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Eรถtvรถs University Student Chapter of AAPG

Winter Report 2014


Contents

Student Chapter Information ................................................................................................................................ 3 Members of the Student Chapter in the 1st semester of 2014/2015 ....................................... 4 Introduction - Mihály Temes ................................................................................................................................. 6 Student Chapter Activities from July to December 2014 ................................................................. 8 2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days, Bucharest - Dániel Budai .................. 8 Utrecht Student Chapter Field Trip in Hungary - Soma Szathmári ......................................... 12 Utrecht Student Chapter Field Trip in Hungary - Dániel Budai .................................................. 14 Eötvös Students in Istanbul – International Conference & Exhibition 2014 Edina Pável ....................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Field-trip to the Zala basin, cradle of the Hungarian oil-industry Viktória Kovács, Edina Pável ............................................................................................................................... 17 Professor Wayne Pennington’s presentation - Jenifer Sarrang ............................................ 18 One day with Professor Peter Haughton and pelagic sediments in the Gerecse mountains - Soma Budai ................................................................................................................................ 19 Budapest Education Days: Day One - The hybrid turbidites Soma Budai .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Budapest Education Days: Day Two - Petroleum Geochemistry and Diagenesis Soma Budai ..................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Geology of the Buda Thermal Karst (an outcrop analog for karstic carbonate reservoir) - János Csizmeg ................................................................................................................................... 22 AAPG Miskolc SC Leadership Training - Péter Laczkó-Dobos ................................................. 23 4th Student Workshop - Emese Szőcs, István Róbert Bartha..................................................... 24 Financial Report .......................................................................................................................................................... 26 Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................................................. 28 Sponsors and Partners .......................................................................................................................................... 29 Morocco AAPG International Student Chapter Field Trip Report.............................................30 2


Student Chapter Information

Name: Eötvös University Student Chapter Student Chapter ID: 10092974 Affiliation: Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical and Applied Geology Mailing address: Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Budapest, H-117, Hungary E-mail address: aapg.eotvos.sc@gmail.com Website: aapg.elte.hu

Executive Committee for the 2014/2015 term: President: Mihály Temes Vice President: Lilla Tőkés Treasurer: István Róbert Bartha Secretary: Tünde Bodnár Membership coordinator: Emese Szőcs Report editor: Orsolya Réka Nagy

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Members of the Student Chapter in the 1st semester of 2014/2015:

First Name

Last Name

Degree Subject

Member ID

Dávid Dominik Attila Viktor István Róbert Edina Gábor Noémi Tünde Dániel Dániel Soma Zsófia Dóra Pál Zsuzsi Fanni Zsuzsanna Tamás Erik Judit Tímea Balázs Benjámin Rita Anna Ádám András Viktória Péter Orsolya Gyula Katalin

Bajnai Baláz Balázs Balogh Bartha Bartakovics Bella Blaskó Bodnár Botka Budai Budai Busa Csengődi Csicsák Fülöp Gaál Gálik Garamhegyi Gordos Grüll Havril Horváth Hirschmann Kapiller Kocsis Kovács Kovács Laczkó-Dobos Lukovszki Márky Mészáros

Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc Earth Sciences PhD Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology Msc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geophysics MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geophysics MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences PhD Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc Earth Sciences PhD Geology PhD Geophysics MSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences PhD Geophysics MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc

10104205 10103679 10066890 10089822 10087666 10102170 10121718 10104263 10097400 10122972 10088821 10104242 10121430 10116498 10113669 10104318 10107355 10094644 10093049 10113470 10073638 10060415 10104214 10104492 10091266 10098267 10106676 10103137 10097753 10103603 10112474

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Judit Orsolya Réka Alexandra Viktor Éva Szilvia Rebeka Domokos Norbert Péter Edina Kristóf Jennifer Balázs László Vivien Soma Rachel Lilla Emese Gergely Dániel Mihály Ádám Zoltán Lilla Bea Ágnes Balázs Miklós Enikő Gábor

Nadrai Nagy Németh Németh Oravecz Ormándi Oross Pásztor Pásztor Pálfay Pável Porkoláb Sarrang Soós Skublics Szabó Szathmári Szilágyi Szőcs Szőts Szűcs Temes Tóth Tőkés Török Trásy Varga Várkonyi Zsiborás

Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences PhD Geophysics MSc Earth Sciences BSc Earth Sciences PhD Geology MSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geology MSc Geophysics MSc Earth Sciences BSc Geology MSc Earth Sciences PhD Earth Sciences PhD Earth Sciences PhD Environ. Sci. PhD Earth Sciences PhD Geology MSc Geology MSc

10123778 10121337 10098395 10124640 10097372 10085976 10113039 10104825 10066893 10098096 10085801 10116266 10122232 10104226 10104248 10094086 10117080 10105525 10066896 10060428 10073644 10074804 10103814 10066898 10103680

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Introduction

The Eรถtvรถs University Student Chapter had a very eventful semester with a lot of professional and team building programs. Our representatives participated in the 2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days where they presented our activities and met the delegation of the most active European SCs. The AAPG International Conference & Exhibition was a great opportunity for learning and gaining new international friendships through the volunteer work. In addition, we could advertise our next major event, the Budapest Education Days. There were more than seven lectures, two workshops and two field trips in the topics of sediment gravity flows, HC maturation and diagenesis. More than forty students and young professionals gathered not only from Hungary, but from foreign countries, too. After the successful Balearic Islands field trip of last semester, thanks to the AAPG and MOL Plc. financial support, we could organize a magnificent field trip to Morocco. Our excellent guides provided an unforgettable insight into the structural evolution of the fold and thrust belts and the hydrocarbon potential of the region. Please find the report of our trip attached at the end of this Winter Report.

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From year to year, we are aiming to diversify our activities. In order to achieve this, we are co-operating with other existing Hungarian and friendly foreign SCs and we help launching new chapters like in Marrakesh, Morocco and Szeged, Hungary. Several programs were co-organized with the Eรถtvรถs University Student Chapter of the Society of Exploration Geophysicist and we will continue the collaboration in the next years. Our members assisted in making the AAPG Visiting Geoscientist Program more effective with the redaction of the database. In the next year we would like to organize even more and wider range programs in order to help our members to fit in a HC E&P company. I would like to thank the student chapter members for their active participation in our work. I hope they gained useful knowledge and skills throughout this semester. Thanks to our sponsors (MOL Plc., O&G Development Ltd., HHE Ltd.) and AAPG for assuring the SC's success. It is a pleasure to be the president of the Eรถtvรถs University Student Chapter. Mihรกly Temes Student Chapter President

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Student Chapter Activities from July to December 2014

2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days, Bucharest 15 – 21 July

The purpose of the event was to develop international tiers between student chapters, to share our experience about AAPG and to develop leadership skills. It did so by providing various platforms for connection between students and professional as well as personal development. Three of our members had the priviledge to participate in the program. The Bucharest AAPG Student Chapter hosted the well organized event. The participants from Miskolc, LaSalle Beauvais, Krakow, Iasi, Cluj and Eötvös Student Chapters gave introductory talks and sketched their goals for the future at the University of Bucharest. OMV Petrom was kind to invite us to its modern headquarters, the Petrom City. We were lucky to enjoy an exhibition, a 3D presentation in a high quality cinema room and two hydrocarbon geology lectures. Zsolt Schléder talked about a case study on salt tectonics in the Southern Carpathians and Csaba Krézsek presented about the crustal thinning of the Black Sea Basin.

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Codecs Business University was the place to develop our leadership skills. Alexander Fuhrmann, who seemed to be very skilled in psychology, produced an interactive workshop for us. Harry Meintassis, manager, focused on emotional intelligence, the main psychological types of people and the traits of a good manager. Tamรกs Krusoczki, a graduate of Miskolc University, gave us three lectures on the tracking of ancient rivers using 3D seismic interpretation, geothermal modelling based on abandoned HC exploration wells and the steps of the exploitation of a hydrocarbon field. Sightseeing in Bucharest with expert guidance, nice meals and evening programs, including the famous Geobar of Bucharest were all provided for stimulating friendships between the students.

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2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days, Bucharest 15 – 21 July

On Saturday, we departed to the Eastern Carpathians for a two-day long field trip. Two main compressional periods can be distinguished in the Carpathians: the first was in the Cretaceous and the second in the Miocene. Our first aim was to visit some outcrops belonging to the Tarcau Nappe and the Subcarpathian Nappe. These are parts of the Moldavides. At the beginning of our trip, Lect. Dr. Ing. Relu Dumitru Roban, who was our professor in this field trip, drew a geological section about this area to help us understand what we can see. At our first stop, we observed sandstones deposited in shallow water thrusted in the Burdigalian. We looked at a salt diaper and salt breccia at the boundary of the Tarcau Nappe and the Subcarpathian Nappe at our second stop. At the third place, we could see Badenian volcanic tuff as a part of the Subcarpathian Nappe. The next three outcrops represented the Carpathian Foredeep, which was formed during the NeosarmatianPleistocene. We saw embedded river channel sandstone into shale, shoreface shale from Upper Sarmatian-Lower Meotian. Then, the team checked sandstoneshale cycles from litoral-deltaic environment and deltaic sandstones from Upper Meotian-Pontian.

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On Sunday we looked at two outcrops whose strata were thrusted in the Lower Miocene. We could clearly distinguish turbidite cycles and observe its blackbrownish shale which is a quality source rock in big depth. Our professor also explained the difference between high and low density turbidites. In the afternoon, we went to near Berca to see the muddy volcanoes.Actually, these cones are not related to real volcanoes. They are located above a hydrocarbon field and the gas can migrate to the surfacealong several faults. The gas and the formation water can mix with politic material forming mud which erupts in this area, in a few spots.The last night, we had a final gala in Geobar in Bucharest. It was a great end to this one week. We are grateful to the Bucharest AAPG Student Chapter for this event. Our hosts, Daniel Strachinaru, Sandra Ene, Maria Dragus, Andrada Purluca and Teodora Alexandra, were very kind and helpful during the week. The 2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days was an outstanding week for those privileged people who participated in this event. We are also thankful to OMV Petrom to give us an insight into oil industry and University of Bucharest. Finally, we thank AAPG for financial support and we look forward to the next ESCLD. Dรกniel Budai

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Utrecht Student Chapter Field Trip in Hungary 6 August

The SPE Utrecht Student Chapter had a curious wish to get a glimpse of Hungarian hydrocarbon geology. To ease their way, our student chapter organized a three-day field trip which was joined by some of our own members. The MOL Plc. Danube refinery, the largest in Hungary, was called upon to learn that its main refined products are gases, gasolines, gas oils and fuel oils. We had the chance to watch a short movie about the history of the refinery and the basics of daily operational processes. The local professionals gave us a guided tour through the enormous refinery site, and showed us the important equipment they use. In the afternoon we visited the MOL geological laboratory in Budapest. The laboratory manager gave us a short presentation about the operation and geology experts showed us the analytical instruments. All participants were enhanced by this introduction to the up- and downstream sectors of MOL Plc. Soma Szathmรกri

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Utrecht Student Chapter Field Trip in Hungary 7 – 8 August

We departed to near Eger for a two-day long excursion to learn about the Northern Hungarian Paleogene Basin. Our guides were Barbara Beke and Attila Petrik, PhD students at Eotvos University. On the first day our aim was to get more familiar with the structural geology of the basin. In Andornaktálya, we could study tidal dominated sandstones and cataclastic deformation bands in a sand-pit. The Wind Brickyard provides a continuous succession from the Early Oligocene Kiscell Formation to the Late Oligocene Eger Formation. These rocks show a regressive cycle ending with uplift and erosion in the Earliest Miocene. We observed deformation bands and normal faults indicating the NE-SW extension in the Late Oligocene. We also noticed an interesting dilatation band resulted from different lithologies. Our third outcrop was Szőlőske is interpreted as a siliciclastic sequence from submarine gravity flows. Many deformation bands can be seen in this rock indicating at least two deformation phases during the syn-rift and post-rift periods of the Pannonian Basin. At the end of the day, the group tasted the characteristic wines of this famous wine region and traditional Hungarian dishes.

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Next day, we focused on sedimentology thanks to our guide, Alexandra NĂŠmeth, also a PhD student. Alexandra presented us briefly the story of the basin and we studied a shallow bathyal formation from the Early Miocene. These layers deposited in the deepest part of the Northern Paleogene Basin. In Istenmezeje, we could examine a tidal dune sandstone. After a long drive, we finally arrived at Bercel which was on the western coast of the embayment in the Northern Paleogene Basin in the earliest Miocene. We could study a few different facies of a shallow marine parasequence. The Dutch students used their brushes and tools enthusiastically to remove the weathered rock and to get a clean rock surface. We could see the main features of the littoral Budafok Formation and we also noticed the spectacular pattern of Milankovitch cycles in the bedding. At the end of our trip, Alexandra explained how this outcrop fits into the puzzle and we managed to understand the whole history of the Hungarian Paleogene Basin. Later in Budapest, our Dutch guests, some organizers and members of the Eotvos Student Chapter decided to have a social drinking on the famous A38 boat. DĂĄniel Budai

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Eötvös Students in Istanbul – International Conference & Exhibition 2014 14 – 17 September

5 members of the AAPG Eötvös Student Chapter had the opportunity to attend the much awaited AAPG ICE in Istanbul, Turkey. For most of us this was the first time ever enjoying the benefits of such a large conference. During these days, professionals gave engaging presentations in several topics, such as evolution of the Tethys, source rock geochemistry, carbonate reservoirs, structural geology and unconventional resources. The presentations were very profitable for our studies and it helped us in our professional development. During the coffee breaks we had opportunity to see the poster presentations of young professionals and to build new relationships with geoscientists and other professionals working for the oil industry. They shared some of their vast experience with us. As students, we were invited to attend the Student Reception for food, fun and networking in the Hilton Istanbul Hotel. We could meet AAPG leaders and officers as well as other students from all over the world. During the conference, we had opportunity to do some volunteer work for Shell, too. Of course, we also took advantage of our free time and went sightseeing in Istanbul. We are very grateful for the Papp Simon Foundation and AAPG for the financial support and the opportunity to be a part of an extraordinary event like this. Edina Pável

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Field-trip to the Zala basin, cradle of the Hungarian oil-industry 17 – 18 October

We visited 6 different places in our country and one in Croatia with the support of the Simon Papp Foundation. The programme included visits to: oil industry installations such as exploratory and productive wells, collection stations; naturally occuring surface oil spring; Simon Papp memorial; the Museum of the Hungarian Petroleum Industry; underground gas storage; CO2 receiving and storage station. The field trip was truly useful as we could comprehend where the Hungarian and indeed the global oil industry had its beginnings and how it is operating today. It was amazing to see and touch the oil at the surface which was generated in great depth. We learned how the natural gas extracted from a well should go through many steps of process until it can be utilized in households. Thanks to our highlyprofessional guides, Zsolt Horváth (geological engineer, MOL), Dr István Koncz (geochemistry expert, MOL), András Németh (geologist, MOL), Imre Szilágyi (assistant lecturer, Eotvos University), we gained an insight into the operation of an oil-producing basin, which greatly assisted us in better understanding the theoretical work we have done in this subject. We believe that further practicallyoriented field-trips would enrich our university studies in general. Viktória Kovács, Edina Pável

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Professor Wayne Pennington’s presentation 16 October

Organized by Hungarian Geological Society, Hungarian Academy of Science and AAPG Eötvös Student Chapter, our guest was Wayne Pennington, professor of the Michigan Technological University. Professor Wayne Pennington held a stimulating and informative presentation with the tilte of „Nuts and Bolts of Unconventional Oil and Gas Development (including what you want to learn about hydraulic fracturing)”. The aim of the lecture was to introduce the different kinds of unconventional deposits and show their growing importance in the future. During the presentation we heard about tight gas sand deposits, coal bed methane, shale gas and oil deposits, and gained information about hydraulic fracturing. In my view, the lecture was really interesting and beneficial for students and the attending professionals as well who are dealing with hydrocarbon industry, especially with unconventional reservoirs. Professor Wayne Pennington is an excellent lecturer who was true to the promising title of his talk. Jenifer Sarrang

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One day with Professor Peter Haughton and pelagic sediments in the Gerecse mountains

Prior to the Budapest Education Days we had a chance to accompany Prof. Peter Haughton on a field trip to the Gerecse mountains. Our first stop was the Bersekhegy abandoned quarry. There we could examine a Lower Cretaceous pelagic marl sequence and slump folds within it. The next geological sight was the Köszörűkőbánya quarry and its high density turbidites. We could see variable coarse grained turbidites, channel fills, clean inverse grading, and imbricated large sized clasts. Our last stop was a boulder conglomerate which was deposited on the shores of the Pannonian Lake in the Upper Miocene. We discussed the origin of the deposit in great length, as it is a possible tsunami deposit. Even though a part of the group was already familiar with the outcrops, the trip was thought-provoking with new insigths from our guest professor. Soma Budai

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Budapest Education Days: Day One - The hybrid turbidites 29 October

After the nice welcoming words by Vlasta Dvorakova, we listened to lectures by Professor Peter Haughton from UCD Dublin. He talked about submarine sediment gravity flows and their deposits from bed level to deep-water stratigraphy. We heard about their forming, and altering of their behavior during the flow process, furthermore about the classification of mass movements. The next topic was about the significance of the mass flows in a turbidite reservoir system, the different reservoir elements and their hierarchy. To finish off, we grasped the possible external controls on the deposition of deep-water systems. At the afternoon session, we had a chance to make use of what we learned in the morning through exercises. We made core-to-log matching and named the mass flow by looking at core log photographs. At last, we completed a well correlation exercise from the information that we earned during the previous exercises. Soma Budai

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Budapest Education Days: Day Two - Petroleum Geochemistry and Diagenesis 30 October

On the second day another set of insightful lectures followed. Professor Juraj Francu from the Czech Geological Survey talked about gas generation and its occurrence in petroleum systems. He gave us an exercise where we had to tell the maturity of the kerogen with the help of various isotopes. Professor Knut Bjørlykke from the University of Oslo talked about the importance of rock properties in petroleum systems from deposition to diagenesis. He outlined the different diagenetic processes in the case of sandstones, shales and carbonates. In particular, he showed the controls on the forming of clay minerals during diagenesis. The effect of depositional environment on diagenesis was also discussed. Moreover, we were introduced to the history of petroleum exploration and production of offshore Norway. Soma Budai

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Geology of the Buda Thermal Karst (an outcrop analog for karstic carbonate reservoir) 31 October

The field trip started on the Gellért Hill, in the heart of Budapest. Our leaders were Professor Andrea Mindszenty and Szabolcs Leél-Őssy, associate professor from the Eötvös University. It was our pleasure that Professor Knut Bjørlykke joined us on this field trip as well. It was interesting to learn that next to Budapest there is an active and productive HC system in the Hungarian Paleogene Basin, and its HC shows are known from the Buda Hills as well. We discovered the outcrops of the Hill and the building rocks of the Buda thermal karstic system. The youngest Pleistocene fresh water limestones are the proof of the former springs and thermal karstic activity on the surface. Most of the caves of Budapest are developed in the Eocene Nummulitic limestone. However, the main component of the Hill is the Triassic Main Dolomite, and thanks to its resistant material and the uplift, the Gellért Hill is towering over the capital. Our next stops were caves in North Buda, where Anita Erőss, PhD hydrogeologist, shared with us the theory of the subsurface groundwater flows, which were responsible for the development of the cave system. The well explored Szemlő Hill cave was a water covered thermal cave, so we could take a look at its special formations, such as botryoids, gypsum flowers, dropstones, stalactites and calcite plates. János Csizmeg

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AAPG Miskolc SC Leadership Training 27 November

The AAPG Miskolc Student Chapter, our great ally invited us to their first Leadership Training. The event was funded by the MOL Plc. The goal of the training was to give a brief look into leadership exercises and theories. The organizers invited geology and geophysics students and graduated students from Miskolc, Budapest and Szeged. The event was coordinated by two professional trainers. The participants formed mixed groups and had to solve problems, learn by “playing” and evaluate each program. After every exercise we formed our own opinions about the positive and negative results. At the end of the training, the participants could ask Zoltán Szentesi about his personal experience as an executive manager. Every one of us saw the obvious benefit of such a training and we hope this initiative will be continued. Péter Laczkó-Dobos

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4th Student Workshop 4 December

The 4th Student Workshop, a long standing cooperation between the Hungarian Geological Society and our student chapter, took place at the Eötvös University this time to draw in even more students. Revealing the diagenesis and burial history of fine grained sediments, such as mudrocks can be hard because coarse grained cement phases are rare in these rocks. During the 4th Student Workshop we heard a complex and very interesting case study about methods which can be used in the hydrocarbon industry to resolve such problems. Zsófia Poros (ConocoPhillips) presented the geology of unconventional reservoirs from the Delaware Basin and explained us the significance of the so called “beef” veins. These bedding parallel mineralized fractures are common in the overpressured zones of the studied basins and contain fluid inclusions which can help in the determination of temperature conditions, timing and types of hydrocarbons which were present in reservoirs. This lecture was very useful for all the participants, especially for those who are interested in diagenesis, basin analysis or unconventional reservoirs. Emese Szőcs

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4th Student Workshop 4 December

What are the main steps in the HC exploration procedure? What potential technical and social issues can arise? The first presentation of Viktor Lemberkovics (Rag-Hungary) sought to answer these questions. From a Rag Hungary exploration project example, we learned more about the acquisition process and difficulties of a 3D seismic survey. In the second part of his presentation, Viktor showed what the absolute must-have skills are for a fresh graduate geologist. Back to geology: Lessons from combination of modern 3D seismic and historical well data: development of a Gilbert-delta, late Early Miocene trough was the title of the second presentation of the afternoon session. The Great Hungarian Plain consists of several sub-basins. One of these troughs was studied successfully by the company team with modern sedimentological and geophysical methods. This case study was an excellent example of why the combination of different exploration methods is essential. Istv谩n R贸bert Bartha

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Financial Report

2nd semester of 2014 (after 1 July)

1st semester of 2014 (before 1 July)

2014 WINTER REPORT Incomes (HUF)

Incomes (USD)*

Left from 2nd semester of 2013

173 394

781

Papp Simon Foundation Grants

720 000

3 243

AAPG Grant for the 5th ISGC

264 655

1 197

Campus Hungary

1 995 000

8 986

MOL Plc. Support

1 000 000

4 505

110 000

500

916 000

4 126

Oil & Gas Development Ltd. Support

100 000

450

Total incomes

5 279 049

23 780

Total expenses

3 099 655

13 962

Left for the 2nd semester of 2014

2 179 394

9 817

MOL Plc. Support

320 000

1 441

MOL Plc. Support for BED

500 000

2 252

HHE Plc. Support for BED

100 000

450

individual contribution for Morocco field trip

492 835

2 220

Total incomes

3 592 229

16 181

L. Austin Weeks Undergraduate Grant for the Student Chapter AAPG Europe Grant for the Moroccan field trip

Notes

individual support for students individual support for students of the Balearic Islands Field Trip for the 2nd semester of 2014 for the 2nd semester of 2014 for the 2nd semester of 2014 for the 2nd semester of 2014

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Date

Activities

Details

Expenses (HUF)

Expenses (USD)**

15-21 July

2nd European Student Chapter Leadership Days of AAPG, Bucharest

travel

53 940

220

14-17 Sept.

AAPG ICE, Istanbul

travel, accommodation

210 217

858

5-15 Oct.

AAPG SC International Field Trip Morocco***

travel, accommodation

2 341 754

9 558

17-18 Oct.

Zala Basin Field Trip

274 273

1 119

travel for guest speakers

193 720

791

other expenses (field trip travel, local travel, entrance fee)

104 138

425

4 Dec.

4th Student Workshop

organizational expenses

37 195

152

One-day well site visits, field trips

travel

108 566

443

3 323 803 268 426

13 567 1519

28-31 Oct.

accommodation for guest speakers

throughout the year

supported by Papp Simon Foundation

AAPG Budapest Education Days

Total expenses Left for the 1st semester of 2015 * HUF/USD 222 **HUF/USD 245 *** see more details in the subsequent field trip report

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Acknowledgements

We would like to express our sincere gratitude towards everyone who supported our work during this semester. All people mentioned in this report are gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks goes to: Professor János Haas (Faculty Advisor, Eötvös Loránd University), Professor József Pálfy (Eötvös Loránd University), Professor Orsolya Sztanó (Eötvös Loránd University), András Németh (MOL Plc.), István Bérczi (MOL Plc.), András Király (Papp Simon Foundation), Klára Gulyás (Papp Simon Foundation), Barbara Bakos (MOL Plc.), Zsófia Nyisalovits (MOL Plc.), Attila Schlakker (MOL Plc.), János Csizmeg (HHE Ltd.), Attila Várkonyi (O&G Ltd.) Vlasta Dvořáková (Immediate Past President AAPG Europe Region).

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Sponsors and Partners The Eรถtvรถs University Student Chapter is sponsored by

Papp Simon

Foundation

partners

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th

th

7 -15 October, 2014


1. Introduction The aim of our international Morocco field trip was to study the structure, stratigraphy and development of the High Atlas. This country truly is the „Paradise of the geology” as the local people say. Thanks to the dry climate most of the outcrops are not covered with vegetation, the main sights are rocks, layers, and tectonic structures. First time in our life we had the opportunity to see structures in natural outcrops – what we only in seismic sections saw before. The outcrops of the Atlas were excellent analogies for that. On the first day's morning we started in our host institute, the Cadi Ayyad University in Marrakech with the introduction of Morocco's geology by Professor Abdellah Aitaddi. After the lecture we introduced the AAPG's Student Chapter programme and the Eötvös University Student Chapter for Professor Aitaddi and for the Moroccan PhD students interested in it. Naturally we shared all the necessary informations to help them to be able to establish their own AAPG Student Chapter.

Professor Abdellah Aitaddi

Professor László Fodor

Szilvia Kövér, PhD research assistant

During our seven days field trip our leaders were Professor Abdellah Aitaddi from the Cadi Ayyad University, Professor László Fodor and Szilvia Kövér research assistant from the Eötvös Loránd University.


From Marrakech through Ouarzazate, Imilchil, Agoudal, Er-Rich and Midelt our trip took 1800 km. The main conception of the field trip was to develop our geological explanation so individually as in groups. As a result we had time to independently interpret and understand every visited outcrops before our leaders' interpretations were shown to us. Until the end of the field trip we were able to do detailed observations and make conclusions in team work coordinated by our leaders. You can see our team's interpretations on the following pages.

Furthermore we had a lot of cultural insights as well. It was very interesting to see the Bazaar of Marrakech, the small villages of the Atlas, taste the Moroccan coffee, tee, the delicious foods (the tagine and couscous), and meet the friendly Arabic and Berber people.

Lake Tislit


Zsuzsanna Gálik Eötvös Lóránd University

Péter LaczkóDobos Eötvös Lóránd University

Emese Szőcs Eötvös Lóránd University

Bajocian

Batonian

2. The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the High Atlas

branching corals platy corals ammonites corals Megalodus bioturbation

dinosaur footsteps stromatolites basalt intrusion cross bedding imbrication limestone sandstone siltstone conglomerate mudstone slump

Permian Triassic

crinoidal fragments bivalves sponges

Ediacaran

High Atlas is composed of rocks of various age and lithology. During our field work we studied mostly Jurassic rocks, such as Sinemurian mud mounds with sponges, foraminifera and ooids, Pliensbachian turbiditic rocks and Bajocian patch reefs with various coral associations and beautiful bivalves and branchiopods. We could see the contact of these rocks with mostly basaltic intrusions. Precambrian stromatolitic deposits, continental sandstones and conglomerates of Permian and Triassic age and Paleogene limestones were also studied. Getting acquainted with the lithology of a region which was unknown till now was a great experience for us and it was necessary to understand the tectonic evolution of the region.

Sinemurian Pliensbachian

n nian e l Aa rcia a To

Simplified stratigraphic section of different types of rocks, studied during the field trip.


Bajocian shallow marine limestone, rich in brachipodes and bivalves, in the area of Midelt.

Students make field observation in a Bajocian sandstone. The presence of dunes infers to a shallow marine origin.

Corals and other bioclastic fragments at a Bajocian limestone. In the center of the photograph, we can observe a big domal coral.

Calciturbidite at Foum Zabel. We could observe sedimentar y structures charateristic to the members of the Bouma cycle: erosional surface, normal gradation, planar and cross lamination.

Measuring the axis of a slump fold, found in turbiditic sandstones and calcarenites of Pliensbachian age. Measured values and directions help us to determine the direction of the slope in which these deposits was formed.

20 cm Resedimented coral fragments in a Middle Jurassic limestone. The bioclastic fragments are oriented. Sometimes the bioclast were preserved as silicieous fragments.

10 cm Calcitic sponge fragments and a silica nodule composed of spicules of sponges. Tillsit Ridge.

1m Continental deposits of red sandstone with cross bedding of Permo-Triassic age. In the vicinity of the city of Afourer.

Stromatolits of Ediacaran age formed in an alcaline lake at Amane n’Tourhart, Anti Atlas.


3.a Marrakesh-Ouarzazate geological cross section

Attila BALÁZS UTRECHT UNIVERSITY & EÖTVÖS LORÁND UNIVERSITY

Mátyás FEKETE BABES-BOLYAI UNIVERSITY

Lilla TŐKÉS EÖTVÖS LORÁND UNIVERSITY

The first two days of the field trip were spent examining a crosssection of the western part of the Central High Atlas from Marrakesh to Ouarzazate through the Tizi N'Tichka pass. It felt like driving and walking through a geologically really complex 3D seismic cube! It was extraordinary to see in the span of a single day that the thrusts were vergent towards the forelands both sides of the orogen. The panoramic views provided an excellent way to understand the geometry of thrusts, folds and their relationship.

N Paleozoic sandstone Permo-Triassic


SSE

NNW

Paleogene Jurassic

Triassic Triassic

Paleoge n

e

Jur ass

ic

Northern boundary of the High Atlas (2-1. on section) Precambrian crystalline basement

Permo-Triassic fluvial sandstone

S Eocene Cretaceous


3.b Marrakesh-Ouarzazate geological cross section

NW

SE

Eocene Cretaceous Triassic-Jurassic volcanites Permo-Triassic

Standing on the hinge of anticline (2-5. on section)

NNW 5 km

2-2 2-1

2-3

1-1


Observations: 2-1: foreland settings; 2-2: Triassic basalts; 2-3: edge of syncline, Cretaceous sandstones; 1-1: Precambrian thrusted onto Mesozoic; 2-4: flat and ramp structure in turbidites; 2-5: recumbant fold; 2-6: tilted strata; 2-7: fault propagation fold;

Team discussion in progress

Legend Miocene Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Paleozoic Crystalline basement

2-4

2-5

2-6

2-7

SSE


Dades Valley - Imilchil geological cross section

Enikő Várkonyi

Kristóf Porkoláb

Eötvös Loránd University

Erik Gordos


The Atlas Mountains are considered as type examples of intracontinental chains, so in our fieldtrip we recognized features which are typical in these areas. On the 5th day of the fieldtrip we visited the Dades Valley and continued our way to the north, while on the next day we reached the Tassent Ridge. During this route we examined many outcrops which were the base of our cross section and helped us to interpret local events.


Observations: 3-2: folds and thrusts in the Dades Valley 3-4: fold in Todra gorge 4-1: patch reefs 4-2: syncline of Lake Tisslite 4-4: syncline topped anticlinal ridge (STAR)

N

4-1

4-4

IMILCHIL

20 km

4-2

20 km


3-2 3-4

S Legend Oligocene/Miocene Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Crystalline basement


5. Structural development of the High Atlas

Dávid Papp University of Miskolc

Balázs Soós Eötvös Loránd University

János Csizmeg Eötvös Loránd University

We can separate the evolution of the High Atlas into three different tectonic phases. The first was a pre-rift phase, which is subordinate in our area. The second was a syn-rift or pre-orogenic depositional phase from Permian to the Late Cretaceous, with transtensional regime, driven by the rift of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, and synsedimentary deformations attached to salt tectonics. The third was a post-rift or orogenic phase with compressional regime, from the Paleogene till now. Here we present an evolutional figure-series, based on our field observations.

OROGENIC/ POST-RIFT PHASE

EoceneMiocene

N

S

The Eocene was the period of tectonic inversion, when the tectonic regime changed into compressional from extensional. It produced several thrusts and folds. The thrusts dip to south in the northern part, and to north in the southern part of the High-Atlas. At the borders there are foreland basins with erosional deposits.

N

PaleoceneEocene

S

S

In the Paleocene transgression occured that produced white limestone, which was a good marker during our field observations.

Pz Tr

Tr


S

Cretaceous

N

In the Cretaceous the area was above, or near the sea level.That time was the beginning of spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, and the end of syn-rift phase. In that period continental red beds and limestone were developed.

N

S

In the Dogger there was a regression, with limestone, patch reefs, sandstones and then in the Bathonian continental deposits.

Bajocian

Bathonian

PRE-OROGENIC / SYN-RIFT PHASE

Aalenian Toarcian

Sinemurian

Pliensbachian

N

Gabbroidic intrusions connected to the rift. The intrusions may have been pressed into the place of the salt. N

S

The period of salt diapirism, caused by triassic evaporites. It induced minibasins, where syn-rift marine sediments deposited with synsedimentary deformation. N

Permian Triassic

S

S

The start of the rift of the Tethys Ocean, wich produced continental deposits, evaporites and tholeiitic basalts.

Paleocene Cretaceous Bajocian Upper Liassic Lower Liassic Triassic Triassic basalts Crystalline basement


6. Hydrocarbon system - field analogies

Gas

Oil Seal

Rock

Reserv oir Roc

k

Sour

ce Ro

ck


7. Financial report Expenses Description

Expenses (Huf )

Expenses Expenses (Eur) (Mad)

Plane Tickets

1.236.188

3.948

8.000

26

Marrakech

89.408

286

3.000

Ouarzazate

44.704

143

1.500

140.072

447

4.700

Er Rich

70.781

226

2.375

Midelt

26.524

86

890

Marrakech

35.763

114

1.200

508.804

1.625

1.140

120.670

385

4.049

27.000

109

Accommodation Madrid

Agoudal

Car Rental Fuel (1083 km * 4 cars) Other (taxi, parking) All expenses:

2.341.754

7.479

Funds AAPG Europe Grant

939.330

3.000

AAPG L. Austin Weeks Grant for the SC

109.589

350

MOL Group

800.000

2.555

Contribution of participants

492.835

1.574

2.341.754

7.479

All funds:

Exchange rates: EUR/MAD: 10.51


8. Acknowledgements First of all we are very grateful for the financial support of the AAPG European Region, the MOL Group and the Papp Simon Foundation. Special thanks to our local host and leader, Professor Abdellah Aitaddi, without his help and advices our field trip would not have been organized. Thank you to Professor László Fodor and Szilvia Kövér for the idea of the field trip and of course for the great guidance. We thank Professor Giovanni Bertotti (TUDelft and VU University Amsterdam) for giving us suggestions for field trip locations. Thank you to the Student Chapters of University of Miskolc and University of Cluj for the participation.

Papp Simon Foundation

Eotvos Student Chapter of AAPG Winter Report 2014