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The Fashion Advisor An information appliance for young male professionals

Supervising chair Prof. Dr. Imre HorvĂĄth Supervising mentors Ing. Bram de Smit M.Sc. Valentin Gattol

Eva Hernando MartĂ­n

Master Thesis


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Abstract This report presents a design inclusive research with the aim of developing a specific information appliance that can help young male professionals with shopping for clothes and getting fashion information; the Fashion Advisor. From the exploratory research, it was concluded that the selected target group is in need of guidance and reassurance and that they generally perceive shopping as undesirable. As well, regarding advice giving and taking, the preferred form is as information and recommendations. The trend study showed that (i) companies should focus on providing experiences to the consumers, that (ii) people rely more than ever on the opinions of the other and that (iii) there is a need for tailored information. In the market study it was realized that the current products were mainly targeting size fitting issues and no product was found which personalizes the content. These findings led to the formulation of the goal. The goal of the Fashion Advisor is to assist with shopping and improve the shopping experience of young male professionals. This is done by providing relevant fashion related information at appropriate moments during the decision making process, in addition to helping them to narrow down the selection of clothing items available. The Fashion Advisor achieves this by referencing a profile for each individual user. This profile is built from user input during the initial setup stage and is continuously updated by contributions from the purchase history as well as the ratings given to viewed items by the user. Additionally, data of other similar user profiles can be applied to forecast items the user would like. The service provided through a smartphone consists of several functions that resolve the user needs. For instance, it can give tips about what could look best on the user or provide him with clothing advice for what may be most appropriate for a particular type of event. Consequently, it is expected that the Fashion Advisor will increase the level of confidence of the user and remove some of the experienced frustration during shopping. In order to validate the concept, an evaluation of the Fashion Advisor was done. Data were gathered by means of questionnaires and interviews. Two prototypes were built for this evaluation. Apart from a tangible prototype, an abstract prototype was created which made assessable the non-existing real life processes that are established through the use of the Fashion Advisor. The results of the confirmative research indicated that the Fashion Advisor was overall perceived as helpful. Nonetheless, the helpfulness of the Fashion Advisor is dependent on the fulfilment of the needs of the participants and these needs depend on the level of fashion involvement of the person. Users with a moderate fashion consciousness benefited the most from the Fashion Advisor. However, further enhancement is needed to be as well helpful for users with highest level of fashion involvement. The results also demonstrated that the success of the Fashion Advisor would depend on its potential to foster trust which is dependent on its ability to adapt to the user. Additionally, it was concluded that a human component needs to be present in the product and that usability needs to be improved. In the final stage, problems the target group had with the product were targeted in an iterative step of the project, the guidelines for a Design proposal were established. Additionally, extra functions were included for high fashion involved users.

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Contents

Afterword 90 Personal Reflection 91 Acknowledgements 93

Introduction 7

References 94

Explorative research 10

Appendices 99

1. Explorative research

12

Appendix A 100

1.1 Target group 13

Appendix B 123

1.2 Scenarios of use

15

Appendix C 130

1.3 User research 17

Appendix D 142

1.4 Synthesis of user’s needs

22

1.5 Providing advice

24

1.6 Trends study 27 1.7 Market study 29 1.8 Technology study

30

1.9 Conclusions 32

Construction of research means

34

2. Conceptualization 36 2.1 Starting points

37

2.3 Idea generation

38

2.4 Platform concepts

40

2.5 Providing Tailored Content

41

2.6 Information constructs

42

2.7 Conceptualization of functions

45

2.8 Final concept 52 3. Prototyping 56 3.1 Introduction 57 3.2 Abstract prototyping

57

3.3 Tangible prototype

63

Confirmative research

66

4. Confirmative research

68

4.1 Introduction 69 4.2 Method 70 4.3 Results 73 4.4 Discussion 78

5. Follow-up 82 5.1 A review 83 5.2 A design proposal

83

5.3 Next steps 87

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Introdu 6


Looking good and dressing well is a necessity. Having a purpose in life is not — Oscar Wilde

uction 7


0.1 Introduction

group of ‘young professionals’, are men who are familiar with using IT devices in their daily life. Therefore, the first assumption is that a kind of functionality similar to that of

In modern society personal image is very important

a PDA/smartphone could be adopted.

and fashion has acquired a great value. In most of the developed societies it has become the most evident and

The challenge is to make a suitable and useful

most easily visible expression of personality.

solution which is perceived as efficient by young male professionals. This is important because they are in

In parallel, the use of computer technology to make

general less involved in fashion and more reluctant to

life easier is already happening. With the arrival of

invest time in it.

the e-commerce there are already some computer

0.3 The assignment

technologies applied in the fashion field, such as cloth simulation and virtual dressing/fitting. As well, there are some projects about receiving advice while trying on clothes in the store. However, there are no personal,

Design and test a smart Fashion Advisor in the form of a

portable and context sensitive solutions that help people

digital portable device that assists male consumers during

with making decisions about buying clothes, or that

selection and purchase of clothes. The tool should provide

provide useful information about fashion in an efficient

useful information about fashion and clothes in an easy

way.

and efficient way.

According to the aforementioned, it is assumed that

0.4 The goals

people who might have trouble dealing with fashion could benefit from some advice. Addressing this problem is the good of the Fashion Advisor. Thus, the Fashion Advisor is

The goal of this project is:

seen as a personal smart appliance that knows what fits the user, and advice him on purchasing.

“To develop concepts for and to produce a tangible prototype of a specific information appliance, which

0.2 The problem

helps young male professionals to find and buy articles of clothing according to their personal preferences, dress codes and trends”

Young male professionals have even a greater need of fashion advice due to their limited amount of free time and a busy schedule full of different of social events, in which making time for clothes shopping is

EXPLORATIVE RESEARCH ACTIONS

not easy, but it is still a priority.

CONSTRUCTION OF CONCEPTUALIZATION

RESEARCH MEA

PROTOTY

activity, while they do not have so much free time. Additionally, men contrary to most women, need reassurance and guidance when getting dressed or buying clothes for themselves. Additionally, this selected target 8

?

Hyphothesis

ACTIVITIES

by them as a very time consuming

RESULTS

Moreover, shopping is perceived Project scope Problem definition Design vision

Concept

Pr Fashion Advisor

@ Literature Interwiews Questionnaire Internet

Idea generation

Concept development

Concept detailling

Prototypes building


The goal of the Fashion Advisor is to help young male

aggregate knowledge about point 1. Then, a design will be

professionals with shopping for clothes and getting

used as research means for the project, this design will be

information. More specifically the Fashion Advisor will:

ultimately evaluated with the purpose of gaining insight into the best way of providing fashion advice by means of

• Enable the user to make fashion decisions more easily made

Following DIR, the research process is split into three

• Decrease negative feelings of the user towards

phases: (i) phase of explorative research actions, (ii)

shopping

phase of creative design actions or construction of

• Foster trust of the user in the device’s advice

research means, and (iii) phase of confirmative research

• Make fashion browsing and selection simpler and more

actions (figure 0.1). At the end of this report and additional

convenient

section has been incorporated, the Follow-up, where the

• Make finding the best fit and buy in a shop easier

main findings are applied into guidelines for a new Design

• Increase the likelihood that the user will look better

Proposal.

• Increase the likelihood that the user will dress and wear appropriate outfits for each event

The goals of the pre-study or phase of explorative research actions are: (i) to gather knowledge about the target group and his needs by means of a literature review

0.5 The research

and a user research, (ii) aggregate knowledge about advice giving and decision making (iii) to collect knowledge about the state of the art, the market needs and the

The methodology is based on Design Inclusive Research

technological opportunities, (iv) to define the problem,

(DIR). DIR is a methodology of design research that blends

the scope of the project and the vision. Analogously, the

two domains of learning: research and design (Hórvath,

goals of the phase of construction research means are: (i)

2007). Horváth (2007, p.3) states that ‘as a framing

to develop a concept as research means, (ii) to prove the

methodology, DIR offers the possibility to embed design

feasibility of the ideas by creating a testable prototype,

as a research means, and allows combining scientific

and (iii) to experience towards a better understanding

study and designerly inquiry in a scrupulous way’. This

and enhancement. Finally, the goals of the confirmative

research starts with the hypothesis that a (1) young male

research actions phase or confirmative post-study are:

professionals might have trouble dealing with fashion,

(i) the evaluation of the prototype, (ii) to confirm the

and that (2) a digital tool could help them. At the end of

properness of the concept and /or to gather proposals for

the exploratory research it is expected to confirm and

its further enhancement (iii) the validation of the research and design methods.

TRUCTION OF

LIZATION

RESEARCH MEANS

CONFIRMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIONS

Prototypes Fashion Advisor

Concept detailling

FOLLOW-UP

PROTOTYPING

t

ment

a digital tool.

• Increase the confidence of the user about the decisions

Prototypes building

Fashion Advisor

Interwiews

Verification of the hypothesis

Questionnaire

Guidelines for a new design proposal

Reporting

Figure 0.1 Process overview

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Explora research 10


We are who our clothes allow us to be — Aron O’ Cass

ative h 11


1. Explorative research

E

xecutive summary This chapter starts by discussing the target group details regarding fashion and shopping behaviour, followed by the results of the completed user research. The user research consisted of two parts, the applied ethnographic research of the target group, and an online questionnaire. These two, together

with the knowledge gathered in the literature review of the selected target group, ‘young male professionals’, result in the compilation of the needs for advice in fashion of young male professionals. Then, a trend study was carried out in order to gather knowledge about all the variables that might influence the future product. Next, the main products that are currently used in advice for fashion were analysed in the market study and an analysis of the technologies used in fashion as well as in other fields was completed. This resulted in a problem definition in which the main conclusions are integrated, a list of requirements to consider in the conceptualization, and a design vision describing the desired situation.

Social study Target group: literature review, applied ethno-

Identify

graphic research and

social and

online questionnaire

market

Advice literature review

opportunities

Vision

Trend study

Market study

Idea generation

Problem definition

Identify

Technology study

technical possibilities

Figure 1.1 Chapter contents overview

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Requirements


1.1 Target group

‘men’s general interest magazines’, they are reluctant to admit it (Galilee, 2002). Many men see shopping as being unpleasant and undesirable (Dholakia, 1999). Moreover, frequently men need guidance and reassurance.

At the beginning of this project, the decision was made to choose as target group for this project ‘Young male

Young men (generation Y, born between 1975-1990) are

professionals’. This section explains why that choice was

more involved in fashion than previous generations and

made, defines this target group and by means of a litera-

are expected to have a higher degree of fashion conscious-

ture review, gathers knowledge about this group in terms

ness. They purchase significantly more often although

of their shopping behaviour and attitudes towards fashion.

this is not predictive of a higher spend. Moreover, they are more likely to be fashion fans than the other generations

Based on an extensive literature review, a comparative ta-

and have a more positive attitude towards fashion (Pen-

ble summarizing the different shopping behaviours of men

tecost et al. 2010). This might be explained by the Inten-

and women was done [Appendix A]. From this explorative

sification of social and commercial pressures on them to

and comparative study it was concluded than men are the

become fashion consumers (Bakewell et al., 2006).

most interesting target group.

Fashion involvement Men and fashion shopping

Fashion involvement will significantly influence the way

Due to social pressure, men in general seem to be increas-

men shop and behave towards fashion. Involvement is

ingly focusing on the formation of their image (Bakewell

likely to influence behavioural outcomes such as impulse

et al., 2006), and appearance is becoming vital to the

buying, decision making and purchase decisions (Bakewell

construction of masculinity. Yet, the traditional masculin-

et al., 2006; O’Cass, 2004; Michaelidou et al., 2008). In

ity values are still keeping men from adopting fashion and

the context of fashion clothing, involvement is defined

they fear of putting the traditionally and socially required

according to O’Cass as ‘the extent to which the consumer

model of masculinity in danger. However, gender roles are

views the focal activity as a central part of his life, a mean-

gradually relaxing (Otnes et al., 2001).

ingful and engaging activity in his life’ ( 2004, p. 870). In-

Contrary to most women, men are economic and quick

volvement in fashion clothing is influenced significantly by

shoppers whose purchases are driven by the satisfaction

materialistic values. (O’Cass, 2004). Other contributors to

of need (O’Cass, 2000). Generally, men invest little in

fashion involvement are gender and age. Female consum-

their appearance, and they do not go shopping as often as

ers are more involved in fashion than male consumers,

women, however when they do it there is a greater likeli-

and also generation Y consumers have a higher degree of

hood that they will spend more money (Pentecost et al.,

fashion involvement than previous generations (Hawkins

2010). When shopping for clothes men prefer comfort and

et al., 2009).

tend to see fashion in highly simplistic terms: utilitarian

On the other hand, as stated by O’Cass (2004, p. 879) ‘a

and functional.

consumers’ subjective fashion clothing knowledge is sig-

Female partners are an active purchaser of clothes for

nificantly influenced by their degree of fashion clothing in-

their men and about 14 per cent of men even delegate the

volvement’. As well, confidence (belief in decision making

activity to their partners (Galilee, 2002; Dholakia, 1999;

ability and ability to choose the right brand) is influenced

Bertrand. et al., 2008).

by consumers’ degree of involvement in fashion clothing. (O’Cass, 2004). Similarly, fashion involvement influences

Males knowledge toward fashion comes from media, Inter-

recreational shopper identity (Hawkins et al., 2009).

net sources, social networks, observations from the street,

High involvement shoppers are characterized by using

and the influence of partners. Although some men read

most of the non-personal idea sources, shopping more 13


often, spending more money, and being more comfortable shopping for clothing (Kinley et al., 2010). It is possible to classify men depending on their ‘involvement’ with clothing (Bertrand, 2008). Based on Bretrand’ study with young men (ages 23-40), three categories are proposed : (1) Low fashion involvement: They only shop when they really need it They do not like to buy clothes (shopping provokes an unpleasant sensation) With respect to the search for information, the sources are merely

Figure 1.2 Young male professional

the point of sale They seem to limit themselves to the brands they know so as not

They believe fashion is used to create a good impression or to

to have to go to trouble in their quest

gain more respect

Aesthetic concerns are considered to be futile

They had a lack of interest in any kind of magazine that deals with fashion, but they are keen observers of daily life, looking at shop

(2) Mix of low and high fashion involvement or medium

windows and the fashion other men wear

fashion involvement:

Their choices are related to quality, design, cut and comfort

When they go shopping, they already seem to have something in mind and don’t deviate from what they had planned beforehand

Target group

They may spend longer in the shop trying on clothes so as not to

Based on this fashion involvement classification a further

have to return and change them

refinement of the target group can be done. It is obvious

They may buy more than one item at a time not to have to go back

that “low fashion involvement”consumers are not interest-

to the mall to buy more

ed in receiving advice nor would be willing to put any effort

They attach a lot of importance to the personal style

for it. The future user of the Fashion Advisor is a person

Regarding the need recognition, they ranged from merely utilitar-

who not only needs advice but is also willing to receive

ian needs to some indications that purchases are made when

it. Consequently, it should be a person with difficulties in

there is some spare cash or when their clothes are worn out or

shopping for clothes and making decisions on his own, but

old, making them look “disheveled”.

with the will to look good and a basic interest in fashion.

They do not read magazines to search for fashion information.

Therefore, the group with more interest for the Fashion

They like to hear/ask for other people’s opinions,

Advisor is the medium involvement group. In addition to

They prefer to go shopping with someone else (their partners

this target group, the high involvement group could also be

mainly).

added.

They are informed by what they observe in shop windows

Inside the young male consumers, “professionals” were

Price seems to be considered an important attribute, but so is

selected. The reason for this is that professionals can

style, quality, cut and brand

have a greater need of fashion advice, due to the bigger at-

They only buy brands because they are references for quality, not

tendance to important events and they have also a larger

because they are evidence

budget to spend on clothes. Besides, this group is more familiarized with IT technologies and may already own

(3) High fashion involvement

some kind of smartphone/PDA,

They preferred to shop on their own because they may spend a long time window shopping or trying on clothes.

Young male professionals (ages 22-35) are men who have

Clothes for them are more than just utilitarian

studied at a university and who have recently joined the

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work force or have already a short experience in it (figure

in which of these scenarios the future product will be used.

1.2). Due to the demands from their works together with

The researching scenario alone seems to be “not enough”

the social pressure to have a better image, young male

to create a product. This function can be done better

professionals need to look good in their clothes. Therefore,

through a website. In the dressing scenario, the product

shopping for clothes becomes a priority for them.

is supposed to advice about mixing and matching, fitting,

1.2 Scenarios of use

appropriateness of the outfit for the occasion, and perhaps other complementary functions such as wardrobe organizer. However, the fact that all this is done with the existing clothes the user has bought can limit the accuracy of the advice. For instance, the user might have not plan properly his purchases, and therefore might not own clothes that match between them, or the clothes he owns are not in fashion, or are not trendy. Therefore, it is assumed that

Scenarios of use

advice for dressing should always go together with shop-

There are three main scenarios where an advisor could be

ping advice.

used:

The shopping scenario is critical since the success of the

(1) Shopping (in the store or online)

user’s outfits will depend on his own clothing. Some kind of

(2) Dressing (home)

information (trends, new arrivals, outfits for the occasion)

(3) Researching, collecting information and getting in-

should be provided to the purely purchase advice options

spired (home and store)

to ensure satisfaction when shopping. Therefore, after analysing these scenarios a choice is done to go for the

In table 1.1 the different possibilities for the scenarios of

shopping scenario with additional supporting information

usage of the product are depicted. The aim is to determine

necessary to make successful purchases.

Scenarios

Functions of advice

Other functions

Current application

Shopping: -On the Internet -In the store

-Appropriateness of the outfit (for your body shape, for the occasion) -Body type based advice -Fitting ( on the stores) and virtual fitting ( on the Internet) -Mixing (finding combinations that match and accessories)

-Social shopping (real time connection with friends, family…) - Shopping tailored clothes through Internet

Social retailing mirror system, virtual stylist, smart mirror (buying on the store) Virtual fitting

Dressing (at home)

-Colour harmony -Mixing and matching (colour and styles)

-Wardrobe organizer (clothes database) -Calendar to keep track of worn outfits

Iphone apps. Software

Researching, getting information and planning purchases (trends, collections, searching for discounts…)

-Give inspiration, information and recommendations.

-Collect and present information in a synthesized way -Help building a “wardrobe essential/must have” -Create your own outfits and publish them

Iphone apps. And websites ( polyvore, looklet, Boutiques. com…)

Table 1.1 Scenarios in fashion advice

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The process of shopping for clothes The decision making process when shopping for clothes is

Need recognition and problem awareness

analysed here. When purchasing, people follow a decision making process until arriving to the moment where they either buy or not buy the product. In order to analyse the steps a person goes through a decision making model is

Information search

Browsing, researching and finding things

Evaluation of alternatives

Support when making decisions

used. According to the Engel-Blackwell-Miniard (EBM) model, customers go through a five-stage decision-making process in every purchase (Teo and Lim, 2003).The steps of this process are: (1) need recognition, (2) Information search, (3) Evaluation of alternatives (4) Purchase and (5) Post-purchase evaluation. The description of each

Purchase

these steps can be found in the appendix A. In Figure 1.3, these steps and their translation into ’moments of advice’ for the use of a future Fashion Advisor device are shown. The information search would correspond with brows-

Rating of items

Post-purchase evaluation

ing, researching, and finding things. For the evaluation of alternatives support is needed. After the purchase, the

Figure 1.3 Steps of the decision making process according to

consumer could give some feedback about his level of

EBM model

satisfaction (rating). monetary reasons. This is the first moment when he needs The decision process styles used by men are not in fact

to make a decision: the initial selection. The next decision

univocal (Bertrand, 2008) but rather depend on the level

moment comes in the fitting room. He will choose the

of involvement with clothing. The process of shopping

items based on how well they fit him and look on him. This

for clothes (figure 1.4) usually starts with the consumer

is the fitting evaluation. When leaving the fitting room he

realizing he has a need. In fact, it was found out during

will have reduced his initial selection a bit more.

the literature research that men normally shop due to a

Finally, another decision based on monetary reasons and

need and not for enjoyment. In most of the cases, men

mood will take place. This is the final purchase decision.

will not do research for this need. After this awareness of a need, he will go to the store. Commonly, men tend

Conclusions

to go to the same stores every time they make a clothing

From the possibles scenarios where advice can be given,

purchase. Once there, a process of search starts. The user

the shopping scenario was chosen. In this scenario

will browse trough the store with his need in mind. In this

the consumer goes through a decision making process

process of browsing he is continuously discarding and

before making the purchase or deciding not to make it.

considering items. Selection is based on these criteria: (1)

In this process there are three key moments where help

the clothes must meet his needs (category, colour...), (2)

might be needed, namely: (1) the initial selection, (2) the

his personal preferences (style, size...) and (3) sometimes

fitting evaluation and (3) the final purchase decision.

Need

Search

Filter

Trying on

Filter

Final decision

Figure 1.4 Shopping for clothes process

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1.3 User research 1.3.1 Applied ethnographic research

Procedure The research was divided in two main parts. The first part consisted of observations of the target group in the store. The second part was done with recruited participants who had to follow a series of tasks. The aim of the first part was to get answers to some general questions about the habits of the users. List of questions to answer:

Applied ethnography is a type of qualitative research. This

• Are most men shopping on their own or do they

type of research was chosen because is ideal for the early

have company? If they have company, is it usually

stages of New Product Development process (Sanders L,

male or female?

2002) where the objectives are initially undefined but be-

• Do they ask shop clerks for advice?

come clearer as fieldwork progresses. It also works well for

• How many outfits do they buy?

revealing new product opportunities through exploratory studies where little real-world data exists about customer

With this purpose observations of anonymous users were

behavior. Additionally, this type of research works well

done during three days. In total 8 users were observed

in situations that involve a process, like retail purchases.

since the moment they entered in the store till they left or

Applied ethnography usually consists of observational

bought something.

research in a natural setting (watching users in the envi-

Although all people observed were men, they might not

ronment while performing the activity of study), combined

have belong to the target group since they were not spe-

with contextual inquiry (asking questions in the natural en-

cifically recruited. This means they might not be “young

vironment while performing the task). It is both descriptive

male professionals”. Furthermore, since these obser-

and interpretative, because it seeks to capture as much

vations were done in the sales period it is important to

detail as possible, and the researcher has to interpret

consider that this could have biased the results because

data and decide what is important and what observations

the situation observed might not have corresponded to the

means (Plowman, 2003).

usual one.

Research objective

In the second part, five users belonging to the target group

The assumption in this project is that the target group

were contacted and they accepted to take part in this user

have a need for advice and could benefit from some kind

research. Participants were given two cards with different

of help when shopping for clothes, hence it is essential to

scenarios and then they had to follow some instructions.

find out what their needs are. Knowing the user’s unmeet

The first task consisted of buying a formal outfit and the

needs will suggest improvements or ideas for new prod-

second task in buying a casual outfit. Participants were

ucts or services.

observed while performing the tasks,

Therefore, the aim of this research was to gain insight into the shopping behaviour of the target group, in terms of

Results

what, how and why, in order to apply these insights in the conceptualization of the future product.

Part 1: observations The conclusions of the observations are that men go

Research question:

shopping accompanied by female companions (girlfriends,

What are the needs for advice of young male professionals while shopping?

mother, friends), or least likely by other men, presumably friends. Out of 8, 6 were accompanied by a female companion, the other two by other male friends. However,it 17


TASK 2 Scenario 2 This weekend you are going out with a date. You will go to the movies and then to is necessary to say that since the researcher chose to dinner. You obviously want to look good, and handsome. You need to go observe these people and no others, these dataelegant may not shopping and to get some new clothes.

be objective. Typically, they did not buy many things per visit, between 1

You have to give an important presen tation for one of your clie nts. Besides the clie nt, your boss and oth er influentialpeople will also be present. Ma king a good impress ion to all of them is imp ortant. You need to go shopping and get some new clothe Instructions s. Read the scenario for which you need to do some shopping. Put yourself in that mindset and start to find clothes as you would do normally. Use a shop clerk’s advice if you need to, take the necessary time and don’t worry about me! At the end when you have finally chosen something, I will take a picture of you in your new outfit.

or 3 items each time. TASK 1

Only 1 of the users asked shop clerks for help (but it is unknown for what). This might be because most of the users under observation were already accompanied.

Part 2: Instructing participants

tation presen ortant t, io 1 Scenar to give an imp sides the clien e e B ple will You hav your clients. tialpeo ssion n e f u o fl e in for on other d impre oss and Making a goo eed to go your b t. un presen rtant. Yo othes. o p also be im is f them e new cl to all o et som g and g shoppin

u need ions which yo elf in forSK Instruct scenarioTA 2 ut yours e Read th e shopping. P find clothes Sced io m 2 o so start to shop to nar set and rmally. Use a Thisatwe indnd you no going out are th meke o ke the d ld u d to, tawith oaudat You will woto e t e. e u go n yo u the mo as and the orry ab vice if yo vies dincl ner ’s adobv don’t w enfito erk. You iou nally slydwan e an t to av k goo loo tim h y u d, ar elegan yo ss t and handso hen icture nece wme d atopgo take the end g,. IYou illnee shoppi ! Atand to meng insomw get th e e new m clo the t. so s. chosen your new outfi in of you

In general the process of going through each task was always the same for every user. Thinking about the outfit, browsing through the shop, trying it on in the fitting room, and then deciding if the result was good or if some changes were needed. 1)The initial selection Many of the users commented that it was really difficult for them to shop alone and make decisions since they are

u need ions hich yo Instruct scenario for w yourself in ut e Read th e shopping. P find clothes m to to do so d start a shop date.second partat mindset an normally. Use the Figure 1.5 Tasksgduring with athe th o t ke d u o ld u d to, ta oin wo io 2 e g e u ar e n n to yo ar u n ce u about as S yo the vice if yo ’t worry ekend es and good, clerk’s ad time and don have finally This we o to the movi to look t y u g an ar o ill yo w ss g nece You w when picture viously You need to the end g, I will take a You ob e. es. me! At dinner. andsom me new cloth thin h e d m t. so an t chosen your new outfi elegan to get so ing and to buy a whole outfit, but only u in of yo not parts of it and that shoppneed

TASK 2

used to go with someone else (female friends).

they can combine later with other things that they already

When given the card, users normally have a basic idea or

own.

what they ‘should’ wear for the event, especially in the first task, three of the users went for a suit with out any doubt.

2)The fitting evaluation

Their browsing process started by picking an initial item

Some of participants had trouble with the limitations of

and then the rest of the outfit was built around this initial

items you can enter into the fitting room (up to 6), espe-

piece. They went with it around the shop, placing it next to

cially those who had problems with finding their size.

other clothes to see the matching of colours.

When trying on items, most of the participants had a quite

Some of the participants had problems when picking their

clear idea if something was fitting them well and if it was

sizes, they said they knew their sizes only approximately

a good combination. Two of the participants went out to

and one of them said he did not know his size at all.

get more clothes because what they had picked was not

There were some complaints about the way things were

convincing.

organised in the shop, in terms of finding their size. When looking for a certain item, like a shirt, participants did not

3) The final purchase decision

look thoroughly through all the things available in the shop,

Participants commented that normally they would have

Instead, they focused on a certain area and if they did not

taken home what they were shopping if they would really

find it there they gave up. One of the participants com-

need it. They all said that unless it is something expensive

mented that he needs his girlfriend to accompany him to

or a bit special, they do not do research and they go to a

‘locate’ things: “It is good to have other eyes to look for

shop and buy it.

you” In general, most of the participants have trouble when

Discussion

selecting the clothes and making the combinations. They

At the end of the tasks some questions were asked to the

said that it is difficult for them to decide on what is trendy,

participants. All the answers for each participant can be

what matches, and what is appropriate.

found in the Appendices.

Almost all participants in task 2 said that they normally do

General conclusions of the questions are:

18

Instructions Read the sc to do some that mindse as you would clerk’s advice necessary tim me! At the en chosen some of you in you

Instructions Read the scenar to do some shop that mindset and as you would do clerk’s advice if y necessary time a me! At the end w chosen somethin of you in your new


All the participants except one prefer to go shopping with

and sceptical about accepting advice from a machine.

someone, preferably a female companion so that they can

Instead, what they would prefer is some complementary

get advice.

information or suggestions which could help them to make

All the users except one claimed to shop by need. Either

a choice:

they need new clothes or they need to update outfits they

“Sorry but never. Maybe I would take advice of an intel-

already own. When they shop they tend to go to the same

ligent pre-made app which understand color combinations

stores, some do some research in shops before buying

(mostly styles and interests) and shows photos of possible

something, but normally most of them do short visits in

combinations simulated with mine and the garment I want

which they see something, they like it and then buy it.

to purchase. So, to me it should work partly in combina-

Some of the users follow trends, but not very actively.

tion of my personal data ( My closet/stock) and the public

Participants are mostly annoyed when shopping because

(the shop/retailer)”

of it being a ‘time consuming activity’, with long queues to

“If the machine aims to direct me towards certain shops

pay and try on and make purchases with often have bad

to fulfil my needs, like a tomtom in traffic, I would. If the

service.

machine aims to direct me within a shop to influence my

Once they have make a purchase, participants stated to

opinion about products which are very near (in my reach

feel confident about their choices.

to see and touch), I doubt it. If the machine aims to inform

In the rare situation were participants ask for the assis-

me with advice based on the latest trends in fashion, I

tance of shop clerks, it is for clothing information and not

might not be in the target user group for that machine,

for advice. They do not believe the personnel are good

as I do not take a strong interest in such trends. If I were

professionals to give them useful advice. Participants suggested several solutions to improve the shopping experience: - Interactive terminals to show/

help them find what they want: “May be an interactive kiosk where I can type what I want and it can tell me whether they have such a thing or not and can tell me where to find it” - Better display of articles that facilitates browsing: “Increase on the imagery of the current collection”, “I like having a good overview in the shops even before going through all the piles and racks of clothes. The presentation of the products could be better organized from this perspective” -Smartphone application: “not another device, I think maybe a smartphone application for color palettes and maybe a library of cool people of different styles” Regarding the question about if they would accept advice from a machine or not, most users feel a bit reluctant

Figure 1.6 Outfits of task 1

19


interested in such trends I would probably question the creative potential of the machine, and wonder what the advice is based on before accepting it.” “From a person is easier. It’s nicer if people around you like your clothes than that a machine finds it nice” “Advice, I don’t think so. But I could use one to inform my decisions. Depends on how is its output framed”

Conclusions • Most test subjects have trouble to shop alone since they are used to go shopping with someone. • Difficulty comes mainly in terms of browsing for clothes in a shop: find what the user wants, locate certain items, make decisions on matching and appropriateness for an occasion. • There are all kinds of fashion consciousness degrees between participants, but in general there is a trend to shop for need and to not have fun when doing it and rather dislike it.

Figure 1.7 Outfits of task 2

• Solutions suggested by participants to overcome these difficulties are based on systems which facilitate brows-

Participants

ing and selection and give suggestions of combinations,

41 people responded to the questionnaire. All respondents

rather than judge specific outfits.

were male ( mean age=27,29, SD=3,76)

• Participants are reluctant to accept advice from a ma-

The following were the main nationalities:

chine, it would be difficult to try to substitute a person

Dutch 9 (22%), Spanish 8 (19,5%), Portuguese 6 (14,6%),

with it and they question the ‘creativity’ of a machine to

Belgian 2 (4,9%), Italian 2 (4,9%) and Colombian 2

judge about how trendy an outfit is.

(4,9%). The occupation of the respondents is as follows: 16 (39%)

1.3.2 Collecting data based on an online questionnaire

work full time, 13 (32%) are students, 8 (20%) work part time, and 4 (10%) are unemployed. From those who work full or part time, 15 (46,87%) do it in the design field, and 11 (34,7%) in the engineering field.

An online questionnaire was submitted to some male participants. The goal of this questionnaire was to confirm

Data analysis

some of the conclusions that came after the ethnographic

Shopping behaviour About the frequency of going shopping, 20 (49%) go shopping “between 3-5 times a year”, 14 (34%) go shopping “once a month”, 2 respondents (5%) go “once a year or less”, 5 (12%) choose “other” (twice a year, whenever I need clothes...) and no one selected “more than once a month”.

research and get more information about the problems men cope with when shopping and their shopping behaviour in general. Moreover, some questions regarding the future product were introduced. The questionnaire can be found in the appendix A, as well as the processing of the results.

20


It is confirmed that men shop mainly based on need. The

The preferences of respondents about wether going ac-

option ,“I need new clothes, mine are worn out”, was

companied to shop for clothes or not, and with who are

selected by 33 (55,93%), followed by “I need to update

as follows: “With my partner” 26 (33,34%) and “alone” 25

my clothes, mine are not trendy anymore” selected by

(32,06%) are the preferred options, followed by “with a

11 (18,64%), “I enjoy looking at what the trends are and

friend“ 19 (24,35%) and “with my mother” 8 (10,25%). In

imagine new outfits for myself” and “Someone pushes me

this question it was also possible to check more than one

to do it (mother, partner,...)”, got both 7 (11,85%). And

option.

one person wrote in other: “ when needing to look more

Advice when shopping for clothes When asked about how often do they ask shop clerks for assistance in a 5-point frequency scale ( 1=rarely and 5=very often), the mean obtained is 2,46 with a SD=1,267. This could be interpreted as occasionally or sometimes. Respondents mainly 35 (85%) ask for information of the product (sizes, other colors, availability), and only 6 (15%) ask shop clerks for advice about fitting, appropriateness and style. On average, respondents feel rather sure about their choices of what to pick (M=3,44 and SD=0,808). However, they find it important to receive advice (M=3,44 and SD=1,074). What they value the most about shopping with someone is that the other person “helps them to make decisions” 31 (42,47%), followed by” He/she helps me locate products” 19 (26,03%), “He/she has more relevant information about fashion than me” 11 (15,07 %), “Just the company” 9 (12,32%), and “other “ 3 (4,11%).

formal” Respondents could select more than one option in this question. About the process respondents follow when shopping for clothes, the agreement with the following statements in a 5-point Likert scale, (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree) is as follows: Respondents mainly disagree with the statement “I just fall in love with something and I need to make it mine immediately”, (M=2,27, SD=1,265). They also disagree with doing research on the Internet before going to the stores (M=1,73, SD=,895) . Some of the participants though, do research on different stores (M= 3,20, SD=1,269), and they slightly agree with doing research only when it is an expensive item (M=3,68, SD=1,234). Some users tend to show an agreement with the statement that the process they follow corresponds to ‘going to the store, see something they like and then buy it’ (M=3,59, SD=1,161). It could be concluded that shopping is not considered by men an activity in which they put so much thought and time, and

(M=3,83, SD=,834).

Thinking about the Fashion Advisor When asking the respondents about whether they would use a device to provide them advice when shopping, in a 5-point scale ( from 1=certainly no to 5=certainly yes), the mean obtained is 2,78 with a SD=1,235. This could be interpreted as on average respondents are slightly reluctant to use such a device.

However, they do not declare to follow trends and fashion

About the platform the Fashion Advisor should adopt,

actively (M=2,22, SD=,988), and they do not enjoy shop-

preferred option is a “Smartphone application” 24 (59%),

ping (M=2,10, SD=,800).

followed by “Terminal with LCD touchscreen in the store”

only do that in special cases like in the case of expensive items. Respondents were also asked about the degree of fashion consciousness, and their willingness to try new technologies. Conclusions are that quite some participants agree with the fact that looking good is important for them

9 (22%), “Not a digital system but a physical one (graphAnd they are impartial about declaring themselves willing

ics, lights, audio,..)” 4(10%), “New digital handheld device

to trying new gadgets (M=3,24, SD=1,067) or adopt new

(specific for this tool)” 3 (7%), and “other suggestions”

technologies (M=3,02, SD=1,214). The slightly big SD in

1(2%).

both cases shows that there is a variation in opinions, with

Thinking in the use of the smartphone for the Fashion

some participants willing to try new gadgets and others

Advisor , respondents were asked wether they own or not

not.

one. Results are like this: 30 (73%) own one and the other 21


27%(11) not yet.

Correlations In order to know if there are relationships between some of the variables a correlation analysis was done. A correlation is a measure of the linear relationship between variables. Correlations analysed are as shown next , where r means

1.4 Synthesis of user’s needs 1.2.1 Types of needs

the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. • Looking good for me is important, so I pay attention to

Based on the shopping process analysis and the user

the clothes I wear vs. Do you normally ask shop clerks for

research, three main categories of needs can be deter-

assistance? With ­r = ,313 (medium effect). This could be

mined (figure 1.8). These categories are: (1) Browsing and

interpreted as the more someone agrees that looking good

filtering, (2) Finding things and (3) Support.

is important, the more they ask for the assistance of shop

Browsing and filtering usually starts with a need, therefore

clerks.

a further division of this point is done based on the type

• I enjoy going shopping vs. I follow trends and fashion

of starting need (explained in nest section). Support is

actively With r­ =,383 ( medium effect). As shown before,

needed for making decisions. These decisions can be re-

respondents disagree with this two statements (M1=2,22

lated to matching, event appropriateness, size fitting, style

and M2=2,10). Therefore, this relationship implies that

or budget matters.

people that follow fashion trends actively, also enjoy shopping much more. This relates to what the literature

Browsing and filtering

says, the higher the level of fashion involvement , the more

When browsing through the store users lose a lot of time.

the person knows about fashion and enjoys shopping.

This is because they have to filter through the whole amount of items to find the ones that fulfil their need and

Conclusions

go well with their style (user preferences). As seen in the

• Regarding the frequency of shopping, there are two

user research, this process can bring a lot of frustration to

main groups of respondents identified, those who go

the shopper. Sometimes, they do not even know what they

shopping once a month (34% of the respondents) and

are looking for and they have to scan through the whole

those who do it just 3-5 times a year (49%).

store in order to find inspiration. Although this could be

• It is confirmed that most of them shop by need.

enjoyable for other targets, young male users generally

• The process participants follow when shopping is

dislike this.

closer to go to the store, see something, like it and then buy it. No research in the Internet is done beforehand,

Finding things

although sometimes research is done in different stores,

When the user has a clear image in his mind of what he

specially if it is an expensive item.

wants, what he needs is simply to know where can he find

• They consider looking good important but they do

it. This means which store might have the specific item that will fulfil his need.

not follow fashion and trends, and they do not enjoy shopping. • There is not a clear trend of respondents declaring

Support

themselves willing to try new gadgets or adopt new

According to the analysis of the shopping process, deci-

technologies,

sions are made based on the following issues: budget,

• They mainly prefer to go shopping with their partner

event appropriateness, matching, personal style and size fitting. • Event appropriateness based: Will this be the right thing to wear for this occasion? What should I wear for an interview?

or alone.

22


Is this too casual for this event?

2) Abstract need

• Matching based:

This type of need correspond to the situation in which the

Does that combine with this?

user goes shopping because he needs something but he

How do I complete this look?

does not have a clear idea of what exactly.

• Assurance with style

For instance, this is the case in which the user faces an

Is this good on me? Is this my style?

event for which he feels he does not have an appropri-

• Size fitting

ate outfit (e.g. I need something for the meeting with this

Do I look good with this? Is it too small?

client, something for tomorrow’s date...). In this case the

• Budget based:

first task for the user is to find out what type of outfit is he

Will they have something similar in another store?

looking for (e.g. a casual outfit consisting of a blazer, a

Do I really need this?

t-shirt and jeans)

Can I afford this?

3) Seduction/falling in love purchase

1.4.1 Starting needs

Another possibility is that the user would go shopping because of the experience of it, or he might be in a store

It has been determined that the need at the beginning of

because of any of the other aforementioned starting needs

the decision making process can take three forms, and

when finds something that he likes. In this situation, the

therefore they will affect the way browsing is done.

user does not have really a need. However, this situation might also bring some moments of uncertainty to the user

1) Concrete need

in case of consider the purchase of this item. This uncer-

According to the literature and user research, male con-

tainty would correspond to the doubt that a better alterna-

sumers go shopping mainly by need, and more specifically

tive might exist somewhere else, matching of this item, or

because they need new clothes as theirs are worn out.

appropriateness for an event.

This need could be more or less defined. Sometimes, male consumers have a clear idea of what they want (e.g. T-shirt with white and red stripes) and they can perfectly visualize it in their minds. Other times they just know the category of the product (e.g. a coat), or that they need something to complete an outfit (e.g. a trouser that matches this shirt)

Needs

Browsing and filtering

Concrete need

Abstract need

Support

Finding things

Seduction

Matching

Event appropiate

Size fitting

Style

Budget based

Figure 1.8 Identified needs

23


1.5 Providing advice

people to engage in data reduction and to seek satisfaction rather than optimal outcomes (Yaniv, & Milyavsky, 2007). Initial choices or opinions of the decision maker before receiving advice will influence confidence. People tend to discount previous advice and favor their own opinion, this

Advice will be a crucial topic during this project. In this

is the so called “egocentric judgement”, (Yaniv & Milyavs-

chapter a brief discussion about advice will be done. The

ky, 2007, Yaniv, 2004a). The explanation of this behaviour

first part addresses the different factors influencing the

is that individuals are privy to their own thoughts, but not

decision maker when receiving advice. The second part

to those of others since they have less access to evidence

focuses on how the nature of this advice, depending on

supporting the advisor’s view. In addition, individuals find

wether it is human or automated affects the response of

to disregard advice more as it increasingly contrasts with

the decision maker.

their own opinion, this is known as the distance effect

1.5.1 The role of advice

(Yaniv, 2004b). The perceived trustworthiness of the source is another

People often seek for the advice of others before making a

factor that will affect confidence. According to Hovalnd

decision. In the fashion context, people also need to make

and Weiss (1951), neither acquisition nor retention of fac-

choices and many times they feel they need advice. But

tual information appears to be affected by the credibility of

how can advice be defined? The decision-making research

the source of information. Nonetheless, changes in opinion

on advice giving and taking has typically defined advice as

(considering the original position of the subject) are

’a specific recommendation concerning what the deci-

significantly related to the trustworthiness of the source.

sion maker ought to do’ (Dalal & Bonaccio, 2010). Sev-

Thus, decision makers will not retain more information be-

eral points regarding advice and decision making will be

cause of the credibility of the source (this depends on the

discussed in the following paragraphs.

learning ability of the person). Judges opinions will change in the direction advocated by the communicator to a sig-

Confidence and advice

nificantly greater degree when the material is presented by

One factor influencing the reaction to advice is the amount

a trustworthy source than when presented by an untrust-

of confidence the decision maker or judge has in the

worthy source. Nonetheless, this is a temporary effect

advice of the advisor. Confidence is defined in the litera-

(‘sleeper effect’), and with time there will be a decrease

ture as an expectation of the extent to which a decision/

in the extent to which subjects agree with the material

opinion/recommendation is closer to the optimal solution,

presented by trustworthy sources and an increase when it

or as a range of values within which the correct answer

was presented by untrustworthy sources.

should fall (Dalal & Bonaccio, 2010). Confidence levels are higher when decision makers receive recommendations

Solicited versus unsolicited advice

from multiple advisors, when there is a greater amount

It is not the same to receive advice when asking for it than

of information on which advisors can base their recom-

when not. According to the literature review (Sniezek &

mendations on, and when there is a greater overlap in the

Buckley’s, 1995), if given the freedom to solicit advice at

information provided by the advisors (Budescu & Rantilla,

any stage during a complex decision problem, most deci-

2000; Budescu et al., 2003) Hence, the level of agreement

sion makers opt to conduct a fairly substantial informa-

among advisors appears to influence confidence.

tion search on their own (acquire “internal information”,)

Although there is ample evidence that averaging the

before obtaining advice (“external information”). Results

opinions of several individuals increases accuracy, with

indicate that decision makers sought more task related

increased processing of information from multiple sources

information from the advisor who possessed some unique

integration becomes more complex. Hence, this leads

information compared to the advisor who only possessed

24


information redundant with the judge’s (Dalal & Bonac-

tive, and therefore information type of advice is perceived

cio, 2006). Furthermore, unique information was seen as

the most positively. When the decision making autonomy

more important and influential than shared information.

is not that important because the advice is solicited, then

The research indicates rather unambiguously that unsolic-

Information and Recommend For are the preferred types. Participants react usually positively to Information. On the other hand, Recommend for, although perceived as positive, may be highly contextually dependent. To conclude, the individual reaction to advice depends on the following contextual factors: 1) the type of decision, (2) advisor expertise/credibility, (3) whether the advice was explicitly solicited and (4) the manner in which the interpersonal assistance cues were worded.

ited advice is poorly received. Moreover, whereas explicitly solicited advice is perceived as cooperative and helpful, unsolicited advice is considered to be intrusive.

Individual differences influencing reactions to advice and decision accuracy Individual differences will influence advice taking and decision accuracy (likelihood that the chosen alternative is the optimal one or correct) (Dalal & Bonaccio, 2006). For instance, the need for closure of the judge, e.g., wanting to make quick decisions and disliking having to deal with inconsistent opinions or evidence is another variable differing across the individual. Thus, individuals characterized by a high need for closure may be less likely, compared to those characterized by a low need for closure, to

1.5.2 The way of providing advice: Human advisor vs. automated aid

take advice. Other variables are individual differences in

Another crucial issue is how the advice is perceived by

terms of preferences for giving or taking particular types

the user if it comes from a ‘ machine’ instead of a human

of advice. For example, some individuals may appreciate

being. Research about human interaction with automated

advice on how to make a decision, whereas others may

machines shows that users have a propensity to apply

appreciate a recommendation on what to decide.

norms of human-human interpersonal interaction to

Gender is another factor that influences the response, for

their interaction with ‘intelligent machines’ (Madhavan &

instance women prefer Social Support as type of advice

Wiegmann, 2005; Nass and Moon, 2000 ), and evidence

(Basow & Rubenfeld, 2003; Michaud & Warner, 1997 as

suggests that people do enter into ‘relationships’ with

cited in Dalal & Bonaccio, 2010, p.12)

computers and interactive machines in a manner similar to human partners (Nass, et al, 1999).This maeans that

Maintaining decision autonomy

social rules guiding human–human interaction may apply

According to the social psychology literature , depending

equally to human–computer interaction (Sundar and Nass

on how advice is given, it might lead to a restriction of free-

2000).

dom, which in turn may result in a negative psychological state called reactance (Brehm, 1966).

Trust in automation

As stated by the literature there are five possible ways of

Based on Rempel’s model of trust in a person (Rempel et

giving advice: 1) Recommend against, 2) Recommend for,

al., 1985 as cited in Munir, 1994), Munir (1994) proposed

3) Information, 4) Decision Support and 5) Social support.

a model for trust in automation. Interesting points of this

When autonomy is important it is better to recommend

model are that trust in automation will be higher the more

against because, relative to recommend for, it excludes fewer alternatives for the decision maker (Caplan & Samter, 1999; Goldsmith, 1994, cited in Dalal and Bonaccio, 2010, p. 12). Furthermore, even greater autonomy is preserved via Information and Decision Support, because they do not explicitly prescribe or proscribe any alterna-

transparent (the more predictable) the system is. Meaning that a system that is easily observed and understood should foster trust, or what is the same reduction of complexity and uncertainty in a system increases trust. Another factor enhancing trust in automation according to Munir (1994) is experience, since the accuracy of users’ perceptions of predictability are also increased with time. 25


Dijkstra (1999) suggests that automation is perceived as

In other fields of application of advice like medicine,

more credible than human advisors. While this initially

decision support systems are used by professionals to

leads to a bias towards automation, it eventually leads to

diagnose and predict human behavior or optimal treat-

a bias against automation as people are more observant

ment. Even though research shows that actuarial meth-

of automation errors than human errors (Dzindolet et

ods (using empirical data and statistics) lead to better

al. 2003). Therefore, trust in automated aids is likely to

results than clinical methods (using human judgment),

breakdown more rapidly than trust in human advisors due

still patients prefer to receive recommendations from a

to the existence of initial biases in favor of automation and

human professional than a computer (Promberger M.

people who are more observant for errors (Madhavan

et al. ,2006). According to the research, when a recom-

& Wiegmann, 2004) Hence, as stated by Lee and See

mendation came from a physician, following that recom-

(2004) it is positive to make automation highly, but not

mendation reduced subjects’ feeling of responsibility more

excessively, ‘trustable’. Since, a high level of trust may be

than when the recommendation came from a computer

dangerous as it could lead the user to overcompensate

program. According to Promberger, only humans, and not

if he or she notices the aid make errors (Dzindolet et al.

machines, are valid for such concepts as responsibility.

2003). Additionally, trust development depends on sev-

Another factor could also be subjects’s lack of trust in the

eral cognitive factors: perceived reliability of automation,

ability of the computer to make a good recommendation.

user’s self-confidence and decision-making biases of the user. (Madhavan and Wiegmann, 2004)

Advice about objective vs. subjective issue Advice given by an automation will depend also on the

In the study conducted by Lerch et al. (1997) about the

nature of the topic, objective vs. subjective. Formal evalua-

effects of source credibility on users’ trust of human vs

tions of objective topics are perceived to be more reliable

automated advisors’, it was found that agreement with

when done by machines than when done by a human

the automated ‘expert’ is significantly lower than with the

being. This is the case of quantitative judgements for

human ‘expert’. This suggests that different psychologi-

instance.

cal factors influence user’s development of strategies of

When giving advice about subjective topics, humans can

utilization of advice when sources of information are either

do it better for several reasons. A human being will react

human or automated (Madhavan, P. and Wiegmann, D. A,

better than a machine under unexpected situations, they

2007).

are more able to organize pieces of information into an

The aforementioned findings by Lerch, et al., (1997) seem

integrated whole, and capable of using other means if

to contradict those reported by Dzindolet et al., (2002)

regular means fail (Shatalov et al., 1986). In other words,

and Dijkstra (1999, in which operators tended to trust an

humans are perceived as more adaptable and capable

automated aid more than a human advisor. However, in

of changing their behavioural patterns according to the

these other previous studies, human operators were not

demands of specific situations. (Madhavan and Wieg-

characterized as “experts.”

mann, 2007). On the other hand, machines will always

Research conducted by Önkal et at, (2009) comparing

be faster, more efficient, and precise, in their forecasting

advice perception when given by either statical methods

about objective topics, and furthermore they will perform

or human experts shows that people treat identical advice

consistently in different situations. This is what research

in different ways if they perceive its source to be different,

calls invariance vs. adaptability (Madhavan and Wieg-

even when it is delivered in an identical manner, overall

mann, 2007)

favouring the human advisor. The conclusion of Önkal’s study is that belief in the judgment of a human expert appears to be deeply rooted.

Conclusions

Therefore, trying to persuade people to give an equal or

• Advisors should provide decision-makers with dif-

greater weight to the output of statistical methods is likely

ferent combinations of types of assistance in different

to be a difficult task.

situations, and also information about alternatives should

26


typically be among the types of assistance they provide. • It is assumed that advice will always be solicited in the context of this project, since the user decides to use the tool or not. According to the literature, among the five different ways of providing advice, ‘information’ and

1.6 Trends study

‘recommend for ‘ seem to be the best accepted by users when advice is solicited, and therefore the ones that will

Several trend reports have been studied and the most

be consider in the future.

relevant macro, consumer and technological trends, have

• In order to preserve decision autonomy of the user,

been extracted (figure 1.9). Further information about

a range of options instead of a unique option should be

these trends can be found in the appendices [Appendix

given or suggested by the product.

A]. In this section the main conclusions about the trends

• About the trust in the advice depending on the cred-

affecting the future Fashion Advisor are discussed.

ibility of the source. High credibility sources lead to a

• New strategies are needed from companies in the

greater change in opinion, and therefore greater accept-

fashion business. Marketing is not the tool anymore, but

ance of the advice, at least initially, than not so trustwor-

creating experiences for the consumer. Having a Fashion

thy sources. This implies that it could be better for this

Advisor to facilitate shopping could be one of them.

project to give advice from a prestigious source.

• Much data and no time to process, need for efficiency

• Acceptance of advice from a human vs . machine aid

and reliable source that synthesizes it. The Fashion

will depend, among others, on the degree of expertise,

Advisor could save time and increase efficiency when

with decision makers preferring humans over machines if

shopping as well as when showing personalized

humans are characterized as experts, but with a prefer-

recommendations.

ence for machines in the case of formal evaluations of

• Opinions of the user are listened more than ever

objective issues.

by other users, together with the fact that users are

• Trust in automation is a function of multiple psy-

producing the content brings the idea of letting users of

chological factors that include user’s perceptions of the

the Fashion Advisor have a voice in the product . This

source of information as well as the actual and perceived

is also related with the Social Communications and

credibility of the source.

Collaboration trend. • It appears to be a need of people to know about others, where they are, what they are doing and give them suggestions based on this. This same idea could be applied in the Fashion Advisor , letting the user know what the others are wearing (in case of special events), or give them recommendations based on it. However, this seems to be in conflict with the chosen target group. Men would probably be reluctant to let others know about their outfits in an ‘active’ way. • Ownerless, could be related with the project by imagining a device that could be shared. Something like a device that saves your profile and you can take it when you go to the store, like taking an audio guide in a museum. • Ubiquitous technologies, could be necessary in this project in case of going for a device with sensors, or with transmitting, receiving and networking capabilities. • Social analytics (measuring, analyzing and interpreting the results of interactions and associations among

Implications for the project • ‘Information’ and ‘recommend for ‘ are the best ways to provide advice. Such as giving support information to help the user making his choices, or a recommended range of options. • The outcome of this project should be a smart device able to learn from user’s preferences (machine learning) and some kind of social intelligence that offers a good computer-human interaction. However, machine learning requires some time for “education” of the device until is adapted to the user’s taste. • The lack of trust in the ability of an automation to make good recommendations about subjective topics, makes necessary to consider a ‘human component’ in the product (like a stylist, wisdom of the crowds...)

27


people), designer meets consumer (Social networking

• The mobile applications trend, can be related with the

platforms act as an open forum for consumers, designers

future product by thinking in an ‘app’, or an ‘app‘ plus

and retailers who are using this as an opportunity for

something else as the form for the Fashion Advisor. What

learning what consumers want ) or faster fashion (taking

is clear is that mobile phones, thanks to smartphones

new trends to store in a matter of weeks), arise the idea of

are becoming computers where many devices are

a mutual benefit for a company and consumer when using

‘concentrated’ into one ( camera, mp3, phone, agenda,

the Fashion Advisor . By using the Fashion Advisor on the

and now apps.) Therefore, thinking in creating a separate

stores, that it is able to track consumer behaviour and

device with only the Fashion Advisor function is not very

record preferences, companies could benefit in knowing

logical. It is doubtful that a user would buy such a device,

in real time what are the most demanding items per profile

against the current of simplification and carrying just one

of user.

device for all.

Fashion Retail trends Social Commerce collaboration between users Mobile devices are becoming computers and the use of apps. is increasing every day

Delivering hosted services over the Internet Sensing, transmiting, receiving and networking capabilities

Designer Meets Consumer Faster fashion

Technological trends Social Communications and Collaboration

‘Track’ the consumer on the store and get information about his preferences

Mobile Applications and Media Tablets Social Analytics Cloud computing Context-Aware Computing

Brands should improve the sh

Ubiquitous Computing Need to know about the others, and let the other Know about you

Consumer trends Shared device own by the store that saves the user’s profile Consumers are more willing to try new devices Consumers produce content

Ownerless

Allow collabora

Urbanomics Social-lites

Urban consum

Discrete consumerism

 Need of the us

Macro trends Mobility and data Growing influence of “we and me” Fight to own the new consumer

Figure 1.9 Trend analysis

Need for an ef shopping

Planned spontaneaty

Democratic selling

Opinions of the user are listened more than ever by other users

Trend ana

Many data and no time to process, need for efficiency and reliable source that synthesizes New strategies are needed from companies in the fashion business

Brands need to create new experiences

Ownerless tren user’s profile. Use of ubiquit

 By using a fas time what are th  Mobile as the

28


1.7 Market study

fashion websites (figure 9.1) that allows the user to create outfits, publish them and post comments about them. The stand out, boutiques.com (from Google), allows users to build their own boutique based on their tastes and learns from the user’s preferences thanks to machine learning technology, This technology allows the user to shop and

A study of current solutions in the field of ‘advice and sug-

buy in a more personalized way. Both of this websites are

gestions in fashion, using internet sources, was done. This

only targeting the female consumer.

study led to the identification of three categories depending on the nature of these solutions/products: physical products, websites and mobile applications. Further information about each of these categories with examples can be found in the appendices [Appendix A]. Below the main conclusions of each of the categories are discussed.

Physical products All the physical products analysed are “on the store” products, most of which are experimental projects, and only one of them is in partial use. They are mainly based on the idea of improving the shopping experience either by creating an intelligent fitting

Figure 1.11 Webistes for advice in fashion (Polivore)

room or providing information and recommendations to the user. LCD touchscreens and RFID chips are the tech-

Mobile applications

nology mainly found in these products.

As seen on the trends chapter, the use of apps is multi-

It is also remarkable that most of the products work for the

plying everyday, as it is the use of smartphones. There

specific database of clothes of the store. This means all

are apps for many different functions (shopping, getting

the information shown is already preprogrammed and no

inspiration...), although most of these fashion apps are

judgements are made in real time.

available only for iPhone. All of the main companies such as Zara, Ralph Lauren and HM, have different apps. which allow the user to check the catalogue and purchase online. As well, the are applications that give styling ideas and the season’s key trends for inspiration like GQ Magazine app. This information applications transforms the user’s phone into a fashion information portal. Some applications let the user send pictures of an outfit to friends or the app’s online community, giving him in-

Figure 1.10 Physical products in the store

stant feedback on how you look (love it or lose it app.). Applications like ‘Cool guy’(figure 1.12) allows the user to categorize and match items in his clothes inventory, add

Websites

and browse items in his wishlist, mix & match clothes to

The main function of these websites is to give informa-

create the ultimate outfits, pack up in minutes, and more.

tion about fashion and trends, or to enable purchasing in

It is a very useful application for the user who has a higher

the case of the shopping websites. The trend of webs 2.0,

knowledge about fashion and wants to play ( creating out-

where users build the content, can also be found in some

fits, mixing and matching) but no advice is provided. 29


1.8 Technology study In this section,the technologies used in fashion and retailing, and other fields where advice is also provided are studied. An extensive research using online sources is carried out. More detailed information can be found in the Figure 1.12 ‘Cool guy’ application

appendices [Appendix A]

Conclusions

Technologies applied in the fashion field

• It can be concluded from the market study that none

As described in the previous section, market study, the

of the products gives a judgement to the user about the

main type of products found in the fashion and retail field

outfit he is trying on by the “artificial intelligence”. What

to provide advice are physical products, websites and ap-

they do is give suggestions of other matching clothes,

plications.

extra information ( available colours, materials...) or

At the hardware level, physical products mainly make use

provide advice by means of other people’s opinion (other

of touch screens and RFID technology. Most of the ana-

users or professional stylists).

lysed products count with a categorized inventory that can

• Most of the fashion websites are targeted for women.

be visualized in the touchscreen in a interactive way.

The few that are for men provide a huge amount of

As well, they make use of cameras that film the user. This

content, sometimes not even related with fashion. Most

image is then sent via the internet making use of social

of these websites inform about trends, or analyse famous

retailing systems. At the software level, the main technologies that are found are (1) image processing, (2)machine learning, and (3) virtual fitting technologies. 1) Image processing is an area of information technology that ultimately forms the basis for all kinds of future visual automation (Express computing,2011). Image processing deals with images and their processing. Processing essentially means algorithmic enhancement, manipulation, or analysis (also understanding or recognition) of the digital image data. This technology allows to perform a visual search of items in a database, recognize colours or patterns. Additionally, it is also used to overlay items on the user to give the effect that he is wearing them. 2) Machine learning is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience (Mitchell, 2006). Applications range from datamining programs that discover general rules in large data sets, to information filtering systems that automatically learn users’ interests. This second part is the most interesting for the Fashion

people outfits. • Applications currently available are specialized in either offering information (trends, style rules, fashion events), enable browsing and purchase, or organizing and playing with the user’s clothes. However, no application was found with integrates these functionalities. None of the applications is user personalized in terms of using the user’s data to perform the functionalities that are offered, but rather offer the same product to each user.

30


Advisor. Herein, machine learning provides the mecha-

is possible to make better predictions and suggestions.

nism for adaptation. 3) Virtual fitting technologies

Conclusions

Virtual fitting is a technology that enables users to get an

From this study, it can be concluded that the hardware

idea of how a particular garment will fit, or to get a rec-

technologies will depend on the type of platform chosen

ommendation on the best size . Virtual fitting is mainly

for the Fashion Advisor, which might be a dedicated plat-

interesting for e-tailers that are implementing virtual fit

form or a existing platform. This part is discussed later in

technology on their websites. This is implemented by (1)

the conceptualization chapter.

Body scanners, (2) Robotic Mannequins, or (3) Cyber mannequins (figure 1.13).

Focusing on the software level the most interesting tech-

Critics of virtual fit technology are sceptical of its ability

nologies that were found are machine learning, image

to accurately predict size and fit. Some see it as more

processing and the use of wisdom of the crowds.

of a marketing tool, while others doubt the consumer’s

These technologies could be applied in the Fashion Advi-

ability to use these systems properly. Many believe this is

sor, enabling a tool that will learn and adapt to the user,

a good beginning, but there is still a long way to go before

will be able to perform visual search and process images

virtual fit tools are truly accurate or accepted by the public.

of items, and will aggregate the knowledge of the differ-

(Chapman, 2001)

ent users. The use of virtual fitting technologies is discarded. The reason for this is that although it gives advice in one of the identified crucial moments, the fitting evaluation, the author of this report remains sceptical about its actual feasibility. It seems clear from research on this technology, that going in that direction would imply huge technical knowledge and a breakthrough would not be achieved. Additionally, there are many solutions already in the market focussing in the fitting room moment (In-

Figure 1.13 Creating a virtual model or cyber mannequin

telligent fitting rooms, virtual fitting screens...). Therefore the focus of this project will be to provide ad-

Technologies from other fields where advice is provided

vice in the other two moments of decision: initial selection and final purchase.

Fields that were explored are: Decision making sites, Decision support systems, and Personalized Browsing Tools. These fields deal as well with advice giving and personalization. Not surprisingly the main software technologies that they use are machine learning and wisdom of the crowds. Wisdom of the crowds is a concept that refers to how, under the right circumstances, groups are remarkably intelligent and are often smarter than an individual. The four conditions that comprise wise crowds are: independence, diversity of opinion, decentralization, and a way to aggregate the results. By aggregating answers and information from all the users that compose a database it 31


1.9 Conclusions 1.9.1 Problem definition

about fashion, therefore the Fashion Advisor should allow the user to use it in a discrete way. Three moments where advice might be needed while shopping where identified, namely (1) the initial selection, (2) the fitting evaluation and (3) the final purchase. Based

Nowadays society is becoming more demanding about im-

on the market and technological studies it was decided

age. Fashion plays an important role in creating and show-

to focus on the initial selection and the final decision. As

ing identity. For this reason, it was assumed that some

shown in the market study, most products that are offered

kind of tool could help people to deal with fashion. Ad-

to make shopping easier are targeting the size fitting issue

dressing this problem is the good of the Fashion Advisor.

by the use of virtual fitting technologies. Furthermore, these virtual fitting viewers are not accurate enough to

The target group for this project is young male profes-

sionals. According to literature, men in general have more trouble dealing with fashion in comparison to women. Men have a need for guidance and reassurance with regard to fashion. Moreover, the selected target group are even more in need of fashion advice, which is implied by their daily business and social contacts, and professional negotiations and presentations. It has also be proven that the individuals of this target group are in general familiar with recent mobile communication and ubiquitous computing technologies and the majority of them is already in possess of some kind of Smartphone, PDA, and tablet-PCs.

totally substitute physical fitting. The Fashion Advisor should foster trust. According to the literature, this can be done by the reduction of complexity and uncertainty of the interaction with the automation, making a predictable behaviour of the device and increasing the perceived reliability. Additionally, there are preferences about the way of receiving advice. Based on the advice literature research it was concluded that suggestions and information, rather than judgements should be given. According to the literature research about advice, people are reluctant to receive advice from a machine about subjective topics such as fashion, and therefore, a

Three moments where men have to deal with fashion were

human component should be included in the product.

identified: (1) shopping, (2) dressing and (3) researching and getting information. It was decided that it would make

At this point of the project the Fashion Advisor looks like a

more sense to focus on: shopping together with research-

intelligent digital system that, by getting to know the user,

ing since it is the starting point of the whole process, and on that account crucial to be able to move forward.

will be able to provide him with tailored suggestions as well as offering him the necessary information that he might need at every moment in order to make decisions more

Based on the user and literature research the main goal of the future Fashion Advisor was established as helping young male professionals to deal with shopping for

easily.

1.9.2 Requirements

clothes, in terms of making them feel (1) more confident and (2)reducing the negative effect that shopping produc-

Based on all the aggregated information, a list of require-

es to some of them. Additionally, it was realized during the

ments to take as briefing for the conceptualization of the

research that users find shopping a very time consuming

Fashion Advisor is done.

activity, and therefore frustrating. On top of that, the selected target group has even less time for shopping. Con-

The Fashion Advisor should...

sequently, another second level objective of the Fashion

• Help the user in making decisions about outfits in terms

Advisor should be to reduce shopping time by making the

of appropriateness for occasion, for his body type, and

task more efficient. As well, it was found that some male

matching possibilities.

users were concerned that others could see their interest

• Increase the confidence of the user about the decisions

32


he makes while shopping • Help to reduce the negative feeling some users have about shopping • Be discrete to use in order to maintain the user’s privacy • Have an straightforward and simple interaction • Foster trust • Not judge the user • Make recommendations to the user • Give useful information at every time • Be time-efficient • Be adaptable to each user by getting to know his preferences and style. That is, the Fashion Advisor must allow personalization • Facilitate the shopping process and make it more convenient • Be oriented towards medium fashion involved users

1.9.3 Vision derived from the explorative research ‘An efficient tool that makes browsing and selection of clothing easier by providing support and relevant information to the user’

Personal style

Get to know the user

Physical appearance Past purchases

Filter through the cothing of the stores

Personalized recommendations + informacion + support

Need parameters

Get to know the needs Occasion

Stage 1. Input

Stage 2. Filter

Stage 3. Output

Figure 1.14 Facilitating the shopping process

33


Construc research m 34


A lot of times people don’t know what they want until you show it to them — Steve Jobs

ction of means 35


2. Conceptualization

E

xecutive summary In this phase, conclusions of the explorative research are applied in order to conceptualize the Fashion Advisor. It is suggested that by (1) narrowing down the number of choices in an intelligent way and (2) offering the user all the necessary information he might need, the Fashion Advisor can help him while shopping or making fashion decisions.

As a result, it is expected that the Fashion Advisor will (1) increase the level of confidence of the user when making decisions and (2) remove some of the frustration that accompanies shopping. These two goals are achieved because the Fashion Advisor increases the likelihood of making better choices, the time spent shopping is reduced, and assurance is increased. In order to do this the Fashion Advisor gradually learns the user’s preferences, offering the user only relevant content. Furthermore, it is indispensable that the Fashion Advisor also fosters trust. Next, a choice is done for a smartphone as the type of platform for the Fashion Advisor. Then, it is discussed the basic outline of the algorithm in order to offer tailored content to the user, as well as the necessary information to be gathered or built in order to do this (information constructs). Finally, several functions assisting most of the needs that young male professionals have to cope with when shopping are presented. All the aforementioned results in the definition of the final concept.

Vision

Requirements

Starting points

Outline for the

Platform concepts

algorithm : providing tailored content

Conceptualization of functions

Final Concept Figure 2.1 Chapter contents overview

36


2.1 Starting points

articles of clothes he might be looking for.

Foster trust Based on the literature research on trust in automation, we can state that trust is established between the device and the user for a specific action. That is, trust is estab-

At the end of the previous phase, a direction for the con-

lished upon observations on whether the previous interac-

ceptualization of the Fashion Advisor was formed based

tions between the subject and the device are successful.

on the explorative research. It was concluded that the

In order to earn the user’s trust, the actions of the Fashion

future Fashion Advisor should (1) increase confidence in

Advisor should:

the user when making decisions, and at the same time (2)

-Be predictable.

remove some of the frustration and apprehensiveness many users experiment while shopping. Similarly, the Fashion Advisor should (3) foster trust when being used and remove worries from the user’s mind. These three points are further developed in this section.

-Be consistent

-Be simple

This means the need for a deterministic algorithm which, given a particular input, it will always produce the same output, and will always pass through the same sequence of states. Another aspect influencing the building of trust

Increase confidence in the decision making

was the perceived reliability of the source. In this regard

Confidence (belief in decision making ability and ability to

there are several possibilities. For instance, a well-known

choose the right alternative) is a function of fashion cloth-

designer/stylist could be the visible face of the Fashion

ing knowledge. That is, fashion clothing knowledge influ-

Advisor, it could be limited to be a reliable browsing tool

ences consumer confidence in making purchase decisions

that provides useful information based on the existing

about fashion (O’Cass, 2004). This means that offering

available online data, or an anonymous team of designers

the user information about clothes and trends can lead

could be involved. However, at this stage of the project and

to raise the confidence in his decisions. Besides informa-

without having contacted with companies it is difficult to

tion, a reduction in the number of alternatives by giving

make a decision about this issue.

recommendations was also identified as a factor that helps increasing confidence when making decisions.

Knowledge about the user There is a crucial and common point needed to implement

Remove frustration

these aforementioned goals: a great knowledge about the

The negative feeling of many male consumers towards

user (style preferences, physical characteristics, personality, what clothes he owns already, what he might need, what matches him aesthetically...). By having this knowledge, the Fashion Advisor will be able to provide tailored content and recommendations to the user.

shopping is mainly caused by unsureness or uncertainty and the perception of shopping as a time consuming, inefficient and tiring activity. Unsureness can be countered with more information. On the other hand, in order to optimise shopping two main needs were detected during the user research: more

Conclusions

efficient browsing and assistance with location. More

By getting to know the user and fostering trust the Fash-

efficient browsing implies two things, first saving time for

ion Advisor will be able to:

the user by offering him directly what he might like and

- Reduce the number of alternatives, and in this way sim-

need (recommendations). Secondly, this is also more ef-

plify and optimise shopping by offering the user tailored

ficient because there is greater likelihood of success in his

content (smart filtering and recommendations) and only

choices. Assistance with location could also help in making

that content that fulfil his needs.

the process more convenient and less frustrating. This

- Provide the user with all the necessary information he

assistance should focus on helping the user to find specific

might need during the decision-making process. 37


By doing this it is expected that:

clothing), comparable items to the one the user is consid-

-There is a greater likelihood of making better choices

ering either in the same or in a different store. In this way

-Time spent shopping is reduced

the user could see it at a glance, analysis of convenience

-Uncertainty is reduced

for the user (depending on the event, the budget, which

-Assurance and confidence are increased

one requires more care...)

As a ultimate result and goal, the Fashion Advisor will:

Location /finding things

1) Increase the confidence of the user when shopping

This point corresponds both to finding a particular item

and making fashion decisions

in a store, finding a store, or being offered a list of stores

2) Remove some of the frustration that accompanies

where an item could be found. In order to implement ‘loca-

shopping

tion of items’ inside a particular store RFID tags besides a receiver would be needed. For the execution of the location of stores, already existing services like Google maps in

2.3 Idea generation Some keywords will be used in order to trigger idea generation as depicted in figure 2.2.

Narrow down the options This can be achieved by the use of filters. Only those things that satisfy the specific need of the user are presented. Hence, it should be possible to define the need with certain parameters. Also, as discussed in the explorative research chapter, “recommended for’” is preferred as the type of advice together with “information” when advice is solicited. Therefore, a series of items could be shown to the user as recommendations based on his preferences. It is possible to show the user tailored content, reducing in this way the total amount of presented content.

Information Extra information about each item should be available to the user. This could include such things as material, available colours, stock in the store and other relevant details. When the user has to decide between different alternatives he copes with a process that includes an analysis and comparison of the alternatives. In order to facilitate this process, the application should provide a way to compare

the desired items. This could include matching possibilities (either within the store items and with the user’s owned 38

combination with the GPS capabilities of the device could be used.


User preferences

User physical characteristics

Which stores have a particular item

In a particular store

RFID tags

Items Tailored to the user suggestions

Use of filters

Stores

Narrow down the options

Google maps +GPS

Locate Context aware Nearby suggestions

Rating of other users Colour

On the store items matching possibilities

Description Item parameters Wardrobe

Information

Material Stock

matching possibilities

Similar items Analysis of convenience for the user

Budget info

Connectivity to a person Asking for advice Access to other person preferences--> gift advisor Figure 2.2 Idea generation keywords

Share

39


2.4 Platform concepts

western societies Blackberries are still leading the market in professional sector, but Iphone is catching up quickly. Furthermore, considering the use of apps. Iphone is the preferred platform for personal use. More information about these devices can be found in the appendices [Appendix B] and information about mobile applications can be found in Appendix A.

Since the Fashion Advisor will be some kind of digital application, it could embedded in several types of platforms.

A brief analysis of each type of platform is shown below:

Being a digital device it is assumed that a touchscreen, a

Smartphone

Terminal

Number of users

unlimited

Limited to the number of terminals

Discretion

Better

Located in a special place

Space in the store

No problem

store or a device already in possession of the user such as

Consumes space in the store

a PDA or a smartphone (figure 2.3).

Portability

Yes

No

Worse ( screen size)

Better

Terminal

Visualization quality Connectivity

Wifi in the store, 3G..

Wifi in the store

Users preferences

60%

21%

battery, and electronics will be needed. This platform could be either a dedicated platform or an existing platform that the user might already own. In the first case, it is logical to think that customers would be reluctant to buy a dedicated device since it might be relatively expensive to just deliver one function. Therefore, two possibilities are considered: a terminal owned by the

As seen in the market study, there already several terminals in stores. A terminal consists of a touchscreen the user can interact with.

Table 2.1 Comparison of smartphone vs. terminal

After analysing the pros and cons of each platform possibility, it seems that going for a smartphone is more logical and convenient for the user. Additionally, in the online questionnaire users were asked about what form would they prefer for the Fashion Advisor, and 25 (60%) vs. 9 (21%) went for the smartphone. Also in the same questionnaire, it was found out that 74% of the users already own a smartphone, and the trend is that the number of Figure 2.3 Terminal and smartphone for

smartphone users will grow even more. On top of that, it is

the Fashion Advisor

expected that for the target group, young male professionals, this trend will be even more accentuated.

Smartphones The use of Smartphones is increasing everyday. The use of applications is becoming a more common place, this point was already discussed in the trend study. In most 40


2.5 Providing

Tailored Content

In order to gradually improve the Fashion Advisor forecastings, the user should give the system feedback. By teaching the system how correct the predictions were, the system would learn more about the user and refine his future suggestions.

As discussed earlier in order to reach the goals of the

Mechanism of information processing

Fashion Advisor it is necessary to get to know the user,

The goal is to show the user only the clothing that he

just as a shopping companion would do. With this purpose,

might like, that fulfils his needs and suits his style, and at

information must be gathered. This information will then

the same time is convenient for him in terms of matching

be analysed, and after that the system will give the user

possibilities with his wardrobe, aesthetical matching, etc.

information based on the analysis it has done. This is an

Therefore the system should be able to link in a smart way

iterative process, the user will react to the given informa-

the user with the clothing. In order to do this, two pos-

tion, and this new information produced by the user will

sibilities were considered: doing it by means of a‘ persona

be collected affecting the whole process. The information

database’ or directly linking the preferences of the user with the clothing (Figure 2.6). This last possibility was the chosen one. The reason for this choice is based on the fact that stereotyping people is undesirable. People might not completely belong to a certain stereotype, and having even different styles depending on the occasion (working, free time...). For this matching between user and clothes to happen, all the clothing should be linked to some kind of description that allows the system to proceed with the association between the items and the personas, and eventually the user. This can be done by adding tags to each item (e.g. Blue, casual, denim, winter 10/11, military trend...). The tags for the each item are fixed, and do not need to be updated. Nonetheless, the tags associated to the user are variable depending on his preferences. Every time the user generates some feedback (either by rating items, or doing purchases) this information might affect his user profile. The user preferences will be the parameters to perform the search in the clothes database. This preferences have to be also categorised. For instance, the user preferences are probably different depending on the type of clothes. This means that in style preferences a user could have for instance the following tags when looking for a shirt: beige, blue, grey, stripes, no plaid, no short sleeves,... This is considered to be enough to perform a search in the clothing database. Regarding this, it is suggested that in the user profile the style information could be categorised, giving the user the possibility of creating even ‘substlyes’ that could then be selected when performing the search.

flow is as shown below in figure 2.4:

Get information

Analyse information

Give personalized information

Figure 2.4 Information transformation loop

Information flow On the next page, a further developed scheme of this process can be found in figure 2.5. The ‘get information’ part can be divided in two other parts: On one hand, the system needs to gather information

about the user (physical characteristics, personal style, previous purchases...) and his needs, in order to create a tailored output. The user profile will contain all the information gathered from the user and it would be continuously updating. On the other hand, information about the clothing needs to be gathered. The idea is to create a database with the clothing that contains information about certain characteristics of each item (style, colour, season, material...). Later on, the system would analyze all of the information collected from the user plus the information stored on clothing in order to find clothes and outfits that the user might like based on his preferences. The user then will be shown all of this information and recommendations.

41


User

Get information

Analyse information

- User’s style - User’s physical characteristics - User previous purchases - User’s wardrobe - User’s needs Make matchings between user’s profile and needs with the clothing database

Give personalized information

- Personalized recommendations

- Show information about items

Clothing

- Rate satisfaction

Stores’ inventory classified by their descriptive parameters

2.6 Information constructs

Figure 2.5 Information flow

User Profile

In order to build the user profile a lot of information needs to be gathered. This should be done in an unobtrusive way. Which information exactly should be gathered or created, what is the minimum information necessary to build the user profile and possible ways to gather this information are discussed in this part.

Preferences

2.6.1 Which information is needed? The Fashion Advisor should recommend the user items that he might like because they belong to their style, but also items that would aes-

Associated tags

thetically fit him. There are then two main types of information needed to be inputted /gathered in the Fashion Advisor to build the user profile: style and physical characteristics. Figure 2.6

Style

Association between

Style can be defined as the public display of the idea of a self (Amanda

user’s profile and

Brooks, 2009), basically it is character made apparent. This entails that

clothes directly

in order to know someone ‘style is important to know his personality. This sounds quite challenging to implement in the Fashion Advisor. In the Internet there are tools that help you define your style. There are many quizzes that help you to find your personal style, either by asking you questions of your personality, or by asking about specific items you

42


might like. In order to define the style of the user it is suggested to (1) Ask the user to input some basic information by showing him a slide show of items/outfits/images from which the user is supposed to choose and (2) Machine learning from purchases rhistory and (3) ratings of recommendations. Apart of these three factors, recommendation can be affected by the preferences of other similar users (wisdom of the crowds) (figure 2.7). Figure 2.8. The different body types

Ratings

Purchases

Inputted info

Wisdom of the crowds

Recommendations Figure 2.7 Factors affecting the recommendations to the user

Physical characteristics The other type of information to be collected are the physical characteristics. As explained previously in this report, physical fitting, although crucial is not going to be the focus of this project. Instead, what seems more appropriate to consider is the body type and the colour matching.

Figure 2.9 Winter, autumn, summer and spring colour palettes

There are different body types or constitutions. The three main types are: Endomorph, Mesomorph and Ectomorph (figure 2.8). Knowing the body type is possible to provide some guidance to different kind of clothes/outfits/cuts for

Likewise, according to the seasonal colour system, the

the person so classified.

colour of the clothing will aesthetically match the user depending on his skin pigmentation, his eye color and his hair

For instance, ectomorph men would receive advice about their clothing in order to add weight to their bodies. In this regard, the fabric they choose is vitally important. Horizontal lines and textured fabrics such as tweeds and glen check will help add some substance to his frame. On the opposite side, endomorph men face the problem of finding clothes that do not make them appear larger than they actually are. Oftentimes what fits this body type in the shoulders is too small in the waist; therefore, the large man should seek a jacket with a generous cut and a flattering drape.

color. A seasonal color analysis will give the user a sense of direction of what type of colors (cool, warm, deep, light, clear, muted) look best on him. As specified by this system, four categories of people could be created based on their colour physical characteristics, which are Winter (strong and vivid), Autumn (strong but muted), Summer (delicate and light) and Spring (delicate but warm) (figure 2.9). Besides this, size should be inputted by the user in order to perform searches based on this parameter. It is suggested 43


The clothing database (figure 2.10) will contain all the items of the collaborating stores. This inventory is built from contributions from clothing brands and stores. Based on the corresponding data attached to each item, following standard protocol the inventory is categorized as required for the Fashion Advisors recommendations. Besides, information about possible combinations with other items can also be included. This clothing database should be periodically updated with the new items of each season. The second database that should exist is the Style definition database (the images shown in the slide show) which is needed in order to gather the user style preferences. A series of images with metadata files that will be shown, the user is supposed to choose or rate these images (items or looks). Apart from this, there should be a place where the knowledge is contained, like what is appropriate for each occasion, which colours match each ‘season’ profile, or what cuts are convenient for each body type. 44

Graphical + Metadata

Personal and physical information Tags about clothing prefrences

Location= store

Images of items Images of items

Style preferences

Materials Certain it Cuts Prints

Wardrobe & purchases

Graphical + Style preferences Metadata

Metadata

Inventory with

Location= associated store tags

Colou Patte Shap Mate Certa Colours Cuts Patterns Prints Shapes

Purc

Ward

Personal and Images of looks physical information Images of looks Tags about clothing

prefrences

Personas

Graphical + Metadata

Images of looks

Inventory with associated tags

Metadata Alphanumerical

Height and weight Qualitatitive Size Body Type Age Eyes colour Hair colour Skin pigmentation Qualitatitive Purchase record Body Type Colours Eyes colour Patterns Hair colour Shapes SkinWardrobe pigmentation Materials Certain items Cuts Prints

Graphical + Alpha numerical Graphical + Graphical + Alpha numerical Alpha numerical Graphical + Metadata Metadata

Quantitative

Alpha numerical Alpha numerical

Physical Wardrobe & characteristics Style preferences purchases

Style Personasdefinition

databases

Images of looks As shown so far, different databases need to be created.

Clothing

Alpha numerical

Alpha numerical

Graphical + Metadata

Graphical + Metadata

2.6.2 The necessary Images of items

Height and weight Size Age

Alphanumerical

Physical characteristics

Style preferences

Clothing

Style definition

Graphical + Metadata

Alpha numerical

per type of item ( shirts, trousers...) and also store Height andper weight Size (many times there are differences between sizes dependAge Colours Patterns ing on the store). Shapes Quantitative As shown previously, information willQualitatitive be gathered by the Materials Height and weight Quantitative Body Certain items user in three different ways: In addition toType inputting cerSize Eyes colour Cuts Height and weight Age tain information and ratings of items,Hair thecolour purchases done Prints Size Skin pigmentation preferences. In Ageby the user will further refine his user Colours Qualitatitive order to collect this information, itPatterns is suggested that at the Body Type Shapes Eyes colour Qualitatitive time of purchase the user provides his ‘user number’ to Materials Hair colour Body Type itemshistory. On Skin pigmentation have his account updated with theCertain purchase Purchase record Eyes colour Cuts of this, the user profile will be update allowing him to Hairtop colour Prints Skinlater pigmentation browse his virtual wardrobe. Inventory with Wardrobe associated tagsto In this way a virtual wardrobe is created and added his user profile. The user wardrobe information is not Location= store retrospective and it will be gathered from the moment Inventory with the user starts using the application. This information associated tags will be used by the system to analyse matching possibiliImages of items Inventory with Location= store ties when browsing for new items and check existence associated tags of similar items that the user might already own. User Images of looks wardrobe contains the same items as the purchase Figure 2.10 Information constructs Location= store Images of items record.

Graphical + Metadata

Style definition

Clothing

Physical characteristics

to give the possibility to the user to keep a record of sizes Quantitative

Graphical + Style Metadata Physical characteristics Style ClothingStyle preferences Physical characteristics Clothing definition Wardrobe & definition Personas purchases

Quantitative

Pe ph

Ta pr


2.7 Conceptualization of functions

provide him with tailored content. • Regular use of the product:

- Browsing: facilitate filtering and selection

Several needs during the shopping process were detected

- Finding things: facilitate search

(Chapter 1) and now these needs are translated into

- Support: help users with making decisions

functions. A function can be defined in this context, as the abstract formulation of an operation or task. The functions

Set-Up of the Fashion Advisor

are conceptualized in response to the identified needs and

Initially, the application needs a brief setup in which the

following the idea of (1) getting to now the user, (2) nar-

user provides the Fashion Advisor with some information

rowing down the number of alternatives and (3) providing

about himself.

useful information.

This required information consists of the (1) user’s physical characteristics and (2) his style preferences. These

In figure 2.11, an overview of the detected needs and their

details are used by the Fashion Advisor to ensure that it

corresponding functions is depicted. Then the functions

provides the most appropriate and relevant information.

are described, starting for the ‘set up’ functions and

By defining his eye and hair color as well as skin pigmen-

continuing with the ‘regular use’ functions. For every

tation, the Fashion Advisor can categorize the user into

detected need one or more functions are provided, except

one of the four seasons. According to this seasonal color

for the size fitting, since this part was decided not to be

system, particular physical characteristics are linked to

addressed by the Fashion Advisor. A concept test was

a recommended range of colors that may best suit the

piloted with five designers, and a choice was done based

user. This is done by inputting the data in a human figure

on their opinions.

representation.

There are two types of functions, the setup functions and the regular use functions.

In order to define the user style preferences, two possibilities were conceptualized (figure 2.12). In the first one,

• Set-up: get information from the user to be able to

he goes by each of the clothing categories defining his preferences. In the other one, he is shown slides of articles Needs

Browsing and filtering

Concrete need -Browsing by filter -Need in the user’s mind

Abstract need -Browsing by occasion

Support

Finding things

Seduction -Things you might like

-Context aware activation

Matching

Event appropiate

-Matching possibilities -Visualize outfits

-Browsing by occasion

Size fitting

Style

Budget based

-Judgements -Find similar -Put items in items context -Budget info -Activation of style preferences

Figure 2.11 Set up functions: inputting physical characteristics

45


U P Associated tags

Associated tags

Physical characteristics

Clothing

Playful way

2

Body type

type SlideBody between the possibilities Slide for legs, torso,...till define yourbetween the possibilities for legs, torso,...till define your body shape body shape

oncept the initial information was gathered trhough Facebook and complete In the initial concept the initial information was gathered trhough Facebook and complete nsisting in a persona database. by a system consisting in a persona database.

Bar showing how accurate is the Bar showing how accurate is the system with the cuurent information system with the cuurent information it has from the user Eyes,hair and skin colour it has from the user

Personas

Body type

Slide between the possibilities for legs, torso,...till define your body shape

Bar showing how accurate is the system with the cuurent information it has from the user

Paterns

Colours

Types

Shapes

Materials

Paterns

Colours

Types

Shapes

Types

Shapes

I like it! Materials

Paterns

Colours

Materials

Paterns

Colours

I like it! I like it!

I like it!

Bar showing progress of Bar showing progress of information gathering information gathering

Slide show showing different poss Slide show showing different possibilities chooses he likes bet user chooses the one heuser likes betterthe andone continues

Types

Shapes

I like it!

Materials

Paterns

I like it!

Figure 2.12 Set up functions: (a) Inputting physical characteristics (b) inputting style preferences option 1 and 2

Colours

and outfits. The latter option was chosen becauseSlide it was show showing different possibilities Bar showing progress of information gathering

user chooses the one he likes better and continues

consider more playful, and requires less effort from the

Additionally, substyles could be created. The reason for

user.

this is that the user could have different preferences depending on where he is going, with whom... Then the user

Each item is associated with particular information. By

could load one of this “substyles” into the browsing engine

choosing between the different items the advisor gradually

and allow the Fashion Advisor to perform the search

builds the users style preferences, and stores this informa-

based on this ‘sub style’. This could be done by having

tion in the User profile Database.

different slide shows per category: work, night out and day casual.

Of course, the user can access this part of the application

In this way specific items belonging to these categories are

at anytime in the future, being aware that the more input

shown to the user in each slide show.

he provides, the more accurate the application’s recommendations. Progress is shown to the user until a certain minimum (to be defined) of data has been acquired. This shown to the user by two progress bars that show him how much data he has inputted, and also how accurate can be the Fashion Advisor be with this amount of information. The user could always access to this slide show when he has free time in order to input more information. In the case of disagreement or a change of style, he can edit and check the results of what the Fashion Advisor believes to be his style preferences. 46

2

2

Style definition

Types

Shapes

Materials

Eyes,hair and skin colour Eyes,hair and


Regular use of the Fashion Advisor 1) Browsing

Browsing by filter Sometimes, the user may have some preference for the category of clothing that he is looking for, such as within a set budget, or perhaps simply a certain color. For this

Figure 2.13 Browsing filter

scenario, browsing by filter is ideal (figure 2.13). This feature allows the user to choose from a list of different filters and prioritizes them to narrow down the search. These criteria can then be added to the ‘user preferences filter’ and ‘area/store’ filter. These filters would be converted into a search pattern than combined with the user preferences will result into tailored to the user content. When he is done with the selection he can click go in order to visualize the results. When the user selects an item he will go to the next screen where several options are shown: save, rate or see matching possibilities.

Browsing by filter 2 Instead of showing all the possibilities in one screen,

Figure 2.14 Browsing by filter 2

users are shown one initial possibility (figure 2.14). The items are given priority to be shown based on the user’s preferences. Several options are presented to

Browse: by inspiration, I feel like shooping

refine the search. These refining options will depend on the type of item. As explained in the figure, items are

1

Slide show of random items based on user preferences

distributed depending on these characteristics. The user can navigate through the items offered by clicking in the different options. However, this last option was discarded. Showing just one option will restrain freedom of the user too much, and although this can be fine for some of the users, others would like to see what they are missing.

Things you might like It was realized that men often only shop for clothes as needed. However, while browsing a store the feature called ‘things you may like’ might be handy to the user. In this option, the system searches the store inventory using the users preferences to help him in his selection. Basically is a browsing function that uses only the user profile as filter.

If could be the case, that the user just feels like shopping one day. In that case, he can go to things he might like to see a selection of the store based on his preferences

Figure 2.15 Things you might like

47


1

1By

event By event

Wedding Wedding

Job interview Job interview

Morning Morning

Are you a bestman? Are you a bestman?

Afternoon Afternoon

HugoHugo Boss Boss 495 495

Boos 495 Hugo Hugo Boos 495 Armani Armani 540 540

RegularRegular guest guest

Massimo Duti 290 Massimo Duti 290 Night out Night out Morning Morning suits suits

Suits Suits

Dinner date Dinner date

MoreMore info info save save

Search Search

Work Work

Find it Find it

Sometimes, the user shopping because he needs something butdoes he does not have a clear of what exactly. Sometimes, the user goesgoes shopping because he needs something but he not have a clear ideaidea of what exactly. For instance, he faces an event for what he feels henot has an notappropriate an appropriate outfit I need something for meeting the meeting For instance, if he iffaces an event for what he feels he has outfit (e.g.(e.g. I need something for the this client, something for tomorrow’s date...). In case this case the task first task for user the user to find out what of outfit he looking with with this2.16 client, something for tomorrow’s date...). In this the first for the is toisfind out what typetype of outfit is heislooking for .for . Figure Browsing by occasion

Browsing by occasion Sometimes, the user goes shopping because he needs something but he does not have a clear idea of what exactly. For instance, if he faces an event for what he feels he has not an appropriate outfit (e.g. I need something for the meeting with this client, something for tomorrow’s date...). In this case the first task for the user is to find out what type of outfit is the appropriate one an do it as efficiently as possible, since time might be limited. That is the purpose of ‘browse by occasion’ (figure 2.16).

Need in the user’s mind Other times, male consumers have a clear idea of what they want. They have a specific description of how it should look like and they just need to find it. By visually inputting this item into the application (figure 2.17), the user will get a list of stores where he can find similar items. When selecting one item he has different options, one of them is to locate this store. This information will vary depending on his location (use of the GPS of the smartphone). shape

Search

It is considered to be a useful

Search

Materials

Budget

Paterns

Colours

feature by some of the designers that were asked, specially those with a higher interest in fashion. However, it is believed that it goes further than the origi-

Zara T-shirt 24,95

nal ambition of the Fashion Advisor as the

Zara T-shirt 24,95 HM T-shirt 19,90

benefits of this feature focus more on making

Hugo Boss T-shirt 49.95

life (shopping) easier instead of advising and facilitating the making of decisions. Search

Search

shape

Materials

Budget

Paterns

Colours

Search

More info

Figure 2.17 Need in the user’s mind feature

48

save

Find it

Connect you to google maps and show you where is the closest store

Search


2) Support

Matching possibilities For each item that is shown, the Fashion Advisor has a range of matching possibilities which are classified into different categories. When selecting see matchings, two options are shown to the user: see matchings within the store or with his current wardrobe (figure 2.18). Figure 2.18 Matching possibilities ou can arrive to this screen coming from : -Having selected 2items when browsing -Having scanned two items - Selcted items from your favourite saved iteMS Y

By using the option ‘visualize outfits’ (figure 2.19), the user can discard or select particular combinations. Another idea is to check if two random items that user picked would match or not (figure 2.19). For instance, items the user might have saved or items he finds and scan.

matching Show me outfit

Analyze matching Find it

Figure 2.19 Visualize outfits and matching calculation

‘Visualize an outfit’ was perceived as a useful feature that, on one hand, helps to get an idea of how the outfit would look , and on the other hand, saves time to the user (he does not have to try it on). The matching calculation was considered to be a bit unrealistic. First, there should be a database with previous matching studies for each possible combination in the store. Furthermore, based on what would this matching be done? Maybe the user wants to combine certain things that do not follow the usual rules. Instead, it was considered more interesting that when an item is selected ‘prestudied combinations’ by the designers of the store with other items in the store are displayed. Combinations with item from the user wardrobe will be also very useful, however the implementation of this feature is much

Browse: inspiration, feel like more complex. All the items the user owns would need by to be categorized inI order to useshooping! them in matching possibilities. This

would make imply to take the effort in filling a form for each of his items, and upload them. This results in1 aIfvery difficult prohe finds something on the store he like 1

Slide show of random items based on user preferences

cess. Therefore, matching with the user wardrobe could only work for items from the same store that have been recently bought.

Zara T-shirt 24.95

Scan items If the user finds something he likes, he could scan the bar code in the tag of the item and immediately will be shown information and options about that particular item in the screen of his smartphone (figure 2.20)

Tags I like it!

Save it

Description 100% cotton Wash 40 ºC Casual T-shirt ( daily use) Find similar items Search

If could be the case, that the user just feels like shopping one day. In that case, he can go to things he might like to see a selection of the store based on his preferences

If he finds something, he coud scan it and inmediatley will be shown information and options in the screen of his smartphone.

Figure 2.20 Scan items

49


1

Put items into context

2

Available contexts for the item/outfit or the user can also load his pictures to visualize the outfit in context

Judgement

Put items into context Some users commented that they would like to have context for the clothes in order to get an idea of where to wear the items, and also to see themselves into those contexts (figure 2.21). This could be done by showing the item into an available sets of contexts, or even projecting these contexts into the fitting room so that the user suggestions could see himself in them while wearing the item. Due to your body shape stripes are not recommended to you :(

2

User can visualize the oufits into the recommended context and get an idea of how it looks

Judgement

See recommendations

This feature was discarded since it is not that neces-

Figure 2.21 Put items into context Some users commented that they would like to have context for the clothes in order to get an idea of where to wear the items, and also to see themselves into those contexts. This could be done by showing the item into an available sets of contexts, or even projecting these contexts into the fitting room so that the user could see himself in them while wearing the item.

sary as to be prototyped. And although some people

According to the user physical characteristics, there could be certain rules/recommendations that the app. knows. For instance if it is a user with a bit of overweight located in the torso, horizontal stripes are not good for him. The app. instead suggests other type of items.

found it interesting, most said they would not use it at all.

Judgement According to the user physical characteristics, there could be certain rules/ recommendations that the Fashion Advisor is aware of. For instance if it is a user with a bit of overweight located in the torso, horizontal stripes are not good for him. The Fashion Advisor instead suggests other type of items (figure 2.22).

Due to your body shape stripes are not recommended to you :(

the idea

See recommendations

suggestions

However, this feature was discarded. First, the intention of the Fashion Advisor is not to make the user look good, but to make the user feel good about how he looks. When showing the concept to other designers, comments like

Account balance : 2.500 Euros

“who is the Fashion Advisor to tell me that I cannot wear a striped T-shirt be-

Figure 2.22 Judgement 65,80 Money spent this month in clothes

According to the user physical characteristics, there could Upcoming expenses be certain rules/recommendations that the app. knows. For instance if it is a user with a bit of overweight located in the torso, horizontal stripes are not good for him. The app. instead suggests other type of items.

cause I have a belly?” were received. Furthermore, the Fashion Advisor should not give negative judgements but recommendations. One designer suggested that there could be an option like “ask the Fashion Advisor”, so that this type of judgements are received only in case the user really wants them. This feature was conceptualized having in mind the friend who accompanies you shopping and knows what is good on you. However, this person can see you, the Fashion Advisor cannot. The Fashion Advisor will only have an approximate idea of how you might look, and therefore can only give recommendations but not categorical judgements.

Zara T-shirt 24.95

Zara T-shirt 24,95 HM T-shirt 19,90

Hugo Boss T-shirt 49.95

Tags I like it!

Save it

Description 100% cotton Wash 40 ºC Casual T-shirt ( daily use) Find similar items Search

Figure 2.23 Find similar items

50

Find similar items This feature would fine comparable items to the one selected by the user. In this way, uncertainty about a better similar option somewhere else might be removed (figure 2.23).


Budget information It was realized during research that uncertainty in the moment of purchase might come from budget considerations. In this respect, offering the user certain information about the

Account balance : 2.500 Euros

Money spent this month in clothes

money available, the expenses or the amount of money spent in clothes could help in the

65,80

decision making (figure 2.24). However, when showing this option to the other designers, it

Upcoming expenses

was perceived as ‘too much’ for this application. Moreover, if someone has Internet on his mobile phone and wants to see his bank account he can easily do it. Therefore, this feature was considered over the limits of the Fashion Advisor tasks. If keeping something from this idea, that would be the ‘keeping the track’ of items purchased this month. On the other hand, “find similar items”, was believed to be a very useful option that would Figure 2.24 Budget information

certainly help the user to make a choice (buy or not buy), and therefore it is kept.

Save Zara T-shirt 24.95

Zara T-shirt 24,95 HM T-shirt 19,90

Hugo Boss T-shirt 49.95

Tags I like it!

Save it

Description 100% cotton Wash 40 ºC Casual T-shirt ( daily use) Find similar items

While using the Fashion Advisor, if the user finds something that catches his eye, or he is particularly fond of, he can always store the item to review it again later. When saving, the selected item will be incorporated into the user’s saved items (figure 2.25).

Search

Figure 2.25 Save option

Rate It is possible to teach the application by rating items. If the user likes, or dislikes particular items,he can provide that information (figure 2.26). The application will gather this data into the user preferences and immediately refresh the results. Furthermore, this knowledge will also be implemented with other similar profiles (wisdom of the crowds). The more people use the Fashion Advisor, the better matching between Figure 2.26 Rate option

users can be done, resulting in better recommendations.

More info In this option some extra information could be shown about the item like the rating of other users, the stock in the store, material composition, and other options like taking care instructions, country of production... (figure 2.27)

Figure 2.27 Information option

51


2.8 Final concept

clothing database an standard form with the necessary parameters for item, such as: colours, material, description, print, style, cut description,.. and a series of visuals, is needed. As a data interchange format XML or JSON could be used. For the programming of the software in the smartphone, the language is platform dependent (Android, Objective

The concept

c,...).

The Fashion Advisor is an information appliance which consists of 3 main parts. The first part is made up of two

Final functions

online databases and server where all the information is

The final functions of the Fashion Advisor are as follows:

contained. The server is responsible for maintaining the

1) Set up functions

network and providing the operating procedures. The

The required information consist of the user’s physical

smartphone is the second component which is the plat-

characteristics (eye colour, hair colour and skin pigmen-

form for the application and finally, the third component is

tation), age, size for each of the clothes types (shirts,

the software on the smartphone which provides graphi-

trouser...) and the style preferences (figure 2.29)

cal user interface, and is connected to the server via the network (figure 2.28) Online databases and server

software

smartphone

Figure 2.28 Components of the Fashion Advisor

There are two databases. The first is the user database which contains the information about the users. His preferences, his purchases and his ratings. The second is the database containing the fashion inventory. This inventory is built from contributions from clothing brands and stores. Based on the corresponding data attached to each item, following standard protocol the inventory is categorized as required for the Fashion Advisors recommendations.

Figure 2.29 Setup functions

It is assumed that brands and store will be interesting in participating in the Fashion Advisor. By giving away their

2) Browsing functions

data, they will benefit from appearing in the Fashion Advi-

The different browsing functions will allow the user to per-

sor. In order to upload their items to the Fashion Advisor

form searches depending on his type of need.

52


2.1) Browsing by filter In case of having a specific need the user can choose from a list of different filters and define his need. The proposed filters are: category, style, budget, colour, and material. But others could be included if found necessary (figure 2.30). 2.2) Browsing by event If the user experience the uncertainty of not knowing what is appropriate to wear to certain events, He can truly benefit from the Fashion Advisor. Since the application contains information about fashion for many types of events, appropriate recommendations are made that also integrate the user preferences in order to maintain his personal style. By filtering the search, the results are narrowed down and the application shares with him only those things that he tends to like and are suitable for the event.

Figure 2.30 Browsing by filter

A list of possible events is proposed that includes the most important occasions a young male professional could face (figure 2.31). 2.3) Things you might like The system searches in the store inventory using the users preferences to help him in his selection. 3) Support functions 3.1) Matching possibilities This feature will show the user a range of prestudied combinations within the store. Since these matchings are created by the designer of the store with a certain number of items of a specific collection, this option is limited to the specific store of the item. 3.2) Find similar items This feature will show comparable items to the one the user selects. This search can be limited to a store,

Figure 2.31 Browsing by occasion

a list of stores or an area. In order to perform this search the Fashion Advisor will look in the database the items with similar parameters, besides a visual search can also be implemented to ensure better results. 4) Additional functions 4.1) Rating When clicking in any item the user will access to the 53


‘general screen’, where several options appear, among them rating items. In this way the user can teach the Fashion Advisor about his preferences. 4.2) Save items The Fashion Advisor will allow the user to save items in a ‘list of saved items’ that he can access at any time in the future. 4.3) Scan items By scanning the barcode of clothing tags, the Fashion Advisor will show the user the ‘general screen’. Thus, the Fashion Advisor will download the information about that article and immediately update the user about the colors

Figure 2.32 General screen and visualize outfits

available, even additional recommendations, and many more options. 4.4) Visualize outfit The application provides the ability to quickly visualize items of clothes together. In doing so, the user can consider, or discard, particular clothing combinations more quickly. These combinations that are available correspond to matching possibilities. 4.3) Activation of Personal preferences For all of the browsing functions, the personal preferences can be activated. The reason for this, is that sometimes the user could need to use the Fashion Advisor to browse for things that are not for him. 4.5) Context aware shopping

Figure 2.33 Activation of personal preferences and context aware

Using the GPS capabilities of the smartphone, the advi-

shopping

sor application can make suggestions for nearby fashion items. Besides the Fashion Advisor will know where the user is, allowing him to add an area/store filter in the different browsing options (figure 2.33).

54


Revisiting the requirements

the minimum necessary to narrow down the options. Yet,

An examination of how the final concept meets the re-

this point should be further refined during the prototyping.

quirements, defined at the end of the explorative research

• Be adaptable to each user

phase, is done here.

By continuously gathering information about the user, the Fashion Advisor gets to know each user and provides

• Making decisions

tailored content. Thus, the personalization of the Fashion

Having the necessary information at hand, the user will be

Advisor is reached.

able to make decisions more easily.

• Convenience

• Increasing the confidence

Shopping becomes more convenient when using the Fash-

The user can activate his style preferences filter in any

ion Advisor because it also becomes more simple and less

of the browsing options, knowing that the items that are

frustrating as discussed in the previous points.

shown are recommended specifically to him. Additionally,

• Oriented towards medium fashion involvement users

this recommendations will increase the likely hood of satis-

All the functions included in the final concept are concep-

faction with the purchases, rising ultimately the confidence

tualized with the medium fashion involvement user in mind

of the user.

and answering his main needs.

• Reducing the negative feelings Uncertainty and lack of efficiency will be reduced with the Fashion Advisor. This is done by giving the user information and saving time of browsing and locating items or stores. • Discreteness By choosing to implement the Fashion Advisor in a smartphone platform, discreteness is guaranteed. Not only a smartphone is a usual device that many people already use in any place without feeling embarrassed, but also its mobility facilitates that the user can decide to use it wherever he might feel more comfortable. • User friendly-interaction The interaction with the Fashion Advisor must be simple, intuitive, attractive and goal-oriented. • Fostering trust In order to foster trust, it was realized during research that simplicity and predictability of the automation were necessary. This means that the Fashion Advisor must be simple to operate and predictable. This point should be considered during the prototyping phase. It can be implemented by reducing the number of actions, and making them obvious and intuitive . • Do not judge the user but recommend to him Judgement options were not include in the final concept of the Fashion Advisor. Instead, recommendations and range of options in order to preserve the user decision autonomy are given. • Being time-efficient The number of actions to perform searches are reduced to 55


3. Prototyping

E

xecutive summary In this part the concept defined during the previous phase is protoyped. The main goal of prototyp-

ing is to create a testable product in order to later on use it for the evaluation of the Fashion advisor. Two types of prototypes are built: an abstract and a tangible prototype. These two prototypes have different affordances and goals, resulting in a complementary evaluation of the Fashion Advisor. Concept

On one hand, the abstract prototype will be used to demonstrate how the Fashion advisor works, how can it be used in real life context, what interaction is needed from the users, and how it tries to receive trust of the user. The necessary steps to develop this prototype as well as its different constituents are described

Abstract prototype

in detail in this chapter. On the other hand, the tangible prototype is

Tangible prototype

needed to let the users see and feel in their hands the Fashion advisor, and it this way validate their experience with it. A research about different prototyping possibilities was completed resulting in the choice of creating an interactive html file that would be ‘screencasted’ to a smartphone. The details about how this prototype was implemented can be found in this chapter.

Evaluation

Figure 3.1 Chapter contents overview

56


3.1 Introduction In order to gather feedback about the conceptualized Fashion advisor, building a prototype was the most suitable option for an evaluation of desired qualities. This prototype will be later used as a research means during the evaluation of the Fashion advisor, which will be explained

3.2 Abstract prototyping 3.2.1 Theoretical background of abstract prototyping

in the next chapter. The prototype should enable both a confirmation (or not) of the properness of the concept and

When to use abstract prototyping?

the collection of a constructive critique or proposals for its

Abstract prototypes (APs) respond to the need of proto-

further enhancement.

typing modern products. This type of products appear to be complex artifact-service combinations (ASCs). Accord-

Two prototypes are planned to be developed during this

ing to Horváth, an ASC can be seen as a ‘to-be-developed

project, an abstract and a tangible prototype. The reason

or a to-be-modified fully operational system with artifac-

for this, is that each of these prototypes has different ob-

tual and service parts’ (2010b, p.3).

jectives. On one hand, the abstract prototype will be used to demonstrate to the participants in the evaluation how

In this regard, abstract prototypes fulfil the unmeet need

the proposed information appliance will work, how can it

of a prototype method that enables to investigate user

be used in real life context, what interaction is needed from

experiences in the case of novel artifacts and services in

the users, and how it tries to receive trust of the user.

early stages. Abstract prototyping does not require a full

On the other hand, the tangible prototype is needed in

detailing of the innovation concepts, therefore, it can be

order for the user to experiment some of the presented

used early in the process. (Horváth et al. 2011a).

content in his hands and thus validate the user experience.

Purpose of Abstract prototyping Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the concept

The goal of an AP is the demonstration, to the stakehold-

can be achieved when the tangible prototype is combined

ers (audience), of the anticipated real life processes that

with the abstract prototype. This means that both proto-

are established by the use of an ASC in a given environ-

types are complementary, and therefore should be tested

ment. In this respect, APs are used to show the operations

together.

and interaction/use processes. That are, the operation of the conceptualized artifact-service combination, the

In the following sections further information about the two

actions of the human actors and the happenings in the

prototypes, as well as the specification of their implemen-

surrounding environments.

tation are discussed.

Constituents of an abstract prototype There are three main constituents in an AP which are: (1) the conceptualized artifact-service combination, (2) the involved human actors, and (3) the embedding environment (figure 3.2). Besides, the contents of the abstract prototype are designed taking the interests and needs of the (4) stakeholders into consideration (figure 3.2). 57


Eventually an AP is presented to the stakeholders by the use of (5) multi media resources. Based on the assumption that APs should simultaneously work in both the cognitive and the perceptive communication channels of human intelligence, two different presentation forms are needed in an AP. These two forms are narrations and enactments. The former transmits the story about the manifestation of the ASCs and highlights the accompanying processes, and the latter visualizes the components, actors, arrangements, procedures, and happenings involved in them (figure 3.2), (Horvath et al., 2011b).

3.2.2 Abstract Prototype of the Fashion Advisor

Figure 3.2 Information structure of abstract prototypes (Horvath et al., 2011b)

In this section, a short introduction about why abstract prototyping was considered for the Fashion Advisor is done. Then, the aforementioned constituents of a generic AP are translated to the Fashion Advisor AP. Afterwards, the different stages during the prototyping process are described. The Fashion advisor is an information appliance which can be considered an ASc. The reason for this is that the Fashion advisor is a to-be-developed operational system

Figure 3.3 Defining the characteristics of the persona

with artifactual and service parts. The artifactual part consists of the smartphone while the inseparable service part consists of the software, the server and databases communicating via an internet connection. Despite the existence of a tangible prototype, as it will be shown later in this chapter, this is not a fully working prototype nor the conceptualized service exists yet. Hence, in order to make assessable and demonstrate the nonexisting real life processes that are established through the use of the Fashion advisor an abstract prototype was needed. Thus, abstract prototyping of the Fashion advisor 58

Figure 3.4 Young male professional using the Fashion advisor


becomes an excellent means to show the stakeholders the conceptualized appliance giving sufficient information to form their opinion.

Information structure of the Fashion advisor AP As mentioned earlier, an AP is composed of the following constituents: the concerned stakeholders, the artifact-service combinations, involved human actors, the surrounding environment and the content demonstration media means (figure 3.2). In the case of the fashion advisor these constituents are as follows:

Stakeholders The strategic goal of abstract prototyping is to involve the stakeholders in the assessment of the ASC concepts (Horvath et al., 2011b). The stakeholders in this case are also the target group of the Fashion Advisor: young male professionals. In this regard, it is important that the young male professionals feel identified and can recognize themselves in the AP. Information about their characteristics was aggregated and the reasons why it is believed they might be in need of the fashion advice were analysed in Chapter 1. This information must be considered during the development of the AP. A- S combination The ASC in this AP is the Fashion advisor. As explained previously the ASC is a combination of a smartphone and the specific service provided by the Fashion advisor. Human actors The human actors are the end-users of the ASC. A persona is shown who represents the target group of the Fashion advisor: young male professionals. This persona is defined with the characteristics of the mentioned target group (figure 3.3), and it is the one who interacts with the ASC, the Fashion advisor. These characteristics are mentioned in the video are: age (22-35 years old), their situation, and the problem they face and why they would need the Fashion advisor. Besides, as a young male professional who is familiar with smartphone, PDA and other information appliances, this persona is able to easily interact with the ASC, the Fashion advisor (figure 3.4)

Figure 3.5 Interactions of the end-user with the Fashion advisor

Surrounding environment The surrounding environment is defined by HorvĂĄth as “the composition of various artifactual and natural entities, which are in dynamic interactions with the embedded ASC, human actors, and each otherâ€? ( 2011b, p.5). In this case, the surrounding environment corresponds to every place where the Fashion advisor could be used. Due to its mobility, this applies to almost every possible place where an internet connection might be available: stores, street, at home, restaurants...Three environments are shown in the video which were chosen as illustrating examples. They are: a restaurant, a store, and the street. Content demonstration media means In the narration of the Fashion advisor AP, a description of the foreseen processes is done. This narration was compiled based on (1) the information about the anticipated real life process of using the Fashion advisor, and (2) the information about the personas, the assumed real life environment, and the considered stakeholders. A copy of the narration text can be found in the Appendices. The length of the narration was designed to be 12 minutes, which was decomposed to four episodes.

59


episode4

episode 3

episode 2

episode 1

Narration

Enactment

What is teh fashion advisor? Who is the fashion advisor for? How is it done?: set up

Browsing by occasion Scanning items Browsing by filter Save items

Rating Matching possibilities Visualize outfit Purchase record

Things you might like Find similar items

The components

Main benefits

Figure 3.6 The relationship between the narration and the enactment

The enactment includes all kind of staging and performing

tion of his user: the young male professional, and how is

the foreseeable scenes, actions (figure 3.5), and particu-

the set up done. This episode addresses these questions:

lars of the process and media-enabled visualization of

What is the Fashion advisor?, Who is the Fashion advisor

the episodes of the process. The units of the enactment,

for? and How is this done?.

called segments, are connected to the narration speech at certain semantic anchors. In this case, the segments were

The next episode, shows the human actor using the Fash-

visualized by using various media forms like animated

ion advisor in a real life environment. The corresponding

symbol structure, photo series, digital text animation,

scenario to this episode is ‘dressing for a specific event’,

digital sketches, live motion picture, digital simulation.

in this case a job interview. In order to get an appropriate

Three to five keywords were used in the narration in order

outfit for this event, the persona uses the Fashion advi-

to enable the understanding of the proposals and used as

sor to get a recommendation. Once in the store where he

anchors for the segments of the enactment.

can find the recommended item, he used several other

The interaction of the human actor with the ASC and the

functions and options of the Fashion advisor to complete

environment is shown mainly by means of live motion

his outfit. Thus, he ‘scan items’ in order to get information,

picture. On the other hand, digital text animation, and

he checks the ’matching possibilities’ of a particular item,

digital sketches are used for the explanation of the techni-

and finds other complementary items by using ‘browse

cal information, system operations and affordances of the

by filter’. At the end of the episode he has built a complete

Fashion advisor.

outfit that he tries on and finally buys. Besides the user actions and his interaction with the ASC, the operations

As already mentioned above, the narration is formed by

and processes happening in the Fashion advisor are also

four episodes, these episodes of the process are related

described and depicted.

to their corresponding segments in the enactment (figure 3.6). The first episode is centred on the explanation of the

The next episode shows the persona in a shopping street,

Fashion advisor, what can be expected of it , the descrip-

in which he uses his Fashion advisor to check out ‘things

60


he might light’ from a store. Again the interactions of the end-user with the Fashion advisor are shown, as well as the description of the processes in the system. Finally, the last episode of the AP makes as summary of how would be the concept implemented and what are their main benefits. There are two main parts, in the first one the necessary parts for the concept to be put into practice in real life are described: the smartphone, the software, the server and the databases. In the second part, a revision of the main affordances and anticipated benefits of the Fashion advisor are described.

Phases of the development process Phase 1: requirement engineering and concept development. After having conceptualized the Fashion advisor, abstract prototyping was chosen as the best prototyping alternative for this stage in the project. The reasons for this have already been explained. Basically, it was necessary to show the stakeholders (and at the same time future users of the Fashion advisor) a to-be developed operational system, enabling the understanding of the ASC. Hence, the goal of this AP was to ‘explain’ and demonstrate the Fashion advisor concept to the potential end-users. Phase 2: contents development for the AP Next, the different information constructs were defined. The human actors in this AP were young male professionals, and they were represented by a persona in the AP whose characteristics correspond to those of the cluster. At this point of the project a lot of information about the target group had already been aggregated, enabling a good description of the persona. The interactions of the end-user with the Fashion advisor were the typical ones with a smartphone. The Fashion advisor’s contents had already been conceptualized, however, a way to visualize them was needed . For the modelling of the Fashion Advisor a smartphone was used, in which the interface was screencasted from a laptop. After evaluating several alternatives, and as a parallel process of the development of the tangible prototype, screen casting of an interactive file in the desktop of a laptop was chosen. More information about this will be given in the tangible prototype section.

Figure 3.7 Animations explaining the operations of the Fashion advisor and other technical information

Figure 3.8 Human actor in the store environment

61


Three settings for the interaction with the ASC were used, a restaurant for the initial part of the second episode, a store for the second part of the second episode (figure 3.8), and the street in the third episode. In these environments the Fashion advisor was interacting with the end-user. Hence, the three earlier described constituents, the end-users, the ASC, and the environment, were high-fidelity representations.

Phase 3: set up the scenario of system operation,human actions, human-system interactions, and environment effects In order to specify the operations, human interactions, decision-making and behaviors related to each of the functions in the Fashion advisor, the process scenario is developed. The process scenario represents the activity flows. This is, it specifies all of the operation sub-processes of the artifacts, the implementation sub-processes of the services, the actions of the human users, and their interaction with the artifacts and services. These sub-processes are logically concatenated and integrated into one consistent process. The process scenario for most of the functions of the Fashion advisor can be found in the Appendices [Appendix C].

Figure 3.9 Edition in IMovie

all this footage, producing initially more than 40 min of raw material. In order to process all the information Imovie (figure 3.9) and several video encoder programs were used. There were two versions of the AP produced. The first version was evaluated with the project supervisors, and some points to be improved were detected. In the new version, all the narrations were re-written and re-recorded, to change the term ‘the user’ into ‘you’. In this way, the stakeholders and end-users of the Fashion advisor would feel more identified. In this regard, another new piece of enact-

Phase 4: design and implementation of the elements of the narration and enactment, After the aggregation of all the information, and the creation of the necessary content, it is the moment to decide the best form for the narration and the best media for enactment. For the narration, a human voice of a native English speaker was chosen. For the enactment, there were two main types of media used. On one hand, a series of animations done in Flash with animated symbol structure, digital text animation and digital sketches. These animations (figure 3.7) were mainly used to explain the operations of the system and other technical information, as well as for the description of the target group. The other type of media visualization was motion picture, and photo series. This type was used to show the interactions of the user with the Fashion advisor, and other contextual information. A HD camera was used to record 62

ment and narration was also included, where the general characteristics of the persona are described. Other changes were done at the end of the AP, a whole new episode was incorporated, episode 4, where the components of the Fashion advisor system are listed and described; and also a revision of the main benefits of the appliance is done. The reason for including this new passage was to end the AP making sure that the viewer will take away this final information, and also to ensure a better understanding of what to expect from the Fashion advisor.


3.3 Tangible prototype

let the user feel it and interact with it. What is more, going into code generators would require the designer to learn the programming language of the corresponding platform (Java, Objective-C,..). This leaves screencasting and the plug-in for fireworks as the best alternatives. These two appear to be the

The abstract prototype is intended to demonstrate most

most simple and effective ways to carry out the tangible

of the aspects needed to allow the understanding of the

prototype. Both can be executed by creating an HTML

Fashion advisor. However, in order for the users to experi-

document in Fireworks, then this document can be either

ence the Fashion advisor, a tangible prototype is built.

screencasted, or uploaded in a PHP server, be applied the JQuery and then viewed in the device. As well, both

An extensive research concerning the possibilities for the

of them enable the interaction of the user with the smart-

creation of this prototype was done. The choice for one

phone in a two-way interactive prototype. Nonetheless,

was made based on the goals of this prototype, the techni-

due to its greater simplicity screencasting was chosen.

cal knowledge and the resources needed to implement it.

Screen cast consists in transferring the desktop of a computer into the device. There is a couple of alternatives

Prototyping possibilities

to do this. The most simple is called LiveView for iPhone &

Three categories of prototyping possibilities were found:

iPad (Zambetti.com, 2011).

Visuals, Simulators (in the PC or in the device) and code generators. The first two categories correspond indeed to prototyping tools, while the latter is a developing tool. Further information about each of these possibilities can be found in the appendices [Appendix C]. In order to choose the right prototyping tool, the following requirements must be considered: • It is preferable to have a prototype that can be tested on the smartphone or device, than a prototype that can only be visualized in the desktop

Figure 3.10 Liveview, screencaster and mac

• A clickable prototype is mandatory • It must be feature-rich yet simple to learn

It consists of two parts the ScreenCaster for Mac and the

• It is preferable not to put the users through unnecessary

Liveview for Iphone (figure 3.10). The ScreenCaster is a

hoops just to view the prototype

simple application that puts a virtual iPhone skin on the

• It is preferable that there are possibilities to further

screen, its dimensions corresponding to a real iPhone

develop the prototype and refine it in the future

such that the pixels inside of the virtual skin are precisely as many as on a real iPhone display. By having the

After analysing how the different prototyping possibilities

Liveview application installed in the iPhone/iPod Touch,

fulfil the list of requirements, it is clear that tools that only

the screen of the mac is transmitted into the Iphone.

allow to visualize the prototype in the desktop are discard-

Furthermore, the ScreenCaster has an option to interpret

ed. These are visuals and wireframing tools, as well as the

touches as mouse clicks. By turning this feature on and

simulators in the PC.

the screencast becomes a two-way interactive proto-

The choice is now between simulators in the device and

type. Virtually any application on the mac can quickly be

code generators. In this respect, a prototyping tool is

‘launched’ on the iPhone. The best part is that it is pos-

sufficient to achieve the goal of the tangible prototype:

sible to get click events back from iPhone for interactive 63


clickthrough testing. On top of that, this will allow for much

this, a mock-up toolkit with the usual layout of iPhone will

faster setup and quicker iterations than trying to test by

be used. Each change , notification, change of colour of a

constantly uploading the prototype to remote http site to

button, needs a new slide in the document. In total more

load on Mobile Safari or some other similar approach (web

than 100 slides were created to simulate all the possible

browser emulator approach). The designer can use an

stages of the Fashion advisor through each of the func-

initial tool like OmniGraffle or Fireworks to create clickable

tions.

html demo and then preview it with LiveView for iPhone.

Implementation of the tangible prototype The tangible prototype was created simultaneously to the abstract prototype. The reason for this is that the interaction of the user with the Fashion advisor needed to be shown in the AP, and the research on how this could be

Step 2: make it interactive (figure 3.12) Once all the slides have been created, they need to be connected in a logical way. In order to do so, interactive buttons or hotspots are included in the document. These hotspots are placed over the buttons and clickable places represented in the GUI.

done started in parallel to the creation of the AP. Hence, all the functions that appear in the AP were already ‘prototyped’. However, these functions were only working for a limited number of pre-decided paths. For the later evaluation of the tangible prototype three functions are implemented in depth. These functions are: ‘browsing by filter’, ‘browsing by occasion’ and ‘find similar items’. For the implementation of the tangible prototype a MacBook Pro, and a iPod Touch are used.

Step 1: create the GUI (figure 3.11) Initially the layout of each screen or graphical user interface (GUI) needs to be created in Fireworks. In order to do

Figure 3.12 Step 2: Make it interactive

Step 3: create the html (figure 3.13) After having generated all the slides and having connected them interactively. The document needs to be exported to html format. A clickable interactive html is then created and can be visualized in the web browser.

Figure 3.13 Create the html and visualize it in the web browser Figure 3.11 Step 1: Create the GUI

64


Figure 3.14 Step 4: Screen cast the html into the iPod touch

Step 4: Screen cast the html into the iPod touch (figure 3.14) Once Live view has been installed into the iPod, and Screen cast in the MacBook and counting with an available wifi connection, it is possible to screen cast whatever is in the desktop of the mac to the iPod touch. In this case the html in the we browser of the desktop is screencasted. Moreover, it is possible to click in the screen of the iPod

Functional limitations As mentioned before, in order to be able to screencast the screen of the mac, the iPod touch needs to be connected to the same WiFi network as the Mac. Mac and iPod need to be not further than 4 meters from each other. The iPod touch only responses and transmits clicks, this means that other usual interactions such as scrolling, sliding, zooming with two fingers cannot be done. Hence, the interface design has also being limited in this sense.

touch, and this clicks will be recognized in the Mac as mouse clicks allowing to navigate through the html file.

Discussion In spite of the aforementioned limitations. The main goals

Limitations of the tangible prototype

of the tangible prototype are achieved with the current prototype. It allows the user to interact with it in and gives

Performance limitations The tangible prototype is not a fully working prototype. There is not logic in it since it has not been programmed. Since the databases does not exist yet and hence, searches are not done in any database. It only works for certain cases that have been prepared in advance. The user preferences are not activated and hence, the results in the tasks will be the same for every user testing when clicking the same options.

a feeling of how it would work if the whole system (databases, server, software) would be implemented. Furthermore, the tangible prototype enables the use of the prototyped functions based on giving tasks as closely as if it would have been programmed. Hence, it can be concluded that the tangible prototype is sufficient for carrying out the evaluation, which is the ultimate objective.

65


Confirma research 66


Supposing is good, but finding out is better — Mark Twain

ative 67


4. Confirmative research E xecutive summary

In order to evaluate if the proposed Fashion

Advisor concept can help young male professionals when dealing with clothing shopping and getting information to make fashion

Abstract prototype

decisions, a test was conducted. In total 17 participants belonging to the target group were able to test the Fashion Advisor.

Tangible prototype

The two prototypes were tested together as a whole package in order to enable the complete understanding of the Fashion Advisor by the user. Open-ended interviews and questionnaires were used as a means to gather information.

Evaluation According to the results, the Fashion Advisor is overall considered as very helpful. However, a distinction needs to be made between users and their demands for the Fashion Advisor based on their level of fashion involvement. Those who best evaluated the Fashion Advisor are also the ones who seem to need it more, the medium fashion involvement users. This type of users is the one who required more guidance an advice, and hence feels he needs the Fashion Advisor more. On the other hand, most of those who declared them-

Interviews

Questionnaires

selves as high fashion involvement users liked the Fashion Advisor, but they would mainly use it for exploration or in specific cases like under certain events, or when they have no time.

Conclusions

Chapter contents overview

68


4.1 Introduction

• Being discrete to use PERFORMANCE • Increasing the likelihood that the user will look better

Objectives and scope

than he would without using the Fashion Advisor (in terms

The goal of this project was to develop concepts for and to

of  wearing those things that could aesthetically fit him

produce a tangible prototype of a specific information ap-

best)

pliance, which assists young male professionals with shop-

• Increasing the likelihood that the user will wear

ping for clothes and getting fashion information. In order

appropriate outfits for each event 

to gather data about the proposed concept, a prototyped

• The items he will be shown to select from are still “his

was built which was tested with participants. The col-

style” due to the adaptability and knowledge of each user

lected data will be used to confirm (or not) the properness

by the Fashion Advisor

of the concept, gather information to enhance the product and to develop a new design proposal.

PRODUCTIVITY • Enabling the user to make fashion decisions more easily

Research Question (RQ)

• Making fashion browsing and selection simpler and

In order to evaluate the ’properness’ of the Fashion Advi-

more convenient.

sor, it is necessary to know how helpful the potential

• Making shopping more efficient (time-saving)

end-users find the Fashion Advisor to be in assisting them in clothes shopping and getting fashion information. How-

BELIEVABILITY/TRUSTWORTHINESS

ever, there is not a fully functional product working that

• Fostering trust in the advice and recommendations of

could be taken by users and tested for a certain time in

the Fashion Advisor

different real life situations where advice might be needed.

• Being user adaptable: personalization

Hence, the results of this test will be an estimation of the

• Being a not biased application, where the main interest

benefits that the Fashion Advisor will provide according to the users. Hence, the Research Question is: How helpful do the users perceive the Fashion Advisor to be when dealing with shopping for clothes?

is not to but the user

Subquestions are done by articulating what helpful means

CONCEPT AFFINITY

for the Fashion Advisor. Based on all the information

• Acceptance. Perceived usefulness. Estimated frequency

aggregated so far, we can say that the Fashion Advisor is

of use.

helpful when succeeding in providing the following benefits

• Functions specific: most impressive function. Function

or goals:

ranking. Helpfulness of functions. Missing functions.

WELLBEING 

USABILITY

• Increasing confidence of the user about the decisions

• The number of steps to go through the functions

made

• The intuitiveness and obviousness of the options

• Reducing frustration towards shopping

• Learnability: how easy it is for users to accomplish

Besides, there are two other superordinate goals, which do not correspond to the translation of “helpful” but that would be interesting to gain insight into:

basic tasks the first time EASE OF USE • Being able to use it when it is needed (accessibility and

The research subquestions are as follows:

mobility)

-What is the perceived wellbeing the Fashion Advisor could

• Being familiar to the user (platform known by the user)

bring to the user? 69


-Would they use it? Do they see themselves using it often

fashion involvement. There are noticeable differences

or just sporadically? Where they would use it? What would

between these groups, further information about this is-

they use it mainly for? When?

sue can be found on the target group section [Chapter 1:

-Is the Fashion Advisor considered to be easy to use?

Analysis].

-Is it the Fashion Advisor expected to live up to its promise

However, it was also found that between those who de-

(believability)? Is it believed to have an increase in produc-

clared themselves as medium fashion involvement, there

tivity and efficiency by using the Fashion Advisor?

were also pronounced differences. It was realized that

-Would they trust in the advice and recommendations of

there were participants in this group with functions of low

the Fashion Advisor? How long would they be willing to

fashion involvement users and also participants closer to a

wait for the Fashion Advisor to come up with personalized

high fashion involvement profile.

results? -What are the most helpful functions for the users? Miss-

Materials

ing functions?

For this study two prototypes were built. An abstract pro-

-Things to add/change?

totype, which shows the Fashion Advisor working in a real

4.2 Method

life situation, and informs the user about the benefits of the application. And a tangible prototype, which consists of a simulation of an application in a smartphone . The abstract prototype was a video which have a total length of 12 min and 56 sec. In this video the concept of the Fashion Advisor, its interface, its functions and its benefits

Participants

are described. This is done by showing a character utilizing

In total 17 participants took part in the test. All of them

the Fashion Advisor in a real life context.

belonged to the target group: “Young male profession-

For the tangible prototype an iPod touch connected via wifi

als”. Ages ranging from 25-32 and different nationalities

to a Mac Book was used. The goal of the tangible proto-

that included: 3 Colombian, 2 Spanish, 5 Dutch, 2 Greek,

type is to allow the user experience the Fashion Advisor,

1 Indian, 1 Italian, 1 Philippine, 1 Belgian and 1 French . Ad-

and show the feasibility of the concept. Three functions of

ditionally, 13 participants out of the 17 were in possess of a

the total number of functions of the Fashion Advisor were

smartphone, PDA, or iPod touch.

further developed. These were ‘browsing by filter’, ‘brows-

A typology was established based on the degree of fashion

ing by occasion’ and ‘find similar items’. Further informa-

involvement of the participants. According to the literature

tion about the prototypes can be found in the prototyping

(Bertrand et al., 2008) [See Chapter 1], three categories

chapter [Chapter 3 prototyping].

can be identified: low, medium and high fashion involvement.

Design of the research

It was assumed that low involvement users would not have

Data were gathered by means of interviews and question-

any interest in acquiring the Fashion Advisor and therefore

naires. The reason for mixing both methods quantitative

they were not considered during the conceptualization.

and qualitative, is that they were treated as complemen-

Consequently, low fashion involvement men were left

tary methods in this research.

out of this study. The refining of the sample was done via

The more exploratory nature of qualitative research was

a questionnaire sent to the participants by email. This

necessary in order to gather information about issues

questionnaire was executed by giving different options

that might have not been considered in advance by the re-

which corresponded to the traits of the typology. This

searcher and otherwise not captured. Additionally, qualita-

questionnaire can be found in the Appendix D (recruitment

tive research allows the researcher to gain deep insight in

documents). Out of the total sample (N=17), 5 participants

the reasons under certain behaviours in terms of why and

were identified as high fashion involvement, being the rest

how. For instance, by using interviews in this research it is

of the sample (12 participants) considered as medium

expected to gather the explanations, feelings under certain

70


quantitative measures and thus illustrate the results of the

Interview 1

statistical analysis, and collect suggestions and recom-

Interview 2 Questionnaire 1

Questionnaire 2

mendations for the design proposal. On the other hand, quantitative methods were used as confirmatory of some aspects that were found in the

Watch AP

Tasks with Tangible Prototype

qualitative part. In this research, questionnaires were used in order to confirm and complete the information gathered

Figure 4.2 Procedure of the evaluation

during the interviews as well as answering specific issues such as preferred functions. need/problem arose and he was asked to use the Fashion Thus, the combination of qualitative and quantitative

Advisor to find a solution. The reason for giving scenarios

methods deepened the understanding of processes, at-

rather than instructions is that people tend to perform

titudes, and motives.

more naturally in this way and it is more similar to the real use of the device. During the usage of the device the

The list of guiding questions for the interviews was based

participant was asked to think aloud. The tasks were as

on the research question and research sub questions.

follows:

These questions can be found in the Appendix [Appendix D, Guiding questions]. The questionnaire [Appendix

-Browsing by filter

D, Questionnaire] had two parts: a series of ‘Likert scale

The participant was given the following scenario:

questions’ about the perceived benefits of the Fashion

“ Imagine you are looking for a blue jacket for less than 30

Advisor, and several ‘choose from a list’ questions about

euros, and you will use the Fashion Advisor to try to find

more specific issues. In total there were 14 questions.

it”. By introducing the different filters a series of results will

The two interviews were based on the same guiding ques-

be shown to him.

tions. Despite the fact that the conversation was moved

-Browsing by occasion

in different directions of interest that came up, and the

The following scenario was given to the participants:

participants focussed on different points, the same core

“You have been invited to a wedding in Ibiza, the wedding

questions were asked to each of the participants. As well,

will be in the beach, and you don’t know what to wear

both questionnaires were exactly the same. The reason for

there, use the Fashion Advisor to find it out”

this is that any influence of the tangible prototype in the

-Find similar items

questions wanted to be tested.

The participants were asked to find similar items to the one that has been his choice in the previous task.

Procedure

Each task took around 2- 3 min.

The study to the Fashion Advisor consisted of two parts (figure 4.2):

After performing these tasks in the Fashion Advisor, an open ended-questions interview took place. Most of the

Part 1: Abstract prototype (AP)

guiding questions were repetition of the first round of

The abstract prototype video was shown to the user

questions. Finally, another copy of the previously hand-in

(figure 4.3). After this an open ended-questions interview

questionnaire was given to the participants. Thus, it was

took place. Then, the user was given the first copy of the

tested wether there was any switch of opinion after using

questionnaire.

the tangible prototype or not.

Part 2: Tangible prototype

Data Analysis

The tangible prototype was given to the user to perform

In order to analyse the results of the qualitative part and

three tasks (figure 4.4). A scenario was described where a

make sense out of the evidences, some kind of categoriza71


Figure 4.3 Participant watching the abstract prototype

tion was needed. With this purpose, the ’analysis frame-

raw data.

work’ method was chosen (Ritchie and Spencer, 1994 as cited in Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). This method is a matrix

For the statistical analysis of the questionnaires SPSS®

based analytic method which ’facilitates rigorous and

was used. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis

transparent data management such that all the stages

of the frequencies, means and standard deviations, and a

involved in the analytical hierarchy can be systematically

dependent t-test was done to see if there was any signifi-

conducted ‘(Ritchie and Lewis,p.220).

cant difference after having tried the tangible prototype,

The framework done for this research can be found in the

compared to the initial responses.

appendix [Appendix D]. The following categories were made in order to classify all the raw material: Willing to use it Where would they use it What would they use it for/ functions Benefits/needs/desires Trustworthiness Usability Ease of use/platform Suggestions Thus, patterns, recurrences and exceptions in those categories were analysed. Furthermore, all the interviews were videotaped, allowing for several assessments of the 72


4.3 Results 4.3.1 Qualitative processing

moment or want comparable items to the one they are considering, they would more likely use the application while shopping in the store. After trying some of the functions in the tangible prototype some participants changed their opinion about where would they use these functions. Thus, some participants who said they would use the

As explained before data were processed by classifying

Fashion Advisor mostly in the store, said that some func-

the raw data in the different categories. These categories

tions like ‘browse by occasion’ would make more sense to

are used for presenting the findings, and if there was any

be used at home. Conversely, some of those who had said

change in these aspects after having used the tangible

they would only use it at home, commented that some

prototype.

functions might be more handy to be used in the store when the information is needed.

Willing to use it In general, participants were positive towards the Fashion Advisor and willing to try it. Several participants reported that they would use the Fashion Advisor more frequently under certain needs (special events, when there is no time), and not on a regular basis: “I would use in certain occasions because I don’t go shopping very often”. Participants that claimed they would not use the Fashion Advisor believed that it did not suit them. They argued that it did not substitute their usual shopping companion, which they still preferred. As well, the enjoyment of shopping seemed to be an obstacle for some participants to use the Fashion Advisor since they claimed that they shop for the experience and therefore did not desire change. The participants that were more willing to use most of the different functions of the Fashion Advisor were also mainly the ones that felt more insecure about shopping and associated it with negative feelings. After trying the tangible prototype all the participants that were already positive towards the Fashion Advisor stayed positive. Those few that were not willing to use it did not change their mind neither. Where to use it The results demonstrated that the use of the Fashion Advisor at home or in a store was mostly dependent on the immediate intention of the user. For example, those who would use the Fashion Advisor as an exploring tool (finding new shops, discovering items they might like) or planning a purchase in advance (‘browse by occasion’, ‘browse by filter’) commented that they would rather do this at home. In contrast, in the situations where the participants require immediate recommendations, have needs that arise in the

While the majority of users appreciate the discreteness of using the Fashion Advisor at the store, a few users were concerned about feeling uncomfortable using the application in public, “I think most men would do it at home, it would be more comfortable, because they would consider it too gay to do it in the store”. The use of the Fashion Advisor at home was also related with relaxation and time for planning, “With the smartphone you can seat in the couch, or in a cafe, You can use it wherever you want, also in the train, or wherever it comes out to your mind, and in that moment you could be in the street “. Those participants who stated their intention to use the Fashion Advisor at home were asked about why then they would not use a website instead. These participants reported that an application makes it more ‘playful and efficient’. Furthermore, it was considered that an application offers more advantages than a website. In particular, they commented how websites offer too much unnecessary content and less personalization options.

What to use it for Based on the tends of application use, two types of users could be distinguished. These two types do not exactly correspond with the typologies previously established. The first group of users would like to use the Fashion Advisor as a ‘making shopping easier’ tool and stated they would use it mainly for exploring (discovering new shops, browsing by style, and locating stores and clothes). All of the higher degree of fashion involvement participants are found within this group, as well as some medium involvement participants. This group is less likely to use the recommendations functions of the Fashion Advisor but would 73


appreciate its functionality as an exploration tool. These

body shape’ commented on how difficult it is for them

participants stated that they shop for the enjoyment and

to find clothes: “I got very strange body shape, long and

often times have no specific item in mind.

thing, and I don’t find my size, so it can be helpful”.

The second type of user that was found is the one who

Consequently, these participants stated how useful it

needs recommendations and more orientation. This group

would be for them to perform a search with a filter by size

would make use of browsing functions and really appreci-

using the Fashion Advisor.

ates the personalization of these recommendations. After having used the tangible prototype some of the par-

After having tried the tangible prototype a few partici-

ticipants changed their mind about the use of some func-

pants did not believe that the Fashion Advisor would help

tions. For instance, some participants who have stated

them to save time. These participants stated that while

that they would not use certain functions that then they

it may save time when physically shopping it would be

were able to try in the tangible prototype, commented that

counteracted by the time required to do the search: “but if

these functions indeed can be needed and they would use

I imagine though, I might spend less time physically shop-

them.”And also I think outfits for the occasion can be very

ping but I see how with the computer I get suck in these

useful sometimes,.. I didn’t appreciate it at the beginning ,

things..I think it would make me buy more, because I think

but it is true sometimes you need something for a specific

i would get suck staring looking for one things and then..”.

purpose, suggestions are always nice”, “There was some-

However, the majority of the participants believed that the

thing I was not aware before, but sometimes it is true that

Fashion Advisor could help to save time and would made

you need something specific”

sense when having to do urgent purchases.

The majority of users considered the function ‘browsing by

Trustworthiness The adaptability to the user was considered by the participants as a crucial part for the Fashion Advisor to truly be beneficial. Many participants expressed that they will judge the Fashion Advisor depending on how accurate it becomes with its results and how it learns from them.” It makes a difference if I am as a user I have the feeling that it adapts to me”. Participants affirmed that they would not wait for very long for getting accurate results; after having introduced their personal data they expect the Fashion Advisor to come up with personalized results in a short period (from the 1 st time to 1 month of using it). Some participants expressed their concerns that the Fashion Advisor would take longer to work for them since they do not shop very often and therefore they would not be constant in feeding the Fashion Advisor with data. In order to trust the Fashion Advisor, participants stated that they have to feel ‘how the Fashion Advisor adapts’ to them. They also expressed that having the Fashion Advisor in an application format makes it feel more personal and independent than if it would be located in a terminal on the store. One participant stated that having the feeling that ‘it is professional’ would make him trust more the Fashion Advisor, and proposed to have a visible designer behind the Fashion Advisor recommendations. “When I

occasion’ to be one of the most useful. Additionally, ‘find similar items’ was recognized to be remarkably convenient. A number of participants were able to recall circumstances in which they could have benefited from the use of both of these functions. Browsing by filter, was perceived as a practical function when there is a specific need to be fulfilled, or/and there is no time. The combinations of different filters allows this function to be adapted to each user’s need. Those users who want to use this function in an exploration sense suggested that they might utilize this function by filtering only by ‘style’. In contrast, those who wanted to narrow down the choices and go more directly towards the results may introduce as many filters as they want to define their need.

Benefits/needs/desires The main concerns and feelings about shopping for clothes from the participants were: lack of time, tiredness, confusion and being overwhelmed by the amount of options, “...because sometimes I don’t know if it is a general thing for men, but I get very confused, so it is good to have something that gets a record of what you like and also shows you..” Similarly, participants who declared to have a ‘strange 74


gested that it would be better to have either no character or a team that tries to cover a wider range of styles. After trying the tangible prototype participants remarked the fact that trust in the Fashion Advisor would depend mainly in its ability to provide recommendation that correspond with their preferences. As stated by the participants, the Fashion Advisor could become a substitute for the assistance of a shop clerk, but would be more difficult to replace the opinion of a friend. Many participants would still like to have some (female) friend’s feedback and suggested connection options with this friend. Regarding sharing options, the greater number of participants were reluctant about sharing with everyone and even with their male friends. In contrast, private sharing with selected people was found appealing by some users. Similarly, it was suggested to be able to add ‘comments’ besides rating to some clothes. For instance, the ability to write down recommendations or reviews of some clothes or outfits the user might have experienced. Participants also expressed how their style is continuously changing and therefore agreed that the personalization of the Fashion Advisor based on style has to be flexible and editable.

Figure 4.4 Participants performing the tasks in the tangible prototype

see a face or a designer, or just the feeling that somebody really thought about it, I consider it more serious, in same way I have to have the feeling that it is professional, not just marketing from one of the stores”. Conversely, another participant commented how risky is to have just one person trying to represent everyone’s style and he sug-

Usability Regarding the usability of the Fashion Advisor, participants commented that perform searches and access the results was fast and straightforward. However, it was also considered to require many steps and not being visually appealing, “maybe you have to click a lot of times”, “It has too many steps and too much text”. It was recommended to use less text, more visual information, make it more interactive and perhaps use another type of layout different from the standard iPhone one. Participants reflected on how having an appealing interface can make a difference in terms of making the user ‘to want to play’ with the application. On top of this, due to the limitations of the prototype zooming in the pictures was not possible in the usual ‘Iphone way’ and this was also commented by the participants. Specially, being able to zoom for details was considered necessary. “it doesn’t seem very demanding and it could be a little of fun depending on the presentation” 75


Suggestions There were many suggestions and desires about things to change/ include in the Fashion Advisor. These desires corresponded to the participant particular needs. Several participants mentioned that the Fashion Advisor should include some kind of sales alert in matching with the user preferences or articles previously saved. Likewise, several users commented on the importance of a sizing guide across different stores. Participants with a greater degree of fashion involvement demanded functions that allow them to play, expand their fashion sense and being more creative. For instance, they suggested that the Fashion Advisor recommendations should be categorized in ‘safe’ and ‘edgy or more special’, in order to surprise the user. Other suggestions were assistance with matching colours (colour guide), assistance when dressing or matching possibilities within the user’s old items (wardrobe).

4.3.2 Quantitative processing The results of the questionnaires are presented in this section. First, the frequency distribution of the ‘choose from a list/category’ questions is discussed. Next, the results of the ‘scale questions’ are presented by comparing the means before and after the tangible prototype with a dependent t-test.

Figure 4.5 Participants during the interviews

Ease of use/platform The use of the smartphone for embedding the Fashion Advisor was found by most of the participants as a good choice. The reasons for this are that the smartphone is personal, and allows for mobility, besides presenting the information in a more effective way.

Frequency analysis Participants estimated they will take less time browsing and selecting items in the store when using the Fashion Advisor. Thus, without the Fashion Advisor only 1 participant (5,9%) said to take less than 5 minutes, with the Fashion Advisor this situation changes to 5 participants (29,4%). This trend remains similar after having tried the tangible prototype, getting exact same results. Before trying the tangible prototype participants estimated that the four functions that would influence the most the length of the shopping process were ‘browsing by filter’ with 4 participants (23%), ‘browsing by occasion’ also with 4 participants (23%), ‘find similar items’ 3 participants (17,8 %) and ‘things you might like’ with 5 participants (29,45). After having tried the tangible proto-

76


type, there was a switch of opinion and ‘Find similar items’ raised to 6 participants (35%) while ‘Things you might light’ lost 2. As well, participants estimated they would have to try less items with the Fashion Advisor, this tendency is consistent before and after trying the tangible prototype. Thus, there is a raise in the number of users who think they will try 2 items, from 5 participants (29%) to 7 participants (41%). However, participants thought they would have to go to more stores with the Fashion Advisor when trying to find an item. This tendency remains similar in both parts of the study. The best rated functions are: ‘browsing by filter’, ‘browsing by occasion’ and’ find similar items’, this top 3 remains constant before and after having tried the tangible prototype. Initially, users believed that browsing by filter would be the function that helps more in making decisions (29%). After having tried the tangible prototype ‘things you might like’ became the most helpful when making decisions according to the participants (35%). Either way, Browsing by filter, browsing by occasion and things you might like were the consistent top 3 between for this aspect in both questionnaires, Before having tried the tangible prototype almost half of the subjects (47%) believed that the function that makes shopping more convenient was ‘find similar items’. After trying the tangible prototype this tendency remains the same but decreasing slightly (35%). The second best rated function in this aspect is in both questionnaires browsing by filter.

Dependent t-test analysis A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare the opinions of the participants before and after having tried the tangible prototype for the scale variables. Participants considered the Fashion Advisor as moderately adaptable to the user (in a Likert scale with 1= not adaptable at all and 5=very adaptable M 1= 3,94, SD1 =,899; M 2=4,06, SD2 =,556 ). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype;

t(16)=-,696, p=,496. Participants agreed moderately with the fact that the Fashion Advisor will help them to pick the appropriate outfit for different types of events (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 3,94, SD1 =,748; M 2=4,18, SD2 =,636 ). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=-1,167, p=,260. Participants neither agreed nor disagreed towards slightly agreed with the fact that in store browsing becomes simpler with the Fashion Advisor (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 3,65, SD1 =1,169; M 2=3,88, SD2 =,857). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=-,846, p=,410. Participants agreed moderately with the fact that the Fashion Advisor will help them making decisions (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 4,29, SD1 =,588; M 2=4,12, SD2 =,697). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=-1,376, p=,188. Participants neither agreed nor disagreed with the fact they will use the Fashion Advisor on a regular basis (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 3,65, SD1 =,862; M 2=3,71, SD2 =,985). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=-,368, p=,718. Participants agreed moderately with the fact that the Fashion Advisor will help them to select clothes that aesthetically fits them best (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 4, SD1 =,866; M 2=3,82, SD2 =,697). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=,899, p=,382. Participants agreed with the choice of the smartphone as platform for the Fashion Advisor (in a Likert scale with 1= strongly disagree at all and 5=strongly agree M 1= 4,24, SD1 =1,091; M 2=4,35, SD2 =,931). No significance difference was observed before and after the tangible prototype; t(16)=-,696, p=,496.

77


4.4 Discussion

Most of the participants believed the Fashion Advisor

Based on the previously presented results it can be con-

analysis it was explained how some of the participants

cluded that high fashion involvement users are most likely

estimated the Fashion Advisor could save time from

to use the Fashion Advisor for exploration. These users

physically shopping but add time because of the previous

demand functions that allow them to expand their fashion

search. Furthermore, some participants stated that the

sense and gain inspiration. Some medium fashion involve-

interaction with the real clothes is still necessary, and even

ment users, who indeed have some high fashion involve-

if the Fashion Advisor would point them to one result they

ment traits, also would make the same type of use of the

would still look in the surrounding alternatives.

would moderately help them to save time, this was demonstrated in the quantitative analysis. In the qualitative

Fashion Advisor. According to the quantitative study participants thought On the other hand medium fashion involvement partici-

they would go to more stores with the Fashion Advisor

pants, who are also the ones who had more negative feel-

when trying to find an item. This might be related to what

ings towards shopping would use most of the functions of

the users commented on how having the Fashion Advisor

the Fashion Advisor. These participants feel overwhelmed

would result in exploring new shops, because they would

and confused for the great amount of options and there-

know more places where they could find things for them.

fore require ‘narrow down’ options. Functions like ‘find similar items’ and ‘browse by occasion’

The usability of the application part of the Fashion Advisor

are appreciated equally by both groups.

needs to be improved, users perceived it as straightforward but complained about the amount of user action

The location where the Fashion Advisor would be used,

required. In this respect, they believed it can be done in a

was mostly dependent on the intention/need of the user.

more visual way with more icons and less text.

Therefore, ‘exploration driven’ users would tend to use the Fashion Advisor mainly at home, where as ‘narrow down’

For most of the participants there was not a switch of

users would do it depending on the function they are using.

opinion after trying the tangible prototype. Instead, there

This means that in circumstances when they need/can

was a better understanding of the functions the partici-

plan purchases in advance, they would use the Fashion

pants used for the tasks. This results in specific changes

Advisor at home, whilst when they need information while

about aspects of these functions. When using themselves

shopping they would use it in the store.

the Fashion Advisor, they could better thought how those functions relate to them and their needs. Furthermore,

The amount of trust placed in the Fashion Advisor by the

it could have been expected that the tangible prototype

user will depend mainly on its ability for a successful per-

could negatively influence the results, since it is not a

sonalization. This means that if the user really perceives

fully working prototype and the expectations were really

that it adapts to him and provides him with results that

high after having seen a perfect working product in the

match his preferences, trust will be built between the user

abstract prototype. However, as it can be concluded from

and the Fashion Advisor. Although participants believed

the results, both quantitative and qualitative, not signifi-

the Fashion Advisor could easily substitute the assistance

cant differences were found before and after the tangible

of a shop clerk, advice from a shopping companion would

prototype. In this regard, participants commented that the

still be required in certain occasions. Private sharing op-

abstract prototype was very clear and understandable,

tions were suggested to solve this issue. Participants be-

and when asked after having tried the tangible proto-

lieved they would not always go shopping with the Fashion

type if they have changed their mind, many participants

Advisor, but in particular occasions where they might need

stated that they already had a very good idea with just the

more advice. This is reflected as well in the quantitative

abstract prototype. Hence, it can be concluded as a side-

analysis.

result that AP prototypes are a very powerful tool when

78


communicating a to-be-developed product-service such

Conclusions

as the Fashion Advisor.

The demands and expectations for the Fashion

Advisor depend on the level of fashion involvement of

Answering the RQ

the user.

How helpful do the users perceive the Fashion Advisor to

be when dealing with shopping for clothes?

the user will depend on its capacity to truly personalize

The amount of trust placed in the Fashion Advisor by

its recommendations to this one. The helpfulness of the Fashion Advisor is dependent on

how it the fulfils the needs of the participants. As it has

dependent on the intention/need of the user, and hence

been demonstrated these needs towards fashion depend

of the function he is planing to use.

on the level of fashion involvement of the participant. With

high fashion involvement participants demanding explora-

browse by filter, things you might like and find similar

tion, information and making shopping easier functions,

items.

and medium fashion involvement participants demanding

narrow down and advice options.

help to save time, and hence, to reduce frustration while

Therefore, we can conclude that the current Fashion

shopping.

Advisor is suitable for the medium fashion involved, but it

is incomplete to fulfil all the demands of the high fashion

appreciated in situations where there is not time or the

involved.

user is searching for a specific item/outfit

Since the medium fashion involved were the main target

during the conceptualization of functions, this result is

was perceived as a good decision for most of the

logical. Nonetheless. it is also revelatory to find out what

participants.

are the demands of the high fashion involved. Besides,

as it has been mentioned, some of the medium fashion

but it is more difficult that substitutes the shopping

involved required also some of these high-fashion involved

companion.

functions, and hence, knowing them is also valuable.

The location to use the Fashion Advisor is mostly

Most valued functions are: browse by occasion,

Overall, it was estimated the Fashion Advisor can

The assistance of the Fashion Advisor is most

The choice of the smartphone as the type of platform

The Fashion Advisor could substitute a shop clerk,

Regarding the usability, the Fashion Advisor needs

further improvement. •

Abstract prototyping is a powerful tool for

demonstrating and making assessable the process established by the use of artifact-service combinations to end-users.

79


Follow80


Don’t tell me how hard you work. Tell me how much you get done — James Ling

up 81


5. Follow-up

E

xecutive summary This chapter starts with a review of the project and process. Next, based on the results of the confirmative research,

guidelines for a new design proposal of the Fashion Advisor are discussed. In this proposal the different functions depending on the type of user (medium or high fashion involved) are examined as well as some of the suggestions the users did. This is followed by a brief revision of the future steps in case of continuation of the project: contacting companies, developing the system and launching the Fashion Advisor.

82


5.1 A review

Further testing with a full operational system is needed. This means that a deeper evaluation of the Fashion Advisor can be done when the databases with the categorized items and the software is fully implemented

The main goal of this project was to develop concepts

allowing for the personalization of the appliance.

for and to produce a tangible prototype of a specific information appliance, which assists young male

As it was concluded from the evaluation, success of the

professionals with shopping for clothes and getting fashion

Fashion Advisor will depend on its ability to foster trust.

information.

The amount of trust placed in the Fashion Advisor by the user, will depend on its capacity to truly personalize its

During the explorative research, it was realized that a

recommendations to the user.

possible way of achieving this goal was by providing information and recommendations in a personalized

In this regard, not only the correct performance of the

manner. This led to the formulation of a series of

program will be key, but also a big community of people

requirements that were taken to the creative design

who make use of the Fashion Advisor. The reason for

actions phase for the conceptualization of the Fashion

this is that this aspect would make it possible to use the

Advisor. Several functions were conceptualized in

‘wisdom of the crowds’. By making connections between

response to the identified needs. In the end of the

similar profiles, the Fashion Advisor will be able to forecast

conceptualization phase, the Fashion Advisor had been

‘likes’ in a faster way, and less information inputted by the

defined as an information appliance which consisted of

user will be needed.

three main parts: a smartphone, a software and a server containing the databases.

Moreover, ‘the human component’, which was one of the requirements resulting from the analysis phase that was

Since the Fashion Advisor is a to-be-developed operational

not considered in the conceptualization, could be also

system, an abstract prototype was needed in order to

implemented by making more apparent the community of

make assessable and to demonstrate the non-existing

users. Direct sharing options, as much as they seem to be

real life processes that are established through its use.

a more common place in digital media, were not desired

Additionally, a tangible prototype was built in order

by most of the participants. Instead, the idea of being

to enable the user to experience the Fashion Advisor

influenced by the ratings of other similar users was more

in his hands. These two prototypes were treated as

appealing.

complementary and were tested during the confirmative research phase. On the basis of the results during the confirmative research we can state that the Fashion Advisor was overall perceived as helpful. Nonetheless, the helpfulness of the Fashion Advisor is dependent on the fulfilment of

5.2 A design proposal

the needs of the participants and these needs depend on the level of fashion involvement of the participant.

Guidelines for a design proposal based on the conclusions

Consequently, the current Fashion Advisor is more

of the Fashion Advisor evaluation is discussed in this

suitable for medium fashion involved users, but needs

section.

further enhancement to be as well helpful for the high fashion involved. A design proposal based on these results

In order to truly fulfil the needs of the user, it became clear

is carried out in the next section.

that the level of fashion involvement of the end-user will be the main factor influencing his demands. If it is intended 83


that the maximum number of people use the Fashion

items called trends, the Fashion Advisor will be able to (1)

Advisor, then the requests of the high fashion involved

perform searches based on trends in the current ‘browse

user should be fulfilled. Additionally, it was realized that

by filter’ and (2) access directly to the examples of trends.

several of the users who declared themselves as medium fashion involved, have some high fashion involvement traits, and hence also some of the demands of this user. Therefore, it is proposed to create different ‘modules’ with different types of functions for high and medium fashion involved users, and some core common functions.

The High-fashion involved user As shown in the results, this type of user has greater demands for exploration and making shopping easier functions than advice. He likes to check what the trends are and what is there for him.

Exploring functions These users declared they would use the Fashion Advisor ‘as a starting point to go and look there (the stores)’ or ‘find shops that have items for them’. In this sense they want an easy and efficient way of browsing the inventory of the store, or even better, they want to know which stores have things they might like. This is already possible with the current function ‘things you might like’ and many of the high fashion involved users showed a particular appreciation for this function. Furthermore, functions such as ‘browse by filter’ also allows the user to find new stores, since for every item that it is shown the store information is also available.

This type of user has a fairly good concept of what he likes and usually has no trouble matching items. He likes to be creative and looks for inspiration in fashion. Discovering new shops and finding unique items are appealing to him. Because of his higher level of fashion consciousness, he also enjoys shopping more than the other fashion groups and has fewer concerns about spending time shopping and getting information.

Information functions It would be useful for this group to be updated with information regarding trends and new arrivals, which may provide additional inspiration. As stated by the participants in the evaluation, the existing fashion websites display an overwhelming amount of information that is not applicable to them. It would be beneficial for them to be able to filter this content based on their preferences. As shown during the evaluation of the Fashion Advisor, these users like the function ‘browsing by filter’ with a filter ‘by style’, or ‘things you might like’ (filter based on the user’s preferences). With the current Fashion Advisor it is possible to see the items offered by the stores and filter them’ by style’, even a filter by trend could be added. However, a dedicated function called ‘trends’ that could inform the user about the current trends may be more convenient. In order to implement this new function the existing database with the categorized items could be used. By including another parameter in the categorization of the 84

Being creative functions The user with a high fashion involvement , as well as some of the users with medium fashion involvement, desire creativity. In this regard, some of them already proposed some additions to the Fashion Advisor. Using the capabilities of the function ‘visualize outfit’, which allows the user to see two or more items together, they would like to be able to explore and create their own outfits and save them. This is something similar to what the site Polyvore. com already offers. This website offers a platform for people to drag and drop items and create looks which can be commented on by other viewers (figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1 Creating outfits in Polyvore


Finding specific things Several users mentioned they would like some kind of function that would allow them to ‘visually input’ what they are looking for. This function was indeed already conceptualized, (Need in the user’s mind, figure 5.2) and was left out because of not being focusing on the main goals of the Fashion Advisor.

Missing functions/options Although they like the current concept, which fulfils most of their needs, some of the users have some additional wants. For instance, they would like to be able to receive advice from a person, because the Fashion Advisor ‘could never substitute a person’, and in some situations human advice is still needed. In this regard, they propose ‘connectivity’ to a person. This issue overlaps with the ‘sharing’. Should the Fashion Advisor enable sharing? Sharing seems to be an active subject at the moment with the arrival of the social networks. However, as it was concluded from the results, men in general do not want to publicly share their fashion purchases, at most they would like to do this anonymously. In this aspect, the best solution seems to be to include some private sharing with the person chosen by the user. By including a send button in the ‘general screen’, the Fashion Advisor could prepare an email with the image of the item attached, and the message of the user. Zara T-shirt 24,95

Zara T-shirt 24,95

HM T-shirt 19,90

Hugo Boss T-shirt 49.95

shape

Search

Search

Materials

Budget

Paterns

Colours

Search

More info

save

Find it

Connect you to google maps and show you where is the closest store

Zara T-shirt 24,95 Zara T-shirt 24,95 HM T-shirt 19,90

Hugo Boss T-shirt 49.95

shape

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Materials

Budget

Paterns

Colours

Search

More info

save

Find it

Similarly, a participant suggested to have a place to be Connect you to google maps and show you where is the closest store

able to leave comments and tips about items you bought or your tried on (similar to an amazon review). This could be very useful for this type of user, and could also reinforce

Figure 5.2 Need in the user’s mind function

the missing ‘human component’. Assistance with matching seems to be crucial for these

The medium-fashion involved user

users, and they would like to have the current function

This type of user was the main target when designing and

extended. They would like to have advice about matching

choosing the functions for the current Fashion Advisor.

with the clothes they already own. Basically, they would

The reason for this is that he is the one who needs advice

like to have a daily dressing advisor. This function was

is also willing to receive it.

discussed already in the conceptualization chapter

Reviewing what the participants belonging to this category

because it was already identified as a need of this group

said in the evaluation, we can conclude that they are the

during the analysis, however, it was left out because

ones who have more negative feelings towards shopping,

of technical feasibility. This function would require a

feel more ‘confused’ about the amount of alternatives,

categorization of the users existing wardrobe and would

and want to narrow down the number of options. They find

consequently be difficult to implement since the items

the process of searching through several stores and large

likely do not exist in the Fashion Advisor database. If it

inventories to be tiring and overwhelming. They demand

was possible to upload individual items, again, we enter

functions that ’basically narrow everything down’, allowing

into an issue of programming the device with a set of

them to quickly browse a store’s inventory in advance, and

rules so that it could distinguish if something matches or

that provide advice about dressing for specific events or

not. This is controversial and not really feasible with the

about how to match items. Basically, all the functions that

current technology. Instead, what seems to be a good

are already included in the Fashion Advisor.

alternative is to provide some information and basic rules

about mixing and matching such as how to match colours 85


and patterns. This should be done in a visual and engaging

category.

way.

Some common points As it has been argued, each of these groups have a

Things you might like

preference for certain functions, but they also coincide in others. In this respect, ‘browsing by occasion’ was positively valued by almost every participant. As well, ‘find similar items’ respond to a need both groups seem to have, being able to check immediately similar things

Surprise me

that the user might be considering and hence being able to make a decision at that moment. Therefore, this is a function that undoubtedly should be in the future Fashion Advisor.

Figure 5.3 Surprise me function

‘Browsing by filter’, although might be used for different purposes should also be in these core functions.

Suggestions of the users Among the most interesting suggestions of the users that have not been commented yet in this section, are:

Surprise me option This option consists in providing an extra range of results which do not exactly correspond to the user’s personal preferences. This option is interesting because it allows the user to explore his style. By showing him items that are not usual in his purchases or ratings, the user could discover clothes he indeed might like. Another side-benefit could be to further extend/explore/stimulate the user’s personal style. In this regard, one of the participants of the evaluation, who did not like the Fashion Advisor because it could never substitute his girlfriend, commented how his girlfriend always stimulates him try things that initially he would not have paid attention to. In the end this resulted in finding more different items that he happened to like. Furthermore, it is also another way for gathering information about the user in his style definition process. This could be implemented as a button in the usual screen of results of the browsing options (figure 5.3). The results that are shown would still match the input of the search pattern, except because of the user’s preferences. For instance, if the user is looking for a wool coat in blacks and browns, similar products which do not correspond with his preferences could be incorporated under this surprise 86

The sales alert Many participants commented on having some kind of alert which, based on his preferences or saved items, would inform them about deals. In this regard we have to say there are already several applications in the market that fulfil this need, and this is the reason why this option was never included in the conceptualized functions. However, it is also true that having a sales alert which is integrated in the Fashion Advisor makes it more convenient for the user, because alerts could be done based on his style and on items that he has saved or rated positevely. Another possibility would be to build some kind of bridge function between the Fashion Advisor and one of these existing deals applications. Sizing guide across different stores The issue of having difficulties with remembering which size you have for each item in each store was already identified back in the explorative phase. Hence, the idea of a table where the user could input his different sizes per store was already in the conceptulization. However, this was not explicit in the prototypes and several participants commented on it. It is obvious that this function should be then implemented in the future Fashion Advisor.

Designer’s own suggestion At the very beginning of this project, when the scope and goals of the Fashion Advisor were defined, the idea of creating a ‘Fashion Advisor for shopping gifts ’ was considered. It would be convenient that people could make


public, or share with certain users, their User profile. In this

The question of when to stop adding functions and

way, users could ’load’ the profile of a friend when buying

completing the Fashion Advisor is inevitable. The answer

clothes for him, and consequently, having a better idea of

to this will depend on strategic purposes. If the goal

what he might like.

is to have a flexible solution that adapts to each user

Another similar possibility, is that a user can decide to

particular needs, then the idea of offering many functions

make public his ‘wish list’, as with amazon, and so other

from which the user can later decide to download a few

users could access to the items he would like to buy. Thus,

ones makes sense. Conversely, if the goal is to have an

the Fashion Advisor, can also be extended as a gift advisor.

application that it is focussed on a particular target group (the medium fashion involved) and it is faithful to its

Discussion

ambition, then the Fashion Advisor should remain as it is,

It has been argued what kind of functions each of these

and enhance the existing functions as discussed earlier.

types of users would expect to find in the Fashion Advisor. However, at this point it is important to remember the original ambition of the Fashion Advisor. The Fashion Advisor helps and assist users in shopping for clothes by

5.3 Next steps

providing them with information and recommendations. In this way, it is intended that the Fashion Advisor makes the

The proposed Fashion Advisor, is much more than an

user feel good about how he looks, raises his confidence,

application in a smartphone. It is a whole system that

and removes negative feelings towards shopping. This

requires the cooperation of stores, the creation of the

means that including some of the functions demanded by

databases, its continuos updating, the categorization of

the high fashion involved user, the Fashion Advisor would

every item, a community of Fashion Advisors users and

result in something that exceeds this goal. In this respect,

a team of fashion designers-stylist responsible for the

the Fashion Advisor should focus on fulfilling the needs of

creation of knowledge like trends or colour matching.

the medium fashion involved users by incorporating for instance the proposed complementary functions for this

What will be the next steps to continue with the Fashion

group.

Advisor?

However, in the future scenario that this product is

Contact companies

developed, it would be wise to create different modules

The first step will be to contact companies and brands and

for each of these users. When downloading the Fashion

show them the proposal of the Fashion Advisor. Initially,

Advisor, the user could choose what functions are more

big companies, which have already all the information

interesting for him and in this way customize his Fashion

online and almost categorized as required for the Fashion

Advisor according to his particular needs. Furthermore, we

Advisor recommendations, will be approached. The

can state that the proposed functions for the high fashion

reason for this is that obviously it is easier for them to

involvement shoppers, do not oppose the ambition of the

get involved in this project, as well, it is beneficial for the

Fashion Advisor, at most complement it.

Fashion Advisor project because they are the ones who have a greater amount of products and therefore more

A description of each of the functions could be provided so

impact on the clothes database. On top of that, many of

that the user could have information to based his decision

the users usually buy items from these big brands such as

on, of which function might be convenient for him. In

Zara or HM.

the anticipation of changes, each downloaded function could be deleted and new functions could be as well incorporated later on. This would result in a flexible and adaptable to the user application.

What would be the interest of the stores to participate? Most of these stores already have a website with their catalogue that usually supports online shopping. Furthermore, many of them have also an application 87


version of these websites. However, collaborate with the Fashion Advisor would offer them different benefits. First, being in the Fashion Advisor would mean

User experience

for them another channel to get in contact with the consumer. Hence, this can be seen

Interaction design

as a marketing tool for these companies.

Information

Additionally, the Fashion Advisor can retrieve

architecture

data back to these companies (social analitics

Testing Development

Idea

trend, chapter 1) that their websites cannot. For instance, what type of client is buying each type of item, what are the best rated items, the user’s reviews, what type of items are the most searched, and many more details. In this respect, the company/brand can react better and faster to the demands of the consumers.

Figure 5.4 Steps to develop the application

Developing the application

Next comes the (4) Technical Design and development

When developing an application there are a series of steps

phase which is the starting point for the documentation of

to follow (figure 5.4). First, it is necessary to (1) define well

Use Cases (understanding every action that a uses might

the functions and functionalities that will be in the Fashion

take and in what sequence). In parallel, the software, the

Advisor. This point has been discussed already and it

databases, integration considerations, configurations

was concluded that it will depend on the strategic goal of

and customizations will be designed. Bringing together

the Fashion Advisor. The next step will be (2) to create

the visual and technical design, results in a completed

a logical architecture to support the user flows. This has

application. This stage includes coding, integration,

already been done for most of the proposed functions

database build, import and data migrations.

[Appendix C Process scenario].

During the development of the application, the type of platform that will be used ( iPhone, Android,

This will be followed by the (3) creation of the graphical

multiplatform...) needs to be considered, because the

user interface (GUI). So far the standard layout of the

programming language depends on this. Testing with the

iPhone has been used. As shown in the results this was ok

new application should be done with users mainly about

for some of the participants but others suggested that a

usability issues.

dedicated layout would be better. In this regard, the GUI was not an issue that was paid a lot of attention during the

Launching the Fashion Advisor

conceptualization of the Fashion Advisor and changes are

Once the application has been developed and the

necessary. Revising the results of the evaluation about the

databases have been built, it will be the moment of

usability and interface, it is clear that the number of user

launching the product. This point is far beyond the goal

actions required were too many and so it was perceived by

of this research and project. Yet, it is interesting to

the users. This is in part because of the limitations of the

revise what the participants said about the pricing model

tangible prototype that only supported touches as clicks.

strategy. Most of them declared they would not like to pay

In this regard, more visuals (icons and pictures) instead of

for the Fashion Advisor because they believe companies

text, showing information in one screen that can be scroll

which appear in the results are getting a benefit from it and

down or where there are tabs that can be accessed.

hence, they should be the ones sponsoring the Fashion Advisor. At most they declared they would pay ‘ the usual

88


price for an app’. In this regard, there are several possibilities for an app: paid, free, free-to-premium or premium content locking. In the case of the Fashion Advisor providing a series of core functions for free in order to attract the user and then have a series of premium or extended functions that the user could use to upgrade his Fashion Advisor was already suggested by one of the participants of the evaluation. Nonetheless, the pricing model strategy will depend on the extent to which companies participate in the Fashion Advisor and that is still unknown.

89


Afterword

90


Personal Reflection

The initial idea about the tangible prototype was to have programmed it, however I found a solution that required not coding and was able to almost deliver (simulate) the same results. The goal which was to have a two-way interactive prototype for its evaluation, was achieved. Yet, I wish I would have had more time to make a better interface with more nice effects.

The process

The evaluation of the Fashion Advisor was revealing. The

When I first heard about the Fashion Advisor, I immediate-

results of this evaluation proved that indeed there is a need

ly thought about a device that would substitute the shop-

for Fashion advice in the selected target group, and thus

ping companion and will be able to tell the user if his outfit

most of the users were enthusiastic about the Fashion

was appropriate or if it matched. Then, when I started the

Advisor. The properness of the concept for the medium

explorative research many constraints appeared, and I

fashion involved group was confirmed. These results, also

realized I had to choose what was the exact goal of the

allow for the construction of the guidelines of a new design

Fashion Advisor and narrow the scope of the project. By

proposal, and recommendations for the improvement of

researching in the explorative phase everything became a

the product. The mixed method used during the evaluation

bit more clear, people did not want to receive judgements,

proved to be successful and allowed for a deeper under-

but recommendations and information. Additionally, I be-

standing of the reasons behind the answers of the ques-

came sceptical about the idea that fashion could be judge

tionnaires. On top of that, as a side result, it was confirmed

based on a series of fix rules.

the powerfulness and adequacy of abstract prototyping for the demonstration of artifact- service combinations.

The conceptualization was for me one of the most difficult

Nonetheless, after having completed the confirmative

moments of the project. So far in my career as a designer

research, more questions that I could have asked came to

I had always done physical products, and suddenly I was

my mind.

facing the conceptualization of a software. Initially, I came up with a few ideas, but I was not totally satisfied about

The project

them. I decided to step back and rethink again. Together

This project was different from what I was used to do and

with some male designer’s colleagues, I choose among

because of that it forced me outside of my comfort zone.

what I called ‘functions’ for the Fashion Advisor, pieces of

In that regard, the project was challenging for me. It was

software that would give an answer to certain needs.

a broad topic which needed to be framed. There was no company, it was the conceptualization of a digital tool and

At the beginning of the prototyping phase, I was not

everything seemed to be possible.

convinced about the need of the Abstract prototype and I wanted to focus on developing the tangible prototype.

However, because of all of the aforementioned, this project

Nonetheless, in the abstract prototype the Fashion Advi-

also offered me the opportunity to learn things they have

sor had to be shown working and it had to be a high fidelity

not taught me during my courses in the Master. It showed

representation. Without knowing it, I started in this way

me new aspects of design that were unknown for me. In

the research that would lead me to find the solution for

that sense, this project was also revealing.

the tangible prototype. Aggregating all the footage for the development of the abstract prototype and the edition of

Fashion was a topic that has always been appealing for

the material took longer than expected. Although I had to

me, but by doing the project I even became more inter-

face some difficulties, the abstract prototype became one

esting in the issue of how people like to receive advice

of the best outcomes of this project.

and how could a product foster trust, so more in the social- psychological side of the research . In this respect, 91


I think I managed to make some sense of a very difficult topic: advice people about fashion. The findings are not only valuable for the specific case of the Fashion Advisor, but create knowledge about the needs and demands for advice in Fashion. This, in my opinion can be even more important.

The product As mentioned earlier, the product in this project was not the typical industrial design product that I have been taught to develop, but a digital tool that provides a service. The tangible prototype is far from being the final Fashion Advisor. The fact that the conceptualized Fashion Advisor requires the collaboration of the stores, and the creation of the databases, made it a bit more difficult to be implemented for real. In that sense, the final outcome of the project is the initial step in the creation of the Fashion Advisor. Furthermore, it provides enough information about the needs of the different types of users and which functions can fulfil them.

92


Acknowledgements My Mentors Thanks for having always known how to guide me through

My delftians friends: François, Felipe, Connie, Robin, Luis

the process, encourage me, and take the best out of me.

Carlos, Erik, Jeremy, Dorothea, Joao, Aitor, Nino, Catalina,

For the many times you have gone beyond the job descrip-

Holly, Henri, Marc, Alazne, Melanie, Kostas, Dimitris,..

tion, and because you were never been too busy to talk

Thanks because the Delft experience would have not be

and listen to me. Thanks for teaching me so much.

the same without you. Because you make me feel my life is here now, and because there is no experience worth hav-

My Family

ing without you. Many of you also help me with my project,

Thanks to my parents for supporting and encourage me

thank you so much , I couldn’t have done it without you.

unconditionally. I would not be here if it wasn’t for you. Thanks also to my aunt Chus for always being enthusiastic

To everyone else who helped me out

and believe in me.

Thanks to everyone who, in one way or another, make this possible. The participants of my tests, my roommates, and

The grad. room team: Jose, Miren, Max , Bastiaan, Guyot,

everyone who I might forgot to mention: Thanks!!

Kanter... Thanks to you and all the people in the graduation room who shared with me this time. Thanks for listening to me, encourage me and helping me out. There were stressful moments but also anecdotes that I will always remember. Each of you would deserve a separate mention. Milene Gonçalves Thanks for all your support during these eight months. Thanks for supporting me, cheering me up and knowing me better than myself. Iñigo Otero Even in the distance, I could still feel your support. Thanks for your emails, facebook encouraging messages and everything else. Thanks for being such a good friend. John Wall Thanks for having been a constant support in the best and worse moments of my thesis. For helping me out with this project in so many ways, standing me in my moments of frustration and stress. Thanks because life gets a tiny bit better every time you smile. Miguel Angel Mijares Thanks for always having always encouraged me, you always knew the right word to say. Thanks for understanding me better than anyone. As for all that I can’t possibly fit 93


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co.uk/smartphones/help/guide-to-smartphone-

in Consumer Research 3, Ann

connectivity-broadband-wifi]

Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 46-52.

Unger, R. and Chandler, C., 2009. A project guide to UX

Ritchie, J., and Lewis, J. (2003) Qualitative Research

design for user experience designers in the field or in the

Practice. London: Sage.

making. Peachpit press.

Prototyping Horvรกth et al., 2011a. Demonstration and assessment of Innovation: abstract prototype of artifact and service combinations. Unger, R. and Chandler, C., 2009. A project guide to UX design for user experience designers in the field or in the making. Peachpit press. Horvรกth et al., 2011b. An Information Technological Specification Of Abstract Prototyping For Artifact And 97


Appen 98


ndices 99


6. Appendices Appendix A 6.1.1 Target group Women

Men

Recreational shoppers

Economic shoppers

More impulse buying

Shop for need (purely purchase-driven activity related to the satisfaction of need)

Shopping alone/ company (more social shopping) Almost always alone or with the partner Appreciate design

Prefer comfort and see fashion in highly simplistic terms: utilitarian and functional

Shopping for fun oriented

Quick shoppers (time-saving oriented)

Feel confident in selecting the right clothing

Need reassurance and guidance

Shopping for personal clothing appears to be exclusively an individualized responsibility

Many share the responsibility of purchasing their own clothing with their partner and about 14 per cent even delegate the activity to their wives/partners

Women buy more often and spend significantly more on a yearly basis

- Men invest little in their appearance - Men do not go shopping as often as females, when they do there is a greater likelihood that they will spend more money

Interest in fashion

There is a strong “anti-fashion� dimension (defend masculinity and against materialism)

Fashion-conscious women tend to focus more on their external appearance

Men connect fashion with their identity and their internalized masculinity

Women do read fashion magazines and specialized websites

The knowledge of what clothes to wear appears to come from media, Internet sources, social networks, observations from the street, and the influence of partners, but not magazines or any active search way.

When buying for others need more help from personnel

Table 1. Women, men and fashion (A. O’Cass, 2000; Ruby Roy Dholakia, 1999; Jayawardhena, Tiu Wright & Dennis, 2007; Pentecost et al. 2010; Hansen & Jensen, 2009; Bertrand H. et al., 2008; Otnes et al., 2001; J. Galilee, 2002)

100


6.1.2 Steps in EBM model Need recognition and problem awareness – The process begins with the stimulation of a need where the consumer is faced with an imbalance between the actual and desired states of a need, which may be sufficiently large enough to stimulate a search. Information Search – Next, he starts gathering information to help him decide what he needs to do to solve his problem. The consumer’s information search will eventually generate a set of preferred alternatives. Evaluation of alternatives – As a consumer gathers information, he analyzes what he has collected. What are his options? What is best for him? The consumer will use the information stored in memory and those obtained from outside sources to develop a set of criteria. These criteria will help the consumer evaluate and compare alternatives. The purchase – If a consumer decides to move forward, a purchase is made based on the chosen alternative.

research on different shops, several visits to scan before finally buying, one short visit...) a - Visit different shops before buying. 5. Do you follow fashion and trends? why? If yes, how do you do that? a - Yes, because I am a designer. Scan shops and magazines 6. What annoys you more from shopping? a - To find a particular cloth 7. Are you sure about your choices? Can you discard clothes and browse fast in the shop? a - Yes & Yes 8. Do you ask shop clerks normally if you need advice? Why? a - No, they don’t know shit especially in Netherlands. 9. How sure do you feel about your choices, once you have already bought them? a - Mostly sure 10. What would you like to change to improve the shopping experience, especially in terms of finding guidance and advice? a - May be a interactive kiosk where I can type what i want and it can tell me whether they have such thing or not and can tell me where to find it. A virtual fitting mirror before i can try the clothes. 11. Would you accept advice about fashion from a “machine”? a- I would at least try it

Post purchase evaluation – Finally, once the consumer has bought something he evaluates his purchase. Post-

Participant 2- Luis Carlos

purchase evaluation is carried out with a view to aid future

How often do you go shopping? With who? In case of buying with someone why is this? Go around once a week at least to see if there is something appealing. But i least once a month i purchase garments. Rarely alone, often with GF, MOM, SIS even with a friend, preferably a female 2. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? from 200 to 400 on high-peak months. Maybe an average of 2000 a year (eu) 3. Why do you shop? because you need clothes? because you find fun doing it? I need to update my old clothing. I DONT DO IT FOR FASHION 4. What is your shopping pattern? ( research on websites, research on different shops, several visits to scan before finally buying, one short visit...) I go around- I like something - I buy it. Unless it is really expensive i checked on internet, and either find a better retailer or ask someone to bring it from US

decision-making.

6.1.3 Applied ethnography research questions Participant 1- Kiran 1. How often do you go shopping? With who? In case of buying with someone why is this? a - Once or twice a month, with my friend. To have a better opinion. 2. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? a - 200~300 euro 3. Why do you shop? because you need clothes? because you find fun doing it? a - I need clothes 4. What is your shopping pattern? ( research on websites,

101


5. Do you follow fashion and trends? why? If yes, how do you do that? I happen to be against most of the fashion not all. I pay for comfort and wellbeing, within common looks. 6. What annoys you more from shopping? Service, wearing rooms, smelly clothes, loud speakers with the worst trance or electronic music ever, crowded areas, feeling i am buying some shitty clothes (due to the attitude of the crew), and of course excessive prices 7. Are you sure about your choices? Can you discard clothes and browse fast in the shop? If I’m not sure i rather not do it, sometimes i get to the register and discard something i don’t need 8. Do you ask shop clerks normally if you need advice? Why? Not often but i’ve done it. Maybe when buying shoes i ask for the most comfortable . say- florsheim with gel insoles, or asking if they have a feature (waterproof, breathable... etc) 9. How sure do you feel about your choices, once you have already bought them? I wear them instantly 10. What would you like to change to improve the shopping experience, especially in terms of finding guidance and advice? Better display of articles/ increase on the imagery of the current collection 11. Would you accept advice about fashion from a “machine”? Sorry but NEVER. Maybe i would take advice of an intelligent pre-made app which understand color combinations (mostly styles and interests) and shows photos of possible combinations simulated with mine and the garment i want to purchase. So, to me it should work partly in combination of my personal data ( MY closet/stock) and the public (the shop/retailer)

Participant 3-Dirk 1. How often do you go shopping? With who? In case of buying with someone why is this? Twice per year on average, with my girlfriend, because she enjoys this, because it is practical (she helps with advice and with a helping hand) 2. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? Probably around 600 Euro’s per year. 3. . How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? Mainly because I need clothes as they wear down. 4. What is your shopping pattern? ( research on websites, research on different shops, several visits to scan before finally buying, one short visit...) Preferably one short visit, therefore I tend to go back to 102

shops that I liked or bought clothes from in the past. 5. 5. Do you follow fashion and trends? why? If yes, how do you do that? Not actively. 6. What annoys you more from shopping? Anything that I perceive as highly time consuming, such as searching, waiting in queue to try something on etc. 7. Are you sure about your choices? Can you discard clothes and browse fast in the shop? I never really take a product back to the shop. I don’t find it difficult to discard what I don’t like. 8. Do you ask shop clerks normally if you need advice? Why? I do not often ask advice other than very specific questions (do you have this product in a different size..). For me, the most important information comes from seeing the product, trying it on, and from the price tag. 9. How sure do you feel about your choices, once you have already bought them? Positive, I try to be positive, because well I already bought them! 10. What would you like to change to improve the shopping experience, especially in terms of finding guidance and advice? I like having a good overview in the shops even before going through all the piles and racks of clothes. The presentation of the products could be better organized from this perspective. 11 .Would you accept advice about fashion from a “machine”? That completely depends on the aim of the machine. If the machine aims to direct me towards certain shops to fulfill my needs, like a tomtom in traffic, I would. If the machine aims to direct me within a shop to influence my opinion about products which are very near (in my reach to see and touch), I doubt it. If the machine aims to inform me with advice based on the latest trends in fashion, I might not be in the target user group for that machine, as I do not take a strong interest in such trends. If I were interested in such trends I would probably question the creative potential of the machine, and wonder what the advice is based on before accepting it. (If such information could come with some explanation and maybe graphical examples I would find it more credible and useful.)

Partcipant 4- François 1. How often do you go shopping? With who? In case of buying with someone why is this? max 6 times per year, with Marjolein, because she can advise me.


2. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? per year max 500 E (including shoes) 3.. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? because i need shoes and clothes and its not fun to do! :) 4. What is your shopping pattern? ( research on websites, research on different shops, several visits to scan before finally buying, one short visit...) 1 store preferably with great deals, and then buy a lot. For example in the sample sale in rotterdam. 5. Do you follow fashion and trends? why? If yes, how do you do that? Nope, not really. Sample sale is quite trendy. Otherwise i see in music videos what are the trends, and people in the train. 6. What annoys you more from shopping? its tiring, you need to be focused and take decisions fast. Its time consuming. i don’t like looking for hanging clothes and i hate having to find my size 7. Are you sure about your choices? Can you discard clothes and browse fast in the shop? yes, my girlfriend shows things she likes, and then I say yes or no. 8. Do you ask shop clerks normally if you need advice? Why? No, no need to. I have already enough advise. 9. How sure do you feel about your choices, once you have already bought them? Always good and sure. sometimes its not nice after all and i don’t wear it often. 10. What would you like to change to improve the shopping experience, especially in terms of finding guidance and advice? i would like like clothes not to get dirty or loose colour so i could wear them my whole life and never go shopping again. or something like that. Or buy exactely the same when they are too old. 11. Would you accept advice about fashion from a “machine”? from a person is easier. its nicer if people around you like your clothes than that a machine finds it nice.

Partcipant 5- Joao 1. How often do you go shopping? With who? In case of buying with someone why is this? I usually go shopping alone. If I go with somebody it would be a girlfriend or,most likely, my mom, so she would pay. I might have been shopping once with a friend (a guy, but we just split up and meet at the end, so i guess it does not count)

2. How much do you spend on average per year on clothes, and per month? I dont know how much I spend really, but considering that I buy most of my stuff at HM, Springfield or Zara, I think it does not go over 250€ (with shoes, jackets and/or other accessories). Per month its difficult to tell, but I often buy out of instant desire, so it happens that i dont buy anything for months and then spend 50 or 70 in one. 3. Why do you shop? because you need clothes? because you find fun doing it? I guess I shop because I’m looking for something new. “needing clothes” seems very relative. For all effects I really don’t NEED clothes, but I sure feel happier with some cool looking stuff. Shopping in itself is a mixed feeling for me, for various reasons: I like to get something new, but I often enter several stores without buying anything. I have to fall in love with what I buy. Really dont like to buy stuff I don’t care about. Another uncomfortable moment is when I cant figure out if I´m looking at men´s or women´s clothing. This is a bit annoying as I get unconformable in the store, if I spend too much time checking out dubious stuff. 4. What is your shopping pattern? ( research on websites, research on different shops, several visits to scan before finally buying, one short visit.. Quite often, I know the general feel I´m going for. Sometimes I visit the Sartorialist.com for inspiration, but I don’t think it shows..So yes, I will sometimes check websites, but since I used websites for all aspects of my live, I would not say that this makes me a fashion aficionado. When I’ve found a look I like, I will go to stores that might have that and try to build it up. Normally takes some time (weeks, months) 5. Do you follow fashion and trends? why? If yes, how do you do that? Not in the sense of “whats hot right now”, but more to get a feeling of what can be done within a certain style. To do that, I pay attention to the media, but most importantly, to people I think that have a fashion sense, such as friends or bloggers (sartorialist again). I dont really like over the top stuff. 6. What annoys you more from shopping? Too many logos, clothes that are presented in a way that makes me doubt the gender they suit, lines to pay. 7. Are you sure about your choices? Can you discard clothes and browse fast in the shop? Well, I take my time, but since I try to really like the stuff I buy, when I buy it, I tend to like it a lot 8. Do you ask shop clerks normally if you need advice? Why? No, I don’t think most clerks can give good advice beyond obvious questions (matching colors to skin tone, etc, etc). I think this because nowadays, store personnel is never 103


really professional and is just there to pay the bills. No love for the thing. 9. How sure do you feel about your choices, onceOnline you have questionnaire: Shopping behaviour analysis already bought them? usually very happy. Especially if its something that can make and entire outfit. May I ask your age? * 10. What would you like to change to improve the shopping experience, especially in terms of finding guidance and advice? not another device, I think maybe a smartphone applicaAnd your nationality? * tion for color palettes and maybe a library of cool people of different styles. and definitely to fix the whole “uncertain gender” issue. Could you indicate your gender? * Really gets on my nerves. Male 11. Would you accept advice about fashion from a “machine”? Female Advice, I don’t think so. but I could use one to inform my decisions. Depends on how is its output framed.

6.1.4 Questionnaire

https://spreadsheets.google.com/v

What do you do for a living? * I work full time I work part-time/ internship I am a student I am currently unemployed

If you are working, could you indicate in which field? (Design, engineering,...)

How often a year do you go shopping for clothes? * More than once a month Once a month 3-5 times a year Once a year or less Other:

Typically, I go shopping for clothes because… * (Checking more than one option is possible) I enjoy looking at what the trends are and imagine new outfits for myself I need to update my clothes (mine are not trendy anymore) I need new clothes (mine are worn out) Someone pushes me to do it (mother, partner,...) Other:

Indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with the following statements: T follow when shopping is.. Strongly disagree

104

I just fall in love with something and I need to make it mine


Strongly disagree

Strongly agree

immediately I do research on the internet and then go to the stores I do some research into different stores before making a choice I just go to the store, see something, like it and then buy it I research only if it is an expensive item

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the next statements: Strongly disagree

Strongly agree

Looking good for me is important , so I pay attention to the clothes I wear I follow trends and fashion actively I enjoy going shopping I am willing to try new gadgets I consider my self an early adopter of new technologies and digital products

I prefer going shopping... * (Checking more than one option is possible) Alone With my partner With my mother With a friend Other:

Do you normally ask shop clerks for assitance? * 1

2

3

4

Rarely

5 Very often

If you ask them, what for? Only for information of the product (sizes, other colors, availability) For advice about fitting, appropriateness and style Other:

105


Do you normally ask shop clerks for assitance? * 1

2

3

4

5

Rarely

Very often

If you ask them, what for? Only for information of the product (sizes, other colors, availability)

For advice aboutanalysis fitting, appropriateness and stylehttps://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&formkey=dExKc1Bq... e questionnaire: Shopping behaviour Other: When shopping for clothes, how sure do you feel when making the initial decisions of what to pick? * (Initial decision: after scanning through the shop, the moment in which you decide what to take to the fitting room to try the item/s on) 1

2

3

4

5

Strongly unsure

Strongly sure

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the next statement: "Receiving advice from someone when shopping is very important to me" * 1

2

3

4

5

Strongly disagree

Strongly agree

What do you value most about shopping with someone? * (Checking more than one option is possible) He/she helps me locate products He/she helps me to make decisions He/she has more relevant information about fashion than me Just the company Other:

Now, imagine a device that would help you to make decisions, locate clothes and provide you with information about the items you pick. Would you use such a device? * 1

2

3

4

certainly no

5 certainly yes

What type of platform would you prefer for this device? * New digital handheld device (specific for this tool) Application in your smartphone Terminal with LCD touchscreen in the store Not a digital system but a physical one (graphics, ligths, audio,..) Other:

Do you own a smartphone or are you thinking about getting one in the near future? * Yes

106

No

04/02/2011 17:28


4 de 4

Not a digital system but a physical one (graphics, ligths, audio,..) Other:

[DataSet1] C:\Documents and Settings\Propietario\My Documents\pss 42 respon dents file_2.sav Statistics

Do you own a smartphone or are you thinking about getting one in

Typically, I go shopping for clothes because‌ the near future? * N

Yes

41

Valid

0

Missing

No

Typically, I go shopping for clothes because‌ Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

I enjoy looking at what the trends are and imagine new outfits for myself

6

14,6

14,6

14,6

1

2,4

2,4

17,1

Powered by Google Docs

I enjoy looking at what the trends are and imagine new outfits for myself, I need new clothes (mine are worn out)

Report Abuse - Terms of Service - Additional Terms

I need new clothes (mine are worn out)

16

39,0

39,0

56,1

I need new clothes (mine are worn out), Someone pushes me to do it (mother, partner,...)

5

12,2

12,2

68,3

Valid

6.1.5 Results of the online questionnaire

i need to look more formal

How often a year do you go shopping for clothes?

Valid

1

2,4

2,4

70,7

10

24,4

24,4

95,1

1

2,4

2,4

97,6

Someone pushes me to do it (mother, partner,...)

1

2,4

2,4

100,0

41

100,0

100,0

I need to update my clothes (mine are not trendy anymore) , I need new clothes (mine are worn out)

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

20

48,8

48,8

48,8

between once a month and 3-5 times a year

1

2,4

2,4

51,2

depends, if i see something i like and i have the money i usually buy it

1

2,4

2,4

53,7

I need to update my clothes (mine are not trendy anymore) , I need new clothes (mine are worn out), Someone pushes me to do it (mother, partner,...)

34,1

34,1

87,8

4,9

4,9

92,7

Total

3-5 times a year

Once a month

14 Notes 2

Once a year or less

Output Created Twice a year

1

2,4

1

2,4

04/02/2011 17:28

14-feb-2011 17:49:59 2,4 95,1

DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=Towhatextentdoyouagreeordisagreewiththenextstatement Towhatextentdoyouagreeordisagreewiththenextstatement_B Towhatextentdoyouag Descriptive Statistics reeordisagreewiththenextstatement_C Towhatextentdoyouagreeordisagreewiththe 1 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation nextstatement_D To what extent do you 41 1 5 3,44 1,074 Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowing Towhatextentdoyouagr agree or disagree with the Active Dataset DataSet1 Total 41 100,0 100,0 next statement: eeordisagreewiththenextstatement_E "Receiving advice from Filter <none> I prefer going shopping... /STATISTICS=MEAN someone when shopping STDDEV MIN MAX. Weight <none> is very important to me" FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=Howoftenayeardoyougoshoppingforclothes Iprefergoingsh Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent To what extent do you 41 1 5 2,22 ,988 Split File <none> Descriptives opping agree or disagree with Valid all af the above... N of Rows in Working1 2,4 2,4 412,4 /ORDER=ANALYSIS. the next statements: [I Comments Twice a year (winter and summer) Input Data Whenever necessary sometimes 2, sometimes 3 times a year

Alone

2,4

97,6

C:\Documents and Settings\Propietario\My 2,4 2,4 100,0 Documents\pss 42 respondents file_2.sav

Data File

5

12,2 12,2 User defined missing values are 17,1 as missing. 17,1 treated 4,9are used. All4,9 non-missing data

Definition of Missing Missing Value Handling Frequencies Alone, With a friend 7 Alone, With my mother, Cases Used With a friend Syntax Created Output Alone, With my partner

2 Notes

Comments Alone, With my partner , With a friend Input Data

1

With a friend

1

With my partner Active Dataset

Filter a With my partner , With friend Resources Processor Time Weight With my partner , With my Elapsed Split File Time mother

31,7 36,6

DESCRIPTIVES 14-feb-2011 14:25:4848,8 12,2 12,2 VARIABLES=Indicatetowhatextentyo uagreeordisagreewiththefollowing 9,8 9,8 58,5 Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisa C:\Documents and greewiththefollowing_A Settings\Propietario\Mis Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisa 2,4 2,4 61,0 documentos\My Dropbox\Graduation greewiththefollowing_B project\analysis\onlineIndicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisa questionnaire\pss 42 respondents greewiththefollowing_C 2,4 2,4 63,4 file.sav Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisa greewiththefollowing_D DataSet1 24,4 24,4 STDDEV 87,8 /STATISTICS=MEAN MIN <none> 2,4 MAX. 2,4 90,2 00:00:00,031 <none> 4,9 4,9 00:00:00,031 95,1 <none>

5 4

Alone, With my partner , With my mother, With a friend

follow trends and fashion actively]

14,6

10 1

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the next statements: [I enjoy going shopping]

41

1

4

2,10

,800

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the next statements: [I am willing to try new gadgets ]

41

1

5

3,24

1,067

Indicate to what extent you agree or disagree with the following statements: The process I follow when shopping is.. [I just fall in love with something and I need to make it mine immediately ]

41

1

5

2,27

1,265

Page 22

To what extent do you 41 1 5 3,02 1,214 2 agree or disagree with the next statements: [I N of Rows in Working 41 consider my self an early With my partner , With my 2 4,9 4,9 100,0 [DataSet1] C:\Documents Data File and Settings\Propietario\My Documents\pss 42 respon adopter of new mother, With a friend technologies and digital dents Definition of Missing 41 Missingfile_2.sav Value User-defined missing values are Total Handling 100,0 100,0 products] treated as missing. Valid N (listwise) 41 Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases with Descriptive Statistics RECODE Howoftenayeardoyougoshoppingforclothes ('More than once a month'='4' valid data. Descriptive Statistics Mean Std.aDeviation ) Syntax ('Once a month'='3')N('3-5Minimum times aMaximum year'='2') ('Once year or less'='1' FREQUENCIES SAVE OUTFILE='C:\Documents Minimu and Settings\Propietario\My VARIABLES=Howoftenayeardoyoug 41 1 5 2,27 1,265 Std. Documents\pss 42 res ).I just fall in love with oshoppingforclothes something and I need to Maximum Mean m Deviation pondents file_2.sav' N Iprefergoingshopping EXECUTE. make it mine immediately /ORDER=ANALYSIS. Looking good for me is 41 1 5 3,83 ,834 /COMPRESSED. NONPAR CORRon the I do research 41 1 5 1,73 ,895 important , so I pay 00:00:00,015 Resources DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowi internet and then go to the Processor Time attention to the clothes I /VARIABLES=Howoftenayeardoyougoshoppingforclothes Towhatextentdoyouagreeo stores wear 00:00:00,140 Elapsed Time

rdisagreewiththenextstatement I do some research into 41 different stores before /PRINT=SPEARMAN TWOTAIL NOSIG making a choice /MISSING=PAIRWISE. I just go to the store, see 41 something, like it and then buy it Nonparametric Correlations I research only if it is an expensive item

41

Valid N (listwise)

41

1

5

3,20

1,269

1

5

3,59

1,161

1

5

3,68

1,234

Page 5

ng Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowing_A Indicatetowhate I follow trends and fashion 41 1 5 Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordis 2,22 ,988 xtentyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowing_B actively agreewiththefollowing_C I enjoy going shopping 41 1 4 2,10 ,800 Indicatetowhatextentyouagreeordisagreewiththefollowing_D I am willing to try new 41 1 5 3,24 1,067 /STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX. gadgets I consider my self an early

adopter of new Descriptives

41

1

5

3,02

1,214

technologies and digital products Valid N (listwise)

41

DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=Doyounormallyaskshopclerksforassitance /STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX. Page 25

Descriptives

107


Input

Data enjoy going shopping] To what extent do you agree or disagree with Active Dataset the next statements: [I follow trends and fashion actively] Filter

C:\Documents and Settings\Propietario\My 41 Documents\pss 42 respondents * Correlation Coefficient ,383 file_2.sav N

DataSet1 Sig. (2-tailed) N

,013

<none>

41

<none> *. Correlation is significantWeight at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Split File <none> Correlations N of Rows in Working Data File

41 To what extent do you agree or are Definition of Missing Missing Value Handling User-defined missing values disagree with treated as missing. the next statements: [I Cases Used Statistics for each pair of variables trends are based on all follow the cases with valid data for that pair. and fashion actively] Syntax CORRELATIONS * Spearman's rho To what extent do you Correlation/VARIABLES=Nowimagineadevicet Coefficient ,383 agree or disagree with hatwouldhelpyoutomakedecisionsloc ,013 Sig. (2-tailed) the next statements: [I Whenshoppingforclotheshowsuredoy enjoy going shopping] oufeelwhenmakingthe N 41 /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG To what extent do you 1,000 Correlation/MISSING=PAIRWISE. Coefficient agree or disagree with 00:00:00,016 Processor Time Resources Sig. (2-tailed) . the next statements: [I follow trends and fashion 00:00:00,266 Elapsed Time N 41 actively] *. Correlation C:\Documents is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). [DataSet1] and Settings\Propietario\My Documents\pss 42 respon CORRELATIONS dents file_2.sav /VARIABLES=Nowimagineadevicethatwouldhelpyoutomakedecisionsloc Whenshoppi Correlations ngforclotheshowsuredoyoufeelwhenmakingthe /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG Now, imagine a device that /MISSING=PAIRWISE. would help

you to make decisions, locate clothes and provide you with information about the items you pick. Would you use such a device?

Correlations

Now, imagine a device that would help you to make decisions, locate clothes and provide you with information about the items you pick. Would you use such a device?

Pearson Correlation

When shopping for clothes, how sure do you feel when making the initial decisions of what to pick?

1

Sig. (2-tailed) N

When shopping for clothes, how sure do you feel when making the initial decisions of what to pick? ,124 ,440

41

41

Pearson Correlation

,124

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

,440

N

41

Page 41

41

NONPAR CORR Page 42

108


109


110


111


6.1.6 Trend analysis

the coming decade. Urban consumers tend to be more daring, more liberal, more tolerant, more experienced,

Macro trends

more prone to trying out new products and services. (Trendwatching.com, 2010)

1. Mobility and data Mobility is increasing for all types of things (resources,

3. Democratic selling

people, products and services, capital, knowledge, beliefs,

The voice of consumer has never been louder. More

opinions ...).Data has become a deluge and information

consumers are constantly connected, and when they

can be reported globally in minutes (via social networks).

hear about new deals online can quickly and easily spread

As mobility expands, time is being compressed and people

them through their social networks, mobile phones...

are overwhelmed by choice and multitasks. First tools

(Trendwatching.com, 2010)

to help people address these issues are being created. (Global trends, 2010b)

4. Social-lites Consumers become curators; actively broadcasting,

2. Growing influence of “we and me”

remixing, compiling, commenting, sharing and

People’s ability to make choices is increasing.

recommending content, products, purchases, experiences

Communications advances and increased

to both their friends and wider audiences. Social networks’

democratization have allowed people find their voices. The

streams allow users to easily broadcast information to

power of “me” has been amplified through communities

a wide range of people without interrupting or intruding.

of choice, including social networks and buying groups,

(Trendwatching.com, 2010)

which are changing how we interact and behave. (Global trends, 2010b)

5. Planned spontaneaty For consumers, knowing where they are and what’s /

3. Fight to own the new consumer

who’s around them is the key to this trend. That’s about

The profile of the regular consumer is changing. The new

to get a whole lot easier, as geo-location becomes a key

consumer wants more involvement and personalization;

feature of social networks and web apps. Traditional

wants it all anywhere, anytime, and wants it to be cheap

ownership implies a certain level of responsibility, cost and

and chic. Companies are trying to connect with the

commitment. Consumers looking for convenience and

consumer to build reputations, trust, loyalty, returns,

collecting as many experience as possible want none of

market position and ultimately be able to compete.

these things. (Trendwatching.com, 2010)

As consumers increasingly demand experiences and solutions, this fight may evolve into new, creative forms

6. Ownerless

of cooperation between firms and others.(Global trends,

For many consumers, access is better than ownership,

2010b

Consumers are looking for convenience and collecting as many experience as possible. This could be the year when

Consumer trends

sharing and renting really tips into mainstream consumer consciousness. (Trendwatching.com, 2010)

1. Discrete consumerism Consumers are going away from traditional branding and

Technological trends

labels in favour of creativity and differentiation. Marks

• 1. Mobile Applications and Media Tablets.

need to stop generating marketing and start creating

Mobile devices are becoming computers in their own

experiences. (partnershipactivation.com, 2011)

with an astounding amount of processing ability and bandwidth. The quality of the experience of applications

2. Urbanomics

is leading customers to interact with companies

Urbanization remains one of the absolute mega trends for

preferentially through mobile devices. Technology

112


consumers will come one step closer to being connected

colours with brushes, synthetic pressure sensitivity and a

24/7, and in more powerful ways than previously

streamlined user interface.

possible. This has lead to a race to push out applications

Dictation- Dragon Dictation is an accurate way to dictate

as a competitive tool to improve relationships and gain

voice to text on the iPhone. Text’nDrive is the same

advantage over competitors whose interfaces are purely

thought to respond emails or sms while you drive, it also

browser-based. (Gartner, 2010).

reads you the texts.

Apps are software applications used in mobile

Augmented reality- Layar is the most intriguing mobile AR

technologies ( smartphones, tablets,..). They are a

app, thanks to its structure. Developers are encouraged to

phenomena nobody anticipated. It started with the

create ‘layers’ - from gig listings to house prices to Beatles

Iphone in 2008. Apple created the Appstore for his own

magical mystery tours, making it a platform for rapid,

developers, and then they found that other external

creative innovation.

developers wanted to participate also, and that people

Medical- There are several going from drug guides to

were downloading in an unforeseen speed. Then, It was

study guides or 3D organs visualizations. Sleep cycle is

obvious there could be a business based on downloading

able to use the accelerometer in the Iphone to monitor

very cheap programs millions of times To the Apple shop

your movement and determine which sleep phase you

(App Store) other ones follow: Google (Android Market),

are in. It can configure your alarm to wake you up in the

Nokia (Ovi), Blackberry (App World) and Microsoft

lightest sleep phase.

(Marketplace). In the near future, any business will have his apps section, like Amazon has already announced.

2. Social Communications and Collaboration.

2010 will finish with 12.000 millions of downloads, 2 for

Gartner predicts that by 2016, social technologies

earth inhabitant (El Pais, 2010). With almost 300.000

will be integrated with most business applications.

apps only in App store, there is space for almost

Companies should bring together their social CRM,

everything. It is noticeable to see how applications that

internal communications and collaboration, and public

sound quite high tech can be done just with a Smartphone.

social site initiatives into a coordinated strategy. Social

Some of the most interesting applications are:

media can be divided into: (1) Social networking —social

Scanning- Barcode Scanner or RedLaser read barcodes

profile management products, as well as social networking

and give information of the product. Jotnot or DocScanner

analysis (SNA) technologies that employ algorithms

scan documents in pdf.

to understand and utilize human relationships for the

Identify Music- Shazam identifies the music that you hear

discovery of people and expertise. (2) Social collaboration

in the radio, bar... Soundhound does the same and it is

Social networking

free.

Social profile management

Stars- Google sky map for Android is a star map that you can turn on and use to find constellations and planets that are in the sky. The app uses the phone’s built in compass, accelerometer, GPS and more in order to find the star

Social media

information.

Social networking analysis

Finding things- Yelp is an app that will help you to find almost everything ( from a mechanic to a drugstore). It relies on the iPhone gps to peg your location and find the

Social collaboration

things nearby. Geodelic, discovers restaurants, retailers and attractions in your surroundings.

Social publishing

Sounds- Sonar Ruler uses the measured gap between audible bips emitted by the phone and their echoes of the wall to calculate the distance between you and the target.

Social feedback

Sketch- Sketchbook Mobile x allows you to sketch in full 113


—technologies, such as wikis, blogs, instant messaging,

8. Ubiquitous Computing

collaborative office, and crowdsourcing. (3) Social

Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing.

publishing —technologies that assist communities in

First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people.

pooling individual content into a usable and community

Then, the personal computing era, person and machine

accessible content repository such as YouTube and

staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next,

flickr. (4) Social feedback - gaining feedback and opinion

starting now, comes ubiquitous computing, or the age

from the community on specific items as witnessed on

of calm technology, when technology recedes into the

YouTube, flickr, Digg, Del.icio.us, and Amazon. (Gartner,

background of our lives. (Weiser, 1996)

2010).

Ubiquitous computing is more formally defined as “machines that fit the human environment instead of

3. Social Analytics.

forcing humans to enter theirs“ (J. York, P.C. Pendharkar,

Social analytics describes the process of measuring,

2004). Because of this idea of several computers in the

analyzing and interpreting the results of interactions

background working for people almost imperceptibly, it is

and associations among people, topics and ideas. These

also called pervasive computing or ambient intelligence.

interactions may occur on social software applications

Ubiquitous computers are an important trend of imbuing

used in the workplace, in internally or externally facing

computing systems into operational technology, whether

communities or on the social web. Social network analysis

done as calming technology or explicitly managed and

involves collecting data from multiple sources, identifying

integrated with IT. In addition, it gives us important

relationships, and evaluating the impact, quality or

guidance on what to expect with proliferating personal

effectiveness of a relationship. Hunch.com, gravity or

devices, the effect of consumerization on IT decisions,

stumble upon are some examples. (Gartner, 2010).

and the necessary capabilities that will be driven by the pressure of rapid inflation in the number of computers for

5. Cloud computing

each person.

Cloud computing is all the rage. Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted

Trends in fashion retail and shopping

services over the Internet. These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service,

1. Social Commerce

Platform-as-a-Service and Software-as-a-Service.

Social shopping is about turning purchases into

Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.

conversations. Is about getting users to share their

(Gartner, 2010).

shopping experiences with friends on Facebook, Twitter, Email etc. Social recommendation services such as

6. Context-Aware Computing

ShopSocially enable users to rapidly spread the word

Context-aware computing centers on the concept of using

about their purchases. Some retailers are even starting to

information about an end user or object’s environment,

sell their clothes trough facebook: `F-commerce’.

activities connections and preferences to improve the quality of interaction with that end user. The end user

2. Designer Meets Consumer

may be a customer, business partner or employee. A

Social networking platforms act as an open forum for

contextually aware system anticipates the user’s needs

consumers, and designers and retailers who are using

and proactively serves up the most appropriate and

this as an opportunity for learning what consumers want

customized content, product or service. Gartner predicts

and reflecting that in their future designs. Consumers feel

that by 2013, more than half of Fortune 500 companies

a part of the brand, receiving special deals and a line of

will have context-aware computing initiatives and by 2016,

communication while the brand gets an insider scoop into

one-third of worldwide mobile consumer marketing will be

what their customer really wants. (TMG, 2010)

context-awareness-based. (Gartner, 2010).

3. Faster fashion 114


Zaraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s incredible supply chain can take new trends to store in a matter of weeks. But for most retailers it takes at least 6 months or more before it works its way into stores. Consumer desire for instant gratification is going to pressure retailers into shortening this lag time.(You look fab,com, 2011)

6.1.5 Market analysis Solution

What?

How?

Status

Smart Mirror

-Create personalized

-A touchscreen LCD

Carnegie

Suggestion

recommendations for

panel for suggestion

Mellon

+ inventory

store customers (similar

displays (renders

university

management

and complementary

a mirror image of

Project. Not

system

products)

the user wearing

in real use

- Enables users to easily

clothing in different

and playfully explore a

color-harmonic

wide variety of chromatic

combinations)

and color-harmonic

-RFID chips on clothing

clothing combinations

tags, stationary and

-Integrate an RFID

hand-held RFID readers

inventory management

,

Image

system.

ChroMirror

-Adjusts the colors of the

Chromatic and

clothing regions according computer, LCD display,

University

Color-Harmonic

to a set of harmonic color

project.

Dressing

combinations

Not in real

-Explore color

use

Digital camera, Wii remote

Taiwan

combinations

IconNicholsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Social retailing mirror system

-Shoppers view

Mirror, video camera, a

themselves in outfits

touch-screen computer few stores

Interactive mirror

and images of alternate

for virtual fitting and

garments-sent to the

social shopping

mirror by their online

In test in a

-Comments, feedback

friends.

115


Solution

What?

How?

Status

TeamLab Interactive Hanger

-Provides relevant

RFID tags

Experimental

information on screen of

LCD screens,

project

the taken product.

sensor and

Explore boutique

- The hanger can collect

receiver

interactively

valuable customer behavioral information, such as number of pickup per item, duration, location, etc.

Intelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Virtual Footwear Wall for Adidas

-Touchscreen wall

Touchscreen Footwear Wall

additional information and

Prototype store will likely roll out

3D models (navigate,

in about a year in

manipulate, view

the U.K

materials ) -When customer is happy with the product, he/she can send it to a virtual shopping cart,

116

LCD touchscreen

that shows interactive

Image


Type

Name

What?

Fashion Polivore, Looklet -Create your own outfits by online mixing clothes of different community brands

How?

Image

Knowledge, social and networking technologies

-Buy the outfits created by the

(interact and

community

share data), Image

-Comment and vote the outfits.

processing techniques

Blogs

My daily style,

Bloggers publish their looks and

Social and

Altamira,

create trends

networking

theblondesald,

technologies

stylescrapbook

They are independent not linked

..

to any brand

content

and people value that Capture trends froms street (streetstylers)

Trends

Shopping

Trendencias,

-Compilation of trends, news of

Knowledge/

fashionising.

fashion,

exploration

com, style.com

-Analysis of celebreties outfits

technologies (data

the sartorialist,

-Capture trends from the streets

mining, content

Stockholm

search engines, ...)

Street Style,

Socialware

Boutiques,

-Shopping on the internet from

Knowledge

Asos, Yoox, Net- different brands with different

technologies

aporter

filters ( colour, style, celebrity..)

(content,

the outnet

and adapted functions for each

adaptation

user.

techniques, content search engines), social ware technologies

117


Type

Name

What?

How?

Wardrobe organizers

Stylebook,

-Photograph and organize your

Software

Touch Closet,

clothing by category. You can

application

Gap Style mixer

then collage these images to

and knowledge

myShoebox

create different outfits.

technologies

-In addition, Stylebook sports a calendar that allows you to track and plan your outfits

Inspiration

Vogue stylist,

Collect and organize the latest

Software

Who What

images from street style blogs

application,

Wears, Chicfeed

like The Sartorialist and Face

Knoweldge/

Hunter into a simple sideshow.

exploration

-Synthesizing and presenting

technologies (data

that information in a meaningful mining, content

Shopping apps

way

search engines, ...)

Lucky at Your

-Helps you find apparels,

Software

Service

accessories

application,

ShopStyleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s,

- It also helps you track them

Knoweldge

Lustr Fashion

down online and, in some

technologies

Finder

cases, at nearby retail outlets

(content

Yoox, Net-a-

using GPS. -Lucky will even call

adpatation

Porter

the store to reserve it for same-

techniques), GPS

day pickup

Style Advice

Ask a Stylist,

-Almost immediate advice

Software

Fashism,

of your outfits by snapping a

application,

Love It or Lose

photo of the item or ensemble

Connectivity

It, GQ Stylepicks

in question,

technologies,

(Men)

socialware technologies

Own brand

Zara, Ralph

-Offers runway photographs

Exploration

Lauren,

and video footage, a slideshow

technologies

Topshop ...

of the current season catalog,

(content

a news feed, some background

search) and

history about the designer and

networking

a store locator

technologies

-Some of them also buying online

118

Image


6.1.6 Technological study Technologies in the fashion field

Function

What

How

Intelligent fitting room

-Retrieve information (on existing

-Social retailing system

stock, materials, colours, sizes...)

-Interactive touch

-Call up virtual models

screens

-Accessorize an outfit

-RFID inventory, sensors

-Communicate with shop clerks,

and receivers

and family -Mix-and-match database -Deliver recommendations Browsing though database -Tailored product ranges and

-Terminal with details on

personalized service

selected products ( on

-Adaptability to userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s taste

the store) -Visual search (image processing) -Machine learning -Touchscreens

Virtual fitting

F-commerce

-Trying on new outfits without

-Cyber mannequin (3D

taking your clothes off

simulation)

- Allow 3D virtual images of

-Body Scan

accessories to appear to be

-Robotic mannequin

inserted into real world

-Augmented reality

-Execute transactions in Facebook

e-commerce application

without leaving the network

on Facebook itself

119


Technologies from other fields Function

What

How

Decision making sites

-Gets to know the

-Core algorithm based on machine

(Hunch.com,

user first and then

learning asks the user up to 10

letsimondecide.com/...)

offers customised

structured questions on the topic,

suggestions

besides other information -’Wisdom of the crowds’ by aggregating answers and information from all the users that complete the various questionnaires available.

Decision support systems

- Computer program

-An expert system (knowledge

application that

based system) or artificial

(Accounting, medicine,

analyzes business

intelligence system

process control, financial

data and presents it so

service, production, human

that users can make

resources...)

business decisions more easily

Personalized Browsing Tool

-Give personalized

- Using a combination of human

suggestions based on

opinions and machine learning

(Stumble upon, Hunch.com,

their taste

to immediately deliver relevant

Fitchey.com, google picks for

content (the Toolbar learns what

you...)

the user has liked in the past and continues to present quality web sites in the future)

three-dimensional world to a set of two-dimensional

Image Processing technology

discrete points. Each of these spatially distinct points,

Image processing is considered to be one of the most

holds a number that denotes grey level or colour for

rapidly evolving areas of information technology today,

it, and can be conveniently fed to a digital computer

with growing applications in all areas of business. As

for processing. Here, processing essentially means

such, it forms the basis for all kinds of future visual

algorithmic enhancement, manipulation, or analysis (also

automation.

understanding or recognition) of the digital image data. Every image processing technique or algorithm takes an

Image Processing deals with images which are two-

input, an image or a sequence of images and produces

dimensional entities (such as scanned office documents,

an output, which may be a modified image and/or a

x-ray films, satellite pictures, etc) captured electronically

description of the input image contents.

through a scanner or camera system that digitises the spatially continuous coordinates to a sequence of

Importance of image data

0’s and 1’s. A digital image is a mapping from the real

According to one estimate, more than 75 percent of all the

120


information received by man is visual. Some researchers

focuses on the question of how to get computers to

arguably consider this figure to be as high as 99 percent!

program themselves (from experience plus some initial

Even if we consider the conservative estimate, the

structure). Whereas Statistics has focused primarily on

remaining four senses contribute to only 25 percent of the

what conclusions can be inferred from data, Machine

total share. And man has known this since ancient times.

Learning incorporates additional questions about what computational architectures and algorithms can be

Image Processing vs. Computer Graphics

used to most effectively capture, store, index, retrieve

There generally is a bit of confusion in recognising the

and merge these data, how multiple learning subtasks

difference between the fields of Image Processing and

can be orchestrated in a larger system, and questions of

Computer Graphics, often even in the minds of tech-savvy

computational tractability.

computer professionals. Actually, Image Processing and

In particular, machine learning methods are already the

Computer Graphics are entirely different, almost the

best methods available for developing particular types of

opposite of each other. A computer graphics system is

software, in applications where:

involved with image synthesis, and not recognition or

1) The application is too complex for people to manually

analysis, as in the case of Image Processing. The input of

design the algorithm. For example, software for sensor-

a computer graphics system consists of an item list that

base perception tasks, such as speech recognition and

describes a scene and its purpose is to transform this list

computer vision, fall into this category.

into a digital image, which could have been formed, if this

All of us can easily label which photographs contain a

scene would really exist. Morphing used in advertisements

picture of our mother, but none of us can write down an

could be said to be the most commonly witnessed

algorithm to perform this task. Here machine learning

computer graphics technique. In contrast, input to an

is the software development method of choice simply

Image Processing system is always a real image formed

because it is relatively easy to collect labeled training data,

via some physical phenomenon such as scanning, filming,

and relatively ineffective to try writing down a successful

etc. The main role of Image Processing is not to create

algorithm.

information but to extract it, integrate it, make it explicit

2) The application requires that the software customize to

and usable.

its operational environment after it is fielded. One example of this is speech recognition systems that customize to

Applications market

the user who purchases the software. Machine learning

Broadly one can classify the applications areas into four

here provides the mechanism for adaptation. Software

categories: document and medical imaging, computer

applications that customize to users are growing rapidly

vision & industrial applications, remote sensing & space

- e.g., bookstores that customize to your purchasing

applications, and military applications.

preferences, or email readers that customize to your particular definition of spam. This machine learning niche

Machine learning

within the software world is growing rapidly.

Machine Learning is a natural outgrowth of the intersection of Computer Science and Statistics. We

Virtual fitting

might say the defining question of Computer Science is

Body scanners

“How can we build machines that solve problems, and

This technique uses a white light to capture a person’s

which problems are inherently tractable/intractable?”

silhouette, from which measurements can be extracted

The question that largely defines Statistics is “What can

and linked with virtual fit or size prediction engines. body

be inferred from data plus a set of modeling assumptions,

is captured as a dense cloud of over 300,000 points with

with what reliability?” The defining question for Machine

either TC2, a device that projects white incandescent light,

Learning builds on both, but it is a distinct question.

or Human

Whereas Computer Science has focused primarily on

Solutions, a laser scanner. Until the point cloud is

how to manually program computers, Machine Learning

fed into Polyworks software program, which blows 121


threedimensional life into the cluster, it resembles a swarm of gnats with a blurry human-like outline. e.g: Cornell University’s Bodyscan Research Group, Robotic Mannequin They’ve created a special shape-shifting robotic mannequin designed to allow shoppers to get the right fit when buying their clothes online. Users have to choose a shirt, enter their body measurements, and the mannequin will show how it would look on them. e.g: Fitsme.com Cyber mannequin Takes a user’s measurements and creates a virtual model of that person in 3D.Armed with a cyber mannequin, the consumer can then go shopping and “try on” different garments to judge style and fit. ENFASHION, provide a wire mesh of the garment with color zones that indicate fit problems. E.g: Virtual Dressing Room (VDR), Vtryon ,C-me, Clarity Fitting Room,DigiTex and DigiGarments, WebFitting,

122


Appendix B 6.2.1 Needs depending on the level of fashion involvement

in this section. It can be assumed that only the first two groups would use the Fashion Advisor. These are the ones who have some interest in fashion and therefore might take the”effort” to use a Fashion Advisor. It is hypothesized that the high fashion involvement group would either use it for

Based on the their degree of fashion involvement ( see

information or for making-shopping-easier functions. The

Chapter I Analysis), consumers are expected to have

medium fashion involvement group would benefit from

different needs. A review of their characteristics and an

both types of functions, advice and making-shopping

analysis of which needs for advice they might have is done

easier.

High fashion involvement

Medium fashion involvement

Low fashion involvement

• Fashion leader in innovativeness

• Main stimuli to buy is need

• Fashion is not a priority

• Fashion forward (early trial of trends

• Wants to look good

• Some do not care about looking

and new arrivals)

• Does not enjoy shopping

good

• Interpersonal communication of

• Shopping is perceived as time

fashion information

consuming

• Follows fashion and trends actively

• Searches for assurance

• Knows what to wear and how to

• Some need help with mixing and

combine items

matching

• Fashion awareness (keep up to date all • Does not follow trends or fashion the fashion changes)

actively (does not search on the

• Fashion knowledge

Internet usually)

• Heavy buyers

• Looks for information about

• Some enjoy shopping

trends and fashion mainly on special

{

{ {

occasions

• Finding shops

• Finding shops

• Finding specific clothes

• Finding specific clothes

• Browsing

• Comparing similar items of different

• Inspiration and exploration

stores

• Trends and fashion info

• Assurance

• Compare similar items of different

• Finding outfits based on occasion

stores

• Mixing and matching advice

Advice functions

Advice functions

Making shopping easier

Making shopping easier functions

• No interest at all

functions 123


6.2.2 Smartphones Usage The smartphone market has grown considerably and by the end of 2010 smartphones accounted for 37% of total phone shipments in Western Europe (Internet retailing, 2010) The smartphones market share in Europe varies a bit from the one in USA, In both countries RIM leads with its Blackbery with 35% of the market in the USA and 60,9% in Europe. Despite Blackberry being the most used platform in business, they are loosing market. Now in USA 40% of the employees use iPhones while 60% still have

Figure 6.2.1 Android, iPhone and Blackberry

BlackBerrys. (Los Angeles times, 2010) Apple is working hard to show that Iphone can be used for nearly any purpose, business or personal, a line that Apple hopes to blur out of existence. Apple claims that the fact of not developing two different lines (enterprise versions and consumer versions) is another part of our simplistic approach to things. And apparently this is the trend (kaufman Bros, 2010), “Most people now want to use a single device to handle both their personal and professional lives.” RIM has also created an online app store, called App World, though it has only about 15,000 apps compared with Apple’s 300,000.

Figure 6.2.2. Blackberry and Iphone application usage

But even with Apple’s apparent advantage in hype and consumer popularity, the BlackBerry is “still the gold standard” for mobile smart phones, said Ashok Kumar, an analyst at Rodman & Renshaw.

BlackBerry during the Work Week, iPhone on the Weekend According to the study of Localytics study about mobile app usage, although iPhone is making professional inroads, it continues to be predominantly a personal device more heavily used outside of working hours. However, the BlackBerry analytics study shows that mobile app usage still appears concentrated around professional use. BlackBerry mobile app usage is higher

Figure 6.2.3 Worldwide Smartphone Sales to End Users by

throughout the workday and starts to peak at 7:00 pm

Operating System in 3Q10 (Thousands of Units) (Gartner, 2010)

EST, two hours earlier than the iPhone. More telling, there is no statistically significant difference in the usage of BlackBerry apps on the weekend compared to Monday through Friday, unlike the iPhone. 124


Connectivity In a smartphone there are two possible types of connections to transfer data in big distances: Wifi and 3G. 3G networks are primarily designed to handle data transfer. Standard 3G is capable of speeds up to 2Mb. HSPA improves 3G technology, upping the theoretical top end mobile broadband speed to 10Mb, but in reality speeds above 3Mb are rare. This is due in part to the large amount of people now sharing the 3G signal, as the mobile service providers struggle to keep up with demand for data services. (BroadbandGenie, 2011) Wifi correspond to devices that can communicate with other devices in a ‘wireless local area network’, or WLAN. When it comes to smartphone use, Wi-Fi is usually associated with ‘hotspots’ - places such as cafes, airports, stations, etc where you can get online via your phone (or laptop). Wi-Fi is also common in homes, thanks to wireless broadband routers. After this brief analysis, wifi connection seems to be a better choice. If the store makes available a wifi network, user can save a lot of money (as he won’t be using up his allocated allowance) while also normally giving a faster, better broadband connection. Besides some users do not have an internet contract with his telephone company, but do have a smartphone that can access a wifi network.

125


6.2.2 Functions Set-up

Figure 6.2.1 setup functions

Regular use

126


Figure 6.2.2 Browsing by filter

Figure 6.2.3 Browsing by occasion

127


Figure 6.2.4 Things you might like

Figure 6.2.5 Find similar items

128


Figure 6.2.6 Matching possibilities

Figure 6.2.7 General screen

129


Appendix C 6.3.1 Process scenario System boots up

ACCESING

TO0.

Presses button IA0.

System shows menu with options

Prepares menu for user TO1.

UA0.

IA1.

UA1.

UA2. Selection goes to system IA2.

TO2.

TO3.

BROWSING BY FILTER

TO4.

System offers user a range of filters

TO5.

TO7.

IA3.

IA4.

System shows filters

Alert message is display: activate user preferences (yes/no)

System prepares visualization of ‘activating user’s preferences’

TO9.

System checks user profile

UA4.

User considers

Option is inputted (yes) IA6.

User profile

UA3.

User chooses an option in each filter (item, budget, occasion...)

System coverts it into a search pattern

System receives option

130

User chooses ‘browsing by filter’

Filters selection is inputted into system

IA5.

TO8.

User considers options

Systems initiates browsing By filter fucntion

System stores info

TO6.

User submits option

User decides to start application

UA5.

User selects (yes)


activate user preferences (yes/no)

visualization of ‘activating user’s preferences’ IA5.

System receives option

UA4.

Option is inputted (yes) UA5.

IA6. TO8.

User considers

User selects (yes)

System checks user profile

User profile TO9. Sytem retrieves User preferences T10.

System adds user preferences to the search pattern System checks user purchases in the user profile

User profile T11. System adds user purchases data to the search pattern

Sytem retrieves User purchases data

T12. T12.

System accesses clothing database with System accesses the search pattern clothing database with the search pattern

Clothing Database T13. Sytem retrieves matching items T14.

System sorts items according to the degree of matching Tool prepares visualization of matching items

IA7.

System receives selected item T15.

FIND SIMILAR ITEMS

T16.

GPS

T17.

T18.

T19.

System access GPS and checks current location

IA8.

System prepares information and options about the selection

System receives option (Find similar items) System prepares information and options about Shops/area where perform search

System receives option (In this area)

IA9.

Display matching items

selection is inputted in sytem

Data and options about the selection are displayed

UA6.

User considers the displayed result

UA7.

Users selects a specific item

UA8.

Users considers info and options

Option is inputted IA10.

UA9.

Users selects an option (Find similar items)

UA10.

Users considers options (where to perform search)

Options are displayed IA11.

Option is inputted IA12.

UA11.

Users selects an option (in this area)

131


FIND SIMILAR ITEM

T17.

GPS

Google maps (stores)

IA10. System prepares information and options about Shops/area where perform search

T18.

System receives option (In this area)

T19.

Options are displayed IA11.

Option is inputted

T20.

SHUT DOWN

Display List of stores in the area IA13.

System receives option (list of stores)

UA12.

Option is inputted IA14.

Tool prepares visualization of the items T22.

ITEMS

Users selects an option (in this area)

UA13.

User considers the displayed result

Users selects a store/s

Systems searches in the Database the similar items in those stores

System retrieves items

T23.

T24.

Display items IA15.

System shuts down

System receives option (rating)

IA16.

IA17.

Give command to shut down

UA14.

User considers

UA15.

User terminates application or chooses another option

Option is inputted in system (I like it)

User rates item

Rating menu is displayed

System stores rating T25. Tool prepares change in visualization of rating

RATE SHUT DOWN

Users considers options (where to perform search)

System checks stores in that area

T21.

132

UA11.

an option (Find similar items)

System access GPS and checks current location

System retrieves a list of stores

User profile

UA10.

IA12.

Tool prepares visualization of the list of stores

Clothing database

UA9.

T26.

System shuts down

Change is displayed IA18.

UA16.

User perceives change

UA17.

User terminates application or chooses another option

Give command to shut down IA19.


SHUT DO MATCHING POSSIBILITIES

T26.

System shuts down

IA19.

Give command to shut down

User finalizes application or chooses another option

UA17.

User chooses option (matching items)

UA18.

Option is inputted in system (Matching items)

System receives option T27.

IA20.

T28.

System coverts it into a search pattern

T29.

System checks user profile

...

User profile T30. Sytem retrieves User preferences T31.

System adds user preferences to the search pattern System checks user purchases in the user profile

User profile T32. System adds user purchases data to the search pattern

Sytem retrieves User purchases data

T33.

System Cjecks matching possibilities of the item with the search pattern

Clothing Database T34. Sytem retrieves matching items T35.

System sorts items per category System prepares visualization of categories of matching items

IA21.

System receives selected item T36.

SHUT DOWN

T37.

IA22.

System prepares Visualization of matching items in that category

Display categories

selection is inputted in sytem

UA19.

User considers the displayed result

UA20.

Users selects a Category (trousers)

Matching items are displayed IA23.

UA21.

Users considers

System shuts down Give command to shut down T38.

IA24.

UA22.

User terminates application or chooses another option

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SHUT DOWN

T37.

Visualization of matching items in that category

Matching items are displayed IA23.

UA21.

System shuts down Give command to shut down UA22.

IA24.

T38.

UA23.

System receives purchases info T39.

IA25.

System connects to Clothing database

Clothing DB

System retrieves purchased clothes images and metadata

T40.

User profile

134

Users considers

System stores purchases info in user wardrobe of the user profile

Purchases info is sent to the system

UA24.

User terminates application or chooses another option

User buys some clothes in the store

User uses his Id number when paying


System boots up

ACCESING

TO0.

Presses button IA0.

System shows menu with options

Prepares menu for user TO1.

UA0.

IA1.

UA1.

UA2. Selection goes to system TO2.

TO3.

TO4.

IA2.

System offers user a series of occasions

BROWSING BY OCCASION

TO5.

IA3.

IA4.

System prepares possibilities for the selected option TO6.

System shows occasions

User chooses ‘browsing by occasion’

UA3.

Possibilities are displayed

System stores info IA6.

User chooses an Occasion (wedding)

selection is inputted into system

UA4.

IA5.

TO7.

TO9.

User considers options

Systems initiates browsing by occasion function

System stores info

TO8.

User submits option

User decides to start application

User chooses a possibility (wedding in a beach)

selection is inputted into system

System converts it into a search pattern Alert message is display: activate user preferences (yes/no)

System prepares visualization of ‘activating user’s preferences’ IA7.

System receives option

UA4.

User considers

Option is inputted (yes) IA8.

UA5.

User selects (yes)

T10. System checks user profile

User profile T11.

135


System receives option

Option is inputted (yes) IA8.

UA5.

User selects (yes)

T10. System checks user profile

User profile T11. Sytem retrieves User preferences T12.

System adds user preferences to the search pattern System checks user purchases in the user profile

User profile T13. System adds user purchases data to the search pattern

Sytem retrieves User purchases data

T14.

System accesses clothing database with the search pattern

Clothing Database T15. Sytem retrieves matching items T16.

System sorts items according to the degree of matching Tool prepares visualization of matching items

IA9.

System receives selected item T17.

SAVE ITEMS

T18.

T19.

IA10.

System prepares information and options about the selection

System receives option (Save item)

IA11.

Display matching items

selection is inputted in sytem

Data and options about the selection are displayed

UA6.

User considers the displayed result

UA7.

Users selects a specific item

UA8.

Users considers info and options

Option is inputted IA12.

UA9.

Users selects an option (Save item)

UA10.

User perceives

System stores item

T20.

System prepares change in button(saved)

Change in button is displayed IA13.

SHUT DOWN

System prepares change in button(saved)

136

T21.

System shuts down

Give command to shut down IA14.

UA11.

User terminates application or chooses another option


6.3.2 Narration of the abstract prototype

By defining your eye and hair color as well as skin pigmentation, the Fashion Advisor can categorize you into one of the four seasons. According to this seasonal color

What s the Fashion Advisor?

system, particular physical characteristics are linked to a

The Fashion Advisor is a smartphone applicaiton which

recommended range of colors that may best suit the user.

assists men with clothes shopping and fashion advice. This is achieved by providing him with recommendations and

In order to define user style preferences, you are shown

helpful fashion information.

slides of articles and outfits. Each item is associated with particular information. By choosing between the

The recommendations may include clothing suggestions

different items the advisor gradually builds the users style

based on the users preferences, clothing advice for what

preferences database.

that may be most appropriate for a particular type of event and tips about what could look best on him. The Fashion

Of course, you can access this part of the application

Advisor can provide the user with additional confidence

at anytime in the future, being aware that the more

and ease while shopping for clothing.

input you provide, the more accurate the application’s recommendations. In the case of disagreement or a

With helpful information at hand, it may be easier for

change of style, you can edit and check the results of what

him to make fashion decisions and with less frustration

the Fashion Advisor believes to be your style preferences.

and apprehensiveness that some can men feel toward shopping.

In this way the user profile is built, allowing the Fashion Advisor to operate based on your physical characteristics

Who is the Fashion Advisor for?

and personal style preferences.

The Fashion Advisor is targeted for men. More specifically young male professionals, like you! After just graduating

While using the application, Information is gathered

from university or starting a new career you probably have

about you in three ways. In addition to inputting details

a limited amount of free time. With a busy schedule full of

during step up, every item displayed by the Fashion

different of social events such as dinners, meetings, and

Advisor has the option to rate it. These ratings influence

interviews, making time for clothes shopping isn’t easy,

recommendations. Finally, a purchase history is also

but it’s still a priority. Being familiar with technology you

integrated into the preferences.

likely already own a smartphone, in which case the Fashion Advisor is ideal for you.

In this way the Fashion Advisor is adaptable to each user. As the application increases it’s knowledge of the user it

How is this done?

continuously becomes a more personal app for it’s user.

Initially, the application needs a brief setup in which you provide the Fashion Advisor with some information about

Anywhere where need arises, thanks to it’s mobility, the

yourself.

application can be used by connecting to the internet through the smartphone.

This required information consists of your physical characteristics and your style preferences. These details

If you experience the uncertainty of not knowing what

are used by the Fashion Advisor to ensure that it provides

is appropriate to wear to certain events, you can truly

the most appropriate and relevant information. For

benefit from the Fashion Advisor. Since the application

example, under physical characteristics, defining your

contains information about fashion for many types of

body type allows the advisor to recommend certain types

events, appropriate recommendations are made that also

of clothes, or cuts best suited to fit you.

integrate the user preferences in order to maintain your personal style. 137


options. By filtering the search, the results are narrowed down and

The application provides the ability to quickly visualize

the application shares with you only those things that you

items of clothes together. In doing so, the user can

tends to like and are suitable for the event.

consider, or discard, particular clothing combinations more quickly.

while using the Fashion Advisor, if you find something that catches your eye, or you’re particularly fond off, you can

After having successfully found clothes, tried them on, it

always store the item to review again later.

might be time for a purchase. At the time of purchase, you may provide your ‘user

once at the store, time needn’t be wasted browsing.

number’ to have your account updated with the purchase

Equipped with his Fashion Advisor recommendations, the

history. Your user profile will be update allowing you to

user already knows what he is looking for.

later browse your virtual wardrobe, as well, additional recommendations may be made by the Fashion Advisor

However, while shopping, the option always exists to

based on what you already own. Purchases will further

explore other possibilities. By scanning the barcode

refine the style preferences of the user for future advisor

of clothing tags, the app will download the information

recommendations.

about that article and immediately update the user

Using the GPS capabililties of the smartphone, the advisor

about the colors available, the stock, even additional

application can make suggestions for nearby fashion

recommendations, and many more options.

items.

Browsing by filter

It is evident that men often only shop for clothes as needed. However, while browsing a store the additional

Sometimes, you may have some preference for the

function called ‘things you may like’ might be handy to the

category of clothing that you are looking for, such as within

user.

a set budget, or perhaps simply a certain color. For this scenario, browsing by filter is ideal. This function allows

In this option, the system searches the store inventory

you to choose from a list of different filters and prioritizes

using the users preferences to help him in his selection.

them to narrow down your search.

another useful function is called ‘find similar items’ and will show you comparable items to the one you has selected.

This criteria can then be added to the ‘user preferences filter’ and ‘area/store’ filter. The system gives you the possibility to perform this search Again, you are able to teach the application by rating

in the same store, in the general area, or choose from a

items. If you like, or dislike particular items, you can

series of store from a list.

provide that information. The application will gather this data into the user preferences and immediately refresh

it was realized during research that male users have

your results.

difficulty making fashion decisions due to the uncertain possibility that better option may be elsewhere. Using this

Matching possibilities

function, this information is at the users fingertips and can

For each item that is shown, the Fashion Advisor has a

quickly be accessed to help in the purchase decision.

range of matching possibilities which are classified into different categories.

The Fashion Advisor is an information appliance which consists of 3 main parts. The first component is made

Letting the user choose the category of what he needs

up of two online databases and server where all the

and adding the regular filters (contained within user

information is contained. The server is responsible for

preferences), the system retrieves a series of matching

maintaining the network and providing the operating

138


procedures. The smartphone is the second component which is the platform for the application and finally, the third component is the software on the smartphone which provides graphical user interface, and is connected to the server via the network. There are two databases. The first is the user database which contains the information about the users. The second is the database containing the fashion inventory. This inventory is build from contributions from clothing brands and stores. Based on the corresponding data attached to each item, following standard protocol the inventory is categorized as required for the Fashion Advisors recommendations.

139


6.3.3 Possibilities for the tangible prototype Visuals correspond to static pdfs and wireframing tools. This is the case of using for instance Photoshop/Indesign/ Illustrator/Fireworks to create a realistic looking screen in a PDF format. Then this result would be shown to the user in the screen of the laptop. Although this approach can let the user get a feel for the layout it is limited in providing any other kind of feedback, since the user is just observing a workflow without interacting with it (stackoverflow.com, 2011). The other possibility inside visuals, is wireframing tools. These tools allow the creation of clickable prototypes to visualize in the desktop, most of them via drag and drop UI (user interface) packages from libraries. Some of these wireframing softwares are: Balsamiq, Pidoco, Justinmind, omni graffle or visio. Balsamiq (figure 3.10) was used to the creation of the functions concepts during the conceptualization phase.

Figure 6.3.1 Balsamiq mockups software allows the creation of clickable desktop prototypes

Caches the prototype on the device, so it loads instantly and responds as snappy as a native application.

Simulators could be done either in a PC or in the device. Simulators in the PC correspond to the case of emulators that typically accompany mobile developing environments. Although, these emulators imitate the behaviour of the platform, again this is limited to a desktop visualization.

Allows the designer to lay out the whole interface in Adobe Fireworks.

On the other hand, simulators in the device, include technologies that enable creating the illusion of a working product. For instance, the application is visualized through the web browser of the platform or by other means. In this way the result can be seen into the product. For instance, this is the case of use a plug-in of fireworks (figure 3.11), fireworks can be combined with some jQuery and PHP to

Figure 6.3.2 Fireworks pluging

result in a prototype that can not only be viewed, but its is also possible to interact with just as if it would be a live

Another remarkable alternative is to screen cast the

app (Adobe.com, 2011). What makes this tool interesting

desktop from a computer into the device. There is a

for designers, is that without any coding, they can make a

couple of alternatives to do this. The most simple is

prototype that:

called LiveView for iPhone & iPad (Zambetti.com, 2011).

Runs full screen without the default Safari browsers

It consists of two parts the ScreenCaster for Mac and

navigation at the top and bottom of the screen.

the Liveview for Iphone (figure 3.12). The ScreenCaster

Animates transitions between screens with effects like

is a simple application that puts a virtual iPhone skin

slide cube, dissolve, flip, pop, slide-up and swap.

on the screen, its dimensions corresponding to a real

Supports gestures like swipe left, right, up and down and

iPhone such that the pixels inside of the virtual skin are

change orientation of the device.

precisely as many as on a real iPhone display. By having

140


the Liveview application installed in the iPhone/iPod

more interesting because they are platform independent.

Touch, the screen of the mac is transmitted into the

Besides, for the prototype this is better since it could be

Iphone. Furthermore, the ScreenCaster has an option to

tested in different devices, and there is no need to learn

interpret touches as mouse clicks. By turning this feature

the native codes, but it can be done with standard codes

on and the screencast becomes a two-way interactive

(action script, HTML,…) . A third possibility is to use

prototype. Virtually any application on the mac can quickly

Phonegap (http://www.phonegap.com/about), in this

be ‘launched’ on the iPhone. Best part is that it is possible

way a website is programmed with HTML, but thanks to

to get click events back from iPhone for interactive

this tool it is given the look of a native app.

clickthrough testing. On top of that, this will allow for much faster setup and quicker iterations than trying to test by constantly uploading the prototype to remote http site to load on Mobile Safari or some other similar approach (web browser emulator approach). The designer can use an initial tool like OmniGraffle or Fireworks to create clickable html demo and then preview it with LiveView for iPhone.

Code generators In this case, an application is developed for real. There are two possible types of applications: native and web applications. Native applications require programming on the platform development environment. This means that to have a native application in an Iphone you need to program it in Objective-C using X-code, meanwhile for Android you need to program it (again) in Java/C++ using Eclipse. On the other hand, user interface (UI) standard from the device can be applied in native applications, which implies a better UI design result, and data not depend on network connection. On the other hand, with WAP applications the application runs on a server hosted on the Internet. Web applications can be developed on a single platform, allowing for a wider user base. With the invention of HTML 5, more functionality is becoming available to developers to better utilize mobile hardware and functions.  The main advantage of this type of application is the platform independence. These are the main platforms possibilities regarding programming languages: -Android: Native Android Code, Flash/Flash Lite, JavaScript, AIR -Apple: Native Apple Code, JavaScript, ‘HTML5’, AIR -RIM (blackberry): Java Applications, Native RIM, AIR soon -Windows Mobile: Windows CE Compiled Native Apps / Silverlight, AIR soon Native apps are discarded. Web apps are considered 141


Appendix D

Would you suggest any improvement to it? Would you trust the Fashion Advisor? Would (not) you still acquire one? why? Where would you use the Fashion Advisor?

6.4.1 Set up test Planning

What do you think of choosing a smartphone as the platform for the Fashion Advisor ?

6.4.2 Recruitment documents

Introduction

3 min

Watch Abstract Prototype

13 min

Interview 1

10 min

Questionnaire

Questionnaire

7 min

The short questionnaire participants have to answer to be

Tasks in tangible prototype Interview 2

10 min

selected is as follows: Choose the option that is closer to what you feel/ think:

10 min

a)I follow trends and fashion actively. Image is important

7 min

for me, and I appreciate style and aesthetics in clothes.

Questionnaire

I know what to wear and how to combine clothes. I use 60 min

fashion to create a good impression. b)I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t enjoy shopping for clothes but I try to look good

Script Open-ended questions (Interviews)

and buy clothes when I need them. I consider price an

After having seeing the abstract prototype video

important attribute in clothes, but so it is style and quality.

-What is your general impression about the Fashion

I often look for the assurance of friends or a store clerk

Advisor ?

before making a purchase.

Can you imagine yourself using it?

I have not interest in fashion at all and aesthetic concerns

Could you recall any situation where you could have

are futile for me. I only shop when I really need clothes. I

benefit from it in the past?

find shopping always unpleasant.

Can you mention any of the functions shown during the video? Which one would you believe it is more useful for you? Do you miss some kind of functions that it is not shown in the video? Would you suggest any improvement to it? Where would you use the Fashion Advisor? How long would you give the Fashion Advisor to come up with results that are personalized to you? What do you think of choosing a smartphone as the platform for the Fashion Advisor ? Would you trust the Fashion Advisor? Would you like to acquire it in the future? After having used the tangible prototype What do you think now of the Fashion Advisor ? Has your opinion changed about it after having tried? Did you find any difficulty in performing any of the tasks? What was it? Was it as it looks in the video? 142

6.4.3 Questionnaire


QUESTIONNAIRE no 1 Info about the user • Name: • Age: • Nationality: • Job and field: • Fashion involvement degree: • Choose the option that is closer to what you feel/ think: a)I follow trends and fashion actively. Image is important for me, and I appreciate style and aesthetics in clothes. I know what to wear and how to combine clothes. I use fashion to create a good impression. b)I don't enjoy shopping for clothes but I try to look good and buy clothes when I need them. I consider price an important attribute in clothes, but so it is style and quality. I often look for the assurance of friends or a store clerk before making a purchase. c) I have not interest in fashion at all and aesthetic concerns are futile for me. I only shop when I really need clothes. I find shopping always unpleasant. Do you own a smartphone or plan to buy one in short term? a) Yes b) No If yes, how fluent do you think you are with it? Not fluent at all Very fluent

1

2

3

4

5

The fashion Advisor 1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? Not adaptable Very adaptable

1

2

3

4

5

2. Normally, how long does it take you to to browse and select items in a store? a)< 5 min b) 10-15 min c) 15-20 min d) > 20 min And how long do you estimate will it take you with the fashion advisor? a)< 5 min b) 10-15 min e) 15-20 min f) > 20 min 143


3. Which feature will have the greatest influence on the length of your/the shopping process? - Browsing by filter - Browsing by occasion - Things you might like - Matching possibilities (in the same store) - Find similar items (between different stores (based on a visual search)) - Scanning of items (will show the information screen) - Information of items 4. How many items do you usually try before you find something that pleases you? a)1 b) 2 c) 3 or more And how many do you estimate you will try with the fashion advisor? a)1 b) 2 c) 3 or more 5. Make a ranking of your top 3 features: -Browsing by filter -Browsing by occasion -Things you might like - Matching possibilities (in the same store) - Find similar items (between different stores (based on a visual search)) - Scanning of items (will show the information screen) - Information of items 6. How many stores do you check when trying to find a certain item? a) 1 b) 2-3 c) 3-5 d) More than 5 And how many stores do you estimate you will check with the fashion advisor? a) 1 b) 2-3 c) 3-5 d) More than 5 7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions? - Browsing by filter - Browsing by occasion - Things you might like - Matching possibilities (in the same store) - Find similar items (between different stores (based on a visual search)) - Scanning of items (will show the information screen) - Information of items

144


8. Which feature will help most in increasing convenience? - Browsing by filter - Browsing by occasion - Things you might like - Matching possibilities (in the same store) - Find similar items (between different stores (based on a visual search)) - Scanning of items (will show the information screen) - Information of items To what extent do you (dis)agree with the following statements: 9. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5

10. In-store browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5

11. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5

12. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5

13. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5

14. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient Strongly disagree Strongly agree

1

2

3

4

5 145


6.4.4 Framework User

J, IT engineer 27. Medium fashion involvement

E, 27, Designer Medium fashion involvement but likes shopping

Willing to use it

Yes I would use it, because I don’t Mostly at home to know where to go, like shopping and I never really know where to look... in the store I’d use it to check out recommendations. If the application As a starting point to go and look says this blazer I would go to the there, try out this. blazers, and I know there is a blazer I would pay a small amount, 5 there for me but I would still look at all euros. I think the shops where the blazers there.. I go because of this application should just pay for it.

I think it does not match much I don’t think I would use it, but If do, I me too much because I enjoy would do it at home shopping, I enjoy searching for my clothes and I prefer the interaction with the real clothes. I wouldn’t pay for an application, I have an smartphone, but I don’t use applications. If it would be free I would try it and use it when I do not have time maybe..

Yes, I would use it mostly to E K, 25, Designer locate where I can buy certain automotive. High items fashion involvement

K, 30 Designer aerospace sector, Medium fashion involvement

146

Where would they use it?

I would use it at home for locating things in stores and stores, and in the store to see if there any other options, any other colours...

It could be very interesting. I could I would use it in the stores, and also at see my self using it, but I need to home to know where to go.. or in the street feel it to see how it works. You should give a free trial period, 4 weeks, and then if the user really likes it, I don’t know, 4- 5 euros?

What would they use it for? / functions I like that I could say I am looking for something like this, and then the application would tell me, ok in this store there is a lot of items for you and from there I would take the time to look around, not immediately go to what the application suggested. .. The application brings me to the shop, in the shop I can rather talk with people... That’s where the application might help to explore new stores.

Finding specific things, but I normally go shopping only on sales, so it should inform me about sales

Locating things, and knowing what is in a store. Things you might like is the most useful. Browse by occasion I can get the information on the internet. Mostly the question is what do they have in the store and do I fit.

More useful is that it updates me what is in the store and where based on my preferences Recommendations to go directly to stores, Where should I go? To save time, and do not go randomly and of course if


Benefits, needs, desires I don’t have time, and I don’t follow fashion, so It will be helpful if it can point me to the stores.

Trustworthiness

Usability

Ease of use / platform

Suggestions

...if it is on the store it feels like a shop assistant that wants to sell you everything there is on the store. If it is an smartphone it feels more like an independent application and I would trust that more. Some of the stores will be in the Fashion Advisor s, and others will not participate so it is going to be biased anyway. I believe the adaptability is a very important part, and the database of users can really help by grouping styles of people together, like in Amazon.

Well, I consider this as a prototype but it looks nice. I would like to be able to zoom it.

You could do this in a webiste but having them on a smartphone makes it more sexy, it is trendy, Just more fun to do it in the smartphone” If I do it in my computer I have to write down the address. When shopping you need information on the move.

The application can inform me

As I told you, I prefer the interaction with real clothes, But It can be useful to check things when you don’t have time

I make two shoppings per year, so this device in order to be useful, to learn from me, I might need 1 year. You need to be constant to get the proper data of you.

It has too many steps and too much text. It it gets more advance it could become a bit messy, Make it more visual, more icons and less text. You really need to make the interaction with the device really simple. If its a guy who does not like to spend time in the store, why he would spend time with this..

I am not a big fond of apps but I think the application works quite straightforward

I would like that it makes matchings with things I have at home. Some kind of alert about sales. I think you could help just matching colours. It could also help you when selecting the clothes every morning. And also, normally my problem is that I am looking for something specific, something that I have in mind and I want to know where to find it,

The matching between your personal profile and the items is the most useful I don’t need anything but many times I get inspirationless, and I want to get something new, mostly based on an idea that I show on the internet. It is more driven by feeling than real need.

I trust it if I see it is working with its suggestions. It should start talking to me within a week Let’s call it the wingman, I would still be in charge and have my opinions but It could help me...It is more like an auxiliary tool

It works good, but I would like to see a zoom of the fabric, what makes the difference between items are the subtle details

I like it because there are many more filters that the ones you can put in a website. If you use a website, you are not in the location, you are not searching yet. As long as you need to see how it fits, you need to be in the store to make the decision

What bothers me more is that sizes between stores are not the same, so for me having some kind of size guide between stores... I would like to get an alert about clones of famous brands in low cost stores Sometimes you want to have a female or gay advice and for that sharing can be useful...I believe the most girly the guy the most he wants to share but it is all prejudices, I think suggestions of other people can add another layer of complexity in social, like can you refuse offers?...

I get confused between the many options, so if it can tell me go here , try this..and it works , it can help I do care a bit about

I think if the body type adaptation works, it can make a lot of change. I think it should be ok after 3 times

I think it should be more interactive,but I know it is just a prototype. I think it works quite fast, I can use it as another app, in the store

If works like a reminder, i would be more connected compare to go online and check because I never check, but I keep my phone

Maybe the app updates me, hey

I like all the different filters that basically narrow everything down

about sales. Something like we have this profile of you, and you might like things that are on 15% discount now. ..in that way the applications also helps me saving money

these are your preferences and they match these new items I wouldn’t share it with my friends, even if have some dudes, guys don’t do it, but if it is some kind

147


User

What would they use it for? / functions

Where would they use it?

Willing to use it

it has some location information Sometimes also I have some urgent need and then, then I don’t know.. I really get confused, so for urgent needs

B, 25 Architect, High involvement

T, 25. IT engineer, High involvement

L, 32, Designer in automotive sector, medium fashion involvement

148

Yes, I would use it, because I like shopping, but I don’t really like to go to all the shops on a Saturday when it is busy. I would buy it because It gives a certain answer to some needs that I have...

I would use it in the stores and in the street, because when you are in the store you are inspired for what you see.. the dolls, and even the people in the street

I am sure I would definitely use it.

I would use it at home for playing and exploring, and in the shop for matching possibilities or specific searches

No, I wouldn’t use it because there is a sensible part that I like in girls and it is first that they really know you , they do have a critical eye plus they sometimes come up with things that you were afraid of trying , like a pink.. and it is also a rewarding thing It is not appealing, there is not a trigger

Let me start for what I wouldn’t use, because most of the functions I think I would use them, but the scanning I don’t see it working for me, because when I like particular thing is not because it is blue or it has buttons but it is always because of the subtle things .. but for the event I can imagine using it, because then it focuses a bit more, and then the function about what matches with other thing. That could work. The find similar items function, because that relates to what I experienced in the past, because sometimes you are in the store and you like something but it doesn’t fit you ..but I still like the concept and I would like to find it in other store

I like more to browse the suggestions, without saying I need a colour... first of all I want to see what there is out there, because sometimes you don’t need anything you just want to change something. I want to have an idea about things there are, according to things I bought in the past, to my style.. (After the TP) And also I think outfits for the occasion can be very useful sometimes,.. I didn’t appreciate it at the beginning , but it is true sometimes you need something for a specific purpose, suggestions are always nice

-


Benefits, needs, desires

Trustworthiness

fashion, but I don’t want too much information

Usability

Ease of use / platform

Suggestions

with me. Instead of using of anonymously sharing or private recommendations a desktop, it is better to have an app, because the app is filtering informaton and it only shows me the relevant I would like to expect a I would like to be able to lot from it, not only to say zoom the clothes, and see what matches according the details. I miss some to the catalogue, but also kind of a home screen a category that goes more to the edge, like a safe combination and something more special

...the dolls in the stores have a perfect matching, but I don’t want to wear the same I also try to be very creative, but it is very difficult with all the possibilities so it can be very helpful I see people wearing nice things and then I think I also want to be that creative and I don’t know how..

Once you have the application if it doesn’t fit you and you don’t agree I can imagine you would stop using the application. It makes a difference if I am as a user I have the feeling that it adapts to me. .. Let’s say one shopping session, so I have a wedding, maybe 4 days of preparation for that shopping When I see a face or a designer, or just the feeling that somebody really thought about it, I consider it more serious, in same way I have to have the feeling that it is professional, not just marketing from one of the stores.

I don’t want to save time, it is relaxing to spend time, when you decide to spend money on clothes then you should also take the pleasure of shopping

It really makes a difference if it shows me things that I like, and I see that it improves gradually, then I would also like to play more

Here you show a small picture on top of the guy,I would like to see it full and then the buttons a bit more transparent, so work a bit more in the eye, because it makes a big difference, even if you don’t need anything, if it works in the eye it makes you want to play. Which is a nice thing to buy more things

Well, It doesn’t look like user driven but more like purchase driven. It seems that it starts showing you thing with the price on..it is more like selling.. or maybe for you it is more straightforward .. but it seems it is trying to convince me to buy thing The filters are the most efficient way to do searches, but maybe the most logical is not that but

I don’t know if like/dislike or not for me is the appropriate way to get to know you... but coming from a computer of course..I prefer going with my girlfriend

Do not like the fact that you are using the available layout of Iphone instead of a new layout Nowadays, functionality it is obviated, because it has to work, but the little factor of awesomeness or coolness is everything, it makes you want to be part of it.. There has to be essence.

Oh, I really use applications, and I spend a lot of time playing, looking through things so an apps is good for me

You could also add in this people’s comments, like when you are in the Itunes stores and there are comments on certain applications, so people could say, wear this with red pants...

I would it make it more appealing to humans... having an anthropomorphic figure telling you: you should were this, like they do in Ikea,

149


User

F, 27, Project manager

Willing to use it

Yes, it could be very helpful actually, because sometimes I don’t know if it is a general thing for men, but I get very confused, so it is good to have something that gets a record of what you like and also shows you...I would definitely like to have something like that I would pay the normal price of the applications, I would never pay more than 5 euros

Where would they use it?

What would they use it for? / functions

It is better to do it at the store, because ta home you are not yet experience the whole shopping thing. I imagine my self going to the store, and then being there I would take a quick look normally I like the things in the mannequin ,and maybe I could use it to see similar things to the one in the mannequin

I think I could use all of them in different occasions, because sometimes you need something, others you have a thing like an event... I really like the comparison between different stores, browse by occasion ...and browse by filter, I don’t know if I would feel very inspired by that function

After trying the device: Now that I see the whole thing, this function [browsing by occasion] I would use it at home, because then you know where to go, and browse by filter both (home and in the store)

J, Designer, 30, medium fashion involvement

P , designer 25, medium fashion involvement

150

If I would have an Iphone, I would definitely use it. It is very comprehensive, it has a lot of functions. I can imagine using it I would use in certain occasions because I don’t go shopping very often I don’t like to pay it monthly but once, between 5 and 10 euro

Both, home and store depending on the need

When I heard about it, at first I though I I would use it at home to explore new wouldn’t use but now I believe it would stores and maybe in the street when I be very handy to have some kind of am going shopping help because I don’t really have a style , I usually go to the stores pick what i like and then I doesn’t fill all together.. so if I have such an application and everything is there in one thing.. I would really like it, because I could explore.. and for my body type... I think it should be a normal app store price...or it should be free because it is free advertisement for all those brands

Occasion function would be nice I don’t like having to make special trips for this kind of shopping

I would use it for colour advice and exploring When I find a shop that has cool things, things i like , then I always go to that store so I would use it for finding new stores I think I like the possibility to find the same thing but in a better deal or just the same thing in other store, it helps me to explore When you go shopping someone you always have the personal taste of that person.. yeah maybe I could substitute


Benefits, needs, desires

Trustworthiness

Usability

Ease of use / platform

Suggestions

trigger the desire to buy it ...That shows you what is trendy for this year, for this summer.. also filtering by season

Sometimes I like something and then I am pretty sure I am gonna find something cheaper in other store and then I go and I don’t find anything and then I come back.. so Yeah finding similar items can be really nice I like nice clothes but i don’t like shopping, and I hate trying, looking for the sizes,

I guess you need to store information, so to have some reliable information. I am not so sure about that part...I don’t like the personalization, because I am not a person that likes to dress all the time the same, so if I like some things It does not mean that I do not like other things.. When shopping alone, it would be a substitute of a shop clerk, well I hope so, because that’s when...I never asked about style, because I think they are just sellers I could also use it with my friend, but it wouldn’t be a substitute...

I got very strange body shape, long and thing, and I don’t find my size, so it can be helpful I think it would be very convenient, but if I imagine though, I might spend less time physically shopping but I see how with the computer I get suck in these things..I think it would make me buy more, because I think i would get suck staring looking for one things and then..

As long as what I see on the application is more or less representative of what I like then... I thinking about three times of purchase, and for the four time I would expect that what it shows make sense

it doesn’t seem very demanding and it could a little be of fun depending on the presentation

It is a thing in your pocket...I wouldn’t be ashamed of using it , you have people talking in the phones in the train and that’s much more intrusive. I have no doubt that the smartphone was a good choice, because it is personal you don’t have to wait, you are not fix to a particular location, you can access it away from the store, you can do it at home...

Sales information, and other thing that I notice is that sometimes the sizes are not very consisting across the stores.. I was wondering if you could show what it is a 46 of HM in this shop..

I would introduce my data, and then she if the app comes up with cool things for me. I want good results from the first time, so when I define the things.. I wnat to see some cool shops where I can go.. it doesn’t have to take more than 15 minutes

It is just click, click.. It is fine The Iphone look is good, I think you did a good job, maybe you have to click a lot of times, maybe if you would have like the calendar option (shows me in his iPhone )

I have a smartphone and I use apps, so it is good for me

Maybe sharing, if you find a shop that it is really suitable for you and you would like to share it or something you bought, but I don’t know if I would use it..

I like to see pictures if people wearing the thing in the context, because then you see, ah this guy is at the beach so this is for the beach..

Would be really fancy to make just one picture and knows all these things (eye colour, body type...)

151


User N, 26, Sustainable Engineer, medium fashion involvement

Willing to use it

Where would they use it?

What would they use it for? / functions

I am not sure...all these types of technologies , I guess it is a matter of getting use to them.. I don’t know if I would pay for it...

I saw a useful thing, that you can specify the event... it can help you to know which kind of clothing is appropriate There was something I was not aware before, but sometimes it is true that you need something specific (talking about browsing by filter)

After trying the tangible prototype: It changed my mind a bit , and I think it could be more useful now

J J. 30, Ph.d, High I think I would use it, at least some fashion involvement functions, I would not pay more than 3 euros

M, 27, Designer in sport goods, medium fashion involvement

Yes, I could imagine my self using it. It is if like it should be there, I would expect nowadays to have something like this.

I would use it mainly at home, because Recommendations about things that I don’t have an Iphone, but I have an i might like, things I wouldn’t think Ipod touch that I can use at home with about the wifi

I have to buy it? is it not free? I think it should be free, I don’t like to pay for applications, i think these kind of things, the companies should pay for it... I see that the potential is that the store would invest on it. Maybe you can make a version free and a version paying with extended functions

Yes, parts of it. I think I would buy it.. a B, 27 designer, high couple of dollars I think it is a contemporary application, fashion involvement it fits 2011, and also it is in the trend of customizing and I really like about that

152

I would use it mostly at home, for the I like things you might like, just convenience for being relaxed at home.. based on my style. If you would be or in the street actually my advisor, I would tell you show me something and I would tell you I am not gonna stay outside of the yes, no, and then with time we both store and do what the character in the learn, so not from scratch. video did, If I am in the store I just get in

I wouldn’t browse while I was shopping, maybe that’s something to do with my patience, because when I go shopping I just want to grab something and go. When I am downtown I don’t want take the time to wait for the internet to provide information, because when you are at home you are really relaxed and just flip through the options, ad then i would only go downtown when I know what to buy

I would probably use it more for style, because you wouldn’t say it but I am pretty fashion minded I would use it more for inspiration. What I like about this application, is that you can browse in style, and what kind of jacket is that ?, That’s what I Iike


Benefits, needs, desires

Trustworthiness

I am not very sure about the fact that it saves time, because i don’t know if I would take the time to this preview searching, I could feel that it is something that it is even adding time I guess for some people is hard to say that they have some specific shape... and that could be a problem I think it helps when you know what you want, you have something in your mind

Usability

Ease of use / platform

When I found the jacket, I would like to enlarge it and then the rest it is ok

It should probably include something for different countries (browsing by occasion), these kind of cultural differences It can be cool when you are in the street and you see someone wearing something you like you could make a picture, and then the application can search similar things Make a picture of yourself

A couple of weeks after using it, you will find what is your style and it is nice to know , it is not an act of self reflection but it is nice to know I like if it is multibrand because If I cannot select between different brands I think it is just easier to go to the store, because some brands are not good at everything

I guess it gets more accurate It was quite fast just pick the more you use it... 1 month. possibilities, this, this and The thing is the preferences are this and it shows up always changing with time

With the smartphone you can play anywhere, and this is also kind of play Even if I would use it at home , you are in the sofa and you are doing this..

(Me: You can see the catalogue online).. Oh I would never use it, I don’t get a feeling of what it is just looking to the picture, (so what is the difference) Here you have more information, more options

The done button was not so obvious Now I only see only some pictures, but I guess there should be a full catalogue

With the smartphone you can seat in the couch, or in a cafe, You can use it wherever you want, also in the train, or wherever it comes out to your mind, and in that moment you could be in the street

I think if you have any urge to look good, then I think such an application could also stimulate your fashion sense Your application does both, because it advice you about style but it also shows you where to go, and that’s what men like

I think because fashion is really subjective, it is gonna be hard to maintain the data base they have to have a really wide fashion sense, because a lot of men are gonna depend on their advice, it looks like the device of the application, but of course is the device of a person, and it is really hard to

Suggestions

If the quality of the I think (do it in a terminal interface is really nice then in a store) puts me you are willing to pay more way too much in the spotlight, I like the My advice would be that fact that you can do it when you buy for clothes wherever you want, I sometimes details in think most men would the clothes are most do it at home, it would important, because be more comfortable, sometimes regular denim because they would

You can have a service, that the person looks at you in a webcam or picture and tells you how it looks on you Maybe there should be pictures on fat people... because if I am fat what do I have to see the things in slim people . Actually I think fat people have more difficulties in finding clothes

I think this application so far is only for Caucasians, If you are a black person if would be way better if you get feedback with a balck guy, . I don’t know if it is possible before you install the application to select only the functions that you are gonna use,

153


User

Willing to use it

K, 27, Project It is really helpful, I like shopping, but manager, high with this application you can check fashion involvement shops, because even if you like shopping you cannot spend time looking what is new or what it is trendy

I would like to use first a trial version, to see if it really works and then I could buy it (After having tried the tangible prototype) I think my opinion is more positive because I have seen it in practice, and you have many options, i really like browsing by occasion

154

Where would they use it?

Outside, because at home I can use my PC... It depends on how crowded it is the store... if I have a place to seat and i can do it there... You can not have always access to the internet ( PC) but you can always use your phone

What would they use it for? / functions

Browse by occasion and all the filters, I would use that mainly


Benefits, needs, desires I think the advantage of this it is an advisor, it doesn’t let you do a puzzle about what looks good, it shows you what it is considered to look good, So in that sense it is not an advice if it lest you play with it

I really like this function about the occasion, I also like that it has the ability to rate, and customize the outcome

Trustworthiness

Usability

find a balance team in people trousers, they have many who are not too hip but also not ornaments, and you want too lain in their style to zoom it I think i would immediately connect it to a Tv sell commercial , It is not necessary For example in the NL we have this guy Umberto Tan, and a lot of men consider him as a well dress guy and you could involve him but then when they see the product they are gonna see his style, so if you don’t use a person, or different persons with different styles... I would either chose no character or several characters. As a person you have to be able to identify yourself with the example I think it is independent because I showed you have Hugo Boss, but also HM. You have to make sure that it is a prince range involved, then everyone can find something and it wouldn’t bother me if someone would have pay you to be in the database, because I would consider the other brands stupid to not have it done I can imagine it works better the longer you used the application.. it depends on how long you use it.. I wouldn’t mind to be busy with that , because if it learns in each step

I guess it depends on how often you go shopping with it.. I guess after 5 times or using or 5 times of shopping with it, it should work When I was watching the video, I think the more options I think this a great tool for you have, the better it marketing.. but if you wouldn’t will be customized have any information about where to go, , the store it I think It can also be very wouldn’t make biased,Now that helpful for tourists, makes it biased, for me it is fine, because sometimes I think if I would be a manger you are just visiting the of Zara, it would be a high city and you don’t know priority to give you as much as where the shops can be... information

I think it works fine, and it si fast.. it depends how long it takes to load all the information in the shop

Ease of use / platform

Suggestions

consider it too gay to do it in the store, so they would do it at home, just browse thought it and just see whatever they like best and then when they are downtown they found the item they were looking for and if they don’t really like it, then they can look for something else

because I would only use a few of them and it can be distracting I could even like the detailing of clothes, and then look for it as well I wouldn’t like to share, because it is also your friends that you want to surprise with your new outfit. I think men have too much pride to get recommendations from a friend, I would not recommend my friend to wear.. That’s girl stuff. ( and share with your girlfriend) , Oh no, I wouldn’t need that option, I think that it is too much. Maybe for me that are more insecure about their choices they would like to have some feedback. Even it was anonymously, because it think the quality of this application is that if allows you to do .. you don’t want anyone to know that you are doing this.. like in online dating. I think connection with other people can be confronting If would be fun, if you could have a sort of surprise option, where stimulates the user to expand his style further

think it would be easier on a webesite because you have a bigger screen, you have your mouse... it is more user-friendly,But on the other hand, it is also good, cause you have your smartphone. I could also use something in the store, why not? the screen would be bigger...You also saved time if you use in a terminal, because you just want to check a jacket and shows you exactly where to find it.

Maybe make it more accurate per age.. because you have something 23 to 35.. I think it is different what you want.. Because there are some differences between a person who have just started to work, and person who has been working for 10 years I would not share things..I think that it is a waste of time, I wouldn’t ask people... If I like it I would buy it.. ( and with your girlfriend)

155


User

F, 25, designer

R, 27, Designer, Medium fashion involvement

Willing to use it

Where would they use it?

What would they use it for? / functions

I could use it, yeah it can shows you I would use in the stores and at home what it is inside the store without depending on the need looking through everything, then it is good. Cause otherwise you have always to look for your size, see everything, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know it is tiring. If it can show you based on your recommendations then it is good. I would pay just a few euros, but I think if you are in relation to stores.. I think it should pay itself, because it is very useful for them to have it...

I would filter by size, and I want to see if they have my size in the store. With trousers, you can not buy anymore regular ones.. If i could have it now to just look for trousers then I would use it.. because with trousers it is difficult The most useful one I think it is browse by event.. I think it is the most practical one for dinners, and meetings..

Yeah definitely, it seems interesting why not?

I guess just in general , I can see in advance already , and if you can narrow this whole thing down instead of having to go to every store, and see what it is in the stores, you can already know in which stores they have something that would suit you, then you can go to specific stores

Before going to the store, to see where they have the clothing that I would like to see, (what not do it in a website then?)...this has a lot of functions that the internet does not provide..

Select only clothing stores that fits you.. It is a problem for me, my choice is already much narrow down, then I can already go to stores which have my size... and also for my proportion, cause I am long and slim

156


Benefits, needs, desires

Trustworthiness

Usability

Ease of use / platform

Suggestions That’s a different story.. if I have doubts about buying something, specially if I ma buying a present

..

... then you see items that are adjusted to your preferences, then this do the process faster, it is more narrow down

I imagine stores wouldn’t put all they have in the stores.. it depends how much effort the stores are willing to put everything online.. For online stores they have already the sytem...but they only show you the newest collection They should be honest, because if you only see things that you dislike...you stop using the application, It is in their own interest they show you things you like

It is really simple, quite Smartphone is good, you easy, fast.. you see the always have it with you pictures Done was not clear directly because it is on top It depends on your smartphone, because here you don’t have the go back button like in this one (android)

I always go shopping with my sister or with another girl, and I was wondering till what extent it is a substitute of that person... I think all these options are more to select things, but for making decisions , I was thinking that perhaps that I can connect with someone, a friend, to help me decide.. because I think at some point I still want to have some advice from a person

You have these dots blue an red fro colour indication do you think is it really clear for the user, those dots

If I need something that fits me with something that I already have.. On sales it is also practical to know... maybe introducing words: like a theme for party, or these kind of unusual events you have.. Or choose by fabric,or where it is made, it for example you are against labour, like you know in Bangladesh people are,, then you can also select by that, an it is mentioned in all the clothes, so it is not a secret

I would make some I don’t have a smartphone compositions together but I think it is easy to use, with my siter and then I ,mean I have used it it just go to the store and seems simple buy it, and see what fits best..

157


And how many stores do you estimate you will check with the fashion advisor?2

7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions? 1

7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions?2

8. Which feature will help most in increasing convenience? 1

8. Which feature will help most in increasing convenience? 2

17

17

17

17

17

0

0

0

0

0

6.4.5 Data analysis in PASW N

Valid

Missing

Frequency Table 2. Normally, how long does it take you to to browse and select items in a store? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

<5

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

10-15

7

41,2

41,2

47,1

15--20

5

29,4

29,4

76,5 100,0

>20

4

23,5

23,5

Total

17

100,0

100,0

2. Normally, how long does it take you to to browse and select items in a store? 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

<5

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

10-15

6

35,3

35,3

41,2

15--20

6

35,3

35,3

76,5

>20

4

23,5

23,5

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

Page 3

And how long do you estimate will it take you with the fashion advisor? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

<5

5

29,4

29,4

29,4

10-15

5

29,4

29,4

58,8

15--20

4

23,5

23,5

82,4 100,0

>20

3

17,6

17,6

Total

17

100,0

100,0

And how long do you estimate will it take you with the fashion advisor? 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

<5

5

29,4

29,4

29,4

10-15

5

29,4

29,4

58,8

15--20

4

23,5

23,5

82,4

>20

3

17,6

17,6

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

3. Which feature will have the greatest influence on the length of your/the shopping process? 1

158 Valid

by filter

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

4

23,5

23,5

Cumulative Percent 23,5


Valid

<5

5

29,4

29,4

29,4

10-15

5

29,4

29,4

58,8

15--20

4

23,5

23,5

82,4

>20

3

17,6

17,6

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

3. Which feature will have the greatest influence on the length of your/the shopping process? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

4

23,5

23,5

23,5

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

47,1

find similar items

3

17,6

17,6

64,7

might like

5

29,4

29,4

94,1

scanning

1

5,9

5,9

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

3. Which feature will have the greatest influence on the length of your/the shopping process? 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

4

23,5

23,5

23,5

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

47,1

find similar items

6

35,3

35,3

82,4 100,0

might like Total

3

17,6

17,6

17

100,0

100,0

Page 4

4. How many items do you usually try before you find something that pleases you? 1

Valid

1

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

2

11,8

11,8

Cumulative Percent 11,8

2

5

29,4

29,4

41,2

3

10

58,8

58,8

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

4. How many items do you usually try before you find something that pleases you?2 Frequency Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

1

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

2

4

23,5

23,5

29,4

3

12

70,6

70,6

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

And how many do you estimate you will try with the fashion advisor? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1

3

17,6

17,6

2

7

41,2

41,2

58,8

3

7

41,2

41,2

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

17,6

And how many do you estimate you will try with the fashion advisor? 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1

2

11,8

11,8

2

7

41,2

41,2

52,9

3

8

47,1

47,1

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

11,8

Page 5

159


5. Make a ranking of your top 3 features: 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1by filter; 2by occasion; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

1by filter; 2find similar; 3might like

2

11,8

11,8

17,6

1by filter; 2match; 3by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

23,5

1by filter; 2might like; 3find sinilar

1

5,9

5,9

29,4

1by filter; 2things you migth like; 3find similar items

1

5,9

5,9

35,3

1by occasion; 2find similar; 3match

1

5,9

5,9

41,2

1by occasion; 2match; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

47,1

1by occasion; 2might like; 3find similar

1

5,9

5,9

52,9

1by occasion; 2you might like; 3 find similar

1

5,9

5,9

58,8

1find siilar; 2match; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

64,7

1find similar; 2by filter; 3by occasion; 3

1

5,9

5,9

70,6

1find similar; 2might like; 3match

1

5,9

5,9

76,5

1find similar; scanning; 3information

1

5,9

5,9

82,4

1match; 2by filter; 3 by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

88,2

1match; 2might like; 3find simlar

1

5,9

5,9

94,1

1might like; 2find similar; 3match

1

5,9

5,9

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

Page 6

160


5. Make a ranking of your top 3 features: 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1by filter; 2by occasion; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

1by filter; 2find similar; 3by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

11,8

1by filter; 2find similar; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

17,6

1by filter; 2match; 3find similar

1

5,9

5,9

23,5

1by occasion; 2by filter; 3find similar

2

11,8

11,8

35,3

1by occasion; 2find similar; 3by filter

1

5,9

5,9

41,2

1by occasion; 2find similar; 3match

1

5,9

5,9

47,1

1by occasion; 2matching possibilities; 3 might like

1

5,9

5,9

52,9

1find similar; 2match; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

58,8

1find similar; by occasion; match

1

5,9

5,9

64,7

1findsimilar; 2match; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

70,6

1match; 2by filter; 3might like

1

5,9

5,9

76,5

1match; 2might like; 3by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

82,4

1might like; 2by filter; 3find similar

1

5,9

5,9

88,2

1might like; 2match; 3by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

94,1

1Things you; 2browsingby filter;3Browsing by occasion

1

5,9

5,9

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

6. How many stores do you check when trying to find a certain item?1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

2

11,8

11,8

11,8

2-3

11

64,7

64,7

76,5

3-5

4

23,5

23,5

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

1

Total

Page 7

161


1Things you; 2browsingby filter;3Browsing by occasion Total

1

5,9

5,9

17

100,0

100,0

100,0

6. How many stores do you check when trying to find a certain item?1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

2

11,8

11,8

11,8

2-3

11

64,7

64,7

76,5

3-5

4

23,5

23,5

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

1

Total

6. How many stores do you check when trying to find a certain item?2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1

5,9

5,9

5,9

2-3

11

64,7

64,7

70,6

3-5

5

29,4

29,4

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

1

Total

Page 7

And how many stores do you estimate you will check with the fashion advisor? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

1

3

17,6

17,6

17,6

2-3

9

52,9

52,9

70,6

3-5

2

11,8

11,8

82,4

More than 5

3

17,6

17,6

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

And how many stores do you estimate you will check with the fashion advisor?2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

2

11,8

11,8

11,8

2-3

11

64,7

64,7

76,5

3-5

1

5,9

5,9

82,4

More than 5

3

17,6

17,6

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

1

Total

7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions? 1

Valid

162

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

5

29,4

29,4

29,4

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

52,9

find similar

3

17,6

17,6

70,6

match

1

5,9

5,9

76,5

might like

4

23,5

23,5

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total


2-3

11

64,7

64,7

76,5

3-5

1

5,9

5,9

82,4 100,0

More than 5 Total

3

17,6

17,6

17

100,0

100,0

7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

5

29,4

29,4

29,4

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

52,9

find similar

3

17,6

17,6

70,6

match

1

5,9

5,9

76,5

might like

4

23,5

23,5

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

7. What feature will be of the greatest help in making decisions?2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

4

23,5

23,5

23,5

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

47,1

find similar

2

11,8

11,8

58,8

match

1

5,9

5,9

64,7 100,0

might like Total

6

35,3

35,3

17

100,0

100,0

Page 8

8. Which feature will help most in increasing convenience? 1

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

4

23,5

23,5

23,5

by occasion

3

17,6

17,6

41,2

find similar

8

47,1

47,1

88,2

match

2

11,8

11,8

100,0

Total

17

100,0

100,0

8. Which feature will help most in increasing convenience? 2

Valid

Cumulative Percent

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

by filter

4

23,5

23,5

23,5

by occasion

4

23,5

23,5

47,1

find similar

6

35,3

35,3

82,4

match

1

5,9

5,9

88,2

might like

2

11,8

11,8

100,0

17

100,0

100,0

Total

Page 9

163


Paired Samples Statistics Mean Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Pair 4

Pair 5

Pair 6

Pair 7

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 1

3,94

17

,899

,218

1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 2

4,06

17

,556

,135

10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events 1

3,94

17

,748

,181

10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events2

4,18

17

,636

,154

11. In-store browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 1

3,65

17

1,169

,284

11. In-store browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 2

3,88

17

,857

,208

13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily1

4,29

17

,588

,143

13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily2

4,12

17

,697

,169

14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis 1

3,65

17

,862

,209

14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis2

3,71

17

,985

,239

15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best 1

4,00

17

,866

,210

15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best2

3,82

17

,883

,214

16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient 1

4,24

17

1,091

,265

16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient2

4,35

17

,931

,226

Page 5

164


Paired Samples Test Paired Differences Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 1 - 1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 2

-,118

,697

,169

Pair 2

10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events 1 - 10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events2

-,235

,831

,202

Pair 3

11. In-store browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 1 - 11. Instore browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 2

-,235

1,147

,278

Pair 4

13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily1 13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily2

,176

,529

,128

Pair 5

14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis 1 - 14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis2

-,059

,659

,160

Pair 6

15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best 1 - 15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best2

,176

,809

,196

Pair 7

16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient 1 16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient2

-,118

,697

,169

Page 7

165


Paired Samples Test df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Pair 1

1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 1 - 1. How “adaptable to the user’s needs” do you consider the fashion advisor to be? 2

16

,496

Pair 2

10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events 1 - 10. The fashion advisor will help me to pick the appropriate outfit for different events2

16

,260

Pair 3

11. In-store browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 1 - 11. Instore browsing and selection of clothes becomes simpler with the fashion advisor 2

16

,410

Pair 4

13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily1 13. The different features of the fashion advisor will help me to make fashion decisions more easily2

16

,188

Pair 5

14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis 1 - 14. I could see myself using the fashion advisor on a regular basis2

16

,718

Pair 6

15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best 1 - 15. The fashion advisor will help me to select the clothes that aesthetically fit me best2

16

,382

Pair 7

16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient 1 16. The use of the smartphone as the type of platform is convenient2

16

,496

Page 9

166


The Fashion Advisor  

Maaster thesis

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