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PAPER MIDDLEAST pulp, paper, tissue

The Magazine dedicated to the Pulp, Paper and Tissue Industry in the Middle East

N°19 - Autumn 2013 Head Office / Publisher ENP SA info@groupenp.com 36, rue Stanislas Julien - 45000 Orléans France Tél. +33 238 42 29 00 Publisher STÉPHANE RICHARD stephane.richard@groupenp.com Correspondants Lebanon RIMA DIB rima.dib@groupenp.com Egypt YASSER ZAKARIA sales@yzgroup.org Syria AHMED AL SLEEBA ahmed.sleeba@groupenp.com Jordan RAMI HOURANI rami.hourani@groupenp.com Advertising Middle East rima.dib@groupenp.com Tel: +961 32 24 953 International Advertising STÉPHANE RICHARD stephane.richard@groupenp.com FRANÇOIS HÉNIN francois.henin@groupenp.com Tel: +33 238 42 29 00 Fax: +33 238 42 29 10

T

he economic profile of the Arab countries is diverse. The oil importing nations are witnessing a moderate expansion, and the modest recovery projected during the 2nd quarter is subject to intense shortcoming threats. For the other Arab states that are enduring political instability and witnessing a transition phase, they are pondering on growth. With policy defenses mostly frail, the need for action for the overall stabilization and the growth oriented reforms is more than ever insistent. The oil export countries are likely to bring a tangible growth during this period, in part due to Libya’s recovery taken steps. In the GCC countries, the very solid growth is maintained through the continuous increase in the economic and financial policies, and conformed monetary procedures. Other concerned countries, like Lebanon, needs to consign safety nets for stability to safeguard and protect the economy and the market from cuts back. The Lebanese industry sector having the unenviable times due to the escalating cost of production, and the fall in local demand caused mainly by the prevailing situation; the government needs to make consensus for the various critical political and economical turbulences, preventing illegal activities & competition in resources, but favoring tax exemption.

Graphic Designers ELHAM EL MASRY GHALI SIMON & PARTNERS Subscription MATHILDE SEVESTRE mathilde.sevestre@groupenp.com Diffusion : 3.000 ex. Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Irak, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen www.groupenp.com Official Media Partner

Rima Dib rima.dib@groupenp.com

2013

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Advertisers Index APA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 3 Asten Johnson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 80 BTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 47 Coldwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 71 Fibretec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 64

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MIAC 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 PaperEx 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover 2 PaperME 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Solaronics Bekaert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 68


Contents

Paper Middleast 19 Spring 2013

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Newsletter subscription

News 6

MEPCO reaching 2 million Mt. at its facility

6

Jeesr Industries starting up a new tissue line supplied by Metso

8

NAPCO and the new core dryer machine installation project

8

VanTek to supply a Kraft Linerboard machine to a client in Egypt

9

Cost Optimization Project at Obeikan Paper Industries

Focus Lebanon – SIPCO

Special Machine clothings 18

;OL,ăLJ[VM*LU[LY7SHUL9LZPZ[HUJLVU the Drainage Property of Forming Fabric By Asten Johnson

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 LZPNUPUN>VYSK:WLLK9LJVYKMLS[ZMVY + high speed packaging paper machines. )`*YPZ[PUP.YV\W

34

Evolution improves dewatering in the press By Voith Paper

36

Poorly maintained tension gauges may cause severe damages By Feltest Equipment BV

(Société Industrielle du Papier et du Carton Ondulé)

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Improving performance through skill management  VOHTTLK*OHÄJ.OHUKV\Y"HUPUK\Z4 [YPHSPZ[Z\YÄUN[OLJ\Y]LVMJOHSSLUNLZ

Focus Egyptian Update 38

The Egyptian Paper Industry two years after the revolution

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News

SAUDI ARABIA

MEPCO reaching 2 million Mt. at its facility MEPCO (Middle East Paper Company) based in Jeddah; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia announced having achieved a sizeable landmark of reaching 2,000,000 metric tons production of packaging grade paper during March 2013 (over its past 10 years in operation). Founded in 2001, the company started the production of sellable paper a year after with an annual capacity production of 100,000 metric tons at its mill located by the Red Seaport city of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. With Abdullah Almoammor; the Managing Director & Sami Al Safran, the CEO of the company, Mepco takes pride in being the biggest mill in the MENA region. The mill currently manufactures more than 1000 metric ton per day of sellable paper.

MEPCO is one of the largest privately owned paper manufacturer & producers of prime/premium packaging board. The mill’s production of paper and paperboard were sold to more than 53 countries in Southeast Asia, Middle East, Africa and Europe. The company currently runs 3 paper and board machines, with an annual installed capacity of more than 500,000 metric tons. The company intends to reach 1 million metric tons in manufacturing different grades.

MOROCCO

Jeesr Industries starting up a new tissue line supplied by Metso

“We are very pleased to be the part of a premier company like Mepco, which is the largest privately owned paper mill in the region. We currently manufacture recycled paper of international quality for box making industry ” Shaikh Faisal Mubin, MEPCO’s Marketing Consultant said. Beside CCM (Corrugated Case Material) and Plasterboard of international norms, Mepco expanded to Plasterboard business without hampering current operations of RCM (Recycled corrugated Material). “Mepco continues to grow! We are not yet a Public Stock Company, but we invested a lot in Technology and Human Resources since our inception. We do not buy waste paper because it’s cheap but because we want to conserve natural resources to the best possible extent. We are 99 % based on our own collected recycled fiber to produce higher brighter quality paper when we are producing Whitetop Liner and imitated KLB”, Shaikh Faisal added.

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Jeesr Industries recently started up the first state-of-the-art tissue machine from Metso in its mill in Berrechid (Casablanca surrounding) in Morocco. The contract was signed in the mid of 2011,and the value of the order was never disclosed. Metso’s delivery includes a complete optimized production line with stock preparation equipment, an Advantage DCT 100+ tissue machine, a rewinder and wrapping equipment. The delivery also comprises an extensive automation package including Metso DNA machine, process and integrated drive controls, and a Metso


News

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News

IQ quality control system with Metso IQ Fiber Weight Measurement. “The production line smoothly came on stream according to plan and has been producing high quality paper from the very start. This investment is very important to us, and we are happy to see the machine operating according to our targets having Metso fulfilling our expectations” says Souheil Badaa, Chief Marketing Officer at Novatis Group. Gunnar Söderqvist, Project Manager of Metso stated: “We are very satisfied with what the Jeesr team and Metso have achieved here. The facility has a compact and efficient layout and both our crews have done a great job to ensure a smooth start-up as well as a continued optimal production”. The new production line is designed to produce around 30,000 tonnes a year of high-quality facial, toilet and towel grades mainly for the Moroccan market. The raw material is virgin pulp. Jeesr Industries is a privately owned company, which is part of the Novatis Group, a producer and supplier of various consumer goods for the Moroccan market, among others; baby diapers.

delivery time to better meet customer needs. In line with continuous efforts to streamline manufacturing and improve plant capacity, National Paper Products Company reduces paper core curing and drying time by 40 - 60% with a new core dryer machine from Europe. Furthermore, the new core dryer machine improves product quality with better and more even distribution of air, by changing direction of rotations and using metal mesh. The new machine operates on all paper cores above 5mm thickness and serves 3 key functions for temperature control: heating, cooling and dehumidification. The new dryer machine will also facilitate NAPCO’s production process by offering preset drying plans ranging from 5 to 15 hours. These plans, which may be modified, are pre-set based on key factors, including ambient temperatures, ambient humidity, and core thickness as confirmed by the NAPCO Management.

Metso’s pulp, paper and power professionals specialized in processes, machinery, equipment, services, paper machine clothing and filter fabrics. The offering and experience cover the entire process life cycle including new production lines, rebuilds and services.

National Paper Products Company, located in Dammam, Saudi Arabia was established in 1956 to meet with packaging paper customer needs in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. NAPCO was the first manufacturing plant of paper bags, cement bags, tissue rolls, and plastic crates in Saudi Arabia. National Paper Products Company is a member of INDEVCO Flexible Packaging, a division of INDEVCO Group.

SAUDI ARABIA

EGYPT

NAPCO and the new core dryer machine installation project

VanTek to supply a Kraft Linerboard machine to a client in Egypt

NAPCO (National Paper Products Company) a Saudi paper packaging manufacturer installs a new core dryer machine at Dammam-based plant improving product quality and cutting

VanTek; a Canadian machinery supplier sold the PM5 (a Kraft Linerboard machine) from the Moss paper mill in Norway; known previously as Peterson Paper Co. to a paper mill in Egypt.

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News

The idled Kraft 2-layer Linerboard machine is complete, well preserved, and in very good condition. The machine is 5m wide and can produce around 160,000 tonnes/year of Kraftliner at a speed reaching 800 m/minute. The buyer, who purchased the PM5, planned installing and starting up the machine at their mill in Egypt. The preparations to dismantle, pack the equipments and ship the paper machine to Egypt have commenced and will be completed sometime in August 2013. The Moss mill, which stopped production in April 2012 following bankruptcy proceedings, still houses a PM4 (a 4.5m wide Linerboard machine with 130,000 tonnes/year of output), an OCC pulp recycling line, and a Continuous Kamyr Kraft Pulp mill. VanTek, Inc. has been serving the pulp and paper industry since 1984 and has grown into a world-wide leading source and supplier of used pulp and paper equipment and complete mills. The company is located in Vancouver and Washington with representative agents in China, India, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia.

di Riyals (around 27 Million Dollars) signed in the middle of 2011. “The objective of PM upgrade is to increase Obeikan’s cost competitiveness through economy of scale, while the curtain coating is mainly intended for having flexibility for fiber use, reducing pressure on white fiber and opening a new door for new product development such as barrier coating and white top liner board”, said Eng. Mohammed Mowkley, Obeikan’s General Manager. Hansol EME and Metso both are in charge for the upgrade on PM1. The stock preparation and wet end sections are supplied by Hansol EME, as well as the existing winder that will be replaced by a new one also from Hansol EME. While Metso, is to supply a new shoe press. It is obvious that there are lots of challenges paper industries are facing nowadays, and Obeikan view of such investments is to mitigate and predict what is going on. The growth in china putting pressure on fiber, and the economy of euro zone that puts pressure on product selling price, had made the decision to do both investments at the same time. These are going to position the largest board mill in MENA region and increase its competiveness on cost and quality as well.

KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

Cost Optimization Project at Obeikan Paper Industries

Obeikan Paper Industries had decided to upgrade its PM1 in order to increase its production from 180,000 to 220,000 tons (product mix). Similarly, Obeikan had invested in the recent development in coating technology called “Curtain Coating”. Both investments cost roughly 100 million Sau-

The cost awareness is very important in any organization, but having innovation in place is more important; keeping you alive when you running at the edge. This is why Obeikan took the lead in the Middle East and invested in the recent curtain coating technology, becoming one of the leading users of such technology; added Mowkley. The factory acceptance trials for main equipment’s such as Shoe Press and Winder is planned soon and shipping will take place one month after the trials period. The mill shutdown will be in Sep 2013 for 20 days, and will resume its operations in October 1, 2013. The execution of both investments will be carried out by Obeikan manpower with the Indian manpower support, and the supplier supervision as well. papermiddleast 9


Focus Lebanon

SIPCO (Société Industrielle du Papier et du Carton Ondulé)

Improving performance through skill management

K

farshima a 5 Km2 town overlooking the Mediterranean Sea is located in the southern part of Beirut, Lebanon. The town managed to set itself among the most remarkable Lebanese towns by hosting a variety of Industrial, Agricultural, Banking Commercial and Engineering facilities of which among the most remarkable ones is SIPCO, an industrial unit to manufacture corrugated board and egg trays, then Grey backboard. Sipco (Société Industrielle du Papier et du Carton Ondulé) was a corrugated board company with 2 lines of production with printing and paraffin coating, both completely automated. The mill consists today of 2 plants, a paper machine recycling paper waste, and a molding machine producing egg tray bundles for local and export markets. In the 60’s and 70’s of the last century, Lebanon and its capital Beirut bared 2 names the

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“Pearl of the Middle East” and the “Swiss of the Orient”. It was at that time where the Ghandour family established their business in both confectionary and paper, and it was at that time that Sipco saw the light. Back then, in 1965 precisely, Sipco was first initiated to supply the Ghandour family confectionary products in cases for local market and to export both its products and other Lebanese products like (fruits and eggs) in the Middle East region (Iraq, Syria and other countries). Thus, it began with corrugated lines and a prin-


ting machine. The mill helped the corrugating board to fulfill its needs, the paraffin coating for wet products. Moreover, the mill made special products for specific customers, such as the corrugated double-double.

line machines were burned and were unable to perform anymore. As a result, the paper machine had been converted into a board machine (Duplex Board), while the egg tray machine was saved and operational, as Mohamad Ghandour explained. Today, Sipco occupies around 10,000 m2 of an area, and is the sole mill in Lebanon in the market of egg trays and Coated White Top Board, Grey Board and Green Kraft.

The first corrugating machine was installed at a time where this kind of investments was accounted for being a huge and unique investment, considering the small number of citizens the country counted (around 2 million), and the small area it occupied (10,452 Km2). The wastes concern coming up from the corrugated machine, pushed the Sipco Management to implement a new recycling machine to produce two lines of Fluting and Testliner, in addition to an egg trays machine all from 100% recycled paper. Five years later, in 1971, Mohamed Chafic Ghandour, Sipco’s General Manager expanded the mill’s activity by installing a second corrugating line and converting machine. Virgin Kraft brought from the USA, was used in the production process beside the mill’s Testliner and imitated Kraft. Both mill’s lines (at that time, the biggest in the Middle East), were installed to fulfill the need of the local, but mostly the Arab countries markets. In 1977, the company went to Chafic Ghandour and his children. As mentioned before, during the 70’s, Sipco was the biggest paper mill in the Middle East in down to business and productivity. But unfortunately not for long, since during the civil war (1975-1990), the 2 corrugating

Keeping with high standards and performance in parallel to the commitment of the management and the very fast growing and demanding market, all this pushed Sipco’s management to follow up and keep up with the latest technologies and innovations, hence the Sipco mill undergone continuous and regular upgrades and rebuilt during the 70’, 80’ and 90’s. The PM1 was designed by DJM, Italy and the molding machine by Hartmann, Denmark. PM1 is a board machine and have 175 cm of width producing Coated White Top Board, Grey Board and Green Kraft with a daily production reaching 37MT at an operating speed reaching 100m/min. In the last decades, the machine underwent several rebuilt projects doubling both its speed and the production capacity. The second machine is a paper molding mapapermiddleast 11


chine producing egg trays in different sizes with a production reaching 8 MT (750 bundles) per day. With the rebuilt processes during the past years, the machine was able to produce extra different moulds of egg trays.

Hartmann, Danemark and Esherwiess supplied the stock preparation for the molding machine, while several suppliers completed the need of the board machine with the necessary equipments; s"LACK#LAWSONAND+ADANT,AMORTTHESTOCK preparation s!"" 9ASKAWA 2TFAND!NSALDOTHEMOTORS s4HEDRIVESWERESUPPLIEDBY,3$%,4! s4HE ELECTRICAL AND AUTOMATION BY -ERLIN Gerin, Mitsubishi, ABB and Telmecanique Autonics s4HEWIRESBY,IBAN#ABLE s4HE PUMPS BY 2OBUSCHI 6IESSE 0EDRELLO

Lowara Azmec, Bellin Pompe, KSB and s4HE GEARBOXES BY "ONlGLIOLI #ARLEVARO AND Varvel.

The paper industry’s expansion and growth is constrained more and more and day after day by raw material availability and price fluctuation that the industry relies on more than any other factors. Many industrialists and paper makers stressed on that issue that needs to be dealt with and resolved at once. Water and high consumption of energy, accompanied with their high cost and other resources required for paper making, are still major obstruction as well for some paper mills that suffer from the proper government support.

The graphs below show the production chart on each machine during the past 4 years:

Sipco’s mill relies for its production on waste paper that is collected locally and supplied by Lebanese companies right to the mill location. The challenge for any business is to manage and control the expansion and growth without sacrificing quality and efficiency of the company’s assessment. And a typical and successful business implies having the most important resources, the personnel of the company who are 12 papermiddleast


the originators and form its core. Sipco is one of these companies whose main source for success and growth are the people who work for the company. More than 100 employees work for Sipco, with 7 Managers handling the market’s need in the different vital departments; the !DMINISTRATION 0ROCUREMENT 3ALES  %XPORT !CCOUNTING (UMAN 2ESOURCES 0RODUCTION 1UALITY#ONTROL -AINTENANCE%LECTRICAL

Statistics showed that 95% of the company’s future clients are to be met at an exhibition which for many paper mills is part of their marketing strategy. Moreover, a competitor at an exhibition will view a regular client as a potential customer, therefore an exhibition is an ideal opportunity to present a product or show a service, as well to make direct contact with customers and clients.

Khaled Sarhane - Production Manager

Training is a procedure taken to enhance capabilities, skills and knowledge, thus is crucial for the company’s development and for reaching achievements. Training moulds the thinking of the employees and leads to quality performance of the employer as well. In Sipco, the management follows continuous training sessions for both the administrative positions and the technical ones aiming at one hand to decrease accidents, and on the other to increase the efďŹ ciency, the performance and the productivity.

Sarah Hammoud - Procurement Manager

Moreover, paper shows bring together different specialized companies, where visitors can easily and quickly compare the product and/or service they need. Sipco Management attends in this regard the main paper shows held in the Middle East and Europe, such as Paper Arabia in Dubai, Paper Middle East in Egypt, MIAC in Italy among many others, bearing in mind establishing a continuous relationship with their business partners and potential customers. The mill’s 2013 project is divided into 3 phases or subprojects: 1 - The work on the quality control system (QCS) on the paper machine 2 - The work on the stock preparation to increase production and improve quality with Kadant Lamort, and 3 - The work on increasing production capacity with the help of the main supplier DJM. At a second step, the Sipco Management will introduce the lamination section to its mill, aiming at absorbing the extra production and opening new markets. At this period of time when there is a big competition in the market’s demand, the manapapermiddleast 13


gement of a company should be well aware about market forces that can disturb it. Since Sipco’s inception in the late 60’s in the export markets, that the company established a good relationship with its clients. Sipco is a customer-oriented company for emphasizing on the quality of end products, taking into consideration some special sizes and substances that certain clients ask for. In addition to that, Sipco makes sure for timing of the orders and having short delivery periods.

Jordan, Iraq, Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Greece), and to farms mainly inside Lebanon for the egg trays production. Noting that, around 15% of the mills’ production, is used domestically. 2UNNINGANENVIRONMENTALLYFRIENDLYBUSINESS helps reduce the negative impact an industry can induce on the environment; since it can preserve natural resources. Industries can help the environment in different ways by using products made from recycled material, which is the case of Sipco that manufactures 100% recycled paper/ wood free products. On the other hand, working on and supporting environmentally friendly techniques, attract new customers who want to go with the “Go Green” concept, and who search to buy products and services from an environmentally friendly business.

The mill’s output goes to the printing press industry mainly outside Lebanon (Egypt, Syria,

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“The word recycling in its self is a friendly environment procedure when you reuse paper wastes. Also the reuse of rejected water or water wastes during production, in addition to newly working on project Integrated energy efficiency solution”, Mohamad Ghandour concluded.


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(UPUK\Z[YPHSPZ[Z\YÄUN[OL J\Y]LVMJOHSSLUNLZ

H

olding a deep belonging to the Ghandour family, Mohamed Chafic Ghandour, General Manager of Sipco, a down to earth personality, and a charming figure of Lebanon is today on the light.

In 1965, the local suppliers didn’t have enough capacity to supply us with cases. So, the vision was to have an integrated production facility for the packaging of the confectionary products. Later, I took in charge of Sipco (in the early 70’s), modernized the company to fulfill the needs of the packaging corrugating market at all levels, with full automatic lines and all categories of products. As we are not anymore in the corrugating production since the lines were destroyed during the war, I am developing today the production on the paper machine, mainly for coated white top grey board in reel and sheets. And what makes SIPCO special?

First, I would like to express my contentment of having this discussion with you. Second, I would like to know who is Mohamed Ghandour. I was born in Beirut on May 1946. I first attended College De La Salle school, moved to IC college and then Centre Belge in Beirut. In the early 60’s I started work at the Ghandour confectionary factory, first as a worker on the biscuit line (ghandour), and later as a trainee at the Accounting Department. In the late 60’s, I took in charge of Sipco Management. Why SIPCO was established and when? The main reason was to supply the needed cases for exporting of the family owned factory. 16 papermiddleast

Sipco is special because it is the only producer of coated white top grey board and egg trays in Lebanon. Our machine is specialized; having the right equipments and expertise in coating. Besides, nobody ever invested in this kind of industry before. For all this, Sipco is special. …Good to hear that Mr. Ghandour, and I wish you prosperity. Now, would you please brief us on the current situation of the paper & board industry in Lebanon? The board industry curve was ascending 2 years ago, but unfortunately since mid 2011, the curve went down and I guess my colleagues in the same field share me same opinion (excuses for talking in their names). And this year, at a high descending speed export is diminishing and energy cost is getting higher and higher, adding to that the labor cost increased.


cost go higher and higher, adding to that the energy and labor cost that also went up, as I mentioned earlier. How does Lebanon being on the map of exploiting oil and gas help the economical sector and the paper industry in particular? I believe we need support programs from the government, check the European countries, England and Germany for example when government banned the usage of coal and obliged the reduction of CO2 emission, it assisted and gave huge support for the manufacturer each in this field, precisely in the energy cost, by paying the extra cost of fuel price.

It is a very promising and encouraging dream, but can we survive as industry till that time?!

And what made the curve go down?

As we were obliged to reduce production because of stoppage of export, we are trying to cut on our fixed costs, this is the most important action to be taken now. Also searching for markets with the possibility of sea freight shipping, since land freight had became very expensive as I said before.

Beside the global economical crisis, and international descending curve in paper industry, the raw material & energy high cost, labor cost compared to Asian countries, had their influence on this curve. In addition the conflict in Arab countries; like Egypt and Syria had a great negative impact on production capacity and sales volume, since they had the biggest share of our production; also other Arab countries couldn’t be reached by land freight which couldn’t be replaced by economical rate via sea freight like Saudi Arabia for example. So, what are the required solutions? The only and urgent solution is reducing cost of energy in addition to preserving our raw material. The Arab countries put duties on exporting the raw material like Jordan and Egypt for instance, while others forbade it like Syria, I believe we should do the same. China today is sucking the world raw material (waste paper) importing mainly from Europe and the US. On the other hand, Europe is no longer counting on wood to make its raw material (which environmentally is a wise decision), but this induced the cost of raw material to go high worldwide, and China’s huge consumption made the

You talked earlier about the Arab conflict, my question is: what procedures the company took following the migratory waves of the conflict in the bordering and surrounding countries?

And far from work, what hobbies do you practice Mr. Ghandour? Mainly jogging in the early morning, hiking to breathe fresh air and feel the liberty, to get in touch with nature leaving the office stress behind. I also go for skiing when work permits. Interesting! And how would you like to conclude this interview? We the industrialists; mainly in the paper industry sector, and the Association of Arab Paper Industries, must take lessons from Europe regarding our sector. We must find solutions to protect ourselves from the countries that are sucking our raw material, and where their labor cost is much cheaper than ours, because they are invading our market! So, let us join our forces for specialization by categories, thus, stop individualism in the way of thinking, and let us consolidate mergers. Thank you for your time, wishing you all the best! papermiddleast 17


Machine clothings

;OL,ăLJ[VM*LU[LY7SHUL 9LZPZ[HUJLVU[OL+YHPUHNL 7YVWLY[`VM-VYTPUN-HIYPJ Abstract The 3D structures of three different types of triple layer fabrics are investigated based on the X-Ray micro-tomography and 3D modeling. It is found that the sheet support binder (SSB) fabric and the warp tied fabric have a very open structure between the top layer and the bottom layer of the fabric. In a warp integrated sheet support (WISS) fabric, however, all MD yarns pass from the top layer to the bottom layer and thus create a unique center layer between the paper side and machine side of the fabric. Laboratory drainage testing indicates that, compared to SSB and warp tied fabrics, the WISS fabrics drains slower at low sheet basis weights (< 15 ~20 g/m2). However, the WISS fabric drains faster when sheet basis weight is higher than 20 g/m2. It is found that the resistance created from the center layer retards the initial impingement drainage which leads to a slower drainage of the WISS fabric at low sheet basis weight. On the other hand, because of the higher center plane resistance, fibers have less tendency to plug the drainage holes in a WISS fabric, which leads to a high drainage rate at higher sheet basis weights. A Pilot papermaking trial confirms that, because of the center plane resistance, the WISS fabric will retard the initial high impingement drainage and shift the drainage downstream on the forming table.

Introduction The sheet forming process is essentially a process that drains water through the voids between 18 papermiddleast

the filaments of the forming fabric while fibers are retained to form a mat on top of the fabric. Over the past 50 years, forming fabrics have evolved from bronze wire, to synthetic single layer, double layer, and triple layer fabrics. In the past decade, triple layer forming fabric designs have gained wide acceptance worldwide. The triple layer fabrics combine a fine papermaking side fabric to a coarser machine side fabric held together by a stitch or binder yarn. The evolution of triple layer forming fabrics is associated with the improvement in binding technology [1, 2]. The first generation triple layer fabrics used a single cross-machine (CMD) oriented binder yarn to integrate the two fabric layers. Figure 1 (a) shows an example of the first generation of forming fabrics. In this example, the paper side fabric and machine side fabric are stitched with a CD binder yarn that can be seen in the CD section. The second generation of triple layer forming fabric is commonly referred to as SSB (sheet support binder) fabric. In a SSB fabric, CD binder yarns are part of the structure tying the top to bottom and partly supporting the sheet (Figure 1 b). The binder yarns are woven as pairs so that when one is on the top surface the other is in the bottom. The third generation of triple layer forming fabric uses machine-direction (MD) oriented warp yarns to bind the paper side fabric and machine side fabric. Similar to SSB, in a warp tied fabric, the warp binder yarns are woven as pairs so that when one is on the top surface the other is in the bottom. In terms of the fabric


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structure, the major difference between a SSB fabric and a warp tied fabrics is that the tie strands are CD yarns in a SSB fabrics, while the tie strands are MD yarns in a warp tied fabric. The fourth generation of triple layer fabrics is commonly referred as Warp Integrated Sheet Support (WISS) fabric. The WISS fabric uses all of the MD yarns to form both the top plain weave and the bottom woven structure. Compared with a warp tied fabric, all MD yarns are woven in pairs in a WISS fabric (Figure 1d). When a MD yarn goes from papermaking side to the machine side of the fabric, it creates a long float in the center section of the fabric. Because all MD yarns have long floats between the top and bottom layer, the WISS fabrics have a totally different structure compared with SSB and warp tied fabrics, especially in the center layer of the triple layer fabrics. Since the commercialization of triple layer forming fabrics in the 1980’s, the research and development on triple layer fabrics have been focused on the top layer using fine yarns and normally a plain weave structure to provide a fine papermaking surface. On the bottom layer, the focus has been on the use of larger diameter CD yarns or new materials to improve stability and wear resistance. Almost no research has been conducted to study the effect of the center layer of forming fabrics on drainage properties and sheet forming. Danby and Johnson [3] found that the structure in the center layer of a triple layer forming fabrics will create a significant resistance to the total flow through the fabric. It was proposed that the resistance created in the center layer of the fabric (Center Plane Resistance) will directly affect the initial impingement drainage on the paper machine [3]. In this paper, we will compare the drainage properties of three different types of triple layer forming fabrics --- SSB, warp tied fabric and WISS fabric. The 3D fabric models based on X-Ray micro-tomography, the lab drainage testing results, and the data from a pilot paper machine trial will be presented to support the Center Plane Resistance theory.

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Fig. 1. Triple layer fabrics with different binding technology. (a) CD yarn binder; (b) Sheet support binder; (c) Warp tied binder; (4) Warp integrated sheet support binder.

Experimental DRAINAGE APPARATUS The Gravity Sheet Former (GSF) was developed to determine the drainage properties of forming fabrics. Figure 2 is a schematic of the GSF used in this study. A rectangular column with a height of 150 cm and a uniform cross section area of 2.54 cm by 7.87 cm is made with Pexiglass. This Plexiglass column is attached to a shoe shaped sheet former with an opening of 7.87cm (CMD direction) by 8 cm (MD direction) in the bottom. The height of the “shoe” is 5.5 cm. The forming fabric is inserted into the bottom of “shoe” from the opening in the side of the apparatus. Two orienting vanes are installed inside the “shoe” to create a flow in the MD direction of the fabric and to distribute the flow evenly. During the testing, water is filled from the bottom of the former until it reached 127 cm (50”) height in the column. A calculated amount of pulp is injected from the bottom of the column through a syringe. When the valve under the fabric is opened, fibers suspended over the “shoe” will first drain through the fabric and form an oriented fiber mat over the fabric. After the fiber mat is formed, the remaining water in the plexiglass column will continue to drain through the fiber mat and fabric. While the water and fiber suspension is draining through the fabric, the


water level in the column and pressure over the fabric is recorded continuously at a sampling frequency of 50 Hz through an ultrasonic proximity sensor on the top of the column and a pressure sensor 5 cm over the fabric. The total drainage time is also recorded by the laser detector on the bottom of the Plexiglass column. A Labview program was written to control water filling, draining and data acquisitions.

MEASURING DRAINAGE RESISTANCE OF FIBER/FABRIC SYSTEM

When fibers deposit on the fabric, they will block the drainage hole and be embedded into the forming fabrics. The interaction between fibers and fabrics will create a resistance to the water flow. As more fibers approach the fabric, a layer of fiber mat will be formed over the fabrics. Ingmanson and coworkers [4, 5] showed that Darcy’s law and a material balance on the solids led to the following expression for the drainage velocity v(m/s) through a fibrous mat:

(1) Where, A = filtration area, m2 dV/dt = volumetric flow rate of the filtrate, m3/s -ǻPt = total pressure drop across the fibrous mate and wire, Pa µ = viscosity of the filtrate, Pa·s Rt = total drainage resistance from fiber mat and forming fabric, m-1

Fig. 2. Schematic of Gravity Sheet Former (GSF)

FABRICS To compare the drainage properties of the different types of triple layer forming fabrics and to better understand the effect of center plane resistance on the drainage property, a SSB fabric, a warp tied fabric, and a warp integrated sheet support (WISS) fabric were selected in this study. All fabrics have a plain weave in the paper side and similar air permeability. The major properties of the fabrics are shown in Table 1. Sample

Air Perm (cfm)

In the GSF drainage system, the relation between drainage velocity over the forming fabric and the drainage velocity in the water column can be shown by the following equation: (2) Where Ac = cross section area of water column, m2 h = height of water in the column, (m) At low flow rate, the pressure drop is provided by the weight of water in the Plexiglass column: (3)

Paper Side Properties Mesh x Knocking

MD yarn (mm)

CD yarn (mm)

Drainage area (%)

Fiber Support Index

Drainage Index

SSB

370

94x90

0.13

0.13

29.1

180

33.3

Warp Tied

375

95x82

0.15

0.13

25.5

173

30.8

WISS

380

81x90

0.17

0.13

24.7

174

32.4

Table 1. Characteristics of fabric samples

Where ȡ = water density (kg/m3) By combining Equation (1), (2) and (3), we can obtain: (4)

Solving differential Equation (4), we can obtain the relation between papermiddleast 21


water height in the column (h) and the time (t):

was calculated by averaging the results from the three measurements.

(5) X-RAY Equation (5) shows there is a linear relation between ln(h) and drainage time t. If we plot ln(h) vs t, Rt can be obtained from the slope of the plot since other variables are all known in Equation (5). Figure 3 shows an example of the water height in the column changing with time. In this example, a 25gsm sheet was formed. As can be seen from the graph, it took about 0.5 second to form a fiber mat on the fabric. After the fiber mat was formed, there was a good linear relation between lnh and t. From the slope of the curve, Rt can be obtained. In this study, the total drainage resistance of the fabrics at different target basis weights ranging from 0 to 55 g/m2 was measured. Because fiber retention has a significant effect on total drainage resistance and different fabrics have different retentions even at the same target basis weight, we adjusted the total drainage resistance based on the actual sheet basis weight through a linear fitting. By doing this, we were able to compare the drainage resistance of different fabrics at exactly the same sheet basis weight. It was found that, after taking account of the variations in sheet basis weight, the repeatability of experiments increased significantly and the variations between repeat measurements were normally less than 5%. In this study, all drainage measurements were repeated three times and the drainage resistance at each condition

Fig. 3 Change of water height in the column with time. 22 papermiddleast

MICRO-TOMOGRAPHY AND

3D

MODELING OF

FORMING FABRICS

In order to study the internal structure of the forming fabrics, X-Ray micro-tomography was used to obtain the cross section images of the fabrics. A fabric with a size of 5x5 mm was scanned using micro-CT scanner. After the CT scan, the MD_ZD and CD_ZD cross section images of the fabrics were reconstructed. The distance between each cross section is 4.5 um. Image analyzing software was written to trace the cross sections and coordinate of each yarn in a 3D domain. Based on the coordinates of the yarns, each individual yarn can be modeled using 3D CAD software. After assembling all MD yarns and CD yarns together, we will be able to obtain a 3D model of the fabric.

Results and discussions CONSTRUCTION OF TRIPLE LAYER FABRICS SSB fabrics are the most commonly used triple layer fabrics. In the past few years, warp tied and warp integrated fabrics gained more acceptance because of these benefits: low caliper, low drive loads, improved drainage, and high couch solids. To differentiate these three types of triple layer fabrics, it is necessary to understand how these three types of fabrics are woven. Figure 4 shows the construction of a typical SSB fabric. The ellipses represent the paper side and machine side MD yarns, respectively. In the paper side of the fabric, two CD yarns are shown. These CD yarns weave with MD yarns and form a plain weave paper side (Figure 4 (a)). The top layer and bottom layer of the fabric are tied together by two CD binder yarns (Figure 4(b),(c)). These two binder yarns are woven as pairs so that when one is on the top surface the other is in the center or bottom of the fabric. In the machine side of the fabric, a larger CD yarn weaves with MD yarn to form a 6 shed bottom (Figure 4 (d)).


respectively (Figure 6 (a)). Two MD yarns are woven in pairs so that when one yarn is in the paper side, the other yarn goes to the machine side to tie the two layers together (Figure 6 (b)). Repeating the above weave pattern, the top and bottom layer of fabrics are tied together by all of the MD yarns (Figure 6 (c), (d)). Since all MD yarns have long ďŹ&#x201A;oats between the top and bottom layer, the WISS fabrics have a totally different structure compared with SSB and warp tied fabrics. We will compare the 3d structures of these three types of fabrics in the next section. Fig. 4. Construction of a Sheet Support Binder (SSB) fabric.

Fig. 6 Construction of a WISS fabric. Fig. 5 Construction of a warp tied fabric.

Figure 5 shows the construction of a typical warp tied fabric. Here, the ellipses represent the cross section of the paper side and machine side CD yarns. In the paper side of the fabric, one CD yarn is shown. It weaves with MD yarns and forms a plain weave paper side (Figure 5 (a)). The top layer and bottom layer of the fabric are tied together by two MD yarns (Figure 5(b), (c)). These two binder yarns are woven as pairs so that when one yarn is in the paper side, the other yarn goes to the machine side to tie the two layers together. In the machine side of the fabric, a MD yarn weaves with CD yarns and forms a 6 shed bottom (Figure 5 (d)). Figure 6 shows the construction of a typical warp integrated sheet support (WISS) fabric. Here, the ellipses represent the cross section of the paper side and machine side CD yarns,

3D STRUCTURE OF FORMING FABRICS To better understand how a forming fabric affects the drainage, it is necessary to understand its internal structure because the drainage is not only affected by the surface property of the fabric, but also the center and bottom layer of the fabric. Various past studies have attempted to characterize the structure of the fabrics. Some methods were based on encasing fabric samples in plastic, followed by grinding and polishing to observe the cross-sections [6]. However, these methods were largely focused on the two dimensional properties, typically open area. Another approach has been the computer-based creation of three-dimensional models of fabrics [7]. However, this approach has not fully modeled the knuckling and deformation of ďŹ laments - key factors in three-dimensional structure. Adebar [8] used machining to expose the cross sections for a fabric potted into resin and then build 3D models based on the cross papermiddleast 23


section images. The model reflects the true structures of the forming fabric. However, the machining process is very time-consuming and the cross section images are not very clean and clear. In this paper, X-Ray micro-tomography was used to obtain the cross section images of the fabrics. Since this is a non-intrusive technique and the CT scanner has a resolution of 4.5um, we are able to build a model which reflects the accurate 3D structure of a forming fabric. Figure 7 shows an example of 3D models for a SSB fabric. With 3D software, we are able to rotate the models and to observe the internal structure of the fabrics from different angles. We are also able to slice the fabric to expose any cross sections of the fabric. Fig. 8 (a), (b), and (c) show the MD_ZD cross sections of the fabrics used in this study.

Fig. 7. 3D models of a SSB Fabric. (a) paper side; (b) machine side.

It is obvious from Fig. 8 (a), the SSB fabric has a very open structure along section AB between paper side and machine side of the fabric. There is nothing except pair of binding yarns in the center plane of the fabric. Similar to SSB fabric, there is also a quite open space between paper side and machine side of the warp tied fabric (Fig. 8 (b)). Despite part of the view was blocked by the tie stands, we can still find a gap between paper side and machine side, although the width of the gap is smaller compared with that of SSB fabric. It is evident from Fig. 8 (c) that, compared with SSB and warp tied fabric, WISS fabric has a much less open structure in the center plane of the fabric. Since all MD yarns will pass from 24 papermiddleast

Fig. 8. MD_ZD cross sections of the forming fabrics. (a) SSB fabric; (b) warp tied fabric; (c) WISS fabric.

the paper side to the machine side and these yarns have a long float in the center layer of the fabric, these MD yarns create a unique layer between the paper side and machine side of the fabric. To compare the center plane of the different types of triple layer fabrics, the 3D models were cut through the open space between top and bottom layer of the fabrics (dash line AB in Fig. 8). Fig. 9 shows the center plane of the different types of fabrics used in this study. Fig. 9 confirms that there is a large open space between the top and bottom layer of SSB and warp tied fabrics. Image analyzing indicates that the percentage of the filling is 13.3% for a SSB fabric and 4.5% for a warp tied fabric. However, for a WISS fabric, the percentage of


the filling is 32.2%. As shown in Fig. 8 (c), the high filling is mainly caused by the float of MD yarns in the center of the fabric, although some of the knuckles from the machine side CD yarns also contribute to the high percentage of filling.

Fig. 9. The center plane of different types of forming fabrics. (a) SSB fabric; (b) warp tied fabric; (c) WISS fabric

It is well known that the drainage property of a forming fabric will not only be affected by the paper side of the fabric, but also be affected by the machine side of the fabric. Evidence for this has been suggested in recent studies of fabrics modeled as rows of cylinders [9]. Under certain conditions, rows of large diameter cylinders on the downstream side induced non-uniformities in the flow entering the row of small diameter cylinders. Since the WISS fabrics add an additional layer in the center of the fabric, it is highly possible that the center layer may create resistance to the flow and thus affect the total drainage. In the next section, we will compare the drainage properties of the WISS fabric with that of the SSB and warp tied fabric and find out how the resistance from the center plane affects the drainage.

when SSB, Warp tied and WISS fabric are used. Please note that the drainage resistance has been corrected based on the actual sheet basis weights. As shown in Table 2, the WISS fabric used in this study has the same drainage resistance as that of the warp tied fabric and 5% higher drainage resistance than that of the SSB fabric if there is no fiber deposit on the fabrics. When fibers start to deposit on the fabrics, at low basis weight (4 and 12 g/m2), the WISS fabric has higher drainage resistance than that of SSB and warp tied fabric. However, at higher basis weight (> 27 g/m2), the WISS fabric has lower drainage resistance compared with the SSB and the warp tied fabric.

Fig. 10. Comparison of the drainage resistance of the WISS fabric with that of SSB and warp tied fabric.

Fig. 10 shows the percentage difference when compared the total drainage resistance of the DRAINAGE PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WISS fabric with that of the SSB fabric and warp tied fabric. If the difference is >0%, the TRIPLE LAYER FABRICS To compare the drainage properties of different WISS fabric has a higher drainage resistance types of triple layer fabrics, the drainage resis- and drains slower. On the other hand, if the tance of fiber/fabric system at different sheet difference is <0%, the WISS has low drainage basis weights was measured. Table 2 shows the resistance and drains faster. It is obvious form total drainage resistance from fabric and fiber Fig. 10 that at low sheet basis weight, the WISS mat at sheet basis weights from 0 to 53 g/m2 fabric drains slower compared to SSB and warp tied fabric. HoweSample Sheet Basis Weight (g/m2) ver, at higher sheet 0 4 12 19 27 38 53 basis weight (>20 g/ SSB 8.0 12.7 34.4 55.9 91.9 142.1 222.0 m2), the WISS fabric drains faster. Warp Tied 8.4 16.4 38.2 60.8 97.6 145.1 228.6 WISS

8.4

18.7

Table 2. Drainage resistance (m-1)

39.0

56.5

89.2

134.5

215.1

The different drainage property between the WISS fabric and papermiddleast 25


other triple layer fabrics can be explained by “Center Plane Resistance” theory. As shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, the WISS fabric has a totally different center plane than that of SSB and warp tied fabric. At low sheet basis weight, the flow will not only be affected by the top surface of the fabric, but also be affected by the yarns in the center layer. A back pressure will be created if the yarns in the center layer are right below the drainage holes. In other words, the center layer will create resistance to the flow and the resistance from the center layer will contribute to the total drainage resistance. On the other hand, since SSB and warp tied fabrics have a quite open structure in the center layer, the resistance from the center layer is much smaller compared to WISS fabric. At high basis weight, a layer of fiber mat will be formed on the fabric. Early drainage experiment and SEM images by Herzig and Johnson [10] indicated that when fiber mat formed on a forming fabric, the fibers were drawn preferentially to the openings of the top surface and thus added hydraulic resistance. It was suggested that significant coverage of the knuckles of the forming fabrics does not occur until basis weights are greater than 10 -15 g/m2 [10]. When the sheet basis weight is larger than 20 g/m2, the total drainage resistance is mainly determined by the fiber mat over the fabric, although the fabric itself contributes a small amount of resistance to the total drainage resistance. Compared with SSB and warp tied fabric, the WISS fabric has higher drainage resistance from the center layer and less straight through drainage. When fibers deposit on the fabric, because of the high drainage resistance and less straight through drainage, fibers have less tendency to embed into the fabric or to plug the drainage holes. The first layer of fiber mat (~ 15 g/m2) is formed relatively gently over the fabric when compared with fiber mat formed on SSB and the warp tied fabric. This interface layer has a lower drainage resistance compared with the interface layer formed on the SSB and the warp tied fabric. Therefore, when the sheet basis weight is higher than 20 g/m2, the total drainage resistance is low and the WISS fabric 26 papermiddleast

will drain faster compared to the SSB and warp tied fabric. The above explanation can be verified by the wire marks of the sheet formed on the fabric. Fig. 11 shows the surface images of the handsheets formed on the warp tied fabric (a) and the WISS fabric (b). The images were taken under the low angle reflection light. It is evident from the images that the wire mark of a sheet formed on the warp tied fabric is more obvious than that of the sheet formed on the WISS fabric. The wire marks in the handsheets confirm that the degree of fiber embedment is much higher when the sheet is formed on a warp tied fabric than when formed on a WISS fabric.

Fig. 11 Wire marks of sheet formed on the warp tied fabric (a) and WISS fabric (b).

DRAINAGE

RESULTS FROM PILOT PAPER MACHINE

TRIAL

In a modern paper machine, with the increase of machine speed and impingement angle, the peak drainage pressure can become very high [11]. The first part of the sheet to form will experience very high forces that tend to embed fiber in the fabric and create sheet sealing. Therefore, it is necessary to design a fabric that can retard the early drainage while still retaining the drainage capability at the later stage of the forming. We have already shown through 3D modeling and lab drainage testing that, compared with SSB and warp tied fabric, the WISS fabric will create a higher resistance to the flow at the initial drainage stage. In order to verify that the WISS fabric can retard the impingement drainage in a paper machine, a pilot papermaking trial was conducted at Greenhouse Packaging, Sweden in April, 2008. The pilot machine is a very good representation of a modern packa-


Sample

Air Perm (cfm)

Paper Side Properties Mesh x Knocking

MD yam (mm)

CD yam (mm)

Drainage area (%)

Fiber Support Index

Drainage Index

Caliper (mm)

WISS

490

63x59

0.2

0.18

29.4

120

28.7

0.99

SSB_A

490

63x54

0.2

0.19

30

114

26.5

1.25

SSB_B

520

63x60

0.2

0.18

29

122

31.2

1.04

Table 3 fbarics used in the pilot trial

ging grade machine, with a long bottom wire section consisting of forming board, Vac-Foil units and wet suction boxes. The machine was conďŹ gured as a fourdrinier with a BelBond top wire dewatering unit. The ďŹ ber stock used in the trial has 70% virgin ďŹ ber and 30% OCC. During the trial, the machine speed was set at 750 meter per minute and sheet basis weight was controlled at 171 g/m2. Three forming fabrics were tested during the trial. Table 3 shows the properties of the fabrics used in the trial. Two SSB fabrics were used in the trial. The major difference between these two SSB fabrics is that the SSB_A has a higher caliper than that of SSB_B. As shown in Table 3, the SSB_B has a similar caliper as that of the WISS fabric. During the trial, the drainage was measured at different sample points starting with the forming board by a Metso Consistency meter, which is a micro wave device that measures the amount of water present in the paper stock or web.

Fig. 12 Amount of water present in the web at different sample points

Fig. 12 shows that, starting with the forming board (sample point 1), both SSB_A and SSB_B have a fast initial drainage. At sample point 3, more than ž of the water in the stock is drained. However, for WISS fabric, the initial drainage is more gentle and only Âź of the water is drained at sample point 3. The majority of the water in the stock will continue to drain through the fabric at sample point 4 and 5. It is obvious from Fig. 12 that, compared with SSB fabric, the WISS fabric retards the initial high impingement drainage and shifts the drainage to the downstream of the forming table. Since the three fabrics used in the trial have similar air permeability, similar drainage area, similar mesh and knocking, the difference in drainage properties can only be explained by the difference in fabric internal structure. The results from the trial veriďŹ ed that fabrics with a higher center plane resistance will retard the initial impingement drainage and form a layer of ďŹ ber gently over the fabric. It is well known that reducing impingement drainage is beneďŹ cial to the papermaking. The major beneďŹ ts of low impingement drainage include: s2EDUCING lBER EMBEDMENT PLUGGING WITHIN the fabric structure; s2EDUCING lNES LOSS AND INCREASING lRST PASS retention; s2EDUCING WATER AND lBER CARRYING WHICH IN turn will result in a cleaner return run on the paper machine; s)MPROVINGSHEETRELEASEFROMTHEFORMINGFAbric; s)MPROVINGSHEETUNIFORMITYFORMATION  papermiddleast 27


With the commercialization of the fourth generation triple layer WISS fabric, it is expected that more results related to above benefits will be reported from field trials. We will present some of the commercial trial results in the near future.

References 1. DANBY, R., PERRAULT, J., “Weaves of Papermaking Wires and Forming Fabrics”, PAPTAC G18 Data Sheet (2003). 2. HENDER, B., “Efficiency Improvement Through the

Conclusion

Use of Warp Exchange Technology”, TAPPI/PIMA PaperCon’08 Conference, May 4-7 2008, Dallas, TX.

By combining X-Ray micro-tomography and 3D fabric modeling, we are able to compare the internal structure of three different types of triple layer fabric. The major difference between the WISS fabric structure and the other types of triple-layer fabrics is that the WISS fabric has low drainage area in the center layer of the fabric. At low sheet basis weight, the resistance from the center plane will increase the total drainage resistance and thus reduce the drainage rate. However, at higher sheet basis weight, the center plane resistance will prevent the fiber embedment and reduce plugging in a WISS fabric structure which will then allow faster drainage at high sheet basis weights.

3. DANBY, R., JOHNSON, D., “Float Forming”, PAPTAC 92nd Annual Meeting 2006, C142 – C148. 4. IMNGMANSON, W.L., “An investigation of the Mechanism of Water Removal from Pulp Slurries”, TAPPI 35(10):439-448 (1952). 5. IMNGMANSON, W.L., WHITNEY, R,P., “The Filtration Resistance of Pulp Slurries”, TAPPI 37(11):523-533 (1954). 6. HELLE, T., “The Influence of Wire Structure on Sheet Forming”, Paper Techn. and Ind. 21 (4), 12 (1980). 7. ADANUR, S., TIANYI, L., “3D Modelling of Textile Composite Preforms”, Composites Part B: Eng. 29(6): 787 (1998) 8. ADEBAR, T.K., “Imaging the Three-dimensional Structure of Forming Fabrics”, TAPPI JOURNAL 6(8):12-15 (2007) 9. HUANG, Z., OlLSON, J.A., KEREKES, R.J., GREEN, S.I., «Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Rows of Cylin-

The pilot papermaking trial confirmed that the center plane resistance in WISS fabric will retard the impingement drainage without sacrificing the total drainage.

ders», Computers and Fluids, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 485-491, June 2006. 10. HERZIG, R., JOHNSON, D., “Investigation of Thin Fiber Mats Formed at High Velocity”, TAPPI JOURNAL 82(1): 226-230 (1999). 11. JOHNSON, D., “Effects of Jet Impingement on Bel Baie Machines”, Pulp & Paper Canada 93(5):12, 14-15, (1992)

28 papermiddleast


Machine clothings

Designing World Speed Record felts for high speed packaging paper machines. By M.Quarti, M.Lampart - Press Fabrics Designers, Cristini Group

An important project In March 2010 the ProPapier Group started up in Eisenhüttenstadt their PM2, the world’s biggest and most performing paper machines for the production of brown grades. The paper machine is a Metso Optipress™ configuration, with a speed of 1900 m/min, designed specifically for the production of Testliner/ Wellenstoff from 60 to 125 g/m2 using 100% recycling. The production capacity is 650.000 Tonn/year. The press section includes 2 shoe presses, with a max linear pressure of 1300kN/m. Felt width: 11.00 m.

The initial decision was to install endless fabrics on both top positions, and seamed fabrics on bottom. Since the start up, 67 press fabrics have been installed, showing excellent performances and seaming easiness (for the seamed versions). After this stage it has been decided to run 100% endless fabrics, because of the fabric change efficiency reached by the mill crews.

The press fabric design

In May 2009, Cristini Group was chosen as start-up supplier for both the press and dryer section.

The press fabric design must satisfy extreme production requirement, because of the production speed and size. The water volume to dewater was an important challenge for the felt designers. The specifications forecasted a high dewatering in the 1st nip (75-80% of the total dewatering), and 20-25% on the 2nd nip. The water flows where designed as indicated in Fig.2

Fig. 1 – Press section layout

Fig.2 – Water balance in the press section

Start-up clothing

30 papermiddleast


Because of the press geometry, the top felts where required to dewater mainly at the nip, while the bottom mainly at the suction boxes. The designers choice was then oriented toward felts with mono-mono base, with high flow permeability and easy cleaning, with a caliper able to develop, in combination with the batt layers, high compressibility thus high “nip dewatering”. Press fabric compressibility is defined as the ratio in between the compressible part (normally batt and porous structures similar to fibers) and the incompressible part (traditionally the base fabric). If the ratio allows the compressible part to saturate hydraulically saturate also the incompressible one, the press fabric gains the most important characteristics of a “nip dewatering” design. To obtain a correct compressibility ratio along the whole fabric life, a key role is played by the non-woven, porous structures like Komprex™, behaving like a fine base fabric, but having very high compression elasticity. Combining these factors, the designer team was able to create for each position, a press fabric matching perfectly each single application requirement.

Fig. 3 – Structure of a DuraFlex™ press fabric

which impacts tremendously on its efficiency and productivity. On the pick-up position it is essential that the fabric surface does not trig “sheet-stealing” phenomena, with consequent breaks in the size press. In the bottom position it is capital to obtain a perfect planarity of the paper, not to trig sheet breaks in the 2nd press. The achievement of these results have been obtained with a “fine tuning” of the fabric structures & porous layers months before the World record speed.

A typical of DuraFlex™ design, optimized for each position, is composed by a structure indicated in Fig.3. By fine tuning the batt layering and type of Komprex™ layer, it has been possible to differentiate the behavior of the top press fabrics (which require high nip dewatering capacity), from the bottom fabrics, which need to dewater at the suction boxes. This difference in felt design takes under consideration the dewatering factors, but especially the machine run ability, papermiddleast 31


world speed record, on April 14th, 2011. The press section, was dewatering, while producing 80gsm, an average of 5800-6000 l/min, an exceptional result. The dewatering ratio in between the 1st and 2nd nip was 79% - 21%, in line with the design requirements. Fig. 4 – Void volume gradient across the press fabric caliper

Fig.4 Shows the void volume gradient of the 2 concepts. The change in the void volume distribution results into a better efficiency at the nip.

Fig. 6 – Picture of the Paper Mill Team and the Cristini Group Engineers

Concluding, today’s know-how in press fabric design for high speed machines, allows a precise prediction of the fabric performance in the different machine conditions. Fig. 5 – Dewatering values during the World Speed record

Examining some measurements taken on machine, it is possible to evaluate the dewatering of the various positions, at the moment of the

32 papermiddleast

This important factor permits the production of reliable and repeatable fabrics, which push ahead the limits, reaching higher levels of speed and efficiency.


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Machine clothings

Evolution improves dewatering in the press In the fall of 2010, Voith launched a high-performing press fabric for tissue machines. Through the use of polymers, this press fabric provides for optimal nip dewatering over its entire life cycle.

I

n order to keep up with the competition, tissue manufacturers depend upon continuous improvements in performance of consumables for their machines – such as fabrics and rolls. Energy consumption, machine efficiency and stable operation are just a few of the major concerns. All this is substantially influenced by the press fabrics, which play an important role in the production of tissue paper.

sity to an ideal value and keep it there. Outstanding dewatering characteristics are thus achieved in the nip. Consequently, starting up with new Evolution press fabrics requires almost no break-in time.

Therefore, as the first step in developing a new press fabric, Voith analyzed all the possibilities for the performance and structure of fabrics. Thanks to a new software program, “For us, Evolution is it was possible to clearly the best fabric simulate the various that we have ever run.” physical conditions Jordi Goma Camps, within the press sec- Mill Manager at Goma Camps, Spain tion. An investigation of the performance curve for conventional fabrics compared to the ideal capability of tissue fabrics revealed important behavioral characteristics with regard to energy consumption and life. The positive change in fabric porosity due to the compression forces and the flow of water through the fabric can also be observed here.

Polymers keep fabric density at an ideal value Building on these new findings and insights, Voith Paper developed the Evolution press fabric. It combines existing technologies with a complex new process that adds special polymer particles to certain zones of the fabric (Fig. 1). The polymers are able to adjust the fabric den34 papermiddleast

Fig. 1: Three-dimensional fabric structure.

In order to be able to determine the most efficient use of the new material, Evolution was extensively tested in the Voith pilot tissue machine in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Various fabrics with different polymers were operated under identical conditions, so that differences in startup behavior could be observed. After several customer tests all over Europe, Evolution had undergone extensive testing under genuine production conditions. The feedback from tissue manufacturers was extremely positive.

Less drying energy and fewer Chemicals Along with the advantages of improved dewa-


“We first tried Evolution fabric in our PM5. The performance was very good in terms of startup, energy savings, speed increase, flat profiles, stable runability and less chemical wash. Then we tried it in PM6, where we manufacture our DIP paper, and the performance was very similar, with better performance compared to the rest of the fabrics. Furthermore, usage of Evolution fabrics, have helped us to work towards the reduction of the paper carbon footprint, which is one of our main targets.” tering in the nip and quicker startup times, Evolution can reduce the thermal drying energy required for the tissue web. It is kept at a low level over the entire life time of the fabric (Fig. 2). Running stability and performance are impressive. In addition, it was demonstrated in several tests under real production conditions that fewer chemical cleaning cycles were required – in some cases they were even completely unnecessary. The successes with Evolution so far are springboards for further developments. Voith Paper is currently working on expanding the test runs to other tissue machines. In addition, tests showed that Evolution in combination with the new SolarSoft polyurethane roll covers, which have a

Fig. 2: Energy consumption.

special surface design, can achieve even better results.

papermiddleast 35


Machine clothings

Poorly maintained tension gauges may cause severe damages Written by Mr. Marcel Lensvelt, Managing Director of Feltest Equipment BV marcel.lensvelt@feltest.com

A

lmost every paper mill using forming fabrics has one: a mechanical tension gauge to measures the tension of Paper Machine Clothing, mostly forming fabrics. When these instruments are not in a perfect condition they can cause serious problems on the paper machine like torn fabrics, too narrow and/or too long fabrics and bearing failure.

Working principle To understand the risks, it is important to understand how the mechanical tension gauges work. In illustration 1 the working principle is shown.

What happens when the devices get older? After a certain period of use, the instrument will start showing signs of wear and tear. Mechanical wear of the sensor bar and a leaking bellow seal are the most common problems with older tension gauges and exactly these two phenomena represent the highest risks. Worn sensor bar In many older tension gauges the sensor bar is worn down for several millimeters, resulting in a ďŹ&#x201A;at contact surface of the bar, like in illustration 2, compared to the original rounded bar.

Illustration 2 - example of a worn sensor bar

Illustration 1 - working principle of a mechanical tension gauge

Now remember the working principle of the gauge: in fact the travel of the sensor bar is converted into a tension value. In illustration 3, a worn bar is compared to a new bar. The spring load is equal in both cases, and also the fabric deformation will be practically the same with an

The sensor bar at the bottom is pushed into the fabric by a predeďŹ ned spring load. The amount of travel of the bar is converted through spindle and clockwork into a value on the dial. The higher the fabric tension, the more the bar is pushed upwards, causing the needle to rotate clockwise, indicating a higher value on the dial.

Illustration 3 - a worn bar compared to a new sensor bar

36 papermiddleast


old or worn sensor bar. But illustration 3 shows that the worn sensor bar will travel further downwards than its new counterpart. Leaking bellow seal The tension gauges are used in a very wet environment and the splash water can be quite corrosive. Aging effects of the rubber material and the moving spindle will wear out the bellow, making it no longer watertight. When process water can enter the instruments interior, soon the bearings of the spindle will start corroding. This internal corrosion will give the spindle extra mechanical resistance during the measurement. In other words: with a certain amount of fabric tension the sensor bar will not travel as easy upwards as it should.

as long as the needle is still moving; the accuracy is often not questioned. For every Paper Machine Clothing position the operators know the desired fabric tension; for example 6 kN/m (see illustration 5). If the fabric tension is measured and the gauge shows 5 kN/m, the machine tension is increased until the gauge shows the desired 6 kN/m. The true fabric tension will then be clearly over the 6 kN/m mark.

Illustration 4 - worn tension gauges give too low values

Consequences of machine clothing running at too high tension

Illustration 4 - worn tension gauges give too low values

Conclusion: worn tension gauges give too low test results Summarized the two most common defects on mechanical tension gauges are a worn sensor bar and a leaking bellow, causing internal friction. Both defects have the same effect on the measurements: the gauge will show lower tension values than what they really are. A worn sensor bar will move the spindle downwards and hence the needle moves counter-clockwise towards lower values on the dial. More friction on the bearings makes the spindle â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;stickâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; where it should be moving up; again resulting in lower values on the dial.

What happens in daily practice

When the Paper Machine Clothing is running at a higher than expected tension a number of things can happen: Z the fabrics may stretch, ďŹ nally running out of tension possibilities; Z the fabrics can become narrow; Z the dewatering behavior of forming fabrics can change; Z the seam can be overloaded, resulting in torn fabrics; Z when the fabric guiding rolls cannot handle the extra tension, roll-bending or bearing failure may occur. The negative effects of poorly maintained tension gauges are often underestimated. The conclusion of this article is clear: a regular service or timely replacement of this precision measuring instrument can prevent many costly problems and damages.

In many paper mills the tension gauges are used papermiddleast 37


Focus Egyptian Uptdate

The Egyptian Paper Industry two years after the revolution From our correspondant in Egypt, Yasser Zakaria

I

tâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been two years since the Januaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Revolution in Egypt. But the anger of the Egyptian people is still high and the process of normalization will take some more time. The disorganization of the ruling power has affected the economic sector, including the paper industry, which is going up and down each time new events take place in the Egyptian streets. From the beginning of the revolution on January 2011, the Egyptian paper mills suffered from the absence of police forces. As a consequence, most of the Egyptian and foreign paper companies working in the country experienced difďŹ culties in running their mills, facing problems such as transportation restrictions. Their supply of raw material being chaotic, they had to empty their stocks. At the same time, the distribution to customers was also problematic, causing a reduction of the production. In addition to that, they faced security threats and fears from the attacks from thugs and escaped prisoners.

38 papermiddleast

Financial problems occurred as well with the lack of liquidity in the national economy. Salaries and suppliers could not be paid in time, as the banks had to cap the withdrawal and transfer capacities of their clients. Energy, a strategic aspect of the papermaking process, has also become a burden. Prices of natural gas have gone up drastically, and a shortage of diesel has led to a momentary closure for some mills. On another front, the current foreign exchange rate does help either. The drop of the Egyptian pound against the US dollar might be in favor of national exports, but we should keep in mind that the paper industry is very dependent from imported raw material, equipment and spare parts. Although this problem has negative impacts on the industry, it also contains some positive ones. Prices of imported paper were raised as well, so paper traders turned to local productions. It proves that every problem goes with an opportunity.


again in 2009 after the global economic crisis in 2008 which effects were showed clearly in Egypt in 2009. And after a new rise in 2011, the Januaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s revolution started and the recession happened again.

The paper industry is cyclical. Every cycle takes 5 to 7 years. In 2003, the Egyptian paper industry entered a recession time due to the lack of raw material (waste paper) as a result of the start-up of 7 new mills in the country, creating a sudden rise in the demand. Later on, the paper industry witnessed a period of growth and stability, but the curve downed

The best solution now to improve the situation is to encourage investment in Egypt with long term views. The unique position of the country within the Arab and Middle East region, and its proved capacity to constantly recover its economy is a real asset. Like in all emerging markets, a brighter future in the paper industry can be foreseen, for those who start investing now. As it takes more than one year to implement projects, they would be ready at the best time of the cycle, at a moment when European mills will have severely reduced their capacities, and when consumers will be ready to consume again, for the good of the whole paper industry.

papermiddleast #


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DANBY, R., PERRAULT, J., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weaves of Papermaking Wires and Forming Fabricsâ&#x20AC;?, PAPTAC G18 Data Sheet (2003). 2. HENDER, B., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Efficiency Improvement Through the Use of Warp Exchange Technologyâ&#x20AC;?, TAPPI/PIMA PaperConâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;08 Conference, May 4-7 2008, Dallas, TX. 3. DANBY, R., JOHNSON, D., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Float Formingâ&#x20AC;?, PAPTAC 92nd Annual Meeting 2006, C142 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C148. 4. IMNGMANSON, W.L., â&#x20AC;&#x153;An investigation of the Mechanism of Water Removal from Pulp Slurriesâ&#x20AC;?, TAPPI 35(10):439-448 (1952). 5. IMNGMANSON, W.L., WHITNEY, R,P., â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Filtration Resistance of Pulp Slurriesâ&#x20AC;?, TAPPI 37(11):523-533 (1954). 6. HELLE, T., â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Influence of Wire Structure on Sheet Formingâ&#x20AC;?, Paper Techn. and Ind. 21 (4), 12 (1980). 7. ADANUR, S., TIANYI, L., â&#x20AC;&#x153;3D Modelling of Textile Composite Preformsâ&#x20AC;?, Composites Part B: Eng. 29(6): 787 (1998) 8. ADEBAR, T.K., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Imaging the Three-dimensional Structure of Forming Fabricsâ&#x20AC;?, TAPPI JOURNAL 6(8):12-15 (2007) 9.HUANG, Z., OlLSON, J.A., KEREKES, R.J., GREEN, S.I., "Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Rows of Cylinders", Computers and Fluids, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 485-491, June 2006. 10. HERZIG, R., JOHNSON, D., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Investigation of Thin Fiber Mats Formed at High Velocityâ&#x20AC;?, TAPPI JOURNAL 82(1): 226-230 (1999). 11. JOHNSON, D., â&#x20AC;&#x153;Effects of Jet Impingement on Bel Baie Machinesâ&#x20AC;?, Pulp & Paper Canada 93(5):12, 14-15, (1992)

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120

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0.19

30

114

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0.18

29

122

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Sheet Basis Weight (g/m2)

Sample 0

4

12

19

27

38

53

SSB

8.0

12.7

34.4

55.9

91.9

142.1

222.0

Warp Tied

8.4

16.4

38.2

60.8

97.6

145.1

228.6

WISS

8.4

18.7

39.0

56.5

89.2

134.5

215.1

M-2 †‘ƒ€G*iHKe”H   œKa¶*

M-2 †‘ƒ€G*iHKe”H   œKa¶* †ƒ6K&µ*–{ƒ€G*–4K 


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Sample

Air Perm (cfm)

Paper Side Properties Mesh x Knocking

MD yarn (mm)

CD yarn (mm)

Drainage area (%)

Fiber Support Index

Drainage Index

SSB

370

94x90

0.13

0.13

29.1

180

33.3

Warp Tied

375

95x82

0.15

0.13

25.5

173

30.8

WISS

380

81x90

0.17

0.13

24.7

174

32.4

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Paper MiddlEast n°19 13