HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MAJOR
INTRODUCTION Have you ever though about majoring in hospitality? If yes or your are not really sure yet take a glance at this brief introduction to the major. It will sure help you in decideing of if it is or not the right major for you. Indeed hospitality is a great major, but is is not for everyone. So, why not see what is has to offer. The first part of this brief introduction into the major is a field guide. This field guide contains visuals, text, great information, and helpful tips in the industry. There are five different elements and all are very different, but they are quite important in the industry. The first is the history of the industry and the second is the break-down of the three main concentrations in the industry. The next element is a top ten list of helpful tips that will aid you in the industry. It is a good idea to look through them, even if your are unsure of being a party of this industry. They may also be able to help you elsewhere or in other industries. The fourth comes a vizual helping decipher what types of research resources are out there, so as to simplify ones task of finding resources that may or may not be good enough. The fifth element are research resources, which can be used alongside the visualizing genre to write and research for a paper or project. There are many types of sources listed, but believe me there are plenty more. The second section of this brief introduction of hospitality management is a genre invesigation or a piece on the writing in the industry. There is not a huge variation of writing in the industry, so therefore it is a good idea to understand them before delving into the industry. It will help you focus on other tasks at hand in and around the industry. Included in this investigation is a piece on genre theory or where the genre is orginated from. Genre theory touches on how a genre is made and used and in this industry it is good idea to know the basics of the genre. You may not come across the terminology in the industry, but it is good to know its out there. After the genre theory investigation, the genre investigation takes the genre theory section and puts three different types of primary sources from the industry to show applicable this is to know. The genre investigation shows two class syllabi, two hotel reviews, and two professional hotel websites. After the genre invetsigation is done, the reader is then taken to two interview done in the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management. One interviewee being a professor and one being a senior in the school. Both had great words of wisdom and good insight into the industry. Included in this section is a summary of the whole interview and a two-page word-for-word transcription. They are very differerent interview, but give context to an industry that may not be understood or known much about. This is a stellar place for two different people's experience in the industry and in the school. The last section in this brief introduction to Hospitality is the porposal for change section. This deals with a problem that the Knoebel School of Hospitality has and greatly needs to be changed. The problem conveyed here was about the emails that my student interviewee talked about. They are important in this industry in getting jobs and talking with professor, but they ar not touched on in the industry. The proposal is to add a class or an extra lecture that anyone could take to get a closer look into the basic structure of industry emails. This is needed, but will only happen if 1
students stand up and email or talk to their professors about it. If you are interested in this change or you would even like to be a part of it, please read this section. Maybe you can do something about it. I hope I have given you an clear idea of what is in the brief introduction of Hospitality and I indeed wish you the best through your decision and your discovery of the industry.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Section:
A Field Guide to Hospitality Management-----------------------------------------------------6-16 Overview of What is to Come--- ------------------------------------------------------------- 7-8 A Brief History of Hospitality------------------------------------------------------------- 9 Concentrations of Hospitality------------------------------------------------------------- 10-11 Top Ten List--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 Visualizing Genres-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 Research resources-------------------------------------------------------------------------14-17 Genre Investigation: Writing in the Hospitality Major--------------------------------------- 18-25 Interviews: A current Hospitality Student and A Proffesor---------------------------------- 26-35 Current Student Interview--------------------------------------------------------------------- 27-30 Proffessor Interview---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31-35 Proposal For Change------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36-38 Bibliography------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 39-40
Emails: What Are We Missing Out On? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.
A FIELD GUIDE TO HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT
AN OVERVIEW OF WHAT IS TO COME Why Hospitality? Hospitality or HRTM is all about being friendly, open, and even giving a person or persons an experience of a lifetime. There are many concentrations in the field such as Food and Beverage, Hotels, and Event Planning and even more subconcentrations within these sides of hospitality. Anyone can be a part of this amazing industry if they put their mind to it. A business background is not necessary, but is definitely recommended and hospitality is a field in the business sector. If you have no idea about what you want to major in or study, please give hospitality management consideration and read this short guide book about the industry and some of its most important facets. What you will find in this guide:
A Brief History of Hospitality: This section was put in this field guide to give the background information and a brief history of the industry. It gives the sense of how big this industry actually is and where it has come since its inception.
Concentrations of Hospitality: Here is a section about the three main concentrations of hospitality (Hotels, Food and Beverage, Events and Sales). Eventually a student in this industry has to choose a concentration to go into. It is helpful to see what they consists of before even testing them out.
Research resources: This is a section that was created to compile useful sources in the hospitality field to give a basis of the industry and the major along with it. It is a quick and easy place to locate sources if one does not know where to search.
Visualizing Genres: Provided here is a visual showing the steps in writing a paper or even just doing research in the industry. It is like the resource section, but is a little less specific. It is helpful in giving the sense of the work that has to go into the major and then what ultimately comes out of it. 7
Top Ten List: This is a list of the top ten items that are the most important in delving into the industry and getting the most out of it. It is a simple list that one may not understand right away, but with time it will be clearer and more useful. These are important in the industry. There are definitely other important items, but these definitely give a general how the Hospitality industry works and how to succeed in the industry.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Background: Hospitality comes from the French word 'hospice', which means to provide for the weary or to take care of those traveling Hotel comes from the French word 'hôtel' meaning host usually referred to a building seeking frequent visitors than a place offering accommodations (Hotels) Sold a soup called restorantes or 'to restore the body' (Restaurant) Inception Dates The Hospitality Industry dates all the way back to the Colonial Period in the 1700's and some say as early as 40 B.C. The industry as we know today started forming in the 1950's and 60's The Beginnings of the industry: Ancient Greece: guest right were an established set of conventions that were accepted among different cultures in the Greek world (Social and religious purposes) Ancient Rome: Roman businessmen travelled. They were some of the first know people to travel for pleasure Middle Ages: Others provided safety, shelter and food travelers from the increase use of coaches, which made traveling more popular. Nobles and rich stayed in monasteries and the poor or lower class usually stayed in inns, or private homes. The New World: As people started settling in the New World, they brought with them their own terms of eating and resting places namely the increase use of inns and taverns. Brief Timeline of the Recent Past in the Industry: (Brown: Hotels, Black: restaurants) 1765: Boulanger created the first restaurant selling soup 1889 Cesar Ritz open Hotel Ritz 1891: The YWCA of Kansas City: The first Cafeteria 1910: The first Ritz Carleton in the US 1919: Hilton Founded 1925: First Hilton 1936: The first drive-in restaurant was opened in Glendale, CA 1943: First Coast To Coast Hotel 1950: Kemmons Wilson 1952: First Holiday Inn Opens 1953: First Hotel Stock 1954: Ray Kroc created the McDonald's Enterprise 1977: The first 'Happy Meal' was tested in St. Louis 1979: The first 'Happy Meal' was served during the 'Circus Wagon' Promotion 9
CONCENTRATIONS OF HOSPITALITY Here is a simple breakdown of the three main concentrations in hospitality. The first bullet points explain the basics of what you will experience in the concentration. The Second and Third bullets show some of the jobs in the front of the house and back of the house. There is a clear distinction between the two. Front of the house is dealing directly with the customers. This position sets the standard and tone of the restaurant, hotel, and event. Back of the House is dealing with customers indirectly, but still have one of the most important jobs in the hotel. It is the 'heart of the house', which is where it will thrive and ultimately where the hinges turn. Without the Back of the House a there is a chance that surviving will be hard. Hotels:
Deals with any type of hotel such as the bed and breakfast or resort Front of the House jobs (deals directly with the guests): Front Desk, Bellmen, Maids, Concierge, any servers/pool attendants, Valet, Spa Associates, ETC. Back of the House (Indirectly Deal with the Employees): Accounting, Finance, Laundry, Sales, Maids both Front and Back of the House) some Managing positions or General Managing positions (can be both front of the house of back of the house. Traits of people in hotels: Good at multitasking, friendly, loves smiling, organized, able to deal with stressful situations in a timely way, Able to listening, respect, ETC.
Food and Beverage:
Deals with anything that has to do with the serving of food and beverages (can be in a restaurant, catered, or during an event or party) Front of the House jobs: Waiters, Hostesses, Bussers (can be both Front and Back of the House), Drinker Servers, Bar Tenders, Maître D, ETC. Back of the House: Chefs, Dishwashers, Mangers, General Managers, Accountants, ETC. Traits of people in restaurants: Be able to work well with others, communicate well, being able to do and finish the task that is asked of you, smile, be friendly, organized, good under stress, don't become the boss of the restaurant, be able to memorize items on the menu (specials of the regular menu)
Event and Sales:
Deals with planning and marketing events. These events could be a wedding, party, or an award ceremony, ETC. The number of coordinators (help plan the event) or onsite coordinators (at the venue just in case something goes wrong or needs to be done) depends on how big the event is. Events can be extravagant, simple, colorful, quiet, loud, fun, serious, fancy, or causal. The client gets to choose what they want to do. The job here entails being very organized, able to deal with stress, able to think on the spot, friendly, has a good smile, does not get angry or frustrated easily, loves to have fun, able to create something the client wants not what they want. If you choose to do this job, you have to be the main contact and also be in contact with all of the event and catering places. The ability to talk on the phone and email is very important in this job. One has to check their email often and reply as soon as they can. This is a very time consuming job, but in the end you are helping people and giving them the best experience they could ask for.
Note: there might be more positions or less positions depending on the size of the event, restaurant, or hotel
TOP 10 HELPFUL TIPS WILL AID YOU IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY HERE ARE SOME IMPORTANT ITEMS THAT ONE SHOULD KEEP IN MIND WHEN GOING INTO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. TRY TO ACCOMPLISH AS MANY AS POSSIBLE. THEY ARE IMPORTANT AND WILL AID YOU IN MAKING YOU THE BEST HOSPITALITY STUDENT YOU CAN BE. THIS IS A FAST PACED INDUSTRY. IF YOU WANT TO BE SUCCESSFUL YOU HAVE TO GET UP AND MOVE WITH THE INDUSTRY. I HOPE THESE TEN TIPS WILL HELP YOU DO THAT. 1. Go to extra talks + panels at your school: the more information the better 2. Put yourself out there: I want this job, determination 3. Clean up your resume: no one wants to read a mess 4. Make connections: this will help you get a job 5. Apply early: don't let that job pass you by
6. Try to get as much experience as you can in the industry: experience is key to getting a job and a good one 7. Dress to impress: business suits/dress 8. Don't forget to smile and sit/stand up straight: everybody loves a smile 9. Have fun and have a goal to strive for: love what you do 10. Say thanks: email, phone, hand-written letter: it never hurts to say thanks
HOW FIND RESEARCH FOR A PAPER IN HOSPITALITY Here is a visual showing what makes a great Hospitality research paper.
Libary Research Center
You may not need them all, but it
is good to know what's out there.
Four different areas you can use for paper references, primary sources, or research resources are your professors, the library, the internet, and the library research center
HELPFUL HOSPITALITY RESOURCES Below are resources that are useful in finding your way in the major or even deciding to delve into hospitality. The first bullet point gives the layout of the site is given and what you can expect from exploring the resource. The second bullet point gives the pros of the resource and the third bullet gives the cons of the resource. These sources are good, but they may need to be supplemented by other sources such as using the library, professors, administration, employees, ETC. 1. Fritz Knoebel School of Hospitality Management http://daniels.du.edu/faculty-research/hospitality- management/ This website gives the basics of what the hospitality industry is, the degrees and majors, a brief history on the school. It is a quick and easy way to find information from a well-respected school and its repertoire of faculty. A very important factor of this website is a tab for more resources. They are all in one place and will send you to websites teachers have deemed reasonable and useful. It makes researching a lot easier. This resource is just the basics and may not go in depth enough, so you might want to do a secondary search with this website. 2. Hospitality Net http://www.hospitalitynet.org/index.html This website consists of hospitality news all over the industry. Even though it doesn't give a description of what hospitality industry it is still useful. Hospitality Net gives you the overview of events and news that are going on in the industry. It shows the broadness and even gives you an idea of how to navigate through the industry. You can easily search news by categories if you are interested in looking at one specific side. Also you can look things about real-estate, social media, hotel openings, revenue, learning, and technology. Hospitality Net is only good for the broad sense and may be of better use if you have researched the industry a bit and understand what is going on. This website should probably be used for more secondary research. 3. Business Writing for Hospitality Management: by Vivienne Wilds and Peter Nyheim This book is a guide to teach future managers how to write in the hospitality industry. It is for managers, but can be used for any person. It starts from the simple grammar review and moves into writing that people have to do daily in the industry. 14
4. Anderson Academic Commons (The DU Library) Online Website/Database: http://library.du.edu/site/academicCommons/home.php This website lets you explore and find books in the library, check them out, and renew them. It is very easy to get through. It contains a floor plan, faculty, database, and even news and events happening. This website if just a basic library website, but it is definitely a good place to go before adventuring to the library. Libraries can be overwhelming, but if you can narrow down what you are looking for, your life will be much easier. This is a good place to start primary research or researching the topic just to understand it. This website does have an online database and with that you can find many sources online, making it easier to procure the information you want in a timely manner. Every library database is different, so before you have to start your research it would be a good idea to explore the database. This will save you from the stress. Yes, it does take time to get used to, but it is still a good place for research. The library and its database are full of sources in for the hospitality major. 5. Anderson Academic Common Research Center Location: Inside the Library The purpose of this research center is to point students and in this case hospitality students in the right direction when researching. They know the library quite well and even how to delve into books and not getting too overwhelmed. If you are stuck when writing a paper, go to the research center. They are amazing and helpful. The research center employees are hired for the soul purpose of helping students with their hefty papers and scary presentations. They are eager to help and by appointment only. They may be experts in research, but not a way out of doing your own research. They may know the topic because you told them your topic, but they may not know the depth you want to go or the all the ideas you have or even what the teacher wants. This is a good place to start, but it is good not to completely rely on them. They are an awesome resource, so don't pass this free resource up. 6. The Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/home-page This source is will give you a good sense of what is going on in the industry. There is a tab and a whole section for the hospitality industry. Under the More industries section scroll down until you hit hospitality. This section is full of current news just for the hospitality industry. There is an equal proportion of the hotel section and restaurant section listed on the first page. Also, on the page is a Dow Jones Industrial Average for restaurants and both hotels, so you can see what is happening in the stock market at the same time as reading the news. This is a great resource because in the hospitality industry it is should be a goal to say in tune with what is going on in the industry. Hospitality is a fast and ever changing industry. With this knowledge you will have a big leg up over other people. All of these articles are professionally done and well-written.
This will give one insight into the industry, but be careful the industry is not as easy as it looks. This should be used as secondary or supplementary research, it is gives only a broad vista of the hospitality industry. Looking through this site will give you some knowledge, but definitely not the knowledge you will be learning in class. Still read some news. It may take longer, but it is important.
WRITING IN THE HOSPITALITY MAJOR
Introduction Have you even wondered what types of writing you will do in hospitality? Here a paper that will give you that insight. It will help you to understand the basics of genre theory and then delve into three of the biggest genre found in the hospitality industry. To understand these genres a section on genre theory was written to give you a glimpse of where genres originated and why genres are important to understand especially in the industry. After this there will be three separate sections of genre in the hospitality field. One is from the student and another is from the classroom and the third is from the professional world. These three sections are used to help guide you and show you some of the writing done in the industry. It is good to be prepared ahead of time before delving in the industry. There is so much to learn and take in with this industry. The goal of this investigation is to give you a head start in the industry. So let's jump right in. What is Genre Theory? Genre theory is based on a notion that genres (groupings of similar items) have a particular convention of content form such as audience or tone which is shared by texts. With that these text belong in these certain conventional groups. Tone can be described as the style or manner something is portrayed and audience is who you are aiming that something at. These categories can be broad, small, overlapping, or even a combination of all of many put together. A genre is what is meant by a category, which literally can be anything. For example a book is an item with many different genres that can be placed in many different categories. The hardest part of genre theory is categorizing all of the genres, because in a way there are infinite numbers of categories and infinite number of genres. Every day, people are creating new genres, giving them names, and putting them into categories and in that they are broadening the categories. Some examples of categories of genres we see today are research, resumes, essays, poems or stories. Each is set into a different category based on its typified features. These features are specific to a group, homologous to a group, and can contain items such as style, layout, audience, tone, and conventions or rules. There are way more features then I have listed, which is why it is hard to categorize a genre into one, specific category. Creating a new genre can be quite tough and indeed fitting them into a new category can be even tougher. To do this one needs to know the basics of what a genre is and what a few basic genres are. Once you know this you can take a little bit from them A.K.A past genres and create new ones. This can also be called breaking the genre or deviating from the antecedent genre. Breaking the genre can sometimes create a new genre. An example of this can be seen in an editorial. An editorial is a piece that can be found in the newspaper. Their main features are that they have an argument and support. These basic features don't usually get broken, but there is some flexibility in the layout of the editorial. This flexibility can bring along with it the breaking of the genre. One can change from the more-used columns choice to the long essay format. Again, doing this will depend on your audience and situation. Mind you, think about whom your audience is, what your tone is, and even what the purpose of your writing is about. It is a good idea to make sure you are using the appropriate genre in the right setting. This means knowing what the rhetorical situation you are in or knowing the context of a rhetorical event that consists of an issue, an audience, and a set of constraints. For example you would not want to write a story and send it to your Economics professor. They would probably not care unless you adapted 19
that story and brought into Economic terms or even just tied it in the class. This could be a new genre. Again, a genre can literally be anything. Understanding a new genre is not an easy task, but eventually as you become more familiar with it and use it more, it will become a lot easier, just like riding a bike. How to be aware of more aware of genres that you write in/with (Add at the end) 1. What is the purpose of this paper? (are you arguing, explaining, story-telling, ETC.) 2. Who is your audience? (is your audience one, two or more people, an employer, friend, family, someone from the White House, Etc.) 3. What is tone do you want to convey (do you want to be calm, demanding, strict, fun, comedic, Etc.) 4. Using what you found from steps 1-3, what can you deduce from this? (reflect on what you found and maybe start writing a draft or attempting to create a new genre) 5. Think of a name and a possible category(ies) it could be in (You may not understand all that this genre will give you, it takes time) 6. Practice with this genre and eventually you will get the hang of it Genre theory is an extremely useful tool in writing. It will help one understand their writing and give it more of a purpose. Instead of just writing something, you can delve into it more... Knowing about genre theory and what it has to offer will make life a ton easier, especially through your studies. At the beginning you are still finding your way and in that new genres will open their doors to you and you will soon discover antecedent genres to new genres. Antecedent genres are genres that were created and analyzed in the past. Each antecedent genre offers up constraints, meaning one has to use the same rule as before. For Example," the first state of the Union Address set the standards for all of the rest of the State of the Union Addresses. The format and audience stays the same, but not what is said." (Kerry Dirk, Navigating Genres) In many cases antecedent genres do change and show up in new genres, which helps us come to the point that genres tend to build on other genres. If you know the basics of the genre you are aiming for, you will be better prepared for what is to come. Genre theory may seem a little scary, but take the time to look into it more, it will greatly help you. It helped me. Some 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Important Items to Look for When Investigating Genres in the Industry What is the name of the name of the genre? Why do people use this genre? What specific elements/features are found in this genre? What expectations seem to surround this genre? What are some possible antecedents is the genre drawing from? Do people ever "break" genre or do something unexpected for rhetorical effect? How does this genre connect to other genres the people in your major also use? How would you characterize the rhetorical situation in which this genre often exists? 9. Who hold the power in the rhetorical situation, how do you think this affects how the genre operates? 10. In what way might the genre be inappropriate or inefficient? 20
Section 1: Two Student-Produced Essays from the DU Knoebel School of Hospitality A hotel review is used a ton in the industry and not just for hotels. There are tons of reviews that are made each day. For example, how did you like that restaurant or was that care really as comfortable as they said it was. They all come from a basic structure with questions that should be asked and also some items that should definitely be incorporated. Each type of review is adapted into a new genre based off of the structure of the antecedent genre, because some items are reviewed in very different ways, meaning the questions are different. For a hotel one might ask the question "did you like the pool temperature" and for a restaurant one might ask "was your food at the right temperature." They both were talking about temperature, but in two very different ways. Thy have a set of guidelines or typified features you should look for such as "were the rooms tidy and clean." So, the antecedent genre gives the review the basic structure of being organized, easy to read, and professional. These are always the expectations on a hotel or any review for that matter. They may give you basic questions, but some do not. This gives you a lot of room to move through the review and write. Hotel reviews do give you a lot of room to move, but there is a point when they become inappropriate. With that make sure you know who your audience is and what rhetorical situation you are in, because reviews are serious and need to be written in a professional way. It is a good idea to be true to the place you are reviewing, but not in so much as harsh terms. They are pretty lenient in the structure you want to use, say talking about the front desk and then working your way backwards. Hotel reviews are quite strict on how you say what you want to get across in the review. If you make your tone to comedic or nonchalant, you may have a problem. When writing a review you have to care about what you are writing, in that one has to be truthful, not to mean, and professional. One cannot just give the bad, they have to add some of the good as well and both with detail. This will keep them more appropriate on not just there for show. Hotels really use hotel reviews and if you ever have to write one be professional about it. You wonâ€™t know who is going to read it or who what will happen with it. They usually are anonymous and not signed, but sometimes they are not. Hotel reviews were made to get customers to put their two cents in and tell the hotel what is good and what is bad. Customer reviews get compiled into a new genre or a final big review that has been analyzed. After the analyzing the data will be sent to the GM and the GM will go through the review and create a list of items that need to be changed. The reviews are then created into a list, report, or even a short essay, which are definitely seen throughout hospitality industry. Comparing Two Hotel Reviews Both of these reviews are from the same class, but two different students. They are from an "Intro to Hospitality Class" where the students got to go to Vail and tour a couple of hotels. They were assigned to do a review of the hotel they spent the night in. Review #1 is very effective in what it is saying. It is quite detailed and seems to hit every point necessary. Towards the middle of the review it gets more relaxed and breaks genre. It moves 21
toward an organized layout of what the person did in chronological order it turns into more of a recap of the time step by step of the hotel. It then got right back to the pros and cons of the hotel. It did break genre, which was a little inappropriate for this genre, but it was from a student just beginning in the field and in that it was the first review the student had ever written. The student broke the genre they said, "we went to breakfast and then went on a tour of the hotel." The review does not enquire about what your itinerary for the day was like. They review wants to know how you liked the hotel. Overall it had all of the elements that were given by the antecedent genre. It was professional, organized, and even with the break in the genre. It was a great hotel review and one that should be modeled. Review # 2 was more like a traditional hotel review, but it seemed a little less organized and still very effective in what it was trying to say. It started with what the writer saw first and then ended with what they saw last. This made it easier to keep track of everything and to put more pros and cons into the review. It seemed like this student used more of a rubric and indeed said everything that was important, but maybe did not take the time to organize it better. This student focused on bigger themes and less on the detailed part, except in a few areas of the review. Again this was from a student who had never written a hotel review before. Conclusion Overall both reviews were effective, used appropriately, used the basic structure, used pros and cons in a balanced manner, and stayed with its genre. They both epitomized the antecedent genre of a review and did not stray from the basic structure and therefore they are able to be categorized into the same genre. Section 2: Two Syllabi from the DU Knoebel School of Hospitality Management A syllabus is a tool that college professors used to organize the whole quarter, year, semester into what they are going to be covering. The professor uses it to keep themselves organized, while keeping the student on task and organized as well. Some of the main features seen in a hospitality syllabus are the learning outcomes, class tentative schedule, policies, teacher information, grading rubrics, class title, and extra important information that the student might want to know about. This could be for an online publication or a textbook or anything around those. Granted not all syllabi have this extra information. They are all quite different and this is really dependent on who your teacher is and what they are like. Usually with a syllabus the teacher style during class is carried through a syllabus, so as to give you a heads up on what to expect from your teacher. The hospitality industry is very strict and yes, at some time and someplace you might find it flexible, but not very often. That is the same with the syllabus. The expectations of this genre are to be professional, easy to read, organized and made for the student not as much for the teacher. Every class syllabus is different, which indicates a basic structure that has been adapted a bit for each class. That is what the industry expects and so should the student and even the professor. These expectations are again very basic and leave moving room, but far less. Structure has to be the same, with little variation. This brings us to the point of having an inappropriate syllabus. It is sometimes hard to say, because it depends on who is looking at the syllabus and what it is 22
being used for. An example of an inappropriate syllabus is adding in items that do not pertain to the class having spelling and grammar mistakes. Students expect the teacher to be able to teach them, but having mistakes in the syllabus lower this trust. Teachers have to spend the time on the syllabus, which give the student a mind to spend time on class work. It is their syllabus and they have the right to make or not make changes on it. Professors seem to very rarely break the genre. In this case breaking the genre means going away from the conventions of a normal college syllabus and this not meaning adding a simple introductions. This is saying adding a game or a question of the day on the syllabus. These breaks can happen, but they definitely have to be in the right context. Through my experiences professors in the hospitality rarely break genres. It is more difficult to, but yes there is a point when it is acceptable, though it is not encouraged. It is not encouraged because again department wants everything uniform like the industry. The syllabus ties other genres together; just the industry ties its genres together. The syllabus outlines the types of writings or genres you will be writing, maybe not in detail, but enough so one can get the sense of what it to come. It is useful is the college setting and in that should be used to the best of its ability. Comparing two Intro to Hospitality Management Syllabi Both of these syllabi come from the same intro class, but from two different teachers and two different quarters. The Intro to Hospitality Management class consists of going over the basics. It is not that in depth, but it treads a lot of different areas and a lot of information. Syllabus #1 is from Spring Quarter. Its first typified features are that it all black and white, so essentially no color. It is quite easy to read and outlined quite well, so the color does not really matter. It has the basic elements of a normal syllabus or the antecedent genre, but with an additional paragraph talking about looking at online publications and being able to use them in discussions. It was a good choice to include this in the syllabus, because the hospitality industry is usually in the present and with that, to be successful in the industry one needs to be aware of what is going on around the industry. Everything is well organized and outlined. The schedule is very detailed and useful. This syllabus is not overwhelming, but is perfect for an intro class. Students will definitely pay attention and actually read the syllabus. Syllabus #2 is from Winter Quarter. It has the same qualities, but was organized very differently. It was the Daniels College of business logo with its ethics. It also has the basic antecedent genre elements and typified features of a syllabus, including a simple schedule, grading rubrics, short assignment blurbs, teacher information, policies, and a resource section. The only thing about this syllabus is that the teacher actually wrote out the per-week schedules, which is where the teacher broke the genre in created a slightly different, but useful convention. The teacher included the learning outcomes from the week and the readings needed. It really helped keep students organized, especially when studying for the final. This teacher has been working at DU for a long time and seems to have figured out a useful way to write the syllabus for the students in the class. It was a great syllabus. Conclusion Overall both syllabi had the basic elements, granted syllabus #2 was more detailed and maybe more effective. Both were easy to read and would be useful for the students in their classes. 23
Syllabus #1 might need to be more detailed, but the classes are quite different and maybe that was all that was necessary. Some teachers put more than needed and some teachers put less than needed and sometimes it just depends on the needs of the class and its students. Comparing Two Professional Hotel Websites This section portrays to professional hotel websites as a genre of Hospitality. Hotel websites are important for advertising and catching the eye of the customers. It is what the people see if they search for a specific hotel. Since this is so, the websites need to be easily accessible, organized, have a search bar, hotel pictures, history of the hotel, and possibly maybe even awards. Each website is completely different in how it is laid out. Most hotel websites are professional, but some of the smaller hotels might not have the money or the guest to employee ratio to need an internet or upkeep one. Most of the websites out there are appropriate in getting guest to book through their hotel or company. An inefficient website would be one that is out of date, has false data, does not portray the hotel well, and also does not grab the customers' attention. This again is not seen very much, but indeed a hotel's website has to fit in the context of what their goal, mission, and purpose it. It has to follow the hotel's brand and style. If it not this way, the website will carry over to the inappropriate side and in this case marketing will have to update the website to be where it should be. In this world there are so many different types of websites and hotels websites are one of them. The came from a regular website or website genre and was adapted into something a new genre of a hotel website. Websites over the years have evolved into new and more eye-appealing genres, such as the hotel website. Websites have been used for a long time, but technology has gotten better and with that again comes new genres. Comparing Two Professional Websites I chose the Hyatt, Denver website to look at, since it is close to the University of Denver and also because it is a pretty high-end company. Opening up to the website it looks clean tidy and organized. It has a slideshow of its pictures on the front page to catch the eye of the customer. The address and the phone number are also easily accessible on the first page. The front page shows that it is a nice hotel and is one that is worth checking out and staying in. It is a very customer friendly website. The tabs that are on the first page take you to things that are the most important when looking at what hotel to stay in. The room tab sends you to more pictures of the rooms and the hotel and the activities tabs take you straight to everything that is going on at the hotel. It looks like a place that would be a nice spot to get away and relax. That is what its website conveys. The second website I chose was the Four Seasons in Denver, which is another high-end hotel trying to grab their customer's eye. On the very first page there is another slide show of pictures of the hotel and what Denver has to offer as a city. They also added welcoming which said: "If the sun feels warmer here, it's because you're much closer to it. One mile above sea level, you'll also feel the warm, friendly sprit of Denver. Come experience Denver's invigorating blend of urban sophistication, vibrant culture and year-round Rock Mountain Adventure." 24
Below the first page the website shows the main attractions of the hotel. Again, this website is very user friendly and makes it seem like a great, calm, relaxed hotel in the heart of a bustling Denver. The tabs contain important information of the hotel, such as where eat, types of rooms, and what to do in Denver. Everything is made easy right at the guest's fingertips. Conclusion Both websites are easy to use, perfect for the hotel they are envisioning, are eye-enticing, and very up-to-date. The hospitality industry is about is glossy, high-end, going above and beyond care and that is what these websites are both conveying. They are both similar in layout, but have different formats and information on their page. Each hotel is different, they all want to make a statement, and leave a lasting impression on their guest. Overall Conclusion Three different sectors and three different genres were explained and jumped into from the hospitality industry. Every hospitality student will experience these three sectors sometime in their hospitality careers. This genre investigation was written to help unveil some of what you are going to experience in the industry through examples and definitions about what genres mean in the sense of the industry hence the three different sectors. I hope I enlightened you on the hospitality industry and gave you an insight on a world that should not be overlooked.
INTERVIEWS: A CURRENT HOSPITALITY STUDENT AND A PROFESSOR
INTERVIEW WITH A SENIOR IN HOSPITALITY SUMMARY: I had the pleasure of also interviewing a professor at the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management. The professor runs the coffee shop and is the event coordinator for the building. She has quite a lot of experience from the industry and it was great to learn about those experiences. The interview started out with the asking of "what types of writing do you teach in class?" The professors class is a practicum class created for the purpose of doing something practical in the industry. One of the most useful and practical writing done in the class is writing a business proposal. You may be thinking that is just a regular old business proposal, but is definitely not. The professor actually makes her students write a real business proposal what will be shown to a potential or a done-deal client. They help sell the space even with just being in college still. They get the chance to put there foot in the door. I found this fascinating and intriguing, because I found out that experience in the industry will help you procure the best jobs. After learning about the business proposals that are done in the professor's practicum class, Power Points, paper copies, and electronic copies were lightly touched. Each client is different, some wan the physical plan and some want a professional presentation done or even both. It is good to be ready for anything. When this interview took place the professor talked about a group of her current students showing their business plan to a client who will be holding a conference in 2014 at the school. She actually showed us the bound, professional copy of that proposal. She has a very hands-on class, but that doesn't mean it's easy. Each business plan contained many different elements and have to be devoid of spelling and grammar mistakes. One of her main pet peeves is to be professional in any and all writing you do for her and the school. Instead of starting your email or papers with 'Yo' , as she put it, one should start with 'dear'. Everything has to be organized and clear since sometimes the client is unable to see the students in person or vice versa. As much as this all of this is important for the student the professor also shared that the professor writes many business proposals and even some marketing pieces to get the school out there. Here students are not doing all the work, but they still get quite a lot of experience. The professor gives the students a simple up-to-date text book that is easy to get through and learn. Another item that is given to the students is case studies. Some are from real and some are made up, but they get the students thinking and also in that gives them a good deal of experience for the industry. 27
I enjoyed talking to a professor in the industry. The professor created a hands-on class, which indeed sounds so fun an interesting. The professor was definitely eye-opening. Also, the professor was truly passionate about what the does in the industry and liked sharing that knowledge through the interview
TRANSCRIPTION: S: STUDENT INTERVIEWER, SE: SENIOR STUDENT IN THE MAJOR S: tell me about why you chose hospitality? What concentration do you have? SE: Of course, I am a food and beverage concentration in the hospitality major at KHSM and I actually started at DU as a Business Major, Accounting Major, and a Finance Major. I knew that I wanted to go into restaurants, but I had told myself and thought that it was necessary to have a financial background in order to be successful in restaurants, which is still true. Um, I took a couple of finance classes and a couple of accounting classes and I realized that that was not for me and I don't know what the light bulb was. I started looking into the HRTM program and I thought it was the right fit for me. I also toyed around with doing events and sales as a concentration and I ended up not being able to do both because that was the plan for a while. I love food and beverage. It is something I am always interested in and passionate about. I definitely see myself working in the industry more in the event side, but food and beverage is a great foundation. S: What types of writing do you do most often in your classes or major? SE: Typically, honestly the most writing that I do is emails correspondence back and forth. In academic setting as assignments for class, usually they are shorter responses like to a reading or a piece of a larger business project. Right now for one of my Capstone classes we are putting together and F N B business concept proposal. So, it is a lot of writing in sections that will then be compiled. A lot of times most of the assignments, especially within in the business school are group-project bases as well. So, one thing that I have learned to be very proficient at that I think is helpful is to understand how to frame like a one or two page paper on a specific topic within a larger work. For example, last quarter I had a wine paper. We talked about Sauvignon Blanc and I was doing like the growing history and so my portion of the larger project was very small in terms of the scale of the paper. It all had to flow and be all one congruent work. S: What do you think professor look at when they are evaluating your writing? SE: One thing that I think professors of the business school appreciate is being concise. They are not ones for super long, wordy papers and heady papers. They want to know what you think and they want to know very clearly. They also, I would say, look for very good writing in a sense that it should be grammatically correct. It should flow well. It should not be hard to read. If that makes sense in terms of writing. So, it should be very easily presented. 28
S: So, kind of like Basic English in a way. SE: Yeah S: What do you imagine as your audience as you write these types of writing? How would you characterize that audience? SE: Ooh, typically when I write I write for professors. That us the audience I have in mind, but then I also consider, especially for group projects, writing for a peer audience because a lot of times what is associated with these papers are presentations, so I definitely think that I am writing for a professor, But I am also writing towards my group and like my class because of the multimodal presentation be it the paper or a presentation in front of the class. I think honestly that my classmates, you know the peers that I am writing for as my audience have a very similar needs from a professor. Perhaps lower standards than my professors do, but they definitely want clear information. They don't want it to be too long and tiresome. S: And do you write at all for the industry? Any papers or articles? SE: Not papers or really any assignments, I would say like within the industry and my experience, email correspondence are the most frequent things written. I have written some proposals for the industry, but to me that kind of correspondence is very similar to an email and how it is presented. You need to read and make sure you are presenting your argument or your information in a very concise way that is easily understood for someone who is not very familiar with the subject and to me that is what an email is because you have to be very purposeful about communicating through someone in the medium of email, because you don't get body language or those other non-verbal communication cues. So, you have to be very purposeful when you write and email. To me when I am writing an email or proposal or things like that, I have to be very purposeful because even though I may be present to assist someone through a proposal, they are going to most likely read it by themselves either before, during or after and you have to make sure you are presenting your thoughts and ideas clearly S: What advice would you give a freshmen considering you are a Hospitality Major in writing? What did you wish you knew when going into the major? SE: One think that I wish I knew would have known going into the major is howâ€Ś. That's a great question. I think I would have really liked to know or really fully appreciate that different professors have preferred writing styles. So, Dr. Young and Dr. Corsun they have very particular writing requirements. Whereas other professors in the hospitality school like Professor Lane or Professor Martine, they are not quite as picky. They want you to b clear, effective. You need to write well and I think that also speaks to their background, so, Dr. Corsun and Dr. Lane, they are academics within the hospitality industry and Dr. Lane and Professor Martinez, they are industry professionals that have come into the academic sphere. So I think that'sâ€ŚYou do need to have those tenants of Basic English, grammar, and punctuation, you need to write well, but you don't 29
necessarily need to write and academic level in the industry. That al varies with professors and what they expect and what they require.
INTERVIEW WITH HOSPITALITY PROFESSOR SUMMARY: I had the pleasure of interviewing a senior in the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management. The senior had a ton of experience in the industry and is definitely a go to person when in need of help. The senior knows what to expect in an around the hospitality school because the student is a fresh-out-of-school- industry-ready student with a lot of knowledge ready to be shared. The interview started out with getting to know the student and why he chose hospitality. The student originally said that he wanted to go into marketing and finance. He tried it out, but it was not the right fit. The senior then decided to check out the hospitality school, which is definitely where he found his passion. The student knew exactly what concentration he wanted to be in, which ended up being food and beverage. The student does some event planning on the side, which indicated to me that it is a very good idea to have experience in every concentration of the industry and as much as you can fit it. As the interview continued and I got to know the student better, I discovered that the student writes in the form of correspondence emails back and forth, short responses on a reading or an article, or a piece of a larger business plan. The student's example of this was writing a wine paper. It was a long paper, but very manageable, because it was broken into sections and so each student in group got a section to write. With that said, most of the writing in the industry is short, concise, and professional. The interview continued with the student stating that all writing should be professional. An few examples he gave of being professional are knowing who your audience is, few spelling and grammar mistakes, not too long, and organized. Every teacher is different and so you have to cater to that teacher style. Some are strict, while others are easy going. The student then went into saying that since the school is so small there is a limited choice of teachers. There are some that you will like and some that you won't. There is little one can do about, but "luckily quarters are only ten weeks long," said the student. It was a very interesting interview. It taught me a lot about the industry and the hospitality school at DU. I hope it will help you as well.
TRANSCRIPTION: S: STUDENT INTERVIEWER, P: PROFESSOR IN THE MAJOR S: What types of writing do you assign when you teach a class for this major? P: Basically mine is on practical, real practical stuff. So, writing skills will be on case studies, real case studies that happen here that I make up as well as well as I make the students do a full proposal. I will show you one. Basically what they have to do is that they have to work with a real planner and I make them do a proposal with a planner to do a conference right here in um… I will show you what it looks like…um, right here in the building. So, they actually help me sell the building. So, it's not like creative writing or anything like that. I want to it more like this so it looks like a business proposal and that's what they have to do in both of my classes. Today my practicum class they are actually two real projects on events. One of them is on a convention that is happening here in 2014 and they put together a proposal like this and they are presenting to the client today because in 2014 they are going to be here. So, this year in Minnesota my client Carol is going to Minnesota and she is going to present everything my students gave her to get them excited about coming to Denver. Are you familiar with the caroliners in the bell tower that we have on campus. It is actually a big machine, it almost looks like an organ, but they have wooden planks that you play up in the tower. S: Oh, yeah. We did got to play the bell during the Chancellor's dinner P: So anyways that's what they do. S: That's cool. So, you actually use the reports that are made by the students P: Yep. Oh yeah I use the for real I mean… For example one of the one the other class not the practicum class, they are meeting with Ansley, who is a planner and she wants to bring ABC here, which is a bridal consultant, um meeting convention. It is a small one about 150-200 people are building is perfect for it and they are looking a time in January. So, I would help them find hotels and they stay and use all of the meeting spaces here. The good news is that the planners may bring a group here. So, they actually help me sell. S: What do you look for when you evaluate these types of writing? S: Um, well I am all for grammar…um, also I want them presented nicely…um, a lot of times they put it on power point, but the client a lot of the time likes paper like this…but um, like today there is a group that is going to meet planner, actually that is tomorrow. Um, they are walking the client around and giving them paper at the same time as giving them a power point, but it is not the same as a typical creative writing class. I want it to look like a business proposal. Did I answer that?
S: Yes S: Who should students imagine as their audience when they write their papers for class? P: Um… planners, business planners, corporate planners, wedding planners. It’s not coming to me is actually coming to them. I read it obviously, but it looks so professional like it came from a real planner. S: What do you hope students take away with them from this type of writing? P: Real life experiences. They can use this with them in business. Even if you are in lodging, hotels, events, food and beverage, you are still going to have to do proposals. In class, I do require them to get “C-Vent”. Its software that planners use for hotels and event centers, and it helps with a request for a proposal. And um… it’s for free and students can put it on their resume. One student as awesome and it really helped him because he was certified. S: What are some things students should learn if they are going to be successful in this major? P: I think the biggest thing is that students forget about is that you guys do Facebook, Chat, emails “Yo”, “How are you doing”. Any time you send out an email, or anything professional. You need to say “dear”, so that all your correspondence are professional. I get students use “yo”… no that is not professional. S: What do you find challenging about helping your students become a better writer? What teaching techniques have you found to be effective in improving your students writing? P: Um… I give a lot of case studies. My book is just a regular book that you would but that would help with events and food and catering. So basically I give them case studies of every day real stuff that is, like from yesterday. I help them with their writing techniques. Not necessarily writing articles, but I do a lot of articles for the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association. But I like to write things that are creative and fun, but at the same time case studies teach for corporate America. S: This class seems very practical. P: It’s a fun class. People are in lodging and food and beverage and they are taking my class. S: What types of professional writing do you do most often, and what is the most challenging thing about those types of writing? P: I do a lot of proposals for clients. I get a lot of leads from the convention bureau and Visit Denver. I also get wedding leads. So… um… I have to be very flowery for brides. They want to know the colors. In my class I have the class do an exercise about “How would you sell this building if you were selling to a bride.” And then I have them write a brochure about a wedding, bar-mitzvah or quinceanera. It is different for a corporate event. We have Tuscan architecture. 33
You have to think breathtaking. I even have the guys do this activity. It is a challenge if you are more black and white. You need to add fluff.
A PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE
EMAILS: WHAT ARE WE MISSING OUT ON? There are many great things about the hospitality school, such as having a lot of extra lectures for more information, having great advisors and staff to help students find their direction, and an amazing set of teachers eager to guide students and teach them about the industry. It is a top notch school, but in one area it needs a bit of work. Communication is key in getting a job or staying in-tune with your professors and usually that form of communication in this industry is through emails. At the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management they do not teach us about how to write and industry email. I want to propose the implementation of the basic hospitality email structure in the school, either during class or an extra lecture that any student could go to class. This means being taught the basics of how to effectively write and communicate in an around the industry through an email. From a student interview I conducted, I found that being taught the structure of the email was the one thing the student missed the most at the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management. Eventually you do figure out how to write them with time, but in this industry you don't have the time. As a freshmen trying to find a job it is quite intimidating. You might not know how to approach and employer, reach out to them, or even email them. It is a daunting task, one that can be easily fixed. Emails are one the most important form of communication in the hospitality industry. It keeps us connected to our employers, teachers, staff, and anyone else in the industry. Everyone should know what an email is, but emails in the industry are a bit different. They have to be extremely professional, organized with no spelling and grammar mistakes, sincere, and concise. Employees and even the hospitality staff at DU have busy lives and most likely do not have them time to read a three page email. Also, with that employees are a bit choosy on what emails they are and aren't going to read, meaning if they find fault with any part of the email or don't think it is important or pertinent they might not read it. Emails in the industry have to be in a certain form, which the school does not teach us. At the Knoebel School of hospitality there are a bunch of lectures throughout the year explaining different facets that are important the industry and even how to succeed in the school. They are very educational and useful, but what about adding one about emails? I, myself write emails almost every day to employers or people in the industry. I feel I can write an email, but not if I am doing it in the correct way. Maybe there is an even better way to write an email or a more effective way to write an email. Having a staff with the school, employees, or anyone who is part of the industry come in for an hour and teach us students about how to write an email in the industry would be very beneficial. They have the experience in the industry, where we do not. This would be pretty easy to implement, but still would take some time. The presentation would 37
take time to put together, but it would definitely be worth the time. All students have to do is talk or hey why not send an email to their professors and the hospitality administration staff about this need. I believe they would be more willing to help because they would love to see their students with polished professional emails. This extra lecture will do wonders for the students of hospitality. Students would know how to write a perfect email and teachers, staff, and employees would more enjoy reading those emails. With this students will probably have a better chance at getting a job, since they know what is to be expected from and employer and what needs to be included in an email. The idea of creating an extra lecture on how to write an email in the industry will not just happen. It will take time from the staff to organize and get the word out there, which means students if you want this to happen please email your teachers and the hospitality staff. They only have a small amount of time and if there is a lot of interest from students they would be more willing to give up their time. Hospitality students do not have to be the only ones showing interest teachers, faculty, and employees can as well, because they are some of the major stakeholders that play an important role in the student's life. Teachers and the hospitality staff would love to see their students being professional in their email all of time, even for the simplest email such as "can you look over this assignment? I am a confused on the direction I want to go with this." Employees would benefit because they are able to communicate more effectively and therefore able to have a more variety of choices when choosing their next employee. It will create more competition, because communication is key and that is usually done through email in the hospitality industry. It is important in the industry, but may not always be the number one item that will procure you a job. Emails are important item in the industry, but indeed there are other important aspects in procuring a job and even just communicating. There is also only a certain amount of time in a student and faculty's life, so the extra lectures do have to be chosen on level of importance and so emails might not be at the top of the list. The lectures also take a lot of work putting them together, but it would be hard to say no to a lecture all about emails. Again, it will not happen if students don't show interest in hearing about emails. Emails are an aspect of hospitality that should be explained in detail. People in the industry use them every day. With emails being used every day they are important to know how to write well and correctly. Creating a lecture to delve into this topic would take time, but the overall outcome would be outstanding. Students will be seen as professional's not just students. Employees will more be able to choose from a top, notch group of adults waiting to get into the industry. Overall a lecture all about the structures of emails would be extremely important and effective to implement in the Knoebel School of Hospitality Management. The goal of the hospitality school is to help students explore the industry, choose the direction they want to go, gain experience, and most importantly get a job. Emails will aide in doing this and reaching that goal and maybe even sooner than intended. Don't you think this would be important to implement and start?
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