ESSP V7E2

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EPSA

Newsletter

Bringing pharmacy knowledge and students together!

Volume 27 I Edition 2 I March 2020 www.epsa-online.org I @EPSA_Online

16th EPSA Autumn Assembly

Vaccination in the era of misinformation from complexity to value.

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EPSA Annual Reception


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Table of contents

Dear readers,

4 Reviewing the effects of monoclonal antibody formulations, with relevance to rheumatoid arthritis

It is my great pleasure to present you the 2nd Volume of EPSA Students Science Publication Volume 7. ESSP is an EPSA Scientific Project aiming to give European pharmaceutical students an opportunity to share their research abstract on an international level. Each abstract is reviewed by professionals from European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS), un umbrella organization for associations in pharmaceutical sciences. Participants are provided with feedback on their abstract that enables them to perfect their writing skills. For this Edition we have gathered six students‘ abstracts which cover a wide range of different pharmaceutical sciences from cancer research and pharmaceutical analysis to formulation of biologics. Reading the abstracts you will have unique opportunity to gain more knowledge about the hottest field of pharmaceutical sciences. And maybe it will inspire you to take part in next edition of ESSP or even present you research during 12th EPSA Science Day, which will take place during Annual Congress in Lyon, France.

6 Clinical manifestations of first detected atrial fibrillation among patients with hypertensive crises 8 Assessment of the effect of morphine on the oxidation process of sorafenib 10 Designing and validating an HPLC-UV method for concentration determination of 4-fluoramphetamine in human blood serum 12 Changes in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the model of chronic stress induced by long term adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment 14 RACK1 promotes breast cancer cell growth via MCM7/ RACK1 signaling complex

I would like to thank the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences for all the work they have done and support in making this publication. ESSP wouldn’t be possible without the hard work of our PR Department. And also many thanks to students who gathered their courage and sent their research abstracts. It was a great pleasure to work with such talented students and be able to help them in sharing their ideas, work and goals with other fellow pharmacy students across Europe. Yours in science,

Josef Kunrt Science Coordinator 2019/2020


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REVIEWING THE EFFECTS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY FORMULATIONS, WITH RELEVANCE TO RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Authors: Yamunna Narayanan, Prof. Amal Ali Elkordy Institution: The Sunderland Pharmacy School -University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United Kingdom

INTRODUCTION: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a class of biological therapeutic agents used in oncology or autoimmune diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its sensitivity in ambient conditions causes instability during manufacturing, storage and administration. Employing certain conditions and excipients may improve the mAbs’ pharmaceutical stability. The mAb market is projected to be worth approximately US$132 billion by 2023 and is driven by innovation in drug design and development. Optimising mAbs also paves the way for successful outreach of biosimilars, another valuable aspect of the pharmaceutical industry, to consumers. Thus, reinforcing the need for continued optimisation of mAb formulations for improved efficacy and favourable adverse effect profiles. AIM: To critically analyse the effectiveness and suitability of common (amino acids, silicone oil) and novel (dipicolinic acid, quinolinic acid, arginine-glutamate) excipients in overcoming challenges faced by mAb formulations such as viscosity, opalescence and aggregation. Concomitantly, formulation optimisation, with respect to present findings and factors such as storage, manufacturing and stress conditions have also been explored in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2 trial types were selected with reference to PRISMA Guidelines. Using a highly specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, the first type is associated with excipients and their effects on protein stability whereas the second was clinical trials. A tocilizumab trial was selected to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of mAbs in RA, and results discussed in the other trials regarding the excipients were adapted to the findings of this trial. RESULTS: Amino acids have concentration dependent stabilising and destabilising effects whereas silicone oil induces aggregation and protein instability. Arginine-Glutamate has shown promise alongside Arginine-Quinolinic

acid, as an opalescence and viscosity modifier. Agitation and stress induced the most aggregation, leading to colloidal instability. Based on the results, the tocilizumab formulation was deemed as suitable as otherwise, issues such as hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis and poor compliance would have been raised. CONCLUSION: Further research is required in the area of arginine complexes to strengthen their suitability as excipients. However, it is noteworthy that even if a formulation remains stable in vitro, it may change due to patient variability in vivo. In turn, this creates more potential for research to be conducted in terms of formulation optimisation as well as evaluating mAb therapeutics in different patient types. Nonetheless, the progress for biologic optimisation so far looks promising.


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research project. Up until then, I had only been introduced to the use of mAbs in clinical practice. We did not have any lectures about the formulation or practical aspects and understanding the basics took me some time. Especially with numerous research papers out there, it was easy to get confused. I recognised that I needed some help and met up with my supervisor regularly, to ensure that I had a good understanding of the basics Please, tell us a little bit more about before narrowing down the studies I wanted to use. Soon after, I was excited to get on with yourself. My name is Yamunna Narayanan and I am my project and enjoyed the entire process currently a final year pharmacy student at the from start to finish. University of Sunderland in UK. I am originally from Singapore. Since I was young, I have In your opinion, what is the benefit had opportunities to travel extensively and of joining ESSP and what advice do my travels have made me passionate about you have for students undertaking global issues and helping underprivileged research in the future? communities around the world. As a I think one of the greatest benefits of joining pharmacist, I hope to use health sciences ESSP would be the incredible opportunity as a medium to alleviate the states of such to publish your own research and share communities. My other interests include your knowledge and love for the subject with people outside of the university. Having public speaking, reading and art. the opportunity to publish your own work Tell us a bit more about your research will most definitely be a great confidence booster for students. It is also important to and its significance. My research is a literature review based on the acknowledge that the very basis of medicines, formulation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), treatments, diagnosis and other aspects of with relevance to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). care, all stem from extensive and credible I analysed and critically appraised trials that research. As future healthcare professionals, studied the use of different excipients which in students should be proud to have helped in turn affect the safety and efficacy of mAbs. I the process one way or another. For students then had to subsequently apply these findings undertaking research in the future, my advice to tocilizumab, a mAb used in RA. Drug design would be to not be reluctant to ask for help. It and development are the main drivers of the is important to recognise the moments when mAb market, and innovation plays a key role. you need help as otherwise, progress would The optimisation of mAbs also allows for the be more of a challenge. Also, when things do successful outreach of biosimilars, another not go as planned, it is very important not to flourishing area of pharmaceuticals. As such, give up! Just keep your end goal in mind and it is crucial to understand its formulation so soldier on! as to achieve improved efficacy and more favourable adverse effect profiles.

Questions & answers

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? I was in my third year when I completed my


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CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FIRST DETECTED ATRIAL FIBRILLATION AMONG PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSIVE CRISES Author: Mykhaylo Podluzhny Scientific Coordinator: Sid’ E. V., PhD, associate professor Institution: Chair of emergency medical service, State Institute «Zaporizhzhia Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education of Ministry of Health of Ukraine»

INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of arrhythmias among patients with hypertension (HT) has become the basis of numerous studies. It remains interesting to determine the clinical manifestations of the first detected atrial fibrillation (FD AF) on the background of HT in the development of hypertensive crises (HC). AIM: To determine the clinical manifestations of the first detected atrial fibrillation in a group of patients with hypertension during the development of hypertensive crises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research results are based on a survey of 73 patients with documented HT in the state of HC during the emergency medical help on the prehospital phase. All studied were subjected to anamnestic, general clinical and instrumental examination to verify the diagnosis, identify complications and associated pathology. RESULTS: The number of patients in the first group with HT combined with FDAF during the development of HC was 38 people (22 men and 16 women), with an average age of age 57.4 ± 1.0. The quantity of the second group of patients with HT during the development of HC without AF was 35 people (17 men and 18 women), with an average age of 57.2 ± 0.9. The groups were comparable in age and duration of HT. Analysis of complaints in patients with HC showed that the prevalence of the main symptoms in the first group were: shortness of breath - 23(60.5%), headache - 1(2.6%), dizziness - 6(15.8%), heart interruptions - 14 (36.8%), palpitation 26 (68.4%). In the second group: shortness of breath - 5(14.3%), headache - 33(94.3%), dizziness - 23(65.7%), heart interruptions - 8(22.9%), palpitation - 15(42.9%). Only

heart interruptions did not have a significant difference between the groups by the criterion 2(p>0.05). Clinical manifestations such as shortness of breath and palpitations were more prevalent among patients with HT combined with the FDAF and development of HC(p<0.05), but headache and dizziness were prevalent among patients with HT during the development of HC without AF (p<0.05). The results of ROC-analysis showed that heart interruptions, as a manifestation of the FDAF among patients with HT during the development of HC (AUC = 0,576, 95% CI AUC 0,457 to 0,689) had a sensitivity of 36.84% and specificity of 78.38%. Also, palpitations, as a manifestation of FDAF among patients with HT during the development of HC, had a sensitivity of 68.42% and specificity of 59.46% at AUC = 0.639, 95% CI AUC 0.520 to 0.747. CONCLUSION: Palpitation was the most frequent clinical manifestation accompanying the FDAF among 26 (68.4%) patients with HT during the development of HC. Heart interruptions and palpitations among patients with HT during the development of HC had insufficient sensitivity and specificity for AF. Patients with developing HC require mandatory ECG registration before emergency medical treatment to determine further treatment tactics.


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Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Mykhaylo Podluzhny. I am from Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine. It is an old historical and industrial big city in the East of Ukraine. I am interested in cardiac cellular electrophysiology. Right now I am studying in Zaporizhzhya State Medical University and working in the CVICU of Zaporizhzhya Regional Center of Cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore I am keen on sports, especially, on grappling. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. My research was performed when I was working on the ambulance so all of the patients contacted me directly. The significance is that now a lot of people think that if they have any diseases, especially arrhythmias, they will have significant sign of it, but my research shows that it is incorrect. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? There were some problems with contacting patients but during research I became more experienced and self-confident so patients started believing me. In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? This helps me to spread my idea and to help healthcare professionals deeper understand this topic. I highly recommend to join this initiative and to make your voice be heard.


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ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF MORPHINE ON THE OXIDATION PROCESS OF SORAFENIB Authors: Kordalewska Karina, Karbownik Agnieszka, Szałek Edyta, Grabowski Tomasz, Urjasz Hanna, Grześkowiak Edmund Scientific Coordinator: assoc. prof. Szałek Edyta, PhD Institution: Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland

INTRODUCTION: Sorafenib (SR) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high activity towards several families of tyrosine kinases involved in angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. The clinical use of sorafenib is indicated in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal cell carcinoma and thyroid cancer resistant to radioactive iodine. Opioid analgesics are considered to be on the first place in the treatment of moderate to severe pain for patients diagnosed with cancer, where morphine plays a significant role. Sorafenib is mainly metabolized in the liver with N-oxidation via CYP3A4 to pyridine-N-oxide (N-oxide sorafenib; NO-SR) and glucuronidation via the phase II enzyme UGT1A9. AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of morphine on the oxidation process of sorafenib to its’ active metabolite: N-oxide sorafenib.

CONCLUSION: The study showed that morphine has no significant influence on the oxidation process of sorafenib. The reason may be high values of coefficients of variation calculated for the control group (%CV = 58.7 MATERIAL AND METHODS: The animals – 107.1). participating in the study were assigned to two groups: study group (n=8) and control group (n=8). Sorafenib was administered orally at the dose of 100 mg/kg, while morphine intraperitoneally at the dose 5 mg/kg concomitantly with sorafenib. The plasma sorafenib and N-oxide sorafenib concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with UVVIS detection ( =265nm). The PK parameters were determined and calculated using a noncompartmental model. RESULTS: The mean values of PK parameters with standard deviations [SD] for NO-SR/SR ratios in the study group and control group were as follows: Cmax=0.07 [0.02] vs. 0.12 [0.13] ng/ml (p=0.1152), AUC0-t= 0.10 [0.07] vs. 0.08 [0.06] ng*h/ml (p=0.4622), AUC0-∞= 0.12 [0.08] vs. 0.14 [0.08] ng*h/ml (p=0.4622).


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to investigate in humans. At first we had to submit the application for ethical approval of an animal experiment to the local ethical committee. After we got the approval it was necessary to prepare animals for the research - ensure the appropriate conditions for them (systematic feeding and cleaning, checking the temperature, humidity, lighting) and familiarize them with persons performing the Please, tell us a little bit more about experiment. yourself. My name is Karina Kordalewska and I’m a In your opinion, what is the benefit final year student at Faculty of Pharmacy in of joining ESSP and what advice do Poznan, Poland. Currently I am an obligatory you have for students undertaking intern at a community pharmacy. During my research in the future? studies I started to become interested in Joining ESSP gives a chance to publish your clinical pharmacy, especially in oncology. research and share your work with other Unfortunately a clinical pharmacist position in students from other countries. It can be one Poland is not common, but after graduation of your first steps in science. To all students I aspired to be a part of the GP team and that are considering doing research projects participate in patient care with other health I would say give yourself time and be patient. workers. I also love to travel, especially by Don’t expect huge accomplishments in a hitchhiking or with a van. In my free time I like short period. Reward yourself with every little step during the whole process. Then to do yoga and play on the ukulele. you won’t lose your motivation and the Tell us a bit more about your research satisfaction of every goal that you reach will be indescribable. and its significance.

Questions & answers

My research was about the effect of morphine on the sorafenib pharmacokinetic profile. Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is indicated in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal cell carcinoma and thyroid cancer resistant to radioactive iodine. Patients diagnosed with cancer often suffer from chronic pain, where opioid analgesics are considered to be on the first place in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible pharmacokinetic interaction between these two drugs. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? This study had to be conducted on laboratory rats as we wanted to estimate the influence of morphine on sorafenib’s pharmacokinetic parameters, which was very challenging


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DESIGNING AND VALIDATING AN HPLCUV METHOD FOR CONCENTRATION DETERMINATION OF 4-FLUORAMPHETAMINE IN HUMAN BLOOD SERUM Author: F. de Vries, BSc Scientific Coordinator: Dr F. Flesch, Ir. W.J.M. van den Bogaard, Ir. G.A.H Korte-Bouws Institution: Utrecht University

INTRODUCTION: The rising use of 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FMP) has caused more presentations of intoxications in Dutch hospitals. Yet, there is no universal method to determine 4-FMP concentration in patients’ blood. AIM: Therefore the purpose of this thesis was to design and validate an HPLC-UV method for concentration determination of 4-FMP in human blood serum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 4-FMP was purchased online. Identification was executed via a melting point test, chloride test and via IR-spectrum, ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectrum determination. For the HPLC-UV analysis, human blood serum was spiked with various concentrations 4-fluoramphetamine (respectively; 40 (HQC), 10, 4, 1 (MQC), 0.4 and 0.1 (LQC) µg/mL). 50 µL internal standard (amphetamine) was added and the samples were prepared for HPLC-UV analysis. This preparation consisted of basifying the spiked serum with 50 µL 1.0M NaOH and adding 5 mL ether, to extract 4-FMP and amphetamine to the organic-phase. This was transferred to a new tube and acidified with 200 µL 0.01 M HCl, extracting 4-FMP and amphetamine back to the water-phase. The ether was removed and the remainder was blown dry with nitrogen. 25 µL was injected, in duplo, in the HPLC-UV. The eluent consisted of 17.5% acetonitril plus 10 mM perchloric acid. The flow was 0.05 mL/min measured at a wavelength of 257 nm. RESULTS:The identification tests validated that the purchased substance was 4-FMP·HCl. UV-spectrometry determined that the

purity of the 4-FMP was 94,53% and that the substance contained no interfering components. Based on 3 parallels in duplo, the preparation methods’ recovery was 93.74% for 4-flouramphetamine and 91.11% for amphetamine. Via a 1/X transformed calibration curve (Y = 0.01955x – 3.043·10-5, R2 0.996) the accuracy was determined. 100% of the samples fell within the requirements. The average peak height of the 0.1 µg/mL LQC sample fulfilled the requirements of minimally being 5 times larger than noise. Furthermore, the deviations of the samples fell within the requirements, confirming the precision of the method. The stability of the stock-solution during 11 months was acceptable and there were no interferences with commonly used medicines. CONCLUSION: Identification results display that the purity of the 4-FMP·HCl was well enough for usage during the method design phase. The self-designed preparation and analysis method was accurate, precise and robust enough to be validated. Therefore this method could be used to determine the 4-FMP concentration in human bloodserum.


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Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. II am Fenna, a 25 year old Dutch pharmacy student. I have completed my bachelor’s degree at Utrecht University and I am currently halfway through my master’s degree at Leiden University. After completing my master’s degree I would like to pursue a doctorate degree and specialise as a hospital pharmacist. My interests within the field of pharmacy are; toxicology, therapeutic drug monitoring, illegal substances and pharmaceutical analysis. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. The Netherlands and illegal drug use go handin-hand. The constant development of new designer drugs form a problem for, amongst others, drug-users, medics and authorities. For my bachelor thesis I designed and validated a method to determine 4-fluoroamphetamine concentrations in human blood serum. The 4-fluoroamphetamine level could be an indicator for the severity of intoxication, and thus could be useful to optimise the treatment. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The 4-fluoroamphetamine used during research was ordered online. Therefore Ineeded to identify the substance as 4-fluoroamphetamine. Due to the short existence of the drug, there was barely any referential information available. To overcome this problem, I used the small amount of available data about 4-fluoroamphetamine and combined this with data about

amphetamine. This way I could identify the amphetamine structure, remaining only the fluor atom and its location to identify. A 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis were used to validate the presence of the fluor atom on the fourth carbon atom of the benzene ring. In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? Joining ESSP can result in a (first) publication. This publication can form an addition to your resume. Besides, the process of writing an article and getting it published is an educational experience. My advice: take into account that research will take more time than anticipated. You will have major setbacks and weeks without any progress. But in the end, you will get the desired results.


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CHANGES IN THE LEVEL OF BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF) IN THE MODEL OF CHRONIC STRESS INDUCED BY LONG TERM ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE TREATMENT Author: Dragana Carević, Kristina Mitrović Scientific Coordinator: Assoc. Prof. Vesna Pešić, TA Bojan Batinić Institution: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade

INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress response, mediated by increased activity of HPA axis and high concentration of glucocorticoids, has an essential role in the survival. Prolonged exposure to stress has a negative impact on cell proliferation and differentiation in the adult hippocampus and reduces the number of neurons in hippocampus as well as in prefrontal cortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) substantially affects neuronal survival and differentiation. AIM: To examine BDNF expression in rat CONCLUSION: The present results are prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after in accordance with a number of studies chronic administration of ACTH. focused on stress modelling, that underline the significance of BDNF level change as a MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult potential mechanism involved with atrophy of male Wistar rats were 8 weeks old at the certain brain structures, but also underline the beginning of the experiment. Animals were possibility of modulation of BDNF expression divided into two groups; after 7 day-long in therapy. habituation, rats were treated subcutaneously with saline solution (400µl/day) or ACTH (10mg/400µl/day), for 21 days. BDNF expression in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was analyzed using Western blot. After homogenization, tissue samples were prepared for electrophoresis protein separation (SDS-PAGE). This was followed by protein transport from gel to membrane and incubation with primary anti-BDNF antibody and secondary antibody with HRP enzyme, while luminescence quantification was assessed using Fujifilm intelligent dark-box II. RESULTS: We showed that chronic ACTH treatment in rats resulted in lower BDNF expression in the hippocampus (t (6) =3.008; p=0.024), relative to control group, while the difference in the prefrontal cortex was not significant (t (6) =1.727; p=0.135).


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Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Dragana Carević and I am a third-year student at Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, Serbia. I did this research project with my colleague, Kristina Mitrović, with great support from our mentors. Kristina and I presented our research paper at the 60th Student’s Congress of Biomedical Sciences of Serbia with international participation on Kopaonik. I like to engage in extra-curricular activities so I volunteer in Public Health, Student Exchange Programmes and at the 12th NAPSer Congress in Zlatibor. My goal is to unite research and activism, so that one day I could help people have a better quality of life. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. Our research project was about designing a model of chronic stress and its impact on neurogenesis. To be precise, we aimed to examine how chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) treatment utilises brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus on experimental animals. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? Since this was the beginning of our research projects, every aspect of it was a bit of a challenge. The biggest one was to perform the Western Blot method in accordance with certain regulations and proper amount of time. Nevertheless, with every obstacle that we had it pushed us to go further and be much more motivated and dedicated to the project. In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do

you have for students undertaking research in the future? In my opinion, the benefit of joining ESSP is the chance to share your research projects, interests and work with a large number of students that are interested in certain topics. I warmly advise students undertaking research in the future to be endlessly curious, patient, and persistent, to choose a topic that they find really interesting and enjoy the entire process.


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RACK1 PROMOTES BREAST CANCER CELL GROWTH VIA MCM7/RACK1 SIGNALING COMPLEX Author: Aleksandra Chlebowska Scientific Coordinator: Prof. Erica Buoso, Prof. Marco Racchi, Dr. Mirco Massi Institution: Laboratory of Biology and Pharmacology of Aging, Cancer and Neurodegeneration, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy

INTRODUCTION: RACK1 is a scaffolding protein able to interact with a wide variety of proteins, thus acting as a key mediator of various pathways. MCM7 is a component of the miniature chromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) protein complex and has a significant role in initiating DNA replication and cell proliferation. Recent studies have shown that MCM7/ RACK1/Akt signalling complex is a potential therapeutic target in cancers. This complex was demonstrated to regulate cell growth and cell cycle progression, particularly in human lung cancer. Hence, in our work, it has been revealed that either in human breast cancer, RACK1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of cell growth via MCM7 signalling complex.. AIM: Work aimed to investigate RACK1 involvement in proliferation and cell growth in a representative cellular model of postmenopausal breast cancer. Moreover, the main point of the research was identifying MCM7/RACK1 complex in MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During research were used estrogen-dependent cell line (MCF-7) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line (MDA-MB-231). To perform all the experiments were used numerous methods: Western blot assay, colony formation assay, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, cell proliferation assay (MTT assay), and statistical analysis of data. RESULTS: POur studies have demonstrated that RACK1 knockdown inhibits, while RACK1 overexpression promotes cell growth and colony formation in representative breast cancer cells. In addition, through immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry assays we have revealed that RACK1 interacts with MCM7 and obtains a complex. CONCLUSION: As it has been shown one

of the breast cancer cell growth-regulating pathways is the interaction between MCM7 and RACK1. Recent findings present the complex as a novel mechanism of promoting proliferation in cancer cells with Akt-induced phosphorylation of MCM7. Patients with TNBC are in the group of the worst outcome because of non-specific targeted therapy and the only systemic treatment option is cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, finding a new complex related to cancer cell proliferation may be one of the new therapeutic strategies.


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new therapeutic strategies.

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Aleksandra Chlebowska and I am a sixth-year pharmacy student at the Medical University of Gdańsk in Poland. Currently, I am doing my internship in one of the community pharmacies in Gdańsk and I will graduate in May. During my studies, I have been closely involved in working for the Polish Pharmaceutical Students’ Association, which made all the struggles I had as a pharmacy student more bearable. Last year I spent 5 months in Italy as an exchange from the Erasmus+ Programme. During my stay, I was performing the research for my master thesis. At the time, that was the biggest challenge I’ve ever encountered so far, but now I would recommend it to anyone who is considering it.

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The most challenging time for me was the first month of my stay at the hosting university because I was learning a lot of new things connected with the topic of my research, which was quite demanding. Moreover, I had to understand how to perform all the methods that we used and how to read all the collected data. Another big challenge I had was getting to know new culture and most of all the Italian language which accompanied me all the time in the lab. The best way to overcome all the challenges I had was just to be patient and learn everything step by step.

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? In my opinion, the biggest benefit is a chance to share my research with other motivated students and encourage them to try it or even interest someone with the subject. Also, my advice is to find the topic that you Tell us a bit more about your research are passionate about, because working in research sometimes requires a lot of time and its significance. My research mostly concerns the RACK1 and engagement but in the end, it is extra protein and its transcriptional regulation, satisfying. interactions with other proteins by creating complexes and influence on breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. During the research, it has been shown that complex MCM7/RACK1 promotes proliferation and cell growth in a representative cellular model of post-menopausal breast cancer. The main significance of the results was that the MCM7/RACK1 complex was observed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Patients with TNBC are in the group of the worst outcome because of non-specific targeted therapy and the only systemic treatment option is cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, finding a new complex related to cancer cell proliferation may be one of the


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