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EPSA Newsletter

Bringing pharmacy, knowledge and students together.

Volume 26 | Edition 3 | April 2019 | @EPSA_Online

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Table of contents

Dear readers,

4 Further Formulations of Amphiphilic Grafit Co-Polymer Based Polymer Micelles

Please welcome one more miraculous EPSA Students’ Science Publication in the mandate 2018/2019. For the 3rd time, in this mandate, ESSP is made in order to spread a word about students’ engagement in the development of pharmaceutical science, highlight their remarkable research work and express European pharmaceutical students’ impact on the direction of our profession. This ESSP Edition consists of five exceptional students’ research abstracts. The abstracts are covering the different research areas which enable you to get a vide view of the most important research topics in pharmaceutical science. Reading the abstracts, you can learn more about the frequency of using the herbal preparations in patients who suffered from mental disorders and urinary tract infections, how we can get closer to the development of new drugs by combining substances in binary and ternary complexes, nanotechnology and polymer micelles, and pharmacists’ role in the promotion of physical activity among patients. For the last time in this mandate, I am kindly inviting you to make a step in our wondrous world of science and by reading the published students’ research abstracts expand boundaries of your knowledge and become familiar with the flow of pharmaceutical profession, because who knows, maybe the next steps in pharmaceutical sciences would be made just by you. In the end, I would like to thank the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, for their invaluable work and all the effort they have invested in teaching us how to write research abstracts and how to make the first steps in the scientific waters. Having their involvement in this project is of great importance for the growth of students’ scientific work. Moreover, I would like to thank the Vice President of Public Relations and Design Coordinator for all the work they have done, amazing designs and great collaboration. And last, but not the least, I would like to thank all students who have enough courage to submit their abstracts and in that way give their contribution to the education of European pharmaceutical students. It was a great pleasure preparing these three magnificent ESSP editions! Thank you all!

6 Knowledge and Attitudes of Patients on the Use of Herbal Preparations in the Treatment of Anxiety and Depression 8 Modulating the Enantioselectivity of B-Cyclodextrin and its Randomly Methylated Derivate in Systems 10 Knowledge and Attitudes of Patients Regarding the Application of Herbal Preparations for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections 12 Physical Activity Promotion in the Portuguese Pharmacies: A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours of Pharmacists

Yours in science,

Sanja Aleksić Science Coordinator 2018/2019


European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association


Bence Sipos1, Piroska Szabó-Révész1, Gábor Katona1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs

INTRODUCTION: In my previous research we investigated the encapsulation of a NSAID agents. It presented a very novel method to increase the solubility of the drug in water and the bioavailability in human fluid medias. We are still using Soluplus® (BASF GmbH, Germany) which is a solubilizing amphiphilic graft co-polymer (Mr = 90 000-140 000 g/l), which is polymerized from polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000), vinyl caprolactam and vinyl acetate in a ratio of 13:57:30. We determined the CMC ourselves using UV-Iodine spectroscopy which showed us the literary data around 7.6 mg/L. AIM: Our project’s aim was to make the in the dark at room temperature. The UV formulation as good as possible and to find absorbance was measured using UV- Vis the critical parameters to help us reduce the spectrophotometer at 366 nm. material cost and time of these methods. RESULTS: With the factorial design we MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based determined that the amount of organic solvent on our previous experience we excluded (p=0.0015) and the polymer concentration methanol, acetonitrile and chloroform from (p=0.0439) had a significant effect on the our method due to their hard maneuverability polydispersity. The quantity of the NaOH and toxic profiles. In the first step of the solution had just additional minor one. The formulation we used acetone and ethanol second factor plane showed us that the drug (Merck Ltd., Budapest, Hungary) as solvents. concentration doesn’t affect the formulation. To find the appropriate parameters we used Box- Behnken factorial design where CONCLUSION: We found Soluplus® helpful the three main points were: the amount of in our work and it presents itself as a good organic solvents, polymer concentration and excipient of the formulation. With everything the amount of the NaOH solution. This time cleaned down we are looking forward to we tried to figure out whether these factors extend its use to other drugs as well. have a significant impact on the polydispersity of our micelles. Malvern nanoZS instrument (Malvern, Wercestershire, UK) was used to investigate the particle size and polydispersity and ANOVA statistical tests. The next time we also investigated the impact of the amount of Meloxicam. To determine the CMC we used the method reported by Gaisford et al 1997. We used a stock solution of 0.5% KI/I 2 and added 1 ml of this to the micellar solutions. We incubated the solutions for about 2 hours | @EPSA_Online

sample amounts we could manage to get more done in one day.

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Bence Sipos from Hungary and currently I’m a fourth year student at University of Szeged Faculty of Pharmacy. In my spare time I am learning French besides perfecting my English. I also help my fellow students with their studies by helping the Student’s Union work. My interest besides pharmacy is cosmetics and dermatology. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. My research is about nanotechnology and polymer micelles. It’s main focus is to improve the water-solubility of poorly soluable APIs using encapsulation methods. With making it soluable in water we can reach a far greater potential in the administration of the drug. We mostly use NSAIDs but from this year on we will use some antibiotics as well. With my methods we can formulate the API into per os administrable medicines but we are currently testing other delivery routes such as nasal administration. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? Our biggest challange was probably making all those samples for the factorial plans. All jokes aside it was very difficult to replicate the formulation more than a hundred times but with adjusting temperatures and using smaller

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? As a student researcher I tend to grab every opportunity to make myself visible to the world and with this international platform which I use the second time now I think it’s a great choice. My advice is to be patient with your work and put all your effort to it even though at the beginning those works don’t really show much result. And as I wrote before, do it with passion because with passion everything can be accomplished.


European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS ON THE USE OF HERBAL PREPARATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION Đorđe Trajković, Dragan Stajić, Aleksandra Antić Mentor: TA mr ph Milica Milutinović Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and depression, often undiagnosed, are one of the most common illnesses of the modern world. Hard emotional stress, fast-paced lifestyle, socio-economic and family situations are the reasons for more frequent occurrence of these illnesses. Considering their very long traditional use, herbal preparations are well accepted by patients and often used in the treatment of these disorders. The age group that used herbal preparations the most was younger than 30 years and unemployed, while the group between 30 and 50 years and employed, mostly did not use these preparations (p<0.05). It is found that respondents preferred the use of herbal preparations recommended by pharmacists MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and doctors. Only 39.9% of all respondents of the knowledge and attitudes of patients on stated that they did not use herbal remedies the use of herbal preparations was carried out because they did not need them. using the survey technique. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions was created in the CONCLUSION: Examination of patients’ online form using the Google questionnaire attitudes about the use of herbal preparations application, while a written questionnaire in the treatment of depression and anxiety was distributed to the patients in pharmacies showed that the most of the respondents in Niš. The patients were asked whether to use them for these indications. According to choose between offered answers or to add the results of the study, we concluded that one of their own. The statistical package the availability of herbal products, fewer side SPSS 20.0 was used for data processing. effects, and safety in their use might be the main reasons for patients’ decision to use RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A them. total of 179 patients have filled out the questionnaire. The results showed that KEYWORDS: Depression; Anxiety; Herbal 60.1% of the respondents used herbal preparation. preparations because of the fewer side effects and their reliability. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between age and respondents working status with their decision on the use of herbal preparations. AIM: The aim of this study was the assessment of the knowledge and attitudes of patients on the use of herbal preparations and their application in the treatment of depression and anxiety, as well as the examination of their information on herbal preparations. | @EPSA_Online

survey through Google Forms was filled mostly by people under 40. So we had to interview older patients face to face in public pharmacies using our survey. It was difficult work too, because not all patients are in the mood for giving intimate answers about their health, especially about mental illnesees. We managed to get past that. We left the patient alone to fill up the survey so they can do it Please, tell us a little bit more about privately. yourself. My name is Djordje Trajkovic, I am from Niš, Serbia and I am 22 years old. I am in my In your opinion, what is the benefit fourth year of university studying pharmacy at of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking University of Niš Faculty of Medicine. research in the future? I love pharmacy, especially pharmacology The benefit of joining ESSP is the opportunity and pharmacotherapy. I love to learn a new to publish your research and to have them things and meet new people. At the moment professionally reviewed by the European I am part of the Nis Pharmacy Students’ Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. You Association (NiPSA), which is part of the become more proffesional and your work National Association of Pharmacy Students gets on a whole new level and your desire for – Serbia (NAPSer), as a PCE Coordinator science research grows. This is also in a way (Patient Counselling event). Also, I am a part of a competition so it is good for people who like the PR team of B.Cell organization at NAPSer. to compete. It stimulates people to work more and better themselves as much as posible. My advice is work as much as you can, you Tell us a bit more about your research will be a better person and of course a bigger professional, give your maximum, go all in and its significance. We wanted to determine if patients who with what you are doing and perceive it from suffer from depression and anxiety use herbal all sides and angles to make it more clear.

Questions & answers

preparations to treat or relieve their symptoms. Use of these preparations is massive, whether it is indicated or not, so the aim of this study is to discover which herbal products do patients use the most and if their use is correct. If the results showed that most of the patients use wrong herbal preparations or use them in the wrong way, we considerd that more work is needed on educating the patients. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge was gathering information, because we needed to involve all age grupes, from students to people over 70 years old. It was difficult because the online


European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

MODULATING THE ENANTIOSELECTIVITY OF b-CYCLODEXTRIN AND ITS RANDOMLY METHYLATED DERIVATE IN SYSTEMS Alex-Bogdan Vișa, Ioana-Alexandra Zorilă, Corina-Cristina Aramă University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania

INTRODUCTION: The formation of inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins is of particular importance, both for the improvement of physico-chemical and pharmacological properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients and for the pharmaceutical analysis (for example, in chiral separations). Polycarboxylic acids, polyols, chiral ionic liquids resulting from amino acids can participate in inclusion complexes, functioning as modulators of the enantioselectivity, of cyclodextrins, which is sometimes limited. AIM: Through this study, we want to investigate the multiple interactions that appear in ternary complexes of cyclodextrinmolecule and guest-modulator (chiral ionic liquids, polycarboxylic acids), to identify the possibilities of separation optimisation through the alteration of some functional parameters of the analytical systems studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Via UV-absorption spectrophotometry, we have studied the interactions, in solution for several modulators (chiral ionic liquids: tetrabutylammoniumarginine, tetrabutylammonium-leucine, and tetrabutylammonium-aspartate, and polycarboxylic acids: EDTA, tartaric acid, etc.) with b-cyclodextrin and randomly methylated b-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) and the pharmacologically active guest molecule ((±) ibuprofen). The methods used are the phase solubility studies, continuous variation and the competitive continuous variation. RESULTS: The presence of modulators in liquids (binary and ternary mixtures) cause a slight bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption and they reduce the relative stability of the formed complexes.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study (associated with data gathered from previous determinations) show that adding molecules that can participate in the formation of ternary inclusion complexes can significantly modify the enantioselectivity manifested by b- cyclodextrin; we expect that the interaction of ibuprofen with both the chiral ionic liquids and cyclodextrins result in a selective influence on the formation of inclusion complexes of enantiomers, which will lead to higher resolution in capillary electrophoretic separations. | @EPSA_Online

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. I am Ioana-Alexandra Zorilă, a third-year student at “Carol Davila” Faculty of Pharmacy from Bucharest, Romania. I’m an LGBT+ activist, with an interest in public healthcare and legislation. My goal is to combine research and activism in order to have a greater impact and improve other people’s lives. My name is Vișa Alex-Bogdan and I’m a third-year student at “Carol Davila” Faculty of Pharmacy from Bucharest, Romania. I’m very interested in Pharmacy and research and I think that one day I could help people have a better quality of life. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. In this research project, we studied the hostguest interactions between a binary complex containing b-cyclodextrin + Ibuprofen and the modulating effects that other substances such as chiral ionic liquids and polycarboxylic acids resulting from amino acids create when forming ternary complexes. The objective was to combine and separate the substances, while observing the properties they bring to the new inclusion complexes. Cyclodextrins are a point of interest when talking about pharmaceutical excipients used as targeting molecules. By providing data regarding their efficacy in forming binary and ternary complexes and separating them, we can get closer to developing new drugs.

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge during our research was overcoming statistical precision of the numerical results. We have achieved this by conducting certain experiments several times to make sure that the data was valid. In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? I find this an excellent opportunity for all young By joining ESSP you become visible to other people that share your interest in doing research. You have the chance to show how your mind works and attract colleagues from different countries to certain topics. For a student, starting a research project can prove to be quite a challenge. However, in the big picture, your work is always important. You may be the reason why someone, somewhere, has a better life.


European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF HERBAL PREPARATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Ivana Cvetanović, Dragan Stajić, Isidora Baćević Mentor: TA Milica Kostić Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš

INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections are the most common form of urinary tract infections. Typical symptoms of infections are: a burning sensation during urination, frequent, difficult and nighttime urination, reduced urine output and temperature. The most common cause of urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli. Since ancient times, people have used plants to treat these infections. Phytotherapeutics generally have good effects on the treatment of infections of the lower part of the urinary system. AIM: The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes and knowledge of patients regarding the use of herbal preparations for the treatment of urinary tract infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The test was carried out by employing the survey technique. It was conducted using an online and a printed survey. The online survey was created using the Google questionnaire application. The printed questionnaire was distributed at the Faculty of Medicine and in pharmacies in Niš. The SPSS 20.0 statistical package was used for data processing. A chi-squared test of the independence of categorical variables was performed.

CONCLUSION: After examining the patients’ attitudes towards and knowledge of the use of herbal preparations for the treatment of urinary infections, the results show that the attitudes are divided and that the respondents have different knowledge and information on medicinal herbs preparations. Most patients think that herbal preparations are safe, therefore, it could be concluded that they are not sufficiently familiar with the side effects that some herbal preparations can cause. In order to obtain more relevant data in further research, the survey can be expanded to an even larger number of respondents, covering a wider territory.

KEYWORDS: urinary tract infections; herbal RESULTS: The study involved 243 patients. preparations; questionnaire. The research showed that 61% of patients do not use herbal preparations for the treatment of urinary infections, while 39% do. The most commonly used drugs are bearberry leaves and cranberry fruits. Women use these preparations more often than men. Patients that use herbal preparations usually buy them in community pharmacies. They collect most of the information via the Internet. However, a large number of patients uses herbal remedies on pharmacist’s recommendation. They usually prepare tea from all herbal preparations. | @EPSA_Online

the same.

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Ivana Cvetanovic and I’m 22 years old. I am currently at the fourth year of Pharmaceutical studies at the Medical Faculty of Niš. My studies are marked by my membership at NiPSA (Nis Pharmacy Students’ Association), whose member I became two years ago. Last year, I was the Patient Counselling Event coordinator, whilst now I am at the position of Secretary General in NiPSA. I like to engage in extracurricular activities, so I started my NiPSA story with participation in numerous Public Health campaigns. I was a volunteer at the 10th and 11th NAPSer Congress in Zlatibor, Serbia. I also have many interests that are not related to the University and I am very happy that I have kept my childhood love for sports, reading books and making friends. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes and knowledge of patients of different age groups on the use of herbal preparations for the treatment of urinary infections. The purpose of the conducted study is to see to what extent patients use medicinal herbs based on the treatment of urinary infections, in what form, for which symptoms, for which reasons and what types of preparations are most commonly used. Also, the aim of the survey was to examine attitudes and knowledge about the safety of the use of herbal preparations for the treatment of urinary infections, and how patients come up with information on the efficacy and safety of

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? Research and working with respondents from different age groups were very interesting. However, as this survey covered a large number of respondents (243), there were minor difficulties in data processing. In addition to a large number of respondents, the processing of data was even more complicated due to the fact that the respondents had the opportunity to respond to certain questions in the form of short text with more precise answers. With the help of my mentor, TA Milica Kostic, the effort and time involved, all the data was correctly introduced and sorted through Microsoft Office Excel, and then statistically processed through SPSS 20.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Science). In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? In my opinion, the benefit of joining the ESSP is that you can share your interests, work and research with a large number of students, as well as the opportunity for personal development. My proposal for students who start researching a particular topic is to deal with what is very interesting to them, to enjoy the entire research process and not to give up if they come up to some problems. It is necessary to invest a lot of effort, work and patience in research, so work hard on what interests you and you will come to the right conclusion.


European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROMOTION IN THE PORTUGUESE PHARMACIES: A SURVEY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF PHARMACISTS Rúben Viegas, Pedro Teixeira, Cristina Godinho, Sónia Romano Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa.

INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity represents an obstacle to healthier populations. Health systems and their professionals play a key role in the promotion and maintenance of behaviors contributing to higher levels of physical activity. AIM: The present study aimed to characterize physical activity promotion actions of pharmacists taking place in Portuguese pharmacies. Through the analysis of this questionnaire we intended to understand the possibilities of including pharmacies and pharmacists as promoters of physical activity in the primary health care in the future.

responses. More than 90% of pharmacists believe that the promotion of physical activity for health and its promotion in the pharmacy is important or very important. CONCLUSION: The main barriers encountered were the promotion opportunities, such as lack of time, resources or interest by customers. On the other hand, capacities, such as knowledge and motivation, such as interest for promotion and definition of the role of the pharmacist as promotor of physical activity presented themselves as minor barriers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To characterize physical activity promotion, a questionnaire was developed based on a similar questionnaire developed for the medical class in Portugal and supported by the behavioral change models/ frameworks such as the COM-B and Theoretical Domains Framework. This study was developed in KEYWORDS: Physical activity; Pharmacists, partnership with the National Pharmacies Promotion, Primary care, Pharmacies. Association (ANF) that actively collaborated in the distribution of questionnaires to the pharmacists. RESULTS: In total, 396 complete responses were obtained, representing about 5% of Portuguese pharmacists. The sample consisted of 86 men (18.4%) and 381 women (81.6%), with a mean age of 40 (SD = 10) years and 14.3 (SD = 9) years of experience in community pharmacy. About 80% of pharmacists responded they promote physical activity in their daily routine. The most frequent promotion action was verbal counseling, with about 90% of responses and walking the most advised activity, with 95% of | @EPSA_Online

work professors and researchers have, it can be hard for your work to be on the top of their priorities.

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is RĂşben Viegas and I am a young pharmacist from Portugal. I finished my studies in pharmaceutical sciences in the south of Portugal, in Universidade of Algarve and then moved to Lisbon where I joined the Master of Exercise and Health in the Faculty of Human Kinetics. I am also involved in EPSA for some years now, being currently the EPSA Alumni Coordinator. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. My research comes from the need to merge my previous master in pharmacy and the current one in physical exercise and health. While looking at those areas the idea to understand what was the level of promotion of physical activity by pharmacists came to my mind. Then with the help of my supervisors we could put together a survey that gaves us the opportunity to characterize the promotion of physical activity as well as the barriers and facilitators around it. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge of this research was the timing of each step as most of these steps included reviews and communication with an external entity. The way to push forward is to make sure you contact the responsible person thoruhg different channels and that you insist a little bit, even if it seems you are being to pushy. Otherwise, with the amount of

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? For me the biggest benefit of joining the ESSP is to share with the other students that you can do research in any area you like, as long as you have a creative mind and bring scientific value to the table with your research questions. With this being said I would like to challenge other students to keep their hopes up and never lose their scientific curiosity.

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