Page 1

INSIDE Magazine 2015/2016 #7 Social and Cultural Challenges in Interior Architecture


03

DOMESTICATE ME!

04 — 07

INSIDE PROFILE

08

DOMESTICATING NON-BUILDING STRUCTURES

10

INTERVIEW WITH LEEKE REINDERS

12 13 14 16 — 27

STUDIO BRAAMBERGEN

30 — 32 32 — 35 36 — 39

Introduction Interview with Markus Bader Process and studio results Students’ essays Klodiana Millona Makiko Morinaga Minjung Kang 1

2

3

4

5

6

INSERT

GRADUATION PROJECTS

40 40 41 — 42 42 — 43

STUDIO CARWASH

1

2

3

Introduction Interview with Jurgen Bey Studio results

44 — 47

TRAVEL

48 — 51

STUDIO WINDWHEEL

48 49 — 50 50 — 51

52 — 57

TUTORS

59

COLOPHON

1

2

3

Introduction Interview with Jetse Goris Studio results


Hans Venhuizen Head of INSIDE

Hans Venhuizen, Head of INSIDE

We are proud to announce the very good result of our accreditation in the fifth year of INSIDE. We are just as proud as saying farewell to 7 new masters of interior architecture who graduated with self formulated projects that all relate to the social and cultural challenges that interior architecture faces at this moment. You can find these projects in the middle part with a smaller size of this magazine. This year the first year masterstudents were challenged by the year theme ‘Domesticate me !’. In various research and design projects they explored the possibilities of feeling at home at places that at first glance did not seem to be made for a home feeling at all. A major challenge for interior architects in this era is to explore the potentials of a wide variety of spaces that could or should be embraced by users. Abandoned spaces, infrastructural spaces, neglected spaces and reframable spaces can reveal potentials when they are studied by the designers that are most specialized in the user perspective of space. In that respect it is crucial for future designers to also develop new skills to reach their goals and to act beyond the drawing of architectural plans and presenting floorplans, sections and renderings. Skills like exploration, trying out on a one-to-one scale and initiating interventions and debates are part of the crucial skills of provoking spatial changes of the next generations of interior architects. This year the potentials of a derelict bridge in the harbour of Rotterdam were explored as well as a landfill site in the New Town Almere that is ready to be given back to the inhabitants of the city for recreational use. Furthermore the possibilities of finding comfort in a carwash and how to live in the spectacular future project of The Dutch Windwheel were discovered. In all these spatial situations in change the dynamics of design lie in understanding the context. All explorations aim at finding the potentials, the ambitions and most of all the limitations of a context from which designers can shape the future spatial use and identity. The graduation part in this magazine shows a large variety of design challenges and approaches. Included in this magazine are proposals to respectfully update a Hutong area in Beijing and to reveal the hidden potentials in vacant buildings in The Hague using elements of the theatre. Buildings are taken apart and stored in a dynamic way in Japan or taken out of the storage and re-used in a cooperative way in The Hague. Besides that the safety in an urban space just around the corner of the Royal Academy was investigated as well as the huge social problem around children in a Chinese village who are left behind with their grandparents because their parents move to the cities for work. One of the graduation students even explored the spatial needs of people who face death. These projects all show challenging opportunities for future interior architects. This year we again have been very fortunate to be able to work with fantastic tutors from offices like Superuse, MVRDV, Makkink&Bey and OMA, that together with our Theory and Skills teachers create a strong sound to convince students that all design starts with exploration, and all exploration starts with being 好奇, or Hàoqí, the Chinese word for curious.

F O R E W O R D

0 0

DOMESTICATE ME!


INSIDE PROFILE INSIDE - Master in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague - Cultural and social challenges in Interior Architecture INSIDE is a master’s course for interior architects who start every assignment by conducting a wide-ranging exploration of a spatial context undergoing change. Wideranging here means that through observation, research and theoretical study, students chart and analyse a whole array of issues that are relevant to the spatial change that the context is undergoing. That wide range consists not only of spatial aspects but also of social, historical and ecological issues at play in the wider surroundings. After setting up and carrying out their investigation, the INSIDE students hone their skills in using the acquired knowledge to determine essential qualities that are of decisive importance for the spatial changes taking place. They then learn to incorporate those qualities in a spatial proposal grounded in a realistic perspective and in their social implications. FROM INSIDE TO OUTSIDE The term INSIDE not only specifies the space in which and on which interior architects work but also indicates the mentality with which they do it. These designers engage fully with society and have a keen awareness of social, economic and technological changes. They are capable of using their position to shape the relation between the space that relates most directly to people and the world that encompasses that specific context. For an interior architect, ‘inside’ is never isolated but always connected to ‘outside’. To emphasize the relevance of the surrounding world to interior design, INSIDE started by embracing the motto ‘Design for the Real World’. This motto references a 1971 publication by the Austrian-American product designer and tutor Victor Papanek. Some forty years ago, Papanek sketched a picture of a practice he detested, in which designers produced useless, attention-grabbing, polluting, purely commercial and even dangerous products. INSIDE feels an affiliation with the line of reasoning developed by Papanek for product designers and translated its principles to the world of spatial design within which we now find ourselves. In this way, INSIDE searches for the topicality and urgency of interior architecture in the ‘real world’, and thus for the contemporary cultural and social challenges for the interior architect. An impressive illustration of those contemporary challenges can be found at Schieblock in Rotterdam, a project by design office ZUS, who co-founded INSIDE. Starting out as anti-squat residents of one of the many vacant office buildings in the heart of the city, they went on to profile themselves by programming the building for creative entrepreneurs, thereby raising discussion about the subject of office vacancy, designing and constructing a raised walkway that re-connects the entire area, facilitating a school of cooking and a design shop, initiating a ‘rooftop vegetable plot’ with restaurant, and even creating a Biergarten. On the strength of a fine balance of idealism, imagination and reality, ZUS succeeds in applying an organic intelligence in tackling the design challenges it finds, initiates and receives.

CULTURAL URGENCY A focus on the cultural and social challenges that face designers brought INSIDE to formulate a number of principles that determine the nature of the study course. For instance, at INSIDE we initially work on projects concerning spatial change with an explicit social relevance and, moreover, a significant cultural urgency. For instance, a student charted from a variety of perspectives the history of a mountain village in China threatened with abandonment. Drawing on her analysis, she then proposed interventions at the scale of the economic and collective places of encounter. These interventions enable the village to make better use of its resources. At the same time, a tight-knit community forms around the new collective places of encounter, reducing the necessity to relocate to big cities. By approaching the spatial and social issues in the village in an integrated manner, this student creates new collective places. In this way she succeeds in assuming the role of bridge builder between research, design and practice. VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY The interior architect who graduates from INSIDE displays a sense of connection with ‘the urgencies and challenges of contemporary society’ not only in the nature of the projects he or she does but also in how he operates. This designer does not approach a spatial context in isolation, as though it were an unrelated assignment or a tabula rasa, but always tackles it in relation to existing patterns of use and current occupants, and in relation to its wider context. An extended exploration of the characteristics of the spatial context undergoing change therefore forms an integral aspect of the design process. INSIDE sees plenty of opportunities for designers who take responsibility for the society in which they live and work, a responsibility that can express itself in various ways: from the enthusiastic idealism of the designer who dreams up visionary plans for a possible sustainable world, to the socially responsible commitment of the pragmatic designer who devises solutions for current urgencies.


The architects at SUPERUSE have been involved in the course at INSIDE from the very start. In all their work they acknowledge their responsibility for the ecological dimension of spatial interventions. In the refurbishment of Club Worm in Rotterdam, which was completed in 2011, they first visualized the entire context in flows not only of materials and energy but also of people. By reusing chairs and windows from demolished airplanes, discarded advertisements, liquid tanks and archive systems that had been written off, all of which were ‘harvested’ in the immediate surroundings of the club, SUPERUSE succeeded in creating a surprising and unique interior.

By focusing on urgent themes affecting society, we highlight issues in today’s world that are also relevant to current professional discourse. As far as the intended research and results are concerned, students are encouraged to think beyond what is possible. Idealism, imagination and sense of reality must find the right balance at the Royal Academy of Fine Art, where challenging the impossible is an everyday ambition. INSIDE aims to educate interior architects as autonomous minds, working in an applied context, who succeed in deploying the built environment as material for the imagination. They are designers who explore with an organic intelligence and act on the strength of a strong sense of responsibility to improve the built environment spatially, and thus also socially.

I N S I D E P R O F I L E

0 0

THE REAL WORLD The relation with the real world is expressed in all parts of the INSIDE course and thus certainly in the choice of architects and offices that head the core studios. After all, they represent that real world and draw naturally from their practices in choosing real contexts and approaches as the basis for every studio project. Among the studio tutors at INSIDE are designers from MVRDV and OMA. For over two decades MVRDV has succeeded in highlighting pressing social themes through research and design. Themes such as urban densification (Didden Village in Rotterdam), urban topography (The Stairs in Rotterdam) and the development of self-sufficient urban areas (Almere-Oosterwold) have been investigated, analysed precisely to uncover their potential, and then translated into spectacular designs that not only facilitate the desired function but also raise discussion about pressing themes.


THE INTERIOR SPACE INSIDE focuses on design with social relevance, hence we do not respect the boundaries of specific physical or programmatic areas of work but, instead, concentrate on current thematic issues such as: changes in the health care system; the rise in the ageing population; the consequences of ‘the new world of work’; vacancy of office and retail space; changing lifestyles; the industrialization of the food industry; attention for schooling and education; and increasing importance through desire and necessity of self-organization. The spatial and social impact of these issues manifests itself in all areas of work of the interior architect. And moreover, students from countries all over the world at INSIDE prove capable of putting forward relevant social issues with a spatial component and with a cultural urgency we are unfamiliar with in the Netherlands, such as the seemingly unstoppable urbanization now taking place in China. INSIDE does not educate students to work exclusively in a Dutch spatial context. By enabling students to ‘pick up’ projects in their native countries and to develop them at INSIDE for their graduation, we open the door for an exchange of international experiences and mutual cultural influencing. ENTREPRENEURS AND INSTIGATORS Within the nature of commissions available in interior architecture, the highlighting of social relevance and cultural urgency in design projects is not always apparent; in fact, they often recede into the background. In such cases, we educate INSIDE students to enrich existing projects with that relevance and urgency or to take the initiative in defining such assignments for themselves. The role of the interior architect as a connector and bridge builder between research, design and practice would seem to be more relevant than ever. It is a practice in which citizens have become more vocal, and no longer consist of individuals but they consist of professionally organized collectives that cause the need to approach social and spatial issues in an integrated manner and not in isolation. More than has been the case up to now, commissioning in these processes entails working together with various parties with various interests. INSIDE attaches great importance to the skill of future interior architects in being able to explore such processes and, within them, to be able to define relevant interventions. At INSIDE, entrepreneurial skills stand for the successful running of a design office as well as instigating processes at the personal initiative of the designer. For INSIDE, the interior architect of the future is someone who, when commissions for desirable or even necessary spatial changes are not forthcoming, is capable of initiating them himself. THE STRUCTURE OF OUR COURSE The INSIDE course is structured in a similar way to a research and design office. The main features of the course are the Studios in which students complete the entire process of a research and design project: orientation, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research), presentation and evaluation. In the first year students are allotted four to eight weeks (comparable to a competition submission)

or eighteen weeks (comparable to a regular commission) for the main projects in the Studios. Within the research and design process, various aspects are explored in depth in four parallel programmes: Theory, Flows, Skills and Travel. These programmes form an integral part of the design process in practice, but they are given added emphasis during the INSIDE course in relation to the Studio projects, and are supervised by specialist tutors. In this way, the analysis of the dynamic nature of a spatial context undergoing change is scrutinized closely in Flows, while the various theoretical aspects of a project are explored in Theory. An introduction to specific skills required in a project and to the approach of a particular tutor is offered in Skills, and relevant projects are visited in Travel. In the second year a Graduation Studio is organised to assist students in drawing up individual graduation projects. Students work independently and cover the entire process of orientation, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research) and presentation by themselves, under the individual supervision of the tutors. STUDIO The Studios form the backbone of the course, where students cover the entire process of orientation on the research and design of a selected spatial context undergoing change, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research), presentation and evaluation. In the studios the students work on a concrete project under the supervision of a renowned designer, or under the supervision of a team assembled by this designer. The project assignment is determined by the studio tutor in consultation with the head of the course. The project can be purely academic in character or it may relate directly to current projects within the tutor’s private practice. FLOWS Contemporary interiors increasingly depend on a complex of (inter)connecting flows. At the same time the growing awareness of the limits to our resources forces designers to reinvent the performance of spaces we inhabit. This has led to interior designers rapidly becoming dependent on external specialists and losing one of their primary capacities: to integrate. Flows aims to support interior designers retaking an active integrating role in the execution of their profession. THEORY At INSIDE, research means deepening understanding, strengthening basic and essential research skills, and developing an individual approach to research themes. That is done by enabling students to conduct as much independent theoretical research as possible. Theoretical research here is taken to mean: systematic, critical reflection on the basis of a concrete question and definition of problem by consulting literature and other sources, with the aim of acquiring knowledge that offers answers to the question and problem posed.


SKILLS Skills are advanced competences and techniques that enable students to carry out projects within the Studios more proficiently. INSIDE does not educate interior architects to cover a strictly defined field but, instead, focuses on the position that architects, responsible for the space that people relate to most directly as users of space, adopt in a process of spatial change. The skills are offered in such a way that students learn to practice them to such an extent that they can refine them on their own. TRAVEL At INSIDE the basis of every design lies in observing, researching and analyzing a situation. The best attitude for doing that is to travel to places and thus experience ‘a tremendous sense of liberation and, at the same time, to be very aware of all the dangers and limitations that surround you’. (Lebbeus Woods, as quoted in an interview with Jan Jongert). At INSIDE we aim to foster this state of mind through experiencing the real world in the Travel programme.

I N S I D

EXAM 2015-2016 Marthijn Pool — Space & Matter

VISITING TEACHERS OBSERVATORIUM Geert van de Camp and André Dekker Sjoerd Louwaars Cloud Collective Gerjan Streng Gert Dumbar Leeke Reinders Vincent de Rijk Lucas Verweij Mauricio Freyre Invisible Playground Berlin Jan van Grunsven Anne Karin ten Bosch Maarten Luijkx Ruud Reutelingsperger Francien van Westrenen Ester van der Wiel REFUNC Denis Oudendijk Damiaan van der Velden Bart Groenewegen and Jan Körbes Hagar Zur - COMAS Olga Russel – NHTV Bert van Meggelen

LECTURERS Mauricio Freyre Wessel de Jonge Endry van Velzen Markus Bader Leeke Reinders Jeroen van Mastrigt-Ide Gert Dumbar Dirk van den Heuvel Stephan Petermann Marc Dubois Louise Schouwenberg Eva Stricker Harmen van de Wal Erik Kuiper Rob Aben Titia Frieling Jetse Goris Kie Ellens KITEV Oberhausen DOEPELSTRIJKERS Duzan Doepel Jacob Voorthuis Frank Havermans Piet Vollaard

E P R O F I L E

0 0

TUTORS 2015-2016 DOEPELSTRIJKERS — Eline Strijkers MVRDV - Fokke Moerel and Aser Giménez Ortega Superuse Studios — Jan Jongert and Lizanne Dirkx Raumlaborberlin — Markus Bader Studio Makkink & Bey — Jurgen Bey and Michou-Nanon de Bruijn Frans Bevers OMA — Mark Veldman Anne Hoogewoning and Louise Schouwenberg Erik Jutten Hans Venhuizen


Studio led by Observatorium, Superuse Studios and Refunc

Not that long ago geographical conditions and available building materials determined the architecture of a particular place. Decisive factors for the appearance and size of a structure were where you could build and what you could build with the specific materials available such as wood, stone, marble or dung. Cultural historians and tourist associations still celebrate these original dynamics that once shaped our built environment. In reality, however, such dynamics have long become folklore. After all, we are now able to build anything we want anywhere, and we no longer celebrate our brilliant mastery over the limitations of place but, rather, celebrate the endless possibilities. In the domesticating non-building structures project, together with students from design schools of Tel Aviv and Breda, INSIDE students reactivated the identity character shaped by the limitations in the Rotterdam harbour. On the location of the currently derelict Hef-bridge the students had to create a unique context for settling. The project started in the labyrinth at the Royal Academy of Art, where the students established places of comfort in non-inviting situations. The second and third day the group visited the German Ruhr area where industrial constructions left behind after the ending of the local coal and steel period, are being re-used in spectacular ways. On the fourth and following days the students worked at the final venue in Rotterdam at Marconistraat where the famous Hef-bridge had been taken apart and placed on a harbour quay waiting to be transformed into a temporary domestication. The bridge offers no comfort at all and lies open and windy next to a harbour basin. The second limitation was the available building materials in the surrounding area of the bridge. Waste materials such as pallets, gallons, car tyres, plastics, wood, sheets, blankets and other materials were gathered. These would have been thrown away by local companies but were deemed suitable for a second life. After experimenting with the possibilities of building shelters with the materials harvested the students built walls, beds, a bar and various sheltering constructions on the bridge. Finally some of them spent the last night on the bridge using the shelters built. Thus showing that the wonderful ability of limitations to create identity has not been turned into folklore at all but is very much alive.

D O M E S T I C A T I N G

0 0

DOMESTICATING NON-BUILDING STRUCTURES


INTERVIEW WITH LEEKE REINDERS BY LOTTE VAN DEN BERG Some lessons learned from a creative anthropologist. Leeke Reinders is an anthropologist working in the field of architecture and urban design. He works at the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of Delft University of Technology and is tutor at INSIDE, at KU Leuven (in Brussels and Ghent), the Design Academy in Eindhoven and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam. 1 :

WHAT IS ARCHITECTURAL SPACE ACCORDING TO YOU? I think there is real need to bring architectural design back to the real and the everyday. Many theoreticians and critics of design write about architectural space as an abstract substance. They discuss architecture in the language of the design professional. Forms, proportions, volumes, colors. Somehow, this language not always links to the everyday needs of users and inhabitants. But what happens when designers, urbanists and architects have done their work and left the building? Is there a second life of design ? How do people fit in the spaces and structures designed by professionals? How do people interact with space, how do they occupy space, how do they make homes and communities ? These are questions I ask myself as an anthropologist but I think they are very relevant for designers as well.

2 : DURING THE LECTURE YOU GAVE AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY YOU USED THE TERMS ‘SOFT CITIES’ AND ‘PROTOPUBLIC’ QUITEOFTEN. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY THESE TERMS? There are important insights and lessons to be learnt when you approach architecture as an anthropological realm in which we make our lives happen. It helps in de-programming you as a designer. Looking at the hard architecture and infrastructure of the city from a soft angle. You can use knowledge of everyday life to inform your thinking and doing design. These were issues and questions already raised in the 1960s as a critique on modernism, but they loop back now in critiques of neo-liberalism and revanchist architecture, a world in which our sense of a public space is threatened by the forces of capital and political power. Soft cities and proto-public spaces refer to spaces that are not yet fully crystallized. They refer more to a process than to the final design of a space and they emerge out of the traces and networks of everyday life. In order to understand these spaces we need new methods, vocabularies and modes of intervention. I think we can divide the city in a hard city and a soft city. The hard city is the built environment, what is designed by architects and built by developers


4 :

3: HOW CAN THE STUDENTS INTEGRATE ANTHROPOLOGY IN THEIR DESIGN PROCESS? The students should unlearn what they think they know and patiently break down their mechanisms behind their design reflexes. All too often the emphasis with design lies on imposing patterns of meaning and conformity from the standpoint of the producers. It can be argued that the outcome of design processes should not be the main concern of the study of interior architecture, but rather the end result should be considered in terms of an interplay between designers’ intentions and users’ needs and perceptions. It is at the interface between these two objectives that meaning and significance in design are created. If you look at a Turkish coffee shop in The Hague, for instance, you can ask yourself as a designer: in what way is this interior linked to the multicultural environment surrounding it? How do males occupy spaces? Where are the females? How do communities form and take shape? What kind of gradients are there between the public and private spaces of the city? I teach

WHAT’S YOUR FINAL TIP FOR THE STUDENTS OF INSIDE ? Try to develop an open outlook to the world, be curious and interested in the social life around you. You’ll be surprised of how people handle things. They are experts themselves and you can learn a lot from them. There is, I believe, a real need to approach architecture, urban and interior design from a social and human perspective, develop a tactile sense of human meanings and activities. It requires research with an open mind and a willingness to get lost. Observations of everyday life can serve as a starting point for the exploration of new possibilities and directions. I also think it is important to work with analogue materials. So instead of getting yourself locked into the computer program, use pen and paper for notation in words and visuals. And from these materials try to approach design as an open and reflective process.

Interview with Leeke Reinders by Lotte van den Berg, Coordinator INSIDE

my students to start exploring public and interior spaces with the equipment of the ‘ethnographer designer’ : a notebook, pencil, photo camera, together with a preliminary definition of the subject of the investigation. Students are learned to act like detectives: observe spaces, taking time to look at people and their activities, construct stories from the fragments and pieces of urban life they encounter. The students need to walk a lot, experience space and talk to complete strangers in order to look for clues to get the bigger picture. I think this is how design proposals and strategies might emerge: to link anthropological research to the architectural and social space. Doing research is like hanging your hair down, getting your feet wet and seeing normal things with strange eyes. This takes time and effort but, in the end, it can be a rewarding experience. At INSIDE I learn the students how to observe and to be aware of what they look for and how this depends on the kind of questions they ask, the problems they define and the situations they encounter.

L E E K E R E I N D E R S

1 1

and others. The soft city is how the city is used and experienced by its visitors and inhabitants. In that sense, space is a tabula rasa and the city, you might say, awaits this imprint of identity. Like the author Jonathan Raban writes in his book Soft city: the city invites every user of the city to remake it and to consolidate it into a shape the people like to live in. Cities, unlike villages and small towns, are plastic by nature. The people mold them by their own images : they, in their turn, shape us by the resistance they offer when we try to impose our own personal form on them. So architecture and everyday life are not separate domains, they inform each other. Architecture structures the use of cities and frames our sense of time and place, but people also are architects themselves. They adjust to the environment, make claims, construct and defend territories. The act of living in a city is as much an art as the design of a building or a square.


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Braambergen is a ‘Landfill site’ in Almere, owned by Afvalzorg Nederland that is available for re-use for recreational purposes. The Braambergen site is surrounded by the Dutch polder landscape. This new land on the former seabed of the Zuider Zee has succeeded in gathering unique phenomena. In the direct surroundings of Braambergen you can find many Dutch perspectives on urbanization since 1970, from ‘cauliflower’ urban areas in Almere-Haven to the future of do-it-yourself urbanization in Oosterwold. Directly next to Braambergen is one of the most successful land art works realized in the 70’s as pioneers of the urbanization to come. What is unique about Almere is this phase of her development. Now, the time all new developments can be easily realized next to each other has ended, as space is no longer abundant. New developments will have an effect on the existing city landscape.

1 1

The re-use of the Braambergen site is an invitation to create new synergy of functions and in doing so setting off a new phase the polder’s history. The project was finalized with a one-day initiative on the site itself where students built one-to-one interventions and created a programme to invite the residents of Almere to join. This ‘open day’ took place on 11 June 2016 and for all people who joined, it was a great opportunity to experience the Braambergen site and its qualities and potentials.


2

INTERVIEW WITH MARKUS BADER



by Minjung Kang Markus Bader is one of the partners of raumlabor berlin, a group of German architects who came together in Berlin in 1999 in response to the rapid and unrestrained development of the city following the fall of the Berlin wall. Their playful approach critiques the dominant mode of architectural 1 : HOW IMPORTANT IS IT FOR YOU TO DESIGN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INTERVENTIONS? We, at raumlaborberlin, find it important to create social interaction through spatial interventions; these can be temporary or either long-term as we don’t see architecture necessarily as an object itself but as an object for use. From the start of our architectural practice, we decided not seek competitions as core of our doings, as we were looking for more direct and immediate ways to co-shape our living conditions and environment. I always wonder how designers regard an object without reflecting on the connection it can create between its users. I think it is always necessary to be aware as a designer for what kind of living conditions the design is meant for and how it can improve these conditions.

2 : IS IT MORE RELATED TO YOU TO DESIGN TEMPORARY INSTALLATION IN PUBLIC SPACE INSTEAD OF HAVING PERMANENT PROGRAM OR SPATIAL DESIGN? We, at raumlaborberlin, find it important to create social interaction through spatial interventions; these can be temporary or either long-term as we don’t see architecture necessarily as an object itself but as an object for use. From the start of our architectural practice, we decided not seek competitions as core of our doings, as we were looking for more direct and immediate ways to co-shape our living conditions and environment. I always wonder how designers regard an object without reflecting on the connection it can create between its users. I think it is always necessary to be aware as a designer for what kind of living conditions the design is meant for and how it can improve these conditions.

production, proposing instead temporary and socially grounded projects that transform the urban landscape. Markus was one of the tutors of the Braambergen Studio, held in the second semester, in which the students design interventions to open up the former landfill Braambergen.

3: ARE YOU MORE INTERESTED IN DESIGNING A TEMPORARY INSTALLATION IN PUBLIC SPACE INSTEAD OF MAKING A PERMANENT SPATIAL DESIGN? The question of temporary or long term is something we always question. In the architectural debate value seems to be attached to time, in other words: duration is a value in itself. I question this; probably it is related to the scale of human life that we experience objects and buildings to last for a long time. Somehow we are very happy with the temporary because it allows me and my colleagues to explore more and do more tests while the financial investment is less. In this way temporary projects can be more open, which means that we can probably ask more questions and answer more questions. In a long term situation, the client tends to be more conservative, as usually more money is invested. On the other hand, part of our practice is concerned with long term strategies, mostly urban transformation strategies, acting on a larger scale in terms of both space and time. Then we work within a framework of stakeholders and I think it is super interesting to direct interaction in these situations and to understand what the desires and interests are, of the people involved. How can we as designers imagine a process of twenty years of planning that stimulate interaction? And how can we navigate or steer this process without limiting the actors within the process in an unnecessary way? In doing this we look at finding ways for building collective imaginaries of urban futures, that are profoundly grounded in a permanent practice of acting ideas out, testing adapting, responding, changing, evolving.


Yes. I think the projects we work on must absolutely be regarded as architecture. I see the profession of an architect as a space expert mostly being active within the urban context, temporarily or not. Architecture is the spatial expression of our being today. For me it is about connecting spatial implications which emerge through situations in society and to basically come up with ideas for the living environment. So that’s what architecture is and what it should do.

5 : ARE THERE LESS REGULATIONS IN GERMANY THAN IN THE NETHERLANDS IN RELATION TO TEMPORARY INTERVENTIONS? No. There is nothing like a building permit for temporary structures. Whenever we set up a project in places that involves people entering it, there are still fire regulations. Of course any structure we set up needs to be safe and we want to be sure that our structures will hold. I think it is an interesting topic to talk about the temporary and the permanent, and what the implications are for security regulations and how the design of the interventions are affected by that. If we build something which will only last for two weeks, the strength of the material doesn’t come into account so much, if we compare to a structure which would remain for more then 100 years.

This is quite unusual in Europe where you can find trash sites in cities that are a hundred years old and slowly fall into abeyance. I think it is interesting that the site is close to a residential city and that the trash of the people of the city was collected here for more then 3 decades. This is an interesting narrative. Also the topography is curious: a super flat landscape with some precisely engineered hills on top, a manmade landscape, I think it could be a joy for anyone to explore. For me the collaboration with Aser and Fokke from MVRDV is really interesting because of our different architectural approach. They have a lot of knowledge of doing analysis and collecting as much figures and facts as possible to create a quite rational representation of what we talk about. If you collect a lot of data, you have to find a way to build up a relationship with these data. At the same time, I feel the need to explore how to build up a relationship with the place, to find out its opportunities and to downsize it. I am really interested to see how this discussion will develop!

Interview with Markus Bader by Minjung Kang, INSIDE student

4 : THE PROJECTS OF RAUMLABOR HAVE QUITE A DIFFERENT CHARACTER IN COMPARISON WITH TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE. DO YOU STILL CONSIDER THEM AS ARCHITECTURE?

M A R K U S B A D E R

6. WHAT ATTRACTS YOU ABOUT THE BRAAMBERGEN ASSIGNMENT? AND HOW DO YOU EXPERIENCE THE COLLABORATION WITH MVRDV, THE OTHER OFFICE INVOLVED IN THIS STUDIO?

1 1

To think about the character of the temporary intervention in Braambergen is quite fascinating. The site is a former landfill and rather small in relation to the period during which it was used (30 years).


Embrace Braambergen INSIDE researched for and with Afvalzorg the possibilities for initiating the recreational use by creating ‘inviting interventions’ by the first year students, based on an exploration of phenomena in the surrounding landscapes, functions and inhabitants. This tableau vivant is made at the first exploration the INSIDE students had on and around the landfill site in Almere. The picture is taken on the top of one of the three hills on the site where local hobby winemakers grow

their crop. The moment is in the winter of 2016 when it was hard to imagine that few months later the ‘inviting interventions’ these students were going to build would be embraced by the visitors from Almere. The next pages show how the students approached the site by zooming in from the largest scale to the smallest scale starting out by visualising relevant data of the surrounding context. After that they mapped the flows of waste materials that were around the site. The qualities of the materials were researched as well as the re-use possibilities.

a tableau vivant

Performing Last Supper From the left to the right Weini, Erik, Cam, Makiko, Mila, Isadora, Markus, Arvand, Erik and Klodiana behind the camera

Braambergen, 2016


highest point on the site offering relaxation possibilities with old furniture. From the balcony you could oversee the whole site where the 60 meters long table made of waste wood would immediately catch your attention. All interventions were built using only waste materials from the immediate vicinity. Finally the students depicted their longterm perspectives of the Braambergen site in collages. 1 1

On june 10 and 11 in 2016 INSIDE students realised their ‘inviting interventions’ as a proof of the shortterm possibilities for opening the site to the people of Almere. At the entrance valley you first had to pass a 90 meters wide curtain. After that you could view the exhibition with the future perspectives on the site made by INSIDE students and landscape architecture students from Larenstein aswell as Afvalzorg, the city of Almere and the State Forest Management. From the exhibition you could see the balcony that was built on the


22 22

23 23 22

OBSERVATIONS AROUND ALMERE

SPORT

FOOTBALL CLUB

YOUNG GROUP

CITY MALL

BIKING GROUP LAKE

FAMILY

KROMSLOOTPARK

SILENT

RESIDENCE

EMPTY

HAVEN

54

55


OBSERVATIONS OBSERVATIONSAROUND AROUNDTHE THESITE SITE

FUN! FUN! EAT! EAT!

FAMILY FAMILY TIME TIME

PANCAKE RESTAURANT PANCAKE RESTAURANT

TOURNAMENTS TOURNAMENTS

WINE WINE && DINE DINE GOLF! GOLF!

GOLF CLUB GOLF CLUB

ANIMALS ANIMALS PARKING PARKING SPACE SPACE

RESTAURANT RESTAURANT

PLAYGROUNDS PLAYGROUNDS

KEMPHAAN KEMPHAAN

S T

WALK WALK

BIKE BIKE

ENJOY ENJOY NATURE NATURE

BRAAMBERGEN BRAAMBERGEN

U D

SERENITY SERENITY

WALK WALK

MUSEUMBOS MUSEUMBOS

I O

WALK WALK

PICNIC! PICNIC!

WEDDING! WEDDING!

THE GREEN CATHEDRAL THE GREEN CATHEDRAL

56 56

57 57

B R A

OBSERVATIONS ON SITE

A M B MUDDY

JUST PRETTY

7+,5'+,//

P



P

G

P

P

E

P P

P P

P

P P

P

P P

ASHES

BAD SMELL

DOMESTICATED

58

TRASH COMPRESSING

GAS TESTING SITE

6(&21'+à·²//

N

VINEYARD

),567+,//

59

1 1

P

P

E R

P P

P



GREEN


A RC H E O LO G I C A L T R A S H X RAY THROUGH BRAAMBERGEN Arvand Pourabassi Klodiana Millona Makiko Morinaga

ARCHEOLOGICAL TRASH X R AY T H R O U G H B R A A M B E R G E N

water before 1968

Almere 1968

waste 70s

oldest hill ‘the bad’ 1985

second hill ‘the ugly’ 1999-2016

Arvand Pourabassi Klodiana Millona Makiko Morinaga

third hill ‘the good’ 1999-2008

BRAAMBERGEN IN CONTEXT SECTION OF FLEVOLAND POLDER Mila Tesic Wei Ni Lu

bye, bye contamination

”Zizekon“ExaminedLife a documentary from Astra Taylor, 2008

While experiencing the site in its major parts, especially in the "good" hill, you find yourself in a totally 'landscaped' environment that doesn't have any traces that could relate to trash. It is important to make clear that contamination has ended, but on the other hand, temptated by meaning, think is highly important for the site to confront its truth. Like in the daily reality, we are aware while we produce trash in a tangible way, and furthure more get illusioned by the fact that after that it dissapears(momentary),but in fact it doesn't. It is there. It is good to remember 82

“ we need to find a way to do poetry and spirit-

uality in the grit and dirt of our world. Only when we are really able to see and embrace trash can we expose the factors that cause environmental destruction. Only after these factors and their impacts (trash) are seen and exposed have we built the ground for real and systemic change to take place “


fragment

Collecting Site at HVC in Lelystad

electric waste

glass

small chemical waste

cooking oil

tire

flat glass

plaster mattress

waste

plastic

rock

styrofoam

S wood

T

 paper cardboard ground soil

U D

plywood

hard plastic

 roof materials

construction

I

Reuse Recycle

garden waste

O

Burning landfill

104

105

B R Reuse

Recycle Reuse

A PLYWOOD

A

PLASTIC

size

most of it is board

size

not define from small to big

quality texture

the most of quality is more than 20×60cm

quality texture

dirty, different elastic and color

aesthetic quality

the same color and function

aesthetic quality

partly damaged, not the same type, random precious

toxic

no

toxic

narrative

household from funiture

narrative

REUSE

M

no household waste

YES

NO

REUSE

YES

NO

direct reuse

YES

NO

direct reuse

YES

NO

upgrade

YES

NO

upgrade

YES

NO

creative reuse

YES

NO

creative reuse

YES

NO

remanufacturing

YES

NO

remanufacturing

YES

NO

material reuse

YES

NO

material reuse

YES

NO

B E

upgrade

remanufacturing

R restructuring

106

restructuring

107

G

119

E Recycle Reuse

Reuse

N

PAPER CARDBOARD

WOOD

Recycle Reuse

Reuse

PLYWOOD

PLASTIC

size

some are long strip, and some are board

size

standard size of packingsize

size

n

quality texture

real of wood, but it has some nail

quality texture

same texture, the most of quality is more than 40×60cm the most of quality is more than 20×60cm quality texture

quality texture

d

aesthetic quality

the same type of function

aesthetic quality

the same color printed, aesthetic neutral, partly regular,box theshape same color and function quality

aesthetic quality

p

toxic

no

toxic

no

no

toxic

narrative

it is construction waste, it is easily cleaned and workable

narrative

household packages, it isnarrative workable

household from funiture

narrative

REUSE direct reuse

REUSE

most of it is board

toxic YES

YES

NO

YES

NO

direct reuse

YES

YES

NO

REUSE

YES

NO

NO reuse direct

YES

NO

direct reuse

NO

upgrade

YES

NO upgrade

YES

NO

upgrade

creative reuse

YES

NO

creative reuse

YES

NO creative reuse

YES

NO

creative reuse

remanufacturing

YES

NO

remanufacturing

YES

NO remanufacturing

YES

NO

remanufacturing

material reuse

YES

NO

material reuse

YES

NO material reuse

YES

NO

material reuse

upgrade

creative reuse

material reuse

upgrade

remanufacturing

chipboard

111

116

onstruct

restructuring

118

restructuring

2 2

to shredc

n

h

REUSE


S T U D I O

B R A A M B E R G E

2 2

N


S T U D I O

B R A A M B E R G E

2 2

N


THE URN GARDEN Makiko Morinaga

You may think “A grave site on a landfill? It’s indiscreet! That may put a negative image on Braambergen”. Don’t you think becoming that kind of place is the right way for this landfill?I think so because it is such a precious experience only humans can have to talk with family or stroll in nature thinking about people who passed away. The thing connected with the cemetery as Braambergen landfill and leisure, it will be nothing else but the commonness as “Memory of Ash.” In Japan, the deceased is burned to lay in a coffin with the things they had cherished and loved when cremating their bodies. It is from the feeling that the deceased can live without inconvenience in the same way as they had lived here even in the afterlife. Braambergen landfill also contains things that many people had acquired, broken houses, and burnt ashes. There should be also a thing that various memories and wishes have been put in there. Braambergen is an ashes garden which has been piled up with ashes as the memories of people. We must not forget in this ashes garden to set up a monument not only which accommodates urns but also which devotes thanks to a lot of waste. It will be a wonderful experience to talk about memories of important people and to dedicate thanks to things while enjoying nature in the beautiful green on the earth.

T h e Tu l i p s H i l l Isadora Davide

The former landfill of Braambergen is a great example of what a landfill can become. This strategy adds to the site a vibrant composition of tulips which connect different platforms which people can inhabit and enjoy the surrounding environment. As the example of the existing vineyard in the site, the flowers appear also to proof that something beautiful can grown above a layer of trash. The flowers give a colourful vibration to the former landfill, which would stimulate the interaction between the site and its visitors. By developing a small intervention my ambition is that it will spread and slowly start a new consciousness about what can be the potential of a landfill site, which I believe somehow it can have an impact in the near future.

NEW FORMS OF LEISURE Minjung Kang

To open up Braambergen for the public, I would like to add what people already like to do, which is: leisure. Leisure allows us to express ourselves and to be ourselves, to help and find balance in our lives and to have fun and a sense of freedom. I believe it can even connect people with others, their friends and family. After my research I conclude that the leisure facilities that lacks in Almere are the opportunity to socialize, interact and participate. In the city you can find many interesting projects designed by famous and powerful architects. This means that most ideas come from outside the city and are organized top down. It is my goal that the future users will participate during the design and realization process. Therefore I conclude that the best way to open up Braambergen for the public is taking a less role as a designer and hand over the lead to the public. But I do think that as a designer I should have a view about what kind of leisure is needed in Almere. This is in my view an activity meant for all generations to gather and socialize. Either they can choose to do the same activity or different activities at the same place. By giving them the opportunity to have different leisure activities, I hope people will activate Braambergen.

E X P LO R E T H E G R I D Mila Tešić

In order to emphasize Braambergen as a public space I have introduced an intervention which is supposed to provoke action with its users. Its primordial quality makes its possible uses easily readable for everyone. The grid stretches throughout the landscape offering many different possibilities of appro-


B R A A M B E RG E N M A N I F E S TO Klodiana Millona

1. GOODBYE WASTE The most important test for the site to undergo, is its dissociation from its “dark” past- that of waste- which is the reason of its non habitation so far. 2. A STRONG STATEMENT That reveals the fact that this is no more a no man land, but a purified landscape. 3. AN OPEN INVITATION To end together with the inhabitants the waste area, and eventually leave an open call for them to come and use it. 4. A SCRIPT RATHER THAN A BLUE PRINT From the exploration of the importance of the event to mark a turning point in a space, the opening of the site should escape itself from a rigid blue print which narrates what to do where in a defined time. So no preconceived permanent program, but a script of the event that is well written that causes an ongoing open invitation. 5. BRAAMBERGEN TRANSCRIPTS Fragmentation could be a way of understanding the potentials of the site, whereas montage becomes its essential tool. By isolating, framing, “taking” elements from the location, a new reality of it can take place. 6. UNCLAIMED AND UNINTENDED COLLECTIVE SPACES Incorporate spaces with uncertain use, which serve more as a question rather than an answer, with a focus on the unclaimed and unintended collective space. 7. TRASHCARE FESTIVAL An annual event to translate into doing all these points of the Manifesto. Each year Braambergen be comes the ground for a different theme to be ex- plored and transforms the location into a Test Site for a “Try out Future” .

S T U D I O

T H E O P E N K I TC H E N

Dining is one of the most wonderful moments which people share amongst themselves. Sharing a meal gives a special opportunity for people to meet, socialize and bond. In an open kitchen, people are invited to interact with the intervention, but also between each other. Washing, cutting, cooking and other processes together comprise the ritual of eating which brings people closer together. Introducing a kitchen into this site was in my opinion a way to domesticate Braambergen, and present it as a part of community’s everyday life, where they can come together, share a meal, and enjoy the landscape. Using the gas produced by the processes taking place underground, the kitchen is powered, and thus brings a new perspective into revealing the potentials of Braambergen. Through such intervention, the notion that the site’s past may bring some new and positive angles into the present, becomes more obvious. The gas created inside the hills is a newfound value of the waste deposited there. Through using this gas, new life is given to Braambergen.

B R A A M B E R G E N

2 2

Wei Ni Lu


7 Graduating students 2015/2016

CAMILLA CASICCIA

ELENA CONRAD

Ockenburgh : a cooperative hostel

Gastspiel: strategies for an interim

HELAN MIAO

HEGIASRI HUTARIES

Design for left-behind children in Yuxian village

Muzenplein : in search of new life for an urban space


HEEJUNG KIM The final space to stay

SISI LI

Reactivate the Hutong : A strategy to save a fragile social housing typology in Beijing

YUIKO YOKOTA

2 2

To Be Continued: Local identity in Takasaki


3

READING BRAAMBERGEN



Essay by Klodiana Millona, INSIDE student Event as a turning point The optimism of the 60s and 70s, which guided the big questions of the city and the belief of the utopian thinkers of changing the world with a stroke of a pen, seems to be just a feeling of reminiscence today where society needs a more substantial approach toward the complexity it reveals. Therefore it is asking for small scale spatial interventions which are deeply rooted in the local condition. This advocates for a greater willingness from the public to appreciate the ephemerality - lasting for a very short time - in spatial design and there is a grow each year in efforts to explore the application of this genre in public interventions. 1 The lifespan of an intervention in public space at a given context may vary enormously. It may last for a day, a whole season or just the endurance of an event. I believe that by interpreting the nature of our current circumstances designers have the potential of shaping conditions that will create new relationships between spaces and events. As the architect Bernard Tschumi states in his book Architecture and Disjunction : “ Architecture is not about the conditions of design, but about the design of conditions ”. He continues by explaining: “Architecture has always been as much about the event that takes place in a space as about the space itself. ” 2 My fascination about the topic was triggered by the challenges presented in the brief for Braambergen, a landfill site in Almere, where we are asked to research on possibilities for starting up its recreational use by creating a ‘spatial intervention’. While experiencing Braambergen in its major parts, you find yourself in a totally

‘landscaped’ environment that doesn’t have any traces that could relate to waste. It is important to make clear that contamination has ended, but on the other hand, tempted in the search of meaning, I think it is highly important for the site to confront its truth. This palimpsest of landscape and waste, where you go beneath the first, you find the second, could be understood if one quickly sketches a conceptual section through the site where above the line of ground lies this kind of landscape and under it, the hidden brutal trash. Having said this, I find interesting the analogy with the above imaginary section with our blind attitude toward the journey that the waste goes through where at a certain point we have the illusion that trash disappears.

To have a starting point for the project, I started to deconstruct the brief by abstracting the information in order to look for an alliance/relationship that could mean something for the site. For me the site at a first view is just another green empty space in Almere. It becomes very clear to me that the potential of this site, is not the mere fact that it is now an empty land, a capital to make use of. But its genius loci * lie in the waste as the main creator. For me the potential exists in the story it tells, in the fascinating symbiosis between people and waste. Stating the above, my questions are : Can we create a point of questioning of the presumptions on the location? Is it possible to dismantle the preconceived notion of it as no man land or in other words dump place?


Learning from Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Case study This chapter goes through one of the public art interventions of Christo and JeanneClaude – known as the “wrapping couple”, with works such as “Wrapped Reichstag” in Berlin, “The Gates” in New York City, “The Pont Neuf Wrapped”, Paris etc. I see their projects as an attempt to develop in mind or physically an environment, an image and a memory. Consequently the durability of their work becomes redundant. I consider the Gates as a great example of ephemeral intervention. The artists installed 7,503 vinyl “gates” along 37 km of pathways in Central Park in New York City. From each gate hungs a panel of deep saffron-colored nylon fabric. The installation lasted 16 days in February 2005. The project was triggered by the vast flow of people walking through the streets. The project aimed to relate to the human scale, sited in Central Park, whose 843 acres are the ultimate locale for walking at leisure. In my opinion The Gates is more an architectural gesture which engages the residents and visitors in a visual and physical experience. The created visual golden river which appeared and disappeared through the naked branches of the trees on a February gloom high-lighted the configuration of the foot-paths. I appreciate it as an event, as spectacle, as a public gesture, a piece of elaborated social theater which creates in viewers an initial wow and invites them to take a look differently to the location that has been set. Their intervention was an attempt to upend the familiar. After The Gates, people saw the park more clearly for a time, becoming more conscious of the serpentine design of the paths and more aware of the park’s design. 7 When Christo and JeanneClaude were asked about their project “The Gates” why they choose to create temporary public art they answered that they do it in order to endow the works of art with a feeling of urgency to be seen, and the love and enderness brought by the fact that they will not last. “Those feelings are usually reserved for other temporary

things such as childhood and our own life. These are valued because we know that they will not last. We want to offer this feeling of love and tenderness to our works, as an added value (dimension) and as an additional aesthetic quality.” 8 I think this example highlights the qualities of the ephemeral. The very intriguing switch of situation that an intervention is able to create in the same place and the discussion among the public that it raises, which can or cannot continue after its limited lifespan. This kind of “gentle disturbance” created in open air stage, refocuses the participant’s impression of the site it is located, drawing their attention to what is there that is taken for granted and at the same time unveiling the hidden potential it has.

Essay by Klodiana Millona

Trash Chronicles Certainly it doesn’t come as a surprise that waste is the main topic of many works in a range of disciplines, like that of architecture illustrated by the increasing number of young studios using residuals as the primary material to build with, like the Spanish studio Basurama, Berlin based Raumlabor , Dutch – German architects of Refunc and many others. The Dutch firm MVRDV put forward an experi-mental 3 dimensional stimulation of the so-called MetaCity Downtown which reveals the drastic consequences of our lifestyle, where the most striking of these quantitative outputs around these speculations were the waste mountains on the edge of the hyper-dense urban fabric. But let me take a journey through waste to find out what does it mean for our society, by presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the issue that might help to analyze thoroughly such a complex reality. The opening of Marx’s book one, The Capital starts with : “ The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as “ an immense accumulation of com modities ”. 3 We could translate this saying in today’s circumstances as the wealth of those societies. In which the capitalist mode of production prevails presents itself as an immense accumulation of trash. Clearly Marx’s citation can be interpreted as a consequence of wealth, whereas Nietzsche went beyond and said that “the concept of decadence – waste, decay, elimination need not to be condemned : they are necessary consequences of life, of the growth of life ” 4 Trash can be perceived as a broken mirror of society. Things as products are becoming shorter and shorter in their lifespan. They are produced, traded, consumed and discarded. As soon as they are thrown away, they are transformed into something else: trash. We deal with trash in our everyday, we produce it continuously. Despite its universality, it’s hard to define it. What is waste? As Kevin Lynch in ‘Wasting Away’ points out, “waste is what is worthless or unused for human purpose,” but it also could be de fined as “things [that are] in the wrong place. ”  5 This idea of waste is a very broad and ambiguous concept (garbage, trash, litter, junk, dirt, residues, scrap). Generally humans think of it as dirty, therefore waste has disgusting connotations. But on the other hand, for instance an old

chair out on the sidewalk is perceived as waste and the same one might be useful in a living room. Therefore, waste is in my opinion constructed in our minds, as a way of mentally labeling objects: “trash” or “not trash.” It is an opinion, not a state of the matter.  6 It seems that it’s out of reach to determine the usefulness of a material or a thing without a spatial and temporal context. This is exactly what I think is important as an approach of dealing with the site of Braambergen and the issue of presumptions around it and its waste implication.

E S S A Y The event as a turning point Getting back to Braambergen, I find it important to confront the waste and get over it, to face and say goodbye to it. In a sarcastic way, I can compare it with the example of falling dictatorships. There is (needed) always a moment which marks its end, a dramatic detachment to start a new area. In most of the cases people tear down or explode the dictator statue, a shared strong expression toward a symbol. And the day or the moment marks a new time. Like the case of the Berlin wall, where people came together to manifest its falling - it is the gesture of doing it that signifies the thing. So following this logic and taking into consideration the fact that this is one of the last landfills in the Netherlands, 9 I see the event as an open invitation : to end together with the inhabitants the waste area, and eventually leave an open call for them to come and use it. The insertion of the terms “event” and “movement” was influenced by the Situationist discourse in the`68 era. 10 3 3

If yes, how to design a “ Mise-En-Scène ” ** for it to take place? At what extend can we provoke it? What are a spatial designer’s tools for it? This research will focus on the event not just as a mere sequence of actions, but as a potential to engage the public.


Les événements, as they were called, were not only “events” in action, but also in thought. Erecting a barricade (function) in a Paris street (form) is not quite equivalent to being a flaneur (function) in that same street (form). Michel Foucault expanded the use of the term “event” in a manner that went beyond the single action or activity, and spoke of “events of thought.” For Foucault, an event is not simply a logical sequence of words or actions, but rather “the moment of erosion, collapse, questioning, or problematization of the very assumptions of the setting within which a drama may take place — occasioning the chance or possibility of another, different setting.” The event here is seen as a turning point -- not an origin or an end — as opposed to such propositions as “ form follows function.” I would like to propose that the future of architecture lies in the construction of such events. 11 A script rather than a blue print The most important test for the site to undergo, is its dissociation from its “dark” past- that of waste - which is the reason of its non habitation so far. So I strongly believe that there is a possibility to dismantle the presumptions of the

4

location by unfolding a strong statement that reveals the fact that this is no more a no man land, but a purified landscape. And it is important to happen on site, a carefully created “Mise-En-Scène” which can be deciphered in a gesture that takes the visitors along , telling its story about the past and stretching out its potential for the future. From the exploration of the importance of the event to mark a turning point in a space, I came to the conclusion that the opening of the site should escape itself from a rigid blue print which narrates what to do where in a defined time. So no preconceived permanent program, but a script of the event that is well written that causes an ongoing open invitation. I assume that, to prove my confident position in favor of the ephemeral character as a first step for the site, comes to help the case of The Gates I analyzed above. The intervention by Christo and Jeanne-Claude proves that just by a temporary intervention, by a

reinterpretation of the existing elements, an invitation to see the site in a different way was provoked, thus a new perspective can be inducted. From my own interpretation of the work of Tschumi, as highly metaphorical to cinema, I think that fragmentation could be a way of understanding the potentials of the site, whereas montage becomes its essential tool. Like in a film where a fragmented set of data are set with confidence, as the human mind has no choice but to construct a whole picture out of it. Hence the non coincidental title I gave to my research - Braambergen Transcripts- starts to make sense here. By isolating, framing, “taking” elements from the location, a new reality of it can take place. To conclude the picture I sketch in my mind in response to the Braambergen brief is an attempt to incorporate spaces with uncertain use, which serve more as a question rather than an answer, with a focus on the unclaimed and unintended collective space.

1  Tschumi, B., Architecture and Disjunction., MIT Press, Cambridge, 1997 2  Markus Bader Lecture- SoA F’13 Lecture Series, “Rarefied”

©2013 Princeton University School of Architecture.

*  genius loci the prevailing character or atmosphere of a place. **  mise en scène the arrangement of scenery and stage properties in a play.

The setting or surroundings of an event

3  Derrida, J., 1986 : Point de folie – Maintenant l’ar chitecture, in Tschumi,

Bernard, 1986 : La case Vide: La Villette 1985, London, Architectural Association. Chin, A., Bernard Tschumi - Six Concepts: Excerpt from Architecture and Dis4  junction. http://www.famu soa.net/achin/courses/tschumi/6concepts.pdf. Web. 16 April 2016 5  Zizek on “Examined Life” a documentary from Astra Taylor, 2008 6  Rajch, J., Michel Foucault: The Freedom of Philosophy, Columbia University, 1986 7  Chappel, B. D. “Ephemeral Architecture: Towards a Definition.” Thesis. N.d. Scribd. 26 Nov. 2010. Web. 16 April 2016. 8  waste-management-world.com/a/landfill-a-victim-of- dutch-success, 2013, web. 16 April 2016 9  Leon McBride, W., The Philosophy of Marx, Rout ledge, New York, 2015 10  Seyfarth, L., Jenny Michel: Trashing Utopia, Strzelec ki Books, Berlin, 2015 Basurama, Urban Distortion Publication, Madrid, 2006 11 

THE CEMETERY AS LEISURE



Essay by Makiko Morinaga, INSIDE student Introduction

In Japan cemeteries are very intimate places. A lot of Japanese people go back to their hometown during the summer holiday to visit their ancestor’s graves. This period is called “Obon” 1 . It is a custom based on Buddhism where everyone comes together to pay their respect for the dead, gather together, set off fireworks and dance. The event is meant more for personal leisure than showing respect to the deceased. There are many other opportunities to visit a cemetery in Japan throughout the year, not only in the countryside but also in urban areas. In the Western culture it seems that there is not such a kind of festivity to celebrate death. On the contrary: I was very surprised to hear from a Japanese friend who is married with a Dutch guy that in the Netherlands a grave can be removed after 20-30 years to make room for someone else. The difference in the way of thinking

about cemeteries between the Japanese and the Dutch I found very interesting and it became the starting point of my research. The former landfill in Braambergen close to the city of Almere is a reclaimed land consisting of three large hills covered with beautiful green. The site is surrounded by forest where you can find wild foxes, rabbits and deer. If there were no pipes sticking out of the ground, you would not think that this artificial place full of nature is built upon garbage. During our research process we visited some land art projects by bike in the vicinity of the site: experiencing these projects which brings the dynamic of nature very close was a real eye opener for me into the world of Dutch leisure. During this visit I thought it would have been a good idea to include a visit to a cemetery. Regardless of our religion, death is something that everyone overcomes, at the end, we will all physically return to the soil. Ironically, we

as humans will follow the same path as the garbage that our massive consumer society produces. Therefore, in my opinion it is


Essay by Makiko Morinaga

The Japanese people and their cemeteries

There is a festival that I am interested in: the Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead), which is held every year in Mexico at the end of October and beginning of November. This festival takes place on the Catholic holiday called “All Saints’ Day,” 4 . It is similar to Japan’s “Obon” festival. Adults and children wear makeup like skulls and parade through the streets singing and playing music. Compared to the modest, solemn memorial services for ancestors in Japan, the Mexican celebrations are loud and boisterous. The cemetery decorations are a particular highlight: the family comes together to decorate the graves of the deceased with colorful flowers (mainly marigolds and cockscombs), candles and colored sand. The graves become colorful and many foreign visitors, myself included, come to visit. For the Mexicans cemeteries are important places to remember the dead, but they face

death cheerfully and jubilant. This kind of celebration would be out of the question in a Japanese cemetery because for the Japanese people cemeteries are closely associated with death. They are the symbol of a sinister place and considered to be dark and scary and they are valued to enshrine the souls of our deceased ancestors. Japanese cemeteries are generally lined with orderly gravestones made of black and gray granite and are a solemn and serene place. There are familiar places that we visit several times a year, but they are by no means cheerful or fun. This different attitude between Mexico and Japan about death was for me, being from Japan, a culture shock. Only 70 years ago cremation became widespread in Japan. Especially in the Meiji era, the cremation rate was only 10%. Currently Japan’s cremation rate is the highest in the world (99.9%) while in most countries it is below 50% 5 . During the post-war era cremation became standard due to the effective use of land and public health. Since the land for cemeteries is decreasing people store their remains in charnel houses

or ossuaries. Other types of graves are Jumokuso (where a tree is planted on the site of a gravestone) or Sankotsu (where ashes are scattered) which attract more attention lately. Overall there is a growing number of cemeteries where trees and plants are planted which transform the cemeteries into parks, they are called “Ko-en Bochi”, among others the “Kyoto Amagase Memorial Park” and the “Nagoya City Midorigaok Park” 6 .

Cemeteries as leisure in Western culture

There is a great variety of cemeteries around the world but some of them attract my special attention because they are not simply places to bury the dead. Mt. Auburn is a cemetery park that was built near Boston in 1820. 7 Its main designer was the physician and botanist Jacob Bigelow. He designed the cemetery based on a new view about life and death : nature is considered as an entity that transcends death. Therefore

E S S A Y

3 3

necessary to add leisure and charm to the landfill of Braambergen for the residents of Almere to feel comfort and pleasure while visiting the site. For my research I investigated Mt. Auburn in Cambridge (USA) as a pioneer in the park cemetery movement and a popular place for recreation and relaxation 2 . I also studied the Woodland Cemetery in Sweden, a beautiful site taking advantage of the surrounding majestic landscape 3 . I visited three Dutch cemeteries to explore the connection between the Dutch and their cemeteries. With these investigations as a basis I explored the connection between the Braambergen landfill and the cemetery in regard with leisure.


the gravestones were dispersed in nature and the people who visit their beloved could walk literally through nature, so they could encounter a peaceful image of death. Even today, annually 200.000 people visit this graveyard, to spend their free time and get inspired by the lovely nature such as painters, photographers and poets 8 .

crematorium to blend into the forest, which led to be registered as a World Heritage Site. People return to the forest when they die; this is how the people of Sweden, blessed by abundant forests, view death. In most cemeteries in Sweden you can find lots of trees and plants. However, here the trees and plants do not surround the tombstones, instead, the natural environment is the decisive factor where the gravestones are placed. So their arrangement does not seem out of place. Here as well, many people come in the weekend to enjoy bicycling and jogging and in winter you can cross-country ski through the park. Generally cemeteries are regarded as places for the dead, but here it appears to be a space of the living.

Cemeteries or alike in the Netherlands

What kind of cemeteries can be found in the Netherlands? When I visited some of them I was surprised by the diversity of the Dutch cemetery culture. The first one I visited was Ereveld Loenen, located south of Apeldoorn, designed in 1949 by the Dutch landscape architect B. Haspels as a memorial for the death of World War II. When you leave the city through a dense coniferous forest the Thus it has become a place for creative activities where every month events are held such as tours to observe plants and animals. In this way the cemetery park remains a place that offers eternal rest for the death but it is also a place where you can relax. Skogskyrkogarden - Woodland Cemetery is a cemetery in the suburbs of Stockholm (Sweden), constructed between 1917-1940  9 . It was designed by the architects Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz who had both already a significant impact on the Northern European modern architecture 10 . The cemetery utilizes its hilly terrain where conifers grow, allowing the chapel and

cemetery appears. There were just a few visitors when I was there, even though it was holidays. The shadows by the huge pine trees gave an extremely quiet and lonely impression. There were a few maze-like paths surrounded by rich greenery and a radial plaza where there was a monument like a landmark. The gravestones were arranged along these paths, absorbed in the natural, organic ground. In addition a new cemetery, designed by Karres and Brands, was added in recent years like an ovular plot of land with white birch. Fruit bushes such as blueberry and juneberry are distributed throughout the red clay and the contrast with the gray walking paths make it in my opinion a beautiful place. The next cemetery I visited was De Nieuwe Ooster in the eastern part of the city of Amsterdam. This cemetery, designed in 1889 by Leonard Springer, has a great variety of graves: from European style to sarcophagi. I also saw a lot of Chinese and Japanese gravestones. Many parts of this cemetery had quite a fantastic sight with green lawns and seasonal flowers such as cherry blossoms and magnolias blooming. To my surprise there was also an Urn Garden where I could touch the urns (later I found out that this garden was also designed by Karres and


Essay by Makiko Morinaga

not something to save forever. Memory of ash The landfill Braambergen consists of three low hills which emerged by the deposit of industrial and household waste. But this remains out of sight as the hills are covered by the original soil of the land. So to speak, this landfill is a graveyard of waste produced by our consumptive society. Nevertheless, the site is a beautiful green land surrounded by rich nature and I daringly propose to use the landfill in the future as a gravesite. “A gravesite on a landfill? It’s indiscreet! This will give the place a negative image”. I don’t agree. Just think of Mt Auburn or Skogskyrkogarden where people can stay in beautiful nature with the spirits of the dead. These cemeteries show that you can have a stroll in nature thinking about the people who passed away. In contrast with the dancing and singing rituals in Mexico it is not a spectacular or exciting leisure activity but it can give you a calm and peaceful time. Near Braambergen there are some

attractive places where you can bike and stroll for example in the land art projects Het Museumbos and the Green Cathedral by Marinus Boezem. Don’t you think it is nice to have emotional experiences in the landfill with those dynamic and poetic land arts in the vicinity? In Japan the ashes of a dead person are put in a coffin with the things he cherished and loved during his life. Also Braambergen contains things with memories that people acquired during their life, in other words: the landfill is an ash garden which has been piled up with memories of people. We must not forget to set up a monument in this garden not only accommodating urns but also devoted to waste. I believe it will be a wonderful experience to talk about the memories of people on the basis of their waste while enjoying nature in a beautiful green setting. Therefore I do hope Braambergen will become a place that fits in the Netherlands tradition which foster the culture of various grave styles, as a “Memory of Ash.”

E S S A Y

1 Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bon_Festival 2 Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Auburn_Cemetery 3 Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skogskyrkogården 4 Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_the_Dead 5  “Pharos, 2011, Winter edition”. The Cremation Society of Great Britain, Lon-

don, 2011.

6 http://midorigaoka-park.jp 7  Mt Auburn- Boston, America (1820) Jacob Bigelow http://mountauburn.org 8  Imai T. Landscape engineering. Chuo University, Department of Science and

Engineering http://www.imai-aud.co.jp/chudaikeikan/11k.pdf

9 Skogskyrkogarden- Stockholm, Sweden (1920) Gunnar Asplund, Sigurd Lewerentz

http://skogskyrkogarden.stockholm.se/in-english/

10 http://fika10.com/Sweden/trip_se_18.html

3 3

Brands). They separated each corner of the graveyard with precise lines and planted a variety of plants and trees with the result that the Urn Garden looks different in all seasons. In my view this brings a lot of comfort to the visitors. There are chairs in front of the graves and the urns and I saw some people drinking a cup of tea. Although I did not see people being very active, such as bicycling and jogging, I was glad to notice people were bringing small snacks and sandwiches to enjoy teatime aside of their beloved ones. I also went to a place that I would not define as cemetery. At Kunstfort Vijfhuizen there is a narrow, roughly 250 meter-long trail stretching up a gentle hill alongside a canal, it is called the “Secret Path,” a project by the Dutch artist Hans van Houwelingen. At first glance, the path seems poetic but with a closer look you can see it is entirely paved with gravestones, old ones but also new ones from less than 10 years ago. I was a little bit shocked and was hesitant to walk on the path. I think gravestones need to be respected and it does not feel right to step on it like a garden stone. But then I reminded the story of my Japanese friend that if the family does not want to keep the grave, it will be removed. Here in the Netherlands apparently death is


5

NEW FORMS OF LEISURE



Essay by Minjung Kang, INSIDE student

Introduction

Braambergen is one of the last landfills in the Netherlands. The site is approximately 4000 m2 and situated just outside the city Almere, surrounded by the Dutch polder landscape, and close to the borderlines of the former Zuydersea. After three decades of dumping waste, Braambergen is ready for being re-used with a recreational function. The re-use of the site is in my opinion an invitation to create a new synergy of functions and in doing so enhancing a new leisure phase to the polder. What kind of new layers in Braambergen can help this synergy?  During my research and visits to Almere I noticed many people spend their free time in the parks near Braambergen like Waterlandsebos and Oosterwold. These green areas offer many leisure facilities for example a golf club, playgrounds and land art sites (Het Museumbos and The Green Cathedral). For me it was quite a surprising experience to see the large amount of people trying to spend their leisure time in places where nothing seem to be there. It stimulated me to think about leisure activities and what other possibilities for leisure could be realized in Braambergen although there were already a lot of leisure facilities. This observation raised the following questions; what kind of leisure activities can be found in Almere and its surroundings? What kind of facilities are missing? And what can these activities, which are now missing, add to the ones which are present? To answer these questions, I will first

define the term leisure, followed by a research through personal observation about what kind of leisure activities can be found in Almere. In addition to that I would like to bring forward two case studies which can be related with the Braambergen’s future identity: Mount Trashmore Park in Virginia (USA) which used to be a landfill with waste where nowadays local people spend their free time and the Noorderparkbar in Amsterdam where a new function was added

by local people by using waste materials. I choose these projects because they are in my opinion a good example of a large scale transformation (Trashmore Park) and small scale transformation (Noorderparkbar). Through my research I hope that I can find out what kind of intervention will be suitable for Braambergen and what will be the best way to open up the site for the public. Furthermore, I hope with adding a leisure activity to the landfill it can be a great opportunity to make the residents of Almere aware of their trash and trigger them to have responsibilities about their consumption behaviour.

Definition of leisure

Generally, leisure means time when one is not working or occupied; defined as free time. 1 But because of this vague definition, leisure means different things for different people. How can I define the meaning of leisure? First I would like to refer to Amy R. Hurd, professor in the school of kinesiology and recreation, who argues that there is a general consensus that there are three primary ways in which to consider leisure: leisure as time, leisure as activity and leisure as a state of mind. 2 Leisure is time free from obligations, work and tasks required for life such as sleeping and eating. Leisure can also be viewed as an activity


well? For me, it means that people choose leisure by themselves and for themselves, it is a decision, an act as well as a state. 6 I agree with this statement and would like to underline the word ‘decision’. People choose what to do or where to go represents their desires and needs and they are even willing to put a lot of effort to reach it. When I witnessed my friends in trying to have more leisure time, I see it can help them to have a positive feeling. Leisure allows us to express ourselves and to be ourselves, to help and find balance in our lives and to have fun and a sense of freedom. I believe it can even connect people with others, their friends and family, and that leisure provides opportunities to develop yourself by learning new skills.

For my research I visited four parks in Almere; Uylpark, Lumierepark, Vogelbos and Waterlandsebos. Uylpark is located in between the city centre and a residential area. The difference with the other parks is, that it has as football playground for amateur players between 10 and 18 years old. Most of the players came from other cities with parents watching their children playing football. Unfortunately, it seemed that there were not enough facilities for the parents. I expected a sort of food truck or something that they could enjoy while watching the football match but there wasn’t anything like that. People were just standing or sitting on the ground. Lumierepark is located next to the city centre and the lake of Almere. Here I saw many people who enjoyed biking. It is a usual scene in the Netherlands but it was a bit different because I saw many group bikers wearing the same uniforms. Vogelbos is located next to Almere Haven. It has a bad reputation and probably due to that there were just a few people walking around with their dog although it’s right next to a large residential area. The Waterlandsebos is right next to the Braambergen site. It is the largest park and at the same time located the most distant from the city centre. To my surprise it was full of people and I witnessed different leisure activities; fishing, haunting, biking and people relaxing in groups. I met some families who lived in Almere but even other cities to have, as they said, ‘family time’. In the Waterlandse bos there is a ‘Fun Forest’ and ‘De Kemphaan’, a recreational park with various facilities for children like a jungle with monkeys and a pancake house. There was not a facility for families to do things together. Some parents played catch balls with their children but apparently they had brought the balls themselves. Around this park I met many people, mostly seniors who were biking or walking, and I spoke to some people who were fishing. I also visited two shopping malls; one in the city centre and another in Almere Haven. Although they are located in different districts they were both absolutely a place for young people. I also visited the golf club near Braambergen. It turned out to be quite an interesting place. I expected only seniors but there were many different generations: from youth to seniors. They all spent the same leisure time together. Through these observations I noticed there were many facilities for leisure in Almere but I felt something is definitely missing.

Essay by Minjung Kang

Leisure facilities in and around Almere

E S S A Y

Mount Trashmore Park in Virginia, USA

Mount Trash Park is a city park located in Virginia which opened in 1974. It has

3 3

that people engage with for various reasons such as relaxation, competition, or growth. It can also include reading for pleasure, meditating, painting and participating in sports. 3 I noticed that it is difficult to come up with a list of activities that everyone agrees to represent leisure and that the definition of leisure as a state of mind is subjective. Hurd chooses four key components to determine whether an experience is leisure or not: perceived freedom, intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and positive affect. 4 Perceived freedom refers to an individual’s ability to choose the activity or experience. Intrinsic motivation means that the person is moved from within to participate. Perceived competence refers to the skills people believe they possess. It relates strongly to satisfaction. Positive affect refers to a person’s sense of choice, or the feeling people have when they have some control over the process that is tied to the experience. What may be a leisure experience for one person it might not be for another. However enjoyment, motivation and choice are the three most important factors. 5 My findings about the different views on leisure raises the question if leisure involves only enjoyment or spending free time as


the distinction of being the world’s first park built on a waste landfill. 7 It is a good example of landfill reuse as its creation consisted of the conversion of an abandoned landfill into a park. Once the park was completed, it immediately became popular, it has approximately 900.000 visitors a year. 8 The park has developed step by step through participation by the residents of Virginia Beach. The name of the park was given by the local people when they started to call it Mount Trashmore during its construction. It was only a nickname but it became official. After Mount Trashmore Park was built, the municipality decided to add a skate park. It was a way to trigger all skateboarders who were tired of scratching up the town’s handrails (by that time Virginia Beach was a big skateboarding town). The most recent addition is Kid’s Cove which was constructed by 4400 volunteers on top of the landfill. 9 It is a popular spot for picnics; it has a number of playgrounds, including one which was partly designed by children.10 The strength of Mount Trashmore Park is the cooperation with the residents who live nearby the park. It consistently has developed to fill up resident’s needs. Also during the process, the municipality gave opportunities that residents could be involved and have responsibility in the development of the park. Because of this process I can conclude that Mount Trashmore Park is a good example of successful participative development.

Noorderparkbar in Amsterdam

It seems that in Western Europe, a new orthodoxy of resident participation is rising. 11 This new type of citizens’ involvement can help to guide the future direction of a site, for example by suggesting new uses.12 Following this trend, the Noorderparkbar in the Northern part of Amsterdam is a project designed and developed by three neighbours who felt the lack of facilities in the area where they live. In 2007, local resident and cultural professional Floor Ziegler was disappointed with the lack of cultural activities in the park. She opened the Noorderparkkamer; it was intended as a ‘cultural living room’ with theater, music and children’s activities programmed by cultural professionals from Amsterdam Noord.13 Over the past few years, the ‘room’ has developed into a popular meeting place for neighbours and has become so busy that extra space was needed. Three regular visitors of the ‘room’, some of them being designers, approached Floor with their own plans for a place to enjoy a drink in the park. The initiators started to collect the necessary materials from an auction website. Considering the tight budget, they almost had to build the construction themselves on a voluntary basis.15 A year

later they had finished the bar, brought it to the park and served the first couple of beers. The bar became very popular. What makes this project unique is that the bar does not have a contractor, a formal owner or a business model. Nobody owns it and as such everybody does. Another uniqueness of the Noorderparkbar is the fact that it is built with second-hand materials. Every single piece has a history: personal stories from the people who sold the material were collected and put on a blog together with

their pictures. I conclude that the idea and realization of the Noorderparkbar by the residents of the Van der Pek neighborhood is for me an example of a successful participative development. Its success is also based on the fact that the Noorderparkbar provides an urban facility that was strongly needed by the local community.


Noorderparkbar architects designed the main concept and worked together with local residents during the realization process. It is my goal that in the future users will participate during the design and realization process. Therefore I conclude that the best way to open up Braambergen for the public is taking a less role as a designer and hand over the lead to the public. But I do think that as a designer I should have an idea

about what kind of leisure is needed in Almere. This is in my view an activity meant for all generations to gather and socialize. Either they can choose to do the same activity or different activities at the same place. By giving them the opportunity to have different leisure activities, I hope people will activate Braambergen.

E S S A Y

1 Kelly, J. R., ‘Leisure’, 1996, p.17 2  Amy R. H & Anderson, D.M., ‘Park and Recreation Professional’s Handbook’,

2011, p. 12

3  Shaw, S. M., ‘Controversies and Contradictions in Family Leisure.:

An analysis of Conflicting Paradigms’, Journal of Leisure Reserach, 1997, p.29 4 Amy R. H., ‘Park and Recreation Professional’s Handbook, 2011, p. 27 5 Amy R. H., ‘Park and Recreation Professional’s Handbook, 2011, p. 27-41 6 Thorsten V., ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class’, 1953, p.46 7 John R.K., ‘Freedom to Be: A New Sociology of Leisure, 1987, p.49 8 https://www.vbgov.com/government/departments/parks-recreation/parks-trails/ Documents/mount-trashmore-park-map.pdf 9  Garrow, Hattie Brown (2007-03-01), "Trashmore has million(.35) reasons to celebrate", The Virginian-Pilot, retrieved 2007-10-05 10  Baltimore : http://www.baltimoresun.com/travel/beaches/bal-bab-vatrashmore-story.html 11 https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2015/12/06/history-of-mount-trashmorepark-virginia-beach-va/ 12  Atkinson, R. & Eckardt F., 'Urban Policies in Europe: The Development of a New Conventional Wisdom' p.39 13  Cumberlidge, C. & Musgrave, L. , Design and Landscape for People: New Approaches to Renewal’, p.58

3 3

At the beginning of my research, I hoped to find out which intervention would fit the Braambergen site and what would be the best way to open up the site for the public. I also believed that by adding leisure activities it would give the opportunity for people to become aware of their trash and that they would feel responsible about their consumption behaviour. But after I visited the site and the city and talked with several residents and studied some case studies, I started to have my doubts. Somehow, I couldn’t find a way to transform the site from an un-wanted landfill to become a beloved place by emphasizing its unique identity which is trash. Maybe I should focus to open up the site for the public by adding what people already like to do, which is: leisure. After my research I conclude that the leisure facilities that lacks in Almere are the opportunity to socialize, interact and participate. In the city you can find many interesting projects designed by famous and powerful architects. This means that most ideas come from outside the city and are organized top down. How to deal with participatory design I learned from two interesting cases studies: Mount Trashmore Park as a successful example of a good combination and cooperation between the municipality and the residents and Noorderparkbar where the adjacent organization of Noorderparkkamer was engaged in the management of the bar and connected its program with the whole park and its cultural activities. In the case of the

Essay by Minjung Kang

Gather and socialize


1

2

3

The project zoomed in on the Binckhorst area in The Hague and explo­ red ways to retain the existing local automotive expertise and make the cultural role and significance of the car more visible. Industry is already present in the area and it’s clear it used to have a function as ‘car country’. The carwash project is used as acupuncture for the Binckhorst area, by reinterpreting functions of a carwash, and connecting them with industry and leisure for the visitors of the area and the new residents. Public-private partnerships between the remaining industry and residents can only occur when conditions and infrastructure are well designed and a combination feels natural. Linkage with demands and social issues could possibly encourage the remaining industry to conduct tests together with the community to create the ultimate carwash, tailored to today’s demands. Each student concentrated on one of the 8 movements within the carwash: paying, soaking, soaping, pressure rinsing, brushing, waxing, drying and vacuum cleaning. The aim was to find possible connections, which influence the areas social and industrial web, and to create a dedicated community surrounding the Binckhorst carwash.

Studio by Studio Makkink & Bey


INTERVIEW WITH JURGEN BEY



by Klodiana Millona Jurgen Bey is a renowned critical designer who’s work includes product, furniture, interior and public space design. Since 2002, together with Rianne Makkink he directs the Studio Makkink & Bey, located in Rotterdam.

In their words, “town planning, architecture and landscape architecture are indissolubly connected to products and can be in symbiosis; the lamp has influenced architecture and the built home the products for the interior.” studies I got stuck, I wondered how I would proceed if I was part of his book. This does not mean that I want to copy his ideas but I was trying to reach the same level of thinking and analyzing things. I always try to understand what the thoughts are behind a design and what the meaning is of objects. I believe more in things than in persons.

1: HOW DID YOU GET INVOLVED IN THE LARGER SCALE OF DESIGN ORIGINALLY BEING EDUCATED AS A PRODUCT DESIGNER? It’s true that I have been educated in product design, but from the start I was very much fascinated in public space. In comparison with product design, where you are focused on one object and that object need to be the best ever and the smartest, the beauty of spatial design is that your design influences the whole surroundings. For an orchestra for example, you can develop music for the triangle, which is a very simple instrument, and then wonders if this triangle is the most talented among all instruments. This is difficult to say, in comparison with a violin for example as both instruments have their limitations. The beauty about spatial design is the context. As a designer I am not only interested in specific and small things, let’s say the sand of the beach, but when you look at it in a spatial way there is an amazing landscape which can be designed. In that sense I think it is more interesting to reflect on the landscape instead being focused on the grains of sand.

Interview with Jergen Bey by Klodiana Millona, INSIDE Student

2

3: WHAT IS YOUR BEST FAILED PROJECT? WHY DID IT FAIL? AND WHY IS IT SO GOOD? If I think about failed projects, I don’t recall immediately one specific project. It is important to fail; as a designer you learn from failed projects and you mustn’t be scared, else fear will cut you off. It’s like learning to ski: the more you fall, the better you become. You can only grow in your profession when you figure out new ideas which you did not think of before. In that sense competitions are a good way of exploring new ways of thinking. The most failed projects I can think of are the ones we submitted for competitions and did not win. Some of them were really good and it is a pity when the people who judged our entries did not really understand the quality of it. My real personal failure is actually time. Time is limited and I wish I could do so much more, that’s really frustrating. Failure has a different meaning for everyone.

J U R G E N B E Y

2: DO YOU ADVICE STUDENTS TO HAVE A HERO? DO YOU HAVE A HERO YOURSELF? I don’t think I had a hero when I was a student. Of course there were books which I found interesting for example by the American science fiction writer John Crowley. I liked his writings very much and his way of thinking and commenting. Sometimes when during my

I think discussions and talks are the most important education tools. A debate about where you stand as a future designer and what you think is important for your profession is crucial. Education is not being competitors, on the contrary: it is about trust. The more you trust each other, the stronger discussions you can have among each other. Hence, I think it is essential to have a lot of discussions at the academy and to talk about what is right and what is wrong? That is always a difficulty! I think it is important to raise questions and if the diversity of the group of students increases, the questions become more interesting and you can build up a lively library of

4 4

4: DO YOU THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO RAISE DISCUSSIONS AMONG STUDENTS DURING THEIR EDUCATIONAL JOURNEY? WHICH TOPICS DO YOU THINK ARE INTERESTING TO DEBATE?


2

3

STUDIO RESULTS

knowledge. There are 1000 interesting topics like the educational system, domestic living, housing facilities, transportation etc. Every time we start a project with our studio and dive into the topic there is always something which makes it really interesting and give us the opportunity to question fundamental issues about our society.

5: CAN YOU ILLUSTRATE YOUR INTEREST IN RELATION TO THE STUDIO ABOUT THE CAR WASH WHICH YOU TUTORED AT INSIDE? Some years ago our studio was asked to develop a showroom for the car of the future. I think it is really a nice topic, because car transportation is a huge problem especially in large cities. How do we solve the unbridled growth of cars? Must they become smaller? Vertical? Smart? A lot of questions can be raised to deal with, but at the same time we were aware that we cannot solve this problem. Instead we started with just a small aspect of the car which is the cleaning. To reflect on a tiny design question about how to use a carwash as an acupuncture needle for the Binckhorst area in The Hague is extremely interesting. We started to reinterpret the function of the carwash and how to connect it with industry and leisure, both for the visitors as for the new residents of the Binckhorst. We asked each student to concentrate on one of the eight movements of the carwash like sprinkling, pressure rinsing, vacuum cleaning, waxing etc., in order to find possible connections to influence the area’s social and industrial web.

Pressure rinsing

Pressure rinsing

Justin Bieber / Baby

Waxing


SOUND&&MAP&

CAR&WASH&

5&

1&

2&

3&

4&

6& 1.&&&PRESSURE&RINSING& 2.&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&SOAPING& 3.&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&BRUSHING& 4.&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&WAXING& 5.&&&&&&&&&&&DRYING&TYPE&I& 6.&&&&&&&&&&DRYING&TYPE&II&

1&

2

3&

6

5&

4&

Experience

Soaking

C A R W A brushing

S H

Drying

4 4

brushing


TRAVEL

At INSIDE the basis of every design lies in observing, researching and analysing a situation. The best attitude for doing that is to travel to places and thus experience ‘a tremendous sense of liberation and, at the same time, to be very aware of all the dangers and limitations that surround you’ (quote Lebbeus Woods in an interview with Jan Jongert). At INSIDE we aim to foster this state of mind through experiencing the real world in the TRAVEL program.

On the following pages an impression is given about the sites we visited during the past year, among others : Ruhr area, Athens, Berlin and Groningen. Below some quotes of the second years students. “ I learned as much from my fellow students as from my tutors. Sometimes the comments of students have more impact because it feelsmore intimate. It is nice that this environment of helping each other and working together is created.” “ At this department the lessons are more focused on the process instead of the final result. For me it was quite challenging to learn how to design.” “ The intimacy we have with our tutors and how I can relate to them and get feedback is great. You can be really honest with them and they are honest with you. I didn’t have that experience before.”

“ When I came here I didn’t know what research was. Really going deep into a topic, especially in the case of the thesis, starting with a very vague idea and narrowing it down, is really interesting. It is tough though.” “ When we travel we look for phenomena. Everything can be a phenomenon, it depends on you, because at the same travel, everyone finds different phenomena.” “ If we find interesting phenomena we should not only be amazed by these, but ask ourselves how did these come to be like this.”


ATHENS TRAVEL

4 4

T

R

A

V

E

L

Interview with Markus Bader by Minjung Kang, 1st year student


GRONINGEN TRAVEL


T R A V E

RUHR TRAVEL

4 4

L


1

2

3

Massive urbanisation, climate change and resource scarcity increasingly impact our way of life in cities and urban regions. Innovative solutions for potable water, renewable energy and sustainable food production are necessary to tackle these societal challenges in the decennia to come. The Dutch Windwheel addresses these issues for an urban context as an architectural and tourist attraction that generates water, energy and food. The building and the environment form an ecosystem in which systems interact on different scales. Smart technologies enable the ecosystem to continually adapt and improve itself based on user patters and performance data. Each student was designated a particular user profile such as the tourist, the resident, the office worker, the hotel cleaner, to understand the behavioural patterns and user needs and to create different scenarios. The water, energy and food systems formed an integral part of the scenario development. From these results the students defined and developed a spatial structure for the collective aspects and interfaces between users in the ecosystem. Finally they illustrated how these aspects function in relation to each other spatially and in terms of interaction, to optimise the efficiency of the ecosystem and user experience.

Studio by DOEPELSTRIJKERS


INTERVIEW WITH JETSE GORIS



By Isadora Davide Jetse Goris is an educational consultant at the University Medical Center of Groningen. He describes his work as cutting the edges between technology and education in which gaming plays an important role. In the last few years he was part of a team developing games for surgeons, to improve medical skills 1 : HOW DID YOUR FASCINATION FOR GAMING STARTED? AND HOW DID IT COME TO YOUR MIND TO APPLY GAMES IN THE MEDICAL FIELD? My fascination with games started very early, around four years old, playing Pacman and Mr. Puniverse on the Commodore 64 at my best friend's house. During University I played a lot of pc games and read every game magazine that I could get my hands on. I was still very much in the closet about this geeky hobby. Applying these seemingly wasted years of playing and reading up on videogames to work never occurred to me. Until I started working with Henk ten Cate Hoedemaker, a surgeon at the University Medical Center of Groningen. Through our conversations, games and game technology seemed to be the perfect solution to a problem he had with surgical residents. In short: surgical residents weren't using the simulators to learn the motor skills of keyhole surgery. The Nintendo Wii just launched. Making a Nintendo Wii game that you control using the movements of keyhole surgery seemed like a fascinating idea to explore. A Nintendo Wii game that you control using the movements of keyhole surgery seemed like a fascinating idea to explore.

for example for operations at hospitals which require a lot of counterintuitive motorskills. Jetse was invited to give a lecture at the KABK which he gave on January 21st titled new technological possibilities and their effects in interior architecture.

everyone has inflated expectations of the use of games as an educational tool. Which leads to people getting disillusioned because games can’t deliver on all the promises people were expecting. Though I think lots of components of games can be applied to learning: the fun in games is essentially the player learning new things and matering new skills. A good game is a game where you keep on learning. So when you play let’s say Tic tac toe, it’s fun when you are learning the game but once you understand it, it’s no fun anymore. The American game designer Raph Koster writes in his book ‘A Theory of Fun’ that fun and learning in games are essentially the same thing. So, since fun in games and learning are essentially the same thing, I think that in the future games will be used as a learning tool.

Interview with Jetse Goris by Isadora Davide, INSIDE student

2

J E T S E G O R I S

2: DO YOU THINK GAMING, IN THE NEAR FUTURE, WILL BE APPLIED MORE AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL? I think it will! What we have seen in the last eight years was the building up of an enormous hype with games being used as a tool to train and teach. I have seen a lot of people seeing the game as an end and not as a means to reach a certain goal or address a certain problem. So what you see in these first years of this gaming hype is that

One of the new trends today is mixed reality. There are these HoloLens glasses from Microsoft, when you put them on, it adds a layer of information of 3D models, texts and videos. Google and Alibaba and some others companies are investing in this technology which succeed in putting a screen in front of the viewer and project directly onto the retina and therefore it feels like the objects projected are actually there. Coming back to your question: I think the cool thing for interior architects will be that they will be able to iterate their projects very fast, putting on these glasses, making a model or something and instead of having the 3D model in the computer the design would feel like you being there. So you have an

4 4

3: THROUGH YOUR LECTURE I LEARNED A LOT ABOUT THE WAY THE VIRTUAL / 3D REALITY DEVELOPED IN THE LAST FEW YEARS. HOW CAN YOU, AS AN EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT, INSPIRE INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS?


2

3

STUDIO RESULTS

instantaneous response with, what I imagine, you could immediately grasp if your design works out well and if not, you can change colors or move objects for example. So, from a learning perspective, the designer would be able to build in 3D and then interact directly and change the design. Of course this is still not better then the real thing, but then again for learning I think these technologies are a very nice tool for an interior architect.

4: HOW DO YOU EXPERIENCED TO GIVE A LECTURE IN AN ART AND DESIGN ACADEMY LIKE THE KABK? WHAT DID YOU LEARN FROM STUDENTS WHO ARE INVOLVED IN A DIFFERENT FIELD OF WORK, IN THIS CASE INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE? This was the first lecture ever that I've given at an Art Academy. I really enjoyed it. One of the things I learned during my conversations with the students is how normal pretty cutting edge tech like 3d printing etcetera is for you. The interesting stuff always happens when you combine different fields of knowledge. I would love to stay a full week at your department and learn more things about interior architecture and apply this to my work. Thanks again for having me. I had a blast.

Hotel operator

Office worker


Hotel cleaner

Restaurant Chef

5 5

W

I

N

D

W

H

E

E

L

Resident Studio led by Eline Strijkers of DOEPELSTRIJKERS


HEAD OF INSIDE

[Hans Venhuizen] (A) Head of INSIDE, he curates the SKILLS programme and is the tutor of the TRAVEL programme. Venhuizen studied Architectural Design and Monumental Art at the School of the Arts Arnhem. In his work Venhuizen deals with the culture of spatial planning. Venhuizen advances a broad understanding of culture that encompasses cultural history, heritage, architecture and art, as well as the culture of the current residents of a region and the idiosyncrasy of a place. In his search for a more specific identity for the built environment, Venhuizen links the worlds of culture and space to each other in different ways. In this, his focus is always on the culture of spatial planning itself, and the game is his most important instrument. Venhuizen developed various spatial planning games, including the ‘Parquettry Landscape game’ and the debating game ‘The Making Of’. In the publication ‘Game Urbanism’, 2010, Venhuizen introduces his approach as a manual for cultural spatial planning. www.hansvenhuizen.eu

COORDINATOR INSIDE

[Lotte van den Berg] (B) studied Media & Culture in Amsterdam and graduated with a Master in Film Documentary in 2011. After graduating she worked as a producer and volunteer coördinator at Cinekid, a Media festival for children. After that she started working at Sports & Culture TU Delft as a Programme assistent for the Culture courses and projects. In February 2016 she started working at INSIDE. In addition to her task as Coördinator, Lotte works with the students on the visibility and PR of INSIDE. [Erik Jutten] (C) Next to the theoretical development of the students and the design ‘on paper’ it is the ambition of INSIDE to stimulate the studentdesigners as ‘entrepreneurs’. That is also the reason why INSIDE has chosen the motto ‘design for the real world’. Students are asked to do research in the ‘real world’ and to do several tests

PRACTICE TUTOR

STAFF

on a 1 to 1 scale. Every semester INSIDE wants to do a public presentation of the projects in ‘a real world’-context and on a one to one scale. To realise this, Erik Jutten works from the start until the end of the semester to develop the projects. Erik Jutten graduated in 2004 from the Fine Art department of the Royal Academy in The Hague. In his graduation project Erik Jutten devoted himself to connecting students & developing their projects. A role he has since continued as initiator of and partner in diverse public space projects. As a serious ‘hands-on, let’s do it’ person, Erik sometimes feels a bit awkward besides OMA and MVRDV people, but hey, someone’s got to do the dirty work. Besides working at INSIDE Erik is heavily involved in City in the Making, an acivist organisation working at reclaiming empty buildings for living-working and commoning. www.stadindemaak.nl

STUDIO CARWASH BY STUDIO MAKKINK & BEY [Jurgen Bey] (D) The Dutch design collaborative Studio Makkink & Bey is led by architect Rianne Makkink (b. 1964) and designer Jurgen Bey (b. 1965). Supported by a various design team, they have been operating their design practice since 2002. The studio’s various projects include interior design, product design, public space projects, architecture, exhibition & shopwindow design, research projects and applied arts. Their products, furniture, interiors and public spaces are often produced in collaboration with companies such as Prooff, Droog Design, and Moooi and other professionals from their local and international network. Based in Rotterdam, their work has appeared in several museums and is part of their collection, amongst others the Centre Pompidou in Paris, Fnac, the V&A in London, the Central Museum in Utrecht,in the USA and in Asia. Clients include commercial & private clients like Spring Studio’s Londen and New York, Industries like Vitra and Hermes, governmental & cultural institutions, fashion designers like Jean Paul Gaultier, gallery’s like Pierre Berge in Brussels etc. The designs of Studio Makkink & Bey have been awarded with several prizes and their vision is

STUDIO TUTOR

TUTORS 2015-2016


adopted by colleagues, both within the Netherlands and abroad, through education, many lectures and exhibitions. Rianne Makkink & Jurgen Bey are known as critical designers, driven to understand the world and to question it in a unique manner. To this end, their design team analyses content in search of the relation between objects and their users through composing narratives to find connections. The Studio is extremely interested in the future of the new working landscape, they introduced a new on line magazine; Proofflabmagazine, that aims to define the future working culture. Jurgen Bey is currently director of the Sandberg Institute, the Master of art and design of the Rietveld Arts Academy in Amsterdam. Michou-Nanon de Bruijn (D) is senior designer at Studio Makkink & Bey. She worked as a tutor in the Carwash Studio.

(A)

(B)

(C)

www.studiomakkinkbey.nl

T U T O R S (D)

STUDIO TUTOR

STUDIO WINDWHEEL BY DOEPELSTRIJKERS [Eline Strijkers] (E) Eline Strijkers studied Design and Communication in Rotterdam and Interior Architecture at the Willem de Kooning Academy in Rotterdam. Having worked for MVRDV for five years, she started Strijkers office. Since 2007 she is co-founder of DoepelStrijkers and works in multi-disciplinary teams on projects in the field of interiorarchitecture, architecture and urban strategies. Strijkers won national and international prizes with her work, participates in juries and commissions in the field of interior and architecture, takes part in debates about the future of the build environment, is an external critic and supervisor at several Academies of Art and Architecture and schools of architecture. She gives lectures and masterclasses and has participated in the working experience period for amendments to the Law regarding the Architect title and is active as a teacher and field expert in the accreditation of Masters of Interior Architecture. Her office bridges the gap between art and science with intelligent design and strategic interventions. Driven by a fascination for aesthetics with substance, the office generates works which transcend the spatial by creating

(D)

5 5

(E)


www.doepelstrijkers.com

STUDIO TUTOR

STUDIO BRAAMBERGEN BY MVRDV (G) [Fokke Moerel] Fokke Moerel holds a Masters in Architecture from the Academy of Architecture, Rotterdam. Since January this year Fokke became Partner at MVRDV, and has been working in the studio for over 15 years. Founded in 1993 by Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries in Rotterdam, the international practice of MVRDV realizes exemplary, outspoken projects all over the world. Fokke Moerel’s experience includes working on notable projects such as the competitionwinning Public Art Depot MBVB in Rotterdam, Cultural Cluster in Zaandam, RockMagneten in Roskilde, Denmark and the Book Mountain, Spijkenisse Public Library in the Netherlands. She lectures internationally in Europe, America and Asia, and has taught at Silpakorn University in Bangkok, as well as at Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, MA, with MVRDV Director Nathalie de Vries.

STUDIO TUTOR

[Aser Giménez-Ortega] (H) Aser Giménez-Ortega is a Spanish architect and project leader at MVRDV since 2007. Born in Murcia in 1979, he studied at TU Eindhoven, the Netherlands and Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain and graduated with a Master in Architecture in 2005. Before joining MVRDV, he worked as an architect and urban designer in Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands. At MVRDV, Aser has been involved in the conceptualizing and execution of projects of various scales, including urban designs such as Montecorvo Eco-City in Logroño (Spain), a

future vision for Oslo (Norway), building projects including the Headquarters of Norwegian bank DNB in Oslo (Norway), development strategies such as the conversion of New Holland Island in Saint Petersburg (Russia), transformation projects as Roskilde Festival High school (Denmark) as well as research projects such as the Vertical Village, in collaboration with The Why Factory. He has lectured and conducted student workshops in different cities and universities such as The Hague, Oslo, Istanbul, Amsterdam and Plovdiv. Since 2012 he has been leading several of MVRDV projects in Asia such as Hongqiao Central Business District in Shanghai, a complex development of more than 105,000m2 of offices and commercial program, as well as the conversion of a former industrial district into an Art and Design Hub in Chongqing, and two office  towers in the new Western waterfront development in Shanghai. www.mvrdv.nl

& RAUMLABORBERLIN [Markus Bader] (I) Markus studied Architecture in Berlin and in London. After graduating he worked in several architectural offices untill he set up Raumlaborberlin in 1999. Raumlaborberlin is formed by a group of German architects who came together in Berlin in 1999 in response to the rapid and unrestrained development of the city following the fall of the Berlin wall. Their playful approach critiques the dominant mode of architectural production, proposing instead temporary and socially grounded projects that transform the urban landscape. With Raumlaborberlin he created several architectural installations like the Fountain House (2014) and the Spacebuster (2009). He contributed to the Architekture Biennale with ‘Leaning urbanism’(2012), ‘Generator/Kuchenmonument’ (2010), ‘Stick on city’ (2008), ‘Raumlaborwelt’ (2006) and ‘Turbauten’ (2004). Markus has worked as a guest professor at the University of Kassel, Peter Behrens School of Architecture in Dusseldorf and at the Art, Design and Architecture Acacemy in Prague.

STUDIO TUTOR

social, ecological and economic value. Giving form to the process and the financing are just as important as the design itself. She has a firm belief that design can act as an agent for social renewal leading to strategies that contribute to a ‘circular’ and ‘inclusive’ economy. ‘Circular’ by closing energy, water, waste and material cycles. ‘Inclusive’ by creating implementation trajectories that empower people distanced from the labour market. This ambition impacts on the design criteria per project and adds an often hidden layer of meaning to the works.

www.raumlabor.net


GRADUATION TUTOR

GRADUATION (J) [Frans Bevers] Frans Bevers currently works as an independent curator, designer, consultant and tutor. Until 2012 he was co-director of OPERA Amsterdam, a design firm working in the field of interior architecture and exhibition design founded in 1981. The studio produces major exhibition designs and large-scale museum interiors as well as retail, office and interior designs for the health sector. Through the years OPERA Amsterdam worked for clients such as: Victoria & Albert Museum, British Museum, British Library, Hampton Court Palace, Kensington Palace (London) National Museum of Korea (Seoul), National Museum of Denmark (Copenhagen), Museum of Modern Art (NYC), Museum of World Cultures (GÜteborg), Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam), National Museum of Ethnology (Leiden), Hema (Amsterdam), Tempoteam (Amsterdam), AMC Emma Children’s Hospital (Amsterdam). Next to a range of nominations, award-winning projects include: Inside Festival Barcelona, 2011 (Ceramic Study Galleries Victoria & Albert Museum), Dutch Design Award, 2004 (Hema pilot store), Lensvelt-De Architect Interior Prize, 2001 (National Museum of Ethnology). He was tutor and head of the department of Architectural Design at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy (1979-2007), and lectured at Parsons School of Design (NYC), Shanghai Normal University (Shanghai), East China Normal University (Shanghai), University of Illinois (Chicago). He teaches at the master department Information Design of the Design Academy Eindhoven (DAE). Recently he joined the teaching staff of the Royal Academy of Arts (The Hague) at INSIDE the master department for interior architecture.

(G)

(H)

(I)

T (J)

U T O R S

(K)

5 5

GRADUATION TUTOR

[Mark Veldman] (K) Mark Veldman has been working for OMA Rotterdam since 2005. As a project architect Mark has been in charge of a variety of both master planning, architectural and research projects. His portfolio includes the mixed-use projects Coolsingel and Stadskantoor in Rotterdam, the master plans Oude Dokken in Gent and Binckhorst in The Hague and master planning proposals for the Floriade 2022 and Zeekracht, a sustainable approach for wind farming in the North Sea. Currently Mark


THEORY TUTOR THEORY TUTOR

Louise Schouwenberg (M) studied Psychology at the Radboud University Nijmegen, Sculpture at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam, and Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam. After establishing her career as a visual artist, from 2000 onwards her primary focus has been on art and design theory. She regularly writes for (inter)national art and design magazines and has contributed to a range of books, including ‘Robert Zandvliet - I owe you the truth

FLOWS TUTOR

THEORY AND WRITING [Anne Hoogewoning] (L) studied Architecture History at the University of Amsterdam and Cultural Heritage at the Reinwardt Academy. After her studies she worked at the Collections and Exhibition Department of the Netherlands Architecture Institute (now The New Institute) and as a staff officer of Europan Nederland. During these years she was co-editor and co-author of 5 editions of the ‘Yearbook Architecture in the Netherlands’ (2000-2005). For more than twelve years Anne worked as a design and architecture coordinator at two cultural public foundations; from 2011 - 2011 at the Nederlands Foundation for Visual Arts, Design and Architecture and at the Creative Industries Fund NL. Since 2013 Anne has been active as an independent researcher, writer, tutor, advisor and fundraiser within the field of design and architecture among others together with Bonnie Dumanaw under the name ABCultural Producers. Additionally she is a committee member for visual arts, design and architecture at the Council of Culture, member of the Board of the Van Doesburghuis Foundation (Paris) and of the Board of ArchiNed.

FLOWS SUPERUSE STUDIOS [Lizanne Dirkx] (N) joined Superuse Studios in January 2013. Lizanne was educated at the University of Brighton after her Bachelor’s in Product Design at the Design Academy in Eindhoven. Lizanne works as a Designer, Researcher and Workshop Facilitator. She is specialized in sustainability, social design, materials & crafts and the circular economy. [Jan Jongert] (O) studied architecture in Delft University of Technology and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam where he graduated in 2003. His Rotterdam-based office exploits and builds on the potential of the design context in terms of its environment, potential workforce, energy sources, waste materials and 12 other flows. Jongert has worked on projects, ranging from Villa Welpeloo to redevelopment strategies for urban districts in Heerlen and The Hague and Rotterdam.

FLOWS TUTOR

www.oma.eu

in painting’ (2012), and ‘Hella Jongerius - Misfit’ (2011). Since 2010 she leads the master department Contextual Design at Design Academy Eindhoven. Since 2012 she is one of the tutors of the Interior Architecture masters at KABK (INSIDE).

www.Superuse-studios.com

SKILLS [Lucas Verweij] Lucas Verweij is a versatile man who moves across design in all its facets with natural ease. Whether it be as an architect, moderator, teacher, writer or educator, Verweij engages in activities that breathe curiosity and innovation. During the nineties Verweij co-founded studio Schie 2.0, an interdisciplinary architecture practice investigating new approaches for the public realm. Between 2001 and 2005 he worked for Premsela, the Netherlands Institute for Design and Fashion, as project leader in the field of social development. He subsequently served as dean of the Academy for Architecture and Urban Design in Rotterdam. Since 2008 Verweij has lived in Berlin, where (P)

TUTOR PRESENTATION SKILLS

is working on the proposal for the International Convention Centre in Brussels, part of the NEO Master plan at the Heysel Plateau. Before joining OMA Mark worked for the architectural practice of Riken Yamamoto in Yokohama and was enrolled as a research fellow at the lab of Yoshiharu Tsukamoto (atelier Bow-Wow) at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Mark Veldman completed his Masters in Architecture cum laude at Technical University Delft in 2001.


he was a teacher at Berlin’s two design school. He now teaches in Poznan’s ‘School of Form’. He writes columns for the English designblog ‘Dezeen’ and publishes a book about design with Haystack publishers. He keeps us regularly updated on his observations on design through his blog, and he’s active on Twitter. He acts as initiator and curator of public events in the fields of architecture, design and innovation both in Rotterdam and Berlin.

(L)

(L)

TUTOR OBSERVATION

[Leeke Reinders] (Q) Dr. Leeke Reinders is a cultural anthropologist and works at the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of Delft University of Technology and the KU Leuven in Brussels. He explores creative links between ethnographic fieldwork and the design field of (interior) architecture, urban design and urbanism. His main interests are in the anthropology of urban space, the meanings and practices of home, narrative mapping and the relations between architecture/planning and the everyday. He teaches at the Inside department of KABK, the Design Academy in Eindhoven and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam. He has written several books and articles, most recent are Het gemankeerde (t)huis: een visuele antropologie over de woonpraktijken van ouderen in Brussel (Garant 2016, together with Isabelle Makay), Hard city, soft city (Delft University Press, 2016) and De alledaagse en de geplande stad (SUN Trancity 2010, with Arnold Reijndorp).

(N)

T U T O

(O)

R S

(P)

(Q)

5 5

TUTOR MODEL-MAKING

[Vincent de Rijk] Vincent de Rijk (Gouda, 1962) has been working as an industrial designer, furniture maker and model builder for more than 20 years. He is trained at the Academy for Industrial Design in Eindhoven where he graduated in 1986 and starts his Werkplaats Vincent de Rijk in 1987. He became famous with a series of bowls in ceramic with polyester resin and realized many architectural models, primarily for OMA. In recent years he has also emerged as a leading specialist in the field of new materials like his transparent resins, with which he has produced many pieces of furniture. His workshop is situated in the Port of Rotterdam, in a building he converted together with the other users.


COLOPHON INSIDE Magazine #7 Is the seventh publication by INSIDE Master Interior Architecture 2015/2016 INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Royal Academy of Art Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague www.kabk.nl www.enterinside.nl EDITORS/CONTRIBUTORS: Hans Venhuizen (Head INSIDE) Anne Hoogewoning (Tutor THEORY programme) Lotte van den Berg (Coordinator INSIDE) STUDENT EDITORIAL TEAM: Isadora Davide Klodiana Milona Minjung Kang TRANSLATION: Christine Willemsen TYPOGRAPHY: Nina Couvert Luc Eggenhuizen SECOND YEAR STUDENTS: Camilla Casiccia Elena Conrad Heejung Kim Hegiasri Hutaries Helan Miao Sisi Li Yuiko Yokota David Benz Anique van Helden

C O L O P H O N

FIRST YEAR STUDENTS: Arvand Pourabassi Isadora Davide Klodiana Milona Makiko Morinaga Minjung Kang Mila Tesic Weini Lu Yuan-Chun Liu Klodiana Millona PRINTING: Oranje Van Loon, The Hague

Most photos were made by students and staff of INSIDE. Exceptions are the photo of Jurgen Bey and Rianne Makkink on page 41, made by Jeroen Hofman. The photo of Fokke Moerel on page 55 is made by Allard van der Hoek. The photo of Eline Strijkers on page 53 is made by Reinier@RVDA. As it was not possible to find all the copyright holders of the photos in this publication, INSIDE invites interested parties to contact INSIDE.

5 5

Copyright INSIDE, KABK The Hague/The Netherlands, June 2016


This picture, taken by Magnum photographer A. Abbas, shows a scene in the early days of the Iran Revolution in 1979. In those days people flooded the streets of Tehran protesting against the regime of the Shah. One night protesters occupied an under-construction building, taking posession of opportunities for housing and work that were out of reach for them. (Š Magnum 1979) Royal Academy of Art, The Hague www.enterinside.nl

INSIDE magazine 1516 #7  

A compilation of the INSIDE programme of 2015/2016.

Advertisement