Volume XVIII Number 2 Winter 2011 An Independent, Community-Based Magazine About Latinos at Ohio State
The Nicaragua Service-Learning Experience A Guide for Latinas in Higher Education Mario Vargas Llosa Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature Maximizing the Potential of Your College Career Career Advice in this Changing Economy
Memories of Resistance to Regime Change and Reformation
A Season for Accomplishment By Michael J. Alarid
Now winter nights enlarge The number of their hours, And clouds their storms discharge Upon the airy towers. Let now the chimneys blaze, And cups o’erflow with wine; Let well-tuned words amaze
Esquina del Editor
With harmony divine.
— Thomas Campion (1617)
As we wind our way through winter, our thoughts can sometimes dwell on the cloud-filled days and windy nights that mark central Ohio. Too often we allow such weather to bring us down and adversely affect our performance in the classroom and beyond. As a Southwestern native far from home, I must admit that I too have been guilty of being negative, of spending valuable time dreaming of warmer climates…. However, it is important that we stay positive and use winter as a time for work, performance, and accomplishment. This edition highlights many exceptional Latinos, people who have worked hard no matter the season and accomplished great things in the process. The legacy that these students, faculty, staff, and alumni leave behind is the result of their perseverance and serves as an example to all. Our cover features the powerful Manuel Chaves, a historical figure who remains part of our Hispanic legacy in America. Chaves was a New Mexican who lived through the transition of New Mexico from a Mexican territory into an American territory and is featured as part of our Folklore Series in “Guns in the Church.” The cover portrays a calm and tranquil Chaves, but as our article reveals, Chaves remained fiercely defiant in the face of American colonization.
From our historical legacy to modern times, we begin our Latino Studies series with an article by Professor Frederick Luis Aldama entitled “Cosmo Faber,” featuring Nobel Prize winner Mario Vargas Llosa. In addition, our center spread features a pictorial, photographed by our own Emily Strouse, highlighting the excitement of “La Fiesta.” Our publication opens with a message from our board members, who have been hard at work providing their advice and support. We then move to our regular features with a faculty profile of Jesus Lara entitled “On the Rise,” written by Cyndi Freeman. Our student profile highlights Theresa Rojas, the first graduate student at Ohio State with a GIS in Latino Studies. In an interesting twist, the article is written by Theresa herself and outlines her experiences in the GIS program. Moving beyond campus, we shift to our new In the Community series, with Francisco-Xavier Gómez-Bellengé’s article featuring Barbara Dillard Radous entitled “Life Lessons.” Additionally, new faculty member Carlos Castro is the subject of our Alumni Corner in “The Buckeye Doesn’t Fall Far From the Tree.” Our advice sections feature some familiar themes, while other subject matter will be new to many of our readers. Sean P. DeWinter offers advice on how to differentiate between Seasonal Affective Disorder and normal winter behavior in “The Winter Blues?” Additionally, Cyndi Freeman returns with more advice on how to plan your life after college in “Your Next Step.” Willie J. Young shares some thoughts about housing around the campus area in “Off-Campus Living,” while Ana C. Berríos-Allison offers more guidance on navigating the economic waters in “Moving to the Workforce.” Additionally, our Creative Corner returns with “An Interview with Escritores Latinoamericanos de Columbus,” including selected poems from their first reading. We also have numerous other features: Katherine Borland writes about the Nicaragua Service-Learning Experience at Ohio State in “Actualizing Classroom
Theory”; Professor Lilia Fernández fills our Su Opinión section with her perspective on Latinas in Higher Education in her article “What Latinas Need to Know.” Finally, we conclude with our food review “Adventures in Eating,” written after a visit to Chile Verde Café. The food review offers a New Mexican perspective—explaining what that designation entails—on the only New Mexican restaurant in Columbus. Here at ¿Qué Pasa, OSU?, we have been working hard to complete the transition that began about one year ago. Not only are we settled at the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, but our staff has changed and grown by one. The big change is the appointment of Yolanda Zepeda, who is the subject of our new One-on-One series, entitled “Assistant Provost Helps Rebrand ODI.” With this edition we also welcome our new Assistant Editor, the very talented Christopher Gonzalez. Christopher is a PhD student who comes to us from his graduate program in English and is a welcome addition to our cohort. Together with our designer Emily Strouse, ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? is now poised to make major strides going into next year. On behalf of all our staff, welcome to the winter edition of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Kindest regards, M.J. Alarid
Editor Michael J. Alarid Assistant Editor Christopher Gonzalez Designer & Photo Editor Emily Strouse
Volume XVIII Number 2 Winter 2011
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Message from the Board o Actualizing Classroom Theory The Nicaragua Service-Learning Experience By Katherine Borland The Winter Blues? Recognizing Seasonal Affective Disorder By Sean P. DeWinter
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Your Next Step Maximizing the Potential of Your College Career By Cyndi Freeman Off-Campus Living Resources to Help Your Transition By Willie J. Young Moving to the Workforce Career Advice in this Changing Economy By Ana C. Berríos-Allison
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Esquina del Editor A Season for Accomplishment By Michael J. Alarid Faculty Profile On the Rise Jesus Lara Takes Passion to New Heights By Cyndi Freeman Student Profile Breaking Ground First Graduate Student Completes GIS in Latino Studies By Theresa Rojas In the Community Life Lessons Barbara Dillard Radous on Persevering By Daniel Bueno Autumn 2010 Events La Fiesta Un Carnaval de Celebración Photographs by Emily Strouse Folklore Series Guns in the Church Memories of Resistance to Regime Change and Reformation By Michael J. Alarid
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Editorial Board Frederick Luis Aldama Francesca Amigo Normando Caban Jose Cabral, Chair Jeff Cohen Ignacio Corona Andrea Doseff Mauricio Espinoza Francisco-Xavier Gómez-Bellengé Indra Leyva-Santiago Victor Mora Patricia Palominos-Dunaeff Abril Trigo Fernando Unzueta Yolanda Zepeda, Ex Officio Contributors Frederick Luis Aldama Guillermo Arango Ana C. Berríos-Allison Katherine Borland Daniel Bueno Sean P. DeWinter Mauricio Espinoza Lilia Fernández Cyndi Freeman Enrique Infante Juan Armando Rojas Joo Félix Salvador Amicantonio Lucero Theresa Rojas Willie J. Young
Latino Studies Series Cosmo Faber Mario Vargas Llosa Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature By Frederick Luis Aldama
Reviewers Jose Cabral Normando Caban Yolanda Zepeda
Creative Corner An Interview with Escritores Latinoamericanos de Columbus By ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Staff
Back Cover: Painting by Michael Alarid, photographed by Emily Strouse.
Alumni Corner The Buckeye Doesn’t Fall Far from the Tree Ohio State Alumnus Carlos Castro Joins Engineering Faculty By Mauricio Espinoza One-on-One Assistant Provost Helps Rebrand ODI One-on-One with Yolanda Zepeda By ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Staff Su Opinión What Latinas Need to Know A Guide for Latinas in Higher Education By Lilia Fernández Food Review Chile Verde Café Adventures in Eating By Michael J. Alarid, featuring La Gringa
Cover Artist: H.T. Fine, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 009833.
This publication is supported by the Office of Academic Affairs and the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, through the auspices of the Hispanic Oversight Committee. Issue production is a collaboration of the ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Editorial Board and the Office of Diversity and Inclusion. The Ohio State University is not responsible for the content and views of this publication. The publication does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the staff and Editorial Board. All submissions for publications must include the name and phone number or e-mail address of those responsible for the submissions. ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? reserves the right to refuse any submission for publication. For questions and inquiries, please contact Zepeda.email@example.com. Note: We use the term "Latino" to represent both Latino and Latina.
Winter Quarter 2011
Message from the Board
The start of the new year gives us pause to welcome back all of our students, staff and faculty as we move forward in our continuing academic year. Additionally, though, we must look beyond the year and also recognize that we are embarking upon a new decade. ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? is poised to start this year with a new structure in place, comprising of the Board and its Executive Committee. This Board draws upon the many talents, knowledge and industry of the members of the OSU community. Two members from student ranks, one graduate and one undergraduate, remain to be added. At its core, this structure insures that the magazine remains an independent, self-governing and community based publication. Many of the traditions and accomplishments of the magazine since its inception in 1993 are due to the guidance and dedication of Victor Mora and the many graduate and undergraduate students who have worked on its behalf. To them, we owe much gratitude. Additionally, we must also recognize and thank the many volunteer writers who have consistently contributed articles for publication in each issue. These writers have been and will continue to be one of the magazine’s greatest assets. In its new structure, the ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? magazine is fortunate to partner with the Office of Diversity and Inclusion as we tend to personnel, management and daily operations. We welcome a new Assistant Editor Christopher Gonzalez, a doctoral student in English, who has joined Editor Michael Alarid and Designer and Photographer Emily Strouse on the editorial staff. The mission of ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? magazine remains steady and unchanged. The magazine seeks to highlight the Hispanic/Latina(o) history and heritage; enhance the quality of the cultural life of the OSU community; give voice to issues of relevance and common interest to the community; and function as an outreach platform
for prospective students, their families and the local Hispanic/Latino community. At the same time we also hope to forge new traditions, perspectives and contributions that enrich our future. In the next year the magazine will begin to run various series of articles on many timely and relevant topics. While allowing the magazine to broaden the focus, views and scope of topics addressed, it is hoped that these articles will further enhance Hispanic/Latino(a) heritage, pride and accomplishments; capture Hispanic contributions in social, professional, and educational environments and
support students in their daily challenges within and outside of academic experiences. Such series will also allow the magazine to establish long term, sequential article planning and schedules. Later in this academic year, we also look forward to the unveiling of its new website. On these and all matters, the Board wishes to invite the members of our community to contact and give us input and feedback. The magazine, after all, is here to serve the community needs and aspirations. We look forward to your continued involvement in ushering in the new decade.
Members of the Editorial Board
Frederick Luis Aldama Arts and Humanities Distinguished Professor of English and Director of Latino Studies and L.A.S.E.R.
Francisco-Xavier Gómez-Bellengé Assoc to Dean, Special Projects Fisher College of Business
Francesca Amigo Public Relations Specialist
Indra Leyva-Santiago Intercultural Specialist, Multi-Cultural Center
Normando Caban Director of Undergraduate Recruitment Office of Diversity and Inclusion
Victor Mora Associate Director of Enrollment Services
Jose Cabral, Chair Associate Professor, Chemistry
Patricia Palominos-Dunaeff HR Manager, Office of International Affairs
Jeff Cohen Associate Professor, Anthropology Ignacio Corona Associate Professor, Spanish and Portuguese Andrea Doseff Associate Professor, Inter Med/Molecular Gene
Abril Trigo Professor, Spanish and Portuguese Fernando Unzueta Chair, Department of Spanish and Portuguese
Mauricio Espinoza OSUE Program Assistant Agriculture and Technological Institute
Yolanda Zepeda, Ex Officio Assistant Provost Office of Diversity and Inclusion
On the Rise Jesus Lara Takes Passion to New Heights By Cyndi Freeman
After adjusting to high school in Southern California and the forced transition to English, he began his academic path at a community college. His love of architecture was nurtured, but he found his experience too narrow in scope. Through his job at a landscape company, however, the intersections of people, land, and the urban environment became the passion that has driven his career. After completing an associates degree, he completed a Bachelor of Science degree at California Polytechnic University, where he could be close to home, but could also work in a department with strengths in environmental design. His path was not without obstacles. As he entered college, he had only been speaking English for six years. This became one of the greatest factors in his transitions. He practiced speaking English and delivering presentations with friends, which also aided him in focusing on the material to be presented. Upon completing his bachelor’s degree, he went on to the University of Southern California where he completed two master’s degrees; one in landscape architecture and one in urban planning. Lara was then ready to pursue a PhD in environmental design and planning at Arizona State University. In 2003-2004 he received the prestigious Fulbright Fellowship to go to the Netherlands to
The trip from Guadalajara, Mexico, to the Austin Knowlton School of Architecture at The Ohio State University is a 1,800-mile journey across both political and natural boundaries, but it is well worth the trip for Assistant Professor Jesus J. Lara. It has taken him to Southern California, Phoenix, and across Europe, providing a richness of experience through both observation and education. In Guadalajara, education was emphasized in the Lara family home; his mother often said that all she wanted before she died was for her children to be educated. The youngest of six children, the bar was set high for Jesus: all his siblings have bachelor’s degrees, two have masters; but Lara would go further than any other, earning his PhD. As a child at play, while other children built towers with Legos to crash to the ground, he designed cities that fit together neatly with his colorful blocks, never overlooking the importance of green space and people in the mix. "While changing the physical environment of our communities will not address all ecological and social issues, investment in supportive and coherent physical environments provide a setting that promotes economic vitality, social stability, and environmental sustainability, and overall increasing social equity,” Lara states.
conduct research for his dissertation. Lara demonstrates consistently that his work is about people and place. His current research, “Growing Cities,” explores existing knowledge on the benefits of green urban spaces and their impact on mental, physical and community health. In spring 2009, he taught a design studio course on the topic of Healthy Cities to both landscape architecture and urban planning students. The course takes an intimate look at the accessibility and quality of open space in underserved neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio (These include Franklinton, South Linden, Milo Grogan, King-Lincoln, North Central and Near Southside.). As students begin to realize the importance of community-based and public interest projects, seemingly unrelated topics such as food security and the availability of fresh, reasonably-priced food is a very important factor in the health of a neighborhood and a city. “Strategies for creating sustainable communities must be tailored to each area and to the people who live there," says Lara. "The city form is never static, but is constantly changing under pressures of growth and development; its design, layout, and political decisions have a great impact in the health, socioeconomic factors of its residents, and the environment in general.” Trained as a landscape architect, urban planner, and an environmental designer, Lara’s work in diverse settings has led him to a unique and integrative approach to pedagogy, scholarship, and practice. “These life experiences have shown how two very important elements are at work in effective design–research, and teaching. The first is direct experience of a wide range of human environments; the second is close observation and cultural immersion in those environments. From observation and immersion in these diverse urban/rural experiences, I have learned that communities have different needs, different strengths and different aspirations.” Lara has achieved success, finding his passion in life, making a difference for others, and making a career of both.
Winter Quarter 2011
Breaking Ground First Graduate Student Completes GIS in Latino Studies By Theresa Rojas
Frederick Luis Aldama and Theresa Rojas
As I continue work on conference and seminar papers that explore my interests in literature, visual culture, and social justice, I think about the subtle twists and turns—many just in the past year—that have led me here. I am a second year PhD student in the Department of English, as well as an artist who works primarily with acrylics, watercolor, and ink. In addition to completing the first quarter of my second year, I am the first graduate student to complete the Graduate Interdisciplinary Specialization (GIS) in Latino Studies. It is a milestone both for me and for Latino/a Studies. While I knew before I started my program at OSU that I would likely pursue a GIS, I had anticipated that it would be in Fine Arts. Entirely by chance, a member of my cohort invited me to the first meeting of the core course, Arts and Sciences 705: Graduate Introduction to Latino/a Studies. The students enrolled in the course were a small yet energetic group. Initially, I had no idea that it was the gateway course. Later, when I saw the syllabus, and how it laid out class sessions with various professors around campus, I was intrigued. My experience throughout the quarter was exemplary. My favorite part of the course was meeting and engaging with the various professors. Each session focused on a different theme, facilitated by a professor from a different discipline. It gave me the opportunity to meet many Latino and Latin American Studies faculty members
and to survey some of the research opportunities available at OSU. I met professors from Comparative Studies, Women’s Studies, Spanish and Portuguese, and Education with specialties that include visual culture, musicology, literature, ethnic studies, spirituality and religion, and administration. The GIS in Latino Studies offers three possible focus areas: culture, literature and arts, history, and social issues. As an artist and a PhD student in English with a master’s in Women’s Studies, I knew that a focus on culture, literature and arts would offer the best experience and the most options for multiple sustainable intersections. The course gave me not only a survey of Latino Studies, but also an idea of options for interesting classes, coursework, research, and relationships beyond my home department that I wouldn’t otherwise have had. It is one thing to hear about professor “x” who is working on subject “y,” but it is another thing to have an opportunity to work closely with that professor for three plus hours a week. Not only was I able to work with multiple professors on my final project, but I also established a relationship with a professor with whom I have now taken two courses. For example, Dr. Guisela Latorre’s session on “Chicana Artivism” allowed me to start thinking about links between English studies, Latino literature, and visual culture, all elements of my future dissertation. The GIS in Latino Studies also sparked my relationship with L.A.S.E.R. (the Latino and Latin American Studies Space for Enrichment and Research). I coordinated the space in 2174 Smith Labs, decorated the walls with my art, and had an opening exhibit. Currently I am a graduate mentor working with undergraduate Latino and
Latin Americanist scholars who are interested in continuing on to graduate school. As I write this, my first mentee is applying to graduate schools across the country. Since the coursework must be taken outside of the home department, pursuing a GIS is an excellent way to enrich the graduate experience and future work by engaging with other related disciplines. One of the highlights has been working with Dr. Latorre who specializes in modern/contemporary Chicana/ Chicano and Latin American art with a particular emphasis on gender and feminism. More specifically, in Dr. Latorre’s Women’s Studies 840 course (Women of Color and Visual Culture), I pursued a project involving primary source journals written by a variety of incarcerated women. I used this material to explore reader reception theories of narrative empathy. This allowed me to advance my interest in narrative theory by investigating dynamic ways of using empathy theory with hybrid material. I did not anticipate how the GIS would open up my studies and help me develop ideas toward my exams and dissertation. I have been able to brainstorm with more people and think about how to examine the topics in which I am interested. It is very easy to race through your graduate work while wearing blinders. I hope that students understand the power of a GIS and its potential influence. It opens up opportunities to explore transnational and comparative issues that complicate and strengthen the work we do in our home department. It also pushes one to explore interdisciplinary fields of inquiry, which in turn allows for working with professors who are doing similar work. I am a first generation college student, and although it took me awhile to get here, it is a terrific feeling to continue to blaze new trails. I highly encourage others to explore the possibility of a GIS.
For more information on the GIS in Latino Studies, visit the Latino Studies website: latinostudies.osu.edu or laser.osu.edu. Theresa Rojas’s art site is located at theresarojas.com
Life Lessons Barbara Dillard Radous on Persevering By Daniel Bueno
child, and everything else wasn’t important to me,” she said. The ENRON scandal occurred in the midst of this trying time in her life. After giving birth she interviewed with AEP and was subsequently hired. At AEP, Barbara’s successes continue to mount. In both companies, she found many sources of inspiration thanks to several key mentors. In the early nineties, Barbara participated in ENRON’s formal mentor program. Her mentor was a Hispanic woman who helped her understand what it takes to be successful. “It definitely opened doors for me,” Barbara says. At AEP, she has been very lucky to have both formal and informal mentors who have continued to give her career advice and help with her development. As a result, she has been able to accept more responsibilities, take risks and finally realize that she was capable of doing things she would have never conceived. Certainly, part of her success comes from the times she failed. Barbara reflects, “I can’t tell you how many times I have fallen down and how many times I have questioned myself. I am a person who reacts with my gut and I never wanted to trust it, but that gut reaction was taking me to reality.” How she recovered from those failures, adapted to changes, and especially learned from those mistakes, has shaped her into who she is now. “If I am not doing a good job, I encourage feedback—tell me right there in the moment.” Barbara further explains that, “If it weren’t for the people that I work with, who believed in me, and my family, their love and patience and the sacrifices that they have made, I wouldn’t be where I am today.” Barbara is a transformative leader working with people to enhance their life and personality. Both a humble and successful woman, Barbara Radous says, “I just want to make a difference and get things done.” As she looks back on her life and thinks of ways she can give back and reach out to the community—and especially to girls and young women—her overriding message to them is, “You can do anything you want to do.”
In the Community
Barbara Radous, a woman of Hispanic origin from San Antonio, Texas and the youngest of eight children, is the Senior Vice-President of Shared Services at American Electric Power (AEP), in Columbus, Ohio. She joined AEP in 2001, and today, she is in charge of the Human Resources, Information Technology, Supply Chain, and Business Logistics departments. AEP ranks among the nation’s largest generators of electricity, owning nearly 38,000 megawatts of generating capacity in the U.S. and a 39,000mile electric transmission system. I had the wonderful opportunity to visit her at the AEP offices in downtown Columbus and talk with her about her life as the youngest child in her family, as a woman and as a Hispanic. Barbara Radous grew up in San Antonio, Texas and attended public school until junior high in the neighborhood she calls the “Barrio.” After eighth grade, her parents decided that they wanted to give their children the opportunity to study in an all-girl, private, Catholic school. Though Barbara’s transition to private school was difficult, later in life she realized why her parents insisted on the change: “I had a hard time back then trying to understand why my parents did that to me. But it’s funny, as I get older I start recognizing that the
things that they did for us were out of love. All they wanted was for us to have a good education.” Right after finishing high school, her parents could not afford to put all their children in college, so Barbara attended a community college, working at the local grocery store to pay the school tuition. For several years, she endured life-changing experiences that made her ponder several existential questions, such as, “Why is this? How can I change? How can I make a difference?” It was then that Barbara realized she wanted to do something to make herself a better person, affording her the opportunity to give back. Her experiences in San Antonio shaped her into the successful woman and great mother she is today. Barbara Radous left San Antonio at age nineteen and moved to Houston. She lived on her own and worked for a real estate company as a receptionist making $11,000 a year. Ten years after enrolling in night school, Barbara graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in accounting from the University of Houston at Clear Lake. It was a time when, she explains, she had to “work hard” and “be very disciplined.” After graduating as an accountant, ENRON hired Barbara, where she worked for ten years. Her experiences at ENRON provided vital training, building both her resume and knowledge base. This training made her an attractive hire, meaning she was able to chose from various opportunities. Specifically, at ENRON Barbara learned about the business and built experience in different areas, including accounting, risk management and structuring. Barbara then helped set up an office in Chicago, where ENRON maintained a partnership with a local utility company. Meanwhile, she married and became pregnant. To that point, life had taught her different lessons, to be sure. But a premature labor left her bedridden during four months of her pregnancy. It made her reassess her priorities in life and deliberate on what was important to her. “My priority at that time was to have a healthy
Winter Quarter 2011
Actualizing Classroom Theory The Nicaragua Service-Learning Experience By Katherine Borland
Coffee cupping at the Segovias dry mill.
The goal of humanities education traditionally has been to expose students to the great achievements, past and present, of the world’s people, and to ask big questions about what it means to be human, about justice, beauty, good and evil. Today, humanities scholars also engage in cultural critique, challenging the notion that the way things are is the only way they can be, and offering alternative visions of what “human progress” might mean. The humanities, then, are crucial to the development of global competencies among undergraduate students at OSU. The Nicaragua Service-Learning Experience enhances global humanities competencies by critically interrogating the big twentieth-century idea of development. In addition, students travel to Nicaragua to enrich their classroom learning by participating in small-scale, people-to-people development. In 2010 the Nicaragua Service Learning Experience was adopted by the Honors and Scholars program and focused more tightly on question of how international trade affects the residents of poor countries. During spring quarter, fourteen students formed project teams for organic cotton, coffee and ceramics, three Nicaraguan products in search of markets. In June, students visited Nicaraguan community organizations, cooperatives, artisans’ guilds, factories, free trade and fair trade zones, and the United States embassy to learn
about how traditional and alternative development models are working there. Upon their return to Ohio, they founded the Students for Fair Trade organization and volunteered at the Columbus fair trade store, Global Gallery. They sponsored a ceramics exhibit to publicize the artistry of San Juan de Oriente, a community that has produced pottery and ceramics for centuries. They designed and sold an organic T-shirt in collaboration with the MASILI sewing cooperative, located in Nicaragua’s only Fair Trade Zone. They hosted a “coffee-cupping” session at the Kuhn Honors and Scholars house to demonstrate the high quality of Nicaraguan coffee. Indeed, the 2010 Nicaragua Service Learning team has been busy putting their new competencies to use. Senior Katie Schuler explained, “For me the course was very enlightening in terms of politics, global trade and Nicaragua’s situation, but the trip was critical, because it was able to stress the importance of these concepts in concrete terms that I could understand and relate to on a more personal level.” First-year student Corinne Miller concurred, “If the information that we learned in class could be considered flat or two-dimensional, then the fieldwork in Nicaragua was the set of three-dimensional glasses that brought the picture to life.” For junior Emily Menter, the statistics that seventy percent of Nicaraguans live on less than two dollars a day and forty percent on less than a dollar a day, provided a touchstone for all of her in-country perceptions. On their very first day, students went to the Huembes market equipped with the average daily wage to see what they could purchase for themselves. The study tour not only underscored Nicaraguans’ limitations but also provided an introduction to some very impressive small-scale alternatives. At
the Nicaraguan organic farm cooperative, Kristen Clauer observed, “Visiting Cantera encourages me to recycle more, purchase organic produce when available, support local farmers, and be a more ecologically conscious consumer.” In short, the tour inspired comprehension but also personal change. For at least one student, this translated into a change in academic plans. Austin Soejoto, a Pre-Medicine major, was disappointed by what he perceived as a lack of real concern for Nicaraguans and their environment among US Embassy staff, particularly with respect to the way they provided “agricultural assistance” in the form of dangerous pesticides and genetically-modified seed. He has decided to change majors to International Diplomacy, stating, “I see the Nicaraguan people, and their hope gives me hope, not only to make this my occupation but to make a difference in people’s lives.” Many others on the 2010 team were likewise inspired to work for positive change. Emily Craycraft was particularly moved by Father Fernando Cardenal, director of Nicaragua’s 1980 Literacy Crusade and a lifelong advocate for youth: “Padre Cardenal’s words sang in me like stones. Not that they sunk my soul, but they were extremely heavy with emotion and with action, too. After speaking with Padre Cardenal, I knew that I had to do something. And for the first time, I felt like it was okay that I wasn’t sure how to help.” For Cacey Black, “nothing compares to the first-hand experience of living as a Nicaraguan.” During his two-day homestay in Miraflor, he learned history directly from the people who lived it. He says, “In a classroom there is no learning experience like sitting down for lunch and listening to stories of waking up to the noises of rebels and running for your life, and stories of fighting to keep your property all for simply believing in freedom.” If you are a student who enjoys learning in context, consider applying to the 2011 Nicaragua Service Learning Experience. Information is available at http://oia.osu.edu/programs/bycountry/186-nicaragua
The Winter Blues? Recognizing Seasonal Affective Disorder By Sean P. DeWinter, MSW II
Ernesto R. Escoto, PhD, Associate Director of Clincal Services at OSU Counseling and Consultation Services
As someone who is not native to Ohio, I moved here thoroughly enjoying the changing seasons, the beautiful autumn days, and eventually having to bundle up a bit to avoid the wintery cold. The snow and ice, the cold and gloom, and the often arduous task of getting from one place to the next during the winter months can be something people look forward to. However, for others it can be a contributing factor in why they feel depressed during this time of the year. Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a term that is gaining popularity and is often erroneously applied to describe those having the “winter blues.” Let us first distinguish between being affected by a change in climate and having Seasonal Affective Disorder. It is normal to feel a bit frustrated after digging your car out of two feet of snow – we are human, the winter can be a trying time. Additionally, many people are not getting nearly as much outdoor activity as they did tanning on the Oval or enjoying a comfortable day in shorts. Could it be that we dress appropriately for the winter cold and do a bit of hibernating – which may or may not involve an increase in holiday cookie consumption? There certainly is a normal range of feeling a bit of the winter blues; however, Seasonal Affective
Disorder involves more serious symptoms that need to be professionally evaluated. Seasonal Affective Disorder is actually not published in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as its own distinct disorder; however, it is used to specify patterns of Major Depressive Disorder or other mood disorders. When evaluating a disorder such as clinical depression we consider the pattern of onset, and for many, this exclusively occurs in the fall and winter months. According to researchers at the Mayo Clinic, “The specific cause of seasonal affective disorder remains unknown. It's likely, as with many mental health conditions, that genetics, age and, perhaps most importantly, your body's natural chemical makeup all play a role in developing the condition” (Mayoclinic.com, 2010). There are theories related to reduced sunlight, increased melatonin levels, and decreased serotonin levels as potential causes for such a pattern of onset. There are many treatments that are effective for SAD, to include: light therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and possibly medication. However, for the majority of people who experience some level of being “bummed out” during the winter months, I highly recommend
getting more physically active, get outside, eat right, and get sufficient rest. The Ohio State University has numerous programs and facilities with a range of activities to be involved in this winter. Aside from participating in a physical fitness program, simply changing your routine can help give you a different perspective. Make it a point to volunteer this winter, visit many of Columbus’ attractions such as COSI, or examine the Calendar of Events on the ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? website to find a worthwhile activity. Again, it is reasonable to be less-thanhappy when stuck behind a snow plow doing 10 M.P.H. – or to be racing out the door only to discover you only have one glove and it is wet. However, if you or someone you know is experiencing the following symptoms, it is important to speak to a mental health professional: • Depressed mood (more days/periods than not) • Irritability • Anxiety • Loss of energy • Social withdrawal • Loss of interest • Appetite changes • Difficulty concentrating • Weight gain
The Ohio State University Resources: Counseling and Consultation Service http://www.ccs.ohio-state.edu/ Psychological Services Center http://labs.psy.ohio-state.edu/psc/
Depression Treatment and Research Clinic http://faculty.psy.ohio-state.edu/ strunk/dtrc/index.htm Student Wellness http://swc.osu.edu/
Winter Quarter 2011
Your Next Step Maximizing the Potential of Your College Career By Cyndi Freeman, Director of Graduate Student Recruitment and Diversity Initiatives
Wherever you are in your college career, what comes next can seem scary and a bit out of focus. As a freshman, you are unsure about everything related to being an undergraduate student, let alone the future. When you are a sophomore, you just wish someone would tell you what to do with your education and guide you into a productive future. In your junior year, you have to think about the classes you are taking as well as internships to advance you in your career path. With all that is going on in your life as a senior, the last thing you want to do is make a decision about your future, a job and your graduation. Using your experiences in classes, organizations, internships and research experiences can help you make connections and decisions, bringing it all more in focus. First, you need to get involved. In your first year, join student organizations and be active in those organizations. Consider enhancing your personal and professional development by volunteering for activities and committees. Decide what you like about each club, and select the ones you will commit to throughout your college experience. Take the time to notice what you enjoy most and reflect on career paths where you might enjoy the same sort of experiences. Use your class experiences
thoughtfully as well. Take heed of what you enjoy, and seek opportunities that allow you to continue to utilize those skills you have gained. Your involvement in groups, clubs and organizations can set you on a path for your professional future. For example, if you are an undergraduate in the Fisher College of Business, involvement in the Hispanic Business Student Association, the Undergraduate Business Council or the Undergraduate Finance Association can provide valuable exposure, experience and networking opportunities for you. Skills in organization, technology and leadership are welcomed additions to any student organization. Such involvement will also hone your abilities by providing new challenges, opportunities and rewards. Never underestimate what can be gained through leadership and service learning. As you move from college into the workplace, graduate or professional school, being able to demonstrate your abilities in leading a team, planning and carrying out complete events and managing the operations of an organization have great impact. In fact, these experiences can be factors that make you a top candidate. Involvement in service learning showcases another aspect of your personality, your willingness to
work for the greater good. It also displays community involvement which is critical to many potential employers. Next, you need to become skillful at networking, in person, not on Facebook or Twitter (though these do have some merit after you establish “in person” contact). Knowing how to interact with others will open opportunities for you both personally and professionally. This is a time and place for you to meet people from across Ohio, America and the world. You will meet people who can provide influence and guidance in your life—faculty, staff and other students. You will learn and grow from each interaction. Never underestimate the contact faculty and staff have with industry, other colleges and universities, their peers and the state and federal government. Also, you have access to the Younkin Student Success Center, the Multicultural Resource Center, the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, a host of student organizations, faculty, staff and other students across Ohio State as resources. USE THEM ALL! The Office of Diversity and Inclusion offers you many resources to help you maximize your undergraduate education. Check out the Mentoring Program. The purpose of the Mentoring Program is to help you prepare for what comes next whether that is graduate school, professional school or becoming part of the workforce. They are all about you. College is a time of new experiences. Don’t be afraid to try new things that can add value to your education. Your attendance at Ohio State is a launching point; for your education, your career and your life experience. It is entirely up to you what you get out of it. You must get involved, ask questions and use the resources that are available to you. The basics are obvious. As an undergraduate student, you will have to complete approximately 181 credits in order to receive your degree. But you have decisions to make about electives, a minor, and the concentration you pursue. Try to be “educationally purposeful.” That is to say, think about the courses you are completing as preparation for your future. Electives
as well as minors can enhance your education. Explore possible options with your academic advisor, she knows the programs as well as what is possible. For example, through the Capital Program, you might enhance your major in Environmental Engineering with a minor in Landscape Construction, Entrepreneurship or Surveying and Mapping. If a graduate or professional degree is in your plans, you should participate in undergraduate research. Undergraduate research allows you to try out the discipline. There is research in every department at Ohio State. The research enterprise varies by discipline; science, technology, engineering and math research typically happen under laboratory conditions, while research in social and behavioral sciences may involve observations and interviews. Research in the humanities might include archives, reading and experience-based research. For some of the opportunities available here at Ohio State, take a look at the Undergraduate Research Office, http://ugresearch.adm.ohio-state.edu/
to begin to understand the what, where, when, why and how of conducting undergraduate research. You will also find great opportunities there. Some experiences are paid, some are not. But the experience is what matters the most. You get lots of email from campus professionals about REUs, which are research experiences for undergraduates. Some of these programs are at Ohio State, but many of them are at other universities and national labs. You should consider them all. Just google NSF REUs or NIH REUs to get started. Consider applying for the Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP) after your second or third year. This program is designed to help historically underrepresented students explore opportunities for graduate study and academic careers. SROP participants work with a faculty sponsor on a project of mutual interest, with the intention of developing the kind of student-professor relationship that is crucial to success in graduate school. SROP activities include workshops on research
skills and seminars on topics related to graduate education and career development. At the end of the summer program, participants present their research at the campus summary conference. In addition, participants are expected to attend the annual CIC-SROP conference. The CIC is the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), the consortium of Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Be brave and apply for a campus other than Ohio State! Studying Aboard is another great option for you. You can gain information about all the programs at http://www.oie.ohio-state. edu/. The Office of Diversity and Inclusion also provides study aboard experiences. You take a course in the winter quarter to prepare you for an experience in the Bahamas, focusing on culture, traditions, economics, politics and history. During Spring Break, you will visit the Bahamas, engaging in lectures, research and team activities. You will actually receive graded OSU academic credit for your spring break. Get the most out of being a Buckeye! Understand all that is possible for you.
Off-Campus Living Resources to Help Your Transition By Willie J. Young Off-Campus Student Services (OCSS), an office within Student Life, is The Ohio State University's central resource center for off-campus living. OCSS assists students, faculty and staff when searching for offcampus housing. The office provides educational information on typical renting requirements, precautions as well as steps to take prior to signing a lease. The office also provides helpful information that is applicable during one's entire offcampus living experience. In addition, OCSS provides roommate services, sublet services, and legal referrals, among various other resources pertaining to living off-campus. OCSS holds an annual Housing Fair, January 13th and 14th for 2011, which allows students, faculty and staff to gather information from landlords, businesses and other off-campus entities in order to make an informed decision regarding their off-campus living arrangements. Roommate Fairs are also held at least once
each quarter. OCSS also serves as a support center for students commuting to the OSU Columbus campus. Students can utilize the online rideshare/carpool service by signing on with an OSU username and password. New, incoming commuter students can attend the annual Commuter Preview Day, a fun filled event to help acclimate new, incoming commuter students to OSU. OCSS also provides tons of helpful information on transportation, parking, resources and services, as well as ways in which to be involved while attending OSU. The Community Ambassador Program, also an OCSS initiative, is a fun and exciting program led by students and designed to keep fellow students involved, engaged and educated when living in the University District. Community Ambassadors promote a safer, more collaborative community in the off-campus area and serve as a resource and point of contact for students living on their street. As a group, Community Ambassadors plan and complete projects
and activities throughout the year. These projects encompass the entire off-campus area and are aimed at creating off-campus community. Whether it be in the University District or in the Columbus area, let OffCampus Student Services be part of your off-campus living experience. Â
Winter Quarter 2011
Moving to the Workforce Career Advice in this Changing Economy By Ana C. BerrĂos-Allison, Ph.D., LPC
Whether you are a first year student coming to college or a senior searching for a job in this tight job market, chances are that you are feeling intimidated by this changing economy. You may be concerned about your education and where it can take you. Although the economic news seems discouraging, the following tactics, along with a positive attitude, could assist you while in your transition to the world of work. Be Proactive: Being proactive about your career and the decisions you make throughout your college experience can pay off. Consider the following: what really interests you and what can you offer both prospective employers and the larger community. To help you deal with questions such as these, take the time to visit Career Services and/or take EDU PAES 270.02. These resources can help you learn more about how to make decisions, understand OSU majors and minors, how to conduct a
job search, write resumes and cover letters, and interview, as well as how to apply to graduate and professional schools. There are multiple job search strategies and you need to be using all of them, particularly in this changing economy. Engage in Early Experiences: Your ability to engage in early experiences will be critical to developing the skills needed to join the job market. Because internships may be limited in your field, do not underestimate the power of volunteering for a company or even job â€œshadowing.â€? Additionally, involvement in extracurricular activities is a viable way not only to stay connected to OSU, but also to develop transferable skills that employers really value. Remember, you can develop leadership, budget, teamwork and even organizational skills while joining a student organization, a service learning program, or participating in civic engagement activities.
Learn how to Network: This is not about who you know but rather who knows you! It is well known that almost 70% of job hires are the result of a network so look to join a student or professional organization. Additionally, attend and participate in departmental meetings and get to know your faculty and staff from day one (They will provide your future letters of recommendation.). Be fearless! Learn how to conduct informational interviews and make cold calls to employers. For those who are transitioning out of school, cities have young professionals groups that provide recent college graduates with opportunities to socially and professionally network. You can search for the groups on the Internet, call the career services office at your local college, or check with the local Chamber of Commerce. Know How to Job Search: Even a first year student should be thinking about developing their job search skills. It is
critical that you learn how to approach and talk to employers, how to make the most of job fairs, how to network, how to respond to ads, and how to prepare yourself in writing and for the interviewing process. If you are wondering how to properly write a resume during the quarter you are graduating, you are likely graduating into unemployment and will be trading your chic campus housing for mom’s basement. Know Where to Look for Jobs: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, you may want to consider moving to an industry where some jobs are more in demand. Currently, these areas are health care, education, law, energy, government, and public works. For example, if you are applying for finance jobs you may want to consider applying for finance jobs in the health care or educational settings. Similarly, if relocation is something that you have been considering North and South Dakota, Iowa, Idaho, and West Virginia are among the states with the lowest unemployment rates. Explore Part-time Jobs and Other Options: Finding a job is a full-time job! The ideal situation after graduation is finding full-time employment. But today’s job market doesn’t present as many ideal situations as it has in the past. A part-time position avoids an employment gap on your resume and helps pay the bills. In addition, working the evening shift keeps your days open for job searching, networking meetings, and job interviews. Consider joining Corps, resorts, and summer camp opportunities as seasonal prospects as well. Develop a plan and stick with it. The job isn’t going to find you. Know that you will have days that are more productive than others. The key is to keep searching and not to settle into a rut that you will later rue. When All Else Fails, Use Temporary and Employment Agencies: All companies use employment agencies to complete the initial screening of applicants for a job opening. Companies may use temp agencies to find potential candidates who are capable of doing the job on a permanent basis. If you consider using a temp agency, do your homework. Avoid any agencies that charge fees. Additionally, know that if you take a job through an employment agency, you technically work for the agency and not the company. Likely translation: no benefits.
Be Wary of How You Use Facebook, MySpace, Blogs, and E-mail: Check your information and what others have to say about you. Consider making your profile private and be careful about what you put on your front page. You can also benefit from using online social networks—in proper fashion. Set up your page to make a positive impression on potential employers. A Facebook page, for example, can be an extension of your resume and provide insight into your personality, work ethic, and interests. You also may use these sites to network with potential employers or gain information about an employer prior to an interview. Consider joining LinkedIn, which is a professional network where you can include your professional or academic information, resume, samples, portfolios, and certifications. Learn how to Manage your Finances and Take Care of Yourself: In these economic times it could be stressful to be a college student. However, you need to
know that this crisis is temporary. Thinking about how to manage your finances, pay for school, and how to secure future employment can be downright frightening. You may be feeling overwhelmed and thinking about skipping classes, or perhaps experiencing exhaustion, or loss of appetite. The Wellness Center can teach you how to manage your finances and Career Connection can assist you with managing your stress regarding career, employment decisions, and concerns related to lay-offs, and life after college in general. Visit Career Connection and your College Career Services Office: Whether it’s your first time visiting the office or you’re a repeat visitor, your campus career services office is a great resource to assist with your major and career exploration as well as your internships and job search process. For more information about career services at OSU visit www.careers.osu.edu
Winter Quarter 2011
La Fiesta Un Carnaval de Celebraci贸n
Autumn 2010 Events
Photographs by Emily Strouse
Winter Quarter 2011
Guns in the Church Memories of Resistance to Regime Change and Reformation By Michael J. Alarid Introduction Threatening to shoot a priest is serious business, be it in historical context or in our current era. The notion of actually murdering a priest is so taboo, most of us have difficulties instantly conjuring images that might be used as a point of reference. In both life and fiction, brandishing a firearm and threatening a priest in his own church during Sunday service is indeed a delicate
matter. A tale that justifies and even celebrates such an action must be carefully crafted and must meticulously justify the actions of the protagonist while skirting outright condemnable blasphemy. The story of Manuel Chaves brandishing his guns in the church brings together numerous converging interests and two well-known historical figures: Chaves, the prominent Nuevo Mexicano who is labeled by historians as an elite, but whose career and actions are more comparable to Latin America’s caudillos; and Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy, a well respected ecclesiastical figure who all records indicate was openly anti-Nuevo Mexicano and anti-Native American. In 1850, three years after the Americans had completed their conquest of the Southwest, the Catholic Church removed New Mexico from the Archdiocese of Durango and placed it under the control of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. Lamy, a French member of the clergy who had been living in Cincinnati, was appointed Bishop and arrived in Santa Fe determined to reform a local clergy he considered corrupt. Excommunication was his primary weapon, and he utilized this to remove several popular Padres and attempted to do so against Manuel Chaves. H.T. Fine, Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), 009833. We have, then,
a story of resistance that comes to us through 150 years of filter; passed down from Manuel Antonio Chaves of Santa Fe New Mexico, to his son Amado Chaves, to his daughter Cansuela Chaves Summers and finally recounted to the historian Marc Simmons in an interview in Santa Fe New Mexico conducted 22 October 1968. According to Simmons, “Mrs. Summers told this writer that she heard her father, Amado Chaves, relate the details of this incident on several occasions.”The incident referred to by Simmons was a land dispute that erupted between Chaves and Lamy over the proper boundary of Guadalupe Chapel in relation to his own land. A genealogical resource maintained by the living Chaves clan places the incident in 1858 and, as Don Amado Chaves was indeed the son of Manuel Antonio Chaves, there is no reason to doubt that he heard his father recount the following story. It is now presented as published by historian Marc Simmons and is a written interpretation based on the narrative of Cansuela Chaves. The Story Manuel Chaves was never one to be intimidated, and so, over the protests of his wife, he took the offensive. Assembling several wagon loads of cedar pickets and calling out his servants, he threw up a stout fence to separate his house from the chapel and encompass the land he regarded as his own. The priest of Guadalupe was appalled by the rashness of this act and the affront it offered to the Church, and when his protests had no effect, he hastened to the cathedral near the main plaza to lay the matter before Bishop Lamy. His Excellency sent a swift summons to Manuel, and when the young offender appeared, a heated exchange ensued. “You have encroached upon lands of the Church,” thundered the Bishop. “I have fenced what is legally mine,” retorted Manuel. “You will remove the offending barrier.” “I will not!” “You will comply under pain of excommunication.”
Interpreting the Story Historians ask if the story is true, if it can be documented, and finally what it tells us about the time period which we are studying. For folklorists, it is more important to consider the context in which the story was told, to analyze the manner in which the story is told, and to explore the reasons the narrative continues to be retold. Why did this particular story of resistance survive through oral history for 110 years before finding its way into publication some forty years ago? What within this narrative might offer insight into broader issues relevant to
Nuevo Mexicano identity, and how does the survival and retelling of this narrative inform our understanding of the Nuevo Mexicano community? From the details related by Cansuela Chaves, we can conclude that the story was never told directly to her, but rather that she overheard her father Amado retelling the tale to friends, family, and perhaps at social gatherings. How Amado first heard of the tale is unknown, but it is likely that Manuel Chaves recounted the story to his son. The most interesting filter that the story passes through is from Cansuela Chaves to Marc Simmons, an Anglo American historian who had taken an interest in writing a biography of Manuel Chaves. No doubt, a desire to both protect the legacy of the Chaves family and to celebrate her grandfather must have informed the way she recounted the narrative, but it is equally likely that both her father and grandfather retold the tale with the same end in mind. Regardless, all of the elements of heroic resistance are present in this tale: a dramatic entrance into the Church and a staunch resistance to these extranjeroes. This story has likely survived in oral history for 110 years because of what it represents to the Nuevo Mexicano community. We note that Manuel Chaves is said to have entered with his head held high, the portrayal stressing the pride and sense of justification representative of Chaves’ stand against the Church and more broadly against the regime change in New Mexico. In this, Chaves is representative of a wider range of disputes over land that many Nuevo Mexicano caudillos were experiencing. Upon the arrival of the new Bishop, historian Fray Angelico Chavez tells us that Lamy set about claiming lands for the Church. As Chavez explains, neither the lands in question nor the Churches built upon them had ever belonged to the Catholic Church; the Churches had been built on the land of local strongmen and were financed, constructed, and maintained by the landowners’ wealth and the labor of the local population. Of course, the Church was not the only entity encroaching on Nuevo Mexicano lands; numerous settlers from the United States flooded into New Mexico with the coming of the railway and they, too, ultimately sought to thieve the vast acreage coveted by the local strongmen. For Nuevo Mexicano listeners, Lamy and the Church are symbols of conquest
in this narrative, of the invasion and ultimately the displacement of many Nuevo Mexicanos from their rightful property, status, and wealth. In turn, Chaves embodies both resistance to the injustices of the conquest and a desire to maintain pre-conquest communities: Chaves represents the Nuevo Mexicano audience for which the narrative was originally constructed. Catholicism remains an important part of Nuevo Mexicano identity, making the details of this story very important. Considering the audience, the orator had to take great care, as one change in the story might subject Chaves to the condemnation of Nuevo Mexicano listeners. Ultimately, the narrator must highlight manliness to overcome this obstacle. Consider both the weapon of choice and the precise details conveyed regarding how said weapons were used to intimidate. The presence of undrawn pistols would have implied concealment and shame, but rifles serve in this narrative to display the openness of this resistance. Additionally, practitioners of Freudian analysis would suggest that the rifle is in actuality a phallic symbol, larger and more powerful than a pistol: Chaves and his men thus use their manhood to intimidate the extranjeroes. The priest is frightened and intimidated by the presence of Chaves’ manhood, which calls into question his own manhood and by extension the validity of his excommunication order. Thus through manhood, the conquered become conquerors in this narrative. While the Freudian approach makes for interesting analysis, the story remains compelling and worth remembering outside of such models. In the end, Lamy and the Church successfully sued for the land surrounding Guadalupe Chapel. For both historians and folklorists this detail does not take away from the narrative, rather it complicates the power relationships symbolically acted out in the continued retelling of this story. Considering the function of Chaves’ narrative as appealing to broader resistance movements within the Nuevo Mexicano community, it is understandable that this fact does not survive as part of the oral history. Indeed, this narrative was meant for Nuevo Mexicanos and it survives because it empowers both the community and the ruling families, ultimately serving as a reminder of their autonomy before the Americans arrived.
And a final burst from Manuel, “The fence remains, and you will not excommunicate me. It would break my poor wife’s heart.” And he stalked from the interview. In some anger Bishop Lamy took up pen and parchment and prepared the document expelling Manuel Chaves from the Church. This he dispatched to Guadalupe parish so the pronouncement of doom might be read from the pulpit and thereby rendered official. The following Sunday, Guadalupe Chapel was packed, only a bench like pew at the front standing vacant. As the service began, a shuffling at the door caused all heads to strain in that direction. Manuel Chaves, chin held high, strode down the center aisle, trailed by Roman Baca and a servant. All three were conspicuously armed with rifles, and with considerable aplomb they seated themselves on the empty bench. The priest, after a momentary faltering, went on with the service, but from time to time cast nervous glances toward the front of his congregation. When the point arrived for announcements and the sermon, he mounted the pulpit on shaky legs and extracted an impressive role of parchment from his sleeve. As he did, the three men below cocked back the hammers on the rifles lying on their laps, the noise echoing through the cavernous length of the chapel. The menacing gesture was quite sufficient to deter the good Father from reading announcements, or for that matter from delivering sermons, and without another word he descended from his perch and went on with the service. At the conclusion, Manuel led the retreat of his men back up the aisle, and for the last time in his life he passed out the doors of the Guadalupe Chapel. But the order of excommunication was never read.
Winter Quarter 2011
Cosmo Faber Mario Vargas Llosa Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature By Frederick Luis Aldama
Book cover courtesy of Gallimard Presse.
Vargas Llosa’s skilful use of language, timing, rhythm, and description reorientates the reader to look more deeply, sharply, and critically into machismo— such a commonplace social phenomena in Latin American culture, my grad students concluded of his story “The Challenge” (1959). Indeed, it was not but a day after this grad seminar discussion that a flurry of emails from students informed me that
the Royal Swedish Academy had just fluffed Vargas Llosa’s feathers with the Nobel. Vargas Llosa is the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in twenty years. Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral was Nobel Laureate in 1945; Guatemalan novelist Miguel Angel Asturias obtained it in 1967; Chilean poet Pablo Neruda received it in 1971; Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez won it in 1982; Mexican poet and essayist Octavio Paz obtained it in 1990. In deciding, the prize committee highlighted Vargas Llosa’s “cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat.” I’m not here, however, to rehearse specifics of the fanfare either side of the Atlantic, nor to speculate on why it took so damn long to turn the spotlight Vargas Llosa’s way, nor to go into a biographical sketch of the sort easily read at the click of a Wiki tab. No, I’m interested generally in the broad brushstrokes of his life as a writer, especially as a writer who early in his career conceived of his fiction making as a rigorous, all-demanding vocation where everything else needed to be ancillary and where writing fiction also needed
to be separate from his political outlook and acting. This isn’t to say that he hasn’t slipped on occasion. In a post-prize afterglow and media blitz he buckled somewhat to pressure to contradict his well known position on the political power of the fiction making activity. He tells Emily Parker of the Wall Street Journal: "Through writing, one can change history" (Oct 8, 2010: A17). Also, out of the nineteen works of fiction he has penned, there are a few slipping into the dogmatic and the simplistically pedagogical (The Real Life of Alejandro Mayta, Death in the Andes, and Who Killed Palomino Molero? would belong here.) Vargas Llosa continued to carve out new fictional paths, each time with increased commercial and critical success. Honing his craft as a master storyteller pushing on any and all limits, led to the publication in a1965 of La Casa Verde ("The Green House"). His deft use of narrative structure and device allows him to avoid firmly the temptation to turn into moral sentimentality the fall of the young Bonifacia, who tosses out her Catholic vows to become the Green House’s finest practitioner in the art of prostitution. The novel picked up accolades left and right, including the wellendowed Rómulo Gallegos International Novel Prize. I have leapfrogged many prizes and works of fiction that pepper the writing life of Vargas Llosa. The highlights here are aimed to give a quick sense of a career full to the brim with critical and commercial success; a career that has allowed him to support his diligent dedication to the craft that has marked his forceful insertion into world literature as well as his deep and durable transformation of the selfsame world literature. This leads to a question often raised by my students: how to identify Vargas Llosa? Is he a Peruvian or a Spanish (from Spain) author? Is he a Latin American or European author? How does one qualify as a this or that author, and is this finally that interesting a question? Born in the Peruvian city of Arequipa, then raised and educated in Bolivia (Cochabamba) and Peru (Piura and Lima),
all the way up to its most recent manifestations. Yet Gabo, Rulfo, Fuentes are and see themselves as fully cosmopolitan authors, whatever their regionalist settings are. The same holds for Vargas Llosa. So, what do I tell the students? I mention that there are authors who, like Vargas Llosa, fundamentally consider that in literature as well as in all artistic activity there should be no restrictions to the imagination, that there should be total anarchy in art. This ambition and goal is not new and is not restricted to Latin America; it has been posited and defended everywhere at least since the 19th century. Vargas Llosa too has insisted that there should be no prescriptive rules to straightjacket the imagination, including a regionalism and a nationalism embraced by some Latin American authors. While the country of origin might be a source of building blocks for the imagination, the decisive tool for creative activity is the language. If there is a patriotism for a writer, it is a language patriotism, as evinced by authors as dissimilar as Conrad (of Polish origin) and Nabokov (Russian) who chose the English language for their creative endeavors. In the final instance, Vargas Llosa is free to write about anything he wants to narrate. In fictionmaking there is no thematic monopoly and no taboos. No theme is exclusively Peruvian, Latin American, or European. Vargas Llosa’s imagination can roam free without obligation to write about A, B, or C based on national or ethnic origin. His imagination and his building blocks have no bounds other than his linguistic talent to tell a fabricated story. This is the kind of bloodless, unsentimental attitude luminaries like Borges and Cortázar maintained in their writing of stories. Vargas Llosa does take to politics and to political pronunciations when he is not writing fiction. When he broke publically with Castro, he filled quickly the gap left with the reactionary worldviews of Fridrich Hayek (The Road to Serfdom) and Milton Friedman. From then on he has never been shy about making known his pro-capitalist and pro-imperialist outlook, either. His preface for Hernando Soto’s 1986 published book, El otro sendero (The Other Path), supports Soto’s indictment of economic statism and a zealous promotion of privatization. This is the decade when most Latin American countries where being choked to death by their debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It is also the decade when the IMF
was imposing everywhere in Latin America the privatization of national resources such as oil and mining. In 1990, when Vargas Llosa ran for President his political program was a replica of the demands then being heralded by the IMF. In this sense, in the 1990 elections for President in Peru, Vargas Llosa was (and was known as) the IMF’s candidate; he lost to a like-reactionary and pro-imperialist, Alberto Fujimori (Peruvian of Japanese descent) whose populist, underdog-inflected political stumping appealed more to voters. Why do I mention this? To emphasize the importance of Vargas Llosa’s position on fiction making as an activity that may use politics and political themes as building blocks but is not to be identified with them to become propaganda. Fiction is not only separable from politics; it is an entirely different animal and has its own goals and means. To know how fiction is built, how it works in the minds of authors and readers, we have tools developed in the field of narratology, and more recently, in the fascinating field of neurobiology. Already today these fields show that the imaginative construction of realities we call narrative fiction is an exceptionally complex and unique operation that the brain/ mind performs by means we are beginning to know and understand more and more. This enquiry into the mechanisms of fiction-making is part of the myriad explorations underway into the ways our brain functions in our real world activities. The present modeling of the neurobiological research program takes the shape of interlocking systems and subsystems, where the study of dreams, daydreaming, and fiction is becoming ever more fruitful and important. There are now neurobiological studies of love, attachment, and sexuality; of affects and emotions; of ethics; of choice and economic and political decisions. There are findings and insights in neurobiology that we might find useful in our study of literature. They may lead us to a deeper understanding of our faculties as writers and readers. Vargas Llosa has built resplendent edifices. May we find ever better tools to enter them and experience the pleasures of discovering all their carefully designed nooks, crannies, and furnishings.
For the complete article please visit quepasa.osu.edu
Latino Studies Series
scholarship in hand in 1958 Vargas Llosa packed his suitcases to continue his studies in Madrid; he had just finished the study of law and literature at Lima’s National University of San Marcos. Here and elsewhere in Europe (Spain and France mostly with stretches in Switzerland and the UK) he was to stay, living and writing during the decades that would follow. Later in his life he would also spend long spells teaching and writing in the US. It is worth noting that Vargas Llosa is not alone among his Latin American contemporaries (and the older Borges) who lived and wrote in Europe. Carlos Fuentes and Gabo spent a great deal of time in Barcelona during this period. And Cortázar lived in Paris most of his life. The trend continued with the late Roberto Bolaño (born in Chile and raised in Mexico City) who left Mexico to take up residence in 1977 on the coast near Barcelona. And, the older Borges had spent long periods in Europe as a youngster and adult as well as living for long periods in the US. With the exception of Fuentes with the majority of his work set in Mexico, much of the fiction created by these authors is set outside of their country of origin or is set in undetermined places. Borges’ impulse in his early twenties to become a very Argentinean author—using underworld argot in his early poetry, for instance— was short-lived. Other writers one way or another rejected attaching nationalist strings that would tangle up their imaginations. Cortázar felt asphyxiated by the Peronist political regime and moved to Paris, where he lived all his creative life and where he also died. Borges travelled as much as he could and died and is buried in Geneva. Like Borges, Cortázar, and many others, Vargas Llosa has never felt compelled to write with, say, a passport in hand—to be recognized foremost and forever as a Peruvian author. As much as the other members of the so-called Boom, he fought against all forms of imaginative and linguistic parochialism. This is how Vargas Llosa sees himself as an author and how he confronts the world as a writer of narrative fiction. Some of his important novels are about characters living in countries other than Peru: Brazil, France, Tahiti, Dominican Republic, for instance. García Márquez, like Faulkner, invents his own total story world and gives his readers Macondo and its environs. Juan Rulfo gave us Comala. Fuentes has given us the gestaltist whole of the history of Mexico
Winter Quarter 2011
Assistant Provost Helps Rebrand ODI One-on-One with Yolanda Zepeda
By ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Staff
Please tell us about yourself and your new position: I am Tejana with roots in the coastal plains of South Texas, but my home and my heart now lie in Ohio. I came to the Midwest in the early 1990s for graduate study, and fell in love with all it has to offer. My husband, James Palavin, is a retired OSU lifer. When he led me down the Long Walk, I knew I was here to stay. We have two young granddaughters who are full of life and one tired, old dog. We are garden enthusiasts, and this climate is perfect for growing things. I also love the region’s semi-rural quality with so many world-class universities in relatively close proximity. But of course, Ohio State is the jewel of the Midwest, so I when I had an opportunity to join the staff, I grabbed it. My position is assistant provost in the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, formerly known as the Office of Minority Affairs. As our readers know, this office has undergone some fairly substantive change this year, including a change of leadership and a name change. Dr. Valerie Lee assumed the post of Vice Provost and Chief Diversity Officer in the spring, and we officially adopted the new name in late October. My position is somewhat new, picking up some existing responsibilities of recently retired staff and taking on some new or evolving duties. My portfolio includes working closely
with members of the Latino community to support the needs of students, faculty and staff. Tell us about your administrative experiences. I have been working in higher education for nearly twenty years. Much of my professional experience has been in graduate education, including previous appointments in the graduate schools here at OSU and at Indiana University. Throughout my career, however, I have been involved with diversity and access issues. I spent more than ten years at the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), an academic consortium of the Big Ten Universities and the University of Chicago. In my work at the CIC, I administered collaborations in graduate education, diversity, and international education, and I worked with faculty groups in Asian American studies and American Indian studies. This experience helped me better understand the challenges of program and curriculum development common to emerging programs. It also enhanced my appreciation of differences across groups. This highlights another advantage that I bring to OSU from my experience at the CIC, and that is perspective gained from the consortium—our Big Ten partners may be rivals on the football field, but in the field of diversity, we have a strong network
of professionals who are happy to share their expertise and creative solutions. Why did you choose to come to OSU? When OSU posted my current position, I was immediately interested. I was on staff here a few years ago and came to know many individuals doing good work in areas of access and support for underrepresented students. I was especially intrigued by the reference in the job description to “rebranding within the Office of Minority Affairs.” For forty years, OSU has been a national leader providing model programs for educational access and nurturing diverse student and alumni communities. I believe that our new name, Office of Diversity and Inclusion, affirms our commitment to the groups we have traditionally served. Equally important, it also reflects a broader mission of leadership so that all areas of the university are strengthened through diversity. Being part of that change process at OSU was a big factor in my desire to be here. Why did the Office of Minority Affairs change its name to the Office of Diversity and Inclusion? The Office of Minority Affairs was established forty years ago to support the success of minority students, faculty and staff. Over the years, the Office has developed strong programs to promote the recruitment, retention and graduation of underrepresented students from diverse populations. OMA programs continue to support minority students, but also serve first generation college students, low income groups, students with disabilities and nontraditional students, veterans and students from Appalachia. As the University has come to embrace a comprehensive understanding of diversity and the importance of preparing students for success in a global society, we recognized that the name did not adequately reflect our current programs, nor did it communicate our strategic vision of becoming the national model for a diverse and inclusive university. The Office of Diversity and Inclusion remains committed to the signature programs that support success of diverse student groups, and we are also developing strategies that enable the
University to become the nation’s premier public university in preparing all students to live, work and lead in a diverse and global community. What are some of your goals for your new position? Right now I am working toward several goals. First, we are working to enhance our data management and reporting practices to help us better understand the impact of our work in the Office of Diversity and Inclusion to make clear how our programs and leadership advance the university’s Six Strategic Goals. Robust data systems will help us better understand the effectiveness of our programs, and enable us to communicate that information more effectively with our constituents across campus. Our second goal is to enhance our communications so that the university and all of our constituent groups understand who we are, the value of the work we
do, and most importantly, we want them to have the information they need to be effective partners as we work together to achieve shared diversity goals. Finally, as we work to infuse diversity throughout the university and help all of our learning environments to become more inclusive, I am reaching out to campus partners, academic units and faculty, and external partners to support collaborations that can extend benefits of diversity to all of our academic resources. What are your thoughts regarding the Hispanic community at OSU? How do you envision yourself fitting into and enhancing our community? The Hispanic community at OSU is very important to me, on a personal level and professionally. I am very grateful for the friendships I enjoy with my Latino/a colleagues. Sharing our stories, meals, celebrations, these are important for my
personal sustenance. Professionally, I see my role as a critical link between the Office of Diversity and Inclusion and campus groups and individuals whose work reflects the many facets of our community. The Multicultural Center, Latino Studies and L.A.S.E.R., the Organization of Hispanic Faculty and Staff, several student groups and of course ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? are among our partners for the work of the Office of Diversity and Inclusion, helping to shape to our priorities and programs. With ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? housed in our offices now, I am pleased to be working closely with the editorial board and staff on the production of the magazine. I am also committed to identifying areas where we should be doing more and building support to address these. Above all, I hope to use my experience to help all members of the university community fully utilize the resources and expertise in Diversity and Inclusion.
The Buckeye Doesn’t Fall Far from the Tree Ohio State Alumnus Carlos Castro Joins Engineering Faculty They say the acorn doesn’t fall far from the tree. In the case of Carlos Castro, the acorn is a buckeye and the connections with the tree are two-fold: he has pursued a career in engineering just like his father, Ohio State professor José Castro; and after having graduated from Ohio State, has come back to his alma mater to assume the role of educator. While José is a professor in Integrated Systems Engineering, Carlos will begin his career as assistant professor in Mechanical Engineering in Spring Quarter 2011. The following are excerpts of an interview with Carlos: You completed your PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Tell us about that experience. When I was finishing my master’s degree I actually interviewed for a few jobs, but in the back of my mind I guess I always knew I would end up doing a PhD At MIT, I was lucky to find two excellent advisors, Matt Lang and Mary Boyce, who led me into the field of biomechanics and really encouraged my desire to become a professor. I specialized in experimental and theoretical cellular and polymer mechanics. What are your proudest accomplishments so far? Obtaining my PhD from MIT, I had to work extremely hard for over four years, but in the end it was a great experience. Also, I have been lucky to make great friends in every place I have
By Mauricio Espinoza lived, and academically I have worked with a long list of really excellent scientists and people. Lastly, I am also very proud to say that I was a part of the first OSU soccer team to win a Big Ten championship. How has your father influenced your education and career goals?
I saw how happy he was with his work, and that I could also be happy with the life of a professor. I am very close to my family, so the idea of being able to come back to live near them was a big plus. Furthermore, I knew that my dad was quite happy working at OSU, and that OSU provided a great atmosphere for engineering professors to enjoy their work and also do cutting edge research. What are your goals as you begin your new position at OSU?
My main goal is to establish a leading research lab in the field of biomechanics. There is a great opportunity to take tools from physics or inspiration from biology and apply it to engineering problems, or vice-versa, to take engineering tools and approaches to solve problems in biology. I am excited to teach young students how to become effective researchers in the lab, and also teach students how to become engineers in the classroom. For the complete interview, please visit quepasa.osu.edu
Winter Quarter 2011
Creative Corner An Interview with Escritores Latinoamericanos de Columbus By ¿Qué Pasa, OSU? Staff On December 3, 2010, the first gathering of Spanish-language writers in Columbus took place at Expresso Yourself Music Café in Powell, Ohio. This event gathered writers from different backgrounds, nationalities and styles. A group of people connected directly or indirectly with Latin Literature organized this first gathering. ¿Qué Pasa OSU? caught up with writer Enrique Infante and and conducted the following interview.
QP How was this idea born? What does this group hope to achieve?
Infante This idea came out based on our common interest and passion for Spanishlanguage literature. We want to encourage reading and writing in all its capacities in our first language, Spanish. There are many in Columbus who speak our language very well, and it is important to foster and encourage proper and correct use of our Spanish language. At the same time, we know that many people out there enjoy attending this kind of event and are eager to participate. We knew this city needed something like this; we are just planting the first couple of seeds to make it bloom.
QP Is there a fee or cost to participate? Infante These events and gatherings are open to anyone who would like to participate. There is no fee to participate or to attend any of the gatherings. We do accept and suggest donations so we can start a web page, purchase materials, and we are even looking at the possibility of an annual publication of some of our works.
QP Who participated in this first event? Infante Eight people participated, and all of them are members. The writers are: Enrique Infante Angeles (Perú), Marta Cecilia López Munera (Colombia) and Stella M. Villalba (Argentina). Other participants included Nelson Iván Medrano (República Dominicana), Juan Armando Rojas Joo (México), Félix Salvador Amicantonio Lucero (Argentina), Guillermo Arango (Cuba) and Daniel Montoly (República Domincana).
QP Are there some published works already? Infante Each one of us brings a different cultural suitcase in our hand. Some of us have published books previously; some work in several universities in Ohio; and some of us have participated in Book Fairs and literature gathering in other cities.
QP How often do these events occur? Infante Our main event is once a year in December. However, we have monthly meetings that help us to prepare different short and long term activities. We are planning a Literary Workshop in Spanish to be held in March.
QP How can we find out more about this group? Where can we contact you? Infante We distributed our first booklet of work shared at our First Gathering of Spanish Writers in Columbus. For more information, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. The contact number is (614)273.9029 (Enrique Infante)
The following poems were among those read at the first Escritores Latinoamericanos de Columbus reading. They are presented here in the original Spanish, as they were read on opening night.
MIEDO MIEDO, ese sentimiento que acarreo desde el fondo de mi tiempo, desde antes de ser … desde antes de saber, desde antes de sentir. Sentimiento que no me dejó acercarme a lo más preciado de mi mismo, que fue mutando a medida que iba mutando mi yo. Al principio, en miedo infantil, a no poder ser entendido, a no poder encontrar quién me ayudara a vivir, luego, el miedo adolecente, ese que hace temer el rechazo, el desdén, el desamor … después, el miedo joven, desde el fondo de la trinchera, miedo, no a morir sino a vivir a medias, a dar lástima con una medalla colgada en el pecho. Luego el miedo maduro metido en el cuerpo, compartiendo la adicción que solo me sirve para adormecerme, para ayudarme a ir a ningún lado, y ahora, en el estío, el miedo a no haber trascendido, a no poder haberme hecho entender, a no haber dicho todo lo que quería, a la desazón de haber llegado tarde, expuesto a la burla del destino, riéndose de mi miedo. Hoy el miedo a creer que tengo la soledad domada y en un descuido, como confiado domador, recibir el zarpazo cruel que abre en dos mi pecho, dejando al descubierto toda mi vida … al hazmerreir de la gente que no cree ni creerá en mí. Por último el miedo a que mi mente le haga caso a mi cansado cuerpo que pide a gritos adelantar el inexorable final. Solo eso: MIEDO. Félix Salvador Amicantonio Lucero Octubre/Noviembre del 2010
El puente A María Eugenia Martínez Joo, junto al recuerdo de tu “asesinato accidental” Un río Dos países Tres culturas Cuatro rumbos Cuatro puentes en el río Cuatro mujeres cruzan el puente cuatro hombres esperan a las cuatro Cuatro muertes con una 45’’ al querer asaltar a cuatro gringos Cinco huérfanos Cinco ladrones Cinco amantes cuatro esposas tres hijas y dos hijos abandonados en una ciudad Cinco mojados esperan el cruce de las cinco Cinco de la tarde ya pronto viene el tren Cuatro por cuatro por cuatro por cuatro se multiplican las maquilas Cuatro pesos cada vez que abren la mano si trabajas en el puente Cuatro estaciones se escuchan en mi radio cuadrafónico Cuatro dedos en su mano se lo cortaron se lo llevó el río Tres kilos de coca confiscados en el puente Tres hombres detenidos por la migra Tres pesos ya no son un dólar Dos catedrales en la plaza de Juárez Dos cholos riñen por una virgen Uno muere Juan Armando Rojas Joo
se piense desvarío y me desquicio.
Que ya sólo de amor es mi ejercicio pues tan sensible soy, tan predispuesto al puro amor, al hondo amor, que en esto me consumo la vida, me la envicio.
Con hondura a mi viene y a él me atengo; que del amor ya hice mesa y cama y en él puse este espíritu que tengo.
Ni me queda ya poro ni orificio que amor no haya exhalado; y hasta apuesto que en lo tierno y rumboso de mi gesto
Toda mi sangre en el amor me clama, y este fiel corazón, que yo contengo, en el amor se crece y se derrama. Guillermo Arango
Winter Quarter 2011
What Latinas Need to Know A Guide for Latinas in Higher Education By Lilia Fernández, Assistant Professor, Department of History
The number of Latinas (as well as women more generally) in college and professional careers has increased significantly in this country in the last thirty years. Three decades ago, Latina students on college campuses were few, and even fewer entered professional careers—education, law, government, public policy, business, and medicine. Today those numbers have grown, but we still face many barriers in getting young women and girls into higher education and into the professional world. With a fifty percent high school dropout rate in many inner city public schools, many Latina/o youth face bleak conditions. Latina/os contend with some of the most inequitable school conditions, and according to several studies, are the most racially segregated students in the country. There are many multiple and interrelated reasons for this and we certainly face serious challenges in ensuring that Latina/o children have access to quality schooling, are encouraged to achieve their
human potential, and have the resources and guidance to do so. Our increasingly demanding economy requires some type of post-secondary education, and, as a number of scholars have pointed out, if we do not prepare Latina/o youth with college training, the loss of their contributions to society will have a tremendous impact on us as a nation. What about those who have made it to colleges and universities, however, particularly women? What challenges do Latinas face as they navigate institutions of higher learning pursuing their own life’s aspirations? What do Latinas need to know about the higher education experience not only to survive, but to thrive, excel, and make a contribution to their world? Dealing with a new environment: Like all other students, Latinas face a number of stresses and challenges as they pursue a college education. For first generation students in particular, navigating administrative requirements such as
admissions and financial aid applications can be unfamiliar, and there may not be much guidance from family or friends if they have never gone through the process themselves. Being at a large, public institution like OSU can feel isolating at first, especially for those who are far from home. Learning how to create a sense of belonging here on campus is incredibly important. Balancing family and gendered expectations: While women as a whole in American society have made great progress in expanding rigidly prescribed gender roles that historically have not encouraged women’s participation in higher education, Latina college students and others may still struggle with gendered social expectations. For some families, it is hard to see their daughters (especially the oldest or the first) go away or separate from the family when certain religious values dictate that girls should not leave home until marriage or when
and extracurricular interests and try new things as well. 2. Seek out role models: You may find that Latina faculty and staff are rare, but when you do encounter them, get to know them! Go to professors’ office hours; make a point to introduce yourself to Latina staff members or graduate students. Apply this practice beyond just other Latinas, though. If you encounter people in your chosen career field or in an area that interests you, get to know them and ask questions about how they got through college and transitioned into their work life. 3. Make your education meaningful: Give back to those who follow: Nothing can be more rewarding or valuable about your college experience than doing things that have a great impact not only for you personally but for others around you, whether that be your family (younger siblings, primas/cousins), classmates, or the broader community in Central Ohio. We should all remember that our path to the university is usually not an individual achievement but the culmination of the efforts of many—those who blazed trails
and opened doors for us in the past (the “first” Latinas in our discipline, in our career field, in our communities who endured even more difficult conditions to make it possible for us to be here today). We should recognize and honor those women who came before us (including our mothers, grandmothers, hermanas, tías, madrinas, etc.) by continuing to do the same for those who will follow. Mentor high school, middle school, or younger girls. Advocate for them. You may be the one who helps them get to college! We owe it to ourselves and our communities to ensure that we continue to open doors for the girls and young women who will hopefully follow in our footsteps. In this way, we can continue to increase the numbers of Latinas in higher education and the professional world.
economic necessity requires daughters to contribute to household economies. Some families may emphasize that daughters should prepare for marriage and child rearing rather than pursuing higher learning. In other cases, it can be an economic challenge for parents to sacrifice daughters’ immediate financial contributions to the home for the longterm investment of a college degree and higher earnings in the future. Although neither of these issues applies only to Latinas, they certainly play a role for some Latina college students. Women in general continue to face gender norms and expectations that men may not face or may experience differently. Similarly, deciding on a field of study and future career may present tensions with family expectations. In some cases, family can emphasize particular vocational expectations for daughters, such as that one should pursue a lucrative career in medicine, business, or law. This often reflects the educational systems of Latin America where young people study a carrera or training that leads to a specific practical career such as accounting, nursing, or journalism. It can be hard to explain to family why you are passionately interested in communications, history, or anthropology—fields that may not so obviously lead to a specific job after graduation or a huge paycheck down the road. Being “the only one”: Latinas are still severely underrepresented in many fields; it is still all too common to be the only woman, the only student of color, the only woman of color, for example, in an engineering class, as an architecture major, on your dorm floor. It is easy to feel the isolation of not having other colleagues, peers, and especially senior role models who look like you, share a common background, or understand your perspective and experiences. Given these and many other challenges that Latinas face, a few words of advice are in order: 1. Establish and cultivate support networks: This should include friends and classmates here on campus and/or back home or at other colleges. Maintain old friendships and develop new ones. These can be through ethnic and gender specific groups like Bella (a Latina undergraduate/ graduate group) or Shades (a group for LGBTQ students of color), just to name a few, or they can be through service or academic groups. Pursue your intellectual
Winter Quarter 2011
Autumn 2010 Graduates
Autumn 2010 Graduates
General Business Minor
Spanish & Portuguese
Castillo Trivi, Jose
Aero. & Astro. Engineering
Public Health (MPH)
Public Policy and Manag.
Master of Fine Arts
Master of Business Op.
Tsukada, Raquel Kimie
Ag, Env & Dev Economics
Horticulture and Crop Sci.
Creative Writing Minor
Construction Systems Mgmt.
Speech and Hearing Science
Computer Science & Eng.
General Business Minor
Chile Verde Café Adventures in Eating By Michael J. Alarid, featuring La Gringa
out of the same simple item. For the main course we ordered house specialties: I selected the BBQ Grilled Fajita Burrito with Chicken ($9.99) because it is the most popular item on the menu, while La Gringa ordered the Enchilada Estancia ($10.99). I was very impressed by the presentation, but was more impressed and intrigued by the depth of flavors in the dish. I tasted it several times, trying to comprehend the numerous layers of smoky flavors, the well seasoned meat, the carefully caramelized onions and peppers, the warm queso center, and the seasoned tortilla topped with a unique sauce Chile Verde calls Anasazi BBQ. I ate slowly, but could think of nothing I had ever tasted that was quite like it. La Gringa enjoyed her enchilada and was especially impressed by how fresh the dish tasted, as it was topped with olives, tomatoes, and jalapeños. We tasted one another’s food, and both agreed that this was a true adventure in eating—one that ended with sopapillas with honey and chocolate sauce on the side. And that’s precisely what Chile Verde Café is: an adventure. It’s a great place to go with a group of people who simply love food and are tired of the same old flavors. Though we tried many things, La Gringa and I realized that we had only begun to taste the possibilities at Chile Verde Café. We would have to return soon to discover more of what this restaurant, has to offer hungry and daring patrons like us.
Chile Verde Café 4852 Sawmill Road Columbus, OH 43235 Phone: (614) 442-6630
����� Rating System:
5 chiles = Exceptional 4 chiles = Very good 3 chiles = Average 2 chiles = Poor 1 chile = Very poor
Chile Verde Café is not for the faint of stomach. For more than eighteen years, they have dazzled their loyal clientele with daring fusion dishes. At the same time, their cuisine has often confused patrons and the occasional food reviewers who stumble upon this establishment without understanding that traditional Mexican food is not on the menu. Chile Verde Café serves New Mexican cuisine, which is decidedly different than the flavors people from Columbus are used to. As a person of New Mexican descent, I am most familiar with this type of cuisine, and my familiarity with New Mexican cuisine made eating at Chile Verde Café all the more intriguing. Unlike the numerous chain restaurants that have served as an entry point for Ohioans into the world of Latino cuisine— serving fried burritos, cheese sauces, and steak with seasoning salt (a blasphemous interpretation of carne asada, indeed!), Chile Verde Café focuses on a specific region within the southwest and seeks to bring this distinct regional cuisine to Ohio. This, of course, begs the question for many: What is New Mexican cuisine? Without delving too deeply into traditional foodways, I should explain that New Mexican cuisine is a hybrid form of cooking that incorporates the cornerstone flavors of Pueblo Peoples with well known dishes from other cultures. Most New Mexican food is a mix between Native American and Mexican cuisine, but in places like Albuquerque and Santa Fe it is possible to get Italian, American, and even French food with an infusion of New Mexico. Two cornerstone sauces are essential to this flavor: red chile and green chile. Both chile sauces are made from pure boiled down roasted chile (Chile Verde has them airmailed from New Mexico) with variations on the accompanying ingredients. This is
much different than traditional Mexican sauces, which are primarily tomato based. While whether the green and red chile is hotter depends on the harvest, typically the green chile is a bit milder. Green chile cheeseburgers, red or green chile cheese fries, red chile enchiladas, chicken and chile lasagna with white sauce…. The combinations are endless, and if you enjoy spicy food there is nothing better! In the spirit of New Mexico, Chile Verde Café begins your meal with a sampler platter that is offered free of charge. The small samples offer a taste of the chile sauces, soups, the different meats, beans, and other side dishes. What is apparent to the diner when tasting is that the food is well made and of very high quality. A few things to note: both the chicken and the shredded beef are very good, but as you sample, remember to taste items with the green and red chile sauces. In this way, you can get a better idea of what might suit your palate. Remember, New Mexican food is about trying new combinations! The sampler also includes a taste of some very good soups: I had the Green Chile Stew ($3.99) while La Gringa tried the butternut squash ($3.99). The Green Chile Stew was not New Mexican at all, but rather a Midwestern take on a New Mexican staple. Indeed, Chile Verde uses a beef base and a very tender beef, along with hearty vegetables such as carrots, as opposed to the traditional chicken, chile, and potato. The result is quintessentially New Mexican in that it creates something new. As to the butternut squash, it is only seasonal but La Gringa found it incredible. We then ordered some opening food: I ordered a chicken fajita taco and a steak fajita taco ($11.49), while La Gringa ordered a Traditional Enchilada ($8.99) with ground beef and red chile. We agreed that the enchilada had a wonderful spice, though I noted that I would have preferred it with shredded beef and she later agreed. The fajita tacos were also very good, especially the meat, which was very flavorfulitself acting as the centerpiece. The tacos are much more filling than you might imagine, and by splashing red and green chile intermittently you are able to get several flavors
Autumn Quarter 2011
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