Issuu on Google+

PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES • • • •

Lamkruet – Banda Aceh Sawang – Aceh jaya Jruek Balee – Aceh Besar PDAM Aceh Besar

• Aur – medan • Semangat Gunung and Doulu – Karo

• Petojo Utara – Central Jakarta • Jembatan Besi – West Jakarta • • • Tamansari – Bandung • Nagrak – Cianjur

Wonokromo – Surabaya Temas – Batu

• Sambak – Magelang • Sutopati – Magelang • Gondolayu - Yogyakarta

MAY 2007 This publication was produced by Development Alternatives, Inc. for the United States Agency for International Development under Contract No. 497-M-00-05-00005-00


Map Credit: ESP Jakarta ESP Longitudinal Study Sites.


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Title: Program, activity, or project number: Strategic objective number: Sponsoring USAID office and contract number:

Profile of ESP Longitudinal Study Sites Environmental Services Program, DAI Project Number: 5300201. SO No. 2, Higher Quality Basic Human Services Utilized (BHS). USAID/Indonesia, Contract number: 497-M-00-05-00005-00.

Contractor name:

DAI.

Date of publication:

February 2007


TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................. II 1.

INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1

2.

ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES....................................................................................3

3.

NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM (NAD) ........................................................................5 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4.

4.

NORTH SUMATRA................................................................................................................22 4.1. 4.2.

5.

ANCHOR SITES IN CIKUNDUL-CILAKU SUB-WATERSHED, CIANJUR – NAGRAK VILLAGE .......................... 37 BLUE THREAD IN CIKAPUNDUNG WATERSHED, BANDUNG – TAMANSARI NEIGHBORHOOD .................. 41

CENTRAL JAVA/YOGYAKARTA.........................................................................................45 7.1. 7.2. 7.3.

8.

USAID ANCHOR SITE IN PETOJO UTARA NEIGHBORHOOD OF GAMBIR SUB-DISTRICT (CENTRAL JAKARTA)29 USAID ANCHOR SITE IN JEMBATAN BESI NEIGHBORHOOD OF TAMBORA SUB-DISTRICT (WEST JAKARTA)33

WEST JAVA.............................................................................................................................37 6.1. 6.2.

7.

BLUE THREAD IN SUB-WATERSHED FOR LAU PETANI – SEMANGAT GUNUNG AND DOULU VILLAGES .... 22 CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN MEDAN METROPOLITAN AREA ................................................................ 26

DKI JAKARTA .........................................................................................................................29 5.1. 5.2.

6.

CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN LHOKNGA – LAMKRUET VILLAGE ............................................................ 5 MINI-ESPS IN THE WEST COAST CORRIDOR – SAWANG VILLAGE, ACEH JAYA ....................................... 10 BLUE THREAD IN KRUENG ACEH WATERSHED – JRUEK BALEE VILLAGE ...................................................... 15 PDAM INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM – PROFILE OF PDAM ACEH BESAR .. 19

MINI ESP IN TANGSI SUBWATERSHED – SAMBAK VILLAGE ............................................................................ 45 MINI ESP IN TANGSI SUBWATERSHED – SUTOPATI VILLAGE ......................................................................... 48 CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN YOGYAKARTA .......................................................................................... 51

EAST JAVA ..............................................................................................................................54 8.1. 8.2.

ANCHOR SITE IN SURABAYA – WONOKROMO NEIGHBORHOOD .............................................................. 54 BLUE THREAD IN TEMAS (SUMBER BRANTAS SUB-WATERSHED) .................................................................. 59


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Environmental Services Program (ESP) is a five-year USAID/Indonesia program that has been operating since early 2005 in the six High Priority Provinces (HPPs) of Aceh, North Sumatra, West Java, Jakarta, Central Java/Yogyakarta and East Java as well as the Special Concern Imperative Areas of Padang, Balikpapan, Manado, Jayapura and Manokwari. ESP’s mission is to promote better health through improved water resource management and expanded access to clean water and sanitation services. ESP works actively with government agencies, NGOs, universities, community groups, the private sector and media. As ESP matures and field activities deepen, it is important that we start to monitor the impact of ESP work. ESP is developing the Longitudinal Study as a tool for monitoring the qualitative achievements of its work. The ESP Longitudinal Study monitors the impact of activities and changes by looking at the same situation through the same lens over specific periods of time. The study reportage is done mainly through comprehensive narratives that can include photographs, video, and oral history to convey the stories recorded in each period. Each ESP Longitudinal Study reporting period is six months long. This profile of ESP Longitudinal Study sites provides information on the initial baseline status of each site. This includes descriptions of site conditions relating to the main problem, potentials, and geography, as well as the initial intervention conducted by ESP. Site selection took into consideration the geography, ESP’s integration theme and other ESP technical aspects. There are several integration themes applied in ESP locations. These include: • Blue Thread - An ESP approach to integrated program implementation, in which land management activities aimed at water source protection are integrated with household water treatment and hygiene behavior changes and communication among users of the water in order to prevent diarrhea. • Clean, Green and Hygiene - An ESP approach to integrated program implementation, optimizing the synergies created between solid waste management and hand washing to prevent diarrhea. • Mini-ESP - An ESP approach to integrated program implementation, in which the full range of expertise available to ESP is directed at a single watershed, administrative unit or community to achieve contributions to multiple program outcomes from all major technical components. • Anchor Site - An ESP approach to integrated program implementation, in which the full range of expertise available to ESP - as well as other USAID partners that might include HSP, Aman Tirta, FSN, DBEs and LGSP - are directed at a single community to enable its comprehensive transformation and development. This report presents fifteen specific ESP sites, for which reportage will be done semi-annually through to the end of the project. This report is available in two versions, English and Indonesian. Profiles of each site in this report present the geography of the site, the main problems, site potentials, initial ESP interventions and several points of specific information on the site. Several pictures are embedded in the main report and a map of the location is included in the last part of the report illustrate the site profile. The information in these profiles is based on the status of the site conditions during the period of June to December 2006. This report will be followed by semi-annual ESP Longitudinal Study updates to present the progress, trends in changes and the achievements and impacts of ESP activities at the sites.


1. INTRODUCTION The Environmental Services Program (ESP), Contract No. 497-M-00-05-00005-00, is a fiftyeight month program funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented under the leadership of Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). ESP works with government agencies, the private sector, NGOs, community groups and other stakeholders to promote better health through improved water resources management and expanded access to clean water and sanitation services. The period of the project is from December 2004 through September 2009. ESP activities are focused on 6 High Priority Integrated Provinces (HPPs): Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra, East Java, Central Java/DIY Yogyakarta, West Java and DKI Jakarta. ESP also supports a limited set of activities in the Special Concern Imperative Areas (SCIAs) of Padang, West Sumatra; Balikpapan, East Kalimantan; Manado, North Sulawesi; and Manokwari and Jayapura, Papua. ESP is part of USAID/Indonesia’s Basic Human Services (BHS) Strategic Objective (SO), which focuses on the interdependence of health and the environment, and their effect on health outcomes. USAID/BHS activities strive to improve the quality of three basic human services, water, food/nutrition and health, to improve the lives of Indonesians. ESP partners under the BHS umbrella include the Health Services Program (HSP), Safe Water Systems (SWS) and Food Security and Nutrition (FSN) international NGOs. In addition, ESP collaborates closely outside of BHS with programs under other USAID Strategic Objectives for Indonesia and the Southeast Asian Region. ESP collaborates with two of the three Decentralized Basic Education (DBE) projects to provide services and assistance to schools, and LGSP to support local governance capacity building. Regionally, ESP collaborates with the Eco-Asia project on issues related to improved management of municipal water utilities and expanding access to drinking water for the poor. ESP takes a ‘Ridges to Reefs’ approach to linking water resources management with improved health. Integrated technical components include Watershed Management and Biodiversity Conservation, focusing on raw water resource conservation and rehabilitation, as well as biodiversity conservation; Environmental Services Delivery, ensuring increased access to clean water, sanitation services and improved hygiene behavioral change; and Environmental Services Finance, leveraging necessary investment in infrastructure, microfinance and environmental service rewards; and Strategic Communications for Behavior Change, which integrates Health and Hygiene Behavior Change at the household and community level with Public Outreach Communications at the community to provincial level. In Aceh, ESP has an additional technical component, Environmentally Sustainable Design and Implementation. A Program Management component provides overall guidance and support for ESP, and also manages cross-cutting technical support in Program Communications, Monitoring and Evaluation, Small Grants, GIS, and Gender. All of ESP’s work is implemented in an integrated manner, through which links are made among various technical components as well as with our USAID/BHS partner programs. As part of the program management activities, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) contributes to quality assurance in program achievement. ESP M&E focuses on regular presentation of program achievements that consist of both quantitative and qualitative information. Quantitative information is developed based on the contracted outcomes and deliverables as described in the approved document of Performance Monitoring Plan (PMP). The M&E qualitative achievements are reported through the implementation of ESP Longitudinal Studies. This documentation focuses on the presentation of program impact in specific locations over a given period of time (every six months). More important, the Longitudinal


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Studies report tell stories of ESP successes through a journalistic approach, personalizing the impact of the quantitative data, as well as demonstrating integration among the components in the specific locations. The longitudinal study report is the compilation of a concise story that shows the people’s experience, changes, and lessons learned regularly from selected locations.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

2


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

2. ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES HPP

Integrated Sites

Specific Location

Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD)

1.

Clean, Green and Hygiene in Lamkruet and Nusa

Lamkruet, Aceh Besar

2.

Mini-ESPs in the West Coast Corridor

Sawang, Aceh Jaya

3.

Blue Thread in Krueng Aceh Watershed

Jruek Balee, Aceh Besar

4.

PDAM Institutional Development Program

PDAM Aceh Besar

1.

Blue Thread in Sub-watershed Lau Petani

Semangat Gunung-Doulu, Karo

2.

A Clean, Green, and Hygiene Strategy in the Medan Metropolitan Area

Aur, Medan

1.

USAID Anchor Site in Jembatan Besi, Jakarta Barat

Jembatan Besi, West Jakarta

2.

USAID Anchor Site in Petojo Utara, Jakarta Pusat

Petojo Utara, Central Jakarta

1.

Anchor Sites in Sub-watershed Cikundul-Cilaku, Cianjur

Nagrak, Cianjur

2.

Blue thread in Cikapundung, Bandung

Tamansari, Bandung Municipality

1.

Mini ESP in Tangsi Sub-watershed

Sambak, Magelang

North Sumatra

DKI Jakarta

West Java

Central Java/ Yogyakarta

East Java

Sutopati, Magelang 2.

Clean, Green, and Hygiene in Yogyakarta

Gondolayu, Yogyakarta

1.

Anchor Site in Surabaya

Wonokromo, Surabaya

2.

Blue Thread in Temas (Sumber Brantas Sub-watershed)

Temas, Batu Municipality

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

3


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of ESP Longitudinal Study Sites

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

4


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

3. NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM (NAD) 3.1.

CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN LHOKNGA – LAMKRUET VILLAGE

Lamkruet is a coastal village located less than a kilometer from the Indian Ocean in Lhoknga Sub-district of Aceh Besar District and is about 20 kilometers from Banda Aceh. The village is made up of three sub-villages and bounded on the south by the short Krueng Raba. Village residents estimate that 860 people (306 households) survived the tsunami (there were over 2000 residents in the village on the morning of December 26, 2004). Most of these people live in the barracks that can be seen being constructed in the first photograph above.

Before and after satellite images of Lhoknga Sub-district and the surrounding area. Banda Aceh is in the upper right of the second photograph. The pier of the cement factory where many Lamkruet residents were employed before the tsunami is the backwards and sleeping “L” that protrudes into the ocean. The Kr. Raba is clearly visible in the post-tsunami image. The dense foliage of primarily casuarina trees hides the river in the pre-tsunami image. (Satellite images from the United Nations Human Information Center website, Feb 2005.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

5


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

The four photographs above provide graphic evidence of the impact of the tsunami. The tsunami left only two houses standing in the village. Villagers estimated that before the tsunami almost 30 percent of the residents lived in poverty. After the tsunami nearly all residents had lost their wealth as well as their means to livelihoods. The rice fields of the village were flooded by the tsunami and submerged galvanized sheets and other “tsunami trash� have made it impossible to re-establish the fields. The conflict that raged around Lhoknga separated residents from their garden plots and the tsunami took away their source of rice. Wells were flooded and left useless. Toilets were swept away along with the houses that enclosed them. Drainage systems were gone. The Kr. Raba was full of cars, motorcycles, trees and other trash, which blocked the river. Post Tsunami at Lamkruet Village

The village of Lamkruet.

The Krueng Raba and Lamkruet. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

(Photograph E. Ruhe/ESP NAD)

(Photograph by E. Ruhe/ESP NAD)

6


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Relief and Reconstruction Residents could identify 10 foreign organizations that were doing work in Lamkruet in November of 2005 when ESP conducted a three-day assessment of the village. In fact, there were at least five more. Two of the organizations were USAID projects, SPD and ESP. SPD had provided cash for work to residents for the cleaning of rice fields near the center of the village. (The clean-up got the light materials, but the fields still cannot be worked). The barracks were a magnet for NGOs where one group provided water, another took care of solid waste, and still others were giving away food, providing health care and education. The tsunami brought on a free-for-all among relief agencies claiming title to villages with banners and water reservoirs. At least four NGOs were involved in the reconstruction of houses and facilities: Mercy Malaysia, Atlas Logistique, Islamic Relief and Medicine du Mond. Housing construction was a baffling and chaotic situation with arguments between residents and builders over housing designs, sites, and rights. There were also disputes among builders related to who was building where. Housing designs grew and shrank based on budgets and rules established by BRR trying to limit house size. The bottom line was that houses were being built without thought to sanitation, drainage and water supply. Lamkruet had been part of the Aceh Besar PDAM Mountala’s water distribution system. Water was piped into the village from Gle Teron spring in the Bukit Barisan rising behind Lamkruet. This water line was destroyed by the tsunami. The line was plugged by Swiss Cooperation for Development at the request of the PDAM in late 2005. The line is to be repaired and SAB-SAS (a Dutch organization of water companies working with water companies on the island of Sumatra) has plans to provide distribution into and around Lamkruet. The head of the PDAM, Mr. Ayub, believes that the flow from Gle Teron is not really sufficient to meet the needs of Lamkruet. Other engineers corroborate this assessment. The Krueng Raba rises from a cave at the foot of one of the limestone hills in the Bukit Barisan behind Lamkruet. This spring water has a PH of 8, but is in sufficient quantity throughout the year to potentially support the Gle Teron distribution line. Ecoli has been found in the pond created beyond the cave by a small dam. (Left) The site was home to an encampment of GAM soldiers during the conflict.

(Photograph by John Pontius/ESP NAD)

The Krueng Raba provided water to an irrigation system that was built by PU prior to the tsunami. The tsunami ended the first rice season for which the system was providing water for the fields. The irrigation system was totaled. Fencing for the fields to keep out wild pigs was swept away (part of the trash ended up in the river and in the ground in these fields). There appear to be no plans to re-establish either the irrigation system or the rice fields.

A cave where Krueng Laba rises.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

7


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Headwaters of Kr. Raba (C. Mor) Wild pigs are the major agricultural pests in the area. Sheets of corrugated zinc (often used for roofing) were used to fence off fields. The fences were washed away and are not being rebuilt. People have tried to replant the coast with casuarinas and coconuts. The pigs have no taste for the casuarinas, but they gobble up young coconut trees. Residents report that they require trees for their house plots. “Before the tsunami we had many kinds of fruit and other trees in our yards. The trees kept out the sun and protected us from the wind.” The casuarinas have been re-established along the coastal area and this is probably sufficient for now. ESP Plans ESP plans to focus initially on water and sanitation issues. As housing construction is completed, a tree planting activity for the yards of peoples’ houses will be conducted. Atlas Logistic is a simpatico and a willing potential partner for ESP. They are building a total of 276 houses in Lamkruet. Their plan was to provide soakpit waste water systems. They are willing to work with ESP on a variety of pilot projects, which include community and individual house sub-surface wetlands. Drainage is also a potential project. Provision of drinking water is expensive, but ESP will work with SAB-SAS, the PDAM and other organizations to develop a supply of water. ESP contracted with Norman van’t Hoff to develop designs for a sub-surface wetland for Lamkruet.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

8


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Lamkruet Village of Lhok Nga Sub-district Geographical Condition: • Geo-reference: N 05O 28’ 40.45” and E 095O 14’ 40.50” • Altitude: 10 meters above sea level Total Population: An estimated 860 people in 360 households Public facilities available: • Temporary primary school and temporary health center • No other public facilities, no market, no store, clean water is trucked into barracks. Main Problems related to Watsan at Baseline: • PDAM supply disrupted by tsunami, actual capacity is in doubt, shallow wells have been destroyed by tsunami. • NGO’s rebuilding houses lack knowledge of reconstruction of sustainable sanitation systems. • Barracks conditions abominable, sanitation systems often not functioning. Main Problems related to Watershed/Coastal Rehabilitation: • 95% of tree destroyed by tsunami • Raba River clogged by debris and fallen trees. • House plots devoid of trees. • Vegetable and fruit tree plantation devastated by tsunami and conflict. ESP Current Activities: • Development of drinking water supply using the perfector E and construction of refill station. Server Lamkruet and surrounding village. • Construction of communal wetland secondary treatment facility for 18 households. • Technical assistance for Atlas Logistique for the construction of 240 individual household waste water systems, including wetland gardens. • Rehabilitation of MCK for 20 households. • Development and coordination of water supply system for Lamkruet and neighboring villages based on the Raba River. THW will build this. • Streangthening community network with hygiene and sanitation campaigns. • Training of watsan/Hygiene village cadre (4). • Re-greening of village. • Cleaning of Raba River banks to enhance watershed function. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

9


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

3.2.

MINI-ESPS IN THE WEST COAST CORRIDOR – SAWANG VILLAGE, ACEH JAYA

Geographically, Sawang Village is located in 040 43’ 59,2’’ LU and 950 30’ 30,7’’ BT. This village is part of the Ulu Masen Area in the Sabee – Geupuu watershed area. The topography of the area is flat and hilly. The elevation of this area is between 0 – 35 meters from sea level. Administratively, Sawang Village belongs to Kemukiman Lageun, Setia Bakti Sub-district, Aceh Jaya District of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province. This village is located along the Banda Aceh – Meulaboh road, around 20 km before Calang town. Reaching this village can be done by motorbike and car. The road conditions of this area are generally good, however several parts of the road were damaged by the tsunami and are now under reconstruction. The borders of Sawang Village: • North : borders with Sampoinet Sub-district • South : borders with Gampong Lhok Glumpang • East : borders with Gampong Padang • West : borders with Indian Ocean Before the tsunami, Sawang Village was one of the liveliest, most crowded villages in the West Coast of Aceh, and was the capital of Setia Bakti Sub-district. The earthquake and tsunami in 2004 caused most of the people in the area to die and destroyed all infrastructure facilities, such as housing, roads, bridges, schools, health facilities and others. The disaster also affected land conversion, with most of the dry-land, rice fields and gardens becoming swampy areas and beaches being displaced by sea. This land conversion also affected all types of vegetation growing in the beach areas, with most of it swept awat or killed.

Photo by Hendra Syahrial/ESP NAD

Bad sanitation conditions at the housing complex due to the destruction of previous sanitation facilities by the tsunami. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

10


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

ESP Provides Assistance for Community on Land Rehabilitation and Construction of Water and Sanitation Facilities ESP Aceh has a mandate to support work in the west coast corridor of Aceh, which stretches across 200 kilometers from Meulaboh north to Lhoknga. There are innumerable rivers and streams that flow into the ocean in this area. Typically the rivers are slow and meandering, but heavy rainfall will send flash floods crashing through these systems. The community livelihoods of the people in this area depend on the ocean, forests and freshwater. People fish, grow rice in some areas, illegally log, cultivate mixed crop gardens on up-stream slopes, trade and engage in aquaculture. This area has been highly impacted due to the tsunami disaster. This has affected the people’s way of life. They now have a limited water supply. Reconstruction efforts have yet to put everybody back into single household dwellings. Many of the dwellings that have been built do not have access to either water or good sanitation systems. An initial assessment has been made by the ESP Aceh Team, which found several important reasons for ESP Aceh to work in this area in order to support the local community in achieveing a better quality of life and livelihood. Below are the reasons why ESP works in this area: 1. This area belongs to the west coast corridor reaching from Banda Aceh to Meulaboh where a high level of damage occurred due to tsunami disaster; a road construction project also will be conducted by USAID. 2. Land conversion has occurred, from rice fields, homestead gardens and gardens to swampy areas, with beach areas also being lost to the sea. 3. All vegetations once growing in the beach area is gone. 4. Almost all vegetation in and around the gardens and homestead gardens is gone. 5. All infrastructure and facilities have been destroyed. 6. Temperature and weather have become extreme because there in not much vegetation remaining. 7. Limited supply of clean water. 8. Solid waste thrown in several places. 9. There is no proper public toilet facility. 10. The drainage systems in the villages were destroyed. Main Problem ESP Aceh conducted a Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA) in this village involving community group members. Through the SLA, the community people came to understand the conditions of their villages by themselves so they will be able to identify the support needed by the community based on the problems they face. From the results of this assessment, we found that the main problems of the communities along the west coastal corridor area are: 1. High level of environmental damage in which: - All vegetation growing along the beach was gone - All vegetation growing in river bank areas is gone - Almost all vegetation in the homestead gardens is gone - Land conversion has occurred 2. Lack of clean water availability and proper sanitation facilities 3. Health problems

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

11


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

ESP Activities Already Conducted 1. Rapid Assessment From the Rapid Assessment activities, ESP Aceh identified preliminary information about several villages along the west coastal corridor area. This information was used to select the potential villages where ESP Aceh activities will be implemented.

Photo by Hendra Syahrial/ESP NAD The damage to coastal vegetation caused by the tsunami. Only a few coconut trees remain along the beach in Sawang village.

Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA) Work with the community in this area was started from the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA). Through the SLA activities we expected that ESP Aceh would involve the people in the local community from the beginning phase. This strategy was expected to develop sustainable program implementation by the community groups in this area. The focus of ESP support in this area will be also targeted to support the improvement of people’s livelihood. Below is a summary of the results of the SLA activities grouped according to the main technical components of the ESP program. • Watershed Management: - Field school - Community nursery development - Land rehabilitation through enrichment of homestead gardens, with fruit trees such as lansium (langsat), pomelo (jeruk bali), mango, durian, nephelium (rambutan), star fruit (asam belimbing), sapodilla (sawo) and coconut. • Land rehabilitation along the river bank area by planting fruit trees, such as jaloh, and bamboo. - Land rehabilitation along beach areas by planting several tress, such as casuarinas (cemara), coconut and almond (ketapang) trees ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

12


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Service Delivery: - Development of piping system for clean water supply - Rehabilitation of sanitation facilities - Improved sanitation facilities - Development of solid waste management

Other program: - Facilitate to re-open the estuary closed due to tsunami. The tsunami caused increased sedimentation in the estuary area so the water flow from Krueng Lageun River to the sea is blocked. This has caused Sawang Village to become vunerable to flooding. - Facilitate control of diseases caused by mosquitos through collaboration with other organization.

Photo by Hendra Syahrial/ESP NAD

Photo by Yaserr Permana/ESP NAD

Initial Activities for Development of Community Nursery and Tree Planting in the Coastal Area at Sawang Village ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

13


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Sawang Village in Setia Bakti Sub-district, Mini ESP, West Coast Geographical Condition: • Geo-reference: 040 43’ 59,2’’ N and 950 30’ 30,7’’ E • Altitude: 0 – 35 meters above sea level • Rural Area (coastal) Total Population: 393 people/132 households (after tsunami). 600 people/258 households (before tsunami) Public facilities available: after tsunami, most public facilities available are temporary, such as a school, public toilet, sub-district office, drainage canal, houses. Clean water source: after tsunami, two springs from Gunung Malem and Gunung Rangkung, that are located far from the village. No more dug or bored hole wells are available as clean water sources after the tsunami. Main Problems related to water and sanitation:

• • • •

Limited supply of clean water There are no solid waste disposal sites, garbage is disposed of in various places There are no proper public toilet facilities The drainage system in the villages has been destroyed

Main Problems related to catershed/coastal rehabilitation:

• • •

All vegetation growing in beach area is gone Almost all vegetation around gardens and homestead gardens is gone Heavy physical damage to the coastal area, including to the beach side road(s)

ESP Current Activities: • Community nursery development • Land rehabilitation along coast/beach area • Land rehabilitation by enrichment of homestead gardens • ESP Field School • Improvement of water and sanitation facilities ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

14


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

3.3.

BLUE THREAD IN KRUENG ACEH WATERSHED – JRUEK BALEE VILLAGE

General Information Geographically, Jruek Balee Village lies at the coordinates of N 05˚ 26' 55,1" and E E 095˚ 25' 07,0" and has a flat topography. The elevation of this area is 15 meters above sea level. This village is part of the Krueng Aceh watershed. Based on administrative structure, Jruek Balee village is in Kemukiman Jruek 1 , Indrapuri sub-district, Aceh Besar district in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province. The borders of Jruek Balee Village: • North : borders with Krueng Aceh • South : borders with Gampong Mon Aleu • East : borders with Gampong Groet Manyang • West : borders with Gampong Jruek Bak Kreh This village can be easily reached by the Banda Aceh – Medan road. After entering Montasik (before the TVRI state television station), journey may continued to the south (turn to left/ RBT junction) or go over Aneuk Galong bridge ± 2,5 km. This village can be reached by motorcycle from Banda Aceh city in about 35 minutes. The reasons why ESP has chosen Jruek Balee Village as its program area 1. The village is located in the Krueng Aceh watershed; the Krueng Jreue Sub-watershed 2. Area meets with site selection criteria from Watershed Management ESP: - Biodiversity - Urban/peri urban - Hot Spot issue - ESP Integration: WSM, SD, ESD, Health, etc. - Raw water resource: Krueng Aceh river - Political will: community involvement/support will enable locals to become agents of change for other villages in Kemukiman Jruek Main Problems 1. Clean Water and Sanitation 2. Exploitation of sand and soil mining 3. Lowering/decreasing of well water surface 4. Increasing area of marginal land

1

Kemukiman is a federation of several gampong. It is a traditional intstitution that is acknowledged by the government (Qanun Perna No. 4, year 2003). Each Kemukiman is lead by an Imam Mukim that is chosen from among community leaders from villages that are in the federation. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

15


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Photo by Ivan Krisna/ESP NAD

Community Nursery in Jruek Balee Village

Initial ESP Activities 1. Rapid Assessment Basic information was gathered through this activity. This information was then used as a basis for selection as an ESP site. 2. Sustainable Livelihood Assessment Work with the community in this area started with the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA). Through the SLA activities we came to the conclusion that ESP Aceh had involved the right community people from the beginning phase. This approach is expected to facilitate the development of sustainable program implementation by the community groups in this area. The focus of ESP support in this area is targeted at supporting the improvement of the local people’s livelihoods. Below are the summary results of the SLA activities, which are grouped based on the main technical aspects of ESP’s technical components. • Watershed Management - Field school - Capacity building for farmers (water distribution management, rice system intensification, bio-pesticides, etc.) - Development of superior agricultural commodities in the field or in community compounds, for example nephelium (rambutan), lansium (langsat), mango and pamelo. These commodities can help the community to increase their income. This is also expected to increase the raw water supply in this area. - Capacity building for Farmer Cooperative Group in the aspects of management, finance and administration. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

16


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

-

Tree planting along river bank areas along with the planting of several crops, such as red chilis, watermelons and beans. This will first have to be discussed with other institutions, such as BPDAS, Sub-district Office, etc. Community Nursery development Hydrology survey through cooperation between ESP and related institutions. Upgrade well facilities through construction of improved wells with cooperation between ESP and other organizations. Dissemination of information on SLA results to related institutions, such as Forest Ministry, Mining Ministry, Water Source Institution, etc. Awareness program about the negative impact of sand and soil mining.

•

Service Delivery: - Optimizing the supply and utilization of existing clean water sources. This is also related to maintenance efforts, capacity building for communities in relation to water filtering and (if possible) the building of a new well. - Handling trash and sanitation issues. Support in the development of public or private toilets. ESP will also encourage community groups to maintain the facilities. Service Delivery and Watershed Management teams need to collaborate to use organic waste for composting.

•

Other programs: - Facilitate the reconstruction of a drainage canal to avoid flooding in Jruek Balee Village. - Facilitate control of diseases caused by mosquitoes, as well as of diarrhea and scabies through collaboration with other organizations.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

17


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Jruek Balee Village of Indrapuri

Geographical Condition: • Geo-reference: N 05˚ 26' 55,1" and E E 095˚ 25'

07,0"

• Altitude: 15 meters above sea level • Rural Area Total Population: 687 people (154 households) Public facilities available: mosque, schools, posyandu integrated servicecenter, village office Clean water source: springs, river, dug well and bored hole well Main Problems related to Watsan: • Not all households have private toilets, they need to build several public toilets • Need to improve drainage systems (for sanitation and irrigation) in their village • Shortage of clean water, especially during in dry season • Exploitation of small scale mining in the upstream area, especially after tsunami Current ESP Activities: • Sustainable Livelihood Assessment • Community nursery and tree planting program • ESP Field School • Drainage system improvement

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

18


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

3.4.

PDAM INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM – PROFILE OF PDAM ACEH BESAR

PDAM Tirta Meulaboh of Aceh Barat was established in 1994 and endorsed by BPAM Aceh Barat district. Nowadays PDAM has a production capacity for about 95 liter/sec that is coming from three production units. PDAM Tirta Meulaboh has three service coverage areas. The main office provides services to Meulaboh’ s capital city with around 2700 customer connections. Meanwhile the Rantau Panjang Unit covers Meureubo subdistrict and the Peureumbu Unit covers Kaway XVI sub-district. Both of these units have 200 connections each. By the end 2006, PDAM had approximately 3000 customer connections, including public taps. PDAM Tirta Meulaboh faced a drastic decline in performance after the tsunami struck in 2004.

I.

Tsunami Impact on PDAM Operations Conditions before tsunami (December 2004) • • •

Total production capacity was 95 liter/sec. However due to technical obstacles, only 65 liter/sec was operated. PDAM covered 3186 connections; 35% citizen coverage. Others conditions: ▪ Non Revenue Water 46 % ▪ Total Number of Employees 43 ▪ Base water price Rp 600 / m3 ▪ Average water price Rp 920 / m3 ▪ Average monthly income Rp 80.3 million ▪ Average monthly expenditure Rp 114.9 million ▪ Billing collection efficiency 40 % ▪ Operation ratio (income/expenditure) 70 %

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

19


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Condition after tsunami (January 2005) • The total number of connections was decreased by more than half to only 1343 active connections. This has resulted in a drastic decrease in PDAM’s income. Furthermore, debts are mounting, affecting billing collection efficiency that is at the current low level of around 15 %. • The operation ratio now reaches below 50 %. • Of 43 only 39 remain (some became tsunami victims). • Other conditions are relatively the same. Main Problems • The decrease in the number of connections has had a strong impact on PDAM’s financial stability due to loss of almost half its customers. • Decreased production capacity has resulted from the destruction of the Rantau Panjang Installation Unit. • Employee has decreased motivation due to the diminished conditions of PDAM’s facilities and its unstable financial situation. Moreover, PDAM’s employees have had to face the loss of family members and co-workers due to the tsunami. • The low capacity of human resources. Assistance toward improving human resources is imperative, especially in regard to training relating to PDAM’s technical operations and financial managment. II. ESP Support Completed Support • The study tour to PDAM Tirtanadi Medan as an effort to improve the motivation of management. • The seconded staff program as an effort to cover the human resources shortage. During the period of September 2005 to September 2006, ESP provided and placed one person as a water quality monitoring staffer or laboratory officer at the Lapang Water Treatment Plant, and one other person as a customer service officer. • Development of Standard Operation Procedures (SOP) as an effort to manage the PDAM staff so that they could work systematically, efficiently, and consistently. • Provision of laboratory equipment and reagents in order to monitor water quality and as a tool toward increasing the quality of water production. • Provision of the opportunity for several staff members, including the directors, to join middle manager training in Jakarta to increase their management skills. • On the job and classroom training in order to improve the capacity building capabilities of PDAM staff. The training materials were as follows: - Technical: training on calculation of water demand; hydraulic simulation about distribution systems using the EPANET program; optimizing of dosing at Water Treatment Plants; laboratory equipment usage; and training on monitoring water quality. - Administration and finance: training on basic accounting and budgeting. Ongoing and Future Support • Customer and non-customer census in order to recover the customer database and to identify potential customers. • Changing of organizational structure to follow official district structure. PDAM’s organizational structure generally follows stipulations in the Minister of Home Affairs Decree No.7/1998 regarding PDAM Management and Minister of Home Affairs Decree No. 8/2000 on District Autonomy. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

20


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

• • • • • • •

Implementation of Standard Operation Procedures ranging from dissemination of information (public awareness), trials and evaluations toward improving the SOP. Re-evaluation of PDAM assets in order to review the total assets lost in the tsunami. Customer re-clasification in order to increase PDAM’s income and to improve its customer database as the reconstruction of Meulaboh town expands Tariff review as an effort to increase PDAM’s income because the existing rate cannot cover the operational costs. Assistance in the recruitment process to bring in potential employees. The new employees will replace the seconded staff of civil servants for PDAM. Development of corporate plan in order to increase the capacity of PDAM’s staff in relation to development of a strategic plan for PDAM that will be used for its further development. On-the-job and classroom training on technical and financial aspects in order to improve the capacity of PDAM staff.

III. Current Condition of PDAM in Tirta Meulaboh (as of December 2006) ESP has been giving technical assistance for more than one year. This action is taken to increase capacity of PDAM staff and other activities that may contribute to improve PDAM performance and services. At this time, all efforts have shown good results in relation to the aspects of financial improvement, increasing of the number of PDAM customers and improvement of PDAM services. Current conditions can be summarized as follows: • Currently, PDAM covers 3020 connections, coming close to the total number of connections existing before the tsunami. • Other conditions: - Non-revenue water 39 % - Total employees 39 - Average monthly income Rp 113 million - Average monthly expenditure Rp 136 million - Billing collection efficiency 30 % - Operation ratio (income/expenditure) 83 % •

Improvement of quality of service: - Installation of connections for new customers takes less than a week instead one to three months. - Quality of water produced. Through the water quality monitoring program, customers receive better quality water than previously PDAM now regularly monitors and controls the quality of water produced.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

21


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

4. NORTH SUMATRA 4.1.

BLUE THREAD IN SUB-WATERSHED FOR LAU PETANI – SEMANGAT GUNUNG AND DOULU VILLAGES

Doulu and Semangat Gunung villages are cool climate vegetable growing areas in Karo district, about 1000 m above sea level. Those villages are located in the valley of Sibayak Mountain, Karo District. Springs flowing from those villages run together to form the Petani river (Lau Petani), at the top of the upstream section of the Deli Watershed. In Doulu Village, there are water springs and some of them are exploited by AQUA Danone, one of the biggest drinking water companies in Indonesia. Administratively, they belong to different sub-districts. Doulu (98o 31’ 50’ 73” E 3o 13’ 50,73” N) is part of Berastagi Sub-district, while Semangat Gunung (98o 30o, 49,94” E 3o 13’ 18,90” N) is part of Simpang Empat Subdistrict. Geographically they are adjacent villages just on the foot of Sibayak Mountain, surrounded by Tahura Bukit Barisan. This valley has become one of ESP North Sumatera’s important sites because those 2 villages together constitute an interesting ecological zone: “2 adjacent villages in 1 valley - surrounded by a grand forest park – which form the top of the upstream section of the Deli Watershed – where a lot of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used for vegetable farming, and where there are problems with topsoil/humus piracy, tree cutting and solid waste”.

Photo by M. Khairul Rizal/ESP Medan

The valley of Semangat Gunung and Doulu Villages. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

22


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

In July 2005, ESP North Sumatra facilitated a participatory assessment in Semangat Gunung and Doulu village. This was part of the Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA) Program done in 14 villages of 4 sub-districts in Karo and Deli Serdang Districts: Kabanjahe, Simpang Empat and Berastagi Sub-district of Karo District, and Sibolangit Sub-district of Deli Serdang Sub-district. This SLA, Besides providing the opportunity for village communities to assess their livelihoods related to water, the SLA also to led the formation of KERINA, a community network for environmental conservation in Deli Serdang and Karo Districts; Doulu and Semangat Gunung sillages are among this membership. The assessment done by the community revealed that in Semangat Gunung and Doulu villages there are some similar problems related to water and environment, such as: • Excessive and increasing use of chemical pesticides. (Karo district is known for the high use of pesticides. No less than 50% of the total amount of pesticides used in North Sumatera province is used in Karo district. Data from Semangat Gunung shows that farmers spend up to 2.4 million rupiah for pesticides plus 1.3 million rupiah for chemical fertilizer for growing 0.1 hectare of tomatos in 1 season). • Reduced soil fertility • Top soil or humus is “harvested/pirated” from the forest surrounding the villages to be used for agriculture • Tree cutting in the surrounding forest • Solid waste contamination to the spring, river, settlement and community latrine (MCK) Responding to the results of this assessment, ESP North Sumatra facilitates community efforts through the following actions: Training on Community Nursery for KERINA members from Semangat Gunung and Doulu In this program, ESP facilitated the KERINA member of Semangat Gunung and Doulu villages to learn about how to develop a community nursery. This program involved collaboration between ESP North Sumatra, KERINA and Tree Bank. Through this program, KERINA members, including representatives of Semangat Gunung and Doulu villages learned together how to prepare tree seedlings to be used for tree planting in their own villages and surrounding forest. Mr. Paris Sembiring, a Photo by Widyastama Cahyana/ESP Medan Kalpataru award winner who is also KERINA members, including representatives from the head of the Tree Bank, trained Doulu, learn about how to develop a community KERINA members toward preparing nursery. a community nursery. The training was conducted at sub-district level in Simpang Empat and Berastagi Sub-districts, and later will be done at the village level, including in Semangat Gunung and Doulu villages.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

23


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Farmer Field School (FFS) on Ecological Agriculture:

Photo by Widyastaman Cahyana/ESP Medan

FFS members doing observation.

ESP North Sumatra facilitates the vegetable farmers in Semangat Gunung and Doulu Villages to learn about growing healthy crops and reducing agro-chemical contamination of soil and water through a Farmer Field School on Ecological Agriculture. This program involves collaboration among ESP North Sumatra, FIELD Indonesia Foundation (one of ESP’s sub-contractors), Karo Local Government and Clemson University (under the umbrella of USAID-CRSP). The program started in March 2006, and there are now 4 FFS in both villages, 2 FFSs (one on tomatoes and one on leeks) in each village.

The FFS involves 12 – 20 farmers, both men and women, facilitated by two Farmer Trainers from Java, and is organized by FIELD Indonesia. Two FFS groups in Doulu and one FFS group in Semangat Gunung have been running their programs, while one group in Semangat Gunung is just preparing their FFS. The FFS will run for one full growing season, from seed sowing and planting through to harvesting. Each FFS has set learning plots: “Local Farmer Practice Plot” and “Improvement Plot” (FFS Photo by Widyastama Cahyana/ESP Medan members think together about ecological methods to improve the FFS members presenting and discussing existing practices). Once a week each FFS group comes together with farmer trainers to do field observation, agro-ecosystem analysis, presentation and discussion, decision making, and weekly action planning. Besides that, they also study special topics to deepen their understanding of certain matters related to the agro-ecosystem; they also play games designed to positively develop the groups’ dynamics. Making both solid and liquid compost from agricultural and domestic waste is also important to the learning and practices going on during the FFS. In the coming months, some representatives of each FFS group will be prepared to become farmer trainers so that they can continue to facilitate the program after the farmer trainers from Java go back home.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

24


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Doulu Village in Berastagi Sub-district and Semangat Gunung village of Simpang Empat Sub-village, Karo District Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: - Doulu: 98o 31’ 50, 73” E - 3o 13’ 50,73” N - Semangat Gunung: 98o 30' 49,94” E 3o 13’ 18,90” N • Altitude: - Doulu: 1000 m above sea level - Semangat Gunung: 1000 m above sea level • Rural Area Total Population: • Doulu: 1700 people • Semangat Gunung: 562 people Public facilities available: • Doulu: vegetable market, Elementary School, Sub-Health Center (Puskesmas Pembantu), BKIA, • Semangat Gunung: vegetable market (for toursim), Sub-Health Center Clean Water Sources Available: • Doulu: spring • Semangat Gunung: spring Main Problems related to water resource management: • Excessive and increasing use of chemical pesticides. • “Harvesting / piracy” of top soil or humus for agricultural purposes from the forest surrounding the villages • Tree cutting in surrounding forest • Solid waste contamination to the springs, river, settlement, community latrine (MCK). ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

25


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

4.2.

CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN MEDAN METROPOLITAN AREA

Aur neighborhood is located in Medan Maimoon Sub-district, Medan Municipality, North Sumatra. It covers in area of 7 km², including 3,5 km² of settlement area, with the rest being offices and public infrastructure. PDAM provides 95% of the drinking water for the community, and the rest is obtained from surface wells (5 %). Aur neighborhood has a population of about 5,472 people, which is distributed throughout 9 administrative units (Lingkungan/RW). Several ethnic groups, including Batak, Malay, Padang, Tamil, Chinese, etc., live together in Aur Village. Deli river runs through the village and is utilized as a water source, especially by the people living along the river bank. The way of life of the people there is entrenched in the existence of this river. Most of their daily activities, such as washing, bathing and disposal of domestic waste, are linked to this waterway. Concerning education, most of the people in Aur neighborhood have finished Junior or Senior High School. Most of them earn their livings as small-scale merchants/vendors, factory laborers, and pedicab (becak) drivers, or work at other bluecollar jobs. In terms of religion, community makeup is: Moslem (47.8 %), Christian (5.7%), Buddhist (4.3 %), and Hindu (1.2 %). Pictures of Environmental Problems in Aur Village

Photo by Bertha Nababan/ESP Medan

The way of life of the people living along the Deli River banks in Aur Village

ESP Work in Aur Village ESP interventions have started in 6 administrative units -- I, II, III, IV, VIII, and IX. These areas were selected on the basis of the following: 1) these six administrative units are the highest ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

26


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

density areas; 2) most of the population lives in the river bank area with bad sanitation conditions; 3) there are active integrated village health and service centers (posyandu) there. Based on the results of initial assessment, the major problems in Aur village are sanitation, water resources, solid waste management, flooding, and the habits of using the river instead of latirnes. Other problems in the area include overcrowding, environmental degradation and a high incidence of crime. This area can be categoraized as a slum because it is so heavily settled. Generally one house measuring only eight square meters is inhabited by three households. In anticipation of chronic flooding, these houses are usually built on stilts. It is difficult to find any free land for planting trees there, not to mention space for composting. The main approach for ESP’s intervention in Aur neighborhood is through local health center/clinic activities. ESP works with the local health center cadre to promote health and hygiene improvement. Health and Hygiene activities are conducted regularly in sub-villges I, II, III, IV, VIII and IX in collaboration with the posyandu integrated village service centers, Youth Groups (Remaja Karang Taruna/ Masjid), the area Elementary school, Women’s Religious Congregations (Wirit) and other community groups. Hand Washing and the Soap Campaign constitute the core activities conducted as part of the initial hygiene improvement drive in this village. However, as a result of the integration of other components into ESP’s Health and Hygiene programs, some other training, including but not limited to water resource management, composting and gender matters, has been undertaken. It is encouraging to say that although poverty is big problem in Aur, the community in this neighborhood has quite a strong motivation to develop their village toward a better future.

Photo by Bertha Nababan/ESP Medan

ESP Activities in collaboration with Posyandu Health Center in Aur Village (hand washing with soap promotion).

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

27


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Aur Neighborhood in Medan Maimoon Sub-district of Medan Municipality, North Sumatera Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: BT 980 39’ 55,64’’ and LS 30 35’ 28,17’’ • 23 meter above sea level • Urban Area Total Population: 9000 people Public facilities available: School, Posyandu Health Center, Village Office, Public Market, Istana Maimoon, Gedung Juang, Library, Field, Court, Government Offices, etc. Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM and bored well

Main Problems related to Health and Hygiene: • Diarrhea, skin disease and malnutrition in children under five • Bathing, washing and urination and defecation in river • Throwing waste directly into the river • PDAM water sometimes dirty and sandy • Waste Disposal site • Flood Current ESP Activities: • Hand Washing with Soap Campaign in Posyandu Health/Service Centers, Community activity, Youth Group, Schools, mutual cooperation. • Strengthening of community network through WSM Forum II, Gender Network.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

28


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

5. DKI JAKARTA 5.1.

USAID ANCHOR SITE IN PETOJO UTARA NEIGHBORHOOD OF GAMBIR SUB-DISTRICT (CENTRAL JAKARTA)

Petojo Utara – Administrative Unit #8 (RW 08) is one of the USAID-BHS sites where ESP, SWS, HSP and FSN partner (Mercy Corps) are working jointly in an integrated activity. This area is located in Gambir Sub-district, Central Jakarta. Based on BPS Poor Household Data 2004, there are 4,977 poor people in Gambir Sub-district, maning that nearly 7% of all Gambir residents are considered poor. Poor communities in DKI Jakarta are typically characterized by dense populations and positioning, with most located near public market areas, coastal/port areas, river banks, railways, and/or under or near a toll road. Petojo Utara is surrounded by high storey commercial and office buildings, and located next to Kali Krukut that functions mainly for discharge of domestic wastewater and as a garbage disposal site. RW (Administrative unit) 08 is divided into 14 neighborhood associations (RT) with a total number of households reaching approximately 735, or around 2,800 people. The majority of the men are working in the informal sector as traders, laborers, motorcycle taxi drivers, etc. There are 88 poor families who receive fuel subsidy funds; however, according to a administrative unit survey and observation, there are actually 224 poor families in RW 08. In terms of health and nutritional status, out of 250 children under five only 160 children regularly participate in the Posyandu Service Center monthly weighing. Based on Posyandu data, there are 72 children who suffer from malnutrition. The main reasons ESP and its partners have decided to work collaboratively in RW 08 Petojo Utara are its existing identified environmental and health problems. The main environmental problem in RW 08 is limited access to sanitation facilities, with the existing ones in very poor condition in terms of wastewater treatment. Based on ESP rapid assessment and field observation, 50% of the houses rely on public latrine/bath house facilities (MCK). Photo by ESP Jakarta

ESP and its BHS partners started working in RW 08 of Petojo Utara in February 2006 through a joint assessment on water, sanitation, education, health and nutritional status.

Shared groundwater well with manual pump.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

29


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Following are the findings based on the assessment results: 1. Access to clean water is a substantial problem; the ground water is either brackish or contaminated, while the supply of PDAM water, which serves only 40% of the households, suffer from discontinuity and intermittent flow. Households get their water from various sources: shallow and deep groundwater, PDAM connections and bottled water that come from a variety of providers, all of which are used for different purposes. 2. Limited access to latrine facilities is the major sanitation problem. More than 50% of the houses rely on public latrines (MCK). There are 5 MCKs operated by individuals or community groups, and none of them have proper septic tanks, resulting in a health hazard for the surrounding community. Adding to that, houses that have individual sanitation facilities are discharging the effluent into the river.

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Public latrine MCK (left) and household wastewater discharge points along Kali Krukut (right).

3. During ESP field observation it was noted that an insufficient number of garbage disposal sites and delayed garbage collection has resulted in the dumping of garbage into the river, which is rapidly filling up with such refuse. RW officials have set up a proper garbage collection system in which garbage from household disposals are regularly picked up by ‘tukang sampah’ (garbage collectors).

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Temporary garbage disposal site (left) and the informal housing area next to it (right).

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

30


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

4.

In terms of health and nutrition, Mercy Corps, one of our BHS partner for FSN program started to work with the community in Jembatan Besi for the holding of Nutrition, Education, and Rehabilitation Sessions (NERS) in May 2005. In the beginning Mercy Corps had identified 72 malnourished children under five. Through complementary feeding and regular weighing Mercy Corps has been able to improve the health of those children. 5. HSP has also supported this community through formation of a Community Health Committee to assist/facilitate Posyandu Service Center activities, as well as facilitating Desa Siaga activities related to birth preparedness and reduction of pregnancy and delivery complications. The committee regularly maps all of the pregnant women in the area and helps them to make birthing plans and save funds for the delivery. To overcome the major environmental problems in that area, ESP has designed a strategy together with the community and BHS partners. Starting with informal community meetings and discussions, followed by identification of hygiene behavior through formative research, the collaborative team was able to identify priorities for the community program. The first priority is improvement of existing sanitation facilities.

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Proposed location and design for communal latrine improvement.

ESP and Mercy Corps worked with the community to identify existing sanitation facilities that needed improvement. With support from the local NGO, BEST (Bina Ekonomi Sosial Terpadu), some critical issues related to sanitation have been identified; i.e. land issues, level of effort for rehabilitation/renovation, socio-demographic data, etc. The preliminary design and drawings were provided for discussion with the community. The final design was developed together with the community based on a sound engineering design. The construction activities are about to start, with completion expected within the next 2-3 months. ESP, SWS and Mercy Corps jointly conducted a campaign on waste separation and hand washing with soap, which was followed by a healthy “walkathon� event. The community is now starting a greening and composting program. Community members are first encouraged to sort and separate different types of garbage. The non-organic waste is to be collected by scavengers or garbage collectors, while the organic waste is to be sent to a communal or individual composter. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

31


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Petojo Utara Neighborhood in Gambir Sub-district of Central Jakarta Municipality

Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 106° 49' 02.25" E and 6° 09' 45.18" S • Altitude: 5 meters above sea level • Urban Area Total Population: 2,800 people/735 households (only in sub-village 8) Public facilities available: sub-village office, puskesmas health center, posyandu, market, school, public latrines/MCK Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM, shallow well and deep well Main Problems related to water supply: • Saline and brackish groundwater • Intermittent PDAM water flow • Throwing waste in the river • 60% of population rely on public MCK • Malnutrition of children uder five (45% data taken from posyandu members)

ESP Current Activities: • Assessment and design for public latrines improvement • Formative research • Posyandu cadre training for mini-baseline data collection • Campaign on hand washing with soap and waste separation ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

32


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

5.2.

USAID ANCHOR SITE IN JEMBATAN BESI NEIGHBORHOOD OF TAMBORA SUBDISTRICT (WEST JAKARTA)

Jembatan Besi RW 04 is one of the USAID-BHS sites where ESP, SWS, HSP and FSN partner (Mercy Corps) are working jointly on an integrated activity. It is located in Tambora Subdistrict, West Jakarta. Based on BPS Poor Household Data 2004, there are 3,927 poor households in Tambora Sub-district, meaning that nearly 27% of all Tambora residents are considered poor. RW 04 Jembatan Besi is classified as a heavily populated, according to the BPS Poor RW Directory 200, with the number of poor households there totally 127, or nearly 50% of the total number of households in RW 04. Poor communities in DKI Jakarta are typically characterized by dense populations and positioning near public market areas, coastal/port areas, river banks, railways, and/or under or near a toll road. What is interesting about Jembatan Besi is that it is located not too far from a traditional public market, a railway and two different rivers (Kali Krendang and Kali Angke). ESP and partners decided to work collaboratively in RW 04 Jembatan Besi due to the existing identified environmental problems there. The main problem in RW 04 is limited access to sanitation facilities, with the existing ones in very poor condition in terms of wastewater treatment. Based on ESP rapid assessment and field observation, 60% of the households rely on public latrine facilities. ESP and its BHS partners have been working in Jembatan Besi RW 04 since February 2006, and started with a thorough joint assessment of water, sanitation, education, health and nutritional status.

Photo by ESP Jakarta Public Hydrant that supplies water for vendors (left) and public shallow groundwater well of 3m depth (right).

Following are the findings based on assessment results: 1. Access to clean water is a substantial problem, the ground water is either saline, brackish or contaminated, while the PAM water supply, which serves only 30% of the households, is intermittent, with discontinuity of supply. The household water supply ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

33


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

originates from different water sources -- shallow and deep groundwater, public hydrants, PAM connections, vended water and bottled water that come from a variety of providers – and is used for different purposes. 2. Clogged sewers, flooding and limited access to latrine facilities are the major sanitation problems. More than 60% of the houses rely on public latrines (MCK). There are 8 public latrines operated by individuals as a business and none of them have proper septic tanks resulting in a health hazard for the surrounding community.

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Public Latrine in Jembatan Besi and the gutter in a small alley

3. Clogged sewers are a result of poor garbage management in the area. The RW administrative unit staffs claim that the garbage collection system is working properly. Garbage from household disposals is regularly picked up by ‘tukang sampah’ (garbage collectors), however during the field observation, ESP witnessed that the gutters there are filled with solid waste and sludge.

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Clogged Sewer, filled with solid waste.

4. In terms of health and nutrition, Mercy Corps, one of our BHS partners for the FSN program has been working with the community in Jembatan Besi with the holding of Nutrition, Education, and Rehabilitation Sessions (NERS) since June 2005. In the beginning, Mercy Corps had identified 48 malnourished children under five. Through ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

34


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

complementary feeding and regular weighing Mercy Corps has been able to improve the health of these children. To overcome the major environmental problems identified, ESP has designed a strategy together with the community and its BHS partners. Starting with informal community meetings and discussions and followed by identification of hygiene behavior through formative research, the collaborative team has been able to identify priorities for the community program. The first priority is improvement of existing sanitation facilities.

Photo by ESP Jakarta

Proposed location and design for communal latrine improvement.

ESP and Mercy Corps have worked with the community to identify existing sanitation facilities that needs improvement. With support from a local NGO, BEST (Bina Ekonomi Sosial Terpadu), some critical issues relating to sanitation have been identified; i.e. land issues, the level of effort needed for rehabilitation/renovation, socio-demography data, etc. The preliminary design and drawings were provided for discussion with the community. The final design will be developed together with the community based on a sound engineering design. Construction activities are expected to start in early 2007. With support from BHS partners and a local NGO called PPMA, the community has started a composting program to support the community’s greening activities. In this program, the community was first encouraged to sort and separate the different types of garbage. Nonorganic waste is now collected by scavengers or garbage collectors, while the organic waste is sent to a communal composter. Through a series of campaigns and educational efforts, the community is now aware of the importance of a clean and green environment. They now carry out regular cleaning activities, both individually and communally, especially the clearing of refuse from the gutters in order to reduce the incidence of flooding. This community has been nominated for the Adipura Award from the DKI Jakarta local administration. There are some other activities planned for implementation during the fiscal year of 2007 to help improve the current environmental situation. ESP and Mercy Corps will involve the local water service provider (PT. Palyja) to help improve the water supply for this community.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

35


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Administrative Unit #4, Jembatan Besi Neighborhood in Tambora Sub-district of West Jakarta Municipality Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 106° 47' 52.42" E and 6° 09' 10.92" S • Altitude: 3 meters above sea level • Area: 4,23 Hectares • Urban Area Total Population: 2,500 people (600 households) Public facilities available: Puskesmas Public Health Center, Posyandu Integrated Public Service Center, RW administrative unit office, market, school, public latrines, public hydrants Clean Water Sources Available: • Groundwater (deep & shallow) • PAM (individual connection, public hydrants, vended water) • Refillable bottled water Main Problems related to water supply: • Flood-prone area • Saline and brackish groundwater • Intermittent PDAM water flow • Expensive vended water • Waste disposal in river, drainage system and along railway • 60% of population relies on public latrines Current ESP Activities: • Assessment and design for improving public latrines • Formative research • Posyandu integrated service center cadre training for mini-baseline data collection

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

36


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

6. WEST JAVA 6.1.

ANCHOR SITES IN CIKUNDUL-CILAKU SUB-WATERSHED, CIANJUR – NAGRAK VILLAGE

There are 21 selected villages targted in ESP’s integrated site at the Cikundul-Cilaku Subwatershed Area that is part of the Gede and Pangrango mountain region. One of them is Nagrak Village. This village is located in Middle Cisarualeutik (sub-das Cilaku) at X= 107° 6' 50.87" East, Y= 6° 49' 42.23" South, and is 520 meters above sea level. There are several environmental problems related to clean water supply in Nagrak village for which ESP needs to involve the people in order to solve the problems. Based on the first assessment, the main environmental problems of Nagrak village are waste management and land rehabilitation. ESP West Java has been working in this village since August 2005 through the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA) that involves a group of community members to assess the condition of village. The results of the SLA in Nagrak identified the main problem as management of household waste. Mostly, people (80% of the population) throw all of their waste into the river. The lack of a sanitation system also contributes to the contamination of the river. Rice Agriculture is one of the most important occupations for the people living in Nagrak Village. Nagrak villages has a population of 12,906 people (3,326 families). Many of them are farmer families (1,172 families), while the lack of protected land in the river troughs creates problems during the rainy season in this area. So, land rehabilitation must be another focus of programs in Nagrak village. Since the inception of the SLA activities, a farmer network, initiated by ESP under the name of FORESTA, has developed and is continuing to establish itself. As well, local customary leaders and ulemas (Islamic religious leaders) have shown strong commitment and provided positive support for environmental and Photo by Alwis Rustam/ESP West Java health programs for Gede Mountain, to the left of the Pangrango mountain range, as their community. viewed from Nagrak. Both Gede and Pangrango are ESP focus areas in West Java.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

37


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

ESP has been working in Nagrak village to solve the problems of waste management and land rehabilitation, through activities such as: 1. Workshops, discussions, and training on environmental and waste management issues 2. ESP small grant waste management programs (implemented by FKS – Forum Kota Sehat) 3. Activities by FORESTA (a community network for rehabilitation issues) initiated by ESP 4. The “Gebyar Tanam Campaign” (radio talk shows and community and religious {pengajian} gatherings) , initiated through ESP’s Communication Support. This information drive is well supported by local ulemas and other leaders.

Photo by Alwis Rustam/ESP West Java

In this workshop, all stakeholder members and community networks meet together in Nagrak village. All of them share their problems and experiences in their own communities. The participants come from: ESP-USAID, Mepeling (Nagrak environmental community group), FORESTA (8 village farmer group representatives through Cilaku Watershed management), JAMPEDAS (13 village farmer group representatives through Cikundul Watershed management), PELESTARI (multi-stakeholder forum for Cikundul-Cilaku), FKS (Health City Forum – an NGO in West Java), and each concerned division of official government, such as forestry departments and agencies, as well as health agencies. The main purpose of this gathering is to facilitate mutual understanding among community networks and stakeholders. As the host of this activity, Nagrak exhibited their outstanding concern and activity in the community. For example, on that Friday morning Nagrak was able to provides participants with the “Jumat Bersih (Clean Friday)” concept, which has proven to be a very useful campaign for improving environmental awareness among the community.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

38


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

At the present time, a group called Masyarakat Elemen Pencinta (MEPLING) has established an information duissemination program at the administrative unit (RW) level. MEPELING (an acronym that forms a Sudanese – indigenous West Javan language – word that means “remaining”) has 30 members in its cadre, and is expected to develop into a community network for solid waste management at the household level. At the same time, FORESTA has obtained a letter from the government defining it as a legal-formal community institution. Although the FORESTA secretariat is in Nagrak village, this group is not only working in Nagrak, but also in another 7 villages throughout the Cilaku watershed area.

Photo by Alwis Rustam/ESP West Java

From the outset, MEPELING and FORESTA have been sharing their experiences and problems to some extent. On January 5, 2006, they proved that they could work together in a common, mutally helpful, forum. At that time, ESP, with its integrated program site in the area, supported a gathering for local networking groups, such as FORESTA, MEPELING, FKS, PELESTARI, JAMPEDAS (community stakeholder forum for Cilaku-Cikundul) and representatives of several official divisions of local government in Cianjur. They all met together in a workshop in Nagrak. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

Photo by Alwis Rustam/ESP West Java

39


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Nagrak village in Cianjur Sub-District of Cianjur District Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 107° 07' 02.72" E and 6° 49' 52.80" S • Altitude: 505 meters above sea level • Rural Area Total Population: 12,906 people (3,326 families) Public facilities available: school, posyandu integrated public service center, market Clean Water Sources Available: springs, deep well, river Main Problems related to water supply: • Big area of degraded land • Waste management in the kampong • River contamination by waste water Current ESP Activities: • Improving solid waste management • Community nursery • Tree planting program

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

40


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

6.2.

BLUE THREAD IN CIKAPUNDUNG WATERSHED, BANDUNG – TAMANSARI NEIGHBORHOOD

Nowadays, the Cikapundung River has two functions, first as a water supply source, and second, as a channel for the disposal of household and industrial waste water and urban drainage, as well as garbage. Hydrologically, the shape of the Cikapundung River basin in the upstream area is circular. It continues into the Maribaya River and forms an elliptical basin from north to south, and ends in extensive wide drainage basin of about 110 Km2 around the Soekarno – Hatta Bridge. Other important branches of the Cikapundung River are Cigulung River, Cikawari River, Ciputri River and Cipaganti River. Based on Geomorphologic studies, the Cikapundung River is a perennial river, meaning that water is constantly flowing through the river channel. Cikapundung River flows from the upstream to downstream areas through sub-watershed areas in several sub-districts, including Lembang, Cidadap, Coblong, Bandung Wetan, Sumur Bandung, Regol and Lengkong. The neighborhood of Tamansari is located in a valley in the sub-District of East Bandung with the Cikapundung River flowing through the neighborhood. Some land from the neighborhood has been utilized by the government for the development of the Pasupati highway that connects Pasteur Street and Surapati Street in the City of Bandung. The neighborhood of Tamansari consists of 20 Administrative Units (RW) with 123 Neighborhood Associations (RT). Most of the Tamansari area is located down in the valley where the Cikapayang River flows at a higher level from the Cikapundung River which flows along the bottom of the valley. The neighborhood of Tamansari is densely Photo by Seviana Hehanussa/ESP West java populated and most roads there are so narrow that Cikapundung River at Tamansari Sub-Village most four-wheeeled vehicles cannot enter. Houses are built close to each other with access alleys that are so narrow in sections that they can be unpassable.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

41


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

The prominent local conditions are as follows: • House-land ratio is extremely high; • Occupancy rate is high; and • Unemployment rate is high. The Cikapundung river bank is densely populated with only 60 cm of space between houses and with an access road of 1.40 meters wide. There are about 70 RTs located along the Cikapundung river bank in Tamansari. Almost all of the RW administrative units are located along the Cikapundung river bank and have a high population rate. The total population in the neighborhood of Tamansari is 25,138 people, or 5,100 households, of which 40% are migrants who rent bedrooms or houses to live in. Most of the migrants are university students. The monographic data of the Tamansari neighborhood shows that 42.9% of the population ended their educations after junior high school, while the remainder are engaged in high school to university studies. Only 3.6% of the population has not had any formal education. The per capita income for workers there ranges from Rp.500,000 – Rp 1,250,000 per month. Most of the residents are entrepreneurs (35.7%), laborers (5.4%), civil servants/police/military personnel (18.4%) and unemployed (13.5%). Because the houses are so close to each other and the population is so dense, this resulted in a serious environmental problem in the area. The sanitation conditions are poor; no septic tanks have been built there, instead, all the human waste is flushed from household toilets through PVC pipes directly into the Cikapundung River. Water from bathrooms, laundries and kitchens is also discharged directly into the Cikapundung River. Furthermore, the community is using the Cikapundung River as a means to dispose of their solid waste, although the government, through the Dinas TARKIM of West Java Province, has provided waste bins in the area. There is no solid waste management conducted by either the government or the community of Tamansari sub-village. The above conditions have resulted in a high level of contamination and disease within the community, mostly because of no access to clean water and the poor sanitation systems.

Photo by Seviana Hehanussa/ESP West java

Garbage in the Cikapundung River at Tamansari SubVillage

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

Data from the Community Health Clinic in Tamansari neighborhood shows that upper respiratory infections ranked first and diarrhea ranked sixth among the ailments most frequently suffered in the community. These health problems are due to the poor access to clean water and the poor sanitation practices and facilities that create an unhealthy living environment.

42


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

In 2005, the population density and poor environmental conditions that result in a high rate of diarrhea in most children under five, motivated USAID through ESP to undertake an intervention known as the the “Washing Hands with Soap” program in the Tamansari neighborhood along the Cikapundung River bank. This program had the objective of reducing incidences of diarrhea in this community that lacked proper sanitation systems. In 2006, ESP continued assistance to the community of Tamansari with a Community-Based Solid Waste Program that has 3 objectives: • Maximize the use of solid waste bins provided by the Dinas TARKIM of West Java Province; • Improve the cleanliness of the environment through community-based solid waste management; and • Stop people from disposing of waste in the Cikapundung River. This community-based solid waste management program, implemented from July 2006 through July 2007, is funded through the USAID-ESP Small Grants Program and the Coalition for a Healthy West Java (Koalisi untuk Jawa Barat Sehat: KuJBS) - a local NGO. Activities include: 1. A workshop on solid waste management for the community 2. Cadre preparation for solid waste management 3. Solid waste management actions in Administrative Units (RW) 15 and 20, at the Community Integrated Service Center Facilities (Posyandu) and Schools. 4. Introduction of the concept of the economic benefit of solid waste The community-based solid waste management program has been fully supported by Dinas BPLH (provincial environmental agency) and PD Kebersihan Kota Bandung (Garbage Collectors of Bandung) with the procurement of composters.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

43


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Tamansari Neighborhood in Bandung Wetan Sub-district of Bandung Municipality Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 107° 36' 26.45" E and 6° 54' 11.5" S • Altitude: 720 meters above sea level • Urban Area Total Population: 25,138 people (5,100 households) Public facilities available: schools, puskesmas helath center, posyandu integrated services center, market, village office Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM (70%); rest use deep wells Main Problems related to water supply: • Disposing of waste and household water into the river • Poor sanitation conditions (no septic tanks) • Disease: respiratory infections and diarrhea Current ESP Activities: • Hand washing with soap promotion • Initial stage of development of community-based solid waste management

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

44


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

7. CENTRAL JAVA/YOGYAKARTA 7.1.

MINI ESP IN TANGSI SUBWATERSHED – SAMBAK VILLAGE

Sambak village is located in Kajoran sub-district in the western part of Magelang District. The village in the Potorono Mountain region has mountainous topography. This village is at an altitude of 438 – 780 meter above sea level, with three rivers, as the special characteristics marking this village, crossing through the area. This area is categorized as highland, with fairly good secondary forest conditions providing this village with a comfortably cool environment. Sambak Village, a Potrait of a Small Village Going Ahead for Development Sambak village covers and area of 334.50 hectares, consisting 131.90 hectares of rice fields, 110.09 hectares of dry land for agroforestry, with 90 hectares of this classified as conservation forest. This means that more than half of the portion of dry land there is in a protected area. There are three rivers crossing through the village and 9 springs as water sources for the villagers. These water sorces are used for agricultural activities and domestic purposes. The total population is 2,180 people, with age group distribution of 32 % Photo by Nanang Budiyanto/ESP Central Java/Yogyakarta being of productive age (2145 years old) and 6 % being children under five years old. The educational status of this village is low, 261 people have no education diplomas and 706 people have only finished elementary school. Most of the people work in the agricultural sector (farmers or agricultural laborers). They also raise cattle to get additional income for savings. They also use the land in the state forest to plant cover crops under the trees to be used as cattle feed.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

45


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Sometimes the income from agricultural sector is not stable and not adequate for them. For this reason, villagers, who have the skills necessary, have established small-scale home industries to process agricultural products and bamboo handicrafts. Most of the men also have side jobs as small-scale traders and informal laborers in the surrounding towns. This is indicated from the gener composition of the village. Almost 90% of housing in the village is semi-permanent and more than 60% of the households have animal sheds inside the house. Most of the villagers use unimproved latrine facilities (no septic tank), but have enough clean water flowing in from a spring through a simple piping system. Based on the observation of their daily activities, the area residents seem to have the good attention to maintain the cleanliness of their environment. However hygiene is not practiced well, including the community-based management system for their resources. Sambak People: Very Proud of Their Village One of the major assets of this village with its 10 sub-villages is the community’s habit of holding regular meetings and social activities. Group movements, such village discussions toward problem solving, village security systems, and communal clean-up drives and and small-scale economic development, have been established in all sub-villages. Religious activities, such as Qur’an recitals, are being conducted by 12 religius groups, while 5 traditional performance groups maintain the cultural roots of this village. People in Sambak village have a high level of motivation to uphold their traditional nature conservation knowledge. Their will to conserve their forest has been indicated through a MoU between PT PERHUTANI (State owned Forestry Company) and LMDH (Forest Village Community Institution) to develop a partnership to manage the state forest. Beside that, they also have developed forest touristm and have asked an institution called “Cupu Mas” to manage a tourism area there. They also have leveraged funds from Local Government and other institutions, including funds from the community, to improve the tourism area step by step. In relation to forestry, they have built a “hut” as a meeting place and learning site for the community. They also built a communal animal shed to raise goats. A natural swimming pool has also been preserved and developed, including changing/bath rooms, as part of the facilities in the tourism area. The local people have adopted professional ways of serving visitors to their tourist sites, such as acting as event organizers for tourism packages. The community houses are ready to be used as simple and comfortable lodges for the visitors. The young people in the village have developed skill as tour guides. The women play roles by becoming chefs and serving good traditional foods. Local artists are also ready to put on traditional performances for visitors. The beautiful landscape of the village and the villagers’ abilities and willingness to develop tourism there enhance the area’s potential. People in Sambang village are very proud of their community. They are able to package even the simplest aspects of their village as something of economic value to be offered for the enjoyment of visitors. Although, still requiring support to increase the comfort of visitors who want to learn about the biodiversity of the area and to enjoy the nice natural panorama there, this community offers a prime example of a people’s movement toward developing their village, which makes it a good pilot site for the village development program.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

46


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Sambak Village, Kajoran Sub-district, Magelang District

Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 110 4’ 55.99” E 7 31’ 19.10” S • Altitude: 438 – 780 meters above sea level • Rural Area Total Population: 2,180 people Public facilities available: schools, posyandu integrated services center, local market, village office Clean Water Sources Available: springs d Main Problems related to water supply: • Springs contaminated by waste water from the household and agricultural activities • 95% of people have no septic tanks in their latrine facilities • Cleared land inside the protected area

Current ESP Activities: • ESP Field school • Local policy development • Support of development of forest tourism • Community-based water supply • Pride campaign

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

47


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

7.2.

MINI ESP IN TANGSI SUBWATERSHED – SUTOPATI VILLAGE

Sutopati Village is one of the Mini ESP sites in the Central Java Region. This village is located in the Tangsi sub-watershed of the Progo watershed. As the second village from the top of Sumbing Mt., Sutopati, it is located 812.5 -1.312.5 meters above sea level. Geographically, the village is located at 7°26’0”S - 7°28’10”S and 110°3’27”E - 110°5’42”E. The border of the village is Sukomakmur village in the north, Kaliangkrik subdistrict in the east, Sukorejo village Photo by Nanang Budiyanto/ESP Central Java/Yogyakarta in the south and Wonosobo district in the west. Like the other villages around the mountain, Sutopati village is rich with water sources. There are 17 springs and 5 rivers running across the village, one of them being the Curug Silawe waterfall that is well known as a tourist site in Magelang District. Unfortunately, this natural resource is not properly managed by the community yet; poor drainage and drinking water distribution systems are still apparent there. Sutopati village has an area of + 999 Ha. Most of this (95%) is dry land, with only 5% utilized as rice fields. Most of land use (567 Ha) is agroforestry. This land is located in a hilly area with a 30% slope. This type of land has a big potential for erosion. Area residents use the terrace system and cultivate rice and secondary crops, including several types of vegetables. There are + 150 Ha of state forest and + 200 Ha of community forest in this village, and around 45 Ha of this is critical land. Land conversion from agroforestry to seasonal agriculture purposes is expanding. Sutopati village is categorized as a poor village. More than half of the total population (around 946 households) live under the poverty level. The total population of Sutopati Village is 7,074 people, with a fairly equal distribution of gender and age groups. The level of education is low: 1,370 people have no formal education degree, and 3,840 people have only elementary school education. The main livelihood of the people in this village is farming, but most of them Photo by Nanang Budiyanto/ESP Central Java/Yogyakarta are small holder farmers. Their income is unstable because the agricultural there activities are not predictable. To secure ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

48


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

income, people take outside jobs as informal laborers.The poverty of this community can be seen from the condition of their houses; most people there have only semi-permanent housing, with many having cattle inside their houses. The village has 13 public toilets, but people still tend to dispose of waste in ponds or gardens. Many use pipes to distribute clean water from the springs to their houses, however most of people still get water from open tanks and other water sources. This village community still adheres to the local tradition of gotong royong, or mutual assistance, in their farming activities. Communal meetings are conducted regularly, even though the meeting agenda is not managed clearly. People also still uphold the values of traditional knowledge and culture in this community, as is reflected in the 15 traditional cultural groups still actively performing there. Concervation of the natural environment is an integral aspect of their culture, although the difficult economic conditions push people into illegal logging in the forest to get wood for fuel for domestic puposes and to sell outside of their village to generate income.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

49


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Sutopati Village in Kajoran Sub-district, Magelang District

Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 7°26’0”S - 7°28’10”S and 110°3’27”E - 110°5’42” • Altitude: 812.5 -1,312.5 meters above sea level • Rural Area

Total Population: 7,074 people (946 households) Public facilities available: schools, village office, market, posyandu integrated service center, puskesmas health center Clean Water Sources Available: Main Problems related to water supply: • Bad drainage system and drinking water distribution system • Land conversion from agroforestry into seasonal agriculture • Hygiene is still poor among populace Current ESP Activities: • ESP Field school • Local policy development • Pride campaign

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

50


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

7.3.

CLEAN, GREEN AND HYGIENE IN YOGYAKARTA The Gondolayu administrative unit belongs to Cokrodiningratan neighborhood of Jetis subdistrict in Yogyakarta. This administrative unit is located along the banks of the Code River at an altitude of 120 meters above sea level. The geo-reference of this area is 110° 22’ 04.25” E (BT) and 7° 46’ 54.97” S (LS).

Although the area is hidden behind high buildings and hotels, the local community Photo by Oni Hartono/ESP Central Java/Yogyakarta already has a movement An area of sub-village X that is clean, beautiful and green. toward “care of the environment” through the implementation of solid waste management and regreening of their kampong. This movement is run by a community group called “Bumi Lestari” in administrative unit #10 (RW X). Community-based Solid Waste Management The community-based solid waste management (CBSWM) activities in Gondolayu, Yogyakarta, are focused in RW X in the Cokrodiningratan neighborhood of Jetis sub-district. The motivator of this activity is the head of the sub-village, Mr. CA Suyanto, who leads the daily activities of this program, together with his wife Tri Suharni. This couple helped establish the Bumi Lestari Group on December 24, 2005. The objectives of the establishment of the Bumi Lestari Group are: 1) uphold the value of working together (gotong royong); 2) create a clean and healthy community; 3) establish self-sufficiency in community-based solid waste management; and 4) conservation of the natural environment. Starting with the Regreening Program supported by the Public Service Office of Yogyakarta City (Dinas Kebersihan Keindahan dan Pemakaman/DKKP) in 2005, this sub-village eventually became the site of a pilot project for this program. At that time, each household had to plant flowers and herbal crops to make their households green and beautiful, while also providing herbal medicine for their families. The success of RW X as a pilot project site for the regreening program for urban areas stimulated the Public Service Office (DKKP) of Yogyakarta City to also conduct a pilot program on solid waste management there in 2006, along with other locations in Yogyakarta City. DKKP provided financial support to familiarize the public with the program and to develop garbage containers to stimulate program implementation. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

51


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

The concept developed for CBSWM in Gondolayu involves solid waste management starting at the waste sources. Efforts began with a public awareness campaign on waste separation. Of the total number of households in the sub-village, only 195 household (5% of total population) are committed to participating in program activities. Most people say they produce very little waste that they can throw away by themselves.

Photo by Oni Hartono/ESP Central Java/Yogyakarta

A waste separation program has already been established in this area.

The plastic, paper, metal/can and glass waste are separated into different containers. The organic waste from the kitchen and house is collected separately. They have their own design for the garbage containers, with a tap at the bottom of the containers to release the waste leachate that can be used to make organic fertilizers. As part of this program, each household received two plastic 40 litter volume waste containers, which can accomodate around 30 kg of waste each. One container is used to collect new organic waste from the kitchen and the other container is used to compost the waste. The duration for the composting process is around a one month period. If it can be assumed that each household will produce 1 kg of compost, in a one month period, it can be expected that one garbage container will become full while the composting process will have been completed in the other, with the compost ready to use. During the composting process, the waste will produce leachate, which is collected from the bottom of the container. People release the leachate from the container with the tap at the bottom and use it as organic fertilizer.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

52


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Gondolayu Administrative Unit in Cokrodiningratan Neighborhood, Jetis Sub-district, Yogyakarta

Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 110° 22’ 04.25” E and 7° 46’ 54.97” S • Altitude: 120 m above sea level • Urban Area Total Population: 1,015 people (203 households Public facilities available: sub-village office, schools, integrated services center, and mosques. Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM, borehole well. Sanitation system: part of city-wide sanitation system Main Problems related to water and sanitation: • Bad drainage system that causes flooding, especially during rainy season • People’s awareness of need to support improved community-based solid waste management Current ESP Activities: • Community-based solid waste management through Field School participated in by 32 households

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

53


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

8. EAST JAVA 8.1.

ANCHOR SITE IN SURABAYA – WONOKROMO NEIGHBORHOOD

Wonokromo is one of the neighborhoods in Surabaya Municipality that has a high density of population. Most of the people in the area are of low socio-economic status. As of August 2005, Wonokromo neighborhood had 7,741 households with a total population of 39,713 people. Wonokromo has 8 administrative units and 6 neighborhood associations. It has a total of 72 integrated village service and health care centers (posyandu), with 3,740 children under the of five participating in health care programs there. Accroding to Eko Sutrasno, the head of the Wonokromo neighborhood, in administrative units #6 and 7, people have poor income generating, cleanliness and health status. The problems in Wonokromo are related to water and sanitation, and are centered mostly in the river pollution from domestic waste. This affects the health and sanitation conditions of the neighborhood. Also, flooding often happens during the rainy season. These problems are the reasons for ESP’s selection of these administrateive units as an intervention area. Geographycally, these two administrative units are close to each other, separated only by a road, so it is easy to provide support to the aera. Another reason is because administrative unit #7 is located along the banks of the Kalimas River, which is among the branches of the Brantas River that divides in Mojokerto. One of the other branches is the Kalimas River that flows to Surabaya and another one is the Porong River that flows along Sidoarjo District.

Photo by ESP East java

River conditions in Wonokromo Village that create problems for the people living there. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

54


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

This neighborhood is known as an ESP “anchor site” because ESP has a partnership with other institutions, including USAID partners and NGOs. The other institutions that work with ESP are HSP and SWS (USAID partners), Uli Peduli – Unilever, KOMPOS and Plan International. As of August 2006, administrative unit #6 in Wonokromo was populated by 1,027 households or 4,672 people. Of this population, there are 325 children under the age of five. The children are categorized as follows: • Age 0 – 12 months: 50 children • Age 13 – 36 months: 150 children • Age 37 – 60 months: 125 children Administrative unit #7 is populated by 1,359 households or 6,212 people, of whom 560 are children under five. The children are categorized as follows: • Age 0 – 12 months: 109 children • Age 13 – 36 months: 248 children • Age 37 – 60 months: 203 children There are 4 pre-schools and 5 elemnatry schools in these administrative units (VI and VII). As part of ESP’s assessment in Wonokromo neighborhood, ESP conducted a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on July 21, 2005 in administrative unit #7 to identify the current hygiene behavior of the people before ESP conducted the intervention. This process was participated in by 6 men and 6 women, all common community members, not leaders or activists, in separate discussions held on the basis of gender. The summary results for hygiene behavior are: o Male respondents don’t wash their hands before eating regularly; if they do wash their hands, they use only water, no soap. o Most females respondents wash their hands regularly, do not always use soap. They tend to dry their hands after hand washing on any cloth that is readily available (their clothes or curtains, etc.). o Male respondents often dispose of garbage in the river. Frequently, especially when their children defecate at night, they put the feces in plastic bags, which they drop into the river. o Both male and female respondents often dispose of trash in the river. Before the program on hygiene improvement started in Wonokromo, ESP conducted an initial workshop involving coordinators from each community groups in developing action plans. Six months after the implementation of the hand washing with soap promotion, several follow-up activities were undertaken in sub-villages VI and VII, as follow: 1. Activities with Women’s Wealfare Group (PKK) and Integrated Village Health Care (Posyandu): o Regular meetings of health care cadre o Regular meetingsof PKK o Regular meetings between PKK committee and health care cadre o Dissemination of information in connection with hygiene promotion through health center activities

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

55


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

2. Activities at school involving teachers and students: o Regular teachers’ meetinge o Story sharing among students o Clean Friday o Discussion and demonstration of hand washing with soap in the classroom o Puppet Show

Photo by ESP East Java

Hygiene Promotion Activities in Wonokromo Village conducted by community people and participated in by school children.

3. Activities with Community and Religious Leaders: o Meetings among community and religious leaders and the ESP campaign team o Meetings with teachers of Moslem Schools and teachers of Al-Qur’an reading sessions o Involvement in regular meetings of men’s Moslem group o Public service information programs after Friday prayers o Involvement in regular meetings of women’s Moslem group. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

56


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

4. Activities with community youth group: o Regular meetings among neighborhood representatives of youths from each subvillage o Meetings with members of youth groups o Sharing stories among youth groups These activites culminated in joint action resulting in a competion for puppet play writing. After the competition, a puppet show was held featuring the plays that won the competition.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

57


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Wonokromo Neighborhood in Wonokromo Sub-district of Surabaya Municipality Geographical Conditions: • Geo-reference: 112O 43’ 54.36” E and 7O 18’ 18.07” S • Altitude: 3 – 6 meters above sea level • Urban area

Total Population: 39,713 people Public facilities available: school, integrated public services center, village office, health center, private hospital, public latrine. Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM and surface water well (bored well) Main Problems related to water and sanitation: • Disposal of waste in the river • Flooding due to bad drainage system • Water shortage, especially during dry season • 60% of people doesn’t have private toilet facilities • Health problems, especially for children: malnutrition and diarrhea • High rate of poor families

Current ESP Activities: • Hygiene promotion: campaigns and community drives for hand washing with soap, solid waste management and sanitation • Community-based solid waste management: waste separation, re-use and recycling of waste, regreening of the kampong • Promotion of safe points of water use (Air Rahmat)

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

58


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

8.2.

BLUE THREAD IN TEMAS (SUMBER BRANTAS SUB-WATERSHED)

In the history of Batu Municipality, it was once know as the ”De Kleine Switzerland” or Little Switzerland on Java Island because Batu of its relatively cool climate (150-190 Celsius) and because it is surrounded by a hilly area. Batu is located in the foothills of Mt. Panderman at 700 to 1700 meters above sea level. These conditions have made Batu famous as “Apple Town” because apple trees grow well in this area, as do other agricultural products, especially vegetables and fruit. Because of the natural beauty of the Batu area, agriculture and tourism have become an important part of the people’s livelihoods in Batu. One of the ESP locations in Batu Municipality is Temas Village, which is located in the Upper Brantas Watershed Area at BT 112O 32’ 31” and LS -7O 52’ 37”. Historically, Temas Village is recognized as the initial establishment site of Batu. However, this is not the reason for ESP to select this location as one of its target areas. There are several environmental problems related to clean water supply in Temas Village that motivated ESP to help the people there. The main environmental problem of Temas Village is waste management. The waste comes not only from households, but also from small- scale home industries, such as poultry (chicken) processing and tofu production.

Photo by ESP east Java

Domestic and industrial waste pollutes the Brantas River.

ESP East Java has been working in this village since August 2005. The efforts were begun with a Sustainable Livelihood Assessment (SLA) that involved a group of community members to assess the condition of the village. The SLA in Temas Village identified several problems, including: 1. Management of industrial waste from poultry processing and tofu production, which has caused skin diseases due to non-hygienic water/irrigation systems. 2. Two sub-villages have limited access to clean water 3. Poor solid waste management of market waste; temporary waste disposal sites and disposal of garbage/ waste (industrial and household) in the river.

The problem of industrial waste in Temas Village, which is rooted in human behavior and practices, affects the overall waste management situation there. Most of the waste from the poultry processing (chicken feathers, blood, intestines, etc.) is thrown into the river. This practice guides other people to throw other waste into the river. Rice Agriculture is one of the important livelihoods for people live in Temas Village, and the irrigation system for rice fields in Temas Village is dependent on the river. The poisoning of the river with waste has created health problems for farmers, especially skin ailments. From the environmental point of view, the irrigation system is badly contaminated. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

59


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Photo by ESP East Java

Solid waste clogs the Brantas River due to the existing waste disposal practices of Temas Village residents.

The Community Group of Temas Village is a member of Community Forum for Water and Environmental Conservation (Forum Kajian Air dan Lingkungan Hidup Menuju Selaras Alam: FOKAL MESRA) that is very active ing seeking solutions to the waste problem in their village. FOKAL MESRA has asked for support from Local Government and ESP to solve the waste problem in Temas Village. Three types of strategies have been developed by FOKAL MESRA to handle waste management in Temas: community based, household based and interface based. Household based management of waste focuses on the classic 3R strategy (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) for processing and handling household waste. Interface-based waste management involves TPA and TPS in Temas village and other local policies. The community-based waste management approach focuses on water transportable waste, such as solid or liquid waste that is dumped directly into the river, and is implemented on a community-wide scale.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

60


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Photo by Arief Hakim/ESP East Java

Activities of FOKAL MESRA relating to Waste Management issues.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

61


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Several activities have been conducted by ESP in Temas Village in order to solve the problem of waste management: 1. Workshop on waste management 2. Regular meetings of FOKAL MESRA 3. Community nursery for homestead gardens 4. Community scale waste water management through development of wetland areas Waste water management through wetland facilities has been developed with the support of funding from the Local Government of Batu Municipality. The Local Government (Pemkot Batu) has agreed agree to invest Rp.100,000,000 for developing wetland. Several activities will be conducted in the following couple of months, such as training on utilization of organic waste matter for cattle and small ruminant feeding, and the improved processing of organic waste matter through decomposition and fermentation into better quality organic fertilizer. Development of Wetland Facility for Waste Water Management

Photo by Arief Lukman Hakim/ESP East Java

Training on the Designing of the Wetland Facility.

Photo by Arief Lukman Hakim/ESP East Java

Launching of the Development of the Wetland Facility by Mayor of Batu Municipality

Photo by Arief Lukman Hakim/ESP East Java

Part of the development process for the Wetland Facility in Temas Village of Batu Municipality.

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

62


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES

Map of Temas Village in Batu Sub-district of Batu Municipality Geographical Condition: • Geo-reference: BT 112O 32’ 31” and LS -7O 52’ 37” • Altitude: 650 meters above sea level • Rural Area Total Population: 11.720 people Public facilities available: school, posyandu, village office, market Clean Water Sources Available: PDAM, bore well and spring Main Problems related to water supply: • Industrial waste water management • Solid waste management from households • Throwing waste in the river • Limited access to clean water • Waste Disposal site ESP Current Activities: • Development of waste water management through Wetland Facility • Strengthening of community network through FOKAL MESRA • Community nursery for homestead garden ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

63


ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM Ratu Plaza Building, 17th. Fl. Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 9 Jakarta 10270 Indonesia Tel. +62-21-720-9594 Fax. +62-21-720-4546 www.esp.or.id


PROFILE OF ESP LONGITUDINAL STUDY SITES