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RADIOACTIVE Magazine the



auc ASTRONOMY club Reaching New Heights


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the girl next door

When do supernovas occur? The magical world of Nebulae

eshraka Sumrain amr waguih mohammad ashraf osama al shoabi Ahmed Yasser

andromeda The girl next door By: Amr Waguih A

ccording to ancient Greek mythology king Qafaus married a beautiful woman called queen Cassiopeia, and they had beautiful daughter, her name was Princess Andromeda. The Queen was proud of the beauty of her daughter, even she considered her more beautiful than mermaids and she thought Andromeda was the fairest of the whole universe. This made the mermaids angry and they complained to Neptune god the sea. Then Neptune sent a beast to Ethiopia, where Andromeda was living, and chained at one of the beaches. When Perseus passed by near her, he was impressed by her beauty and iron chains and rescued her after killing the monster that was by sent Neptune God of the sea. Andromeda Galaxy is one the most famous galaxies after our own Milky Way, because it is the nearest galaxy to us. Where 2.5 million lightyears only separates the Milky Way and Andromeda, as it resembles our galaxy also in terms of shape it is classified within spiral galaxies. Also one of the main reasons that increased her fame that this galaxy could be seen with the naked eye if the sky is clear, quite dark no moonlight and there is no city lights.

to the fact dust in the in spectral the galaxy qualities outskirts

that only a few tens only In contrast, the temperature of the center of the galaxy is much higher with the serial change colors. As well as the birth of new stars near the center of where stars and dense material, which is different from the of what is happening on the of the galaxy.

Moreover, the number of stars in the Andromeda galaxy outnumbers stars in our galaxy. It is estimated that the Andromeda galaxy is made up of about a trillion stars, while the estimated number of the Milky Way galaxy is about 400 billion stars. However, in the recent period space telescope "Herschel Space Observatory". revealed through images and analyzes conducted on the Andromeda galaxy by infrared rays, for spiral stylish Andromeda galaxy like correspond in the beauty of the galaxy between ancient Greek mythology and the scientific outlook of modern, where it was noted that the block Andromeda galaxy much less than the mass of our Milky Way galaxy even though the number of stars Andromeda much bigger stars of our Milky Way galaxy, as previously reported.

andromeda galaxy The analysis also revealed that the gas rings located on the outskirts of the Andromeda galaxy is very cold, so close to absolute zero temperature of the universe and that up to 270 degrees Celsius below zero , not to exceed the temperature of this gas from absolute zero

The Milky Way

Andromeda, Picture taken by Herschel Space Observatory with infrared rays

Amr Waguih

Amr Waguih

Lets Explore

Space 1












Hottest planet in the solar system 4. Planet that contains a moon called Ganymede 6. Planet that contains Olympus Mons is a large volcanic mountain 7. Galaxy that contains Earth 9. Name of Saturn's largest moon 10. Name of NASA's most famous space telescope

2. 3. 5. 7. 8.


Name of the first satellite into space Nearest galaxy to Milky Way Planet known as the red planet Closest planet to the sun The sun is a star or a planet

The NEbula the beauty of spACE By: Mohammad Ashraf Throughout history, people have

always wondered what is out there in the vast space. Space is full of magnificent and extraordinary things, such as, planets, stars and galaxies. One of the things out there that might have caught peoples attention is the "Nebula". Nebulae are interstellar clouds of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Somehow these simple elements come together to form a magical looking and almost fairytale like masterpiece in the canvas of space. At first, Nebula was the name given to astronomical objects, such as galaxies. Nebulas are known to be the "star forming regions" as in this particular area, gases, dust and other materials are joined together to form larger and denser masses. This process attracts more matter, which will ultimately grow big enough to form stars. The material left after this procedure is said to form planetary systems. The first nebula was discovered by the Persian Muslim astronomer, Abd Al Rahman AlSufi, who called it 'a little cloud' where the Andromeda galaxy is now known to be. Later on, many people have studied the behavior and the formation of nebulas. In the 16th century many astronomers discovered the Orion Nebula. The Orion Nebula is a diffuse nebula; it

Portion of Carina Nebula

located south of Orion's belt. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and can be seen by the naked eye in the night when the sky is clear. It is the closest account of huge star formations to earth. Orion Nebula is approximately 24 light years across, and it has a combined mass of about 2000 times the mass of the sun. Orion Nebula was also known as the "Great Nebula" in Orion or the "Great Orion Nebula". This particular Nebula has revealed so much about the mech� anism of how stars and plane� tary systems are formed from col�

Many nebulae or stars form from the gravitational downfall of gas in the ISM, or interstellar medium. As the physical collapses below its own heaviness, large stars could form in the center, and their ultraviolet radiation ionizes the encircling gas, making it visible at optical wavelengths. Examples of these kinds of nebulae are the Rosette Nebula and the Pelican Nebula. The size of these nebulae, recognized as HII spans, varies reliant on the size of the early cloud of gas. New stars are industrialized in the nebulae. The industrialized stars are recognized from time to time as a youthful, loose cluster. Most nebulae can be described as diffuse nebulae, as mentioned earlier in the article. This means that they are extended and have no well known boundaries. In visible light these nebulae could be separated into emission and reflection nebulae. Emission nebulae emit spectral line radiation from ionized gas "mostly ionized hydrogen". Nebulae do not emit light directly, rather, they are near stars that reflect from them. Although these nebulae have disparate visibility at optical wavelengths, they are all brilliant origins of infrared emission, chiefly from the dust inside the nebulae.

When does supernova occur? It occurs when a star with a very high mass reaches the end of its journey or life. When the nuclear fusion in the center of the star stops, the star collapses. Gases that fall inside, either rebounds or gets heated, so much so that it expands outside the core, which causes the star to explode. The explosions form a supernova remnant, a special kind of diffuse nebula. People are always wondering, what is out there? Space is massive and ever changing. Real magic isn't just here on earth; it's out there, in the vast unknown

The Triangulum Emission of Garren Neb� ula nursery

Tycho Supernova remnant in Xray light

Mohammad Ashraf

An Interview With

Dr. Fady Morcos By: Mohammad Ashraf In

order to know more about space, we do not have to go for. Fortunately, our very own Dr. Fady Morcos, is an Aerospace engineer who worked in NASA a while back. I sat with Dr. Fady and asked him about his career, what he learned through the process and what does he think about space in Egypt and AUC. Mohamed: Tell me about your career Dr. Fady: In 1997 I entered AUC. I was mechanical engineer. I trans� ferred to USC after three semes� ters. I got my Bachelor and Mas� ters in aerospace engineering, after that I got my PHD in astrodynam� ics from the University of Texas. Mohamed: What is your contribution to NASA? Dr. Fady: I was a graduate student in the University of Texas; the university was one of the participants in a NASA project. The project was to design a trajectory and optimization software, just a generic design database for planets, moons, stars and comets in the solar system. 10 agencies were in this project. My team started developing the software in 2006. Later on, we were provided further funding to continue developing. In 2009 me and my team� mates received best software of the year and an award for innova� tive and creative idea. This soft� ware was used by many officers NASA officers and it will be used to make a trajectory to the moon. Mohamed: What can you say about space? How does it fascinate you?

about the history, the future and about us. It is not as complex as string theory. Space is something they can visualize and see, so it's more fun, you do not have to put an equation next to supernova to understand it. The idea of people going to space, space stations, moon and the mechanism of going to space fascinates me. The best thing is to be able to visualize things that are hard to see. Mohamed: What do you think about space here in Egypt and AUC? Dr. Fady: I think that it is a tough career here in Egypt, because there is no space industry, no companies and no agencies. In the Cairo University they have a space department but, they mostly deal with planes not space. The job opportunities are very few in Egypt. You cannot have a space industry without a supporting government, The DOD in USA funds NASA. The reason why we do not have an industry is because we do not have a strong defense industry. In AUC we are trying to offer a minor in space and technology, it opens new doors in the job market and the Astronomy club is very active too.

Puzzling space

Mohammad Ashraf

Asteroids Comets Galaxy Ionization Moon Nebula Orion Planet Solar Stars Supernova

Eshraka Sumrain

The H.S.T

Hubble Space Telescope - a look into the future and the past It hasn't been just a crucial By: Eshraka Sumrain research tool for astronomers, but has also proven to be a public Although it isn't the first itrelations boost for Astronomy in space telescope to be released into space, the Hubble Space Telescope remains to be the most versatile and one of the largest and most known space telescopes around the world. It was, however, the first space telescope designed to overcome the distortion of images caused by the Earth's atmosphere atmosphere. Named after the famous American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, the telescope has recorded some of the most extraordinarily detailed images of outer space ever, allowing us not just a look into space, but into time as well when considering the lapse in time as a result of the enormous distances between all entities in space. It's location in low Earth orbit "approximately 607 kilometers in altitude" allows it to be in the perfect position to avoid any disturbances by Earth's atmosphere, in order to take exceptionally high resolution images without the aid of background light.

The Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis

general. People have started to take interest in space much more than they have before, giving rise to countless popu� lar and successful space documentaries by famous channels such as Dis� covery and National Geographic. As mentioned earlier, the Hubble Space Telescope has led to numerous discoveries and breakthroughs in the field of Astrophysics. Such advances as that of determining the rate of expansion of the universe, that further corroborated Edwin Hubble's famous hypothesis that he Earth is indeed expanding, and at an accelerating rate. It was because of this vital discovery that the space telescope was named after Edwin Hubble. The HST was built and developed by the United States of America's space agency, NASA, along with assistance from the European Space Agency. It was launched into space in 1990 by a space shuttle and although its expected life was 15 years, it still re� mains operational even today, thanks to "Team Hubble", a team of hundreds of scientists, engineers and technicians in NASA who assume the tremendous responsibility of monitoring, maintaining and developing the

years. The optical range of the Hubble Space Telescope ranges from 1,100 to 11,000 angstroms, and the performance quality of the ultraviolet is quite unique. Below is an illustration of the Optical Telescope Assembly

accelerating speed. "No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it… Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy." Dark Enercy, as explained by Team Hubble, is a mysterious force

According to Team Hubble themselves, Hubble "has beamed hundreds of thousands of images back to Earth, shedding light on many of the great mysteries of astronomy. Its gaze has helped determine the age of the universe, the identity of quasars, and the existence of dark energy." The Hubble Space Telescope aided in discovering the age of the universe as the observations of distant supernovas captured by HST showed that a long time ago, the universe was actually expanding, and at a much slower rate than it is today, therefore dismissing the hypothesis that the universe is slowing down due to gravity. The Hubble Space Telescope exposed that on the contrary, the universe is expanding at an

causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. It is evident here that, through the discovery of the age of the universe, Hubble Space Telescope helped in the development of a new hypothesis explaining the expansion of the universe. According to Team Hubble, they were able to use the HST to determine that the universe is about 13 to 14 billion years old. The Hubble Space Telescope observes and explores the world around us 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Just imagine the possibilities of scientific discoveries was can make using this tremendous scientific tool. It has truly transformed the way scientists look at the universe.

hubble discoveries

Eshraka Sumrain


let’s play a game! can you spot the phenomena? Eshraka Sumrain

Below are a set of images captured by the Hubble Space Telescopes. The images are quite extraordinary. on the next page are a set of descriptions that define the astronomical phenomena seen in the images taken by HST. Can you match the right description with the right image? "Centaurus A"

1 4

Nebule "NGC 6543" The "Bubble" Nebula


5 Impact of Comet 'Shoemaker Levy 9"

"Nix" & "hydra"

Eshraka Sumrain

a. this nebula is considered to be "the most complex planetary nebulae discovered to date." It has unique features that include complex knot structures, gas jets and multiple bubles and arcs. its famous for looking like an eye and has therefore been given the name "The Cat"s eye nebula."

b. additional objects beyond pluto?! what? yes! the hubble space telescope has revealed much about the dwarf planet. photo evidence indicate there are several moons that come after Pluto, the "charon" moon and these two.

c. this nebula was discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel in 1787. photographic evidense from the hubble space telescope tell us that this nebula has a star that is estimated to be 45 times larger than our sun, and has a surface temparature of 44,540 degrees. Astronomers are still unlocking secrets from within this Nebula and learning new things about the star nursery. It is also known to have a bubble like shape in the middle of it.

d. this galaxy is one of the closest radio galaxies to the milky way. here, the hubble space telescope caught a supermassive black whole within this galaxy in the process of eating up another galaxy, and releasing massive amounts of energy and material in the process.

e. In this phenomena, a comet path was dramatically altered when it was sucked in by the gravity of Jupiter, one of our very own planets. Jupiter is a large gas planet and is the largest planet in our solar system (F.Y.i). This change in trajectory, put the comet on a collision course with the planet, and hubble space telescope took this image of the impact"s aftermath. Answers: 1.c, 2.e, 3.d, 4.a, 5.b

can you make it to the north star?

Eshraka Sumrain

ahmed yasser

a history of spacefaring by: Ahmed Yasser A

s humans, our history as a spacefaring species is quite young. Though the 52 years since Yuri Gagarin became the first human to venture into outer space may seem like a long time ago, in the grand scale of things it's relatively quite short. And while there have been lulls relatively in how much the field is being pushed, each a ttempt and venture to space progressively builds upon the experience collected within these years. It's certainly an exciting time for anyone interested in space, in more ways than one. Along the way, many milestones in space faring have been reached. After Yuri's 108 minutes in space made headlines worldwide, the Soviet Union doubled down shortly after with the first woman in space Valentina Tereshkova, a feat which stayed unmatched from the American side for 20 years. Two years latďż˝ er, the Soviet Union added yet another milestone to its achievements list, when astronaut Alexey Leonov performed mankind's first spacewalk. America's Project Apollo started gaining fame three years for its Apollo 8 mission, which managed to circle the moon and make it back. One year later, NASA made history with the Apollo 11 mission when astronaut Neil Armstrong

step for man, one giant leap for mankind.". This act would be called by many a hoax, and would continue to be contested till present day. When NASA sent the third Apollo mission intended to land on the moon, Apollo 13, they faced unexpected disaster when the internal oxygen tank exploded. The crew miraculously avoided death and managed to land safely back on Earth thanks to brilliant efforts of the NASA crew on the ground. This ordeal was very well popularized by the "Apollo 13" movie. While the early days of space flights were marked with the space race between NASA and the Soviet space program as how most of the world saw it back then. Over time the field changed, where back then the relation between agencies was that of competition, it has shifted into cooperation. The first event marking this shift was in 1975, when a space rendezvous between the Soviets and the USA happened with the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission. The Soyuz and Apollo vehicles docked together, testing for the first time the capability of cross agency space vehicle compatibility. One of the biggest examples you'd find of this shifted policy as well would be the establishment of the International

the first space station to be launched, as the Soviet Union managed that feat earlier with the Salyut 1. The Salyut 1 project was marred with issues however, with docking problems encountered early on, the death of its crew before their return to Earth, and its short lifetime of less than a year before it burned up in the Earth's atmosphere. Nowadays, there are a lot more initiatives coming around from all over the world. Many more countries have launched their own space agencies, each having their forays into different fields. Among those spearheading future manned space missions are India, Japan, the ESA "European Space Agency", as well as China, who are planning a lunar landing as well. In addition, most of these space agencies have contributed into the construction and funding of the $100 billion International Space Station, which earns it the title of being the most expensive structure ever made. Having just completed construction last year after a 14 years building duration, it serves as a lab where a multitude of tests and experiments in a variety of fields including exploration and human health in space. Having these test done in space allows the benefits of immediately obtaining results in real time. With national space agencies around the world hitting budgetary limits, similar to what happened with NASA, new avenues of funding had to open up or else major research and building efforts would halt, pushing back any further aspirations of space exploration more years away. Enter space tourism, the new vector that is supposed to bring in new funding and help bypass this roadblock. In 2001, Dennis Tito made headlines when he visited the International Space

ahmed yasser tourist, paying $20 million for the privilege. An industry started building around this concept, and the at first astronomical prices have gradually come down. But while his trip and a few others were done on ROSCOSMOS equipment, a few years later entirely private spaceflight was a reality when in 2004 SpaceShipOne traveled within sub orbit and back. Another milestone within this field was reached in 2010 when SpaceX managed to recover its capsule which was launched

“That's one small step for man — one giant leap for mankind." - Neil Armstrong

Is an Egyptian Space program a possibility? by: Ahmed Yasser Compared

to other countries around the world, Egypt's space related efforts are quite a bit young and underdeveloped, as is the case with most neighbouring countries in the region. In fact, Egypt does not have a fully functional space agency in the vein of the USA's NASA or the Russian ROSCOSMOS. What Egypt does have however, is somewhat close. The earliest activity within this area in Egypt came from the Egyptian Academy of the Scientific Research and Technology, ASRT, which was an American Egyptian joint project established in 1971. One year after establishment, a Remote Sensing Centre was established within ASRT, forming the precursor for what is to come.In 1991, the General Authority for Remote Sensing was established, and fell under the Ministry of State for Scientific Reach. Three years later, it was restructured into the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, NARSS, and fell under the Ministry of Scientific Research. NARSS consists of two divisions, one for remote sensing applications and the other focuses on space science and technology. Each of the two divisions supposedly covers a large scope of scientific research and activity. However with over a hundred experts in manpower, three separate facilities and a large list of international cooperation deals, there has been no real produced work in NARSS' name with the exception of research papers and a few proposed projects that never got off the ground.

there have been no significant accomplishments or milestones that NARSS has reached to speak of, yet it continues to receive large amounts of funding from the government. The institution's current state seems to be no secret to its members, as its director Mohamed Adel Yehia puts it: "In terms of space programs, Egypt is now lagging behind countries like Algeria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Nigeria". The reasons are many, government and political factors take the brunt of the blame according to Yehia, which could be the reason why even the simplest of projects such as the EgyptSat has failed. After a deafening silence for so many years on any type of advancement or activity within this field in Egypt, the first signs of activity came within the second half of the year. Last September, Medhat Mokhtar, the current head of NARSS, announced Egypt's intent to build a National Space Agency. Although the announcement was quite vague, he outlined that this new agency would be separate and independent from the existing NARSS. He also clarified that it would receive special status from the government. Many have called this announcement "empty", and as with many things currently going on in the country, a political tool. Essam Heggy, the President's advisor for scientific matters, reconfirmed the intent of building the National Space Agency, although he clarified that it has yet to be reviewed the current interim

ahmed yasser

words of space

apollo iss spacex

armstrong nasa moon gagarin

space science

education in egypt When an Arab or a Muslim thinks about studying Space Science, the first thing he starts planning for is travelling to a western country in order to pursue a de� gree in astronomy in one of the univer� sities there. Many of us might not even think about searching for universities in the Middle East that offers such a degree, assuming that none does. Even when I was writing this article, didn't think there would be any contributions that Egypt would be able to offer to the community of astronauts and space science scholars. After researching about this topic I was astonished while reading an article talking about Space Science in Egypt and the solar eclipses written by A. A. Hady ; the Secretary Gen� eral of the Egyptian Council of Space and remote sensing. The article states that Egypt was one of the first, if not the only Arab country that put efforts in the studies of Space Science in the early 20th century. Since the start of the modern Space Science and Astronomy education started in 1936 as a university degree level at the department of As� tronomy of Cairo University, students were able to pursue a B. Sc in Astron� omy from Cairo University starting from their 3rd year after studying Mathematics and Physics for two years. Upon graduat� ing they can still pursue their Master and PhD from the same university, Master students are required to take courses designed for 11 months followed by 1 year of thesis

by: Osama Al Shoabi

preparations, and PhD is continued according to the international level. With the increased interest in Space Science education, about five students yearly obtain their P.hD degrees in Astronomy and Space Science from Egyptian universities. Researches in Space Science started early in the 20th century, and Egypt showed a great interest in the new branch of Science that the world has started given a great deal of consideration. This interest was shown in the several projects that took place on Egyptian lands throughout the 20th century such as, On Feb 1910, Space Science observations started in Cairo university observatory in Helwan, it measured the solar radiation at normal incidence until Dec 1927. Another one took place in Saint Catrine Mountains of Sinai from 1935 to 1954; Whereas New Solar Radiation Equipments were installed at selected locations Helwan, Abu Simbel, Hurghada, and Marsa Matrouh from 1989 until 1998. Today, Daily maps and photographs are being taken regularly of the Sun disk since 1964. One of the equipments that were installed in Helwan in 1964 called Zeiss Coude refractor is still being used to record daily solar disc morphology and solar sunspot maps and are being transferred daily to Belgium royal Observatory.

New Horizons a mission possible!

continued... With the more interest and understanding of Space Science, a group of Egyp� tian French observers headed to Khartoum on Feb 25th, 1952; Which used to be a part of the King� dom of Egypt in a mission to observe the total solar eclipse. They were divided into four groups, one to observe the solar corona during the total eclipse under the supervision of Prof. reda Madwar. The second group worked in the photoelectric observations of the solar corona, a member of this group was the Egyptian Astronomer Prof. Helmy Abdelrahman. The third group observed the emitted solar spectral lines during the total eclipse in visible and ultraviolet region supervised by Prof. M.K. Aly and a famous French astronomer. Another group of French Egyptian observers joined the efforts the total solar eclipse of Mar 29th, 2006 from Elsaloum City in Egypt suing several instruments that helped them show the magnetic structure of the corona. I was also lucky when I started writing this article that I found out about the Axe Apollo Space Academy con� test, funded by AXE, that will send an Egyp� tian to space, as one of twenty three win� ners of the AXE Apollo Space Academy contest winners 2013, making him the first Egyptian to go to space. This step could be a new start for Egyptian Astronauts in the future observations of space.

by: Osama Al Shoabi


by: Osama Al Shoabi

ince the discovery of Pluto in 1930, scientists considered it to be the 9th planet in our solar system and have given it a great deal of consideration in a hope that there could be a life outside our lively planet. During those years, scientists were able to find a lot of information about this far away planet. Pluto was found to be a frigid ball of ice and rocks that orbits the sun, located in the frozen fringes of our solar system. It also has an atmosphere that is produced and lost continuously, and three moons; the largest of these moons is half the size of Pluto itself, this moon is called Charon. In 2006 scientists agreed that Pluto is not a planet, rather it is one of forty four dwarf planets, they were called dwarf due to their small size and planets because they orbit the sun. There is still some controversy over whether Pluto should be considered as a planet or not, and other questions that have puzzled scientists and astronauts such as whether Pluto acquires a Magnetosphere. Seeking answers to these questions NASA started going through mission proposals and selection in Early 2001. Five proposals were turned on to NASA, one of which was the New Horizon's, and their first face to face meeting took place on Jan 2001. The name was meant to symbolize the new scientific horizons that it will explore and

major challenges that the mission faced is due to the huge distance from Pluto to the sun, the spacecraft and instruments must have long lifetimes, and that solar cells couldn't be used as a source of power for the spacecraft, also the systems that is used in the spacecraft have to be designed to operate in a cold environment. The New Horizons team has found ways to overcome all these challenges and meet NASA's objectives to finally launch it into Space on January 2006, making it the first spacecraft to visit Pluto. This mission will help us understand Pluto more along with the Kuiper Built. New Horizons mission is so far the fastest spacecraft to leave the atmosphere of earth, when its engine turned off it was going 16km's. When Apollo astronauts went off to the moon it took them 3 days to get there, while new horizons passed the moon nine hours after it took off. It crossed Mars's orbit in April 2006, and The first picture that New Horizons took for Pluto was in Sep 2006, and up until now it is functioning properly and is expected to reach Pluto in 2015. On Feb 11th, 2012 New Horizon crossed to within 10 Astronomical Units of the Pluto System, where each Astronomical Unit "AU" is the average distance between Earth and the Sun which approximately equals 93 million miles. New Horizons is expected to reach Pluto on Jul 14th, 2015 "Three years from now, encounter operations will already have begun, and we'll be beginning the exploration of frontier planet Pluto and its system of moons," says Alan Stern, New Horizons mission principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute on Feb 2012. Another update were available on Oct 25th, 2013 that the space craft is within 5 AU from Pluto which is about 460 million miles from Pluto. Covering 2.7 Billion Miles on that date, the encounter is supposed to begin in Jan 2015, and when New Horizons arrives at Pluto on July 14th, 2015 it would be the fur�

osama al shoabi

astronomy you’d do anything 12/4/13

Criss Cross  Puzzle



Criss Cross  Puzzle


by: Osama Al Shoabi

to fly?

Across 2. First  Syrian,  and  Second  Arab  in  Space. 5.  An  American  Scientist  who  discovered  that  the  universe  is  expanding. 11.  A  Astronomer  often  called  "The  Father  of  Modern  Astronomy". 12.  A  priest  who  came  up  with  the  Theory  of  Primeval  Atom. Across 13.  first  Arab  and  Muslim  to  fly  in  outer  space. Down 2.  First  Syrian,  and  Second  Arab  in  Space. 1.  An  astronomer  who  helped  solving  the  mysteries  of  the  high  temperatures  of  Venus. 5.  An  American  Scientist  who  discovered  that  the  universe  is  expanding. 3.  Astronomer  w ho  published  "The  Starry  Messenger". 11.  A  Astronomer  often  called  "The  Father  of  Modern  Astronomy". 4.  British  Physicist  who  wrote  "A  Brief  History  of  Time:  From  the  Big  Bang  to  Black  Holes". 12.  A  priest  who  came  up  with  the  Theory  of  Primeval  Atom. 6.  Astronomer/Scientist  who  came  up  with  "the  law  of  universal  gravitation". 13.  first  Arab  and  Muslim  to  fly  in  outer  space. 7.  a  Physicist  who  came  up  with  the  General  Theory  of  relativity. Down 8.  An  Astronomer/Scientist  famous  for  studying  "Halley's  Comet". 1.  An  astronomer  who  helped  solving  the  mysteries  of  the  high  temperatures  of  Venus. d  in. 9.  The  labs  that  residual  Cosmic  Background  Radiation  were  discovere hed  "The  Starry  Messenger". 3.  Astronomer  who  publis 10.  Name  of  a  Space  Telescope  that  was  launched  in  1990. 4.  British  Physicist  who  wrote  "A  Brief  History  of  Time:  From  the  Big  Bang  to  Black  Holes".

6. Astronomer/Scientist  who  came  up  with  "the  law  of  universal  gravitation". 7.  a  Physicist  who  came  up  with  the  General  Theory  of  relativity. 8.  An  Astronomer/Scientist  famous  for  studying  "Halley's  Comet". 13  of  13  words  were  placed  into  the  puzzle. 9.  The  labs  that  residual  Cosmic  Background  Radiation  were  discovered  in. 10.   Name  of  a  Space  Telescope  that  was  launched  in  1990. Created  by  Puzzlemaker  at

13 of  13  words  were  placed  into  the  puzzle.

Created by  Puzzlemaker  at

let us give you a boost


andromeda: the girl next door: • Redd, N. (2012, may 8). The andromeda galaxy (m31): Location, characteristics & images. Contributor, Retrieved from • McClure, B. (26, October 2013). Andromeda galaxy is milky way’s next-door neighbor. Retrieved from • Gill, N. S. (20, Mars 2011). Andromeda. Retrieved from http:// • Jauregui, A. (29, January 2013). Andromeda galaxy picture: New herschel space observatory image shows ‘cool lanes’ of stars. Retrieved from

the nebule: the beauty of space “Nebula.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 12 June 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013.

the hst: a look into the futur $ past Rodney, Robert R. Shannon, and Charles P. Spoelhof. “The Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Failure Report.” NTRS. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec 2013. gov/19910003124_1991003124.pdf “Dark Energy, Dark Matter.” NASA Science. NASA, 30 Apr 2013. Web. 13 Dec 2013. “Team Hubble.” Hubblesite. N.p.. Web. 13 Dec 2013. “Hubble Essentials.” Hubblesite. N.p.. Web. 13 Dec 2013.

hubble discoveries: lets play a game Montoya, Joie. “6 Discoveries Made by the Hubble Space Telescope.” Glower Blossoms’ Blog. Wordpress, 2 May 2011. Web. 13 Dec.

a history of spacefaring:

continued... is an egyptian space program possible?:

space science education in egypt:

Hady, A.a. “Space Science Education in Egypt and the 2006 Solar Eclipse.” Advances in Space Research 42.11 (2008): 1800-805. ScienceDirect. Elsevier Ltd., 1 Dec. 2008. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Ahmed , Hady. N.p.. Web. 10 Dec 2013. < hady/html/cv.htm>. Kramer, Miriam. “23 Axe Apollo Fans with the Right Stuff Win Free Space Trips.” AXE Apollo Space Academy, 8 Dec. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

new horizons: a mission possible 1. Russell, Randy. “New Horizons Mission to Pluto.” Windows to the Universe. National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)., 25 Aug. 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. 2. Inman, Mason. “Pluto Not a Planet, Astronomers Rule.” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 24 Aug. 2006. Web. 28 Nov. 2013. 3. Sterna, S. Alan. “The New Horizons Pluto Kuiper Belt Mission: An Overview with Historical Context.” Southwest Research Institute Planetary Science Directorate. N.p., 20 Nov. 2006. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. <>. 4. Russell, Randy. “Dwarf Planets.” : Classification, Discovery, Definition, Kuiper Belt. National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)., 9 June 2009. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. 5. Beisser, K. “Mission FAQ’s.” New Horizons Web Site. N.p., 4 Dec. 2013. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. 6. Russell, Randy. “New Horizons Mission to Pluto.” - Windows to the Universe. National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA)., 16 Feb. 2007. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. 7. Beisser, Ms. K. “New Horizons Web Site.” New Horizons Web Site. N.p., 10 Feb. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. 8. Beisser, Ms. K. “New Horizons Web Site.” New Horizons Web Site. N.p., 25 Oct. 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2013.

eshraka Sumrain amr waguih mohammad ashraf osama al shoabi Ahmed Yasser

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