and Professional Courses academic qualifications. and Integrated Training. 5 - The successive extension of the educational offer in terms of vocational courses, allow better responses for studentsextension accordingoftothe their expectations andinvocational while preparing them 5 - The successive educational offer terms ofpreferences, vocational courses, allow better for the labor responses formarket. students according to their expectations and vocational preferences, while preparing them for the labor market. 6- The investment in specific projects in territories of social vulnerability and where the numbers of failure appear to be very significant. are talking about vulnerability the creation and of Priority Territories 6- The investment in specific projects inWe territories of social where the numbersfor of Educational Action, where there is a reinforcement of human and technical resources with the goalfor to failure appear to be very significant. We are talking about the creation of Priority Territories create specific and local responses to the issues of school failure or specific programs to work in Educational Action, where there is a reinforcement of human and technical resources with the goal to conjunction withand thelocal school context of and of social exclusion, is established in the create specific responses to poverty the issues school failure as or itspecific programs to Program work in “Escolhas”. with the school context of poverty and social exclusion, as it is established in the Program conjunction “Escolhas”. 7 - An important educational answer, but clearly insufficient, was the commitment of specialized and multidisciplinary that support schools, namely the allocation technicians suchofasspecialized psychologists, 7 - An importantteams educational answer, but clearly insufficient, wasofthe commitment and speech therapists and social workers, allowing them to develop concomitant work with the teachers. multidisciplinary teams that support schools, namely the allocation of technicians such as psychologists, speech therapists and social workers, allowing them to develop concomitant work with the teachers.

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These measures are only a synthesis of a set of structured policies that, with some progresses and setbacks, have been implemented by the different Portuguese governments in more recent years. These measures contributed to the overall improvement of our educational context, at the same time had consistently reduced school dropout in Portugal. Nevertheless, there is still the need of more responses.

5- BARCELOS, AN EDUCATIONAL TERRITORY OF EXCELLENCE 5.1- Introductory note: A qualitative Overview Barcelos is a county located in the lower region of Cávado with about 120,000 inhabitants, divided administratively in 61 parishes, 9 school groups and characterized for being a predominantly rural territory. It is important to point out that despite a strong rural identity of the territory, which is associated with traditional economic activities such as clay and pottery craftsmanship work and agricultural production (dairy sector), this entire region of Cávado is marked by a strong industrialization especially connected to the knitwork sector. Therefore, Barcelos is a territory marked by some social problems, namely the extremely high rate of unemployment, which was intensified in recent years, since it has been highlighted by the notorious economic crisis that has affected the textile sector, a major local employer. It is also a territory where low skills and undifferentiated work predominates, contributing to the precariousness of employment and the perpetuation of low wages. All these economic characteristics have severe repercussions at the social level, being perceived concomitantly, a pattern of families that seem struggle facing their parental tasks. It is in this context that Barcelos, for many years now, acknowledged the importance of presenting complementary responses to the educational system, which in an integrated way can work the school, the student and the family. Today's school faces new paradigms, because that’s where children spend so much of their time, live a large part of their emotions, develop a large part of their social relations, where they learn and at the same time it is the place where they crystallize great part of their problems. The School works like a mirror or a reflection of our society. The work of the different educational agents in the field has shown that today more than ever students are less oriented towards academic motivations and curricular learning and this lack of orientation to success in school tasks is not due to cognitive problems of students, but to emotional, behavioral problems, which are often only some of the symptoms of serious psychosocial problems in the family context. Intervention models and strategies for school success should be reviewed, it's necessary focusing on broader and more systemic models that involve not only the student in his / her teaching / learning process, but also different educational agents, and in particular the families. The family is the foundation of the children emotional stability; it is where the interpersonal relations pattern is established and where

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student and the family. Today's school faces new paradigms, because that’s where children spend so much of their time, live a large part of their emotions, develop a large part of their social relations, where they learn and at the same time it is the place where they crystallize greatEnsuring part of their problems. TheSchool School works like and a mirror or “Michelangelo: Ensuring Sucess Reducing “Michelangelo: School Success and a reflection of our society.

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The work of the different educational agents in the field has shown that today more than ever students 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 are less oriented towards academic motivations and curricular learning and this lack of orientation to 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 success in school tasks is not due to cognitive problems of students, but to emotional, behavioral problems, which are often only some of the symptoms of serious psychosocial problems in the family context. Intervention models and strategies for school success should be reviewed, it's necessary focusing on the first social relations, rulesmodels and models are developed. The is that these standards exist broader and more systemic that involve not only thetruth student in ifhis / her teachingdo/ not learning or are not totally enough, the children will have few structures to adjust to school context and to be able process, but also different educational agents, and in particular the families. The family is the foundation to invest in the school tasks and achievements. Their basic needs and motivations are different, and the of the children emotional stability; it is where the interpersonal relations pattern is established and where school has neither the possibility nor the power to take full responsibility to answer to the numerous the first social relations, rules and models are developed. The truth is that if these standards do not exist social issues with which it is normally confronted. or are not totally enough, the children will have few structures to adjust to school context and to be able [74]needs and motivations are different, and the to invest in the school tasks and achievements. Their basic school has neither the possibility nor the power to take full responsibility to answer to the numerous social issues with which it is normally confronted. In this sense, the entire educational community of Barcelos, is taking in consideration all the previous suppositions and created a way to organize itself in an integrated way in order to provide the school with answers that could minimize the impact of some social problems that may contribute negatively to the success of the students, as we can see next. In this sense, the entire educational community of Barcelos, is taking in consideration all the previous suppositions and createdofathe wayeducational to organize system itself inin anBarcelos integrated way in order to provide the school with 5.2-Characterization answers that could minimize the impact of some social problems that may contribute negatively to the Focusing local educational success ofon thethe students, as we can system see next.and reporting to the reality of Barcelos, it should be noted that it is composed of a network with 97 public and 18 private establishments (DGEEC, 2014- 2015). 5.2-Characterization of the educational system in Barcelos In relation to its organization, in the public school network possesses a total of 9 Communities of Schools: Focusing the local systemFragoso, and reporting to the reality Barcelos, it should be that Barcelos; on Alcaides de educational Faria; Vila Cova; Vale D'Este, Braga of Oeste; Rosa Ramalho andnoted Gonçalo it is composed of a network with 97 public and 18 private establishments (DGEEC, 20142015). Nunes. In order to understand the concept of the Communities of Schools, it is important to explain that they correspond to a set of schools from the 1st cycle up to 3rd cycle of education and in some cases it In relation to its organization, in the public school network possesses a total of 9 Communities of Schools: includes secondary education, which is organized around one single structure of management. Barcelos; Alcaides de Faria; Vila Cova; Fragoso, Vale D'Este, Braga Oeste; Rosa Ramalho and Gonçalo Nunes. In worth order to understand the concept of the Communities of Schools, it is important to explain that It is also noting the existence of three secondary schools, one of which (Escola Secundária de they correspond to aincluded set of schools from the 1st cycle up to 3rd cycle of education and in some cases it Barcelinhos) is not in any community. includes secondary education, which is organized around one single structure of management. It is also important to mention that in the territory, there are three vocational/professional schools (ACIB, It is also and worth noting the existence of three secondary schools, one which of which Secundária de Profitela Escola Profissional de Tecnologia e Gestão de Barcelos), offer(Escola education in different Barcelinhos) is not includedmore in any community. vocational areas, including oriented courses to prepare students for the working market. It is alsothere important mention that known in the territory, thereConservatory are three vocational/professional schools (ACIB, Finally, is an to artistic school, as Barcelos of Music. Profitela and Escola Profissional de Tecnologia e Gestão de Barcelos), which offer education in different In terms ofareas, the reality of themore number of students, following table describes the number of students in vocational including oriented coursesthe to prepare students for the working market. public education in Barcelos, in the academic year 2014/2015, according to the education cycle. Finally, there is an artistic school, known as Barcelos Conservatory of Music. Study level Number of students In terms of the reality of the number of students, the following table describes the number of students in public education in Barcelos, in the academic year 2014/2015, according Preschool 2.355to the education cycle. Study 1º basiclevel cycle

Number of students 4.626

Preschool 2º basic cycle

2.355 1.736

1º basic cycle

4.626

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3º basic cycle 3.385 3º basic cycle 3.385 3º basic cycle 3.385 Secondary 2.886 Secondary 2.886 3º basic cycle 3.385 Secondary 2.886 14988 TOTAL 14988 TOTAL Secondary 2.886 14988 TOTAL Figure 8- Number of students by level of education in the municipality of Barcelos in the academic year 2014/2015(public Figure 8- Number of students by level of education in the municipality of Barcelos in the academic year 2014/2015(public 14988 TOTAL education)

Figure 8- Number of students by level of education in the municipality of Barcelos in the academic year 2014/2015(public education)

education) Indicators: Barcelos an educational territory of excellence 5.3-School Figure 8- Number of students by level of in the municipality Barcelos in the academic year 2014/2015(public 5.3-School Indicators: Barcelos aneducation educational territory ofofexcellence education) Indicators: Barcelos an educational territory of excellence 5.3-School The statistical data have shown Barcelos as an educational territory marked by very favorable indicators The statistical data have shown Barcelos as an educational territory marked by very favorable indicators 5.3-School Indicators: anlatest educational territory of excellence regarding school dropout. Thus,Barcelos the statistical data, obtained by the National of indicators Statistics, The statistical data haveBarcelos shown an educational territory marked by veryInstitute favorable regarding school dropout. Thus, the latestasstatistical data, obtained by the National Institute of Statistics, regarding school dropout. Thus, the latest statistical data, obtained by the National Institute of Statistics, The statistical data have shown Barcelos as an educational territory marked by very favorable indicators regarding school dropout. Thus, the latest statistical data, obtained by the National Institute of Statistics, from 2015, points out Barcelos with a relatively low dropout rate, which is of 0.94%, significantly lower from 2015, points out Barcelos with a relatively low dropout rate, which is of 0.94%, significantly lower than national that has awith rate that is around in the year 2015. It should noticed that this lower from the 2015, pointsdata, out Barcelos relatively low 14% dropout rate, which is of 0.94%, be significantly than the national data, that has a ratea that is around 14% in the year 2015. It should be noticed that this rate only allows to evaluate thea number ofis students who,inwithin compulsory education (5-18),that left this the than the national data, that has rate that around 14% the year 2015. It should be noticed rate allows evaluate thewith number of students who, within compulsory education (5-18), left the lower fromonly 2015, pointstoout Barcelos a relatively low dropout rate, which is of 0.94%, significantly education system.to evaluate the number of students who, within compulsory education (5-18), left the rate only allows education system.data, that has a rate that is around 14% in the year 2015. It should be noticed that this than the national education system.to rate only allows evaluate the number of students who, within compulsory education (5-18),a left When analyzing other important indicators, such as the global dropout rate, Barcelos presents ratethe of When analyzing other important indicators, such as the global dropout rate, Barcelos presents a rate of education system. 4.3%, being this rate about fifty percent lower than the national average. When analyzing otherabout important indicators, such thenational global dropout 4.3%, being this rate fifty percent lower thanasthe average.rate, Barcelos presents a rate of 4.3%, being this rate fiftyBarcelos percent lower thanasthe national average. When analyzing otherabout important indicators, such the global dropout Barcelos presents rate of Given this favorable scenario, demonstrates excellence in the rate, educational area at the anational Given this favorable scenario, Barcelos demonstrates excellence in the educational area at the national 4.3%, being this rate about fifty percent lower than the national average. level, it is important to carry out a deep and critical reflection on the present data. In this reflection the Givenitthis favorable to scenario, Barcelos excellence educational the national level, is important carry out a deep demonstrates and critical reflection on in thethe present data. Inarea thisatreflection the central question leads us to recognize the good practices existing in the territory that allow in some way level, is important out a deep and critical reflection onin thethe present data. thisatreflection the central question leadsto uscarry to recognize thedemonstrates good practices existing territory thatInarea allow inthe some way Givenitthis favorable scenario, Barcelos excellence in the educational national to explain the educational in the of Barcelos. central leadstouscarry tosuccess recognize theterritory good practices existing territory thatInallow in some way to explain educational success the territory of Barcelos. level, itquestion is the important out aindeep and critical reflection oninthethepresent data. this reflection the to explain the educational in the of Barcelos. central question leads us tosuccess recognize theterritory good practices existing in the territory that allow in some way to explain the educational success in the territory of Barcelos. 5.4- Municipal policies/ resources to fight school dropout and failure 5.4- Municipal policies/ resources to fight school dropout and failure 5.4- Municipal policies/ resources to fight school dropout and failure The Municipality of Barcelos guides its educational and social policies, implementing the principles The Municipality of Barcelos guides its educational and social policies, implementing the principles 5.4Municipal policies/ resources to fight school dropout and failure stated in the Charter of the Educating Cities. Therefore, Barcelos as an Educating City, isthe concerned to The Municipality of Barcelos guides its educational and social implementing principles stated in the Charter of the Educating Cities. Therefore, Barcelos policies, as an Educating City, is concerned to promote athe cityCharter where of all,the without exception, have the rightBarcelos to education. The responsibility ofconcerned this mission stated in Educating Cities. Therefore, as an Educating City, is to promote a city where withoutguides exception, have the right education. The implementing responsibility of mission The Municipality of all, Barcelos its educational andtosocial policies, thethis principles must be aextended toall,all civil exception, society, promoting the togeneration of synergies, commitments and promote city where without have the right education. The responsibility of this mission must extended society, promoting theBarcelos generation synergies,City, commitments stated be in the Chartertoof all the civil Educating Cities. Therefore, as anofEducating is concernedand to responsibilities. must be aextended civil exception, society, promoting the togeneration commitments and responsibilities. promote city wheretoall,all without have the right education.of Thesynergies, responsibility of this mission responsibilities. must be extended to all civil society, promoting generation commitments and Thus, all the municipal resources / projects presentedthe next, although of theysynergies, are enumerated one by one, Thus, all the municipal resources / projects presented next, although they are enumerated one by one, responsibilities. their rights and their integral they result from a set of integrated policiespresented centered next, on the children, Thus, all the municipal resources / projects although they are enumerated one by one, they result from a set of integrated policies centered on the children, their rights and their integral development, which aims tointegrated enhance what is best for each The following measures do not result their and their integral they result a set of policies centered onstudent. the children, development, which aims to enhance what is presented best for each student. Thethey following measures do Thus, all thefrom municipal resources / projects next, although are rights enumerated onenot byresult one, from a single which view of thetomunicipality over education but resultThe from the participation of the entire development, aims enhance what is best for each student. following measures do not result from a single view of the municipality over education butthe result from the of theintegral entire theirparticipation rights and their they result from a set of integrated policies centered on children, educational and their needs.over Alleducation the described actions aim promote a of high quality from a singlecommunity view of the result from theto entire educational community and their needs. thefordescribed actions aim toparticipation promote a high development, which aims tomunicipality enhance what isAll best eachbut student. The following measures do the notquality result educational territory, encouraging the success and preventing the schoolaim dropout and failure. educational community and their needs. All the described actions to promote a high quality educational territory, the success preventing the school and failure.of the entire from a single view ofencouraging the municipality over and education but result fromdropout the participation educational encouraging success preventing schooland dropout and failure. educational community and theirthe needs. Alland thethe described actions aim to promote a highprojects. quality • The territory, municipality of Barcelos supports public the schools their educational • The municipality of Barcelos supports the public schools and their educational educational territory, encouraging the success and preventing the school dropout and failure. projects. • The municipality of Barcelos supports the public schools and their educational projects. • The municipality of Barcelos supports the public schools and their educational projects. Programme co-funded by the European Union

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stated in the Charter of the Educating Cities. Therefore, Barcelos as an Educating City, is concerned to promote a city where all, without exception, have the right to education. The responsibility of this mission must be extended to all civil society, promoting the generation of synergies, commitments and responsibilities.

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Thus, all the municipal resources / projects presented next, although they are enumerated one by one, Reducing Early School Leaving Fine Arts” their rights and theirArts” integral they result from a set of integrated policies centered on through the children, Early School Leaving through Fine development, which aims to enhance2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 what is best for each student. The following measures do not result from a single view of the municipality over education but result from the participation of the entire 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 educational community and their needs. All the described actions aim to promote a high quality educational territory, encouraging the success and preventing the school dropout and failure. • The municipality of Barcelos supports the public schools and their educational projects. The City Council assumes a fundamental role encouraging the development of innovative projects that allow students to develop skills such as creative, critical and scientific thinking. One example is the project of the Small Scientists Network (Secondary School of Barcelos), the Robotics project (Secondary [76] School of Barcelinhos), the mArte and Eco-Shel Marathon projects (Alcaides de Faria Secondary School) and the project the Radio School (Schools Group of Vale do Tamel). This measure allows students in failure or dropout situation experimenting in school context different and extracurricular activities which stimulates the pleasure for school. •

Establishment of a decentralized School Library Network

This measure aims to establish an appealing work dynamics, offering students activities to encourage reading, writing and contact with recognized writers. This work proves to be fundamental for the development of some competences in students, with positive repercussions on their school achievements, allowing them universal access to cultural dynamics. The increase of literacy contributes to the prevention of the school dropout issues. •

Access of digital platforms to work on contents about rights and citizenship.

Allow, all students of the first cycle, access to the Platform More Citizenship, that results from a partnership between the Municipality and the University of Minho, aiming to increase levels of democratic citizenship among children and youngsters through the implementation of this project in Schools of the first cycle and training of the teaching body, working in focus areas such as environmental education, health education and local curriculum. •

Encourage School and Education.

The Municipality of Barcelos offers students of the basic and secondary local schools the opportunity to participate in the experience entitled the Junior University (summer activities at the University of Porto) and in the Summer Campus (University of Minho). Thus, promoting the contact between students and the higher education, reinforcing the motivation against school dropout and help them to pursue their studies. •

Candidature to projects supported by the European Social Fund connected to Education.

Candidatures to media 10.1, of POCH (Portugal 2020 – Reduction / prevention of school dropout), some projects of educational relevance are expected to be implemented in the beginning of the next school year. These projects include: the Psycho-educational and psychosocial support project in the 1st cycle of basic education, providing a specialized and multidisciplinary team of technicians (psychologists and speech therapists, among other technicians) and project the difference in the sports area (Hippo-therapy for children with SEN; BikeAtitude Project). All of these projects are oriented towards working with students at risk of school failure. It is also important to emphasize the strategic orientation of the municipality either as partner, as a promoter or as a financier of structuring projects that act directly in the area of the promotion of children's Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Candidature to projects supported by the European Social Fund connected to Education.

Candidatures to media 10.1, of POCH (Portugal 2020 – Reduction / prevention of school dropout), some “Michelangelo: Ensuring School andschool Reducin projects of educational relevance are expected to be implemented in theand beginningSucess of the next “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success year. These projects include: the Psycho-educational and psychosocial support project in the 1st cycle of Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through Fine Arts” basic education, providing a specialized and multidisciplinary team of technicians (psychologists and 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 speech therapists, among other technicians) and project the difference in the sports area (Hippo-therapy 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 for children with SEN; BikeAtitude Project). All of these projects are oriented towards working with students at risk of school failure. It is also to emphasize strategic orientation of the municipality either developed as partner,inasthea rights. Oneimportant of these projects that is the operating since 2015, is the GALOARTIS project, promoter or as a financier of structuring projects that act directly in the area of the promotion of children's Schools Group of Barcelos, and sponsored by the Municipality and another entity of social context. This rights. One of these projects that is operating since 2015, is the GALOARTIS project, developed in the project intervenes among students at risk of social exclusion and school dropout. Their target audience is Schools Group of Barcelos, and sponsored byethnicity. the Municipality andimportance another entity of social This essentially composed of children and gypsy Given the of this projectcontext. the plan of project intervenes among students at risk ofand social exclusion dropout. Their target is [77] action can be considered a good practice a reference ofand ourschool territory. This project will audience be detailed essentially of children and gypsy ethnicity. Given the importance of this project the plan of later in this composed paper. action can be considered a good practice and a reference of our territory. This project will be detailed concerning family support with direct repercussions on learning and in the school later• in Polices this paper. context. • Polices concerning family support with direct repercussions on learning and in the school We highlight the partnerships established with institutions, parental associations and parish councils, context. allowing to supply free breakfasts for children attending pre-school and first cycle, coming from We highlight theand partnerships established withat institutions, parental associations underprivileged low-income families and the same time stimulate a networkand of parish Familycouncils, Support allowing to supply free breakfasts children attending pre-school and cycle, from and Animation Activities (FSAA), theforaggregation of transports properly to first students andcoming their family underprivileged and low-income families and at the same time stimulate a network of Family Support needs. and Animation Activities (FSAA), the aggregation of transports properly to students and their family needs. It also includes a leisure program, directed at children and youngsters during school breaks, which takes place in different municipal services, namely in the Youth House, the Municipal Library and the Pottery It also includes a leisure program, directed at children and youngsters during school breaks, which takes Museum. place in different municipal services, namely in the Youth House, the Municipal Library and the Pottery Still in the field of social school action, it is worth noting that during the past years, the Municipality of Museum. Barcelos has decided for a policy of supplying textbooks, to all students in the first cycle of basic Still in the This field measure of socialhas school action, it is impact worth noting during the past and years, the Municipality of education. a very positive on the that support of families children. Barcelos has decided for a policy of supplying textbooks, to all students in the first cycle of basic • Students with special education. This measure has a educational very positiveneeds impact on the support of families and children. Students with special needs have received special attention from the municipality, because • Students with educational special educational needs their inclusion, in the school context, is often difficult to be functional. Thus, the Municipality has opted Students with special educational have received special from the Therapy municipality, because for a series of structured policies toneeds support these students, suchattention as the Occupation Programs for their inclusion, in the Educational school context, is often difficult towith be functional. Thus, the Municipality opted students with Special Needs, in partnership APACI, allowing many youngstershas to enjoy for a series of structuredactivities policies to support thesebreaks, students, such the Occupation Therapy Programs for specialized therapeutic during school such as as Equestrian Therapy Program developed students with Special Educational Needs, in partnership with APACI, allowing many youngsters to enjoy for children that integrate Special Education units from Barcelos School Group. specialized therapeutic activities during school breaks, such as Equestrian Therapy Program developed • Promotion of some sport/educational/cultural projects,School Group. for children that integrate Special Education units from Barcelos They from community partnerships and social responsibility • result Promotion of some sport/educational/cultural projects, of some entrepreneurs from the textile area and local Entrepreneurs Association, to target students in a situation of economic vulnerability, in They result from community social out responsibility of some entrepreneursprojects from thewill textile risk of social exclusion andpartnerships in risk of and dropping school. These extracurricular be area and local Association, target students economic vulnerability, in developed, in Entrepreneurs articulation with the schooltocontext and aimintoa situation promote of social inclusion, equality of risk of social and exclusion andstudents' in risk objectives of dropping school. These extracurricular projects will be opportunities establish in out relation to the school (eg. Interschool Minibasket developed, articulation with the school context and aim to promote social inclusion, equality of Tournament,inAdapted Orientation). opportunities and establish students' objectives in relation to the school (eg. Interschool Minibasket Tournament, Adapted Orientation).

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Support is also given to musical training projects for children and youngsters, through collaboration agreements, that allow students living in more peripheral areas of the municipality of Barcelos to have access to quality musical training. •

Cultural policies

For the youngsters, the focus is to create a schedule in the municipal theatre, oriented to the needs and preferences of children and youngsters; also establish a close relation with the school contents. It is also important, at the beginning of each school year, the establishment of a range of cultural and pedagogical activities promoted on leaflets for the entire school community. Schools can enroll this type of action in their activity plans. The main concern is to be able to reach all children/youngsters and for them to have access to cultural activities, that are promoters of equal opportunities, contributing indirectly to the issues of school dropout and failure. 5.5- From numbers to the explanation: Why Barcelos has such a low dropout rate? The measures and projects presented, by themselves, don’t explain the extremely encouraging results that Barcelos reveals in its main indicators of school domain, especially in what concerns to its almost residual school dropout. So what will make the municipality of Barcelos a county with an educational brand of excellence? The analysis could be complex and involve a wide array of factors, when the subject is analyzed more deeply, there seems to be some explanations that instantly help to these results. First of all, must be pointed out the idea of a territory where the educational policies are established in a collaborative way and in association with the educational agents. This collaborative work, participative and integrated, is important for the local needs to have expression. Each municipal project implemented is created from the involvement of the entire educational community, where needs, constraints and problems are reported. From this point on, every educational agent is involved in each project and all projects regard the entire community, from its starting point up until it is achieved. This method of work allows everyone, with no exception, to make efforts towards the goals of the project and feel responsible for them. Thus, fulfilling one of the principles stated in the Charter of the Educating Cities, in reference to the communities responsibilities in education. A concrete example of this methodology was the elaboration of the Plan to Fight Failure and School Dropout, submitted by the Barcelos Municipality in the scope of the program Portugal 2020, just recently. A second idea, not less important and in fact fundamental to the analysis of the positive results about Barcelos school dropout, refers to the support policies to family and promotion of interaction between school and family. School isn’t an isolated system of other social systems. It points to many social systems and particularly to family grounds. So, it’s impossible think about educational policies not involving the families in the process. The Municipality of Barcelos, realizes that several of the students problems in school context, resulted from family contexts, so has decided to provide the schools with multidisciplinary teams, focused on the student and extended this action to the family system. Therefore,

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the psychosocial intervention, allowed to approach the students problems in a distinctive and complementary perspective. Still, in the family support domain, the policy developed with the parents associations is highlighted. Parents Associations are very important structures, as far as they know very closely the local realities of each school. Therefore, the county created support mechanisms to these associations, in the sense that they give very important answers, such as: the Animation Activities of Family Support (informal areas, where the children can stay in the school, after-school time, until their parents leave work); possessing a functional school transports network for the primary school. Consequently, these local answers are fundamental for families to feel more involved and responsible in the educational path of their children. Another fundamental municipal action is a very strong bet in school social action policies which help to mitigate social inequalities. So, Barcelos municipality created a mechanism to ensure a fast assessment of the socioeconomic needs, for example: ensuring too many students free meals and breakfasts integrated a set of social measures for families in difficult situations. In this domain it is also noteworthy the bet on free school textbooks policy for all the students, as a measure with very positive effects near the family and students. It should also be noted that Barcelos possesses a significant number of gypsy students. Being aware of the characteristics and cultural specificities of the gypsy community and acknowledging the very high levels of school dropout among this population, Barcelos municipality decided to adopt several measures that are showing very positive results. These measures included the presence of a gypsy mediator at the school; hire gypsy employees in the schools, to help students of this ethnic group feel more identified with the school space, also allowing fighting the stigma with the rest of the population. A further structuring measure in this area was the creation of GALOARTIS Project, promoted by the municipality of Barcelos, guided to the work with the most vulnerable population and social exclusion risk and which has served to provide a complementary response to the school, intervening especially with the gypsy population. At a broader level of intervention, involving national policy strategies, the results of school abandonment in Barcelos can’t be dissociated from the community work. It’s important to add that in Portugal, about 20 years ago, were created local structures for the promotion of children/youth rights, known as National Commission for Protection of Children Rights. The law confers, to these commissions, the competency to evaluate the situations of children and youngsters at risk, signalized by the community. The situation of dropping out of a student under the age of 18 is framed, in legal terms, as a risk situation and the school has the responsibility to report all situations of dropout to this commission. The National Commission for Protection of Children Rights., will work to obtain the family consent to intervene, and reinstate the child/youngster to attend school. If there is no commitment from the family, the situation is quickly sent to the judicial authorities, specifically to the juvenile court. It is important to point out that this measure has had a very positive impact on the reduction and rapid intervention in situations of school dropout.

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However, the municipality of Barcelos realizing the need for technical reinforcement of this commission and its importance for the promotion of children's rights, has made an effort to provide this structure all the necessary tools for an effective, rapid and articulated intervention with the school community. For all the previously translated, we can conclude that Barcelos is deeply involved in the intervention to prevent school dropout. But, above all, the entire community is organized towards the prevention this same school dropout, betting on active policies that promote school success and equal opportunities.

6-Conclusion Although there has been a great deal of progress, efforts and positive results in education in the last 40 years in Portugal, there is still much to be done at local and national level. Today's School seems to be, at times, contrary from the needs of children and young people, working on competences and curricula no longer adequated to their real needs. The numbers in terms of school dropout rates, even if they approach European goals, do not translate into cycles of school success, but only in a group of young people who go through school, many of them without experiencing real success, eventually abandoning school without concrete skills and, above all, without a life project. All this situation expresses the need to rethink school in terms of organization, curricula and teaching methods, with activities and contents enablers of experiencing success. It is also important to add value to the individual potential of each student, in a school that does not discriminate, that does not separate, that does not exclude. We must find new methods, new ways to communicate with our youth. Art is undoubtedly a universal language. Educate through art? It's a possibility, a way, a challenge!

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PART II MODEL ABOUT THE NECESSARY EDUCATION POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO SOLVE EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING AND DROPOUT PROBLEMS AND IMPLEMENTATION IN SCHOOLS

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1. GREECE Greece - Best Practices 1. 1 Literature dramatization Dramatization of literature: a learning tool in teaching foreign languages, through creating a short film, a teaser or trailer. Using dramatization in learning a foreign language can be extremely productive and effective. By interacting and involving students in playing roles, using their own imagination, creativity and selfactivity encourages the empirical and experiencing way of learning. In this way, students are able to assimilate effortlessly and efficiently the learning subject. This process can motivate the industrious students as well as those who are introvert, shy and stay “below the radar”, as they start embracing teamwork and the subject matter. Thus, they feel useful and functional, as part of a team, improve their self-esteem and, eventually, get more active through practice and experience. By organizing school theatrical plays time and again, I personally experienced how cultural events affect students positively by inspiring them assume to roles and manage to express their social and artistic skills. By means of didactic, the teaching goal is served through creating positive expectations in the students, awakening their interest and motivation to learn the subject This process can motivate the matter. This process aims at combining the consolidation of This processstudents can motivate the inindustrious as well as grammar –in this case the narrative form of past continuousdustrious as well as those those whostudents are introvert, shy and with bringing the students close to aspects of German who “below are introvert, shy and stay the radar”, as stay they literature and culture. “below the radar”, as they start start embracing teamwork and embracing The cross-thematic approach of the project resulted, among the subjectteamwork matter . and the subother things, in harmonizing the students’ language and ject matter. digital skills. The Didactic Plan comprised 5 phases: The Introduction focuses on the author and his works. The students watch a trailer of the film “The pledge”, which is based on Friedrich Durrematt’s crime novel “The promise” (Das Versprechen), trying to guess the whole plot. This phase sparks their interest and stimulates their imagination. The second phase –Presentation, concerns the learning part. The students are given a specific part of the book, chosen particularly to further elevate the suspense. It is about the murder of a young girl, whose body was found in the forest. The main character of the plot is a detective, who is moved by this heinous crime and promises the victim’s parents to find the murderer. After the reading of this part, the students watch the whole movie in German which ends by revealing the murderer. The 3rd phase –Semantics, is about learning vocabulary from the original text, along with recognizing and collecting the verbs in past continuous. The 4th phase –Reproduction, starts by assigning the students to create a short film, teaser or trailer, based on the previous work, after forming working teams from each of the three classes. The roles are

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distributed and the tasks are specified (e.g. layout, costumes, film making, cut, music etc). After the completion of the work, the teachers watch the final products from each class and choose their favorite. The 5th and last phase –Evaluation and Diffusion, is completed by organizing an award ceremony,”The Red Carpet Awards”, where the 3 videos are presented to the whole school. During the event, awards are given to the best video, best actors and best curators. The Project concluded with great success. It was an amazing experience for the whole school and especially for the participants and winners, an unforgettable party which everyone enjoyed. The students got closer to each other, learned to be more cooperative, active and acquired substantial knowledge upon the subject matter and German language in general. Teacher of German Language Mrs. Eleni Pogka

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1.2 Landscaping School – Garden Architecture with painting configuration Τhe specific activity - in a collaboration between the lessons of Arts and Home Economics - led students to a process of learning and action, utilizing and enhancing, at the same time, the surrounding environment of the school. Ten cement pots were painted and they become thematic entities. They were placed in the school yard according to their themes. Methodology Student Selection: Four-member groups of students who worked on the topic from time to time were selected. The criteria for choosing them were what the Plan's objectives set, that is, the low self-esteem and self-confidence they have towards themselves. So pupils pass through the reaction to action through creativity. The aim of the students' choice is to encourage, develop Art anintegral integral skills, appreciate themselves, and become conscious of the social roles Art is is an Part of of art. Part our everyday our of everyday Life and

Culture Life and Culture

Selection of subjects: Selection of subjects in accordance with the school area and the relevant pedagogical material was chosen by the teacher of the Artistic Lessons and defined according to the needs of the school spaces, animated between the "Lyric" and "Geometric" abstraction "- between reason and emotion. Option A:

“Painting like ΄Οπη Ζούνη”

A set of four pots were the subject of “Painting like ΄Οπη Ζούνη". Through this theme the students met an important Greek painter, his design technique with the geometric abstraction and the Euclidean perspective. Option Β: “Painting like Αλέξη Ακριθάκη” A set of two pots was the theme "Painting like Αλέξη Ακριθάκη". Through this thematic students learned how the symbols became a painting of shapes and colors.

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Option Γ: “Lyric Abstract” A set of four pots are decorated with points, lines, shapes, colors: the four basic morphoplastic elements that surround our nature, when at the same time the students are painting spontaneously and freely the three elements Nature-Physical-Painting creating Lyrical Abstraction •

Drawing on the pots

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Painting themes

Place the pots in the school area Placing plants in pots Results Students were involved in an art and exhibition activity, participated in the landscaping of the school, felt an active part of school life. Conclusions Through this creative action, students recognized their values acquired a visual and aesthetic sense of space and learned to grasp the usefulness and necessity of art, as art is an integral part of our everyday life and culture. Teacher of Art Αλεξάνδρα Στεφανίδου (Alexandra Stefanidou) Teacher of Home Economics Νικόλαος Θυμιανίδης (Nikolaos Thymianidis)

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T

1.3 Silkscreen Printing Workshop he art of Silkscreen is an old form of print making which can be traced as far back as 9000 BC, when stencils were used to decorate Egyptian tombs and Greek mosaics. From 221-618 AD stencils were used in China for production of images of Buddha. Japanese artists turned screen

printing into a complex art by developing an intricate process wherein a piece of silk was stretched across a frame to serve as the carrier of hand cut stencils. Silkcreen Printing, also goes by the term: Serigraph. The Word Serigraph is a combination of two Greek words, seicos, meaning silk, and graphos, meaning writing. Silkscreen Printing and other stencil-based printing methods are the oldest forms of printmaking. Printmaking is a process for producing editions (multiple originals) of artwork. Painting, on the other hand, is a process for producing a single original piece of artwork. In printmaking, each print in an edition is considered an original work of art, not a copy. Before the development of synthetic materials, silk was used as the screen material, giving this process the name silkscreen. Originally used for commercial purposes in the early 20th century. Artists of the 1960s, notably Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, incorporated screenprinted images from mass media into their works, while in Europe, artists like Alain Jacquet and Gerd Winner took advantage of the unique ability of the medium to produce large-scale prints. Given the long history of silkscreen printing and its bold representation in modern art our partner “Maker Space” in collaboration with our school organized a workshop for our students. The main goal of this workshop was geared toward interdisciplinary uses of print media in contemporary art and cultural dialogue but also in the process of silkprinting as a craft with artistic value.

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Workshop

This was a complete and comprehensive workshop, where our students had the opportunity to learn the trade of screenprinting from professional printers. The workshop group remained small in size, which allowed each participant to obtain more personalised instruction from the teacher, and the best practical experience working with the printing press and other tools. Our students learned some things about how to properly design and set up images and output files for films, discover the science behind photo-sensitive emulsion, learn how to properly coat and burn an image into a screen and learn the best practices and master fine details to get the most accurate and best quality prints. At the end of this workshop every student left with a sample t-shirt printed. Conclusion All students participated in the whole silkscreen process. After a brief representation they created their own logos and printed them on their t -shirts. This hands- on activity had a great effect on students who were excited to create and get in touch with a new technique, easy to implement giving an immediate result and eventually were proud of their own piece of work and art of course. They got in touch with a new craft, they collaborated with the teachers and with each other, they learned and they left the room with the a feeling of accomplishment which is one of the main goals of this entire project.

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AthensMakerspace

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1.4 Radio- Days - Radio Broadcasting The activity concerns the production of radio broadcasts and is aimed at secondary school pupils of all grades of high school, ie students aged 12-15 years. The pedagogical specificity of the activity lies in the simultaneous acquisition and interaction of cognitive, pedagogical and technological goals and their gradual exploitation in a final product of free expression, which directly involves the universal human art (Gardner H., 2006). The individual methodologies are based on both behavioral, cognitive-constructive and socio-cultural learning theories. • The main technological objective is to familiarize students with the installation of an open-source audio program (Audacity), acquire the ability to manipulate sound recording, mixing and editing, and finally to create their own radio broadcast using the skills they have acquired in practice. An additional goal in this field is for students to discover and get acquainted with their smartphones, tablets and creative concepts, other than those intended for purely recreational purposes (Burnard P., 2007). • A basic cognitive goal is for students to be able to make use of the software practically and acquire critical literacy in order to create their own radio broadcast. (Bitter GG, ME Pierson, 1998). In the 3rd Gymnasium of Elefsina, a radio workshop, lasting one hour per week throughout the school year, was performed as an extracurricular activity, aiming to involve students in the creative process of radio production. The students worked in groups of 2-6 people. In order to have an equal division of work, depending on the individual skills of each student, the corresponding roles were defined, eg. a student who has the ability to write a written statement has been appointed coordinator of the written texts, someone who has the power to handle programs on the computer, has been appointed the controller of the digital product, someone with a lot of musical sounds was responsible for collecting the musical extracts and lastly students could make the pronouncements in the records. In no case did the division of work prevent the pupils from engaging in all the creative stages of the production of the show. There is a remarkable mobilization, interest and consistency in the outcome of the program by all the students involved, many of whom have low-grade performance profiles with learning, social and emotional problems. (Ames C., Archer J., 1988). However, due to the proper initial planning and the equitable distribution of work according to each student's merits, they all contributed to their full potential and offered equally the final result. Some samples of the broadcasts that were entirely created by the students are in the link below. https://bit.ly/2TdZvlo https://bit.ly/2UGF0PZ Teacher of Music

Dimitra Flouda

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Dimitra Flouda

1.5 Ceramic Workshop This text was written for the needs of the Erasmus+ program and I preferred that it have the form of an 1.5 Ceramic Workshop

oral presentation based on the experience that the contact with children has given me, rather than a This text was written for the needs of the Erasmus+ program and I preferred that it have the form of an

theoretical scientific piece of writing. This is because I believe that the fact that children who come to oral presentation based on the experience that the contact with children has given me, rather than a

the workshop for a ceramics program lose themselves in the making of their creations, often until late in theoretical scientific piece of writing. This is because I believe that the fact that children who come to

the afternoon, has a greater interest than such a text, with a listing of the necessary bibliography on the the workshop for a ceramics program lose themselves in the making of their creations, often until late in

last the page. afternoon, has a greater interest than such a text, with a listing of the necessary bibliography on the last page.

This brief text for the usefulness of Art in the educational procedure summarizes, therefore, the This brief text for the usefulness of Art in theknowledge educational and procedure summarizes, the while experience which Itherefore, have acquired knowledge acquiredprograms while workingandforexperience several which years Iinhave ceramics with working for several years in ceramics programs with

children and adults of all levels of education (from

children and adults of all levels of education (from

kindergarten children to post-doctoral researchers) both

kindergarten children to post-doctoral researchers) both

from Greece and abroad. These programs often involved

from Greece and abroad. These programs often involved

the manufacture of ceramic replicas of museum exhibits,

the manufacture of ceramic replicas of museum exhibits,

the initial the selection and of mining fromfrom the initial stagesstages of the of selection and mining the of the the creation the object, the production clay,clay, the creation of theofobject, the production of the of the glaze, the construction up up until the the firing. Living in theincountry of filokalia (i.e. the (i.e. love the for love for glaze, constructionofofthethekiln, kiln, until firing. Living the country of filokalia beauty), II am thatthat human beings havehave an innate tendency towardstowards the creation of beauty), am confident confidentininclaiming claiming human beings an innate tendency the creation of beauty, harmonic harmonic analogies coherent wholes. I cannot explain otherwise the curvature on the marble beauty, analogiesand and coherent wholes. I cannot explain otherwise the curvature on the marble bowls of the Bronze Age Aegean, the proud beauty in the beaked jugs

bowls of the Bronze Age Aegean, the proud beauty in the beaked jugs

of the same era and provenance, the ineffable grace and timelessness of

of the same era and provenance, the ineffable grace and timelessness of

the Cycladic figurines or the astonishing and stylized shaping of Naxos

the Cycladic figurines or the astonishing and stylized shaping of Naxos

island on the “frying pan” vessel from Athalassou cemetery, dating to

island the “frying pan” vesselthat from 3,000 BC.onI cannot explain otherwise allAthalassou civilizations cemetery, created art,dating to 3,000sculpture, BC. I cannot otherwise that all civilizations created art, music, dancingexplain and singing. music, sculpture, dancing and singing.

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The basic function of any educational system is to transmit to future generations the knowledge, skills and practices which are vital to each social unit. The modern school has some malfunctions which are generally connected to the unique societies in which it exists and operates. However, there exists, in my opinion, an antinomy, which has become apparent the moment that rigid discipline ceased to be the principal cohesive bond of the school. The educational procedure (analytical program) consists The basic function of any educational system is to transmit to future generations the knowledge, skills mainly of topics a high degree of abstractification, while has the learnand practices whichwith are vital to each social unit. The modern school some malfunctions which are generally connected the uniqueare societies in ing groups are often heterogeneous and theirtomembers characterized which it existsdegrees and operates. However, there exists, in my by different of psychomental maturation. Theopinion, school an program antinomy, which has become apparent the moment that rigid discipline

is often inflexible and system includes answers to question which the childthe notknowledg The basic function of any to transmit to future ceased to beeducational the principal cohesiveisbond of the school. The generations educational only has notand posed, but has consists not even suspected. Schematically, we could practices are vital to each program) which mainly of topics withsocial a high unit. degreeThe modern sch procedure (analytical

sayabstractification, that the some school operates backwards. It children with of while the learning groupsare areprovides often heterogeneous andtogenermalfunctions which generally connected the unique soc their members are are characterized degrees of psychomental alizations (which the result by of adifferent cognitive procedure) without offering

which it exists and operates. However, there exists, in my opin

maturation. school oftenknowlexactly theThe ways thatprogram these are produced experientially.isHowever,

antinomy, which has become apparent the moment that rigid di to question edge occurs ceased as a conceptual impression of a sequence ofofpractices that to be the principal cohesive bond the which the child not only has not posed, but has not even suspected . school. The edu take place over a period(analytical of time andprogram) are structured as abackwards. system;of moreover, consists mainly topics with a high Schematically, we could say that the procedure school operates It inflexible and includes answers

itprovides constitutes a cohesive whole which consists of many or even co-dependent units, children with generalizations (which are the result of autonomous, a cognitive of abstractification, while the learning groups are often heterogene

procedure) without these are are characterized by different produced degrees of psych often with their ownoffering uniqueexactly logic. the ways theirthatmembers However, as a conceptual impression of experientially. Linguistics andknowledge semioticsoccurs are maturation. established on concept of the Thetheschool program is a sequence of practices that take place over a period of time and are “sign” which constitutes a unity of a signifier and and a signified. teachinflexible includesThe answers to qu structured as a system; moreover, it constitutes a cohesive whole which consists of many autonomous, or

ing procedure, entrenched within the boundaries oflogic. the school, the theunits, child notwith only posed, but haswithout not even even co - which dependent often theirhas ownnot unique

suspec

contribution of action art,wewillare beestablished a signifier a school signified; a sound Linguistics and or semiotics onwithout the the concept of the “sign” which constitutes a unity Schematically, could say that operates

backw

of which a signifier signified. The procedure, entrenched boundaries of the school, for onlyand thea most gifted ofteaching children could, perhaps, suspect anthe indisprovides children with generalizations (which are within the result of

a cog

without the contribution of action or art, will be a signifier without a signified; a sound for which only

cernible meaning. If we admireoffering the Parthenon, is because its craftsmen procedure) without exactly itthe ways that these are

produ

have given wondrous solutions to theknowledge problems that were as posed during the experientially. However, occurs a conceptual

impre

and existing construction and not of because theythat implemented a sequence practices takeand place overreproduced a existing period technical of time or aesthetic models. construction and not because they implemented reproduced

and a

the most gifted of children could, perhaps, suspect an indiscernible meaning. If we admire the Parthenon, it is because its craftsmen have given wondrous solutions to the problems that were posed during the

aesthetic as models. technical or structured a system; moreover, it constitutes a cohesive whole which consists of many autonom

even co - dependent units, often with their own unique logic.

Linguistics and semiotics are established on the concept of the “sign” which constitutes

of a signifier and a signified. The teaching procedure, entrenched within the boundaries of the

without the contribution of action or [96] art, will be a signifier without a signified; a sound for wh

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the most gifted of children could, perhaps, suspect an indiscernible meaning. If we admire the Pa [93]


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Plato tells us that, through the senses, the arts promote the children’s souls, even before the power of Plato tells us that, through the senses, the arts promote the children’s souls, even before the power of Logos (intellect, reason and order) has matured within them. Modern human sciences prove him right, Logos (intellect, reason and order) has matured within them. Modern human sciences prove him right, since the body of the arts is penetrated by the social meanings which it (i.e. the work of art) reproduces since the body of the arts is penetrated by the social meanings which it (i.e. the work of art) reproduces or even transforms. or even transforms. At this point, I think it would be useful to add a small mention, a conceptual clarification regarding art in At this point, I think it would be useful to add a small mention, a conceptual clarification regarding art in Greek antiquity. Greek antiquity. In Homer the term “art” describes the technical experience of the creators (metalworkers, carpenters, In Homer the term “art” describes the technical experience of the creators (metalworkers, carpenters, potters etc.) namely those who, from nothing (or from the shapeless chaos – e.g. a lump of mud) produce potters etc.) namely those who, from nothing (or from the shapeless chaos – e.g. a lump of mud) produce Being and Form. It also describes the artifices of the oracle, the knowledge Being and Form. It also describes the artifices of the oracle, the knowledge of the witch or the transformations of Proteus. The difference between the of the witch or the transformations of Proteus. The difference between the technical achievement and the magical feat is not yet clear. The Δαίμων technical achievement and the magical feat is not yet clear. The Δαίμων (daemon, i.e. the restless soul) produces, through action, form from scratch. (daemon, i.e. the restless soul) produces, through action, form from scratch. The the production production of of form form is is aa poetic poetic process. process. The The poet poet The sorting sorting of of chaos chaos and and the

invokes (memory or or remembrance) remembrance) in in order order to to invokes the the Goddess Goddess Mnemosyne Mnemosyne (memory narrate these poetic poetic activities activities require require the the same same form form of of narrate the the epic epic to to us. us. All All these comprehension, Metis. The The Greek Greek language language maintains, maintains, even even today, today, comprehension, the the same same Metis. this origin of of creation creation if if we we consider consider that that by by the the this divine divine (magical (magical – – religious) religious) origin

word art of of carpentry, carpentry, as as well well as as the the art art of of painting. painting. Metis Metis word “art” “art” we we mean mean the the art is Zeus and and also also Athena, Athena, the the protector protector of of the the arts, arts, as as is the the resourceful resourceful intellect, intellect, characteristic characteristic of of cunning cunning Zeus well is the the son son of of Eupalamus Eupalamus (skillful (skillful handwork) handwork) well as as every every creator. creator. Daedalus, Daedalus, also also protector protector of of makers, makers, is and on other other occasions, occasions, Iphinoe Iphinoe (strong (strong spirit). spirit). and Phrasimede Phrasimede (one (one who who conceives conceives aa plan) plan) or, or, on The perpetual succession and dialectical relationship of action (labour) and intellect (Logos) is, then, the one that generates and promotes culture. The wise daughter of Zeus is born from his head, with the assistance of the craftsman god Hephaestus and this is so important for the city of Athens, that it is illustrated by Phidias on the east pediment of the Parthenon. During the classical age art breaks free from its magical dimension and creates its own technical intellect and codes. Workshops have master craftsmen, as well as apprentices who labor by the master’s side in order to learn the details of the craft. Greek antiquity has left for us a vast number of masterpieces

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of sculpture, pottery, architecture or miniature art that fill museums all over the world, while only 2% of of sculpture, pottery, They architecture or miniature art in thatAttica, fill museums all over world, while of them have survived. were produced mostly over a very shortthe time period andonly they2% were them have survived. They were produced mostlyan in Attica, overmaterial a very short time period they wide were the products of a society which developed immense production and and a very

the products ofConsequently, a society which developedconcluded an immense material production andas aa society very wide apprenticeship. it is effortlessly that art can be taught, as long sets apprenticeship. Consequently, it is effortlessly concluded that art can be taught, as long as a society sets these goals. The incorporation of art in the school program eliminates the antinomy detected earlier, since these goals. ensues The incorporation of art in consists the school eliminatesfields. the antinomy detected earlier, since knowledge experientially and of program various cognitive In ceramic construction it is knowledge ensues experientially and consists of various cognitive fields. In ceramic construction it is often necessary that the student solves problems of geometry or mathematics This way, he/she will guide often necessary sequentially that the student solves problems mathematics way, he/she will himself/herself from the specific to of thegeometry abstract. or He/she will needThis to invent, modify orguide even himself/herself fromneed the specific to the abstract. He/she to invent,inmodify or even construct a toolsequentially for a specific himself/herself. This way the will childneed is involved a process of construct tool for and a specific needand himself/herself. This themself. way the They child will is involved process of productiona of skills knowledge becomes a maker walk on in thea same paths production ofhumanization skills and knowledge that trace the of man. and becomes a maker themself. They will walk on the same paths that trace the humanization of man. Additionally, despite the rationalism of our times (an assertion of the enlightenment, which is presently Additionally, rationalism of ourthe times (an assertion of about the enlightenment, which is presently under scrutiny)despite artisticthe creation still entails daemonic element which the distant antiquity tells us (is itscrutiny) not true artistic that in the phenomenon of pop artists we can oftenabout identify elements whichantiquity characterize under creation still entails the daemonic element which the distant tells primeval religious The childofbreathes life we intocan its often pieceidentify of work,elements which is,which in a sense, alive. us (is it not true thatpractices?). in the phenomenon pop artists characterize Children religious whose ceramic brokeThe during transportation crypiece inconsolably sometimes comealive. with primeval practices?). child breathes lifeoften into its of work, and which is, in a sense, their parents theceramic next daybroke so that we transportation can find a solution… subject’s affect is what makes a Children whose during often cryThe inconsolably and sometimes come art with powerful instrument learning andwesocialization, even thoughThe its subject’s role in theaffect cognitive process is often their parents the nextofday so that can find a solution… is what makes art a overlooked. powerful instrument of learning and socialization, even though its role in the cognitive process is often The child, through the art, with its own efforts, its own charms and its overlooked. own child, handiworks, with environment, decodes its and world, The throughconverses the art, with itsits own efforts, its own charms its condenses its ownconverses concepts and and writes its ownitspersonal own handiworks, withmeanings its environment, decodes world, story. It is for this reason exactly that art is a positive and productive condenses its own concepts and meanings and writes its own personal mechanism of self-reference (through of work), conversation story. It is for this reason exactly thatthe art piece is a positive and productive (with the social environment) and, ultimately, self-awareness. After all, mechanism of self-reference (through the piece of work), conversation is it not these environment) that form a basis for healthyself-awareness. sociability? On many (with the social and, ultimately, After all, occasions manifested intelligence and good school performance are is it not these that form a basis for healthy sociability? On many

occasions manifested intelligence and good school performance are

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derivatives and forms of self-esteem, self-awareness and sociability, cultivated and strengthened during the exercise of artisticaction. Art is, ultimately, the advantageous space for the development of projects and cross-curricular approach. With a ceramics project (for the cooking or ritual vessels of antiquity or Byzantium), children, through the empirical experience of their participation in the productive process of the ceramics workshop and the entirely vertical creation of the objects, acquire a more complete image of history and civilization. They comprehend better through the objects they make (and which they own) the every-day life of antiquity, secular and religious. They come in contact with chemistry, geometry or geology. Additionally, they become familiar with the instruments and the processes of pottery and vase painting and improve their skills in the plastic arts and painting. They also enjoy a truly creative process. Katsaras Athanassios Ceramist 1.6 Dance Music in itself is therapeutic. Dance is a physical interpretation of what the music says. It is a great way to release energy, shed inhibitions and let your emotions out. When you dance you sweat, and you release 'feel good' endorphins that make you happy. Good music, good dancing is a great way to be in a happy state of mind. Pedagogic means of expression and knowledge, communication and sensation, the Dance involves multiple objects and correlations of forces in school: oral language, use of space, creative language of the body, relation to texts, original writing, but also the role imagination, and student activation (individually and collectively within the group).

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The child and the young through the process of performance education cultivate his physical, mental and psychic power the of imagination and freedomeducation of emotions he/shehis arrives to construct his The childabilities. and the With youngthe through process of performance cultivate physical, mental and own world transforming real into magical. Hisand emotional acquires an entityarrives and autonomy, while psychic abilities. With thethepower of imagination freedomlife of emotions he/she to construct his own world transforming the real into magical. His emotional life acquires an entity and autonomy, while at the same time the sense of personal creation within the group reinforces the young student with selfbelief, self-knowledge and communicative power. He learns to respect the rules the group, compose at the same time the sense of personal creation within the group reinforces the of young studenttowith selfthroughself-knowledge dialogue, releasing egoisms and other important: longer needing to be belief, and communicative power.weaknesses. He learns toMost respect the rules no of the group, to compose convinced, learningreleasing is linkedegoisms to freedom expression and pluralism. through dialogue, andofother weaknesses. Most important: no longer needing to be But also inlearning its artistic dimension Danceofin school isand again directly connected with its pedagogical convinced, is linked to freedom expression pluralism. character anditsnature. child learns progressively andagain begins to useconnected the body language through the But also in artisticThe dimension Dance in school is directly with its pedagogical practice physical or learns the process of theatrical play and as body well language as the more complex characterofand nature.exercise The child progressively and begins to roles use the through the theatricalofcommunication codes performance), "poetic" symbolic space with body, practice physical exercise or (theatrical the process of theatrical creating play anda roles as well as the more complex speech, objects. theatrical communication codes (theatrical performance), creating a "poetic" symbolic space with body, Our school teachers, having the belief that Dance is a great pedagogical tool but also a way out of pupils' speech, objects. expressions, have created a group that that perform in is many different moments thea school Our school teachers, having the belief Dance a great pedagogical toolduring but also way outyear. of pupils' A new goal have has been to bring this closer to thedifferent weakestmoments pupils induring schoolthe performance expressions, created a group thatgroup perform in many school year.and to integrate themhas into the to group with ultimate goal reinforcing their performance self-confidence A new goal been bring thisthegroup closer toofthesocializing, weakest pupils in school andand to improvingthem theirinto school performance. It was goal withofgreat pleasure that the their weaker students in and the integrate the group with the ultimate socializing, reinforcing self-confidence overwhelming positively. with school and their classmates improving theirmajority school responded performance. It was The withapproach great pleasure that teachers the weaker students in the has now begun majority in a different context than classroom and academic performance butand artistic overwhelming responded positively. The approach with school teachers their expression. classmates It was thatcontext these students needed aand new framework to "bloom" joinexpression. the school has nowtherefore begun inobvious a different than classroom academic performance butand artistic context this time obvious on equalthat terms withstudents their peers. Thisa experience transformed not only of It was therefore these needed new framework to "bloom" andthe joindynamics the school the group alsoonthat of the school TheThis weakest in academic performance pupils were better context thisbut time equal terms with classes. their peers. experience transformed not only the dynamics of integrated intoalso the that school context, and this was participation in the theatrical groupbetter was the group but of the school classes. Thebecause weakesttheir in academic performance pupils were able to discover their talents and their integrated into the school context, andadvantages. this was because their participation in the theatrical group was These thetheir group from many different posts. Several supporting subgroups, the able tostudents discoverparticipated their talents in and advantages. dance music group, thegroup costume the caretakers who work in the subgroups, sound and the These group, studentsthe participated in the fromdesigners, many different posts. Several supporting scenery, as well the assistant director, work in group.the Some of the students of in thethe ERASMUS dance group, theasmusic group, the costume designers, caretakers who work sound andteam the played a leading in assistant the schooldirector, performance some others some of the mentioned scenery, as well role as the work while in group. Some of helped the students the groups ERASMUS team above. a leading role in the school performance while some others helped some of the groups mentioned played above. [97] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Participating opportunities for for all all participants participants to to showcase showcase their their Participating in in the the dancing dancing group group provides provides many many opportunities talents team has has benefited benefited many many times. times. Through Through their their talents and and skills. skills. Especially, Especially, however, however, the the ERASMUS ERASMUS team participation able to to compose compose and and narrate narrate their their personal personal history history -- which which participation in in the the group, group, these these students students were were able is self-knowledge effort. effort. Finally, Finally, the the inclusion inclusion of of students students is an an important important prerequisite prerequisite for for the the individual's individual's self-knowledge in and friendly friendly relationships relationships strengthened strengthened their their self-confidence self-confidence and and in the the group, group, the the establishment establishment of of social social and helped them to respond better to the lessons. It is, moreover, common knowledge for all those involved in education that the more positive a pupil's image is for the school, the better his academic performance is.

1.7 Theater There is a lot of established research about the positive influences from drama, theatre and the performing arts, especially on young people. The benefits are physical, emotional, social, and they help to develop a healthy appreciation appreciation of of culture culture and and the the arts. arts.

Self-Confidence Self-Confidence Aspects Aspects of of performing performing arts, arts, especially especially improvisation, improvisation, help help young young people people to to understand how how to to appraise appraise situations, situations, think think outside outside the understand the box box and and be be more more confident confident going going into into unfamiliar unfamiliar situations. Students Students learn learn to to trust trust their their ideas ideas and and abilities. abilities. Confidence situations. Confidence gained gained from from learning learning performing performing arts skills applies to school, career, and life. arts skills applies to school, career, and life.

Imagination Imagination

Being creative creative and and learning learning to to make make creative creative choices choices helps Being helps students students to to be be better better at at thinking thinking of of new new ideas, ideas, allowing them to view the world around them in new ways. Einstein said, “Imagination is more important allowing them to view the world around them in new ways. Einstein said, “Imagination is more important than knowledge.” than knowledge.”

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Empathy Understanding characters, roles and the subtext of plays and musicals allows students to relate better to different situations, backgrounds, and cultures. It encourages them to show compassion and tolerance for others. Cooperation Theatre is collaboration of different players and in many cases the quality of any performance reliance on an ensemble performance. Combining the creative ideas and the abilities of all participants is required for the best outcomes. This requires all those taking part to engage in discussions, feedback, rehearsing, the performance. Concentration Playing, practicing, and performing will develop the ability and skills to be able to focus the mind, the body, and the voice. Communication Skills It seems obvious to say that drama, theatre and the performing arts improves verbal and nonverbal communication, but it is worth stating that this benefits young people through their life. It improves vocal projection, articulation, tone of speech and expression. Importantly is also develops listening and observation skills. Fun Drama brings elements of play, humour, and laughter to those taking part - improves motivation and reduces stress. Emotional Outlet Acting and drama games allow students to express a range of emotions and encourage them to understand and deal with similar feelings they may be experiencing. Aggression and tension are released in a safe, controlled environment – often allowing for a period of reflection afterwards. Physical Fitness Performing, even the most passive performances, requires intensive movement over a prolonged period. Many performing arts exercises improve flexibility, coordination, balance, and control.

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Memory Rehearsing and performing lines and movements will improve memory. Your memory requires exercise, just like a muscle.

Appreciation for Arts and Culture! …because it will bring joy into your life.

Sofia Panagiotopoulou Filologist

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1.8 GAME: ASSEMBLY TIME Students often find it difficult to integrate people, events, monuments and themes objects in the time line (historical line), resulting in the reconstitution of one of the whole era is difficult, as the Greek educational system permits exceptionally the thematic approach of the past. Books give information based on the distinction of the sciences, the specialization and thus lead to the fragmentation, the separation and fragmentation. Students receive the information but they find it difficult to integrate them into a general context and thus to reconstitute an era. To we speak computer language: the student stores information but not he knows, in which area of the hard drive exactly, in order to be able to retrieve them and to them make use of it. This game helps him become familiar with the concept of the past time, refresh and train him to fit and assemble his knowledge which are naughty, helps recover them and store them correctly in folders (which are historical periods) to be able to recall and use them. The fragmentary information is assembled into a whole and the student has the whole picture in front of him. Information from different scientific fields can be exploited, countries, cultures and all that different to match each other, to work together for to rebuild the past of the past through a holistic and collaborative approach. How to play: We confuse cards with the periods of history on the board and we divide students into groups. The students' representatives must have them put in time order. Students-judges timed the construction of the line and note its assembly time. Players then draw a card with one image or word and must place it under the season it fits.

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They have one hour of hourglass for card placement. If they do not, they have the right to ask for help from the public, ie their co-workers. The team wins which has managed to match most cards in the shortest possible time. Student judges (who have taken on this role) record whether the line has complemented correctly, time for completion and with the help of the teacher they accept the placement of the card if it is done correctly or otherwise they are asked by the opposing team to try. Gain the team that has correctly assembled the historical line and has correctly place most cards. More complex form: we have a dice with colors, card types with colors like 1.Sources art 2. Persons (political-military, writers, philosophers, artists) 3. Their work 4. Privities of persons 5. Parts of an era 6. High historical events. In this case if we succeed in holding the card or swap it to get it the right property card that fits the faces or projects we have placed on time line (historical line). We enjoy assembling cooperatively!!! Giota Petrakou Filologist

1.9 Long live the Greek song - Preparation and Presentation of a musical performance The activity concerns the preparation and presentation of a musical performance at the end of the school year, with Greek composers’ songs, choir and organic musical ensemble, addressed to secondary school pupils of all grades of high school, ie students aged between 12-15 years old. The pedagogical specificity

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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of the activity lies in the interaction of cognitive and pedagogical goals, since it brings in touch the participants with the last 100 years of the Greek music and at the same time leads to their gradual exploitation in a final product of artistic expression directly involving the human art of music and the song that accompanies man in every facet of his life even since the prehistoric years (Gardner H., 2006). The main pedagogical goal is for students to work creatively with the cultivation of the same expressive means within a cooperative framework, fostering the development of socio-emotional skills (Sherif M., 2015; Deutsch M., 1949). The aim is not so much the artistic excellence of the argument, but the participation and the effort. In the 3rd Gymnasium of Elefsina, a rehearsal of two and a half hours per week is organized throughout the school year, aiming to involve students in the creative process of a musical performance. A remarkable mobilization, interest and consistency it is shown, regarding the implementation of the program by all the students involved, many of whom have low-grade performance profiles with learning, social and emotional problems (Ames C., Archer J., 1988).

Teacher of Music Dimitra Flouda

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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2. Italy 2.ITALY 2. 2.1 Italy Early school leaving in Italy 2.1 leaving in Italy ItalyEarly is one school of the EU countries where early school leaving is a strong national emergency: 2.1 % of

secondary school students are not evaluated at the end of the year (3,6% during the first year). Italy is one of the EU countries where early school leaving is a strong national emergency: 2.1 % of secondary school students are not18evaluated at theold endwho of the the first year). In 2005 young people between and 24 years didyear not (3,6% obtainduring the junior school degree were 22%, while the European average attained 15% and the Lisbon goal has been fixed as 10% by 2010. In 2005 young people between 18 and 24 years old who did not obtain the junior school degree were 22%, the European average attained 15% below and thethe Lisbon goal has been (77.3%), fixed as 10% Youthwhile educational attainment level is 5 points European average and by far2010. from the relevant Lisbon goal (85%). Youth educational attainment level is 5 points below the European average (77.3%), and far from the relevant goalare (85%). The mainLisbon problems present especially in the suburbs of southern biggest cities (Napoli, Palermo, Bari, Catania) where poverty meets illegality and the State is out of this range. The main problems are present especially in the suburbs of southern biggest cities (Napoli, Palermo, Bari, Catania) whereispoverty meets and the is out ofwhere this range. The situation difficult also illegality in the north of State the country, industry requires workers with no qualification and many families do not generally consider that education is important for finding a work. The situation is difficult also in the north of the country, where industry requires workers with no qualification andearly many families do can not generally thatinside education is important finding work. The reasons of school living be found consider outside and the school: in thefor first case, apupils’ choices are influenced by factors such as familiar cultures, quality of infrastructures (transports, libraries, The reasons of early school living can be found outside and inside the school: in the first case, pupils’ communications) and income. Many students are not encouraged to attend school if they live in a negative choices are influenced by factors such as familiar cultures, quality of infrastructures (transports, libraries, environment (where cultural life is not developed) or they can’t find appropriate means of transport communications) and income. Many students are not encouraged to attend school if they live in a negative (journeys can be long and stressful, in particular in the mountains). environment (where cultural life is not developed) or they can’t find appropriate means of transport (journeys be long andcriticises stressful, the in particular the mountains). A Lower can House survey excessiveinrigidity of pathways, the debasement of vocational education and the increase of bullying attitudes, and states that the approach to pupils’ personality should A Lower House survey criticises the excessive rigidity of pathways, the debasement of vocational be improved. According to the above-mentioned inquiry, there are too many women in the education education and the increase of bullying attitudes, and states that the approach to pupils’ personality should system, and this can cause a lack of leadership model, especially for boys. be improved. According to the above-mentioned inquiry, there are too many women in the education system, and this can cause aprovides lack of leadership especially for boys. The Ministry of Education guidelines model, in this field and, occasionally, funds, and it delegates the planning and the management of projects to regions, local administrations and schools (according to their The Ministry of Education provides guidelines in this field and, occasionally, funds, and it delegates the autonomy level). As from April 2005 the Ministry of Education decree n. 76 highlights the regulations planning and the management of projects to regions, local administrations and schools (according to their related to the right to education, article n. 4 outlines actions for early school living prevention. autonomy level). As from April 2005 the Ministry of Education decree n. 76 highlights the regulations related to the right to education, article n. 4 outlines actions for early school living prevention. Measure n. 3 of the School National Operative Plan, co-financed by the European Social Fund and the European Fund for Regional Development, promotes strategies and projects in this field in southern Measure n. 3 of the School National Operative Plan, co-financed by the European Social Fund and the regions. European Fund for Regional Development, promotes strategies and projects in this field in southern regions. On the 29th June 2006 during an audition at the Lower House, the new Minister of Public Education, Giuseppe Fioroni, has defined the fight against early school leaving “the mother of all battles”: On the 29th June 2006 during an audition at the Lower House, the new Minister of Public Education, compulsory education attendance will be taken to 16 years old from the actual 15, regional and national Giuseppe Fioroni, has defined the fight against early school leaving “the mother of all battles”: compulsory education attendance will be taken to 16 years old from the actual 15, regional and national [104] [104] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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offices of pupils’ statistics will be established, special courses for immigrants are suggested to encourage social inclusion and lifelong learning will be empowered. offices of pupils’ statistics will be established, special courses for immigrants are suggested to encourage social inclusion and lifelong learning will be empowered. The responsibility of regions in the framework of Education is also specified in Title V of the Constitution (reformed in 2000): programmes, management and funding of vocational schools and education are provided locally. The responsibility of regions in the framework of Education is also specified in Title V of the Constitution (reformed in 2000): programmes, management and funding of vocational schools and education are provided locally. against ESL 2.2 Activities Liceo Artistico Preti-Frangipane in Reggio Calabria, thanks to the participation to the project Erasmus+

triesActivities to look for against strategiesESL in order to fight the early school leaving and tackling it. The students can 2.2

approach to Art thanks to use of laboratories of painting, ceramics , architecture , fashion design and Liceo Artistico Preti-Frangipane in Reggio Calabria,tothanks to the class participation to take the project graphics. The activities are modulated according the group and they part toErasmus+ different tries to lookand forprojects. strategies in order to fight the early school leaving and tackling it. The students can exhibitions approach to Art thanks to use of laboratories of painting, ceramics , architecture , fashion design and They workThe to cut dropoutare while increasing inclusiontoand particularly youngsters with graphics. activities modulated according theemployability, group class and they takeofpart to different backgrounds, in order to improve learning processes and key learning difficulties or from disadvantaged exhibitions and projects. skills, and provide students and their families with counselling, educational guidance and intercultural They work Erasmus+ to cut dropout while increasing inclusion and employability, particularly of prevent youngsters with mediation. Project envisages interventions to improve the school system and dropout, backgrounds, in order to improve learning processes and key learning difficulties or from disadvantaged thus favouring success in school. Strategies include increasing the amount of time pupils spent at school skills, and provide students and their families withtocounselling, educational guidance andareintercultural and developing customised teaching approaches address their weaknesses. Lessons tailored to mediation. Erasmus+ Project envisages interventions to improve the school system and preventtemporary dropout, students’ needs in order to motivate them. A higher teacher-to-pupil ratio, achieved by hiring thus in school. Strategies include increasing the amount of time pupils spent at school staff,favouring is the keysuccess to the improvements. and developing customised teaching approaches to address their weaknesses. Lessons are tailored to An additional includes development of an integrated approachbytohiring socialtemporary inclusion, students’ needsinnovative in order toaspect motivate them.the A higher teacher-to-pupil ratio, achieved which takes account of all the main barriers to inclusion facing disadvantaged students, such as learning, staff, is the key to the improvements. cultural, social and economic problems. An additional innovative aspect includes the development of an integrated approach to social inclusion, As well as account being beneficial students’ the project generated wider positive in which takes of all the for main barriers skills, to inclusion facing has disadvantaged students, such asimpacts learning, schools. It has helped to improve teaching and classroom organisation, and strengthened relationships cultural, social and economic problems. both among teachers and between teachers and students. It has also boosted students’ motivation, which As well as for being beneficial for and students’ skills, the project hasattendance. generated wider positive impacts in is the basis developing skills changing attitudes to school schools. It has helped to improve teaching and classroom organisation, and strengthened relationships Artistic courses: both among teachers and between teachers and students. It has also boosted students’ motivation, which is the basis for skills and changing • Woodendeveloping furniture and interior design attitudes to school attendance. Artistic courses: • Visual Arts-Paintings and Plastic three- dimensional art works ••

Wooden furniture and interior design Architecture and Environment

••

Visual Arts-Paintings and Plastic three- dimensional art works Ceramic design

••

Architecture and Environment Textile and Fashion design

Graphic Design

Programme co-funded by the European Union

Michelangelo Teaching Unit:

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LABORATORY OF Graphics, Design of Ceramics, Figurative Arts-Painting and Three-dimensio-


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Ceramic design

Textile and Fashion design

Graphic Design

Michelangelo Teaching Unit: LABORATORY OF Graphics, Design of Ceramics, Figurative Arts-Painting and Three-dimensional sectors (Painting and Plastic) WHO IS IT ADRESSED TO? The activity is addressed to the students of our school and in particular to students who have difficult experience in order to learn and to respect the rules, students at risk dropout.

Teachers who are involved The normal and support teachers will be able to plan handling activities for their students and for the school life of their class.

Premise The artistic works, realized in the various laboratories of the School such as Graphic Design, Ceramics, Figurative Arts - Pictorial and Three- dimensional addresses (Painting and Plastics) have been thought and designed by the Italian Consortium as free creations or as reproductions of works or as reinterpretations of artefacts of artistic and handicraft tradition of the three countries, Italy, Greece and Portugal, which have strengthened their friendship through the ERASMUS+ project "Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and Reducing Early School Leaving Through Fine Arts" aimed at comparing the educational systems applied in their schools for the study of possible strategies in order to fight the phenomenon of school dropout. Furthermore, the activities can become useful indicators for teachers of each student's artistic trends , by taking in consideration a new alternative form of communication which can promote himself.

Pedagogical principles The purpose of this activity is to create a space of real collaboration and inclusion, to go beyond the rigidity of a traditional school, closed in its strict structure, tending to level out the educational results. This activity is designed as a laboratory teaching (clearly inspired by the pedagogy of Dewey's activism) and some principles are taken into consideration: 1. Cooperation that effectively contributes to "freeing and organizing" the learner's skills by transforming it into skills.

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2. The educational value of the activities is connected to the flexibility of paths recognized as meaningful and useful in the task of intervening on reality. 3. The aims of education must be founded on the intrinsic needs of the learning subject. Therefore, the learning process will be favored not only because the student puts at the center of it their own interests but also by the experience that will assume a reinforcement value for the correct mode of interaction (circular or not) between teacher-student - group of students, thus eliminating the anxietyinducing interferences linked to the concept of judgment. This creates a serene educational space and the activities (practices, techniques, intellectuals, affective), intimately linked to each other, will assume an important function: of promoting cooperative behavior. Purposes • to Fight the phenomenon of school drop-out through art. • to Promote study motivation • to Strengthen self-esteem • to promote the idea of school as a context to respect and to attend with profit and pleasure. • to help the psycho-physical development of the students’ personality. • to develop in the students the knowledge of the self, by increasing the consciousness to take responsible choices. • to Remove situations of personal cultural disadvantage to help the full integration of each student. • to Develop and enhance understanding and re-elaboration skills with the support of visual and artistic language • to mature the ability to operate intellectually and manually for an intentional and verifiable result as a synthesis of a cognitive process • to enhance communication skills • to Provide a cultural and operational preparation that varies in content and is generally organic (also with the enhancement of interdisciplinary teaching), taking into account the particular characteristics, the methods of use, the expressive possibilities • to increase the love of art Aims • Identify early uncomfortable situations; • Intervene on the motivation for the students to study; • Promote the "good being" of children at school and in society,

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• Develop operational, handling and organizational skills; • Enhance personal autonomy and decision-making; • Be able to operate correctly with the tools, • Recognize materials and tools; • Be able to finish a job; • Acquire basic techniques; • Know the processing steps and name them • Compare your actions with others • Collaborate with classmates for the success of a project. • Improve divergent thinking Activities The first activities will be aimed at identifying the working tools present in the laboratory and the knowledge of the materials used. More technical steps will follow that will cover every single intervention discipline. The students will create simple products with a common thread between the three participating countries (Greece, Italy and Portugal). Methodology Increase student skills through: 1. New learning methods, (e-learning, learning by doing, cooperative learning, team work, problem solving) 2. Experiences of comparison and sharing to increase student participation and raise "communication levels" (also using new digital technologies) 3. Re-structuring of learning contexts, both as physical and virtual spaces (also using new digital technologies). The methodological approach that we intend to adopt aims to offer students the opportunity to experience multiple learning situations: • Focus group to improve dialogues and exchanges of opinion and keep the focus on a given topic, guided by the questions posed by the teacher. • Individual learning to promote reflection, internalization. • Learning (peer to peer, tutoring to carry out tasks side by side).

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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• Learning for small groups, to improve cooperative learning experiences or level groups for recovery and enhancement. The approach with the students is at first linked to the game and later it‘s more technical. This can be summarized in four phases: • Phase of the game, because the action of playing passes through one's own experience, gives meaning to the things that surround it, emphasizes the personal experience of the individual, becomes aware of their potential (press, smooth, scratch, add, remove , drill, etc.). • Information phase, to inform the child about the materials and tools he is using, in order to highlight the production cycle of an artefact, to discover new terms. • Phase of the construction, following the teacher's example, the students learn the basic techniques for modeling (pinching, molding, puffing, mixing, preparation and use of the slip, gluing of the parts, etc.) and to decorate (by brush, plunge, spray, sponge, etc., color and crystalline preparation). • Re-elaboration phase, after having experimented and acquired minimum knowledge, it’s possible to move to a phase of management and targeted use of knowledge with the possibility of developing an independent project. Organization It is a good idea to work for heterogeneous groups, if the activity needs to correct and motivate pupils who are difficult to behave responsibly, or involve low-level students. The activities are carried out in the ceramic laboratory, with organizational methods and time frame to agree with the participating teachers.

Evaluation The evaluation is carried out by the teachers in itinere, evaluating the achievement by the students of the objectives, above all a function of the empowerment of personal autonomy shown to the collaboration. Finally, the level of responsibility of each individual student is considered as regards the management of the given space and the equipment used. Indicators to be used for monitoring and evaluation of actions 1. Interest, motivation and active participation 2. Enhancing communication skills 3. Social and collaborative skills 4. Academic performance (improvement outcomes)

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Evaluation grid for “Artistic laboratory”

INDICATORS

Interest, motivation and active participation Setting up the test and correctness of proportions.

Mastery of executive techniques and their application.

Commitment and accuracy in exercises, participation inactivities didactic. Organizational skills and operational autonomy .

DESCRIPTORS None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good

MARK

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Mark in 10/mi 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2

……….…/10


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Evaluation andPainting Paintingsubjects” subjects” Evaluationgrid gridfor for“Graphic “Graphic and INDICATORS INDICATORS

DESCRIPTORS DESCRIPTORS

None None inadequate inadequate Insufficient Insufficient of the graphic-pictorial of the graphic-pictorial Sufficient Sufficient elaboration. Good elaboration. Good Very good Very Nonegood Skill by setting up a test. None Skill by setting up a test. Inadequate Inadequate Insufficient Correctness of proportions Insufficient Sufficient Correctness of proportions Sufficient Good Very good Good Nonegood Mastery of executive techniques Very Inedaquate and their application.techniques None Mastery of executive Insufficient Inedaquate and their application. Sufficient Insufficient Good Sufficient Very good Good None Commitment, interest, Very good Inedaquate participation and respect for the None Commitment, interest, Insufficient given time Sufficient participation and respect for the Inedaquate Insufficient Good given time Sufficient Very good None Good Organizational skills and Inedaquate Very good operative skill Insufficient None Organizational skills and Sufficient Inedaquate operative skill Good Insufficient Very good Sufficient Good Very good

Observation andskill skill Observation and

GOOD

GOOD

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Mark in in Mark 10/mi 10/mi 0 0 0.6 0.6 1 1 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.6 2 0 2 0.6 0 1 0.6 1.2 1 1.6 1.2 2 1.6 0 2 0.6 0 1 0.6 1.2 1 1.6 1.2 2 1.6 0 0.6 2 1 0 1.2 0.6 1.6 1 2 1.2 0 1.6 0.6 2 1 0 1.2 0.6 1.6 1 2

1.2

1.6 ……….…/10 2

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Evaluation grid for “Plastic and sculpture subjects”

INDICATORS

Observation and skill of the plastic-pictorial elaboration.

Skill by setting up a test. correctness of proportions

Mastery of executive techniques and their application.

Commitment, interest, participation and respect for the given time

Organizational skills and operative skill

Mark in 10/mi

DESCRIPTORS

0 0.6

None inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inadequate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inedaquate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inedaquate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good None Inedaquate Insufficient Sufficient Good Very good

1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2 0 0.6 1 1.2 1.6 2

GOOD

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Evaluation andDesign Designsubjects” subjects” Evaluationgrid grid for for “Projectual “Projectual and INDICATORS INDICATORS

DESCRIPTORS DESCRIPTORS

Interest, Interest,motivation motivationand andactive active participation participation

design designand anditsitsprocess process technical technicalrealization realization Project Projectdevelopment, development, Masteryofofexecutive executivetechniques techniques Mastery and and Creativeability ability Creative qualityand andoriginality originalityof ofthe the quality elaborate elaborate Organizationalskills skillsand and Organizational operative skill operative skill

None None inadequate inadequate Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Good Good Very good Very good None None Inadequate Inadequate Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Good Very good good None Inedaquate Inedaquate Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Good Very good good None None Inedaquate Inedaquate Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Good Good Very good Very good None None Inedaquate Inedaquate Insufficient Insufficient Sufficient Sufficient Good Good Very good Very good

Hands in ART Hands in ART [113] [113]

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Mark in Mark in 10/mi 10/mi 0 0 0.60.6 1 1 1.21.2 1.61.6 2 2 0 0 0.60.6 1 1 1.21.2 1.61.6 2 2 0 0 0.60.6 1 1 1.21.2 1.61.6 2 2 0 0 0.60.6 1 1 1.21.2 1.61.6 2 2 0 0 0.60.6

GOOD GOOD

1 1 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.6 2 2

……….…/10 ……….…/10


Very good 2 None 0 0.6 Inedaquate Insufficient 1 “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Sucess and Reducin Sufficient School 1.2 “Michelangelo: Ensuring Success and Good 1.6 Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” Fine Arts” Very good School Leaving through 2

Organizational skills and operative skill

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……….…/10 GOOD 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177

Hands in ART Wooden furniture and interior design Wooden furniture and interior design Wooden furniture and interior design course allows students to learn design skills concerning interior [113] to learn design skills concerning interior Wooden and interior course allows design, furniture furniture-making anddesign the restoration of artstudents works through innovative technologies. design, furniture-making and the restoration of art works through innovative technologies.

Wooden three-dimensional model for a public theatre Wooden three-dimensional model for a public theatre

Restoration wooden artworks Work in progress Restoration wooden artworks Work in progress

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Restoration wooden artworks Work in progress

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Visual arts- Painting course This course gives students the opportunity ofacquiring design skills concerning painting techniques, including the restoration of art works.

Visual arts- Painting course This course gives students the opportunity ofacquiring design skills concerning painting techniques, including the restoration of art works.

Visual arts; Plastic three-dimensional works course Visual arts; Plastic three-dimensional works course [116] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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OnOn thisthis course students acquire designdesign skills concerning sculpture sculpture and plasticand techniques course students acquire skills concerning plastic techniques

Architecture and Environment course

Architecture and Environment course [117]

[117] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Architecture and Environment course Here, students acquire design skills regarding architecture and gain knowledge of the relationship between architecture and the environment. [117]

Here, students acquire design skills regarding architecture and gain knowledge of the relationshi between architecture and the environment.

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Ceramic design course Ceramic design course These students can develop design concepts for making prototypes, technical drawingdrawing and decorating These students can develop design concepts for making prototypes, technical and decorating surfacessurfaces throughthrough traditional and modern techniques (potter’s wheel and 3D Printer), learning aestheticaesthetic traditional and modern techniques (potter’s wheel and 3D Printer), learning aspects aspects and functions of the ceramics. and functions of the ceramics.

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Textile and Fashion design course Textile and Fashion design course Students in this course can acquire a specific knowledge of the history of clothing, learn design skills and Students in this course canand acquire a specific knowledge of both the history of clothing, learntechniques. design skills and to create patterns, textiles modern clothing models, by traditional and modern to create patterns, textiles and modern clothing models, by both traditional and modern techniques.

Modelling and creation of a historical costume Modelling and creation of a historical costume

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Students' course for documentation Students' course for documentation

The of the course is the acquisition knowledge and skills forcataloging the application of the c The aim of the course is theaim acquisition of knowledge and skillsoffor the application of the standards of the various protection sectors in the General Information System of the Catalo standards of the various protection sectors in the General Information System of the Catalogue (SIGECweb). (SIGECweb). initiative of is part of the planning the alternation paths School-work The initiative is part ofThe the planning the alternation pathsofSchool-work

Our involved in the presentation Our students involved in thestudents presentation of the ancient texts of the ancient texts

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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GRAPHICS LAB Graphics activities took place in the main hall of the M. Preti Art School -A. Frangipane of Reggio Calabria, the presentation of the activities carried out in the work school alternation path, related to the project: "From the idea to the production” of the 3 ^ A of the Graphics address. Over a period of three months, for two days a week, the students divided into groups, have deepened some of the skills in the field of Graphics, related to the activities of Design, Photography and Implementation of elements on polystyrene, in three companies in the territory: • InMedia S.r.l. Smarty Print, with external tutor Paolo Amaddeo • Digital Photo, with external tutor Franco Fontana • Nordo company, with Giorgio Nordo as external tutor These activities have respected the main purpose of the path of alternation: creating a synergistic relationship between the school institution, the territory and the world of work, fostering and enhancing the curiosities and inclinations of the students once they are included in the productive contexts of the companies involved, with experiences that give concrete support to future orientation and choice.

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Students of the 3 ^ A of the Graphics address at work

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Dual System school and work.

Dual System school and work. Work experience is considered a very useful learning strategy against early school leaving, because it encourages socialization, self-esteem, cooperative learning and motivation to study, as well as establishing an active postgraduate orientation for a student’s future projection in the labour market or in University studies. Activity summary Alternation School Work Class 5 ^ D Design Address of Furniture and Wood School Years 2016-2017- 2017-2018 Tutors Profs. Roberta Filardi and Salvatore Palmeri The restoration site at the church of Spirito Santo -Scilla (Rc) The project alternating school-work "Conservative recovery of wooden furniture of the Church of the Holy Spirit of Scilla "arrived at the second annuity, for how much relates to the activities concerning the conservation of wooden works was conducted according to pre-established programs. The general and detailed survey campaign for all the artefacts was resumed, and in particular, we focused on the importance of their state of conservation. Furthermore, the support provided by the Department of Architecture was used of the University of Reggio Calabria: to illustrate how to perform the survey using a laser scanner, providing students with new methods and knowledge on relevant techniques; with a twelve-hour seminar on a theoretical application path on the survey indirect, both architecturally and in detail.

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Conservativeoperations operationswere werealso alsocarried carriedout out(mechanical (mechanicalcleaning, cleaning,cleaning cleaningchemistry chemistryand and Conservative disinfestation), illustrated below, preparatory to what will be resumed next year. disinfestation), illustrated below, preparatory to what will be resumed next year. Allactivities activitieswere werecarried carriedout outunder underthe thesupervision supervisionofofthe theArch. Arch.Roberta RobertaFilocamo, Filocamo,Tutor Tutorofofthe the All Superintendencefor forArchitectural ArchitecturalHeritage Heritageand andLandscape Landscapeofofthe theprovinces provincesofofReggio ReggioCalabria Calabriaand and Superintendence ViboValentia. Valentia. Vibo This intervention wasperformed, performed,primarily, primarily,totoremove removesurface surfacedeposits depositsinconsistent, inconsistent,weakly weaklydeposited deposited This intervention was thesupports supports(Syracuse (Syracusestone). stone). totothe Thecleaning cleaningwas wascarried carriedout outmechanically mechanicallybybythe theuse useofofbrushes brushesplus plushair hairless lessrigid, rigid,depending dependingononthe the The tenacity of the deposit to be removed, scrapers, spatulas and brooms. The mechanical action was helped tenacity of the deposit to be removed, scrapers, spatulas and brooms. The mechanical action was helped withthe theuse useofofnon-direct non-directwater waterononthe thesurface surfacebut butleft lefttotoact actfor forrelapse, relapse,totosoften softenthe thedebris debristotobebe with removed. removed. Chemicalcleaning cleaninginterventions interventions Chemical Eachcleaning cleaningoperation operationhas hasbeen beengraded gradedand andselective selective(both (bothtotocontrol controlthe theintensity intensityand andthe theamount amountofof Each matter to be removed, and both in order to choose what remove and leave) and, above all, avoid matter to be removed, and both in order to choose what remove and leave) and, above all, totoavoid damaging the support. damaging the support.

Viewofofthe thesuburb suburbwhere whereisisthe theChurch Church“Saint “SaintSpirit” Spirit”ininScilla Scilla View

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“PRESERVING TO DISCOVER OUR ARTISTIC HERITAGE " The State Art High School "M. Preti / A. Frangipane "of Reggio Calabria was ranked first in the contest" Stories of Alternating Award 2018 ", promoted by the Chamber of Commerce and the In.Form.a Agency of Reggio Calabria for the project of alternation" Conservative restoration of the Church of Spirito Santo di Scilla (RC) ". A three-year course, started in 2015 and completed in 2018, which involved some high school students attending the "Design of furniture and wood" address for the development of a real yard of conservation restoration related to some wooden furnishings of the church of Spirito Santo di Scilla. The construction phase was accompanied by archival-documentary research at the Diocesan Historical Archive of Reggio Calabria, a preliminary and fundamental moment for the start of any restoration work. The project was therefore shared with the Archdiocese of Reggio Calabria and Bova for the activities carried out at the Diocesan Historical Archive and with the Superintendency for Fine Arts and Landscape for the construction activities at the church. School tutors: prof.ssa Roberta Filardi, professor of art history and prof. Salvatore Palmeri, teacher of wood restoration. Our external tutors: Dr. Maria Pia Mazzitelli, director of the diocesan historical archive, and the arch. Roberta Filocamo, an official of the Superintendency. During the course of the work, we took advantage of the collaboration of Domenico Mediati and Manuela Bassetta, architects of the Department of Art and the Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, for specific activities on some wooden artifacts of the church through the use of lasers-3D scanner. At the end of the course the students made a video of a summary of all the work; the multimedia product was presented on 21 November 2018 at the Sala Calipari of Palazzo Campanella, on the occasion of the Orientation Hall and the award ceremony. A heartfelt thanks to the Chamber of Commerce of Reggio Calabria and of course to all the actors who in various skills have participated in this experience that enhances the artistic skills, and specific sector, gained by students in the work of Cultural Heritage and Research. Thanks especially to the students of the "M.Preti / A.Frangipane" Art School of Reggio Calabria, testimonial of the cultural heritage of our territory. The students involved are: BATTAGLIA Elisa, D’AMICO Marianna, GERIA Michael Francesco, LEVITA Jan Richard, MANCA Demetria Barbara, MARRAFFA Ylenia, MINNITI Saverio, NICOLAZZO Michela, PAINO Daniela,ROMEO Davide, SCAMBIA Francesca, SOTTILOTTA Elena, VILLA Annalisa.

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Choir left side

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Packaging Packaging Packaging Packaging Packaging

FirstFirst levellevel of left sideside platform of left platform First Firstlevel level First of oflevel left leftside side of left platform platform side platform

Inconsistent deposits Inconsistent deposits Inconsistent Inconsistent Inconsistent deposits deposits deposits

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Priestly armchair

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Priestly Priestly armchair armchair

xilophagus xilophagus attack attack

non-coherent assemblies

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non-coherent assemblies

Packaging

Summary thethe path of Dual System School WorkWork ClassClass 5 ^ D5address DesignDesign InteriorInterior Design Design and Wood Summaryofof path of Dual System School ^ D address and Third -a.s. 2017-2018 WoodAnnuity Third Annuity -a.s. 2017-2018 Multimedia andand final activity of the activities connected to thetoArchive searchsearch MultimediaLaboratory Laboratory final activity of the activities connected the Archive Tutors

Tutors

Profs. Roberta Filardi and Salvatore Palmeri

Profs. Roberta Filardi and Salvatore Palmeri

For the third year of the project we worked in the School for the definition of the video and the final For the third year of the project wethis worked in the School forimportant the definition of theinventoried video and the exhibition of the whole path, and for we selected the most documents bothfinal at exhibition of the whole path, and for this we selected the most important documents inventoried the Diocesan Historical Archives of Reggio Calabria and at the Parish Archives of the SS. Immacolata at (RC) the Diocesan Historical Archives of Reggio Calabria and at the Parish Archives of the SS. diboth Scilla and li

Immacolata di Scilla (RC) and li we have transcribed under the care and monitoring of the external

tutor, Maria Pia Mazzitelli, of the Diocesan Historical Archive Reggio Calabria. we haveDr. transcribed under the care director and monitoring of the external tutor, Dr. MariaofPia Mazzitelli, director of the Diocesan Historical Archive of Reggio Calabria.

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2.3 Reflections Different situations and circumstances lie behind “drop-out”: ESL is also a social phenomenon and its 2.3 Reflections

causes are not purely educational. But the quality of school education has a strong impact on its incidence. Different situationstheand circumstances lie in behind “drop-out”: is system also a social phenomenon andatitsthe same Improving quality of education individual schoolsESL and at level helps all students causes are educational. the quality of school education has a strong impact on its incidence. timenot aspurely reducing the risk ofBut dropping-out. Improving the quality of education in individual schools and at system level helps all students at the same time as reducing the risk of dropping-out. [142]

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If key actors such as parents are disengaged, it deeply undermines the success of school education and means that warning signs are more easily missed. Cooperation between families and school is indispensable especially for pupils at risk of ESL. Michelangelo project demonstrate that innovative approaches which support communication with parents, which create partnerships between parents and schools and which enhance mutual understanding, can successfully help. Moreover, any strategy to decrease ESL should include a well-prepared and motivated teaching force. However, teachers are often discouraged when constantly faced with difficult teaching and working conditions. We saw that activities after and outside school can raise self-esteem, improve motivation and support learning processes. The importance of non-formal and also non-academic education for reducing ESL is uncontested; after-school activities need to find the right balance between supporting homework and bringing learning into spaces such as sports and community centers. That's why solving problems at school cannot be done effectively without tackling the range of problems that put children in difficulty: partnerships at the local level seem to be highly effective ways of doing this. The “Michelangelo” experience proved to be innovative and meaningful to those who took part, as the outcome clearly demonstrate. In sum we have to underline some recommendation: • the need to put forward personal and tailored interventions and analyses which can favour targeted actions rather than interventions en masse; the need to take care of the proper training of those dealing with drop-out adolescents and minors. • Counselling activities involve minors in a self-exploration and monitoring, which are thought to be essential to carry out effective orientation-based actions. • The opportunity to involve students coming from more stable and normal educational paths; they should tutor in orientation actions and drop-out prevention, being therefore role models and convey a positive way to live school. To address this situation it is vital to recognize that while early leaving is, on the surface, an issue for education and training systems, its underlying causes are embedded in wider social and political contexts. Early leaving is fundamentally shaped by countries’ broader policies for the economy, employment, social affairs, health and so on: only a comprehensive approach to tackling early leaving, therefore, can be effective and sustainable.

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3. PORTUGAL

3. PORTUGAL Best Practices 3. 1-Introduction The Michelangelo project is a valuable opportunity for the Portuguese consortium to reflect, deepen and discuss the importance of art as a powerful educational tool that should serve to promote school success. The central question is: how can the school, faced with a rigid, focused and success-oriented model, based on a very formal, evidence-based evaluation system with programs that have to be fulfilled religiously, can find room for differences and students 'needs, to their potential, and find the space to experiment with alternative strategies that promote students' well-being that lead them to experience success in a school context? The following pages try to find some clues to this question. The purpose of this report is therefore to frame some national education policies that are undergoing an accelerated process of change, focusing mainly on promoting school success and preventing dropout, and laying the foundations for a more inclusive, fairer school with more opportunities for the students. We will also try to share a set of projects and good practices existing in the educational territory of Barcelos and at national level, which become distinct and differentiating, using innovative strategies and methodologies based on art, oriented to a preventive approach to school failure, or to approaches remediation with students with educational processes marked by failure and in clear risk of dropping out. In a world that gives us signs every day of intolerance, of not respecting difference and diversity, this privileged space of sharing innovative educational experiences, from the use of art, leaves us an open door so that each of our countries, can share European values of cooperation, thinking that despite linguistic and cultural differences, we share the same values, ideals and the same roots, we strive for an inclusive school where all students have the right to experience success and to have the conditions not to abandon school early, strongly believing in Nélson Mandela's ideal that "education is the most powerful weapon of a people." 3. 2- Portuguese educational policies to promote school success and combat school dropout: a dynamic and paradigm-changing educational system.

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We will also try to share a set of projects and good practices existing in the educational territory of Barcelos and at national level, which become distinct and differentiating, using innovative strategies and methodologies based on art, oriented to a preventive approach to school failure, or to approaches remediation with students with educational processes marked by failure and in clear risk of dropping out.

“Michelangelo: Ensuring School and Reducin “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success In a world that gives us signs every day of intolerance, of not respectingand differenceSucess and diversity, this privileged space of sharing innovative educational experiences, from the use of art, leaves us an open Reducing Early SchoolEarly Leaving through Fine Arts” School Leaving through Fine Arts” door so that each of our countries, can share European values of cooperation, thinking that despite 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 linguistic and cultural differences, we share the same values, ideals and the same roots, we strive for an 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 inclusive school where all students have the right to experience success and to have the conditions not to abandon school early, strongly believing in Nélson Mandela's ideal that "education is the most powerful weapon of a people." 3. 2- Portuguese educational policies to promote school success and combat school dropout: a dynamic and paradigm-changing educational system. We can not fail to start this report, pointing out that we are living a very special moment in the national educational scene, due to legislation introduced at the beginning of the 2018/2019 school year, and that in a way change the whole paradigm of education in Portugal. The decree law n. 54/2018 and dec. law n.55 /2019, published on July 6, 2018, introduces profound changes in the education sector. The two decrees of law are intimately linked, the first refers to inclusive education, structuring levels of educational measures [144]according to the competencies, potentialities and difficulties of students, ending the highly stigmatizing concept of special education and students with special educational needs. The dec.law 55/2018, introduces the enormous challenge to schools to be able to flexibilize their curricula, according to the contexts, with the social, cultural and economic specificities of the origin of their students, giving back to the school autonomy and accountability so that they can promote curricula more responsive to student needs and thus promote school success. These two decrees of law arise following another structuring document published in the year 2017 by the Ministry of Education that very accurately outlined the profile that students should have at the end of their educational process. A document guiding the competences that should be privileged during the educational process of the students and that call for the importance of reinforcing areas such as citizenship and the development of soft skills, as these transversal competences are fundamental for the adaptation of students to the real world. Together with all the legislative changes, the Ministry of Education and the local authorities launched very robust programs, starting with 2017, aimed at promoting school success, reducing failure and combating school drop-out, namely the School Success Promotion Program and the Integrated Plans to Combat School Dropout and Failure, with a number of tailor-made projects, where schools were surveyed, in order to create broad, diversified, and reality-adjusted educational responses. We also summarize some of the structural educational measures promoted by the Ministry of Education during the last years and which have proved to be fundamental, for the reduction of school drop-out and for the promotion of educational success: • Strong investment in pre-school education, allowing a broad network that responds to children from 3 years of age. This measure, in addition to promoting the integral development of children, makes it possible to detect early psychoeducational problems, adjusting educational pathways and intervening in a celere way. • The subsequent extension of compulsory schooling, passing in this last amendment to the law for the 18 years of age, has allowed many young people to be later in school, thus preventing some context of risk and social vulnerability, thus increasing their opportunities. • The creation of differentiated educational responses for students with unsuccessful school paths, focusing on the work of personal and professional skills while also allowing them to obtain academic qualifications. We talk about answers such as Training Education Courses, Vocational Courses and Integrated Training and Education Programs.

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for the promotion of educational success: • Strong investment in pre-school education, allowing a broad network that responds to children from 3 years of age. This measure, in addition to promoting the integral development of children, makes it possible to detect early psychoeducational problems, educational and intervening in “Michelangelo: Ensuring Sucess and Reducing “Michelangelo: Ensuringadjusting School Success School andpathways a celere way.

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• The subsequent extension of compulsory schooling, passing in this last amendment to the law for the 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 18 years of age, has allowed many young people to be2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 later in school, thus preventing some context of risk and social vulnerability, thus increasing their opportunities. • The creation of differentiated educational responses for students with unsuccessful school paths, focusing on the work of personal and professional skills while also allowing them to obtain academic qualifications. We talk about answers such as Training Education Courses, Vocational Courses and Integrated Training and Education Programs. • The successive extension of the network of vocational training provision, allowing the creation of more adapted responses for students according to their expectations and vocational preferences, while preparing them for the labor market. [145]

• The investment in specific projects in areas of greater social vulnerability, and where the numbers of failure seem to be very significant. We speak of the creation of Priority Territories for Educational Action, where there is a reinforcement of human and technical resources with the objective of creating specific and local responses to problems of school failure, or specific programs to work in conjunction with the school context, poverty and social exclusion, as advocated by the so-called “Programa Escolhas”. • An important educational response to the clearly inadequate response was the commitment of specialized and multidisciplinary teams to support schools, including the allocation of technicians such as psychologists, speech therapists and social workers, to work in an integrated manner areas that are outside the usual competencies of the teaching This is the starting point for national policy, which allows us to be optimistic about the future. Despite the advances that have taken place in the number of education in Portugal in the last 30 years, the truth is that the education system seems to remain very unadjusted to the needs of our students and the changes

3.3-Municipal Educational Policies: projects that prove to be good educational practice, with art as a privileged tool. 3.3.1- The starting scenario In this systemic view of education, the word inclusion is of central importance. A truly educating city is a city that does not exclude anyone from this process. Concepts such as equal opportunities and integration are thus key variables in a city that is genuinely concerned with the education of its citizens. Barcelos as a territory integrated in the Territorial Network of Educating Cities, assumes this challenge. From the moment of belonging to this great World network, it gives him greater responsibilities in the field of Education. In the premises of the Charter of Educating Cities it is clear that in an educating city the responsibility of educating is of the whole community, having a concept of education a broad spectrum, in an integrated vision of different areas of people's lives, and in a longitudinal reach of education throughout life. We already know that phenomena such as school underachievement and school dropping, in addition to being an educational problem, which school has to face and intervene in the most immediate way possible – have a much broader reach, by contributing directly to social exclusion, lack of opportunities, as well as to wider social phenomena such as unemployment, lack of qualifications, and ultimately on poverty’s cycles perpetuated from generation to generation.

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Based on this scenario, the Municipality carries out very important responsibilities by promoting an environment on its educative territory, favourable to the promotion of educative success without excluding any of its students. Although the Municipality has no competences to assume responsibilities in what concerns pedagogical contents, since it is a responsibility of the Ministry of Education, it is a privileged partner to different educative unities. It assumes a role as a facilitator, by promoting a set of educative policies that compete directly in order to guarantee the success of all students and by preventing their school underachievement. The excellence of Barcelos at the regional educative panorama and even the national one has been recognized by very favourable indicators into various educative parameters and the recognition of several projects that have been highlighted in several contests, by awarding schools and students from the territory of Barcelos. Another important aspect concerns to a constant alignment and the cooperative spirit between the Municipality and different school consortiums. All educative politics and all complementary projects are always based on a logic of discussion, thought, diagnosis and share between the Municipality and the schools, which makes them feel more involved and engaged in the process. Actually, all the efforts of the education system, the significant improvements in resources and investment in policies oriented to success, there has been a very significant gap between the needs and characteristics of today's students and the school's response as an institution that leads the formal learning processes. School has not kept pace with social changes, which have transformed families, lifestyles of people and consequently, of its students. In this gap emerges the processes of school failure, the processes of exclusion, and the processes that culminate in abandonment and in all the problems that are associated with it. The following will describe a set of educational experiences, projects and activities that take place in the educational landscape of Barcelos, which aim, above all, to give students the opportunity to have differentiated educational responses, potentiators of school success and prevention of school dropout, showing that art is a very powerful pedagogical tool.

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3.3.2- Triciciclo – identidade

Art, culture, education and social inclusion have always gone hand in hand. The brief experience reported in this description goes far beyond simple reporting. It is not possible to put in these words, the process, the emotion the surroundings, the smiles. Let's start by framing what TRICYCLE is. Barcelos was considered at the end of the first decade of the century as the "Capital of Rock", the fruit of years of exporting quality music to the whole world. At present, the taste and initiative has not faded and the new and older generations continue to make the quiet town of Barcelos a unique case on a national level. And in this context the Tricycle is born. The tricycle is thus a cycle of itinerant concerts that travels through several spaces of the historical center of Barcelos with the best national and international music. To the concerts, there are also workshops and showcases, assuming a plural and educational character, truly involving the Barcelense community.

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It was in this scenario that the project was developed: Tricycle Identity. A remarkable project, which combines music as a universal language, as a mechanism for social integration. Thus, a group of renowned musicians of the Barcelense panorama, left the world of the Stage, the studios, the rehearsals, and went to the peripheries, where there is a lack of opportunities, social exclusion. The Abel Varzim Social Center, a privileged partner of the Municipality, is a reference institution in the municipality of Barcelos, counting on several social responses among them, we highlight a Child Care Center and a project to support the integration of Roma communities. Thus, through a partnership with this center, we selected a group of young people and children in situations of great vulnerability and social exclusion, with educational problems among others, who were invited for two weeks to prepare a musical / cultural show within the scope of the project Tricycle, to be presented in a public space, namely at the Gil Vicente-Barcelos Theater. It was intense days, full of emotions, unforgettable experiences, marked by the brightness in the eyes and enormous motivation, of the musicians, of the technicians but especially of the children and the young people. An experience of personal valorization from art, from experimentation of success from music, which can and should be transferred to the different contexts of life of these children and young people. One of the contexts where this experience can and should be transferred is certainly for the school context. Many of the children, being in the school context "labeled" as having behavioral, attention, motivation or learning problems, have proved in all the tests for the show that they are competent. They are able to have rules, to know how to behave, to be very motivated in performing a task and to easily learn the chords, lyrics and sequences of the show. The first question that arises is that the school does not know how to harness the potential of the tool that is art, to promote school success, when we all realize the effectiveness of it? IDENTIDADE, was much more than a simple musical and cultural spectacle. It was a time when we all realized that independently in our life history, our socioeconomic condition, our ethnicity, we all have the right to express our potential for success and to feel integrated. The 9 of March of 2019 was the fulfillment of this dream and because a image is worth a thousand words we leave to the following the photographic translation of this moment.

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3.3.3- Project: "Arts in Motion" Starting point The pilot project “Arts in motion” has been carried out as part of the Erasmus+ (KA201) Project, titled “A School for tomorrow: Dropout Prevention, Intervention and Retrieval through Art Education”. It’s proposed to each partner country, Portugal, Italy and Poland the development of projects, educational practices and innovative methodologies, by using art as a privileged tool to tackle the failure and school dropping. In Portugal, the project’s consortium was constituted by the Municipality of Barcelos, the Schools Consortium of Barcelos and the Intercultural Association Mobility Friends. In Italy they are: Liceo artístico M. Preti – A. Frangipane , Associazione Darsana Teranga and Comune di Reggio Calabria In Poland the partners are the following ones: Gmina Chorkowka, Zespol Szkol Ksztalcenia Ustawicznego and Krosnienski Uniwersytet Trzeciego Wieku. It was proposed the development of a pilot experience which cross the principles of Formal and Non-Formal Education. It would be developed in a Non-Formal Education at cultural spaces of the municipality of Barcelos, with a strong pedagogical and educational component – Gil Vicente Theatre, Municipal Gallery of Art, Pottery Museum, Municipal Library, etc. The Project was carried out from February until June 2018. The Project started with a group of teenagers, which was previously selected by the school. This group composed by students attending professional training courses had common characteristics such as the risk to drop school and education failure, and the indicators considered for integration into the group were: - Age (students at the age of 18 or completing 18 years old before finishing high school) - The number of school failures in previous years - The number of subjects to be done - A set of behavioural characteristics identified by teachers which hampers the educational performance such as: Lack of motivation, lack of interest in learning and school, low self-esteem, lack of concentration and attention, lack of interest, low commitment, low participation, etc.

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Preparatory methodology Initially, the methodology designed to the project envisaged: . Meetings with School and Municipality’s Teams (members of school’s board, members responsible for the project at school and technicians of the Municipality) . Meetings with homeroom teachers of the courses which the students are attending on . Meetings with all involved students’ teachers . Meetings with parents . Contacts/invitations to artists/experts from different cultural and artistic areas . Holding of intermediate meetings with teachers and parents in order to analyse the impact of the project on the life of students at academic level and development of personal competencies. . At the end of the project, holding of evaluation sessions with all players (Municipality, school board, teachers, students, parents and invited artists).

However, given some restrictions, it was just possible to achieve: . Meetings with School and Municipality’s Team (members of school’s board, members responsible for the project at school and technicians of the Municipality) . Meetings with some parents . Meetings with homeroom teachers of the courses which the students are attending on . Contacts/invitations to artists/experts from different cultural and artistic areas . Informal contacts to take note of the opinions of some players (students, teachers and parents) about the project.

[152] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Constitution of the group The school was the responsible for the selection of students, by taking into account the above mentioned criteria and the need for student participation to be voluntary and authorized by the parents, since the project does not integrate the school curriculum. Nine teenagers, three girls and six boys were selected, between the ages of 17 and 18, of five different professional courses (AI – Childhood education technician / ANIM – Sociocultural entertainer / AS – Healthcare auxiliary / EAC – Technician of Electronics, Automation and Computers / GEI – Technician of Informatics Equipment Management). Four of those youth had special education needs (NEE).

●Nine teenagers

●Three girls and eight boys

●Aged between 17 and 18

●Five professional courses

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Spaces of non-formal education and structure of sessions Seven cultural/artistic spaces and eight artistic areas were selected to the project:

Seven cultural/artistic spaces:

Eight cultural/artistic areas:

Gil Vicente Theatre

Movement/Dance

Municipal Art Gallery

Plastic Arts

T

Pottery Museum

Theatre

S

Municipal Library

Music

Espaço Público

Literature

A R

The Project started in February 2018 and finished in June 2018. Eighteen sessions were performed. All sessions regardless of the artistic area were based on the following assumptions: . Knowledge and perception of different cultural and artistic spaces . Artistic experiences created for each space . Experimentation vs visit . The creative process from individual experience . Continuous speech ensured by a common facilitator to all sessions . Focus on the creation and potential of teenagers regardless of expressed difficulties and fears.

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At each session a photographic register of the creations and dynamics was made. It was also made a selfawareness sessions through a written record, made by the students, by It using At eachregister session of a photographic register of the creations and dynamics was made. was the alsofollowing made a selfsentences: I enjoyed…/I didn’t enjoy…/ I thought…/ I felt…/I wished…/ I found…/ I… awareness register of sessions through a written record, made by the students, by using the following enjoyed…/I didn’twhich enjoy…/ I thought…/ I felt…/I wished…/ofI found…/ I… areas to the Thesentences: scheduledIboard of sessions, follows below, allows a perception the designed development of the project. The scheduled board of sessions, which follows below, allows a perception of the designed areas to the development of the project. Scheduled sessions Scheduled sessions Eighteen sessions | from feb. to jun.2018 Eighteen sessions | from feb. to jun.2018

Sessão Data Horário Sessão Data Horário 10:10am 5.Feb. 12:30pm 1 10:10am 12:30pm 5.Feb. 1 10:10am 10:10am 12:30pm 9.Feb. 2 12:30pm 9.Feb. 2 10:00am 10:00am 19.Feb. 12:30pm 3 19.Feb. 12:30pm 3 09:10am 09:10am 26.Feb. 11:30am 4 26.Feb. 11:30am 4 10:10am 10:10am 7.Mar. 12:30pm 5 7.Mar. 12:30pm 5 14:20pm 14:20pm 12.Mar. 16:50pm 6 12.Mar. 16:50pm 6 10:10am 10:10am 15.Mar 12:30pm 7 15.Mar 12:30pm 7 10:10am 10:10am 21.Mar. 12:30pm 8 21.Mar. 12:30pm 8 10:10am 10:10am 11.Apr. 12:30pm 9 11.Apr. 12:30pm 9

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Local Orientador Local Orientador

Área Área

TGV Marta Maciel TGV Marta Maciel

Presentation Presentation

TGV Marta Maciel TGV Marta Maciel

Music and painting Music and painting

TGV Marta Maciel TGV Marta Maciel

Cinema Cinema

TGV/EP Cláudio Brochado TGV/EP Cláudio Brochado

Heritage/Identity Heritage/Identity

GAL Marta Maciel GAL Marta Maciel

Painting Painting

TGV Pedro Carvalho TGV Pedro Carvalho

Movement/Dance Movement/Dance

TGV/EP Cláudio Brochado TGV/EP Cláudio Brochado

Heritage/Identity Heritage/Identity

BIBLI Marta Maciel BIBLI Marta Maciel

Literature Literature

MUS Marta Maciel MUS Marta Maciel

Craftsmanship Craftsmanship

[155] [155] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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10:10am 10:10am 10 10 20.Apr. 12:30pm 20.Apr.12:30pm

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BIBLI Chagas Freitas writing BIBLI Pedro Pedro Chagas FreitasCreative Creative writing

10:10am 10:10am 11 11 24.Apr. 12:30pm 24.Apr.12:30pm

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TGV Figueiredo TGV JoãoJoão Figueiredo

Dramatic Game Dramatic Game

14:20pm 14:20pm 12 12 30.Apr. 30.Apr.16:50pm 16:50pm

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TGV Carvalho TGV Pedro Pedro Carvalho

Design of performance Design of performance

10:10am 10:10am 13 13 9.May 12:30pm 9.May 12:30pm

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TGV Serra TGV Alberto Alberto Serra

Performance andand Voice Performance Voice

10:10am 10:10am 14 14 25.May 12:30pm 25.May12:30pm

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Ateliê Coquenão Ateliê LuísLuís Coquenão

Painting Painting

10:10am 10:10am 15 15 30.May 12:30pm 30.May12:30pm

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EP EP

Photography Photography

14:20pm 14:20pm 16 16 4.Jun. 4.Jun. 16:50pm 16:50pm

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TGV Carvalho TGV Pedro Pedro Carvalho

Rehearsals Rehearsals

14:20pm 14:20pm 16:50pm 13.Jun 16:50pm 17 17 13.Jun

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TGV Pedro Pedro Carvalho TGV Carvalho

Dress rehearsal Dress rehearsal

Marta Maciel Marta Maciel

Afternoon andand Afternoon evening TGV Pedro Pedro Carvalho 14.Jun.evening TGV Carvalho 18 18 14.Jun.

Performance presentation Performance presentation

At the of the project a final performance presented, performed members of the group At the endend of the project a final performance waswas presented, performed withwith members of the group in in two sessions, one of them to the school community and another open to the public at the Gil Vicente two sessions, one of them to the school community and another open to the public at the Gil Vicente th Theatre. It took place onth14 2018. JuneJune 2018. Theatre. It took place on 14

[156] [156] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Development of the project: photographic travel

Development of the photographic travel Development ofproject: the project: photographic travel 

Programme co-funded by the European Union

session: Gil Vicente Theatre Theatre | Presentation 1st1st session: Gil Vicente | Presentation  1st session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Presentation

 2nd session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Music and Painting and Painting

session: 2nd session: GilTheatre Vicente Theatre | Music 2nd Gil Vicente | Music and Painting

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 4th and 7th session: Public Spaces | Heritage and Identity

 4th and 7th session: Public Spaces | Heritage and Identity

 4thand4th 7thand session: 7th session: PublicPublic SpacesSpaces | Heritage | Heritage and Identity and Identity

 5th session: Municipal Art Gallery | Painting

 5th session: Municipal Art Gallery | Painting  5thsession: 5th session: Municipal Municipal Art Gallery Art Gallery | Painting | Painting

 6th Session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Movement and Dance

 6th Session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Movement and Dance

 6th Session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Movement and Dance

 6thSession: 6th Session: Gil Vicente Gil Vicente Theatre Theatre | Movement | Movement and Dance and Dance Programme co-funded by the European Union

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 8th 8th session: Pottery Museum | Crafstmanship session: Pottery Museum | Crafstmanship 8th session: Pottery Museum | Crafstmanship  session: Pottery Museum | Crafstmanship 8th8th session: Pottery Museum | Crafstmanship

10th session: Municipal Library | Creative Writing 10th 10th session: Municipal Library | Creative Writing  session: Municipal Library | Creative Writing 10th session: Municipal Library | Creative Writing

 10th session: Municipal Library | Creative Writing

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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[160] [160] [160] [160]

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 11th session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Dramatic Game

 12th session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Movement and Dance

 13th session: Gil Vicente Theatre |  Performance and Voice

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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 14th session: Artist’s atelier | Painting  14th session: Artist’s atelier | Painting  14th session: Artist’s atelier | Painting

 15th session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Design of performance  15th session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Design of performance  15th session: Gil Vicente Theatre | Design of performance

[162] [162] [162]

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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Some thoughts: The surprisingof success Some thoughts: The surprisingof success

The students started the project showing some mistrust. For them, this is a new project with completely new areas andthe challenges, which cause fear of failure, along with a The students started project showing some strangeness, mistrust. Formistrust, them, thisfragility, is a newthe project with completely set ofand activities that don’t the evaluation and that are notthe considered on the along evaluation new areas challenges, whichcount causefor strangeness, mistrust, fragility, fear of failure, with process a set of activities that don’t count for the evaluation and that are not considered on the evaluation process. The students (who are in the project because they have learning difficulties, subjects to be done and lack

of motivation the school) showed, however, commitment even to a be gradual courage The students (who aretoingothetoproject because they have learning difficulties,and subjects done and lack on the execution activities. of motivation to of gothe to different the school) showed, however, commitment and even a gradual courage on the execution of the differenttoactivities. In what concerns the students involved in this project, it was a success.Because they gave it all. Firs

all they to gave benefit of the doubt. gotit involved, even feeling they themselves In whatofconcerns thethe students involved in this They project, was a success.Because gave it discomfortable all. First Even discrediting themselves and their abilities, they got involved. of all they gave the benefit of the doubt. They got involved, even feeling themselves discomfortable. Even discrediting themselvesThey and their abilities, they got involved. And they surprised. surprised their trainers, teachers, parents and above all, they surprised themselves. And that changed the concept which they about themselves, theirthey self-esteem, And they surprised. They surprised their trainers, teachers,had parents and above all, surprisedand the ability to risk and to believe. It changed their motivation, expectations and self-confidence. changed themselves. And that changed the concept which they had about themselves, their self-esteem, and Itthe them to the point they “turned upside down” and because of that, the final performance was ability to risk and to believe. It changed their motivation, expectations and self-confidence. It changed named “Upside down”. them to the point they “turned upside down” and because of that, the final performance was named “Upside down”. all students involved in the project have agreed voluntarily to participate, the resistance to al Although initial proposals was visible and verbally expressed: “I don’t want it; “I don’t know how to do it”; “ Although all students involved in the project have agreed voluntarily to participate, the resistance to all don’t like it”; “I can’t do it”; “Not fun at all”. initial proposals was visible and verbally expressed: “I don’t want it; “I don’t know how to do it”; “I don’t like “I curious can’t doisit”; “Not fun atofall”. Theit”; most that despite this initial reaction, they have never ceased to experiment. Of trying it. The proposed areas were not properly easy. It involved to look at their bodies, to feel themselves in The most curious is that despite of this initial reaction, they have never ceased to experiment. Of trying movement and in a process of creation. It involved a high perception of themselves and initial discomfort it. The proposed areas were not properly easy. It involved to look at their bodies, to feel themselves in movement and in a process of creation. It involved a high perception of themselves and initial discomfort.

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The sensorial side of arts causes that mistrust in all people who decide to experience it for the first time, regardless their age and condition. They were challenged to paint what the music inspired to them (2nd session) – and from this session resulted the poster to the final performance. Another activity proposal was to look at their identity (4th and 7th session) – who am I – in the relation with themselves and the others – family (family tree) and the environment where they live. Another proposal was the creation (by using painting) from an element of the painting which got their attention (5th session). They were challenged to express “I Am” by using the body, movement and voice. (6th, 11th, 12th, 13th sessions). The students were responding to all challenges with the deepest way that they could share. And the beauty of the genuine, of what they have deep inside them. It was indescribable. It was not possible to photograph. We can’t even get it in video. But every time we face with this frustration of not get to perpetuate the experiences I recall the words of Merce Cunningham, north-American dancer and choreographer, “You have to love dancing to stick to it. It gives you nothing back, no manuscripts to store away, no paintings to show on walls and maybe hang in museums, no poems to be printed and sold, nothing but that single fleeting moment when you feel alive.” And this is valid for all ephemeral artistic performances, which causes life but that can’t be materialized. We can say that in the sessions on the stage, there was life. And the students always had the ability to bring to the sessions on stage the most meaningful feelings from other sessions. And thus, they were designing the final presentation. “Upside down”.

Strategies to be developed (aspects to be improved)

1.Promotion of a participative culture in the project’s design by involving, at an initial stage, teachers, parents, guest artists and cultural technicians. 2. Effective integration of the work developed in the project by students such as acquired learning and knowledge, which could be evaluated as part of some modules, by allowing the integration of acquired competences and knowledge in the students’ final evaluation. 3. Creation of evaluation indicators in order to allow the transferring of results to the evaluation in a school context. 4. Improvement of the involvement of School through an effective engagement of all students’ teachers who integrate the project.

[164] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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5. Improvement of involvement of Cultural Spaces through an effective engagement of all technicians who have competences in the development of education programmes of those spaces. 6. Promotion of teachers’ participation in a few sessions of the project in order to enable the integration of learning into the evaluation’s process. 7.Promotion of intermediate meetings evaluate the project and the students’ development by involving teachers, artists, technicians and parents. 8. Promotion of a higher involvement of parents in the project, in their children’s development and in the perception of the importance of school to their children’s future. 9. Guaranteeing the possibility of the project to have one lective year’s duration and to follow the school calendar. 10. Promotion of the articulation between coaches. Besides the presence of a mediator it is desirable the meeting between the several guest coaches in order to boost the developed contents and its continuation at the following sessions. 11. Thinking about the project’s duration. Maybe it is important that the project should be transversal to the three years of professional secondary school. What matters in a pilot-project is to verify everything that could be improved to effectivate the proposed methodology. It’s thanks to the arts, teenagers and our education system’s success that we not settle with less than exceptional. We must not dare to do less than what we know to be able to do as technicians, teachers, politics, parents, school, cultural spaces and even as city, that wants to be an Educator City.

Conclusion Although it was a success in what concerns to the impact that it had in the students involved, the pilotproject needs replication with groups and identical contexts, as well as with groups and different contexts in a way to allow: a) The consolidation and validation of the presented methodology; b) The real implementation in what concerns to its repercussions into the students’ evaluative process; c) A comparative analysis facing different contexts and groups; d) A comparative analysis about the impacts at the level of development of personal and academic competences; e) Creation of evaluation indicators that can be replicated and transferred to the student’s formal evaluation in a school context;

[165] Programme co-funded by the European Union

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In order to allow the evaluation and validation of the impact of arts and culture on its different artistic and cultural areas (on a global or specific perspective, transversal or individually) on the students’ educational success and in the combat to school dropping, which are the aims of this project – it’s also important to guarantee the possibility of crossing the project (aims, methodology, indicators, actions and evaluation) with the different subjects’ curriculums of the involved courses. Just in this way it will be possible to measure on both qualitative and quantitative forms the impact of the developed strategies on the students’ educational success by taking account the concepts of educational success at the school level. It also deserves, in our opinion, a careful thought with regard to the methodologies of involvement and participation of the different actors included in this process. This is an aspect which deserves special attention, given that more than involvement, it is necessary to work the engagement of people involved in the project, regarding their engagement with the students’ challenges, with proposals and solutions which are being experienced and, above all, with the results. Here, we reinforce this fundamental aspect: we are talking about engagement, not involvement. As referred, at the development’s level of personal competences, behavioural limitations and the students’ sociability presented initially by teachers, the project was a success. The methodology, if fully accomplished, would take us to a higher level of results. It is understandable the limitations which are inherent to all pilot-projects. But the big challenge will be to aspire going further, to invest a little more on its full implementation by trying to accomplish the things that weren’t reached and to think about finding solutions which respond effectively to the questions inherent to the difficulties showed by students (school, affective, social difficulties, etc.) and to the consequent risk of school dropping.

3.4- Cultural dynamics of the Municipality of Barcelos with impact on the educational community. Network of school libraries, the Municipal Library and the Pottery Museum. The Municipality of Barcelos dedicates to education a very important part of its action, proposing and making available to the educational community a whole set of activities and programs, developed and promoted by the municipal services, which can help and enrich the curricular contents and the educational projects existing in the municipality. Vygotsky (1982) argues that creativity allows man to project himself into the future and act on a project with a productive end. According to the same author, creativity is a psychological function that is common to learning. Seltezer and Bentley (1998) defends that we should be made possible the development of creativity and for that we must take into account and give the most importance to the emotions of children and of your own “self”. The management of the curriculum and the undifferentiated way how the students often work makes apathy to school content acceptable as normal behavior, and often does not look for the reasons

Programme co-funded by the European Union

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that lead to their estrangement from what happens in classroom. Studies show that problems related to oral and written language competence and with decoding lead the student's to lack of interest in the studies, to poor results and consequent early school leaving. It is in this context that the importance of books and reading as a source of knowledge and culture is obvious, as an effective means of linguistic improvement and as a resource against school failure. Barcelos as Education City has affirmed it by developing its capacity to establish bridges and synergies between the different actors, among the different partners, of the educational system. It is in the sense of increasingly integrating the axiological principles of Education Cities, the Municipality of Barcelos, makes available annually to the educational community a publication, which represents a compilation of proposals for cultural and educational actions, and which intends to constitute an element catalyst between educational projects of each establishment and the activity plans of the Municipality, in areas such as pottery, archeology, writing and reading, theater, music, among others. Thus, in an educating spirit, in order to create conditions for the promotion of educational success, the Municipality of Barcelos, through the Municipal Library and the Pottery Museum, presents a set of diverse initiatives, promoted in schools or in their own cultural spaces, which seek to promote in children and young people an approach to school, a taste for reading and identification with local tradition, using art as an intermediary vehicle. These initiatives are aimed at students in all education cycles, from preschool to secondary education. The public library presents itself as a space of access to knowledge, providing the basic conditions for training and lifelong learning. It is known that our ability to deal with written information is directly related to school progress. So it is necessary that we can read, autonomously, at school, in the library, on the street and at home, because each of these spaces privileges different functions of reading and writing, which impose a proper reading strategy. It is in this sense that reading has a fundamental role in promoting the cultural and artistic development of children and young people. A privileged interlocutor between the Municipality and the schools, the Municipal Library seeks to create and sediment reading habits, promoting and exploring the book, with appropriate themes, artistically and attractively. There are initiatives such as meeting with writers and illustrators, theater, music, storytelling, cinema, exhibitions, workshops and conferences, allowing to approach fundamental themes such as literacy, history and local heritage, human rights, health, science , among others having the art as background. The activities carried out by the Barcelos Pottery Museum seek to strengthen the link between the Museum and the community, with a particular focus on school audiences, transmitting, in a ludicpedagogical way, cultural aspects related to the area of ceramics, focusing on the sensitization of new generations to the importance of preservation of this important socio-cultural heritage. As a curriculum framework, it search with the dynamics developed induce the students to know and accept their personal characteristics and their social and cultural identity, to situating them in relation to others, to cooperating with colleagues in the learning process, to cooperating in situations of play, following guidelines or rules,

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to develop expressive and creative capacities through explorations and plastic productions and to recreate space and objects, assigning them multiple meanings in make-believe activities, imaginary situations and re-creation of experiences of the daily, individually or in groups. Relative to the Municipal Library, a Support Service for School Libraries (SABE) was created, which integrates and coordinates the School Library Network of the Municipality, in a total of 29 libraries of the several schools of Barcelos, articulating initiatives, monetizing resources, sharing knowledge. The Barcelos Library Network (RBEB) is defined as a cooperation structure, based on the participation of all School Libraries of the Municipality and the Municipal Library, through SABE, with the support and guidance of the School Library Network, Ministry of Education. Its main objectives are the promotion of a coordinated acquisition policy, the availability of a website of the Barcelos Library Network and an updated bibliographic catalog, the promotion of inter-library loans and the organization of activities to promote and encourage reading. The cultural and artistic experiences provided by libraries at the level of words are intended to raise and improve student’s school progress. The underlying art education is developed in a climate of disciplinary integration. Although the concept of storyteller is difficult to define objectively, there is a certain set of characteristics that can be consensually attributed to this almost alchemical figure, with magical powers of transformation in the hearer, that is, an art form. The pleasure of listening is like the pleasure of reading. Thus, libraries, before being these infinite shelves, with the voices locked within the books, become alive and human, (Meireles, 1989). These actions are part of the strategies for the formation of the reader, since the child participates in a pedagogical action, even if this is not the function of oral narration or literary text. The subjection to the artistic experience educates, as states Sisto (1999). On the other hand, the aesthetic that oral narration provides is more than enough for books to become inseparable companions of children in the process of learning and acquiring the taste for reading. As examples, are presented below some of the initiatives promoted by the Municipal Library of Barcelos: 1) "HORA DO CONTO"(Storytime) and "LEITURAS ENCENADAS" (Staged readings), whose action is developed through reading books of several authors, which offer students the opportunity to become characters in stories, fables and fairy tales, giving wings to your creativity. Once the activity is presented, the storyteller takes out of his bag traditional stories and books recommended by the National Reading Plan, that are chained together in readings shared between the storyteller and students; 2) “CANTAR HISTÓRIAS” (Singing Stories), which seeks to awaken the sensitivity to the narrative, as a fundamental means of communication and sharing, the pleasure of listening, singing and saying, the heightening of memory and logic are the goals of this project. Use the traditional: popular tales and children's songs, but it is related to the present: tales and retellings of authors of the present literature to children and young people and songs by groups and singers such as Madredeus, Rio Grande or José

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Barata Moura. It develops with a guitar, some books, small objects (crayons, a paper, a ribbon, etc). The cultural animator sing and tell stories; 3) “ATELIÊS PEDAGÓGICOS” (Educational workshops), with a more practical dimension, where students, from a staged reading are stimulated to experiment, manipulate and produce the most diverse types of materials, either through the production of creative writing either artistic production: drawing , painting, sculpture or manual construction. It is hoped that from this dichotomy between plastic art and reading one can construct enriching experiences that fill the identification gaps in the relationship between the student and the school (DIEHL 2013); 4) "Cine'BiB | Cinema Sessions ", where through the visualization of playful or thematic films, especially based on traditional tales, literary works or curricular study, we try to promote the contact of the students with different types of communication and reading; 5) “OLHARES SOBRE OS NOSSOS DIREITOS” (Looks At Our Rights!). When we talk about children's rights, we always think about how children think and what they know about their rights. In a joint work of the Municipal Library and the Pottery Museum of Barcelos, this activity, based on the exploration of the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Children, seeks to explore this theme through story telling and tiled painting of the various rights. At the end of the school year, a joint tile panel is constituted, where all the rights will be represented according to a close look of the participating children, and placed in a school or public space of the municipality; 6) “HISTÓRIAS E LENDAS DA MINHA TERRA” (Stories and Legends of My Land) and “OS NOSSOS HERÓIS” (Our Heroes), where local history is tied to the everyday life of the community. Used in education, it makes it closer to the students' experience, rescuing the history of places and with it the past-present relationship. From lectures given to groups of students, a study of local history is carried out and, involving the students, a greater interest is fostered, as they are rediscovering their own history and culture; 7) “À CONVERSA COM…” (Meeting With/Talking To writers...) is presented as a rubric that brings to the Municipal Library and to the schools, writers and illustrators of recognized national and international merit and presupposes a work of collaboration between the schools and the Municipal Library. This action aims to bring students closer to the universe of literary creation, stimulating and effectively consolidating reading habits; 8) “O TEATRO VAI À ESCOLA” (The theatre goes to school), seeks to promote the personal and cultural growth of the students as a whole. Between the magic and the real, these theatre sessions are a response in the fight against illiteracy, seeking to foment the development of skills in the fields of reading and deepening the habit of reading. Through the representation of stories, full of liveliness, magnificent scenarios, truly brilliant wardrobes seeks to get students reflect, think and dream;

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9) “BEI – BIBLIOTECA ESCOLAR ITINERANTE” (Itinerant School Library), an action consisting of eight chests of books (six chests for the 1st cycle and two for the pre-school), with a diversified content, covering different areas of knowledge. The transport of the chests of books is assured by the Municipal Library, and its delivery is accompanied by a storyteller. With these chests of books, it is sought to reach schools that do not have a School Library and intends that the book be seen as a treasure which is revealed to children; 10) “CONFERÊNCIAS | PALESTRAS” (Conferences | Lectures), which are presented as moments of reflection and sharing experiences between lecturers and students, where all participants are invited to enter into dialogue, in a perspective of educational reflection, on emerging issues of literacy, ethics, freedom, humanism, social responsibility, history and culture. Conclusion: The Educational Project of the Municipality of Barcelos presented is based on the reduction of the abstention and early abandonment of the educational system, fighting, locally, school failure. This project is based on a curricular coordination, through the creation of a plan of activities agreed with the school community, integrating their suggestions, collected at the end of each school year prior to the design of the respective activity plan, thus articulating curricular themes and resources. It present a set of ateliers and workshops on artistic practices - theater, dance, music, creative writing, traditional arts and crafts, which contribute to the cultural enrichment of students, motivating them to acquire new learning and increase interest in study and learning. As can be seen from the analysis presented, this is a plan that seeks to reach all students, regardless of level of education, social status, ethnicity, gender or school location. In this context, the intention of this project is to present itself as one more resource of the school, highlighting its impact in the fight against school failure by increasing the offer of diversified and appealing educational support, combating the negative image that many students are constructing about the school throughout its school journey. The success of it is based on the progressive addition of requests to participate in the actions that integrate the Plan of Activities for the School Community and in the increasing involvement of the students in the development of the actions, making them an active part of the solution to their problems. By encouraging the reinforcement of art's implication in education, the aesthetic repertoire of the students is enriched, from an early age, it favors the creation of bonds with the reality of their community, fostering a culture of tolerance, of valuing the diversity, mutual respect, contributing to a culture of peace and social cohesion.

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3.5-The Mug Project: An Approach Through Art, Including Students with Special Educational Needs. Introdution/ contextualization: Working with students with Special Educational Needs is more than ever a challenging for schools. We live in a society that tends to devalue the potential of citizens with SEN, in the face of the same feelings of paternalism and a charitable view, which culminates in most cases in social exclusion and lack of opportunities. Unfortunately, educational contexts are in most cases very different contexts of society itself. Students with SEN are looked by the school community, with a protectionist look, with low expectations. This makes their curricula less ambitious, and there is little investment by teachers. There are also often serious gaps in human resources, requiring multidisciplinary teams to enable more comprehensive and comprehensive intervention. Given this scenario schools should be able to assure these students curricular plans adjusted to the potential of the same and not so focused on their weaknesses. The school should be a context that enables students with SEN to experience success rather than systematically confront them with their weaknesses and disabilities. It is before this scenario that the Mugs project (CANECAS) was born. The result was a close collaboration of the Municipality with the Rosa Ramalho School Grouping. This grouping is named after the most famous ceramist in the country and internationally known, born in the municipality of Barcelos, Rosa Ramalho. In parallel this group of schools has the particularity of being located in the route of the Portuguese Way of Santiago, also distinctive mark of the Municipality of Barcelos. In this way, taking advantage of the synergies of the territory, a project of intervention with students with Special Educational Needs was considered, simultaneously promoting some academic and professional competences (concentration / attention, autonomy, creativity, motricity), had a component of entrepreneurship and took advantage of the particularities of the territory. In a synthetic way the project materializes in the painting and decoration of a clay mug totally elaborated by the students with SEN, and by a production of herbs for tea and aromatic plants, and by the production of typical biscuits. The idea is to get the pilgrims on their way to Santiago, that pass near the school every day, can enter, take a comforting tea in the earthenware mugs painted by the students, eat a light snack, socialize and interact with them, and then they can follow the way, remembering the mugs painted by the students.

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The Mugs Project “Projeto Canecas”: methodology. The “Canecas” Project is based on a logic of social entrepreneurship and is composed of three axes: Camino Santiago; Local Crafts and Products and Social Inclusion. It values local resources such as crafts, agriculture and the relationship of students with the community. It has a formative and educational dynamic to think about the future. It promotes autonomy and develops functional activities important to the students' daily lives. Highlighting in this project, a new concept "The Way of Santiago Inclusive". The Project incorporates new paths, action plans and strategies, imbued with the principles of accountability and valorization of the potentialities that result from the use of material and human resources, inherent to the environment in which the Group of Schools is inserted. The Project develops in a logic of networking with other institutions of the educational territory, among which we point out, Barcelos Town Hall, Town Council of Barcelinhos, Hostels in support of the Way of Santiago (Hostel of the Ranch of Barcelinhos, Hostel of the Friends of the Mountain and Hostel City of Barcelos). Students develop processes to create, develop and promote different products - painted mugs, aromatic plants and food products. The “Canecas” (Mugs) Project developed in a perspective of disciplinary transversality, having the involvement of all the educative community of the School Group Rosa Ramalho, as well as the citizens of Barcelos. The Mugs Project: results. Throughout the implementation of the “Canecas” Project, inclusive educational practices were valued, privileging the relationship of pupils with SEN with peers and the community in general. There were many activities developed in the area of plastic expression (custom painting of clay mugs), in the works related to the preparation of the space to receive the greenhouse and the outside terrain, where the herbs were planted (herb prince, rosemary, agastache, lemon thyme, woolly thyme, fennel, lucia-lima, peppermint, crispada mint). The students also had the opportunity to pick up the herbs, cut them, dry them, pack them and label them. In the kitchen area the students proceeded to identify the products, weighing ingredients and confectioning cookies. Linked to this process, the students worked on hygiene and safety rules in a working environment. This Project provided the articulation among other institutions, such as: Gonçalo Nunes Grouping and Lijó Grouping of Schools, APACI Association of Parents and Friends of the Mismatched Children and the walkers who visited us. All these entities were very pleased with the opportunity that was given them.

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All these activities competed hard for the acquisition of very important competences of the students, All these activities competed hard for and the professional acquisition of very important of they the students, promoting the acquisition of life skills competences, at thecompetences same time that provided promoting acquisition lifepromoted skills and their professional competences, at the same time that they provided capacity ofthe work in team,ofthey autonomy and responsibility. They also allowed to work capacity of work team, promoted their autonomy They also allowed to work some basic skillsinsuch as they attention / concentration, fine and andresponsibility. broad motor skills, self-regulation in the some skills such as attentionprovided / concentration, and expression broad motor self-regulation in the tasks, basic and the students' creativity their freefine artistic in skills, the creation of the drawings tasks, and thetransferred students' creativity provided their free artistic expression in the creation of the drawings that are later and painted in the mugs. that are later transferred and painted in the mugs. The project also resulted in evident emotional gains in students, in their self-esteem, in their self-concept, The project also resulted incommunity, evident emotional in students, in their self-esteem, their self-concept, in their valuation with the and ingains successful experimentation within theinschool context. in their valuation with the community, and in successful experimentation within the school context. All stakeholders who had the opportunity to participate in the Project demonstrated satisfaction and All stakeholders who hadprovided the opportunity theall Project demonstrated satisfaction interest in the activities to them. to Weparticipate obtained in from very positive responses, both inand the interest in as thewell activities provided them. We fromthat all came very to positive responses, in the adhesion, as by the praises to received and obtained the feedback us from society inboth general. adhesion, as well as by the praises received and the feedback that came to us from society in general.

Some images of development of the Mugs Project Some images of development of the Mugs Project

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3.6- National Program of Aesthetic and Artistic Education (PNEEA): Introdution/ contextualization. The National Program of Aesthetic and Artistic Education, is the result of a governmental measure of the Ministry of Education and aims to privilege the students' access to different forms of artistic expression within the school context, in an integrated and interdisciplinary vision. One of the deep reflections of the Portuguese educational system during the last years is the inability of teachers to be able to work expression through the arts with the students, prevailing traditional academic areas such as linguistic expression, mathematics and science. On the other hand, the obligation to comply with extensive pedagogical programs often implies giving up artistic expression and placing this area in the background. Further reflection on this subject, we find that the literature is unanimous in considering the innumerable gains that students can obtain through an intervention in a school context that privileges the artistic expression. Aspects such as divergent thinking, creativity, corporal and linguistic expression are skills that can often be transferable to other school learning and translate into meaningful gains for students. But gains can be exponential when one thinks, for example, of emotional and motivational variables, as students through art achieve completely different forms of expression from merely academic approaches, centered on error and evaluation, making students who at academic level reveal serious difficulties in this context can experience success, contributing to their self-confidence and self-esteem. Thus, this program of Aesthetic and Artistic Education, is precisely to be a very interesting measure in the field of the fight against school failure, and the prevention of abandonment, in that it gives opportunity to the students usually seen as having poor scholastic performance, to stand out in these areas, allowing them to express themselves at various levels, making them experience success within the school, and often transferring this confidence and acquired skills to different school achievements. Afterwards we will briefly characterize the objectives and assumptions of the program and will be exposed two visions on the application of the Esthetic and Artistic Education Program in Vale D'Este School Grouping. A first perspective of the teachers who participated in the training workshops of the program and a second perspective of the responsible teacher for the respective program.

The national program of aesthetic and artistic education.

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of Aesthetic and Artistic Education, is precisely to be a very interesting measure in the field of the fight against school failure, and the prevention of abandonment, in that it gives opportunity to the students usually seen as having poor scholastic performance, to stand out in these areas, allowing them to express themselves at various levels, making them experience success within the school, and often transferring “Michelangelo: Ensuring School Sucess and Reducin this confidence and acquired“Michelangelo: skills to different school achievements. Ensuring School Success and

Reducing Early the School Leaving Fine Arts” Afterwards we will briefly characterize objectives andthrough assumptions of through the program and Arts” will be Early School Leaving Fine exposed two visions on the application of the Esthetic and Artistic Education Program in Vale D'Este 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 School Grouping. A first perspective of the teachers who participated in the training workshops of the 2017-1-EL01-KA201-036177 program and a second perspective of the responsible teacher for the respective program. The national program of aesthetic and artistic education. The Aesthetic and Artistic Education Program (PEEA) in a school context is an initiative of the Ministry of Education and Science that aims to: •

Develop an intervention plan in the field of different art forms;

Education and Plastic Expression,[174] Education and Musical Expression, Movement and Drama / Theater and Dance;

Strengthen the partnership between groupings of schools and / or non-grouped schools and cultural institutions;

Involve children, teachers and families to develop a taste for different artistic forms;

Valorize art as a form of knowledge;

Interest with new methodologies to promote success and reduce school drop-out.

To achieve this, the following purposes and assumptions are listed: •

Develop joint and mutually enriching actions between School and Cultural Institutions, anticipating culture as a necessity in the educational process;

Encourage the aesthetic dimension of education through the appropriation of the language of the various forms of art;

Implement strategies, interactive and participants, whose actions ensure the curricular articulation and integrate the dynamics of several languages;

To sensitize teachers and families to the role of art in the training of children and their relation to other areas of knowledge;

Stimulate knowledge of cultural and artistic heritage as a process of affirmation of citizenship and a means to develop cultural literacy;

Program assumptions. •

Gradually cover all levels of education, giving priority, in this first phase, to Pre-school Education and the 1st Cycle of Basic Education;

To develop knowledge and skills in the areas of artistic expression, through the training of education professionals, in the context of work;

Be an action phased in time and in the contexts to be covered;

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Encourage systematic work among the various cultural institutions, institutions of higher education, articulating the different synergies;

Encourage devices to evaluate practices developed in a school context.

The PNEEA applied in Vale D'Éste School Grouping. The teachers' perspective: In the academic year 2016/2017, the direction of the Vale D`Este School Grouping (Viatodos, Barcelos), promoted, in partnership with the Ministry of Education and the Barcelos / Esposende Training Center, a training workshop entitled "CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN ARTS-METHODOLOGIES AND PRACTICES ", within the framework of the Aesthetic and Artistic Education Program. Fourteen teachers from Group 100 (Pre-School Education) and twenty five teachers from group 110 (1st Cycle Education) were enrolled in this Program, in a total of nine establishments of 1st Cycle Education and 13 Pre-School Education groups. Four hundred and fifty two students from the First Cycle Education (107 of the 1st year, 105 of the 2nd, 117 of the 3rd and 123 of the 4th year) and 223 of the Pre-School Education were involved. This training, in a total of sixty hours, focused on four areas: Music, Theater, Dance and Expression and Plastic Education and had as main objectives: •

To sensitize students, teachers and families to the importance of the arts in citizens' lives;

Encourage the creation of cultural habits and appreciation of Art as a form of knowledge.

In this sense, activities were developed in the various fields of Art (Visual Arts, Dance, Music and Theater), assimilating concepts and developing personal and professional skills. Thus, this Program - Aesthetic and Artistic Education - allowed: •

Attending a training, energized by specialized technical personnel (in the various forms of art), which provided an organized set of skills and knowledge, enabling a high quality of teaching practice;

To learn / to remember specific concepts, in the different domains, through the concretization of activities, with support of specific conceptions of each area of expression (dance, visual arts, music and theater);

Create moments of reflection in a group sharing materials, difficulties and successes among education professionals. During certain moments of the sessions, the trainers

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encouraged the joint reflection, between trainer / trainees, to reinforce the concepts that were intended to be explored; •

Establish moments of fraternization between peers;

Participate in quarterly meetings for follow-up and sharing of experiences that have resulted in collective moments of awareness of what teachers have done, and / or did not, and what they might do with their class;

Make visits to cultural spaces, essential for the development of "reading" processes, which contributed to sediment the basic knowledge learned in the various artistic areas. For example, in the area of dance, we moved to the Municipal Theater of Barcelos, first to participate in a workshop for teachers and later, with students, where it was possible to appreciate the show: "The man who only thought in numbers", with the teacher Pedro Carvalho.

In the area of visual arts, we visited the Pottery Museum, where the children observed and enjoyed the exhibition of the artist Paula Rego;

Note the importance of establishing partnerships with cultural institutions (museums, theaters, academies, among others), which contributed to the possibility of contacting different cultural / artistic universes;

Encourage a partnership between teachers and children / students, which led to very attractive and motivating activities with production of extremely rich materials in the different artistic areas;

To put into practice concepts of each field of the arts with the students, contributing to the improvement of professional teaching practice.

This workshop has also enabled children to develop their capacities for the enjoyment and apprehension of the work of art which, through the processes of observation, description, discrimination, analysis, synthesis and critical judgment, provided an aesthetic and artistic appreciation of their own, giving meaning to that personal interpretation is seen and valued in this way. In this dynamic process that ends with experimentation, the child applies his interpretation in his productions, thus developing creativity and imagination. Considering the importance of the arts in the development of students' social and cultural expression and in their psychomotor and cognitive development, it is fundamental that those who work with children in schools should be prepared to interpret trends, value sensitivities and expose abilities. For that, training was of primary importance, highlighting the important role of trainers, which was

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essential so that the specific conceptions of each area and pedagogical concepts had a meaning in the group of trainees, composed of educators and teachers of the 1st Cycle Education. The most importance was given to the "do first" maxim and then to the students. In this way, the activities materialized, first, in a classroom context and only later did the results be brought to the training group so that the trainees could reflect, present difficulties and solutions, freely express their opinions and share materials and results of the work done with the recipients of the program. This project was undoubtedly an added value for all the teachers involved, since it has bridged a gap that existed since its initial formation.

Primary school teachers of Vale D'Éste School Grouping The PNEEA applied in the Vale D'Éste School Grouping. The perspective of a trainer: The Aesthetic and Artistic Education (EEA) Program of the Ministry of Education was developed in the 2016/2017 school year in the Vale D'Este School Grouping (Viatodos), with all classes of Pre-School and 1st Cycle of Basic Education. The areas of formation were the Dance, the Theater, the Music and the Plastic Arts. The methodology used during the Training Workshop - DANCE, was supported by the concept of "doing first and then teaching". The teachers being the students themselves, exploring various creative activities, realizing that they can, themselves, be the enablers of a dance class. And so, the initial fear that everyone assumed they felt, quickly disappeared as they realized that despite the effort and commitment that it is necessary to invest, dancing is for everyone. The material provided during the Workshop - Educational Dance book, with a brief description of the tasks and space for personal reflections, allowed a systematization and organization, useful for the future implementation of activities in the classroom context. The teachers were able to explore Body Space, The Body in Space, Body to Body and The Creative Body, which are agglutinating themes of the concept of Educational Dance and empowering different explorations. And it was in this discovery that bonds of trust were created and one believed that one could do better. The Dance seen as a unifier of the joint action of the individuals, focusing on the group, but not forgetting the specificity of each one.

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Artistic enjoyment is one of the objectives of the EEA Program. The Gil Vicente Theater and Barcelos Town Hall gave all the students of the grouping a chance to watch the math and dance floor "The man who only thought of numbers", with creation and interpretation of Pedro Carvalho. The teachers were able to explore the scenes of the show in a worshop and the students were able to participate in the spectacle itself (in the Yarn scene). The students and teachers were thus able to experience and enjoy artistic events, enhancing the artistic education of each one (The Program's main objective). It is the possibility of building a future, with citizens who are more attentive and culturally more aware of the differences that can bring us closer, and defenders of the cultural / artistic history that unites us as a society. It is a way to go, in a direction that we know what it is. “Sometimes you have to stop, change direction and return. And joy comes through the journey, on discovery.” (Pedro Carvalho) Trainer in the area of Dance 3.7 - Discussion/reflection We can not finish this report without a brief reflection on the "state of the art" in the school context, regarding the use of it as an educational tool. We use the words of António Damásio, a great Portuguese neuroscientist, who, coming from a traditional scientific area and which we will cite: “Certain aspects of the emotional and feeling process are indispensable to rationality” (Damásio, 1995:14). Considering that, “(…)reason may not be as pure as most of us think it is or wish it to be, and emotions and feelings may not be at all intruders behind the scenes of reason, but may be entangled in their webs for the better and for the worse (...). " (ibidem). He further states that “awareness and emotion cannot separate from each other” by highlighting that “the connection and awareness on the hand, and between both and the body, on the other hand.” (Damásio, 1999:35) The words of António Damásio clearly open doors to the discussion about today’s school model, excessively focused on rationality, by nullifying all factors that take attention away of this aspect. It is important to put the finger on the problem and to say without any margin of doubts which areas such as artistic, physic and motor expression are faced nowadays by the Ministry of Education, as being activities of minor importance at pedagogical level. It is also important to stress that this government policy is corroborated by field agents, and the schools are spaces less willing to adopt methodologies or projects that privilege art as a way of intervention.

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When we focus on the students’ side, maybe it is the right time to make a question in an act of provocation. Is it not a form of violence to expose students for years to failed school processes? Knowing the multifactorial nature of school dropping, does it not require more assertive intervention by the school and the educational community? School dropping is in fact a complex phenomenon. However, as everything in life, when we leave something, when we give up of something, it is because that task is not really important for us or because we don’t feel capable of doing it. And as focused previously, this feeling of negative self-efficacy presented for years that hangs out with students every day, is highly destructive at several levels, mostly on an emotional point of view. Working emotions with students can be the key of success, since we involve them from “I” and we understand them under different perspectives and systems of life. How to reach this? Clearly the intervention of art can be a way. It is necessary to solidify this path, to compromise all the educational agents!

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3.8 - Conclusion There is much to do to transform our schools into truly inclusive spaces that do not segregate students and do not force them to repeatedly experience failure. The school drop-out of a student, above all, the failure of the system, of the school, of the family. It represents more than that. It represents the failure of a society that must include and create equal opportunity for all its citizens. This is therefore a responsibility of all. Because it is worthwhile to follow this path, we can not fail to finish this report with some recommendations that seem to us very important so that they can be implemented as educational policies, decisively assuming art as a way and a possibility within the school:

 School dropout occurs most times at high school (15-18 years), but the student failure process often starts in the first cycle. Thus, it is important that students are exposed to curricula that cross the different pedagogical subjects from the very beginning (preschool and 1st cycle) with the question of art, creativity and divergent thinking. The art within the school must always happen in a natural relationship with the different pedagogical subjects, not being a singular and punctual relationship.  The Ministry of Education should continue to make a commitment to the approximation of large cultural equipment of national reference such as museums and theaters with schools and for these spaces to the service and in privileged contact with the students. The National Program of Aesthetic and Artistic Education being a good practice falls short of achievement and universalization.  At the local level, the Municipalities should consider spaces and cultural facilities complemented by well-structured educational projects which allow students not only to attend shows or events but to enjoy space, experience and have a relationship of complicity with them and with the different activities that are happening in them.  Teachers and school management bodies should carry out regular training on different innovative tools that use artistic expression and which can complement and reinforce the different pedagogical areas:

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 Intervention from art as a strategy to combat school dropout and failure should be formalized in school strategic documents as in the educational project and in the plan of activities lacking a constant monitoring, review and evaluation;  The school should promote moments of openness to the family, either of a formative nature where it explains to the caretakers about the importance of artistic development for the integral development of students, as well as showing results to the whole school community on some artistic projects developed during the different learning.  In plans to combat school failure and/or to prevent school drop-out, the Ministry of Education has planned a set of pedagogical tools and projects that can serve as an anchor for schools. It would be important to extend the scope of these projects to projects that could leave traditional and academic activities, giving students the opportunity to experiment with projects that favor expression through the arts.  There is a group of students who have left school early, do not work, do not study, are not in training and are often at risk. It was important that a national program with some robustness that could privilege these young people who drop out early to schools, could in the first phase refer them, evaluate their profile and give them a formative option that would rehabilitate them to school with differentiating strategies and intervention through art is one of the strongest possibilities.  The educational offer for students who choose the areas of the arts are still very limited or they are framed within schools that are not very specialized in teaching these areas. There is a need for the creation of true secondary schools of arts, highly specialized in the teaching of the arts and in the geographical proximity of students.  The municipalities must adopt policies of proximity to the schools that allow students and families to enjoy the cultural equipment, the privileged contact with shows and artists creating an early taste for the arts.  Schools should provide the freedom and conditions for students to express themselves through the arts by developing favorable contexts to this natural relationship between school, pupils' expression, their tastes and the affirmation of their identity through art. " Art, fortunately, has not yet covered the truth” Oscar Wilde

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4. Epilogue - General Conclusion Arts education is associated with lower dropout rates, as well as better academic outcomes Studying the arts promotes academic self- efficacy and school engagement (predictors of persistence to graduation), and it enhances socioemotional skills valued in social relationships, the workplace, and education settings. As research continues to clarify those connections, and dropout prevention strategies are consciously integrated into arts education, arts education should be considered more intentionally as a dropout prevention strategy. During the Michelangelo Erasmus+ project we have come to understand that art should be one of the main pillars of our educational system and that we should use art as a tool to prevent early school leaving. An arts education can have a very positive impact on math, language, and dropout prevention, recent studies have examined student outcomes that more uniquely result from an arts education. An arts education has been shown to raise students’ ability to critique themselves, their willingness to experiment, their ability to reflect, and also to learn from mistakes. An arts education increases students’ ability to manage behavior, make decisions, and maintain a positive self-concept. Of special interest is that an arts education increases academic self-efficacy and school engagement, characteristics that reliably predict dropout. At the end of this report we feel that we can make some recommendations based on our recent experience: During this program the teachers of our school crossed paths with the municipality. It was a real revelation for us to see what joined forces can do. We met sociologists, psychologists, social workers and we were informed about the municipality services and the ways they can assist our students and their families. So we believe that the collaboration between schools and municipalities should become permanent. Additionally, a direct result of educating artists is that communities benefit through architecture, sculpture, live theaters, landscape design, concerts, local cinema, literature, dance, festivals, and other enrichments created by artists. Our school drama team, the music performances became an important social and cultural event not only for our school but also for the local community. Our school garden became a local sensation because the students of our school really liked this experience and became really involved and motivated to learn more about botanic and healthier way of diet .Art education can be very effective in the development of habits of mind including problem solving, critical and creative thinking, dealing with ambiguity and complexity, integration of multiple skill sets, and working with others;

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Furthermore art education helps our students in the process of developing their social competencies, including collaboration and team work skills, social tolerance, and self-confidence. We must underline the fact that early school leaving is linked to unemployment, social exclusion, poverty and poor health. There are many reasons why some young people give up education and

training prematurely: personal or family problems, learning difficulties, or a fragile socio-economic situation. The way the education system is set up, school climate and teacher-pupil relations are also important factors. Since there are often complex, interconnected reasons for children to not complete secondary schooling, policies to reduce early school leaving must address a range of issues and combine education and social policy, youth work and health related aspects. This Erasmus project has tried to address this issue and “Visibility, making persons present to to help finding the strategies that need to become perone another in that special sense in manent in our school systems. which they are acknowledgeable and The Michelangelo team of our school feels that we cantherefore capable of love and mutual not finish this report without saying the most important interest in one another’s safety” thing that we, as educators, learned from our students, Alan Grossman that is the need for visibility, the right of each and every one of our students to be seen as an individual. Social invisibility refers to a group of people in the society who have been separated or systematically ignored by the majority of the public. As a result, those who are marginalized feel neglected or being invisible in the society. It can include elderly homes, child orphanages, homeless people or anyone who experiences a sense of ignored or separated from society as a whole. Social Invisibility is not a fiction it exists. Invisibility is a hard reality within the schools, students with bad grades, students with learning difficulties, students with poor social skills, students with social and emotional problems are often marginalized in schools. Teachers are overwhelmed by their everyday effort to follow the school curriculum and sometimes they don’t have the time to “see the invisible ones”. Programs like Michelangelo gives us, educators, the opportunity to reflect on our practices, to get to know our students on a different level, to see them for who they really are, human beings with wit, talents, with sense of humor, adolescents with the basic needs for communication, expression and acceptance. We are very fortunate because this program gave us the opportunity to help our students blossom, to express themselves through fine arts, to be proud for their achievements and also because it made clear for us that we need to focus in finding ways to ensure that all of our students have developed the skill to see and being seen be others.

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Furthermore this conclusion aims to emphasize the fact that we feel that the climate is beginning to shift in our school. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. It has been described as “the heart and soul of the school, that essence of a school that leads a child, a teacher, and an administrator to love the school and to look forward to being there each school day. A positive school climate helps people feel socially, emotionally and physically safe in schools. It includes students’, parents’ and school personnel’s norms, beliefs, relationships, teaching and learning practices, as well as organizational and structural features of the school. A sustainable, positive school climate promotes students’ academic and social development. Positive school climate is related to many positive student outcomes. The Michelangelo program has helped the students who participate to achieve higher academic performance and furthermore to maintain self- efficacy and school engagement. This Michelangelo project left a great heritance in our school, the realization that social visibility and positive school climate are targets that we should try to achieve every year and fine arts is the best way to do that..

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References • Μαλαφάντης Κ., Καρέλα Γ., Για μια ποιοτική Εκπαίδευση: Οι Τέχνες στην Εκπαίδευση και η έννοια της διαφορετικότητας μέσα από την Τέχνη, 2ου Πανελλήνιου Συνεδρίου, με Διεθνή Συμμετοχή, για την Προώθηση της Εκπαιδευτικής Καινοτομίας, Λάρισα 21-23 Οκτωβρίου 2012 • Μιχαηλίδου Μ, Πετρά Ζ., Η Τέχνη διδάσκει και διδάσκεται, 5ο Πανελλήνιο Συνέδριο Επιστημών Εκπαίδευσης, Τόμ. 2015, Αρ. 2, ΕΚΠΑ • Σκέμπερη, Λ., «Τέχνη και εκπαίδευση: η συμβολή της τέχνης στο εκπαιδευτικό έργο ή για μια 10 εκπαίδευση του μέλλοντος», Συνεργασία, αρ. 2 (Σεπτέμβριος 2010) • Στρατηγικό πλαίσιο πολιτικής για τη μείωση της πρόωρης εγκατάλειψης του σχολείου (πες) στην Ελλάδα, https://goo.gl/2ynPqm, ανακτήθηκε 20/01/2018 • Στρατηγικό πλαίσιο πολιτικής για τη μείωση της πρόωρης εγκατάλειψης του σχολείου (ΠΕΣ) στην Ελλάδα, https://goo.gl/2ynPqm, ανακτήθηκε 20/01/2018 • Επιτελική σύνοψη «Η μαθητική διαρροή στην ελληνική πρωτοβάθμια και δευτεροβάθμια εκπαίδευση», περίοδος αναφοράς 2013-2016,Υπουργείο Παιδείας Έρευνας και θρησκευμάτων, Ινστιτούτο Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής, Αθήνα 2017 • Viadero D., The dropout dilemma. Research hindered by lack of uniform way to count students who quit school, Education Week, February 7, 2001Σύνταγµα της Ελλάδας, 1975, Άρθρο 16, παρ. 3 • Monmarquette C., Mahseredjian S., Houle R. (2001), The determinants of university dropouts: a bivariate probability model with sample selection in Economics of Education Review, 20(5)., σελ. 475-6. • Βουρδουλάκη, Τ. (2010). Η τέχνη στο σχολείο. Ηλεκτρονική εφημερίδα 3ου Γενικού Λυκείου Χανίων. Ανακτήθηκε από http://www.artmag.gr/articles/art-articles/about-art/item/2060-artand-art-school-lesson http://1lyk-kranid.arg.sch.gr/grasep/html/ekpaideytiko_sistima.html, ανακτήθηκε 20/01/2018 http://www.crete.gov.gr/attachments/article/11056/BALOURDOS_29_9_2016_FINAL.pdf http://www.minedu.gov.gr/publications/docs2016/27-01-16_elstat%CE%9D%CE%95%CE%9F. pdf • Conselho Nacional de Educação (2015), Estado da Educação 2014 http://www.cnedu.pt/content/edicoes/estado_da_educacao/Estado_da_Educação_2014_VF.pdf • Conselho Nacional de Educação (2016), Estado da Educação 2015. http://www.cnedu.pt/content/noticias/CNE/Estado_da_Educacao_2015_versao_digital.pdf

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Profile for Evangelia Makri

Guide of Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts  

A practical guide in all languages of member countries of the project plus English, made by 1. The overall report concerning the analysis on...

Guide of Michelangelo: Ensuring School Success and Reducing Early School Leaving through Fine Arts  

A practical guide in all languages of member countries of the project plus English, made by 1. The overall report concerning the analysis on...

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